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EJERCICIO 1

1. Una deuda se expresa en sentido negativo. Luego inicalmente el estado económico


de Pedro es - 60 bs.
Al recibir 320 bs. Aumenta su capital tantos bs. como ha recibido; entonces la o
peracion queda expresada como se indica
-60+320=+260 bs.
2. 1.170-1.515=-345 sucres
3. 200+56-189=+$67
4. -665- 1.178+2.280=+437 soles
5. 20-15+40-75=-$30
6. -67+72-16+2=-$9
7. 200-78-81-93+41-59=-70 colones
8. -45-66-79+200-10=0
EJERCICIO 2
1. 12-15=-3'
2. -3+8-6=-f
3. 15- (- 3) = 15+ 3= 18'
4. -(-8)+5= 8+5= G
5. -4+7+2-11=-6'
6. -8+4·1 = -8+4= _4' ~ 7 am -8+4·2=-8+8=0' ~ 8am
-8+4·5=-8+20=+12' ~11am
7. -1-2·2=-1-4=-5' ~10am -1-2·3=-1-6=-T ~11am
-1-2·3 + 3·1=-1-6+3=-4' ~12am
-1-2·3 + 3·3=-1-6+9=+2' ~2pm
8. -56+7=-49'
9. -71+5=-66' long -15+ (- 5)= - 20' lato
10. 18+3 ~+2f long 65-4~+6f lat.
11. -75+135~+60 años
EJERCICIO 3
1. +32m; -16m
2. +10m; -4m
3. 50-85=-35m
4. -6·11=-66m
5. -8x6~-48m
9 x 6~+54m
6. 400·2=+800m ~corredor -400·3=-1.200m ~ yo
7. Los 40 pies de longitud del poste
se reparten asi: 15 pies que sobresalen - se asumen en sentido positivo-.
25 pies que se encuentran enterrados. - se asumen en sentido negativo - .
Al introducir 3 pies mas, se adicionan
a los que estan bajo el suelo y se deben descontar de los que estan por encima.
Aritmeticamente significa:
40=15+25
-25 -3=-28 pies +15-3=+12 pies
8. 55-52=+3m
9. -32+15=-17m
10. 35-47=-12m
11. -39+56=+17m
12. 90-58-36=-4m
13. 72 -30·1=72-30=+42m 72 -30·2=72-60=+12m 72 -30·3=72-90=-18m 72 -30·4=72-120=-48m
14. -120 - (- 60).1= -120+ 60= - 60 Km -120 - (- 60). 2= -120+ 120= O
-120 - (- 60). 3= -120+ 180= + 60 Km
-120 - (- 60)-4= -120+ 240= + 120Km
EJERCICIO 7.
1. x+2x=3x
2. 8a+9a=17a
3. 11b+9b=20b
4. -b-5b=-6b
5. -8m-m=-9m
6. -9m-7m=-16m
7. 4ax +5ax =9ax
~ab+....!...ab- 6ab+ab -.!.-ab
12. 5 10 10 10
1 1 2+ 1 3 1
13 -xy+-xy=--xy=-xy=-xy
'3 6 6 6 2
1 4 -1-4 5
14. -"5xY-"5xy= -5-=-"5xy=-xy
-~a2b-..!.a2b= -20-3 a2b =_ 23 a2b
15. 6 8 24 24
7 -8-7 15
16. -a-B"a=-8-a=-Sa
17. 8a+9a+6a=23a
18. 15x+20x+x=36x
19. -7m-8m-9m=-24m
20. -a2b-a2b -3a2b =-5a2b
21. aX +3ax+8ax=12ax
3 2 5 2 2 -9-10-12 2 31 2
26. --¡a x-"6a x-a x- 12 a x=-""i2a x
27. 11a+8a+9a+11a=39a
29. - x2y-8x2y-9x2y-20x2y=-38x2y
33. 0,5m+0,6m+0,7m+0,8m=2,6m
34.
1 1 1
--ab--ab--ab- ab
7 14 28
-4-2-1-28 35 5
- ab=--ab=--ab
28 28 4
2 . .3 1 3 1 . .3 1 3
35 --x y--x y--x y--x y
. 3 6 9 12
_ -24-6-4-3 x' __ 37 x'
36 y- 36 Y
36. ab2 +ab2 + 7ab2 +9ab2 +21ab2 =39ab2
37. -m-m-8m-7m-3m=-20m
1 1 1 1 1
39. "2a+"3a+¡a+ "5a+6"a
30+20+15+12+10 87 29
=--------a=-a=-a
60 60 20
40.
1 1 1 1 1
--ab--ab--ab--ab--ab
3 6 2 12 9
-12-6-18-3-4 43
=------- ab=- -ab
36 36
EJERCICIO 8
1. 8a-6a= 2a
2. 6a-8a=-2a
3. 9ab-15ab=-6ab
4. 15ab-9ab=6ab
5. 2a-2a=0
6. -7b+7b=0
7. -14xy+32xy= 18xy
8. -25~y+32~y=7~y
9. 40x"y-51x"y=-11x"y
10. -rrfn+6rrfn=5rrfn
11. -15xy+40xy=25xy
12. 55a3b2-81a3b2=-26a3b2
3 -20 +3 17
37 - 5mn+ -mn=---mn =- -mn
. 4 4 4
13. -~y+~y=O
14. -9ab2+9ab2=0
15. 7~y-7~y=0
16. -101mn+118mn=17mn
17. 502ab-405ab=97ab 1& -1024x+1018x=-6x
19. -15ab+15ab=0
1 3 2-3 1
20. "2a-¡a=-4-a=-¡a
_!....ambn+ambn= -7+8 ambn ="!'ambn
39. 8 8 8
40. 0,85mxy-0,5mxy=0,35mxy
EJERCICIO 9
1. 9a-3a+5a=11a
2. -8x+9x-x=0
3. 12mn-23mn-5mn= -16mn
4. -x+19x-18x=0
5. 19m-10m+6m=15m
6. -11ab-15ab+26ab=0
7. -5ax +9ax -35ax =-31ax
5 2 5 2 10- 5 2 5 2b
22 -a b--a b=--a b =-a
· 6 12 12 12
4 2 9 2 -8+ 9 2 1 2
23. --x y+-x y=--x y =-x y
7 14 14 14
3 5 3-10 7
24. aam-¡am=-8-am=-aam
2 1 2+ 1-3 O
9 - y+- y- y=--y=- y=O
. 3 3 3 3
5 7 20-21 1
26 -mn- -mn= --mn =--mn
· 6 8 24 24
3 1 3+2-8 2 3 2
11 _a2b+_a2b_a2b= ---a b=--a b
. 8 4 8 8
12. -a+8a+9a-15a=a
13. 7ab-11ab+20ab-31ab=-15ab
14. 25~-50~+11~+14~=0
15. -xy-8xy-19xy+40xy=12xy
16. 7ab+21ab-ab-80ab=- 53ab
17. -25xj + 11xj +60xj-82xj =- 36xj
18. -72ax+87ax-101ax+243ax=157ax
19. -82bx-71bx-53bx+206bx=0
20. 105a3 -464a3 +58a3 +301a3 =0
2 3 2 -11+ 3 2 8 2b
27 -a b+-a b=---a b=--a
· 11 11 11
28. 3,4a4b3 -5,6a4b3 =-2,2a4b3
29. -1,2yz+3,4yz= 2,2yz
30. 4ax -2ax =2ax
32. 25ma- 1 -32rri'-1 =_ 7ma-1
1 m-2 1 m-2 -1+2 m-2_ 1 m-2
34. -¡a +"2a =-4-a -¡a
3212122
23 -a b--a b+-a b-a b
· 5 6 3
_ 18-5+10-30 a2b=-.!....-a2b
30 30
5212232
24 --ab --ab + ab --ab
· 6 6 8
= -20-4+24-9 ab2 =-~ab2 =-~ab2
24 24 8
25. -a+8a-11a+15a-75a=-64a
26. -7c+21c+14c-30c+82c=80c
27. -mn+14mn-31mn-mn+ 20mn=mn
28. a2y_ 7a2y-93a2y+ 51a2y+ 48a2y=0
29. -a+a-a+a-3a+6a=3a
127 1 30.2"X+"3x-"6x+2"x-x
3+4- 7 +3-6 3 1
----------x=--x=--x
6 6 2
3 1 5
31 -2x +-x+-x+ x--x
· 4 4 6
-48+18+6+24-20 20 5
--------------x=- -x= --x
24 24 6
32. 7ax -30ax -41ax -9ax + 73ax =0
34. a +6a-20a+ 150a-80a+31a=88a
35. -9b-11b-17b-81b-b+ 11 Ob=-9b
37. 84ni'x-so1ni' x-604ni'x-71sni'x+231ni' x+16Sni'x =-134oni'x
38 ~a3b2 +3..a3b2 _..!.a3b2 _~a3b2 +4a3b2
· 6 348
_ 20+16-6-15+96 a3b2=.!2..!a3b2
24 24
= 37 a3b2 =4.2.a3b2
8 8
39. 40a-81a+ 130a+41a-83a-91a+ 16a=-28a
40. -21ab+52ab-60ab+84ab-31ab-ab-23ab=0
EJERCICIO 10
1. 7a+6a-9b-4b
7a+6a =13a -9b-4b=-13b =13a-13b
2. a+b-c-b-c+2c-a
a-a =0 b-b=O -c-c+2c=0
=0
3. 5x-11y-9+20x-1-y
5x+20x=25x -11y-y=-12y -9-1 =-10 =25x-12y-10
4. -6m+8n+5-m-n-6m-11 -6m-m-6m=-13m 8n-n=7n 5-11=-6 =-13m+7n-6
5. -a+b+2b-2c+3a+2c-3b
-a+3a =2a b+2b-3b=0 -2c+2c=0 = 2a
6. -81x+19y-30z+6y+80x+x-25y -81x+80x+x=0 19y+6y-25y=0 -30z =-30z
7. 15a2 -6ab-8a2 +20-5ab-31+a2 - ab 1 5a2 - 8a2 + a2 = 8a2
-6ab-5ab-ab=-12ab = 8a2 -12ab-11
20-31=-11
8. -3a+4b-6a+81b-114b+31a-a-b -3a-6a+ 31a-a=21a
4b+ 81b-114b -b=-30b
= 21a-30b
9. - 71a3b-84a4b2 +50a3b+84a4b2 -45a3b+ 18a3b -71a3b+50a3b-45a3b+18a3b= -48a3b
-84a4b2 + 84a4b2 =0
=-48a3b
1Q -a+b-c+8+2a+2b-19-2c-3a-3-3b+3c -a+2a-3a=-2a b+2b-3b=0
-c-2c+3c=0 8-19-3=-14
=-2a-14
11. rrf+ 71mn-14rrf -65mn+nr -rrf -115rrf +6nr
nr+6nr =7nr rrf -14rrf-rrf-115rrf=-129rrf
= 7nr-129rrf +6mn
71mn- 65mn= 6mn
12. .0y-x"y" +x"y-8.0y- x"y-1 O+x'y" - 7x"y" -9+21.0y- Y +50
.0Y-8.0Y+21.0Y=14.0y - x"y" + x"y" - 7 x" y" =- 7 x"y"
x"y-x"y=O -y -10 -9+50=31
= 14.0Y-7x"y"-y+31
- 8Cx+3 + c"+3 + 7 CX+3 = O
-50-65+90=- 25
=-25
_ x"'+ 3 + 5x"'+ 3 _ 5x"'+ 3 = _ Xm+3 =_x"'+3_am+2_3
-5+8-6=-3
15. 0,3a+0,4b+0,5c-0,6a-0,7b-0,9c+3a-3b-3c
0,3a-0,6a+3a=2,7a 0,4b-0,7b-3b=-3,3b
=2,7a-3,3b- 3,4c
0,5c-0,9c-3c=- 3,4c
3 1 3-2 1
---=--=-
4 2 4 4
3 1 1
17 -rrf -2mn+-rrf--mn+2mn-2rrf
. 5 10 3
~rrf +~rrf -2rrf - 6+ 1-20 rrf =-~rrf
5 10 10 10
=-~rrf -..!.mn
10 3
1 -6-1+6 1
-2mn--mn+2mn- mn=--mn
333
18. _~a2 +..!.ab-~b2 + 2..!. a2 -~ab+..!.b2 _..!.b2 - 2ab 4263463
_~a2 +2.a2 = -9+28 a2 =~a2
4 3 12 12
_~b2 +..!.b2 _ ..!.b2 _ -5+1-2 b2 =_ ~b2 =_b2
6 6 3 6 6
=~a2-~ab-b2
12 4
1 3 2-3-8 9
-ab--ab-2ab=---ab=- -ab
2 4 4 4
3 2 1
19 O 4x"y+31+-X',2 -o 6',3 --x"y-O 2x',2 +- ,,3-6
· , 8 y , y 5 ' y 4Y
2 2-2
O,4x"Y-s X2Y=-5-x"y=0
-0,6Y+±Y= -2:+1 Y= _ 1: Y=-0,35y =0,175xy" -0,35y +25
3 3-16 14
-xy"-0,2xy" =--' xy"=--'----xy"=0,175xy"
8 8 8
31-6=25
~am-1 _..!.-bm-2 +~am-1 _"":""bm-2 -o 2am-1 +.2-bm-2
20. 25 50 5 25 ' 5
~am-1 +~am-1 -O 2am-1 = 3+15-5 am-1 =Eam-1 _..!.-bm-2 _"":""bm-2 +.2-bm-2 _ - 7
-2+10 bm-2 ="":""bm-2
25 5 ' 25 25 50 25 5 50 50
=Eam-1 +"":""bm-2
25 50
EJERCICIO 11
Para resolver los problemas del 1 alI8las literales toman los siguientes valores
: a = 1 b = 2 e = 3 m = 1/2 n = 1/3 P = 1/4
1. 3ab=3·1-2 =6
2. 5a2b3c=5·f .23 ·3=5·8·3=120
2 2 1 1 4 2
3 b mn=2 ._._=- =-
. 2 3 6 3
4 24m2n3 p= 24 (.!.)2 (.!.)3 . .!.= 6 . ...!... . .!.= ~=...!...
. 2 3 4 27 4 108 18
7 3 2 7 3 (1) 2 1 189 1 1 189 63
6. 12c p m=12·3 . 4' '"2=12'16'"2= 384 = 128
10 4m.~12bc2 =4'~'V12'2'32 =2.~=2.6=12
· 2
~11~1r;::;-84 11 mn· ,,8a~b- =- ·_·v8·1·2 =-·,,64 =-=-
· 2 3 6 6 3
12 ~=~=~=~ . 3bc 3·2·3 18 9
? (1)2 1
5b2m2 5·2-· 2 20'4 5
13. --= ---=-=60
np l.l ~ ~
3 4 12 12
3 b3 3 23 3·8 24
14. 4 4' 4 4 6
--=--=-=-=-=1
~¿ ~.32 ~ ~ 6
3 3 3 3
16. 24mn _ 2'~n2p2

4 4 =-1-="1= 24 2·- -
12 6
3 V64b3 6 3·V64.23.36
17.' C - -3.V64.8.729 =3.t!373.248 =3.72=216
2m 2.~
2
18 ~.~apb2 ~)'~'22 ~. fI ~ .J1 3 3
. 5 5 4 5 ";4 5 5 5 6 2
3 3~ - 3 R - 3 V250 - 3 3r;;::;=- --3-=15= 75 = 25
-·,,125bm -.3125.2.- _.3 _ -·,,125 -·5
2 2 2222 22
EJERCICIO 12
Para resolver los problemas del 1 alI8las literales toman los siguientes valores
: a = 3 b = 4 e = 1/3 d = 1/2 m = 6 n = 1/4
1. a2 -2ab+b2 =32 -2.3.4+42 =9-24+ 16=1
3. ~+~=~ +~=9+8=17
C d 1 1
3 2
1
C m 3 6 2 2-72+6 64
4. d--;-+2=T-T +2=3-24+2=--3--= 3
2 4
a2 b2 ni 32 42 62 9 16 36
5. -----+--=-----+--=----+--=3-8+6=1 326326326
3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1-10+5 4
6 -c--b+2d=-·---·4+2·-=--2+1=-----=--
'52 532 25 5 5
3.~ 4.~
ab + ac _ bd = 3·4 +_3 __ 2 =~+~_~ =48+2- 1_ 144+6-1_ 149 -49..s
7. n d m 1 1 6 1 1 6 3 3 3 3
- - - -
4 2 4 2
r;: e r-:= r:; J± F6 1 4+1+12 17 1
8 vb+vn+v6m=v4 + - + 6·6 =2+-+6=-----=--=8-
. 4 2 2 2 2
~ ~ rn: 1 r;;-;; 1 r;-;:-;; 1 g 1 1 1 1 2-16+1 13 ,
9 cv3a -dv16b- +nv8d=-·v3·3 --·,,16·4 +-. 8·- =-·3--·16+-·2=1-8+-=-----=--=-6-
. 32 42324 2222
m" 63 216
10. 7= (!)4 = 1 = 216·16= 3.456
2 16
4d 2 16n2 ( 1)2 ( 1)2 2 8 1 1
12. 2+-2--1=2. '2 +8· 4 -1=4+1:6-1= '2+'2-1=1-1=0
a+b _ b+m = 3+4 _ 4+6 =2.-~=21-20=1
13. c d ~ ~ ~ ~
3 2 3 2
b-a m-b 4-3 6-4 1 2
-+--+5a=-+-+5·3=-+-+ 15=4+4+ 15=23
14. n d ~ ~ ~ ~
4 2 4 2
r;: rn-:; ~ rn-:; .J4+J2'~ J3'~+JS'~
17. "b+,,2d _ "3c+,,Sd = 2 _ 3 2 = 2+1_ 1+2 =~ _~= 6-3 =~
2 4 2 4 242444
EJERCICIO 13
Para los problemas 1 al24 las literales toman los siguientes valores: a = 1 b =
2 e = 3 d = 4 m = 1/2 n = 2/3 p = 1/4 x = O
1. (a +b).c- d = (1 + 2),3-4= 3· 3-4= 9-4=5
2. (a+b)(b-a)=(1+2)(2-1)=3.1=3
( )( ) 2 ( 1)( 2) 2 (4-1)(9-2) 3 7 7 7+8 15 1
3 b-m c-n +4a = 2-- 3-- +4·1 = - - +4=-·-+4=-+4=-= -=7-
. 2 3 2 3 23 2 2 2 2
4. (2m+ 3n)(4p+b2)= ( 2'±+3'~) ( 4'¡+ 22) = (1 + 2)(1 +4)= 3·5= 15
5. (4m+8p)(a2+b2)(6n-d)= (4'±+8¡) (1'+22)( 6'~-4)=(2+2)'3'0= O
6 (c- b)(d - c)(b- a)(m- p)= (3- 2)(4- 3)(2-1)(.!._.!.) = 1'1'1(~) =.!.
. 2 4 4 4
'( ) '() '() ,(12) (3+4) 7168-7161 5
7. b- c+d -a- m+n +2x=2- 3+4 -1- '2+"3 +2·0=4·7- -6- =28-"6=-6-=6=266
12. (2m + 3n+4p)(8p+ 00- 4m)(9n+ 20p)
( 1 2 1)( 1 2 1)( 2 1)
= 2·-+3·-+4·- 8·-+6·--4·- 9·-+20·- =(1+2+1)(2+4-2)(6+5)=4.4.11=176
23443234
15. (4p+ 2b )(18n- 24p)+ 2 (8m+ 2) (40p+ a)
= ( 4'¡+ 2· 2) (18,%- 24'¡) + 2( 8'±+ 2) ( 40'¡+ 1) = (1 + 4)(12- 6)+ 2(4+ 2)(11) = 5· 6+ 2
6= 30+ 132= 162
2
5+-- 2
d 2 4 (1)2 2+4 5+1 6
a+¡; 5+ m2 1+'2 '2 -2- 4: '2 5+8 3 5+8 3 13 3 624
16 --.--=-. ---·--=-·-=-·-=-·-=-·208=-=312
. d-b p2 4-2 (.!.)2 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 2
4 16 16 16 16
2 2 2 1 Mf2)2 1 2 2 2 90- 2 88 4 2
17 (a+b).~c +8b-m . ..p =(1+2)'~--' - =3 . .fi5 --'-=3.5--=15--=--=-=146=14,
. 2 3 23 6 6 6 6
2 19.3(c-b) . .J32m-2(d-a) . .Jl6P--
n
R R2 6
=3(3-2). 32.--2(4-1). 16·---=3·.J16-6·.J4 --=3-4-6·2-3=12-12-3=-3
2 4 2 2
3
20 .J6abc + .J3mn _ cdnp . 2·..¡s¡; 2(b-a) abc
[12 21
..j6.1.2.3 V3·2·3 3.4.3.4 .J36 .Ji 2 6 1 1 lS+ 12-S 22 11
----+--- ---+-----+---- ----
- 2 . ..¡s::i 2(2-1) 1· 2· 3 2·.J16 2 6 - S 2 3 - 24 24 - 12
a2+b2 f+22 5 5 5+216 221 ,
21 -,-, +3(a+b)(2a+3b)=-,-, +3(1+2)(2.1+3.2)=-+3.3.S=-+72=--=-=73,
. b--a- 2--1- 3 3 3 3
, (1 1)(1 1) (1 1)2
22. b-+ -;¡+b b+-;: + -;¡+;¡
=22+(~+.!.)(.!.+.!.)+[~+~:2 =4+(~.~)+(~+2)2 =4+~+(7...)2 =~+ 49 = 70 = 35 =171-
12 23 2 1 26 2 4 2 4 4 4 2 2
3 2
b2_~
3 n 24. 2ab-m - b-m
22_~ 3
2.1-2-~ 2
2 2
3 3 3 3 4 6 4 54-28 26
2-~ 4-~ - ~ =7-9=7-9=~= 63
2 2 2 2
EJERCICIO 14
1. a+b+m 10. $(x+a-m) 18. x2rrt
2. rrt + b3 +x4 11. (m-a- b-c)Km 19. $(3a + 6b) ; $(ax+ bm)
3. a+1 ; a+2 12. $(n-300) 20. (a+b)(x+ y)
4. x-1 ; x-2 13. (365-x)días 21. $(Sx+ 4S)
5. y+2 ; y+4 ; y+ 6 14. $8a ; $15a ; $ma 22. bs.(a-S)(x+4)
6. $(a+x+m) 2a+3b+~
15. 75
7. m-n 2 23. -sucres
x
8. bs.(x-6) 16. a·b rrt
a
9. (x-m)Km 17. 23n rrt 24. $-
m
3.000 colones 25. n-1
_x_ soles
26. a-3
m 27.14 m
x+1 kml
28. a Ih
EJERCICIO 15
1. m, n---.¿ m+n
2. m, -n---> m+(-n}=m-n
3. -3a,4b---.¿ -3a+4b
4. 5b,6a---.¿ -6a+5b
5.7, -6---> 7+(-6}=7-6=1
6. -6,9 ---.¿ -6+9 =3
7. -2x,3y---.¿ -2x+3y
8. 5mn, -m---> 5mn+(-m)=5mn-m
9. 5a, 7a---.¿ 5a+7a=12a
10. -8x, -5x---> -8x+(-5x}=-8x-5x=-13x
11. -11m, 8m---.¿ -11m+8m=-3m
12. 9ab, -15ab---.¿ 9ab-15ab=-6ab
13. -xy, -9xy---.¿ -9xy-xy=-10xy
14. mn, -l1mn---> mn+(-l1mn)=mn-llmn= -lOmn
1 2 1 2
15 -a --b---.¿ -a--b
. 2 ' 3 2 3
16 ~b, ~c---.¿ ~b+~c
. 5 4 5 4
17 2b 3..b---.¿ 2b+3..b=~b=b ·3'3333
1 1 1 1 2
- "2xy, - "2xy---> - "2xy - "2xy= - "2xy=-xy
18.
19.
3 2
--abc --abc 5 ' 5
3 2 5
--abc--abc= --abc=-abc
5 5 5
$ a+b 29. m-2
30. (x+ 2X+~) hab.
31. [1.000- ( a+ ~+ 2;)] sucres
3
20. -4Jfy, -Jfy
8
3 -32+3 29.2
-4Jfy+-Jfy=--Jfy=--x y
8 8 8
21.
3 3
-mn --mn
8 ' 4
3 3 3-6 3
-mn--mn=--mn=--mn
8 4 8 8
22. a,b,c---.¿ a+b+c
23. a, -b, c---.¿ a-b+c
24. a, -b, 2c---.¿ a-b+2c
25. 3m, -2n, 4p ---.¿ 3m-2n+4p
26. a2, -7ab, -58 ---.¿ a2 -7ab-5b2
27. Jf, -3xy, -4y2 ---.¿ Jf -3xy-4y2
28. >?,-~y,6---.¿>?-~y+6
29. 2a, -b, 3a---.¿ 2a+3a-b=5a-b
30. -m, -8n, 4n---.¿ -m-8n+4n=-m-4n
31. -7a, 8a, -b ---.¿ -7a+8a- b=a-b
1 2 3
32. "2x, "3Y' -¡x
1 3 2 4-6 2 1 2
-x--x+-y=--x+-y=--x+-y 2438343
3 2
33. -Sm, -m, - "3mn
3 2 -3-5 2 8 2
--m-m--mn=--m--mn=--m--mn
5 3 5 3 5 3
34. -7a2, 5ab, 3b2, _a2
-7a2 _a2 +5ab+3b2 =-8a2 +5ab+3b2
35. -7mrf+17mrf-5m-4m =10mrf-9m
36. x" -7x" -8x"y+4x"y+5= -6x" -4x2y+5
37. 5x" - x" +9xy-6xy+ 71 = 4x" +3xy+ 71
38. -8a2b-a2b+5ab2 -11ab2 -7b3 = -9a2b-6ab2 -7b3
39. m3 -8m2n+ 7m2n + 7mn2-n' =m3-m2n+7mn2 -n'
1 1 2 1
40. -a--a+-b+-b-6
243 5
2-1 10+3 1 13
=---a+----b-6=-a+--b-6
4 15 4 15
41. a-a-3b+4b-8e+8e=b
42. m3 +5m3 -5m' -4m2n-4m2n-7mn2 =m3 -8m'n-7mrf
43. 9x-x-11y-6y+4z-6z=8x-17y-2z
44. 6a2+9a2 -5ab-7b2-8b2-11 =15a2-5ab-15b2-11
45. -x"y"+X2y2-5xy+7xy3-4y4-8 =2xY-4/-8
46.
1 1
3a--a+-b-b-4+6 2 2
6-1 1-2 5 1
= ---a +---b+2=-a--b+2
2 2 2 2
1 3 2 1 5 5
47. -x"+-x"+-xy--xy+-y"--y"
2 4 3 3 6 6
2+3 2 2-1 5 2 1
=---x +---xy=-x +-xy
4 3 4 3
3 2 1 1
49. -x"+x"--xy--xy+-y"+5y"
4 3 3 3
3+4 3 1+15 7 16
=--x"- -xy+--y"=-x"-xy+--y"
4 3 3 4 3
321 1 1 5
50. -a b--a2b+a2b+-ab2+-ab2--ab2
4 4 2 2 6
3-1+4 2b 3+3-5 2 3 2 1 2 =-----a + ----ab = -a b+-ab
4 6 2 6
EJERCICIO 16
1. 3a+2b-e 2a+3b+e
5a+5b
2. 7a-4b+5e -7a+4b-6e
-e
3. m+n-p -m-n+p
O
4. 9x-3y+5 - x- y+4
-5x+4y-9
3x
5. a+ b- e
2a+2b-2e -3a- b+3e
2b
6. p+ q+ r
-2p-6q+ 3r p+5q-8r -4r
7. -7x- 4y+6z 10x-20y-8z -5x+24y+2z
-2x
8. -2m+3n-6 3m-8n + 8 -5m+ n-10
-4m-4n-8
9. -5a-2b-3e 7a-3b+5e -8a+5b-3e
-6a - e
10. ab+ be+ cd -8ab-3be-3ed 5ab+2be+2ed -2ab
11. ax- ay- az
-5ax- 7ay-6az 4ax+9ay+8az ay +az
12. 5x -7y+8 -4x- y+6
-3x+8y+9
-2x +23
13. -am+6mn-4s -am-5mn+6s 3am-5mn-2s
am-4mn
14. 2a+3b 6b-4e
- a +8e
a+9b+4e
15. 6m-3n -4n+5p
-m -5p
5m-7n
16. 2a+3b
+5e -4
8a +6
+ 7e-9 10a+3b+12e-7
17. 2x-3y
+ 5z+9
6x -4
3y -5
8x +5z
18. 8a+3b-c Sa -b + c -a-b - c 7a -b +4c 19a +3c
21. Sax -3am - 7an 24. a+b-c+d
- 8ax +Sam- 9an a-b+c-d
-11ax + Sam + 1 6an -2a+3b-2c+d
-3a-3b+4c-d
-14ax+7am
-3a +2c
22. 6m"+1 - 7m"+2 -Sm"+3 25. 5ab -3bc+4cd
+2bc +2cd-3de
4m"+1- 7m"+2 _ m"+3 -2ab+4bc +3de
-Sm"+1 + 3m"+2 + 12m"+3 - ab - 3bc- 600
Sm"+1-11m"+2 +6m"+3 2ab
26. a-b
b-c
23. 8x+ y + Z + u c+d
-3x-4y-2z+3u a -c
4x+Sy+3z-4u c-d
-a +d
-9x- y +z +2u a -d
y +3z+2u 2a
7. nf+rt 12. a3 - 4a + S
+4rt-3mn a3 -2a2 +6
-snf -Srt + a2_ 7a + 4
-4nf -3mn 2a3-a2 -11a+1S
8. 3x+x3 13. -x"+x-6
-4x" +S K-7x" +s
-K +4x"-6 -K +8x-S
3x -1 -8x"+9x-6
9. x2-3XY+ y2 14. a3 _ b3
-x2+3XY-2y2 +Sa2b - 4ab2
x2+3xy- y2 a3 -7ab2-b3
x2+3XY-2y2 2a3 +Sa2b-11ab2 -2b3
10. a2 -3ab+ b2 15. K +xy2+y
+ a2 -Sab- b2 K- sx"y -y
-2a2 +8ab- b2 2K - 4xy2-sy

_ b2 4K- sx"y- 3Xy2-SY


11. -7x"+Sx- 6 16. -7nfn +4«
4x" +8x- 9 +nf +6mrt -«
- x" -7x+14 -nf+7nfn +S«
-4x"+6x- 1 +6mrt+8«
19. 7x +2y -4
+ 9y-6z+ 5 - y +3z- 6 8x-3y - 5
15x+7y-3z-10
20. - m- n- p m+2n -S -6m +3p+4 Sm+2n -8
-m+3n+2p-9
EJERCICIO 17
1. x" +4x x" -Sx
2x" -x
2. a2+ ab
-2ab+b2
a2_ ab +b2
3. K +2x
-x" +4
K-x"+2x+4
4. a4 -3a2
+a3 +4a
a4 +a3 -3a2 +4a
5. -x"+3x
K +6
K-x"+3x+6
6. x" - 4x -7x+6 3x2 -S
4x2-11x+1
17 . .0 - X2 + x
+x"-4x2 + 5
+ 7x" -4x+ 6 .0 +x" +2x2 -3x+ 11
24. -8a2m +6am2 _m3
+ a3 _ 5am2+m3
- 4a3 +4a2m -3am2
+7a2m-4am2 -6
-3a3 +3a2m- 6am2 -6
18. +a6 + a4 + 6
+as -3a3 + 8
+ a3 -a2-14
19. x' +3.0
+ x-g
25. x' - x"jl - xy4
+2x4y +3x"y3 _ yS
+3x"jl -4xy4 _ yS
x' +5xl +2ys
2xs + 2x4y + 2x"jl +3x"y3
+a6 +as +a4 -2a3 _a2
-7x"
-3x"
+6 -4x+5
26.
aS +a6 +a2
x' +3.0 -3x" -7x2 -3x+2
+3a2 _as -4a2
-8+5a +6-5a
20. a3+ a
+ a2 +5 +4a+ 7 a2 -8a2 -6
a3+5a -1
27.
_ a3b + a2b2 -ab3 -3a4 +5a3b-4a2b2
-4a3b+3a2b2
21. x4 - x2jl
-5x3y +6xy3
-4xy+y4
-4x"jl -6
x4 -5x3y-5x2jl +2xy + y4_6
28.
m3_n3+6m2n
+n3 -4m2n +5mn2
m3_n3
+6mif
-2m3 + n' -2m2n
11mn2
22. + x" + xy
- x" + 4xy-7jl
- x" +6xy +5y2
-6x" - 4xy + jl
-7x"+7xy -jl
29. aX
+6aX-3
+ 7 aX-3 + aX-4 _13ax-3
23.
a3 -8ax2 + x"
-6ax" _x3 +5a2x
3a3 -x"-5a2x
a3 +14ax2 - x"
30.
_aX
5a3
-2x"
_2ax+ax+1+ aX+3
=} aX+3 _3aX+2 +ax+1 -2ax
EJERCICIO 18
1. 2x"+ 1
2 "3xy
1 1
+ -xy +-y"
2 4
2x"+ 2+3 xy +2y" = 2X2+~Xy+2y"
2 6 4 2 6 4
2. a2
+2ab 2
_2ab 4
_2ab 4
2
3. x" + "3xy
1
-"6xy +y"
-~xy +~y"
6 3
x" + 4-1- 5 xy+ 3+2 y"
6 3
= x2 -~ xy+~ y" = x" _2 xy+~ ¡
6 3 3 3
3
4 -x" . 4
2 2 + 2ab 2b2
5. -a
3 5 2
5 2 ....!...ab + 2b2
-a
6 10 6
1 2 + ....!...ab 2b2
--a
12 20 3
8+10-1 a2+ 4-2+1 ab+ -3+1-2 b2
12 20 6
= .!2:.a2 +2-ab- ~b2 =.!2:.a2 +2-ab-l:...b2
12 20 6 12 20 3
6.
~x" ~¡ + 3xy
6 3 ¡
_2x" + 2¡ 1
6 8 - "2xy
_2x" + 2¡ + ~xy
3 4 6
5-1-2 -16+3+6 9-6+10
--x"+----¡ +---xy
6 24 12
=~x2_2¡+~xy=}2x" +~xy_2¡
6 24 12 3 12 24
7. a' - ~ab2 + b3 2
- ~ab2 2b3 + ~a2b
8 6
~a' - ~b3 - ~a2b
452
~a'+ -4-3 ab2+ 5-10-3 b3 + 5-3 a2b
4 8 5 6
=~a' -!..-ab2 _!!..b3 +~a2b=} ~a' +~a2b-!..-ab2 _!!..b3 48564385
8. .0 -x" +5
-3 + ~x' - ~x
3 8
-~.0 + ~x' - ~x
5 6 4
5-3 .0-x"+2+ 4+5x' + -3-6 x 568
=~.0 -x" +2+~x' -~x=}~.0 +~X3_X2 -~X+2
5 6 8 5 2 8
9. ~rri' - ~mrf + ~ri'
3 4 5
+ ~mrf - 3 3 + ~rri'n
-n
8 5 6
rri' ri' - ~m2n
2
2+3 rri' + -2+1 mrf + 2-3-5 n3 +~m2n
3 8 5 6
=~rri' -"!mrf _!l..ri' -~rri'n =}~m3 -~m2n-..!mn2 _!l..n3 38563385
2 4
10. x4 + 2,0 y" +"7 y
5 4 + ~x"y" 1 4 _ ~xy3
-"6x 8 - j¡Y 6
- ~x"y" + ~y4 -~x"y
4 7 6
6-5 x4+ 16+3-2 x"y"+ 4-1+2 y4_~Xy" -~x"y
6 8 14 6 6
=~x4+~x"y"+2y4_~Xy" -~x"y
6 8 14 6 6
=} ~X4 -~x"y+~x"y" -~xy" +2 y4
6 6 8 6 14
x5 ~x" 4
11. - + -x
3 5
-3x5 1 ~x"
- -x +
10 8
+ ~x" ~x" 2 4
--X
6 4 3
~x" 3 -4
+ -x
12 5
= -2x5 _.!..-x3 +~x+~x" -~x4-4
12 10 8 3
=}- 2x5 _~X4 _.!..-x3 +~x" +~x-4
3 12 8 10
~a3
12. 9
- ..:!-x' 3
1 3 - -X
9
3 2 - -a X
7
2 3 1 2
--a + -a X
3 2
+ ~ax" 6
- !...ax" 8 ..:!-ax" 4
2-6 a3 + -6+ 7 a2 x+ 20-21-6 ax2 + -3-1 x'
9 14 24 9
= -~a3+...2...a2x-~ax" _~X3
9 14 24 9
EJERCICIO 19
13. a6 - a4
+~a5_~a3 -~a
5 8 2
3 4 -a 7
5 2 -a 8
+6
- ~a-6 8
a6 + -7 -3 a4 + 8-5 a2 +~a5 _~a3 + -4-3 a
7 858 8
= a6 _ .!.Q.a4 +~a2 +~a5 _~a3 -:""a
7 8 5 8 8
=} a6 +~a5 _ .!.Q.a4 _~a3 +~a2 -:""a
5 7 8 8 8
14. x5 y5
+ ...2...x"r _2.4 - -61 y5
10 4
1 5
gy
2 1 5
- 5x"r 3"Y
x5 +~X3r _2.Xy4 + -18-3-2-6 y5 + 3+10 x4Y_~X2y'
10 4 18 5 6
~ x5_2..x3r_2.xy4 _~y5+~x4y_~x"y'
10 4 18 5 6
=>x5 +~x4y_2..x"r _~X2y' _2.Xy4 -~y"
5 10 6 4 18
Para los problemas 1 al14 las literales toman los siguientes valores: a = 2 b =
3 e = 10 x = 5 Y = 4 m = 2/3 n = l/5
1.
4x-5y -3x+6y-8
- x+ y
2y-8 =}2·4-8=8- 8=0
2.
x" - 5x+ 8 - x" +10x-30
-6x2+ 5x-50
-6x2+10x-72
=}-6·52 +1 0·5-72=-6·25+50-72 =-150+50-72=-172
3. .0-/
2.0 -5x"y"-8
-4.0 +7x'y+ 10xy
-.0 -/-5x2y" -8+ 7x3y+ 10xy
=}-.0 +7x'Y-5x"y" +10xy -/- 8
=_54 + 7 .53.4-5.52.42 +10.5.43 -44-8 =-625+28·125 -5·25·16+50·64-256-8
= - 625 + 3.500 - 2.000 + 3.200 - 256 - 8 = 3.811
4. 3m- 5n + 6 -6m-20n+ 8 12m- 20n-12
9m- 45n+ 2
=}9.~-45 . ..:!-+2=~- 45 +2=6-9 +2=-1
3 5 3 5
5.
nx+ cn-ab 8nx-2cn-ab
nx -ab-5
10nx-cn-3ab-5
=} 10 . .2..5-10 . .2.-3.2.3-5
5 5
= 50 -~-6.3-5 5 5
=10-2-18-5=-15
6.
a3
+ b3
-3a2b+8ab2 - b3
-5a3 -6ab2 +8
+3a2b -2b3
-4a3 +2ab2 -2b3 +8 =}-4·23 +2,2,32-2,33 +8 =-4· 8+4'9-2'27 +8 =-32 +36-54+8 =-42
7. 27m3
+ 125n3
- 9m'n + 25mn'
-14mn' -8
+ 10m'n+11mn'
27m3 + m'n + 22mn' + 125n3 - 8
~ 27{~r +(~r~+22-~Ür +125Ür-8
841441 1
=27·-+-·-+-·-+ 125·--8
27 9 5 3 25 125
4 44 4 44
= 8 +-+- +1-8= -+- +1
45 75 45 75
20+132+225 377 -1.ill.
225 225 - 225
8. xa-1 + y b-2 + mX-4 2xa-1 _ 2y b-2 _ 2mx-4 + 3y b-2 _ 2mx-4 3xa-1 + 2y b-2 _
3mx-4
9. nb-1 - mX-3 + 8 - 5nb-1 - 3mx-3 + 10 4nb-1 + 5mx-3 -18
4 9
10.
x'y- xy +5
5x'y -6+.0 -x"I
-6xY+2 +x"1
+3xY+1 -y4
6x'y-4xY+2+.0 -y4
=} .0 +6x'y-4xy-y4 +2
=54 +6 ,53 04-4'5.43 _44 +2 =625+24·125-20·64- 256+2
= 625+3.000 -1.280-256 +2=2.091
11 ~a2 . 4
+~b2 3
- .2.ab +.2.b2
3 9
+ .2.ab _.2.b2
6 3
~a2_ -2+1 ab+ 6+1-3 b2
4 6 9
= ~a2-.2.ab+~b2
4 6 9
=}~.22 -.2..2.3 +~.32
4 6 9
=~.4- .2..6+~.9 =3-1+4=6 469
~m' 25 n' 1
12. + - -
17 34 4
7 , 5 , 1
-m + -n + - -15mn
34 17 2
7 , 1
--m - -30mn
34 4
+ 3
18+7-7 m'+ 25+lOn,+ -1+2-1+12
34 34 4
=~m'+ 35 n,+.!2-45mn
34 34 4
9 35
~ 17m'-45mn+ 34 n' +3
=~(~J' -45'~'.!:.+~(.!:.J' +3
173 35345
9 4 90 35 1
= -·---+-·-+3 17 9 15 34 25
4 35 4 7
=--6+-+3=-+--3
17 850 17 170
40+7-510 _ 463 __ 2lli.
170 170 - 170
45mn
13. ~b2m 3 2
-en
2 5
~b2m 1 6
-en +
4 10
-~b2m 1 4
+ -en +
4 25
-~b2m 3
+ 2en + -
8 5
4+6-2-1 b2m+ -30-5+2+100 en+ -1 0+30+20+3
8 50 5
=;!....b2m+ 67 en+ 43 =!.....32.~+~.10.~+~
8 50 5 8 3 50 5 5
7·9·2 67 43 126 670 43 21 67 43
=--+-+-=-+-+-=-+-+-
24 50 5 24 250 5 4 25 5
_ 525+268+860 = 1.653 =16...&
100 100 100
EJERCICIO 20
1. -8-5=-13
2. -7-4=-11
3. 8-11=-3
4. -8-(-11}=-8+11=3
5. -1-(-9}=-1+9=8
6. 2a-3b=2a-3b
7. 3b-2=3b-2
8. 4x-6b=4x-6b
9. -5a-6b=-5a-6b
10. - 8x- (- 3)= - 8x+ 3
12. -7xy-(-5yz}=-7xy+5yZ
13. 3a-4a=- a
14. 11rrt -25rrt =-14rrt
15. - 6x2y- (- x2y)= - 6x2y+ x2y= - 5x2y
16. 11a3m2-(-7a3m2)= 11a3m2 + 7a3m2 = 18a3m2
17. - 8ab2 - (- 8ab2)= - 8ab2 + 8ab2 = O
18. 31x2y- (- 46x2y)= 31x2y+ 46x2y= 77x2y
19. -84a2b-(-84a2b)=-84a2b + 84a2b =0
14.
0,2a3 +0,4ab2 -0,5a2b +0,6ab2 -0,3a2b-0,8b3
-0,4a3 -0,8a2b + 6
0,2a3 + 1,5a2b+0,9b3
ab2 - 0,1a2b+0,1b3 +6
=}-0,1a2b+ab2 +0,1b3 +6
= -0,1.22 ·3+2 ·32 +0,1 .33 +6 = - 0,3·4+2·9 +0,1·27 +6
= -1,2+ 18+2,7 +6
=25,5
22. 6an - (- 5an)= 6an + 5an = lIan
23.- 45ax-1- (- 60aX-1)= - 45ax-1 + 60ax-1 = 15ax-1
24. 54bn-1- (- 86bn-1)= 54bn-1 + 86bn-1 = 14Obn-1
25. - 35ma - (- 60ma ) = - 35ma + 60ma = 25ma
26 5-(-'!')=5+'!'= 10+ 1 =.!..!.=51. . 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 -8-9 17
27. -3"-4= -1-2-=-12"
28. ~ x2 - ( - % x2 ) = ~ x2 + % x2 = % x2 = x2
4 3 ( 5 3) 24+ 25 3 49 3
29. "5 x y - -"6 x y = ~ x y = 30 x y
1 2 ( 3 2) -1+6 2 5 2
30. -8ab - - 4ab = -s-ab =8ab
31. -2-3=-5 32.7-(-1}=7+1=8
33. -8-(-5}=-8+5=-3
34. 5-(-4}= 5+4=9
35. -7-(-7}= -7+7=0 36.2a-(-5}=2a+5
37. -3x-b=-3x-b 38. - 2n- 5m= - 2n- 5m
39.3b-(-6a)=6a+3b 40.8b-(-5a3)=5a3+8b
41. -7a-(-9)=-7a+9
42. 25ab-(-25)=25ab+25
43. 3a -(-a)=3a+a=4a
44. -4b -(-3b)=-4b+3b=-b
45. 54x3 - (-l1x3)= 54x3 + llx3 = 65x3
46. 78a2b-14a2b=64a2b
47. - 54a2y- (-43a2y)= -54a2y+43a2y= -lla2y
48. - ab- 9ab= -1 Oab
49. - 31x2y- (- 31x2y)= - 31x2y+ 31x2y= O
50. _3ax_ax= - 4ax
52. 105M - 9mx = 96M
EJERCICIO 21
1. a+b -a+b
2b
3. 8a +b 3a -4
11a+b-4
5. a3_a2b -7a2b-9ab2
a3 -8a2b-9ab2
7. x+ y - Z x+ y - z
2x+2y-2z
x' - x' +6 -5x2 -6+4x
x' -6x'
2. 2x-3y x-2y 3x-5y
4. x'-3x 5x-6
x'+2x-6
6. x-y+z -x+y-z
O
8. x' + y2 - 3xy -3x' + y2 +4xy
-2x' +2y2 + xy
=}- 2x' + XY+2y2
+4x
10. y2 +6Y
3y2 -2/ -6y
4y2 -2/+6y-6y-8
=} -2/ +6y +4y2 -6y-8
-8
54. - 236m" - (-19m")= - 236m" + 19m" = - 217m"
55. _85ax+2 _54ax+2 =-139ax+2 11. a3 - 6ab2 +9a
+8a -15a2b-5
1 1
56 --(-6a)=-+6a
·4 4
2 -2+15 13
57. -"3-(-5)=-3-=3
58. _.!.-m' -~m' 10 8
_ -56-30 m'=- 86 m' = _ 43 m'
80 80 40
59.
60. _..!.a3b2 -45a3b2 9
= -1-405 a3b2 = -406 a3b2 =-45.!..a3b2
9 9 9
a3 - 6ab2 +17a -15a2b-5 =} a3 -15a2b-6ab2 + 17a-5
12 . .0+9xY -11/
-20/ +8x'Y+6x'y2
.0 +9xy -31/ +8x'y+6x'y2 =}.0 + 8x'y+6x'y2 +9xy -31/
13. a+ b+c-d a+ b-c+d
2a+2b
15. x' + 6x' - 9x -19
-6x3 +11x'-21x +43
-5x' +17x' -30x+24
14. ab +2ac-3cd-5de
-8ab+4ac+5cd-5de
-7 ab+6ac+2cd-1 Ode
16. Y - 9y3 + 6Jf -31
-311 + 8Jf +11y4+19y
yS -401 +14y2 +11y4 +19y -31 ~ yS + 11y4 -401 +14Jf +19y -31
17. 5m3 -9n' + 6m2n - 8mif
-5m3 +21m2n-14mn2+18
-9n' +27m2n-22mif +18~ 27m2n-22mn2 -9n' +18
18. 4x"y-19xl+ l- 6x2Jf
25x3y+51xy3 -32~y2 +x4
29x"y+32xl + y4 -38~y2 + x4 ~ x4 +29x"y-38~y2 +32xl + y4
19. m6+m4if_ 9m2n4 +19
+ 30m2n4 +61+13m3n' -16mns
m6 +m4if + 21m2n4 +80+13m3n' -16mns ~m6 +m4n2 +13m3n' + 21m2n4 -16mff +80
20. -asb +6a3b3 -18abs +42
8a6 +11a4b2 +11a2b4 -9b6
8a6 -asb+11a4b2 +6a3b3 + 11a2b4 -18abs -9b6 +42
21. 1 - ~ + x4 -x" +3x -6xs
24+ 30x2-8x4 -15x +x6
25+ 29~ -7x4 _x3 -12x-6xs +x6 ~ x6 -6x" -7x4 -x"+ 29~ -12x+25
22. -6~y3+8x"-23x4y+80x"y2 -18 +51x4y+21x"Jf -80 + yS -9xl
-6~1 +8x" +28x4y+101x"Jf -98 + y -9xl~ 8x" +28x4y+101x3y2_6~/-9xl + y -98
23. m6 -8m4if +21m2n4 - 6mns + 8
23msn -14m'n' +24mns -8n6+14
24. x7 - 8x +16x" -23~ -15
- 51x + 18+8x6 -25x4 +30x"
x7 -59x+16x" -23~+ 3 +8X6_25x4+30x"~X7 +8x6+16x" -25x4+30x"-23~ -59x +3
25. 9a6-15a4b2+31a2b4- b6 +14
+15a4b2 -3b6 -25asb-53a3b3 +9abs
9a6 +31a2b4 -4b6 -25asb-53a3b3 +9abs +14~9a6 -25asb-53a3b3 +31a2b4 +9abs -4b6 +1
4
aX+ ax+1_aX+2 -5ax +6ax+1 +aX+2
26.------
_4ax+7ax+1
27. m" - m"-1 +3m"-2
4m" _5ma-2 -3m"+1_Bm"-3
28. am+4_7am+2_Bam+ 6am-1
+14am+2 + Bam-1 +5am+3 +11am+1
am+4 + 7am+2 -Bam +14am-1 +5am+3 +11am+1 => am+4 +5am+3 + 7am+2 +11am+1-Bam +14a
m-1
29. )("+2 - 7)(" + 9)("-1 +25)("-2
-19)(" -45xa-1 +11)("+1-60)("-3
)("+2 -26)(" -36)("-1 +25)("-2 +11)("+1 -60)("-3 => )("+2 +11)("+1 -26)(" -36)("
-1 +25)("-2 -60)("-3
30. rrf+ 1 - 6rrf- 2 + Brrf- 3 -19rrf- 5
-5rrf-2 _6mn-3_ 9rrf-5 -Bmn_rrf-4
EJERCICIO 22
b- a b- a 1.
2b-2a=>-2a+2b
7. - a +2b-3c - a + b -2c
-2a+3b-5c
2. 2x+3y -x+y
x +4y
8. -3n+4m+5p + n - m-p
-2n+3m+4p =>3m-2n+4p
3. -7a+5
5a -b
-2a+5 -b=>-2a-b+5
9. x+3y-6z x- y + z
2x+2y-5z
4. - x2 +6
- x2 +5x
-2x2+6+5x=>-2x2 +5x+6
10. -5b2 +Bab+ a2 6b2 - ab -3a2
b2 + 7 ab - 2a2 => - 2a2 + 7 ab + b2
5. x2y+5x~
+ xy2 -x"
x2y+6xy2 - x" =>- x" + x2y+6xy2
-5m2-rf+6mn
- ~ +rf+3mn
11. -----
-6~ +9mn
6. 7a2b+5ab2
-6a2b +Ba3
a2b +5ab2 +Ba3 => Ba3 +a2b+5ab2
12. -Bx2 +5x- 4 +x-6+x"
-Bx2 +6x-1 0+ x" =>x" -Bx2 +6x-1 O
13. 14nf -8n+16
- 9-m3
-8n+ 7 _m3 =-_m3 -8n+ 7
14. 8ab+5bc+6cd -ab+ bc-6cd
7ab+6bc
15. a3 - 9a2b _b3 -25a2b+b3 +8ab2
16. 6x' -8x"y-6xjl
_ xy2 +6y3_4
6x' -8x"y-7xjl +6/-4
17. nf-9n +11c+14
-nf-7n+8c -d
-16n+ 19c+ 14-d=-19c-d-16n+ 14
18. 5a4 +9a3b -40ab3 +6b4
- 7a3b+8a2b2 - 5ab3 _ b4
5a4 +2a3b+8a2b2 -45ab3 +5b4
19 . .0-8x4+25x"+15
- 6x"+ 7-6x'+9x x' -8x4 + 19x" +22 -6x' +9x =- x' -8x4 -6x' + 19x" +9x+22
20. -3x/-8x3jl-19y"+18
-6x/ -251' -xs+x"y"
-9X/-8x3jl-44y" +18 -x' + x"y"
=-_xs -8x'jl + x"y" -9x/-44y" + 18
21. x' -6x4 + 8x"- 9 +15x
-25x' +18x" +46-25x+11.0
-24x' - 6x4 +26x2 +37 -10x+11.0
=-11.0 -6x4 -24x' +26x" -10x+37
22. aS -26a3b2 +8ab4 _bs + 6
- 8a4b- a3b2 +15a2b3 +45ab4 + 8
aS -8a4b-27a3b2 +15a2b3 +53ab4 _bs +14
23. Y + y" + jl + 9
-23y" + 5 -8/+15y"+8y
y -22y"+jl +14-8/+15y"+8Y
=- y + 151' -8/-22y" + jl +8y+ 14
24. x" - x" + 3x4 - 5x" - 9
-36 - 7x7 -5.0 +23x' -51x
x" -x" +3x4 -5x" -45- 7x7 -5.0 +23x3 -51x =-x" -7x7 -x" -5.0 +3x4 +23x' -5x" -51
x-45
25. x7 _3XSy2 + 35x4y' _8x2ys +60
+600y3 + x2ys _ y7 -90x3y4 +50xy6
x7 -3xsr+95x4y'-7x2Y+60-y7 -90x3y4+50xy6 ='>x7 _3XSy2 + 95x4y3 _90X3y4 _7x2y +50
xy6 _ y7 +60
26. aX+3 _8ax+1 -5
+5ax+1 _ax+2+6ax
aX+3 _3ax+1 -5 _aX+2 +6ax =-aX+3 _aX+2 _3ax+1 +6ax-5
-15an+16an-4+10an-2 _8an-1
=--15an _8an-1 + 1 Oan-2 + 16an-4
28. 15x"+3 +5X'l+2 -6x" +41x"-1
+9x"+2 +18x"-1 -31x"+1+x"+4
15x"+3 + 14x"+2 -6x· +59x·-1 -31x"+1 + x"+4
=- x"+4 + 15x"+3 + 14x·+2 -31x"+1 - 6x" +59x"-1
29. 9am-1 _21am-2+26m-3+14am-s
5am-1 _12am-2 +am+8am-4
14am-1-33am-2 +26m-3 +14am-s +am +8am-4 =-am + 14am-1 _33am-2 +26m-3 +8am-4 + 14
am-s
30. _15mx+3 +50mx+1-14mx _6mx-1 +8mX-2
mx+4 +23mx+2 + 6mx+1 + mX-1
EJERCICIO 23
11. x"-1
1.
-a+1
-a+2
_xy_y2
x"-1-xy- ~ ~x" -xy- ~-1
2. O -a+8
-a+8
1~ a3 +6
-Sa2b+8ab2 _b3
a3 -Sa2b+8ab2 _b3 +6
3. -9
-3a-a2+S
-3a-a2-4~ _a2 -3a-4
13. x" +y
+Sx"y-17xy2 +S
x"+Sx"y-17xy2+ y +S
4. +16
-Sxy+x"-16
-Sxy+x" ~x" -Sxy
14. x4 -1
-9x'y+8x"~ +1Sxy
x4 -9x"y+8x"~+1Sxy3_1
_a3 +a2b-ab2
1-a3 +a2b-ab2 ~_a3 +a2b-ab2 + 1
15. a5 +b5
+11a4b-2a2b3 _8a3b2 +4ab4
a5 +11a4b-2a2b3 _8a3b2 +4ab4 +b5 ~a5+11a4b-8a3b2 _2a2b3 +4ab4 +b5
5. 1
6. x"
x" +8x"y+6xy2
2x" +8x"y+6x~
16. x4 +x" +SO
-Sx" +2Sx
7. a3
+8a2b-6ab2 +b3
a3 +8a2b-6ab2 +b3
17. y+y-41
-9Y-17/+y-18~
y+y-41-9Y-17/+ y-18~
~ Y -9Y -17/ + y -18~ + y-41
8. +/
Sx"y-7X2~+8xy
Sx"y-7X2~+8xy + I
18. a6 +9a4b2 +a2b4
+1Sa5b -17a3b3 +14ab5+b6
a6+1Sa5b+9a4b2 -17a3b3 +a2b4+14ab5+b6
9. m4
-Sm4+18am3 -7a2~ _a3m+a4
-4m4 +18am3 _7a2m2 _a3m+a4
19. x4 + x" -11x
- Sx+x"+34
x4 + x" -16x+ x" +34~ x4 + x" + x" -16x+34
10. 16 14-b+a-c-d
30-b+a- c- d~a-b- c-d+30
20. m3 -1
-m2n-7mn2 + 3d
EJERCICIO 24
..!.a2
1. 2
..!.a2 +..!.ab-~b"
4 3 5
~a2+..!.ab-~b2
4 3 5
=~a2 +..!.ab-~b2
4 3 5
6 ~nf + 3..rf
. 6 9
+ ..!.rf +..!.rrtn -~md
5 2 8
5 -3 10+9 -3 1 3 2
-fTI +--f/ +-rrtn --mn
6 45 2 8
5 1 3 19
~-nf +-rrtn--md +-rf
6 2 8 45
2.
15 425 -5"xY-3"Yz+ 9
4 2 135+5
-5"xY-3"Yz+-9-
4 2 140
=-5"xY-3"yz+g
4 2 5
= --xy--yz+15-
5 3 9
7.
~a2 + 7
5 2 --a -
14
..!.ab _~b2 3 5 ..!.ab
2
1 ++8
6-5 2 2-3 --a +--ab
14 6
....!.-a2 - ..!.ab
14 6
3.
~bc 5
-..!.bc +~ab+3..cd
6 4 9
18-5 3 2
--bc+-ab+-cd
30 4 9
~ ~ab+~bc+3..cd 4 30 9
8.
~x" 5 1
8 + 6"xy - 1ür
3 3
-x" + -xy 2r
5 10
15+24 x"+ 50+18 x _ 1+20,,2
40 60 Y 10 y
= 39 x2 + 68 x _3..!. ,,2 = 39 x" +.!2:. x _3..!. ,,2
40 60 Y 10 y 40 15 Y 10 y
4.
..!.a - 3..b
2 3
- ~a - 3..b +..!. 592
5-8 a- 6+2 b+..!.
10 9 2
=-~a-~b+..!.
10 9 2
a3 + a2 5
9. a + -
6
7 2 9 7
+ -a - -a - -
8 10 8
3 8+7 2 10+9 20-21
a +--a ---a+--
8 10 24
3 15 2 19 1
=a +-a --a--
8 10 24
5 2 3 2
5. gX - BY
- ~r _~xy+2
10 7 11
~X2 _ 30+8 r _~xy+2 9 80 7 11
=~x2_~r _~xy+2
9 80 7 11
5 2 5 19 2 3
=}gX -"7xy- ¡oY +""11
nf 7 2 4 3
10 . + 12" mn -7n
- ~md - rf +~rrtn+..!.
9 21 8
-3 21-20 2 4+7 3 5 -2 1 fTI +--mn ---n +-fTI n+-
36 7 21 8
-3 5 -2 1 2 11 1
~fTI +-fTI n+-mn --rf+-
21 36 7 8
3 3 5 2
11. "5.0 +¡x"y - 7"xy + 3y4
-.0 -~x"y" + ..!.xY - ~y4
8 3 6
3-5 .0+~x"y-~x"y" _ 15-7 xy+ 4-5 y4
5 4 8 21 6
=-~.0 +~x"y-~x"y" - ~xy _..!. y4
5 4 8 21 6
EJERCICIO 25
1. 3 2 5
-a --a
8 6
5 2
--a
6
9-20 2 5 11 2 5
--a --a=--a --a
24 6 24 6
2. 8a + 6b -5 -"!'a + ~b
2 5
16-1a+30+3b_5=~a+33b_5
2 5 2 5
2
3. x"+ 3x"y -6
- !....x"y
9
x" + 6-7 x"Y-6=x" -..!.x"Y-6
9 9
4. a + b -"!'a +~b
2 4
- c
2 - -c
3
2-1 a+ 4+3 b- 3+2 c= ..!.a+ !....b- ~c
2 4 3 243
2 5 1
5. 3m + 6"n +"2P
-m - n + P
2-3 5-6 1+2 1 1 3
-3-m+-6-n+-2-p=-3m-6"n+"2p
1 3
12. -a+-b 2 5
+ 2.-b 20
- !....C + ~d 8 9
_"!'c +..!.d 7
8 9 8
..!.a+12+7b_7+1c+8+1d_!.... 2 20 8 9 8 = ..!.a+~b-~c+~d-!....
2 20 8 9 8
= ..!.a+~b- c+ d-!....
2 20 8
6. ~a2b+ ..!.ab2 _..!.
8 4 3
+ !....ab2 -6 8
5 3 --a 6
~a2b+ 2+7 ab2- 1+18 _~a3
8 8 3 6
=~a2b+~ab2 _~_~a3
8 8 3 6
=}_~a3 +~a2b+~ab2_~
6 8 8 3
7. .3..-m'n +~nfd + ..!.mn' -6
11 14 3
m4 - !....nfd + ~mn'
8 9
m4 +.3..-m'n+ 20-49 nfd + 3+2 mn'-6
11 56 9
=m4 +.3..-m'n- 29 nfd+~mn'-6
11 56 9
8.
_!.....0y + ....!..-x"y" + ~x"y+ ..!.xy4 - 7
8 14 3 3
..!.x5 _ ~x"y" + ..!.xy4 2
2 7 8 9
..!.x5 _ !.....0y+ 1-6 x"y" + ~x"y + 8+3 xy4 _ 63+2
2 8 14 3 24 9
..!.x' _!.....0y- ~x"y" + ~x"y + ..!..!.xy4 _ 65
2 8 14 3 24 9
~x'-~.0y- 154 x"y"+ ~x"Y+ ~: xy4-7%
9.
2.x"y+ ~X4y" - ..!.x"y" - x"y4 +Xy" + 2 y"
9 3 8 13
-x" + 2.X4y" - -.!...x"y4_Xy"+ y"
9 11
-x" +2.x"y+ 6+ 7 x4y" _ ..!.x"y" _ 11+1 x"y4 + 2+13 y" =-x" +2.x"y+ ~X4y" _ ..!.
x"y" _ ~x"y4 + ~ y6
9 9 8 11 13 9 9 8 11 13
10.
11.
~nfn4 + ~n6
7 9
~nfn4 - ..!.n"
14 3
3 ++5
3 5 7 4
12 -c + -c d
. 8 22
+ ~c4d 11
+ .!.-c3d2 +..!.¿d3
12 2
+ ~c3d2
6
..!.d5 3 _~cd4 _ .2.-d5
4 13
-35
~C5+ 7+10 c4d+ 7+10 c3d2 +..!.¿d3 _~Cd4- 13+9 d5_ 35
8 22 12 2 4 39
= ~C5 +.!2:.-c4d+22:.-c3d2 +..!.¿d3 _~Cd4 _ 22 d5 -35
8 22 12 2 4 39
EJERCICIO 26
Para los problemas 1 al14 las literales toman los siguientes valores: a = 1 b =
2 e = 3 x = 4 Y = 5 m = 3/2 n = 2/5
a2 - 4ab- b2
2. a3+b3
+2b3+5a2b-6ab2
a3 + 3b3 + 5a2 b- 6ab2 =} a3 + 5a2 b - 6ab2 + 3b3 =13 +5·f '2-6 .1-22 +3,23 =1+5'2
-6·4+3'8 =1+10-24+24=11
1. a2_ ab
- 3ab- b2
= f -4·1·2- 22= 1- 8-4=-11
1
3. 2"a
-a -..!.b+~c 2 3
1-2 1 5 1 1 5
---a--b+-c=--a--b+-c
22322 3
=}-..!..1-..!..2 +~.3= -..!.-1 +5
2 2 3 2
-1-2+10 =2:.=3.1.
2 2 2
4. 3m2 -5n2
- m2 - lOn2 - 8mn
2m2 - 15n2 - 8mn =} 2m2 - 8mn - 15n2
=2(%r -8.%.~-15(~r =2.¡- ~~ -3.~
9 24 12 45-48-24 27
=-----=- --
255 10 10
5 . .0 -18x"y" +15/
16x3y +6XY- 9/
.0 + 16x'y -18x" y" +6XY + 6/
=44 +16 .43.5 -18.42 .52 +6-4.53 + 6 .54 =256+80 ·64 -18 ·16 ·25+24 ·125+6·625 =256+5.120-
7.200+3.000+3.750=4.926
6. a3-7am2+ m3
+ Sam2 + 5m3 - 8a2m
=13-8.f.~-2.1(~r +6(~r =1- ~ -2.¡+6. 2;
9 81 4-48-18+ 81 19
= 1-12- -+ --- --------
244 4
7. ~a2 + 2:.ab - ..!.b2
3 8 5
_..!.a2 - ab +-.2..-b2
6 10
4-1 2 7-8 2-1 2 2 1 2
-a +--ab--b =-a --ab--b
6 8 10 2 8 10
=}..!..1"-..!. ·1·2 _-.2..- .22=..!._~_~
2 8 10 2 8 10
1 1 2 10-5-8 3
----- --
2 4 5 20 20
3 ? 1 3
+ -mn---n
4 2
1 ? 1 3 3 -mn-+-n +m
4 2
4+ 1? 3+ 1? 3 3 52?
--m-n+--mn- +m =m + -m n+mn-
6 4 6
=(%)' +~(%r ·~+%(~r = 2; +~. ~~ +%. ~
27 3 12 675+ 150+ 48 873
=-+-+-=-----=-
8 4 50 200 200
9. aS _3a2b4 +bs
_a4b2+5a3b3
aS _a4b2 +5a3b3 _3a2b4 +bs =1s_14.22+5 .13.23 -3 .1"24+ 2s
=1-4+5 ·8-3 ·16+32=1-4+40-48+32=21
10. - ab +10mn-8mx -15ab
-16ab+10mn-8mx
=-16·1·2+1 0.~.~-8.~.4
2 5 2
=-32+6-48=-74
11. a3
-11a2b+9ab2 _b3
a3 -11a2b+9ab2 _b3 =13 -11-1".2+9.1-22-23 =1-22+36-8=7
1
12 -.0 . 64
2 2 5 3
--x --x+-
3 6 8
-.2..-.0 _~X2_ ~x+ ~
64 3 6 8
=~.44_~.42_ ~.4+ ~
64 3 6 8
= 4- 32 _ 20 + 3 _ 96-256-80+9
3 6 8 24
_ 231_ 77 _ 9 S
--2:4--8-- "8
3 2
13. x' +-x"y- -xy2
16 5
-~x' + ~xy2 +-.2..-y"
4 5 25
4-3 x' +~x"y- 2-3 xy2 +-.2..- y"
4 16 5 25
=}.2-x' +~X2y+ .2-xy2 +-.2..-y"
4 16 5 25
= .2-.43 +~.42.5 +.2-.4.52 +-.2..-.53
4 16 5 25
= .2-.64+~.16+~.25+~
4 16 5 25
=16+ 15+ 20+ 5=56
EJERCICIO 27
1. +ab + b2 a2
a2 -5b2 _a2 - ab+4b2
a2+ab-4b2 -ab+4b2
2. a+8 1
-a+6 -14
14 -13
3. _x3 +4xy2
+5x"y + y"
_x3 + 5x2y+4xy2 + y"
-7x"y
x' -5x"y-4xy2 - y"
x' -12x"y-4xy2 -y"
4. -3m3 n+4mn2- n' 5m4
3m3 n-4mn2 +5n' -4n'
+4n' 5m4 -4n'
5. 8a+9b-3c 6a
-7a-9b+3c -a
a 5a
6. a-b+c a+b-c
-2a+b-c a
-a 2a+b-c
2-5 aX-1 +ax _ 5-54 aX-3
5 6
=}aX_~aX-1 + 49 aX-3
5 6
= 14_~.14-1 + 49 .14-3
5 6
=1-~+ 49_ +30-18+245_257 -81L
56 30 3030
7.-m+n-p 2m-2n+2p
m- n+ p
m-n+p -m+n-p
O
8. 9ax- a2 x2 -5ax + 3a2
-9ax+ 7a2 +25x" -25x" - 6a2
6a2+25x2 -24x"-5ax- 3a2
9. 5a2 +6a-4 a3 -1
2a3 -8a+6 -2a3 -5a2 +2a-2
2a3 +5a2 - 2a+2 _a3 -5a2+2a-3
5x' -9x" +4
-11x4 -7x' -6x
10. _
-11x4 -2x' -9x" -6x+4
x4 -1
11x4 +2x' +9x" +6x-4
12x4 +2x' +9x" +6x-5
11.
35a2b -7ab2 -11 -7a3 -35a2b+8ab2 + 6
a3 +b3
7a3 - ab2 +5
-7a3
+ ab2 - 5
8a3 - ab2 + b3 + 5
12. -11n4 + 14d -25n+8
19n' - 6d + 9n -4
-11n4 + 19n' + 8d -16n + 4
n5 -7n' + 4n
11d-19n'-8d +16n-4
n5+11d-26n'-8d +20n-4
13. - 6a3m +5am' -6
7a4-5a3m-11a2nf -6m4
7a4 -11a3m-11a2nf +5am' -6m4-6
a4 -8a2nf + m4
-7a4 +11a3m+11a2nf -5am' +6m4 +6
-6a4 + 11a3m +3a2nf -5am' + 7m4 +6
14. -4.0y +13x"Y-9x/
-6.0 +8x'y2 +x/ -21
-6.0 - 4.0y+8x'y2 +13x"Y-8x/-21
x' - 30x'y2 + 40x/ + 1
6.0 +4.0y-8x'y2 -13x"y + 8x/ +21
7.0 +4.0y-38x'y2 -13x"Y+48x/+31
15. a+b a-b
2a
2a -2a+b b
16. 8x +9 8x+6y+4
6y-5 2
8x+6y+4 8x+6y+6
17. x" -6y2 x" -7xy+34y2
-7xy+40y2 9y2-16
x"-7xy+34y2 x" -7 xy+43y2 -16
18. 4a2 +8ab-5b2 5a2+ab+ b2
a2 - 7ab+ 6b2 -4a2 -ab+ b2
5a2+ ab + b2 a2 +2b2
19. x'
-y
-14x2y+5xy2
x' -14x"Y+5Xy2-y
x3 -14x"Y+5Xy2 - Y 3x3 -19Y 4x3 -14x2y+5xy2 -20y
20. x4 -6x2y2 + 1 + 8x"y2 + 31/
x4 + 2x"y2 +321
x4 - 2x"y2 + 32y4 -.0 - 2x"y2 -32/
O
21. -6n5 +n4 +d
+ 7n' -d -8n-6
-6n5 +n4 + 7n' -8n-6
-6n' + n4 + 7n' -8n- 6 n" +3n4 + 8n' -19
n" -6n' + 4n4 + 15n' -8n-25
22. a5 _3a3b2 + 6ab4
+22a4b+10a3b2-11ab4 _b5 a5+22a4b+7a3b2-5ab4 _b5
a5+ 22a4b+7a3b2
- 5a4b + 7a2b3
23. 4m3-5m2-2m -3m3 -5m2 +6m+4
-7m3 +8m+4 m4 -5
-3m3 -5m2 +6m+4 m4 -3m3-5m2+6m-1
24. 7a2-11ab+b2 2b2-8
-7a2+11ab+b2-8 +4
2b2-8 2b2-4
25. 3a-4b+5c
-7a+8b -11 -5a+6b-2c-11
-a +2b-7c - a+ b+2c
-5a+6b-2c-11 -6a+7b -11
26.
5a3 + 14a2 -19a +8 + 9a -1
a5
+ 3a2
-1
a5 _a4 +5a3 + 17a2 -1 Oa+6
- a4+3a3 -5
a5 -2a4+8a3 +17a2-10a+1
27. m4 + 1 orrtri + 15n4
-11rrfn-14rrtri -3mn' + n4
m4 -11rrfn- 4rrtri -3mn' +16n4
6m4 + 7rrtri + 8mn' - d
- m4 + 11rrfn + 4rrtri + 3mn' -16n4
5m4 + 11rrfn + 11rrtri + 11mn' -17n4
28. aS +4a3b2 + 8ab4 - bS
-7a4b +15a2b3 -25ab4+3bs
_a3b2 + 3a2b3 - 5ab4
aS _ 7a4b+3a3b2 +18a2b3 - 22ab4 + 2bs
3as - 6a2b3 - 21ab4 -6
_as + 7a4b-3a3b2 -18a2b3 + 22ab4 - 2bs
2as + 7a4b-3a3b2 -24a2b3 + ab4 - 2bs-6
EJERCICIO 28
1. Jf +5
2x-6
Jf+2x-1
x-4 -x+6
Jf+2x-1 -2
2
x2+2x-3
2. 3a-5b+ e 7a+b 4a-6b - 2c
a - b -3c -8b-3c -7a+ 7b+ 3c
4a-6b-2c 7a-7b-3c - 3a+ b + e
3. x' +1 9x +4 6x3 -Jf +8
5x' -Jf+7 -3x2-x +1 3Jf -8x-5
6x' -Jf+8 -3Jf+8x+5 6x' +2Jf - 8x+3
4. a2+1 a4 +2 a3+a2
a3 -1 a - 2 _a4 -a
a3+a2 a4+a _a4 +a3 +a2-a
5. ab+ bc+ ac -7bc+8ac-9
ab-6bc+9ac-9
5ab-3bc+4ac -ab +3bc+5ac
4ab +9ac
ab-6bc+9ac-9
-4ab - 9ac
-3ab-6bc -9
2a~ +~
3x4Y+21x'y2 +18Jfy - ~
~ + 3x4y+21x'y2 + 18x2y
~ + 32x4y-26x'y2 +18Jfy -2x/ + ~ _xs_ 3x4y-21x'y2 -18Jfy
29x4y - 47x3y2 -2X/ + ~
30. 3ax+6ax-1
aX _7ax-1 +aX-2
8aX+2 _ 7ax+1_ aX + 12ax-1
-4ax + ax-1 _aX-2
6. a2x -3x'
a3 +3aJf
-5a2x +11aJf -11x3 a3 -4a2x + 6aJf + 8x'
a3+a2x+ 3aJf-3x' a3-9a2x+ 17aJf - 3x3
a3+ a2x+ 3aJf - 3x' _a3 +9a2x - 17aJf + 3x3 1 Oa2x - 14aJf
7. x4 -x' x4
+x2 -3
-3x+5
- 5Jf + 4x
-7x' +8Jf -3x+4
x4 -3
2x4-x3- 4Jf + x+2 x4-7x'+8Jf-3x+ 1
2x4 - x' - 4Jf + x +2 - x4 + 7 x' - 8Jf + 3x -1
x4+ 6x'-12Jf+4x + 1
17nrn-4rrfrf -7mrf
+6rrfrf
17nrn+ 2rrfrf-7mrf -81n4
9.
+a3
+ a - 7
-6a2 + 8
-5a2 -11a+26
-80d
-rrfrf+mrf-4
+6
17nrn + 2rrfrf -7mrf -81n4
J! -3xy _ y2 19J!-8xy+9y2 20J! -11xy+8y"
12. a2 - ab + b2
3a2-8ab+7b2 -5a2+11ab-17b2
- a2 + 2ab- 9b2
nr -16
-16m4+7rrf- 3 nr-16m4+7rrf-19
1~xS - ~
-2x4Y+Sx3y"-7x"1 _3ys
-7x3y" +6xl -8
xS -2x4y -2x3y" -7x"1 +6xy4 -4~ -8
+rrfrf -mrf
-2
_a4_ 4a3 + a2
16a3 -8a2-7a-15
aS _a4 + a3 -11a2 -10a+27 _a4 +12a3 -7a2 -7a-15
10. 3J! - y"
-11xy+9y2_14
3J!-11xy+8y2_14
11. a-1 -a+1
a2 -3 a -4
-3a +8 a2_ 2a +1
o
13. m4 -1
-nr+8rrf- 6m+ 5
-rrf - 7m+1
m4 -nr+ 7rrf -13m+5
aS - a4 + a3 -11a2 -1 Oa + 27 + a4 -12a3 + 7a2 + 7a+ 15
aS
-11a3 -4a2 - 3a + 42
20J! -11xy+8y2 -3J! +11xy-8y2+14
17J! +14
-a2+9ab +3b2
- 8ab-7b2
_a2+ ab -4b2 a2 - 2ab + 9b2 - ab +5b2
_a2+ ab -4b2
nr-16m4 +7rrf -19
- m4 +nr -7rrf +13m- 5
+13m-24
7x4Y_X3y" +11xy4
- xl -1 7x4Y_X3y" +10xy4_1
_XS+2X4Y+2x3y2+7x2y3 -6xy4 +4~ +8
7x4y _x3y" +10xy4 - 1
_xs +9x4y + X3y2 + 7X2y3 + 4xy4 +4~ + 7
15.-a6 +7a4 -8a
-3as +11a' - a2 + 4
-6a4 -11a' -2a + 8
- sa' +Sa2 -4a + 1
-3a4 + 7a2 - 8a+ S
Sas -7a' +41a2 -SOa + 8
SaS -3a4 -7a' +48a2 -S8a +13 a6 + 3as - a4 + sa' - 4a2 + 14a -13
- a6 -3as + a4 - sa' +4a2 -14a + 13 Sas -3a4 -7a' +48a2 -S8a + 13 a6 +8as -4a4 -
2a' + 44a2 -44a
16. aS -7a'x2 + 9
- 20a4 x + 21a2 x3 -19ax4
+9a'x2 - 7ax4+xS -80
aS -20a4x+2a'x2 +21a2x3 -26ax4 +XS -71
+18a'x2 _4xs - 8
-9a4 x -17a3x2 +11a2x3
~ +~
aS -9a4x+ a'x2 +11a2x3 -4xs +28
aS _ 9a4x + a3x2 + 11a2x3 -4xs +28
_as +20a4x-2a'x2 -21a2x3 + 26ax4 - XS +71
11a4x- a'x2 -10a2x3 + 26ax4 - Sxs +99
EJERCICIO 29
1.
.2.b 2 ~b 4
a +
2 --a + 3
3-2 a+ 2+3 b
3 4
=.2.a+~b 3 4
2.
-~a'+~a2
6 5
-~a'+~a2+~a-6 6 5 8
3 -a 4
_.2.a - ~b
3 4
9-4 a-~b
12 4
=~a-~b
12 4
~a-6 8
~a' +~a2
2 5
~a'-~a2-~a+6 6 5 8
3+5 a' -~a+6
6 8
= ~a3 -~a+6
3 8
7 4 5. 1"2 a
-~a'+~a2-6 7 5
'!"-a4 -~a' +~a2-6
12 7 5
1 2 1
6. -"2x+ "3Y- ¡z
1 2
- gY- 5Z +3
1 6-1 5+8
--x+-y---z+3
2 9 20
1 5 13
=--x+-y--z+3
2 9 20
'!"-a4 -~a' +~a2 - 6
12 7 5
~a4 -~a+~
453
7+9 a4 _~a'+~a2_~a_18-1 12 7 5 5 3
= ~a4 -~a' +~a2 - ~a-~
3 7 5 5 3
5 gY
1 5 13
"2x-9Y+2üz- 3
1 13 2+15
-x +-z---
2 20 5
1 13 17
=-x+-z--
2 20 5
2 5
3. a + 3b ~a+ "!-b +6 7. -~a2b + ~ab2 _ b3
5 3 2 4
2 3..b +6 1 .2.b .2.a2b - ~ab2 + 3..b3
--a - --a+
5 3 5 6 8 6 3
5-2 9-2 3-1a+14+1b+6 _ 12-1 a2b+ 9-10 ab2- 3-2 b3
--a+--b+6
5 3 5 6 8 12 3
= ~a+"!-b+6 = 3..a+~b+6 =-22a2b-....!...ab2 _.2.b3
5 3 5 2 8 12 3
4 .2.x'- ~x" +.2.
·37 5
....!...x" _3..X+6
14 9
.2.x'- 6-1 x"-3..x+ 1+30 3 14 9 5 =.2.x' -~x" _3..x+~
3 14 9 5
~x' 6
- .2.x3 +~x" +3..x-~
3 14 9 5
_ 5+2 x'+~x"+3..x-~
6 14 9 5
= _"!-x'+~x"+3..x-6..!.
6 14 9 5
.2.a3 _.2.b3
2 3
22a2b+....!...ab2 +.2.b3
8 12 3
.2.a3 +22a2b+....!...ab2
2 8 12
8 . .2. a- 3..b 2 9
.2.b -~c
3 5
.2.a- 2-3 b-~c 295 =.2.a+.2.b-~c
295
1 -c 5
1 --c 10
.2.a+.2.b - ~c 295
_.2.b _""!"'c
9 10
3..b + 3
-~b 9
6-5 2-1 --b+-c
9 10
= .2.b+....!...c
9 10
1 -a 2
1 7
=-a--c
2 10
6+1 --c 10
1 ++5
3 1
--a--
4 10
1 3 5-24 2 3 2-1 -a +--a --a+-
3 40 4 10
1 3 19 2 3 1
=-a --a --a+-
3 40 4 10
2 3 _ .2.b3
11. 7a 5
-~a2b+~ab2 +~b3
4 8 10
~a' -~a2b+~ab2 _3..::.!b3
7 4 8 10
=~a3 -~a2b+~ab2 _~b3
7 4 8 10
1 2 -a 4
1 3 29 2 -a --a
3 40
2 1
--a+ P3 4
1 8
1 3 10 - 29 2 2 2-1 -a +--a --a+-
3 40 3 8
1 3 19 2 2 1
=-a --a --a+-
3 40 3 8
.2.a2b + 2
-~a2b + 4
.2.ab2 1
4 5
.2.ab2 _ ~b3 _ .2. 822
2-5 a2b+~ab2- ~b3_ 2+5
4 8 2 10
=-~a2b+~ab2- ~b3_.!-
4 8 2 10
~nirf 1 3 n4
12. --mn -
3 4
2 4 +~nin 3-nirf + 5 4
-m - -n
7 5 5 3
1 4 -..!...-nin + ~nirf 2 4
-m -n
14 20 4 3
4+1 m4+ 12-7 nin+ 20-24+15 nirf-~mn' _ 3-5+2 n4
14 20 60 4 3
=~m4 +~nin+..!...!.nirf -~mn' _~n4
14 20 60 4 3
=~m4 +~nin+..!...!.nirf -~mn'
14 4 60 4
2 1 -a + -
3 8
3 1
-a
4 10
8-9 10-8
---a+--
12 80
1 2 1 1
=-a+- =-a+-
12 80 12 40
1 3 19 2 -a --a -
3 40
1 3 19 2 --a +-a +
3 40
_~X2+2.xy+ ~y2 + ~
536 2
~x2_2.xy- ~y2 + ~
5 3 9 4
39-2 y2 + 2+1
18 4
= 37 y2 +~
18 4
-~a2b + ~ab2 _ ~b3
4 8 2
-~a' + ~a2b - ~ab2 +~b3
7 4 8 10
-~a' _ 15-1 b3_.!-
7 10 10
=-~a' _~b3 _.!-=-~a' _!..-b3 _.!-
7 10 10 7 5 10
7 10
~m4 _3-n4
14 5
_~m4 -~nin-..!...!.nirf +~mn'
14 4 60 4
-~nin-..!...!.nirf +~mn' -3-d
4 60 4 5
1 1
13. 2"x+ 3"Y
3
¡Y -
1 -z 6
2 -z 5
1
+ -m 4
1 1 3
- -m +-n+-
2 3 8
1 4+9 5-12 1-2 1 3
2"x+~y- 3üz+-4-m+3"n+8"
1 13 7 1 1 3
=2"x+12 y+ 30 z--¡m+3"n+8"
5
1 13 7 1 1 3
-2"x-12y-3üz+-¡m-3"n- 8
1 13 7 1 1 40-3
-2"x-12 y- 30 z+-¡m -3"n +-8-
1 13 7 1 1 37
=-2"x-12y- 30z+-¡m-3"n+a
5 4 1 3 3
14. -a + -a -a
6 2 5
2 2 3 5
- -a - -a +
3 8
3 4 3 3 1 2 2 11 4 1 3 1 2 152
--a -a + -a - -a --a --a + -
8 4 6 3 24 12 2 33
1 3 39 3 _a4 +...2...a3 3
+ -a + -a + - - -
6 40 11 12 8
20-9 4 6-9+2 3 4-1 2 24+15-39 165-22+9 11-24 4 1 2 1.216-99
--a +---a ---a - a+ --a --a +
24 12 6 40 33 24 2 264
11 4 1 3 3 2 O 152 11 4 1 3 1 2 152 13 4 1 2 1.117
=-a --a --a --a+-=-a --a --a +- =--a --a +--
24 12 6 40 33 24 12 2 33 24 2 264
EJERCICIO 30
1. X3_X2 +5
-K+x" +3x-5-6 3x -6 Rta.-K +x" +3x-11
2. -5a+9b-6c 5a-9b+6c+8x+9
8x+9 Rta.5a-9b+6c+8x+9
3. a3 - b3
_a3 -8a2b+5ab2 -3b3
-8a2b+5ab2 -4b3
Rta. -a3-8a2b+5ab2 -3b3
4. K -4x" + 8 -K+4x"+x-13 x- 5 Rta. K-4x"-x+13
7. 5a3 +8ab2 _b3 -11
_a3 +b3
4a3 +8ab2 -11
Rta.5a3 +8ab2-b3 -11
5.
m4 - 3mn' + 6n4
_m4 +4m"d +3mn'-6d -8
4m"d
-8
-4
6. 4x3 +5x" -5x-2 -5x"-4x+8
1 1
Rta. -x--y-4 2 3
4x3 -9x+6
Rta.4K +5x2 -5x-2
9. si' -7 xy-sjl -Sx2+7xy+Sjl+1
1 Rta.-Si' + 7xy+Sjl +1
EJERCICIO 31
1. x-(x- y)
= x- x+ Y
=y
2. x2+(-3x-x2+5)
= x2 - 3x - x2 + 5
=-3x+5
3. a+b-(-2a+3) =a +b+ 2a-3 =3a+b-3
4.4m-(-2m-n) =4m+2m+n =6m+n
5.2x+3y-(4x+3y) =2x+3y-4x-3y =-2x
EJERCICIO 32
1.2a+[a-(a+b)] =2a+[a-a-b] =2a+a-a-b =2a-b
10.
- 9M + Srrf n- Smif + n'
-9M +Srrfn-Smd+2n'
10M -Srrfn+smif -2n'
11.
o
-a3+Sa-S
-a3+Sa-S
Rta.O
M Rta.10M-Srrfn+smd-2n'
6. a+(a-b)+(-a+b) =a+a-b-a+b =2a-a =a
7. a2 +[_b2 +2a2]-[ a2 _b2] =a2 _b2 +2a2 _ a2 +b2 =3a2 _ a2 = 2a2
8.2a-{-x+a-l}-{a+x-3} =2a+x-a+l-a-x+3
= 1 + 3= 4
9. x2 + /_(x2 + 2xy+ /)+ [- x2 + /] = x2 + /- x2 - 2xy-/- x2 + / =- x2 - 2xy+ /
10. (- 5m+ 6)+ (- m+ 5)- 6 =-5m+6-m+5-6 =-6m+5
2. 3x-[x+ y-(2x+ y)] = 3x- [x+ y- 2x- y] =3x-x- y+2x+ y =4x
11. x+ y+(x- y+z)-(x+ y-z)
=x+ y+x- y+z-x- y+z =x- y+2z
12. a-(b+a )+(-a+b)-(-a+2b) = a-b-a-a+b+a-2b
= -2b
13. - (x2 -/)+ xy+ (- 2x2 +3xy)- [-/ + xy] = - x2 + / + xy - 2x2 + 3xy + /- xy
= - 3x2 + 3xy+ 2/
14. 8x2 + [- 2xy+ /]- {- x2 + xy- 3/}- (x2 - 3xy) = 8x2 - 2xy+ / + x2 - xy+ 3/-
x2 + 3xy =8x2+4/
15. -(a+b)+(-a-b)-(-b+a)+(3a+b) =-a-b-a-b+b-a+3a+b
=0
3.2m-[(m-n)-(m+n)]
=2m-[m-n-m-n] =2m-m+n+m+n = 2m+ 2n
4. 4x2+[-(X2_xy)+(-3/+2xy)-(-3x2+ /)]
= 4x2+[-x2+XY-3/+2XY+ 3x2-/] =4x2 - x2 + xy-3/ +2xy+ 3x2-/
= 6x2 + 3xy- 4/
5. a+{(-2a+b)-(-a+b-e)+a}
=a+{-2a+b+ a-b+e+a} =a-2a+b+ a-b+e+a
=a+e
6.4m-[2m+(n-3)]+[-4n-(2m+l)] =4m- [2m+ n- 3]+ [-4n- 2m-l] =4m-2m-n+3-4n-2m-l =-5
n+2
7. 2x+[-5x-(-2y+{-x+ y})] =2x+[-5x-(-2y-x+ y)] =2x+[-5x+2y+x- y] =2x-5x+2y+x- y
=-2x+ y
8. x2-{-7xy+[-/+(-x2+3XY-2/)]} = x2 - {-7xy+ [-/- x2 + 3xy- 2/]} = x2_ {-7xy-/-
x2 + 3xy- 2/ }
= x2 + 7 xy + / + x2 - 3xy + 2/ =2x2+4xy+3/
9. - (a+b)+ [- 3a +b- {- 2a +b- (a-b)}+ 2a] = - a -b+ [- a +b- {- 2a +b- a+b}]
= - a -b+ [- a +b+ 2a -b+ a -b] =-a-b-a+b+2a-b+a-b
=a-2b
10. (-x+ y)-{4x+2y+[-x- y-(x+ y)]} =-x+ y-{4x+2y+[-x- y-x- y]} =-x+ y-{4x+2y-x-
y-x- y}
= -x+ y-4x-2y+x+ y+x+ y =-3x+ Y
11. - (- a+ b)+ [- (a+ b)- (- 2a + 3b)+ (-b+ a- b)] = a- b+ [- a -b+ 2a- 3b-b+ a
- b]
= a-b-a-b+ 2a- 3b-b+ a-b
=3a-7b
12. 7m2 - {- [m2 + 3n- (S- n)- (- 3+ m2)])_ (2n+ 3) = 7m2 - {- [m2 + 3n-S+ n+ 3-
m2]}_ 2n- 3
= 7m2 - {- m2 - 3n+S- n- 3+ m2}_ 2n- 3
= 7m2 + m2 + 3n-S+ n+ 3- m2 - 2n- 3 =7m2+2n-S
13. 2a- (- 4a+ b)- {- [- 4a+ (b- a)- (- b+ a)]} = 2a+4a-b- {- [-4a+b- a+b- a]}
=6a -b-{ 4a-b+a-b+a}
= 6a- b- 4a +b- a + b- a
=b
14. 3x-(5Y+[-2x+{y-(6+x)}-(-x+ y)]) = 3x- (5y+ [- 2x+ {y- 6- x}+ x- y])
= 3x- (5y+ [- 2x+ y- 6- x+ x- y]) =3x-(5y-2x+ y-6-x+x- y) =3x-5y+2x- y+6+x-x+ y
=5x-5y+6
15. 6e- [- (2a+ e)+ {- (a+ e)- 2a- (a+ e)}+ 2e] =6e-[-2a-e+{ -a-e-2a-a-e }+2e] =
6e-[-2a-e -a-e-2a-a-e+2e]
= 6e+2a+ e +a+e+2a+a+ e-2e
=6a+7e
16. - (3m+ n)- [2m+ {- m+ (2m- (2n-5)))- (n+ 6)] = - 3m- n-[2m+ {-m+ (2m- 2n+5)}
- n- 6]
= - 3m- n- [2m+ {-m+ 2m- 2n+5}- n- 6]
= - 3m- n- [2m-m+ 2m- 2n+5- n- 6]
= - 3m- n- 2m+ m- 2m+ 2n- 5+ n+ 6
= - 6m+ 2n+ 1
17. 2a+ {-[5b+ (3a-e)+ 2- (- a+b- (e+4))] - (- a+b)} =2a+ {- [5b+3a- e+ 2- (- a+
b- e-4)]+ a-b} =2a+ {- [5b+3a- e+ 2+a-b+ e+4] + a-b} =2a+{- 5b-3a+e-2-a+b-e-4+a-
b}
=2a- 5b-3a+e-2-a+b-e-4+a-b
=-a-5b-6
18. -[- 3x+ (-x- (2y- 3))]+ {- (2x+ y)+ (-x- 3)+ 2- (x+ y)} =-[- 3x+(-x-2y+3)]+
{- 2x- y-x-3+2-x- y}
=-[- 3x-x-2y+3]-2x- y-x- 3+ 2- x- y =3x+x+2y-3-4x- 2y-l
=-4
19. - [- (-a)]- H- a)]+ {- [-b+ e]- H- e)]} = -[a]- [- a]+ {b-e- [- e]}
=-a+a+{b-e+e} =b-e+e
=b
20. - {- [- (a+ b)])- {+ [- (-b- a)])- (a+b) =-{- [-a-b]}-{ +[b+a]}-a-b
=- {a+b}- {b+a}- a-b =-a-b-b-a-a-b
=-3a-3b
21. -{-[ -(a+b-e)]}-H-(e-a+b)]}+ [-{-a+(-b)}] =- {- [- a-b+ e]}- {+ [- e+ a- b]}
+[- {- a-b}]
=- {a+ b- e}- {- e+ a- b}+ [a+ b]
=-a-b+e+e-a+b+a+b
=-a+b+2e
22. - [3m+ {- m- (n- (m+ 4))}+ {- (m+ n)+ (- 2n+ 3)}] = -[3m+ {-m- (n-m-4)}+ {-m
- n- 2n+ 3}] =-[3m+{-m-n+m+4}-m-n-2n+3 ]
= - [3m- m- n+ m+ 4- m- n- 2n+ 3]
= -3m+m+ n-m-4+m+ n+ 2n- 3
=-2m+4n-7
23. - [x+ {- (x+ y)- [- x+ (y- z)- (- x+ y)]- y }] =-[x+{-x- y-[-x+ y-z+x- y]- y
}] =-[x+{-x- y+x- y+z-x+ y- y}] =-[x-x-2Y+z]
=-x+x+2y-z= 2y-z
24. - [- a+ {- a+ (a- b)- (a- b+ c)- [-(- a)+ b]}] = - [- a + {- a + a -b- a +b-
c- [a+ b]}]
=- [-a+ {- a-c- a-b}]
=-[-a-a-c-a-b] =3a+b+c
EJERCICIO 33
1. a-b+c-d =a+(-b+c-d)
2. x2 - 3xy -l + 6
=x2 + (-3xy-l +6)
3. x3 +4x2 - 3x+ 1 =x3+( 4x2-3x+l)
4. a3-5a2b+3ab2-b3
= a3 + (-5a2b+ 3ab2 _b3)
5. x"-x3+2x2-2x+l =x"-x3+(2x2-2x+l)
6. 2a+b-c+d =2a-(-b+c-d)
8. x3 -5x2y + 3xy2 - y'
= x3 _ (5x2 y _ 3xy2 + y')
9. a2_x2 - 2xy-l =a2_(x2 + 2xy+l)
10. a2+b2 - 2bc-c2 =a2_(_b2 + 2bc+c2)
EJERCICIO 34
1. x+2y+(x- y)
=x- [-2y-(x- y)]
2.4m-2n+3-(-m+n)+(2m-n)
= 4m- [2n- 3+ (- m+ n)- (2m- n)]
3. x2-3xy+[(x2-xy)+l]
= x2 - {3xy- [(X2 - xy)+ l]}
4. x3-3x2+[-4x+2 ]-3x-(2x+3) =x3_[3x2_ [-4x+2 ]+3x+(2x+3)]
5.2a+3b-{-2a+[a+(b-a)]}
= 2a- [- 3b+ {- 2a+ [a+ (b- a)]}]
EJERCICIO 35
1. 2· -3=-6
2. -4·-8=32
3. -15·16=-240
9. -4nf ·-5mrtp= 20nf+1rfp=20nfrfp
10. 5a2y.-6~= - 30a2~y
11. -~/.-4/z4= 4~/+3Z4=4~/z4
13. -15x4/·-16a2x3 =240a2 X4+31 =240a2 xlI
14. 3a2b3.-4~y= -12a2b3~y
6.-2a+(-3a+b) =-[ 2a-(-3a+b)]
7.2x2+3xy-(l+xy)+(-x2+l)
=- [-2x2 - 3xy+ (l + xy)- (- x2 + l)]
8. K-[-3X2+4X-2]
=- tK+[-3~+4X-2]}
9. [m-l - (3m2 + 2m+ 3)]+ (- 2m+ 3)
=-{- [m-l-(3m2+2m+3)]-(-2m+3)}
EJERCICIO 36
9. _;("+ 1y+2 ._ 4;("-3 y-5 ¿. =4~m-2Ia-3 ¿. 10. -5ma¡f-1c .-7nfa- 3¡f-4 =35m3a-3rfb-5c
EJERCICIO 37
12431454525
1. -a ·-a b=-·-a b=-a b= -a b
2 5 2 5 10 5
2 -~rrfn._..!..-a2nf
. 7 14
3 7 2 5 21 2 5 3 2 5
=--·--a m n=-a m n= -a m n
7 14 98 14
5. _7.-abc. ~a3 =-~a4bc=- ..!.a4bc
8 7 56 4
3 5 3 1
6. --x"/· -_a2by = _a2bx3y" =_a2bx3y"
5 6 6 2
1 3 3 1
7 -a· _am = _am+1 =_am+1
. 3 5 15 5
EJERCICIO 38
2. 3x2·_x3y-_a2x=3a2x"+3+1y=3a2~y
3. -rrfn·-3rrf ·-5mrr =_15rrf+2+1d+3 =-15m'd
4. 4a2·-5a3x" ·-al =20a2+3+1x"1=20a6x"1
1 2 3 6 1
6. -x"·--a2x·_-a4m= _a2+4x3+1m=_a6x4m
2 3 5 30 5
2 3
7 _amo _a2b4 ·_3a4bx+1
·34
EJERCICIO 39
1. 3x3_X2 -2x
-6x4+2x3
2.8x"y-3y2
2ax"
16ax'y-6ax3y"
10. _~aXbm+1. _~ax-1bm
9 5
~ . ..!.a2X-1 b2m+1 = ~a2X-1b2m+1
3 5 15
12. _.3..-ax+1bx-3¿. _ 44 aX-3b2
11 7
= 2.~a2X-2bx-1c2 = ~a2X-2bx-1¿
7 7
8. -~nf .-5a2m._~aXm"
5 10
= _~a2+X m3+1+a = _ 2-aX+2m"+4
50 10
9. 2a·-a2 ·-3a3 ·4a=24a1+2+3+1 =24a7
10. -3b2·-4a3b· ab.-5a2x =_60a3+1+2 b2+1+1x=_60a6b4x
11. ambx·-a2·-2ab·-3a2x
=_ 6am+2+1+2bx+1x= _6am+5bx+1x
1 3 10 3
12. --x"y---xy"·_-x" ._-x"y
2 5 3 4
=~x"+1+3+2l+2+1 =~x81
8 4
3. x"-4x+3 -2x
4. a3-4a2+6a 3ab
3a4b-12a3b+ 18a2b
-2x"+8x"-6x
5. a2 - 2ab+ b2 -ab
-a3b+2a2b2 -ab3
6. x5 -6x' -8x 3a2x2
3a2 x7 -18a2 x" - 24a2 x'
7. m4-3rrfn2+7n4 -4m3x
-4m7 x+12m5ifx-28m3n4x
8. x' -4x2y+6xy" ax'y
ax6y-4ax"y" +6ax4y
a3 -5a2b-8ab2 9.
_4a4m2
-4a7 rrf +20a6bm2 + 32a5b2m2
_2am+1 +2am-1+1 _2am-2+1 =_2am+1 +2am _2am-1
11. ~+1+3~_~-1 3x2m
3x'm+1 +9x'm _3x3m-1
12. ambn+am-1bn+1_am-2bn+2 3a2b
3am+2bn+1 +3am+1bn+2 _3ambn+3
EJERCICIO 40
..!.a-~b
1. 2 3
~a2
5
~a1+2_-.:!:.-a2b
10 15
=..!.a' --':!:'-a2b
5 15
2 ~a-~b . 3 4
-~a'b
3
_.:!:.a'+1 b+~a'b1+1
9 12
=-.:!:.a4b+..!.a'b"
9 2
13.
x3 -3x2 +5x-6 -4x2
-4x" +12x4 -20x' +24x2
14. a4-6a3x+9a2x2-8 3bx'
3a4 bx' -1 8a3 bx4 + 27 a2 bx" - 24bx'
n+3 -3 n+2 _4an+1_an
15. a a
-anx2
_ a2n+3 x2 + 3a2n+2 x2 +4a2n+1x2 + a2nx2
16.
x4 -6x' +8x2 - 7x+5 -3a2x'
_3a2x7 +18a2x" -24a2 x" +21a2x4 -15a2x'
17. -3x'+5x2y-7xy"-4y3 5a2xy"
-15a2x4y" +25a2x3Y-35a2x2y4 -20a2xy5
18.
;('+5 -3;('+4 + ;('+3 -5;('+1 -2x2
-2;('+7 +6;(,+6_2;(,+5+10;(,+3
19. a8 _3a6b2 +a4b4 _3a2b6 +b8 -5a3y"
-5a1 y +15a9b2y" -5a7 b4y" + 15a5b6y" _5a3b8y"
mbu 3 m-1bll+2 am-Zbll+4- + am-3bll+6
20. a + a -
4amb3
? ? +7 4 2m 3bu+9 4a2mbll+3 + 12a2m lbu+5 _ 4a-m -bll + a
~a-..!.b+~c
3. 5 6 5
-~a¿'
3
15 1+1-2 ~ bc2_~a¿'+1 -15a c-+ 18 a 15
=- a2c2 +~abcf -~ac3
18 3
~a2 +..!.ab-~b"
4. 5 3 9
3a2x
6 2 3 -2+1b 6 2b2
_a2+ X+-i:;f 'X--a x
5 3 9
=~a4x+ a3bx-~a2b2x
5 3
1 2 1
5. -x"--xy--y"
3 5 4
~y
2
~x"Y_~Xy+1 _~y"+3
6 10 8
=..:!-X2Y -~xy4 -~ y
2 5 8
8. _2..a2+2m+2..a2b2m_2..a2mx2 +2..a2my"
16 24 32 40
=_2..a4m+2..a2b2m_2..a2mx2 +~a2my"
16 24 32 8
6. 3a-5b+6c -~a2x'
10
_~a2+1x' +~a2bx' - ~a2cx'
10 10 10
=-~a3x' +~a2bx3 _ ~a2cx3
10 2 5
2 1 5 2 1
9 -ni' +-rrfn --mn --n'
·3269
~rrfn'
4
~ni'+2n' +~rrf+2d+3 _~m1+2d+3 _.2.-rrfn'+3
12 8 24 36
=..:!-nfn' +~m4rf -~ni'n5 -~rrfn"
2 8 8 12
2 1
7. 9~-x"Y"+3y4
~x'y4
7
~~+3y4 _~x"+3y"+4 +~x'y4+4
63 7 21
=~X7y4_~x'Y+..:!-x'Y
21 7 7
~x"-..:!-~y" +~x"y4-~y
5 3 5 10
_~a3~y
7
10 _~a3x"+4y+~a3~+4y"+3_ ~a3x"+4y4+3 +~a3~y+3
. 35 21 35 70
=_~a3x10y+~a3x"y_ ~a3x"y7 +~a3~y"
7 21 7 14
EJERCICIO 41
1. a+3 3. x+5 5. -x+3 7. 3x-2y
a-1 x-4 -x+5 2x+ y
a2+3a x" +5x x" -3x 6x2 -4.ry
- a-3 -4x-20 -5x+15 +3.ry-2/
a2+2a-3 x" +x -20 x" -8x+15 6x2_ .ry-2/
2. a-3 4. m-6 6. -a-2 8. 5x-4y
a+1 m-5 -a-3 -3x+2y
a2-3a rrf-6m a2+2a -15x2+12xy
a-3 - 5m+30 +3a+6 +10xy-8y"
a2-2a-3 rrf -11m+30 a2 +5a+6 -15x2+22xy-8y"
9. 5a-7b 11. -a+b 13. -9m+8n
a+3b 8a-4b 6m+4n
5a2 -7ab -8a2 +8ab -54m" + 48mn
+ 15ab-21b2 + 4ab -4b2 -36mn+32if
5a2 + 8ab-21b2 -8a2 + 12ab -4b2 - 54m" + 12mn + 32if
10. 7x-3 12. 6m-5n 14. -7y-3
2x+4 m-n 2y-11
14x"-6x 6m"-5mn -14y2-6y
+28x-12 -6mn +5d +77y+33
14x"+22x-12 6m" -11mn +5d -14y2+71y+33
EJERCICIO 42
1. x"+xy+y2
x-y .0+x"y+xy2 -x"y-xy2_y
-y
2. a2 -2ab+b2 a-b
a3-2a2b+ab2
- a2b+ 2ab2 _b3
a3 -3a2b+3ab2 _b3
3. a2 + 2ab+ b2 a+b
a3 +2a2b+ab2
+ a2b+ 2ab2+b3
a3 +3a2b+3ab2 +b3
4. x" -3x2 +1 x+3
x4-3.0 +x
+3.0 -9x" +3
5. a3 +a2_ a a-1
a4 +a3 _a2 _a3_a2 +a
-2a2+a
6. m4 +m"d+n4 m"-d
m6+m4if+m"d -m4d-m"n4-d
m6
_n6
7 . .0-2x"+3x-1 2x+3
2x4 -4.0 +6x" -2x +3x3 -6x" +9x-3
2x4 - x"
+ 7x-3
9. 3y-6y+5 y2+ 2
3y -6y+5y2
+ 6y -12y+10
3y +5y2-12y+10
9. m3-m2+m-2 am+a
am4 - am3 + am" - 2am +am3-am2 +am-2a
-am-2a
10. 3a2 -5ab+ 2b2 4a-5b
12a3 -20a2b+ 8ab2 -15a2b +25ab2 -1 Ob3
12a3-35a2b+33ab2 -10b3
11. 5m4-3m"if+n4 3m-n
15m5 _9m3n2 + 3mn4
-5m4n +3m2n3 _n5
12. a2+a+1 a2-a-1
a4 +a3 +a2 _a3_a2_ a
_a2_ a -1
a4 - a2-2a-1
13. x" + 2x2 - X x" -2x+5
x" + 2x4 - x"
-2x4 -4x3 +2x2
+5x3 +1 Ox2 -5x
xS
+12x2 -5x
14. m3-3rrfn+2mrf m2-2mn-8n2
mS -3m4n+2m3rf -2m4n+6m3n2 - 4rrfn3
_8m3n2 + 24m2n3 -16mn4
+ 20m2n3 -16mn4
15. x"+x+1
x"-x-1
~+x'+x" -x3-x"- x _x2_ x-1
-x" -2x-1
16. x4 -3x2 +2 x" -2x+3
x6 -3x4 +2x2
_2xs +6x3 -4x
+3x4 -9x2 +6
x6 -2xs
+6x3 -7x2 -4x+6
17. ni' +rrt-4m-1 ni'+1
nf +nT -4m4-ni'
+ni' +rrt-4m-1
nf+nT-4m4 +rrt-4m-1
18. 8'-5a+2 a2-a+5
aS -58'+2a2
_a4 +5a2 - 2a
+58' -25a+10
+ 7a2 -27a+1 O
19. x2 - 2xy+ y"
_x2 +xy+3y"
_x4+2x3y_ X2y2
+x3y -2x2y"+ xy' +3x2y" _6xy3 +3l
20. rf-2n+1 rf-1
n4 -2« +rf
-rf +2n-1
+2n-1
21. 8'-3a2b+4ab2 a2b -2ab2 -10b3 aSb_3a4b2 +48'b3
- 2a4b2 + 68'b3 _ 8a2b4
-1 08'b3 +30a2b4 -40abs
22. 8x" -12x"y+6xy" -9y' 2x+3y
16x4 - 24x" y+ 12x" y" -18xy'
+ 24x3y -36x"y" +18xy' -27l
16x4 -24x"y" -27l
23. 2y3_3y"+ y-4 2y+5
4l-6y' + 21' -8y +10y' -151' +5y-20
4l+ 4y' -13y"-3y-20
24. -8' +2ax2 +3x3 2a2 -3ax-x2
-2as +48' x2 +6a2 x3
+3a4x _6a2x3 -9ax4
+a3x2 -2ax4 -3xs
-11ax4 -3xs
25 . .0 -3i'y+2x"y" +xy - x" - xy- y"
- Jt +3.0y-2.0y" - x"y
- .0y+3.0y" -2i'y _x21
- .01' +3i'y -2x"1- xy
-Jt +2xsy - 3x"I-xy
26. a3 -5a2 +2a-3 a3 -2a-7
a6 -5as +2a4 -3a3
-2a4 + 10a3 -4a2 +6a
-7a3 +35a2 -14a+21
a6 -5as
+ 31a2 - 8a +21
27. m4+nr-nf+3 nf-2m+3
m6+ M _m4 +3nf
-2M -2rrf +2nr -6m
+3m4 +3nr -3nf +9
m6_ M
+5nr
-6m+9
28. a4+a3b_3a2b2_ab3+b4 a2-2ab+b2
a6+asb _3a4b2_a3b3 +a2b4 -2asb-2a4b2 +6a3b3 +2a2b4 -2abs
+ a4b2 + a3b3 -3a2b4-abs +b6
-3abS+b6
29 . .0-i'y+x"y"-xY+1 x" + XY-2y"
Jt-.0y+ .01' - x3y + x"1 +.0y- .01' + i'y - x21 +xy
- 2.01' + 2x3y -2x"1 + 2xy -2yO
Jt -2.01' +2i'Y-2x"1 +3XY-2yO
30. y"-2Y+1 1-21'+2 yO-2y +1
-21 +4y -21' +2y"-4y+2
-4y+2
31. m4-3nf+4 3nr-2m+1
3m7 -9M +12nr
-2M + 6nr -8m
+m4 -3nf +4
3m7 -11M + m4 +18nr -3nf-8m+4
32. a3+a2-a+1 a3+a2-2a -1
a6 + aS _ a4 + a3 +as+ a4 _a3 +a2
-2a4 - 2a3 +2a2 -2a
- a3 - a2 +a -1
a6+2as-2a4 -3a3 +2a2-a-1
33. 8i' -12x" y- 6xy" + y 3x" - 2xy+4y"
24.0 - 36.0 Y -18x'y" + 3x" y -16.0y+24x3y" +12x2y - 2xl +32i'y" - 48x"y -24xl +
4y 24.0-52.0y+38x3y" - 33x"y -26xl +4y
34. 5a4 -4a3 +2a2 -3a-1 a4-2a2+2
5a8 -4a7 + 2a6 -3as _a4
-1 Oa6 +8as - 4a4 + 6a3 +2a2
+ 1 Oa4 -8a3 +4a2 -6a-2
5a8-4a7 -8a6+5as +5a4 -2a3+6a2-6a-2
35 . .0 -K +x" -x+1 K-2x"+3x+6
x7 -X' + K-.0 +K
-2X' +2x5 -2.0 +2K -2x"
+3x5 -3.0 +3K -3x" +3x +6.0 -6K +6x" -6x+6
40. 3a5 -6a3 +2a2 -3a+2 a4 -3a2 +4a-5
3a9 - 6a7 + 2a6 - 3a5 + 2a4
- 9a7 +18a5- 6a4 +9a3 - 6a2
+ 12a6 -24a4 + 8a3 -12a2 +8a
-15a5 +30a3 -1 Oa2 + 15a-1 O
3a9 -1 5a7 + 1 4a6
-28a4 + 47a3 -28a2 +23a-1 O
x7 -3X' +6x5
+ X2 -3x+6
36. 3a3 +2a2 -Sa-4 a3+a2-2a+1
3a6 +2a5 - Sa4 - 4a3
+3a5 +2a4 - Sa3 -4a2 -6a4- 4a3 +10a2+8a
+ 3a3 +2a2 -Sa-4
3a6 +Sa5 - 9a4 -1 Oa3 +8a2 +3a-4
41.a+b-c a-b+c
a2 +ab-ac
-ab -b2+bc
+ ac +bc-c2
a2 -b2+2bc-c2
37. sy4 -3y +41' +2y y4-3y2-1
sI' _3y7 + 41' +21'
-1Sy"+9y" -12y4 -6y
- sy4 +3y -4y2 -2y
sI' _3y7 -11y" + 111' - 17y4 -3y -4y2 -2y
42. x+2y-z x-y+z
x"+2xy-xz
- xy - 2y2 + yz
+ xz +2yz-z"
x" + xy - 2y2 +3yz-z2
38. m4 -2m'n+3m'rf -4n4 -m' +3m'n-5mrf +rf
_m7 +2nfn-3m5rf +4m'n4
+3nfn- 6m5rf +9m4n3 -12m'n5
- 5m5rf +10m4n3-15m'n4 +20mn6
+ m4n3 -2m'n4 +3m'n5 -4n7
_m7 +5nfn-14m5rf +20m4rf -13m'n4 -9m'n5 +20mn6 -4n7
43. 2x-3y+Sz -x+y+2z
-2x" +3xy-Sxz
+2xy _3y2 +Syz
+4xz -6yz+10z"
-2x" +Sxy- xz -3y2 - yz+10z2
39. X' - 3.0 y2 - x" y4 + y" K-2Ky2+3xy4
X11 -3x"y2 - x7 y4 + Ky"
- 2x" y2 + 6x7 y4 + 2K y" - 2K y"
+3x7 y4 -9Ky" -3Ky" +3Xy1°
X11 -Sx"y2 +8x7 y4 -6Ky" -SKI' +3xy1°
44. x" - xy- xz + y2 - yz+ z" x+y+z
K - x"y-x"z+xy2 -xyz+xz"
+x"y -xy2 -xyz +y-y2z+yz"
+x"z -xyz-xz" +y2z-Yz"+7
K - 3xyz + y +7
EJERCICIO 43
1. aX+2_ax+1+ax a+1
aX+3_aX+2+ax+1 +aX+2 _ax+1 +ax
+aX
2. _xn+3+2xn+2+x"+1 x"+x
_xn+5 +2xn+4 +xn+3
_ x"+4 +2x"+3 +xn+2
_ xn+s + x"+4 + 3xn+3 + x"+2
3. 117"'+2 +117"'+1_117"' +ma-1 d-2m+3
117"'+4 +ma+3 _ 117"'+2 +117"'+1
-2117"'+3 -2117"'+2 +2117"'+1 -2117"' +3117"'+2 +3117"'+1_3117"' +3ma-1
4. an+2 +3an+1-2an an+1 + an
a2n+3 +3a2n+2 _2a2n+1
+ a2n+2 +3a2n+1_2a2n
a2n+3 +4a2n+2 + a2n+1 _2a2n
5. x"+2+2x"+1_x" x"+3 - 2x"+1
x"a+s +2x2a+4 _ x"a+3
_2x"a+3 _4x"a+2 +2x"a+1
x"a+s +2x2a+4 _3x2a+3 _4x"a+2 +2x"a+1
6. aX _2ax-1 +3aX-2 a2+2a-1
aX+2 _2ax+1 +3ax +2ax+1 -4ax +6ax-1
_ aX +2ax-1 _3aX-2
-2ax +8ax-1 _3aX-2
7. aX +3ax-1_2ax-2 aX _ aX-1 +a x-2
a2X +3a2X-1_2a2X-2
_ a2X-1 _3a2X-2 +2a2X-3
+ a2X-2 +3a2X-3 _2a2X-4 a2X +2a2X-1_4a2X-2 +5a2X-3 _2a2X-4
8. ma+4 _ma+3 -2m"+2 +ma+1
_ ma-1 + ma-2 + m a-3 _m2a+3+m2a+2 +2m2a+1_ m2a
+ m2a+2 _ m2a+1 -2m2a + m2a-1
+ m2a+1 _ m2a _2m2a-1+m2a-2
9. x"-1+2x"-2_x"-3+x"-4 x"-1 _ x"-2 _ X a-3
x"a-2 +2x"a-3 _ x"a-4 + x"a-s
X2a-3 _2x2a-4 + x"a-s _ x"a-6
_x"a-4 _2x2a-s+x"a-6_x2a-7
_ x"a-7
10. anb_an-1b2+2an-2b3_an-3b4 anb2 _ an-2b4
a2nb3 _a2n-1b4 +2a2n-2bs _a2n-3b6
_a2n-2bs +a2n-3b6 _2a2n-4b7 +a2n-sb8
am+x+ambx
+ aXbm+bm+x
aX _abn-1
_ax-1b+bn aX _abn-1_ax-1b+bn
13. _5a2m+2 +a2m+1 +3a2m 6a3m-1_8a3m-2 +a3m-3
_30asm+1 + 6asm + 18asm-1
+40asm _ 8asm-1_24asm-2
_ 5asm-1 + asm-2 +3asm-3
_30asm+1 +46asm +5asm-1 _23asm-2 +3asm-3
14. x"+2y-1_4x"+1y +3x"yx+1 _2x2a-1yX-2 -4x"a- 2yX-1 -1 0x"a-3yx
_2x3a+1y2X- 3 +8x'ay2x- 2 _6x'a-1y2X-1
_4x3ay2X-2 +16x'a-1y2X-1_12x'a-2y2X
_1Ox'a-1y2X-1 +40x'a-2y2X _30x'a-3y2X+1
EJERCICIO 44
1. 2a_2b 2 3
2a+2b 3 2
2a2 - 2ab
6 9
+ 2ab _2b2
4 6
2a2_ 4-9 ab-2b2
6 36 6
= 2a2 + ~ab-2b2
6 36 6
3 2x"_2xy+2y2
. 2 3 4
2 3
"3X-"2Y
~x'- ~x"y + ~xy2
6 9 12
- ~x"y + ~xy2 -~y
4 6 8
~X3_ 8+27 x"y+ 2+6 xy2 _~y
6 36 12 8
=2X3_ 35 X2y+~Xy2 _~y
3 36 12 8
=2X3_ 35 X2y+~Xy2 _~y
3 36 3 8
2
2. x-"5Y
1 5 "3X+"6Y
2x"- 2
3 15XY
+ ~xy -~y2
6 30
2x"- 4-25 xy-~y2 3 30 30
=2X2 +3..!.xy_2 y2
3 30 3
=2X2+2.-Xy_2y2
3 10 3
4. 2a2-ab+~b2
4 3
2a-~b
4 2
1 3 -a -
16
2a2b + ~ab2
4 12
~a2b + ~ab2
8 2
_~b3 6
....!...a3_ 2+3 a2b+ 2+18 ab2- b3
16 8 12
=....!...a3 _ ~a2b+ 20 ab2 _ b3
16 8 12
=....!...a3 - ~a2b+~ab2 - b
16 8 3
5. 3..rrf +..!.mn-..!.n" 5 3 2
~rrf -mn+2n"
2
~m4 +~ni'n
10 6
-3..ni'n 5
-~rrfn2 4
_..!.m2n2 + ..!.mn3
3 2
+~m2n" + 3..mn3 _3..n4
532
~m4 + 15-12 ni'n 45+20-48 rrfn2 + 3+4 mn' _3..n4
10 30 60 6 2
=~m4 +2..ni'n - ~rrfn2 +!...mn3_n4
10 30 60 6
=~m4 +~m3n _ ~m2n2 +!...mn3 _n4
5 10 60 6
7 _..!.x" +..!.ax+~a2
. 2 3 2
~x"-ax+3..a2
2 3
_~X4 +~ax" + ~a2x"
4 6 4
+ ..!.ax3 - ..!.a2x" -~a3x
2 3 2
_ 3..a2x" +3..a3x +~a4
6 9 6
_~X4 + 3+3 ax3 + 27 -4-4 a2x2 _ 27 -4 a3x+~a4
4 6 12 18 6
=_~X4 +~ax" +~a2x" - ~a3x+~a4
4 6 12 18 6
=_~X4 +ax3+~a2x"- 23 a3x+a4
4 12 18
1 1 1 1
9. -x"+-x"--x+-
4 3 4 2
~x" +""!"'X-"!'
2 10 5
6. ~x" +"!'x-3..
8 4 5
2x"-..!.x+2
3
~X5 +3..x4 -~x"
8 4 5
_2.. x" 24
- ~x" 12
+ ~x" 8
2 +-x 15
2 +-x 4
4 5
~X5 +3..x4_ 96+15 x"- 2-18 x" + 8+30 x-~
8 4 120 24 60 5
3 5 1 4 111 3 16 2 38 4
=-x +-x --x +-x +-x--
4 2 120 24 60 5
=~X5 +..!.x4 -~x" +3..,0' +~x-~
4 2 40 3 30 5
~x" -.2.x"y+.2.xy"
8. 7 5 2
.2.x" - ~xy+~y"
4 3 6
2 5 1 4 1
2i3x -2üx y + Sx"y"
4 x4y + ~X3y" _~X2y"
-21 15 6
+~X3y" _2..x"y3 +2..xy4
42 30 12
2 5 _21+80 x4 + 105+112+200 x".2_ 10+5 x" . .3+2..x 4
2i3X 420 y 840 y 30 y 12 Y
~ ~X5 _~X4Y+~X3y" _~X2y" +2.. xl
28 420 840 30 12
~ ..2...x5 _~x4Y+~X3y" _.2.x"y3 +2.. xl
14 420 280 2 12
~x" + ~x"
8 4
+ ....!...X3 ....!...X2 +....!...X
30 40 20
....!...x" ....!...x" +....!...X
20 15 20 10
~ x5 + 60 + 3 x4 __ 4_5_-_4_+_6 x" + _9_0 _- _3_-_8 x" +_1 +_1 X-""!'" 8 120 120
120 20 10
= ~x' +~x4 -~x" +~X2 +~X-....!... =~X5 +3..!.x4 -~x" +~x" +""!"'X-""!'"
8 120 120 120 20 1 O 8 40 120 120 1 O 1 O
~x5+~x4 8 6 +....!...x4
40
3 3 1 __ 2 2 2 1 3
10 -m --m n+-mn --n
. 4 2 5 4
3..m2 -3..mn+ :2.n" 332
~nf - 3..m4n +
12 6
- ~m4n+ 12
~m'n2 15
3..m3n" 6 ~m3n"
8
+
~m2n3 12
~m2n' 15
:2.m2n3 4
+~mn4 12
+~mn4 10
5 s --n 8
~mS _ 4+6 m4n+ 32+40+225 m3n2 _ 10+16+75 rrfn3 + 20+120 mn4 _ :2.ns
12 12 120 60 120 8
= ~nf -~m4n+ 297 m3n2 _ ~m2n3 +~mn4 _ :2.ns = ~ms _:2.m4n+ 99 m'n2 _ ~rrfn3 +!..
.mn4 _ :2.ns
2 12 120 60 120 8 2 6 40 60 6 8
EJERCICIO 45
1. K - x" + X por x"-1 1-1+1
1+0-1
1-1+1
-1+1-1
1-1+0+1-1 =xs-0+x"-x
2. 0+3K-5x"+8 por K-2x2-7 1+3-5+0+8
1-2+0-7
1+3-5+ O +8
-2-6+ 10+0-16
- 7 -21+35+0-56
1+ 1-11+3-13+ 19+0-56
=x7 +x" -11x' +30 -13K + 19x" -56
3. a4+3a3b-2a2b2+5ab3-b4 por a2-2ab+b2 1+3-2+5-1
1-2+ 1
1+3-2+ 5- 1
-2-6+ 4-10+2
+1 +3- 2 +5-1
1+1-7+12-13+7-1
=a6 +asb-7a4b2 + 12a3b3 -13a2b4 + 7abs _b6
4. ni' -5rrfn+6mrt +rf por ni' -4mrf-rf 1-5+6+1
1 +0-4-1
1-5+6+1
-4+20-24- 4
-1 + 5- 6 -1
1-5+2+20-19-10-1
=m6 -5nTn+2m4rf +20ni'rf -19rrfd -10mns _n6
5. 0 -8x" +3 por 0 +6x"-5 1+0-8+0+3
1+0+6+0-5
1+0-8+0+3
+6+0-48+0+18
-5 +0+40+0-15
1+0-2+0-50+0+58+0-15 =x8 -2x" -500 +58x" -15
6. a6-3a4-6a2+10 por a8-4a6+3a4-2a2 1+0-3+0-6+0+10
1+0-4+0+3+0-2
1+0-3+0- 6 +0+10
-4+0+12+0+24+0-40
+ 3 +0 - 9+0-18 +0+30
- 2 +0+ 6 +0+12+0-20
1+0-7 +0+9 +0+23+0-52+0+42+0-20 =a14 _7a12 +9a10 +23a8 -52a6 +42a4 -20a2
7. x"-4x6+3i'-2 por 3x"-8i'+10 1+0+0-4+0+0+3+0+0-2
3+0+0-8+0+0+10
3+0+0-12+0+0+ 9 +0+0- 6
- 8+0+0+32+0+0-24+0+0+16 +10+0+0-40+0+0+30+0+0-20 3+0+0-20+0+0+51+0+0-70+0+0+46+
0+0-20 =3X'5_20X'2+51x9 -70x" +46i' -20
8. m'2 -7m8 +9m4 -15 por 1-7+9-15 1-5+9-4+3
1-7+9 -15
-5+35 -45 + 9 -63 - 4
+75
+81 -135 +28 -36 +60
+ 3 -21 +27-45
1-12+53-127 + 187 -192+87 -45
=d8 _12m24 + 53m20 _127m'6 +187m'2 -192m8 + 87m4 -45
10.
6a5 -4a2 +6a-2 por a4 -2a2 +a-7 6+0+0-4+6-2
1+0-2+1-7
6+0+ 0-4+ 6 -2
-12+0+ O +8-12+4
+6+ O +0-4 +6 - 2 -42+0+ O +28-42+14
6+0-12+2-36+6-16+38-44+14
=6a9 -12a7 +2a6 -36a5 +6a4 -168' +38a2 -44a+14
9. x5 _3x4y_6x3y" _4x2y" - y por 2x2 + 4y2 1-3-6-4+0-1
2+0+4
2-6-12-8+ 0-2
+ 4 -12-24-16+0-4 2-6- 8 -20-24-18+0-4
=2x7 _6x6Y_8x5y2 _20X4y3 _24x3y4 -18x2y _4y7
11. n6 -3n4 +5n3 -8n+4 por n4 -3n2 +4 1+0-3+5+0-8+4
1+0-3+0+4
1+0-3+5+ 0- 8 + 4
-3+0+ 9 -15 + O +24-12
+ 4 + 0-12+20 + O -32+16 3-4-15+29-13+0+5-3
1+0-6+5+13-23- 8 +44-12-32+16 =3x7 -4x6y-15x5y" + 29x4y" _13x3y4 +5xy6 _3y7
=n'O _6n8 +5n7 +13n6 -23« _8n4 + 44n3 -12~ -32n+16
12. 3x4 -4x3y-l 3-4+0+0-1 1+0-5+3
por x3 -5xy" +3y3
3-4+0 + 0-1 -15+20+0 +0+5
+ 9 -12+0+0-3
13. x,o-5x6l+3x2y"-6y'° por x6_4x4y2_5x2y4 +y6 1+0+0+0-5+0+0+0+3+0-6
1+0-4+0-5+0+1
1+0+0+0 -5+ O + O +0+ 3 + 0- 6
-4+0 + 0+ O +20+0+0 + 0-12+0+24
- 5+ O + O + 0+25+ 0+ O +0-15+0+30
+ 1 + 0+ O + 0- 5 +0+ 0+0+ 3 +0 -6
1+0 -4+0 -1 0+0 +21+ 0+ 28+0-23+0 +9+0 +33+0-6
X'6 _4X'4y" -1 OX'2l +21x'Oy6 +28x8 y" _23x6y'0 + 9x4y' 2 + 33x2y'4 _6y'6
15. aX+2 - 5aX+1 - 7 aX-1 por 7 aX+3 + 6aX+1 + aX 1-5+0-7
7+0+6+1
7-35+0-49
+6-30+0-42 +1-5+0-7
7-35+6-78-5-42-7
14. am _3am-1 +5am-3 por a2-5 1-3+0+5
1+0-5
1-3+0+5
-5+15 +0-25 1-3-5+20+0-25
= 7 a2X+5 _ 35a2X+4 + 6a2X+3
_ 78a2X+2 _ 5a2X+1 _ 42a2X - 7 a2X-1
16. ~+2 -5xa - 6xa-2 por 6xa+1_4xa +2xa-1 +xa-2 1+0-5+0-6
6-4+2+1
6+0-30+ 0-36
-4+ 0+20+0 +24
+ 2 + 0-10+0 -12
+ 1+ 0- 5 + 0-6
6-4-28+21-46+19-12-6
= 6x",.3 -4x"'+2 -28x2'+1 + 21x'"
- 46x",-1 + 19x",-2 -12x"'-3 - 6x2'-4
EJERCICIO 46
1.4(a+5)(a-3) 4a+ 20
a-3
4a2 +20a -12a- 60
4a2 + 8a -60
2. 3a2(x+ 1)(x-1)
3a2x+ 3a2
x-1
3a2x2+3a2x
_ 3a2x- 3a2
3a2x2
-3a2
3.2(a-3)(a-1)(a+4)
2a-6 a-1
2a2 - 6a -2a+6
2a2-8a+6 a+4
2a3-8a2+6a
+8a2 -32a+ 24
2a3 -26a+24
4. (x2 + 1)(x2 -1)(x2 + 1)
x2 + 1 x2 + 1
+ x2 + 1 x4 +2x2+1 x2 -1
x6 + 2x4 + x2
- x4 - 2x2-1
x6 + x4 _ x2-1
5. m(m-4)(m-6)(3m+2)
m2-4m
m-6
m3 -4m2
-6m2 + 24m m3 - 10m2 + 24m 3m+2
3m4 - 30m3 + 72m2
+ 2m3 - 20m2 + 48m 3m4 - 28m3 + 52m2 + 48m
1-3-1-5 6-5+3
6-18 - 6 -30
- 5+15+5+25
+ 3- 9- 3-15
6-23+12-34+22-15
= 6a5X+3 _ 23a5X+2 + 12a5X+1 _ 34a5X + 22a5X-1 _15a5X-2
6. (a-b )(a2 - 2ab+ b2)(a+b) a2 _ 2ab+ b2
a+b
a3 _ 2a2b+ ab2
+ a2b- 2ab2 + b3
a3 _ a2b- ab2 + b3
a-b
a4 _ a3b- a2b2 + ab3
_ a3b + a2b2 + ab3 _ b4
a4 -2a3b
+2ab3-b4
7. 3x(x2 - 2x+ 1)(x-1)(x+ 1) 3x3- 6x2 +3x
x-1
3x4 - 6x3 + 3x2
- 3x3 + 6x2 - 3x
3x4 - 9x3 + 9x2 - 3x x+ 1
3x5 - 9x4 + 9x3 - 3x2
+ 3x4 - 9x3 + 9x2 - 3x
+6x2 - 3x
8. (x2 - x+ 1)(x2 + x-1)(x- 2)
x2 - x+ 1 x2 + x-1
+X3_X2 +x
_x2 +x -1
-x2+2x-1
x-2
x5
_x3 +2x2-x
+2x2-4x+2
x5 _ 2x4 - x3 +4x2 -Sx+ 2
-6
2am + a2m-L _ 3am-L - 6 am-L -1
2a2m-L + a3m-2 _ 3a2m-2 _ 6am-L
2m-[ - a
a2m-L + a3m-2 _ 3a2m-2 _ 3am-L _ 2am + 6 =} a3m-2 + a2m-L _ 3a2m-2 _ 2am _ 3am-L
+ 6
10. a(a-1)(a-2)(a-3)
2
a -a
a-2
3 2
a -a
-2a2+2a
a3-3a2+2a
a-3
a4 -3a3+2a2 -3a3+9a2 -6a a4 -6a3+11a2-6a
11. (x- 3)(x+ 4 )(x- S)(x+ 1)
x-3 x-S
x+4 x+1
x'-3x x'-Sx
+ 4x-12 + x -S
x'+ x -12 x'-4x-S
x'-4x-S
X4+X3 -12x'
_4x3 - 4x' + 48x
- Sx'-Sx +60 x4 _ 3x3 -21x' +43x+60
12. (x'-3)(x'+2x+1)(x-1)(x'+3)
x' + 2x+ 1 x'-3
x-1
x4 + 2x3 + x'
+3x'+6x+3 x4 + 2x3 +4x' + 6x+3 x3 - x' - 3x+3
x7 +2x'+4x5+6x4+3x3
-x' -2x5 -4x4- 6x3-3x'
x3
-3x
, -x
+3
x3-x'-3x+3
-3x5 -6x4-12x3-18x'-9x +3x4+ 6x3+12x'+18x+9
13.9a'(3a-2)(2a+1)(a-1)(2a-1)
27a3 -18a' 2a+ 1
S4a4-36a3
+27a3-18a'
2a-1 a-1
2a' -a
- 2a+ 1 2a'-3a+1
S4a4 - 9a3 -18a' 2a'-3a+1
108a' - 18as - 3004 -162as + 27a4 +S4a3
+S4a4- 9a3-18a' 108a' -180as +4Sa4 -4Sa3 -18a'
EJERCICIO 47
1·4(x+3)+S(x+2) =4x+12+Sx+1O =9x+22
2. 6(x2+4)-3{x2+1)+S(x2+2) =6x2 +24-3x2- 3+Sx2 + 10 =8x2 +31
3. a(a- x)+ 3a(x+ 2a)- a(x- 3a)
= a2 - ax+ 3ax+ 6a2 - ax+ 3a2 =lOa2+ax
4. x2 (y' + 1)+ y' (x2 + 1)- 3x2y' =x2y'+ x2 + x2y' + y' _ 3x2y' =_ x2y'+ x2 + y
'
5. 4m3 - Smn2 + 3m2 (m2 + n2) - 3m(m2 - n2) = 4m3 - Smn2 + 3m4 + 3m2n2 - 3m3 + 3
mn2 = 3m4 + m3 + 3m2n2 - 2mn2
6. / + x2/ - / (x2 + 1)+ / (x2 + 1)-/ (x2 -1) =/+~/-~/-/+~/+/-~/+/ =-/+3/
7. S(x+2)-(x+1)(x+4)-6x =Sx+ 10- (x2 +4x+ x+4)- 6x =- x+ 10- x2 -4x-x-4 =-x2-6x
+6
8. (a+S)(a-S)-3(a+2)(a-2)+S(a+4)
= a2 -Sa+ Sa- 2S- 3(a2 - 2a+ 2a-4)+Sa+ 20 =a2+Sa-S-3(a2-4)
= a2 + Sa- S- 3a2 + 12
=-2a2+Sa+7
9. (a + b )(4a - 3b)- (Sa - 2b )(3a + b)- (a + b )(3a - 6b) =4a2 + ab- 3b2 - (IS
a2 - ab- 2b2)_ (3a2 - 3ab _ 6h2) = 4a2 + ab- 3b2 - ISa2 + ab+ 2b2 - 3a2 + 3ab +
6b2
= -14a2 +Sab+ 5h2
10. (a+e)" -(a-e)"
=(a+e)(a+ e)-(a- e)(a- e)
= a2+ ac+ ac+ c2_ (a2 - ac- ac+ c2) = a2 + 2ae+ e2 - a2 + ae+ ae- e2
=4ae
11. 3(x+y)' -4(x-y)' +3x2-3/
=3(x+ y)(x+ y)-4(x- y)(x- y)+3x2 -3y'
= 3(x2 + xy+ xy+ y' )-4(x2 - xy- xy+ y')+ 3x2 - 3y' = 3( x2 + 2xy+ y' )-4(x2 - 2
xy+ y')+ 3x2 - 3y'
= 3x2 +6xy+ 3y2 - 4x2 + 8xy-4y' + 3x2 _ 3y2
= 2x2 + 14xy-4y'
12.(m+n)' - (2m+n)' + (m-4n)'
= (m+n)(m+n)- (2m+n)(2m+n)+ (m-4n)(m-4n)
=m2 +2mn+n2 -(4m2 +4mn+n2)+m2 -8mn+ 16n2 =2m2 -6mn+ 17n2 -4m2 -4mn-n2 =-2m2-lOmn
+16n2
13. x(a+ x)+ 3x(a+ 1)- (x+ l)(a+ 2x)- (a- x)'
= ax+ x2 + 3ax+ 3x- (ax+ 2x2 + a+ 2x)- (a- x)(a- x) = 4ax+ x2 + 3x- ax- 2x2 - a-
2x- (a2 - ax- ax+ x2) = 3ax- x2 + x- a- a2 + ax+ ax- x2 =-2x2+x+Sax-a-a2
14. (a+b-e)' +(a-b+e)' -(a+b+e)'
a+b-e a+b-e
a-b+e a-b+e
a2+ab -ae
+ab +b2-be
- ae -be +e2
a2 -ab + ae
- ab +b2 - be
+ae -be+e2
a2 + 2ab- 2ae+ b2 - 2be+ e2 a2 - 2ab+ 2ae+ b2 - 2be+ e2
a+b+e a+b+e
a2 +ab + ae
+ab +b2+be
+ ae +be +e2
a2 + 2ab+ 2ae+ b2 + 2be+ e2
a2 +2ab-2ae+b2 - 2be+ e2 a2 -2ab+2ae+b2 - 2be+ e2 _a2 -2ab-2ae-b2 -2be-e2
a2 -2ab-2ae+b2 -6be+ e2
=; a2 +b2 +e2 -2ab-2ae-6be
1 (2 )2(, )2(, )2
5. x +x-3 - x--2+x + x--x-3
x2+x-3 x2+x-3
x2 +x-2 X2 +x-2
x4 + X3 -3x2
+ X3 + X2 -3x
x4 + X3 -2x2
+ X3 + X2 -2x
-3x2-3x+9 -2x2-2x+4
x4+2x3-Sx2-6x+9 x4+2x3-3x2-4x+4
x2_ x-3 X2_ x-3
X4_ X3 -3x2 x4+2x3-Sx2-6x+9
_X3 + X2 +3x _X4_ 2x3+3x2+4x-4
-3x2+3x+9 x4-2x3-Sx2+6x+9
x4 - 2x3 -SX2 + 6x+ 9
x4 - 2x3 -7x2 +4x+ 14
17. [x+(2x-3)][3x-(x+1)]+4x-x' = [x+ 2x- 3][3x- x-1]+4x- x' = [3x- 3][2x-1] + 4x
- x'
= 6x' - 3x- 6x+ 3+ 4x- x' =Sx'-Sx+3
19. [(m+ n)(m- n)-(m+n)(m+ n)][2(m+n)- 3(m- n)] =[m2 -n2_(m2+2mn +n2)][2m+2n-3m+
3n] =[m2 -n2-m2-2mn-n2][-m+5n]
= [-2mn-2n2 ] [-m+5n]
= 2m2n-lOmn2 + 2mn2 -lOn3 =2m2n-8mn2 -lOn3
EJERCICIO 48
1. x-[3a+2(-x+1)] =x-[3a-2x+2] =x-3a+2x-2 =3x-3a-2
2. -(a+b)-3[2a+b(-a+2)] = - a- b- 3[2a- ab+ 2b]
= -a-b-6a+ 3ab-6b
= -7a-7b+ 3ab ~ -7a+ 3ab-7b
16. (x+ y+ z)' - (x+ y)(x- y)+3(x2 + xy+ y 2)
x+ y+z
x+ y+z
x2+xy+xz
x+ y x- y
x2 + xy
-xy-y'
+xy
+ y' + yz
+ xz + yz + Z2 x2
x2 +2xy+2xz+y'+2yz+ Z2
-y'
x2 + 2xy+ 2xz + y' + 2yz+ Z2
_ x2 + y2
3x2 + 3xy + 3y'
3x2 +Sxy+2xz +Sy'+2yz+ Z2 =? 3x2 + Sy' + Z2 + Sxy+ 2xz+ 2yz
18. [3(x+ 2)- 4(x+ 1)][ 3(x+ 4)- 2(x+ 2)]
= [3x+ 6-4x-4][3x+ 12- 2x- 4] = [-x+ 2][x+ 8]
=- x' -8x+2x+ 16
=-x' -6x + 16
20. [(x+ y)' -3(x- y)'] [(x + y)(x- y)+x(y-x)]
= [x2 +2xy+ y' - 3(x2 - 2xy+ y')][x2 _ y' + xy- x2] = [x2 + 2xy+ y' - 3x2 + 6xy-
3y' ][xy- y']
= [-2x2 + 8xy-2y'][xy- y']
= -2x3y + 2x2y' + 8x2y' - 8xy3 - 2xy3 + 2/ = -2x3y+ IOx2y' _lOxy3 + 2/
3. -[3x-2y+(x-2y)-2(x+ y)-3(2x+1)] = - [3x- 2y+ x- 2y- 2x- 2y- 6x- 3] =-[-4x-6y-
3]
=4x+6y+3
4.4x2-{-3x+S-[-x+x(2-x)]} =4x2 - {- 3x+S- [- x+ 2x- x2]} =4x2 - {- 3x+S+ x- 2x+
x2} =4x2-{-4x+S+x2} =4x2+4x-S-x2
=3x2+4x-S
5. 2a - {- 3x+ 2[ - a +3x- 2(- a+ b- (2+ a))]} =2a-{-3x+2[-a+3x-2(-a+b-2-a )]} =
2a- {- 3x+ 2[- a+ 3x+2a- 2b+4+ 2a]} = 2a-{-3x+2[3a+3x-2b+4]}
= 2a -{-3x+ 6a + 6x-4b+ 8}
= 2a +3x- 6a- 6x+4b- 8
= -4a- 3x+4b- 80=} -4a+4b- 3x- 8
6. a-(x+ y)-3(x- y)+2 [-(x-2y)-2(-x- y)]
= a- x- y- 3x+ 3y+ 2[- x+ 2y+ 2x+ 2y] =a-4x+ 2y+2[x+4y] =a-4x+2y+2x+8y
= a-2x+lOy
7. m- (m+ n)- 3{- 2m+ [- 2m+ n+ 2(-1 + n)- (m+ n-l)]} = m-m-n-3{-2m+ [- 2m+n- 2+
2n-m-n+ 1]} =-n- 3{-2m+[-3m+2n-l]}
=-n- 3{-2m-3m+ 2n-l}
=-n-3{ -Sm+2n-l}
=-n+1Sm-6n+3
= -7n+ ISm+ 3=ó ISm-7n+ 3
8. - 2(a-b)- 3(a+ 2b)-4{a- 2b+ 2[-a+b-l+ 2(a-b)]} = - 2a + 2b- 3a- 6b- 4{a- 2b+
2[- a+ b-l + 2a- 2b]} = -Sa-4b-4{a-2b+ 2[a-b-l]}
= -Sa-4b-4{a-2b+ 2a- 2b- 2}
= -Sa-4b-4{3a-4b- 2} = -Sa -4b-12a+ 16b+ 8 =-17a+12b+8
9. -5(x+ Y)-[2x- y+2{-x+ y-3-(x- y-l)}]+2x =-5x-5y-[2x- y+2{-x+ y-3-x+ y+l}]+2x
=-3x-5y-[2x- y+2{-2x+2y-2}] =-3x-5y-[ 2x- y-4x+4y-4] = - 3x- 5y- [- 2x+ 3y-4]
= - 3x- 5y+ 2x- 3y+ 4
=-x-8y+4
10. m-3(m+n)+ [- {- (- 2m+n- 2- 3[m-n+ 1])+ m}] =m- 3m- 3n+[ -{- (- 2m+n-2-3m+ 3
n- 3)+ m}] = -2m-3n+[- {-(-Sm+4n-S)+m}]
= -2m-3n+ [- {Sm-4n+ S+ m}]
= -2m-3n+ [- {6m-4n+S}]
= -2m-3n+ [-6m+4n-S] =-2m-3n-6m+4n-S
=-8m+n-S
11.-3(x-2y)+2{-4[-2x-3(x+ y)]}-{-[-(x+ Y)]} =- 3x+ 6y+ 2 {- 4[- 2x- 3x- 3y]}- {-
[- x- y]} =- 3x+ 6y+ 2 {- 4[- 5x- 3y]}- {x+ y}
=- 3x+ 6y+ 2 {20x+ 12y}- x- y =-4x+5y+40x+24y
=36x+29y
12. S{- (a +b)-3[-2a +3b - (a+b )+(-a -b)+2(-a +b)]-a}
=S{- a-b- 3[- 2a+ 3b- a -b- a-b- 2a+ 2b]- a} =S{-a-b- 3[- 6a+ 3b]- a}
=S{-2a-b+ 18a-9b}
= S{ 16a-lOb}
=80a-SOb
13. - 3{- [+ (- a+b)]}-4{- [- (- a- b)]} =- 3{- [- a+b] }-4{- [a +b]}
=- 3{a -b}- 4{- a -b}
=- 3a+3b+4a+4b =a+7b
14. - {a+b- 2(a-b)+ 3{- [2a+b-3(a+b-l)]}- 3[- a+ 2(-I+a)]} =- {a+b- 2a+ 2b+ 3{-
[2a+b- 3a- 3b+ 3]}- 3[- a- 2+ 2a]} =- {- a+ 3b+ 3{a+ 2b- 3}- 3a+ 6}
=- {-4a+ 3b+ 6+ 3a+ 6b- 9}
=-{-a+9b-3}
=a-9b+3
EJERCICIO 49
1. -2478=-3
2. -637-7=9
3. -5a27-a=5a2-1=5a
4. 14a3b4 7-2ab2 =_7a3-1b4-2 =_7a2b2
7. 54~/.t7-6xl.t= -9~-Y-2.t-3=-9x
8. -5rrfn7rrfn= -5rrf-2d-1=-5
9. -8a2x'7-8a2x'=a2-2x'-3=1
. Xy"-1 xy
10. -Xy"72Y=---2-=-:2
11 5x4Y7-6x4y=-~x4-V-1=_~1
. 6 6
EJERCICIO 50
EJERCICIO 51
1
1 .2 2 3
-~7-=-~=-~
1. 2 3 2 4
3
3
-~a3b7-~a2b= 5 a3-2b1-1 =~a=~a
2. 5 5 4 20 4
5
2
2,J5;i' 1;i' :3 5;i'-3 12 5 5
3. 3"xy +-6" =-Txy =-""3xy = -4xy
6
7
_"!...ambn +-~ab2 = -ª-am-'bn-2 = ~am-1bn-2 ="!...am-'bn-2
4. 8 4 3 24 6
4
2
5. -~x4y 7-2= 9 x4y = ~x4y = ..!.x4y
9 2 18 9
1 3
6. 3m4nSp6 +-3"m4npS =-Tm4 -4nS-1p6-S =-9n4p
3
7
_"!....a2bsc6 +_:2.abSc6 = 8 a2 -1bS-SC6-6 =~a=-2...a
7. 8 2 5 40 20 2
2
8. ~axbm7_~ab2=_:3 aX-1bm-2=_~aX-1bm-2
3 5 3 9
5
3
10. ¡amb"+ _%b3 =- i amb"-3 =- 162 amb"-3 =- ~amb"-3 2
EJERCICIO 52
2 a2-ab a2 ab
1. a -ab+a=---=---=a-b
a a a
2. 3x2y" _5a2x4 +-3x2 3X2y3 _5a2x4 3x2y"
-3x2 -3x2
5a2x4 5
_ y3+_a2x2
-3x2 3
3. 3a3 -5ab2 _6a2b3 -2a
3a3 5ab2 6a2b3 3 5
= = __ a2 +_b2 + 3ab3
-2a -2a -2a 2 2
i'-4i'+x i' 4i' x
4. ---------- +-=i'-4x+1
x x x x
5. 4x" -1 ox" -5~ 2i'
4x8 10x" 5~ 5
=---- - -= 2X' -5i' - - x
2x3 2i' 2i' 2
6. 6nr-8rrfn+20md
-2m
6nr 8rrfn 20md
=--- --+---=-3rrf+4mn-10d -2m -2m -2m
7. 6a8b8 _3a6b6 _a2b3 3a2b3
6a8b8 3a6b6 a2b3 1
= 3a2b3 - 3a2b3 - 3a2b3 =2a6b5-a4b3-3
8. x4-5x3-10x2+15x -5x
x4 5x3 10x" 15x 1
=--- --- __ + __ = __ X3+X2 +2x-3
-5x -5x -5x -5x 5
9. 8m9d-10m7d-20m'n6+12nrn" 2rrf
8nrd 10m7n4 20m'n" 12nrn" = 2rrf -~-~+~
= 4m7 d -5m'n4 -1 onrn6 + 6mn"
= _J2. aX-3-X+ 4bm+5-m+1 2 _ 5 b6..2 1 6 2
3 e ---a ¡; =--ab e
45 9
5
10.
11. 2am _3am+2+6am+4 -3a3
2am 3am+2 6am+4 2
= + = __ am-3 +am-1 _2am+1
-3a3 -3a3 -3a3 3
12. ambn +am-1bn+2 _am-2bn+4 a2b3
ambn am-1bn+2 am-2bn+4
=--+---------
a2b3 a2b3 a2b3
= am-2tf'-3 +am-3bn-1_am-4bn+1
13. xm+2 -5~ +6~+1 _~-1 xm-2
xm+2 5xm 6~+1 xm-1 = xm-2 - ~-2 + xm-2 - ~-2
=~ -5i' +6i' - x=} ~ +6i' -5i' - x
14. 4ax+4bm-1_6ax+3bm-2 +8ax+2bm-3 _ 2aX+2bm-4
4ax+4bm-1 6aX+3bm-2 8ax+2bm-3
_2ax+2bm-4 _2ax+2bm-4 + _2ax+2bm-4
= -2a2b3 +3ab2 -4b
EJERCICIO 53
1 2
2i' 3x 3 6 3
1. -2--2=-x--=-x-1 -x -x 4 6 4
3 3
1 3 3 2 1
-a -a -a
_3 5_+-±-
3 3 3
- -- --
2. 5 5 5
5 3 15 2 5 5 5
=--a +-a --a=--a3+a2--a
9 15 12 9 12
3. ~m4 ~m3n ~m2rf
_4 3 __ +-8--
1 2 1 2 1 2
-m -m -m
4 4 4
=~m2 -~mn+~rf =m2 -~mn+~n2
4 3 8 3 2
2 4 3 1 . .3 4 1 .2,/5
4. -x y -x y -x y 6
_3 5 __ +-4---~
1,,3 1 3 1 3 1 3
--Xy --xy --xy --xy
5 5 5 5
10 5 5 2
=--x"+-Y!y- -xy +5y
3 5 4
10 3 .2 5 2 ,,3
= --x +x y--xy +5y
3 4
~a5 ~a3b3 5
5. _5 3 ~=-.3....a4 _....!...a2b3 _..!.b5
5a 5a 5a 25 15 5
1 m 1 m-1
-a -a 2 2 2 1
_3 __ +-4-- =_am-1 +_am-2 =_am-1 +-am-2
6. ~a ~a 3 4 3 2
2 2
8. _~an-1xrn+2 ~anxrn+1 ~an+1xm
4 +8 3
-~a3y! _~a3x2 -~a3y!
5 5 5
=~an-4 xrn _~an-3 xm-1 +~an-2 xm-2
8 16 6
=~an-4xrn _ ~an-3xrn-1 +~an-2xm-2
8 16 3
EJERCICIO 54
1. a2+2a-3 la+3 6. a2+5a+6 I a+2 11. -8a2 +12ab- 4b2 I-a+b
-a2-3a a-1 -a2-2a a+3 +8a2- 8ab 8a-4b
- a-3 3a+6 4ab-4b2
+ a+3 -3a-6 -4ab+4b2
2. a2 -2a-3 ~ 7. 6Y!- xy-21 12X+Y
-a2-a a-3 -6Y! -3xy 3x-2y 12. 6m2-11mn+5rf I m-n
-4xy-2y2 -6m2+6mn 6m-5n
- 3a-3
+ 3a+3 +4xy+21 -5mn+ 5n2
+5mn-5rf
3. x2+x-20 IX+5 8. -15Y! +22xy-81 1-3x+2v
-Y!-5x x-4 +15x2-10xy 5x-4y -54m2+12mn+32rf 1-9m+ 8n
13.
-4x-20 12xy-8y2 +54m2-48mn 6m+4n
+4x+20 -12xy+8y2
-36mn+ 32n2
4. rrt-11m+30 Im-6 9. 5a2 + 8ab-21b2 I a+3b +36mn- 32n2
-rrt+6m m-5 -5a2 -15ab 5a-7b
-5m+30 -7ab-21b2 14. -14/+71y+33 1-7y- 3
+5m-30 +7ab+21b2 +14/+6y 2y-11
5. x2-8x+15 I-X+3 10. 14Y!+22x-12 J7X-3 +77y+ 33
-77y- 33
-Y!+3x -x+5 -14Y!+6x 2x+4
-5x+15 28x-12
+5x-15 -28x+12
15.
x3
_y3 Ix-y
J! +xy+ jl
-x' +J!y
J!y _X2Y+Xy2 Xy2_y3 _Xy2+y3
16. a3 -3a2b +3ab2 _b3 ~I a_-_b _
_a3 +a2b a2-2ab+b2
-2a2b+3ab2
+2a2b-2ab2
ab2_b3
-ab2+b3
17. x4 -9x" +x+3
_x4 -3x3
1x+3
x3 -3x2 +1
-3x3 - 9x" +3x3 +9x2
x+3 -x-3
18.
+a ~I a_+_1 _
a3 _a2 +a
_a3 +a3+a2
a2+a _a2 -a
_n6 Im2-if m4+m"n2+n4
20. 2x4 - x3 -2x4 -3x3
+ 7 x- 3 _1 2_x_+_3 _
x3 -2x2 +3x-1
-4x3
+4x3 +6x2 6x2+7x -6x2 -9x
-2x-3 2x+3
21. 3ys -12y+ 5jl+10
_3ys -6y
-6y3-12y +6y3+12y
5y2+10 -5y2-10
I y"+2 3y-6y+5
22.
-am-2a l=a~m~+~a _
M-m"+m-2
-am3 +am3+am"
am"-am -am"-am
-2am-2a
+ 2am+2a
12a3 -35a2b+33ab2 -1 Ob3 I 4a-5b
-12a3 +15a2b 3a2-5ab+2b2
-20a2b+33ab2
+20a2b-25ab2 8ab2-10b3 -8ab2+10b3
23.
24. 15ms-5m4n-9m3n2+3m2n' +3mn4 -nsl_3_m_-_n _
-15ms +5m4n 5m4-3m"n2+n4
_9m3n2 +3m"n3
+9m3n2 -3m"n3
EJERCICIO 55
-a2-2a-1
-a3-2a2-2a +a3+ a2 + a
_a2 - a-1 +a2 + a+1
I a2+a+1 a2 -a-1
2. x' +12x"-Sx I x2-2x+S
- x' +2x4 -si' i' +2x2 - X
2x4 - si' + 12x"
-2x4 +4i' -1 ox"
- i' + 2x2 -Sx
+ i' - 2x2 +Sx
3. m5-5m4n
_m5 +2m4n+8rrfrf
+ 20m" rf -16mn4
-3m4n+ 8m3rf +20m"n3 + 3m4n -6rrfrf -24m"rf
2m3rf - 4m"n3 -16mn4 -2rrfrf + 4m"n3 +16mn4
4. x4 -x"-2x-1 I x"-x-1
_X4+X3+x" x"+x+1
+ x3 -2x
-i'+x" + x
x"-x-1 -x" +x +1
5. x6_2xs _x6
+6x3-7x"-4x+6
-2x"
-2x' +3x4 +6i' -9x2 -4x +2x' -6i' +4x
3x4 - 9x" +6
-30
6.
m6 +ms -4m4 +m2-4m-1
_m6 _ms +4m4 +m3
m3+m2-4m-1 -m3-m2+4m+1
7.
+7a2 -27a+10
_aS +a4 -Sa3
-Sa3 + 7a2 -27a +Sa3-Sa2+2Sa
2a2- 2a+10 -2a2+2a-10
8. -0+3i'y
+ 0 -2i'y+ x2y2
i'y + x"y2 -sxy
-i'y + 2x"y2 - xy
3x"y2 -6XY+3y4 -3x"y2 +6xy-3y4
-sxy +3y4 I x" - 2xy + y2
-x"+XY+3y2
I m" -2mn-8rf 9. rrf -3rri'n+2mrf
n4 -2n' +2n-1
-n4+2n' -if
-n2+2n-1 +n2-2n+1
10. aSb_5a4b2 + 22a2b4 -40absla2b-2ab2 -10b3
-a'b+2a4b2 +10a'b3 a' -3a2b+4ab2
_3a4b2 +10a'b3 + 22a2b4
+3a4b2 - 6a'b3 -30a2b4
4a'b3 - 8a2b4 -40abs -4a'b3 +8a2b4 +40abs
11. 16x4 _24x2y2 -27lI8x3-12x2y+6xy"-9y'
-16x4 +24x3y-12x2y" +18xy3 2x+3y
x4 -3x2 +2 24x3Y-36x2y" +18xy' -27y4
x" -2x+3 -24x3Y+36x2y" -18xy' + 27y4
-6
12. 4y4+ 4y-13y2-3y-20 I -4y4-10y
- 6y-13y2
+ 6y+1Sy2 2y2-3y -2y2-Sy-20
-8y-20
8y+20
Im3+m2-4m-1 m3+1
13. -2a5-3a4x+5a3x" -11ax4-3x5 l-a3+2ax"+3x3
+2a5 -4a3x"-6a2x" 2a2-3ax-x"
3a4x+ a3x" -6a2x" -11ax4
-3a4 x +6a2 x3 + 9ax4
a3x"
-2ax4 _3x5 +2ax4 +3x5
14.
_x6+2x5y +x6_3x5y+2x4y"+ X3y'
- x5y +2x4y" + X3y' -3x2y' + x5Y_3x4y" +2x3y' + x" y'
-3x"y'-xy I X4 -3x3y+2x"y" +Xy'
-x" -xy- y"
19. y6_2y_y'+4y' -4y+2Iy4-2y"+2
_y6 +2y' -2y" y"-2y+1
_2y5 + y' +4y3 -2y" -4y
+2y5 -4y' +4y
y4 -2y" +2
_ y4 +2y" -2
- x4y" +3x3y' -2x"y'-xy + x4y" _3X3y3 +2x"y'+xy
15. a6_5a5 +31a'-8a+21 1 a3-2a-7
_a6 +2a4+ 7a3 a3-5a2+2a-3
- 5a5 + 2a4 + 7a3 + 31a'
+ 5a5 -10a3-35a'
2a4_3a3 - 4a'-8a
_2a4 +4a'+14a
20. 3m7 -11m"+m4+18m3-3m2-8m+4 I m4-3m"+4
-3m7 + 9m5 -12m3 3m3 -2m+1
_ 2m5 +m4 + 6m3
-8m
+2m5 - 6m3 +8m
_3a3 +6a+21
+3a3 -6a-21
m4 -3m2 +4
_m4 + 3m2 -4
16. m6_ m5 + 5m3 -6m+9 Im4+m'-m"+3
_m6 - m" +m4 -3m2 m" -2m+3
- 2m5 +m4 + 5m3 - 3m2 -6m
21. a6 +2a5 -2a4 -3a3 +2a2 -a-1 I a3 +a2 -a+1
_a6_ a5+ a4 _ a3 a3+a2-2a-1
+ 2m5 +2m4 -2m3
+6m
a5 _a4 -4a3 +2a2 _ a5 _ a4 + a3 _ a2
3m4 + 3m3 - 3m2 _3m4 -3m' + 3m2
+9 -9
-2a4 -3a3 +a2 - a +2a4 +2a3 -2a2 +2a-1
17. a6_ a5b _4a4b2+6a3b3
_ a6 + 2a5b _ a4b2
-3ab5 +b61 a2 -2ab+b2
a4 +a3b_3a2b2 -ab3 +b4
- a3 _ a2 + a-1 + a3 + a2 - a+1
a5b -5a4if +6a3b3 _ a5b +2a4b2 _ a3b3
_3a4b2 +5a3b3
+3a4if _6a3b3 +3a2b4
22.
24x5 -52x4y+38"¿'y" -33x"y' -26xy4 +4y5 18i' -12x"v-6xy" + v"
-24x5+36x4y+18x3y" -3x"y' 3x"-2xy+4y"
-16x4 y+ 56x3 y" - 36x" y' - 26xy'
+16x4y- 24i'y" -12x"y' +2xy4
32x3 y" - 48x" y' - 24xy4 + 4 y -32x3y" -48x"y3 + 24xy4 _4y5
_ a3b3 +3a2b4 -3ab5 +a3b3 _2a2b4 + ab5
18. x' - 2x4 y" + 2x3 y' - 2x" y4 + 3xy - 2 y' 1_x"_+_x_y_-_2_y" _
_ x6 _x5y +2x4y" x4 -x3y+x"y" -xy' + y4
- x5y +2x3y'
x5y +x4y" _2X3y3
+ x4y" _ x4y"
-2x"y4
- x3y' +2x"y4
- x3y' +3xy5
+ x3 y' + x" y4 -2xy
x"y4 + xy5 -2y' _x"y4 -xy +2y'
23. 5a8-4a7 -8a6+5a5+6a4-2a3+4a2-6a la4-2a2+2
-5a8 +10a6 -10a4 5a4-4a3+2a2-3a
- 4a7 +2a6 +5a5 -4a4 -2a3 +4a7 -8a5 +8a3
+2a6 -3a5 -4a4 +6a3 +4a2 -2a6 +4a4 -4a2
-3a5 3a5
+6a3 -6a3
-6a +6a
+x2 -3x+6 1 x3-2x2+3x+6 X4_X3+K-X+1
24. x' - 3x6 + 6x5
-x' +2x6-3x5-6x4
_ x6+3x5_6x4
+X6 -2x5 +3x4 +6x'
x5 -3x4 +6x' + K
_x5 +2x4 -3x' -6K -3x
- x4 +3x'-5K-3x +x4 -2x'+3K+6x+6 x'-2K +3x+6 -x'+2K -3x-6
29. 3a9 -15a' +14a6 -28a4 +47a3 -28a2 +23a-10 13a5 -6a3 +2a2 -3a+2
-3a9 + 6a' - 2a6 +3a5 - 2a4 a4 -3a2 +4a-5
-9a' +12a6 + 3a5 -30a4 +47a3 -28a2
+ 9a' -18a5 + 6a4 - 9a3 + 6a2
+12a6-15a5 -24a4+38a3-22a2+23a -1 2a6 + 24a4 - 8a3 + 12a2 - 8a
-15a5 +15a5
25. 3a6+5a5-9a4-10a3+8a2+3a-413a3+2a2-5a-4
-3a6 -2a5 +5a4 + 4a3 a3 +a2 -2a+1
+3a5 -4a4 - 6a3 +8a2 -3a5 -2a4 + 5a3 +4a2
-6a4 - a3 +12a2 +3a +6a4 +4a3 -1 Oa2 -8a
3a3 +2a2 -5a-4 -3a3- 2a2+5a+4
+30a3 -10a2 +15a-10 -30a3 +1 Oa2 -15a+1 O
30. a2 -ti' +2bc-c2 1 a+b-c
-a2-ab +ac a-b+c
-ab-b2+ac+2bc +ab+b2 - bc
ac+ bc-c2 -ac- bc+¿
51' -3y' -111' +111' -17y4 -31' -41' -2y 15y4 -31' +41' +2y
_5y8+3y'_ 41'- 21' l-3y"-1
-151' + 9y5 -17y4 -31'
+15y6 _9y5 +12y4 +61'
- 5y4 +3y3 -41' -2y + 5y4 -31' +41' +2y
31. -2x2 +5xy- xz-3r - yz+1 oz21 2x-3y+5z
+2x2 -3xy+5xz -x+ y+2z
2xy+4xz-3y2 - yz
-2xy +3y2_5yz
4xz -6yz+10z"
-4xz +6yz-10z2
26.
27. _m' +5m6n-14m5n' +20m4n3 -13m3n4 -9wrr +20mn6 -4n'l-m3 +3wn-5mn' +n3
+m' -3m6n + 5m5n' - m4rf m4 -2nfn+3wn' -4n4
2nfn- 9m5n'+19m4n3-13m3n4
-2m6n+ 6m5n'-10m4n3+2m3d
-3m5n' + 9m4n3 -11m3n4- 9wn5 +3m5n'- 9m4n3 +15m3n4- 3wn5
4m3n4 -12wrr +20mn6 -4n' -4nfn4 +12wn5 -20mn6 +4n'
28. x" -5x9y" +8x' y4 -6x5y" -5x3y" +3xy'° 1 x5 -2x3y" +3xy4
-x" +2x9y" -3x' y4 x6 -3x4y" _Ky4 + y"
-3x9y" +5x' y4 _6X5y6
+3x9y" -6x' y4 +9X5y6
_ x' y4 + 3X5y6 -5x'y" + x' y4 - 2X5y6 +3x'y"
+ x5 y" - 2x' y" + 3xy'° - x5 y" + 2x' y" - 3xy'°
32. x3 + y" -3xyz+z'
-x'+X2Y+KZ -xy"+ xyz -xr
1 2
X xy
2 j2+2
2 X2+j
x+ y+z
X2Y+KZ+ y" -xl' -2xyz+z' -xr
-KY - y" + xl' +xyz + y"z- yr
KZ -xyz+z'-xr+y"z-yr
-KZ +xyz-z'+xr-y"z+yr
33. a5
_a5 -a4b
+b51 a+b
a4 _a3b+a2¡j' -ab3 +b4
ab4 +b5 -ab4 _b5
+ y15 I x"+ y'
X'2 _ x9 y' + x6 y" _ x" y" + y'2
37. x15
34.
21x5
-21x5 +21x4y
21x4y
-21x4y+21x3y'
21x3y'
-21x3y' + 21x"y'
21x"y' -21x"y' + 21xy4
-21y"
3x-3v
7x4 + 7x3y+ 7x"y' + 7xy' + 7l
x"y'2+y15 _x"y'2 _ y15
38. x" + 3x"y+3xy' + y'-1
-x3-2x"y- xy' -x"-xy-x
x"y+2xy' + y' -1-x" -xy-x
-x"y-2xy'-y' -xy
I x"+2xy+x+y+y'+1 x+y-1
-y'-y
21xy4 _21y5 -21xy4 + 21y5
-1-x"-2xy- x-y'-y +1+x" +2xy+ x+ y' + y
35.
16x8
-16x8 _16x6y2
-16x6y"
+16x6y"+ 16x4l 16x4y4
_16x4y4 -16x2l
-16y" I 2x2+2y2
8x6 _8X4y2 +8X2y4 -8l
_16x2y6 -16y8 +16x2l+16y8
39. x5 +y51 x4-x"y+x"y'-Xy'+y4
_x5 +x4y-x"y' + x"y' _xy4 x+ y
x4y-x"y' + x"y' _xy4 + y5 -x4y+x"y' - x"y' +xy4 - y"
36. X'O
-x'o +x"y'
x8y' _x"y'+X6y4
_y'O I x"-y"
x" +x6y' +X4y4 +x"y6 + y'
EJERCICIO 56
X6y4
_X6y4 +x4y"
x4y" _X4y6+x"y"
x2y"_y'0 _x"y"+y'0
1. aX+3
_aX+3 _aX+2
+ a' _1 _a_+_1 _
2. - Xn+5 + ,XJ+4 + 3xn+3 + Xn+2 _1 _x!_+_X _
+ Xn+5 + ,XJ+4 _ Xn+3 + 2xn+2 + xn+1
8. _ni'+3+2ni'+2+2ni'+1 -4ni'-ni'-1+ni'-2 l_nf-'+m'-2+nf-3
+ 2xn+4 + 3xn+3 _ 2xn+4 _ 2xn+3
m8+4 _1773+3 _21773+2 +m8+1
+ rrf8+2 + rrf8+1 _ 4rrf8 _rrf8+2 +rrf8+1 + rrf8
2ni'+1 -3ni' _ni'-1 -2ni'+1 + 2ni' +2ni'-1
3. m'+4 - nf+3 +6nf+1 -5m' +3nf-1 I ni -2m+3
_ ,.,f1+4 + 2nf+3 _ 3nf+2 m8+2 + nf+1 _ m8 + nf-1
ni' +ni'-1 +ni'-2 + ni' _ni'-1 _ni'-2
m8+3 -3nf+2 +6m8+1 _m8+3 +2nf+2 _3m8+1
9.
X28-2 + x28-3 _ 4x28-4 _ lf8-2 + lf8-3 + lf8-4
_ x28-7 I X8-1 _ X8-2 _ X8-3
X8-1 + 2lf8-2 _ X8-3 + X8-4
_m8+2 +3nf+1- 5nf +m8+2 _2m8+1 + 3nf
m8+1 -2m8 + 3nf-1 _m'+1 +2nf - 3nf-1
+ 2x28-3 _ 3X28-4
- 2x!'-3 + 2x!'-4 + 2x!'-5
_ x!'-4 + 2x!'-5
+ x28-4 _ x28-5 _ x28-6
4.
+ x28-5 _ X28-6 _ x28-7
_ X28-5 + X28-6 + x28-7
3a2n+2 + a2n+1 _ 3a2n+2 _ 3a2n+1
_ a2n-2b5 + a2n-3b6 _2a2n-4b7 +a2n-5b8 + a2n-2b5 _a2n-3b6 +2a2n-4b7 _a2n-5b8
5. X28+5 + 2x28+4 _ 3x28+3 _ 4X28+2 + 2x28+1 I X8+3 - 2X8+1
_x28+5 +2x28+3 X8+2 + 2X8+1_X8
_ 2a2n+1 _ 2a2n 2a2M1 + 2a2n
10. a2nb3_a2n-1b4+ a2n-2b5 _ 2a2n-4b7 +a2n-5b81 anb_an-1tf+2an-2b3_an-3b4
_a2nb3+a2n-1b4_2a2n-2b5+a2n-3b6 anb2_ an-2b4
+ 2x28+4 _ X28+3
_2x28+4 + 4x28+2
11. am+x +ambx +aXbm +bm+x I aX +bX
_am+X_ambx am+bm
_x28+3 +x28+3
2aX+1 _ 5aX + BaX-1 - 2aX+1 +4aX _6aX-1
12. aX - aX-1b+ bn _ abn-1
_ax+ax-1b
a-b
_ aX + 2aX-1 _ 3aX-2 + aX _ 2aX-1 + 3aX-2
bn_abn-1 _bn+abn-1
3a2X-1 _ 5a2X-2 + 5a2X-3 _ 3a2X-1 + 3a2X-2 _ 3a2X-3
13. 3a5m-3 _23a5m-2 + 5a5m-1 +46a5m _30a5m+1 I a3m-3 _Ba3m-2 +6a3m-1
_ 3a5m-3 + 24a5m-2 -1 Ba5m-1 3a2m + a2m+ 1 _ 5a2m+2
_ 2a2X-2 + 2a2X-3 _ 2a2X-4 + 2a2X-2 _ 2a2X-3 + 2a2X-4
+ a5m-2 _13a5m-1 + 46a5m a5m-2 + Ba5m-1 _ 6a5m
5a5m-1 + 40a5m _ 30a5m+1 5a5m-1 _ 40a5m + 30a5m+ 1
14. 2;('a+1y"x-3 _4x3ay2X-2 _28x3a-2y"X +30X3a-3y2x+1 1_x"+2yX-1 +4x"+\X _3x"yx+
1
_2x3a+1y2X-3 +8;('ay"x-2 _ 6;('a-1y"x-1 _2x"a-1yx-2 _4x"a-2yx-1_1 Ox"a-3yx
+ 4x3ay"X-2 _ 6;('a-1y"x-1 _28x3a-2y"X
_ 4x3ay2X-2 + 16;('a-1y"x-1 _12x3a-2 y"x
1 Ox3a-1y"x-1_40x3a-2y2X +30;('a-3y"x+1 -1 OX3a-1y2X-1 +40X3a-2y"X _30;('a-3y"X+
1
EJERCICIO 57
1. 2a2+~ab-2b2
6 36 6
_2a2_ 2ab
6 4
- 2ab_2b2 9 6
2ab+2b2 9 6
2a+2b 3 2
2a_2b 2 3
1 7 1
2. -x"+-xy--y"
3 10 3
1 2
--x"+-xy
3 15
~xy_2y" 6 3
5 1
--xy+-y"
6 3
3.
..!.x' - 35 x"y+~Xy" -~ Y'
3 36 3 8
_..!.x' + ~x"y - ..!.Xy"
3 9 6
- ~x"y+ ..!.xy2_~Y'
4 2 8
~x"y - ..!.Xy" +~ Y'
4 2 8
112 1 1 2 -r--xy+-y 234
2 3
"3x-"2Y
4. ....!...a3 -~a2b+~ab2 _b31 .2.a-~b
16 8 3 4 2
------
_....!...a3 +~a2b .2.a2 -ab+3..b2
16 8 4 3
_.2.a2b+ ~ab2
4 3
.2.a2b - ~ab2
4 2
2ab2_b3 6
_2ab2+b3
6
5.
~m4 +..2.-m3n_2!...dn2 +!....mn3 _n4
5 10 60 6
_~m4 + ~m'n - ~m2n"
5 5 5
..!.m3n- 65 m2n" +!....mn3
2 60 6
-..!.m3n+ ..!.m2n2 _ ~mn3 233
- ~m2n2 + ..!.mn' _n4
4 2
~m2n2 _ ..!.mn' +n4
4 2
6. ~X5+..!.X4_ 37 X3+~X2+~X_~
4 2 40 3 30 5
_~X5 + ..!.x3 _~X2
4 8 4
"!'x4 -~x' _..2.-x" +~x
2 5 12 30
- "!'x4 +..2.-x" - ..!.x
2 12 2
_~X3 +~x-~
5 15 5
~X3 -~x+~
5 15 5
7.
~a4 a'X_..2.-a2x2 +~ax3 _"!'x4 j
4 12 18 3
_~a4 +~a'X- a2x2
4 2
..!.a'x-~a2x2 +~ax3
2 12 18
-"!'a3x+ "!'a2x2_ ~ax3 239
_ ~a2x2 +..!.ax3 _"!'x4
4 2 3
~a2x2 -"!'ax3 +..!.x4
4 2 3
~m2-mn+2n2 2
2 2 1 1 2 -m +-mn--n 532
2x3 -..!.x+2
3
~x"+..!.x-~ 8 4 5
3 2 2 2 -a -ax+-x
2 3
3 2 1 1 2
-a +-ax--x
2 3 2
8.
1 5 101 4 139 3,2 1 2,.3 5 412 3 1 2 1 2
-:¡¡X - 420 x y+ 280 x y -2"x y +j2xy ¡x -S-x Y+2"xy
_...2...X5 + ...2...X4y_ .2.X3Jl .2.X2 -~xy+~ Jl
14 20 8 4 3 6
_ ~x4y+ Ex3Jl _.2.x2y3
21 35 2
+ ~x4y_ ~x3Jl +.2.x2y3
21 15 3
9.
~x5+.3..!.x4_~x3+~x2+...2...x_...2...1
8 40 120 120 10 10
35143332
--x --x + -x --x
8 2 8 4
1 3 1 2 1 1 -x +-x --x+-
4 3 4 2
3 2 1 1
-x +-x--x
2 10 5
...2...x4 _ ...2...x3 _"'!'!"'x2 +...2... x
40 60 120 10
_...2...x4 _ ...2...x3 + ...2...x2 _...2... x
40 30 40 20
_ ...2...x3 _ ...2...x2 +...2...x-...2...
20 15 20 10 ...2...x3+...2...x2 _...2...x+...2...
20 15 20 10
10.
.2.nf -~m4n+ 99 m3n2 -~m2n' +!...mn4 _~n51 ~m' _.2.m2n+~mn2 _.2. n'
2 6 40 60 6 8 4 2 5 4
_.2.nf +.2.m4n-~m'n" + .2.dn3 ~m2 -~mn+~n2
2 3 15 6 3 3 2
_.2.m4n+~m'n2 _!!.2.m2n' +!...mn4
2 24 60 6
.2.m4n_ .2.m'n2 +~m2n3 _.2.mn4
2 3 15 6
~m'n" - ~m2n3 +
8 4
-~m3n" +~dn3 -
8 4
mn4 -~n' 8
mn4+~n' 8
EJERCICIO 58
1 . .0-.0+x"-X7K-x"+X 1-1+0+1-1 11-1+1
-1+1-1 1+0-1
-1+1-1 +1-1+1
=}x"-1
3. a6 +a5b-7a4b2 +12a3~ -13a2b4 + 7ab5 _b6 +a2 -2ab+b2
1+1-7+12-13+7-1 1._1_-_2_+_1 _
-1+2-1 1+3-2+5-1
3-11+10-13 -3+ 6- O +21
- 5+10 +8+19
+ 5-10 +0-35
8-16+0-56 -8+16-0+56
3-8+12 -3+6- 3
-2+ 9-13
2- 4+ 2 5-11 +7 -5+10-5
- 1 +2-1
+ 1 -2+ 1
2. x7 + Jt -11.0 +3.0 -13K +19x2 -567 K -2x2 - 7 1+1-11+ 3-13+19+0-56 I 1-2+0-7
-1+2-0 + 7 1+3-5+0+8
4. nf -5nTn+2m4rf +20nfrf -19rrtd -10mns _n6 7nf -4mrt-rf 1-5+2+20-19-10-1 1 1+0
-4-1
-1-0+4+ 1 1-5+6+1
-5+6+21-19 5+0-20-5
6+ 1 -24-10 -6- O +24+ 6
1 +0 - 4-1 -1 -o + 4+1
=} nf-5rrtn+6mrt+rf
8. rri'B -12rri'4 +53ni" -127m'6 +187m'2 -192mB +87m4 -45+m'2 -7mB +9m4 -15 1-12
+53-127+187-192+87-45 1 1-7+9-15
-1+ 7 - 9 + 15 1-5+9-4+3
-8-45+58 +8+48-40
3 +18-15 -3 -18+15
- 5+44-112+187 + 5-35+ 45 -75
9 - 67 + 112 -192 -9 + 63- 81 +135
- 4 + 31 -57 +87
+ 4 - 28 +36 -60
5. x" -2x6 -50x4 +58x" -157X4 +6x"-5
1-2-50+58-15 1 1+6-5
-1-6+ 5 1-8+3
3 -21 +27-45 -3 +21 -27+45
6. a14 - 7a12 +9a10 +23a8 _ 52a6 +42a4 - 20a2 + a8 - 4a6 +3a4 - 2a2 1-7+9 +23-52
+42-20 11-4+3-2
-1+4-3 + 2 1-3-6+10
-3+6 +25-52 3-12+9-6
- 6 +34-58+42
+ 6 -24+18-12 10-40+30-20 -10+40-30+20
9. 2x7 -6x6y-8xsy"-20X4y'-24x'l-18x2Y-4y7 +2x2+4y" 2-6-8-20-24-18 +0-4 I 2+0 +4
-2-0-4 1-3-6-4+0-1
- 6-12-20 =} x" -3x4y- 6x"y" -4x"y" - Y' 6+ O +12
-12- 8-24
+12+ 0+24
- 8+ 0-18 + 8+ 0+16
- 2+0-4 2+0+4
7. 3x15 - 20Xl2 + 51x9 -70x6 +46x3 - 207 3x6 - 8x3 + 10 3-20+51-70+46-20 I 3-8+1
0
-3+ 8 -10 1-4+3-2
-12+41-70 12-32+40 9-30+46
- 9+ 24-30
- 6 +16-20
6 -16+20
=} x9 -4x6 +3x3-2
10. 6a9 -12a7 +2a6 -36a5 +6a4 -16a3 +38a2 -44a+14+a4 -2a2 +a-7 6+0-12+2-36+6-16+
38-44+14 11+0-2+1-7
-6-0+12-6+42 6+0+0-4+6-2
-4+ 6+6-16+38 +4+ 0-8+ 4 -28 6-2-12+10-44 -6-0+12- 6 +42
-2+ 0+4- 2+14
+2-0-4+2-14
=}6as -4a2 +6a-2
11. dO -6n8 + 5d +13n6 -23rf -8n4 +44n3 -12n2 -32n +16-'en6 -3n4 +5n3 -8n +4 1+0
-6+5+13-23-8+44-12-32+16 I 1+0-3+5+0-8+4
-1-0+3-5- O + 8 -4 1+0-3+0+4
-3+0+13-15 -12+44-12
+3+0- 9 +15 + 0-24+12 12.
4 + O -12 +20+ 0-36+16
-4 + O +12 -20- 0+36-16
3x7 - 4x6y-15x5y" + 29x4y" _13x3y4 +5xy6 - 3y7 + x' - 5xy" +3y" 3-4-15+29-13+0+5
- 3 1 1+0-5+3
-3-0+15- 9 3-4+0+0-1
-4+ O +20-13
+4+ O -20+12
-1+0+5-3 1-0-5+3
=} 3x4 _4x3y_ y4
13. X16 _4X14y" -1 ox12y4 +21x10y" + 28x"y" -23x"y1° +9~y12 + 33x"y14 _6y16 -'ex"
-4~y" -5x"y4 + y" 1-4-10+21+28-23+9+33-6 1 1-4-5+1
-1+4+ 5 -1 1+0-5+0+3-6
- 5+20+28-23 =} x10 -5x"y4 +3x"y" -6y1° + 5-20-25+ 5
3-18+ 9+33 -3+12+15-3
- 6+24+30-6
+ 6-24-30+6
14. am+2 - 3am+1 - 5am + 20am-1 - 25am-3 -;- a2 - 5
1 - 3-5+20+0-25 11+0-5
-1-0+ 5 1-3+0+5
- 3+0+20 =}am_3am-1+5am-3 + 3+0-15
+ 5+0-25 - 5-0+25
7 -35+6-78-5-42-7 -7- 0-6- 1
7+0+6+1 1-5+0-7
-35+0-79-5 +35+0+30+5 -49+0-42-7 49-0+42+ 7
16. 6x"a+3 _4x"a+2 -28x"a+1 +21x"a -46x"a-1 + 19x"a-2 -12x"a- 3 - 6x"a-4 -'e 6xa
+1 -4xa +2xa-1 + xa- 2 6-4-28+21-46+19-12-6 I 6-4+2+1
-6+4- 2 -1 1+0-5+0-6
-30+20-46+19 +30-20+10+ 5
-36+24-12-6
36-24+12+6
17. 6a5x+3 _23a5x+2 + 12a5x+1_34a5x +22a5x-1 _15a5x-2 -'e a2x+2 _3a2x+1_ a2x _5a
2x-1 6-23+12-34+22-15 11-3-1-5
-6+18+ 6 +30 6-5+3
- 5 +18- 4+22 + 5 -15- 5-25
3- 9- 3 -15 -3+ 9+ 3 +15
EJERCICIO 59
~
2 a++a3
+2
-20a3b +20a3b
+7ab3
5. x"+7x+10 IX+6
-x2-6x 4
x+1+--
x+6
x+10
-x- 6
+4
6. x" -5x+ 7 x-4
-x2+4x X_1+_3_
x-4
-x+7
x-4
+3
7. m4-11m2+34 I m2-3
- m4+3m" m"-S+~
m2-3
- Sm2+34
Sm2-24
+10
8. x" -6xy+ y2 lX+y
-x" - xy sy2
x-7y+--
x+y
-7xy+y2
+7xy+7y2
+sy2
10. x3
-K+ x"y
x"y -x2y+xy2 xy2+y -xy2+y
2y
11. x5
_x4+ x4y
3. 9K + 6x" + 7 1_3_x" _
7
3x + 2+ 3x"
-9x3
+7
9. K-x"+3x+2 -K+x"-X
I x2-x+1 2x+2 x+x"-x+1
+2x+2
+ y ~I x_-_y _
x"+xy+y2+ 2y x-y
+ y5 I_x_-_y _
2 5 X4 + x"y + x"y" + Xy3 + y4 +--..L.-
x-y
x4y
_X4Y+X3y"
X3 y" -X"y"+x"y" x"y"
- x"y" + Xy4 +Xy4+y _Xy4+y
12. x3+4x2-5x+8
_x3 +2x2-x
6x2 -6x +8 - 6x2 + 12x- 6 6x+ 2
~2-2x+l
6x+2 x+6+x--2x+l
13. 88'- 6a2b+5ab2 -9b31_2_a-_3_b 14. r-3x4 +9x2 +7x-4 1~x"_-3_X_+_2 _
-88' +12a2b 4a2 +3ab+ 7b2 +_1_2_b3_ -r +3x4 -2x' x' -2x+3+ 20x-10
---- 2a-3b ---- x"-3x+2
6a2b+5ab2 -6a2b+9ab2 14ab2 -9b3 -14ab2+21b3 12b3
-2x'+ 9x"+7x + 2x' -6x" +4x
3x2+11x-4 -3x" + 9x- 6 20x -10
EJERCICIO 60
Para los problemas dell al9las literales toman los siguentes valores: a=-l b=-2
c=-l/2
1.a'-2ab+b' 2.3a3-4a'b+3ab'-b3
3. a4 - 3a3 + 2ae- 3be
=(-1)' -2(-1).2+2' =3(-1)' -4(-1)' .2+3(-1)2'-23
= 1+ 2·2+4= 1+4+4 = 9 = - 3-4·2- 3·4- 8= - 3- 8-12- 8= - 31
=(-1)" -3(-1)' +2 (-1)( -~)-3'2( -~)
1 1
= 1 + 3+ 2·-+ 6· -= 1+ 3+ 1+ 3= 8 2 2
4. aS - 8a4e+ 16a3e2 - 20a2e3 +40ae4 _ eS
=(-1)' -8(-1)'( -±)+16 (-1)'( -±r -20(-1)'( -±r +40(-1)( -±r -( -±r
1 1 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 - 32 + 1 31
= -1+8·--16·-+20·--40·-+-=-1+4-4+---+-=-1+-=--=--
2 4 8 16 32 2 2 32 32 32 32
5. (a-b)' + (b-e)' -(a-e)'
=(-1-2)' +[2-( -±)r -[-1-( -±)r
[ 1]2 [ 1]2 (5)2 ( 1)2
=(-3)' + 2+2 - -1+2 =9+ 2 - -2
25 1 24
=9+---=9+-=9+6=15
4 4 4
7abaebe
. -+---
e b a
-1.2 -1(-~) 2(-~) 2 ~ 2
= -1-+ --2--- ----1-= T+"2-"2
- -
2 2
1 1 12+ 1 13 1
=4+4-1=3+4= -4-=4=34
6. (b+a)' -(b-c)' -(a-e)'
=[2+(-1)]' -[2-( -±)]' -[-1-( -±)]'
=[2-1]' -[ 2+±r -[ -l+±r =13-[%r -[ -±r
-1- 125 +.!.-1- 124 -1-~- 2-31 __ 29 --14.1
- 8 8- 8 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2
8. (a+b+e)' -(a-b-e)' +e
=[ -1+2+( -±)r -[-1-2-( -±)r +( -±)
[ 1] 2 [ 1] 2 1 [ 1] 2 [ 5] 2 1
= 1-2 - -3+2 -2= 2 - -2 -2
1 25 1 1- 25- 2 26 ? 1
= 4- 4- 2= --4-= - 4= - 6.= - 62
9.3(2a+b)-4a(b+e)-2e(a-b)
= 3[2(-1)+ 2]-4(-1)[ 2+ ( -±)] - 2( -±) (-1- 2) = 3[- 2+ 2]+4[ 2-±] + ~(- 3)= 3'0+4[~]
-% = 6- 3= 3
Para los problemas 10 al 16 las literales toman los siguientes valores: a = 2 b
= 1/3 x = - 2 Y = - 1 m= 3 n = 1/2
x4 x2y 3xy"
10. + y'
8 2 2
= (-2)" _ (-2)"(-1) + 3(-2)(-1)" (-1)'
822
16 -4 -6 =----+--+1=2+2-3+1=2
8 2 2
11.(a-x)' +(x-y)' +(x2_ y')(m+x-n)
=[2-(-2)]' +[-2 -(-1)]' +[(-2)' -(-1)'][3+(-2)-~]
=[2+2]' +[-2+1]' +[4-1][3-2-~]=[4]'+[-1]' +3[1-~]
[1] 3 34+3 37 1
=16+1+32=17+2=-2-=2=18,
12. -(x- y)+(x'+ y')(x- y-m)+3b(x+ y+n)
= - [- 2- (-1)]+ [(- 2)' + (-1)'][- 2- (-1)- 3]+3·M - 2+ (-1)+ ~]= - [- 2+ 1]+ [4+
1][-5+ 1]+ [ - 2-1 +~]
[ 1] [ 5] 5 38+5 43 1
=1+5[-4]+ -3+- =1-20+ -- =-19--=---=--=-21,
2 2 2 2 2 -
4x x3 ( 1 1) 4
14.----3 + --- x+x -m
3y 2+ Y n b
( )( ) 2 2 x- y
13. 3x-2y 2n-4m +4x y --2-
[ ( ( J[ 1 ] ( 2( 2 (-2)-(-1)
= 3 -2)- 2 -1) 2'2-4.3 +4 -2) -1) - 2
=[-6+2][1-12]+4'4.1- -2+1 =-4 [-11]+16-.=2
2 2
1 1 1
=44+ 16+2= 60+2= 60,
4(-2) (-2)' [1 1:( ) ( )4 =-( -)--(-)3+ 1-1 -2 + -2 -3
3 -1 2+ -1 __
2 3
=~_2+ (2- 3)(- 2)+ 16- 3=~+ 8+ (-1)(- 2)+ 13
-3 2-1 3
8 8 8+ 69 77 2
='3+21+2 ='3+23=-3-=]= 25"3
15. x2(x- y+m)-(x- y)(x2+ l-n)+(x+ y)2(m2_2n)
=(-2)'[-2-(-1)+3]-[-2-(-1)][(-2)' +(-1)' -~]+[-2+(-1)]'( 32-2'~)
=4[1 + 1]- [- 2 + 1][ 4+ 1-~] + [- 2-1]'(9-1)= 4· 2- [-1][ 5-~] + [- 3]' (8) = 8+
~+ 9.8= 80+ ~= 16~+ 9 = 1~9 = 84+
1
16 3a 2 y 3n m (3 2 ) 3·2 2 (- 1) 3· 2 3 [( )3 ( )2] 2 3 [ ]
'-+-+---+2 x - y +4 =--+--+---+2 -2 - -1 +4 =-3-----6+2 -8-1+4
x m y n -2 3 -1 ~ 3 2
2
4+ 9 13 13 114+ 13 127 1
= - 9--6-+ 2[-5]= - 9-6-10= -19-6= --6-= -6=- 21'6
EJERCICIO 61
1. 7 am 8am 9am lOam
5.
3. x2_3xy x2
3xy-y' _x2+y'
x2 -y' y' Rta
4. 3x2 -5x+6 -3x2+8x-6 Rta
3 2a2 -3a+8
2a2-3a+5 2a2-3a+8
8a+5
2a2 + 5a + 13 Rta
6. -3x2-{-[4x2+5x-(x2-(x+6))]} = -3x2 -{ -[4x2 +5x-(x2 - x-6)]}
= - 3x2 - { - [4 x2 + 5x - x2 + x + 6 ]}
= -3x2 -{- 3x2 -6x-6}=-3x2 +3x2 +6x+6=6x+6
3x
7. (x+ y )(x- y)- (x+ y)' =x'-xy+xy- /-(x+ y)(x+ y)
, '(' ')
=x--y-- x-+2xy+y-
.2.a3 4
_.2.a3 _.2.a2b
4 6
-.2.a2b--.2..-ab2 6 90 .2.a2b+ .2.ab2
6 9
12.
_-.2..-ab2+....!...b3
90 15
= x' - / - x' - 2xy - / =-2xy-2/
8. a=2 b=3 c= 1
3(a+b)-4(c- b)+ t--:
=3(2+3)-4(1-3)+ f8 V-=2
=3.5-4(-2)+ El
V=2
= 15+ 8+.Ji = 23+ 1= 24
....!...ab2+....!...b3
10 15
_ ....!...ab2_....!...b3
10 15
13. -3ab2 - b3
2a2b+3ab2 - b3
9. 3x2 _5y2
-x2+3xy- / 2x2 + 3xy - 6/
2x2 +5xy+ 6y2 -x2-5xy
2a2b
-2b3
x2
+6/
2x2 + 3xy- 6/
x2 + 6/
3x2 +3xy Rta
a3 -3a2b+3b3 a2-ab+b2
a5 -3a4b +3a2b3
- a4b+3a3b2
+ a3b2 _3a2b3
2 2 1 1 2
10 -a --ab+-b
. 3 2 5
.2.a2 +~ab-2b2 2 4
.2.a4 _.2.a3b+....!...a2b2
3 4 10
+.2.a3b _ ~a2b2 +~ab3
2 a 20
_ ~a2b2+ ab3 _3..b4
3 5
.2.a4 +.2.a3b_~a2b2 + 23 ab3 _ 3..b4
3 4 120 20 5
.2.a+.2.b 2 3
.2.a2 -.2.ab+.2.b2
2 3 5
.2.a2 + ab +.2.b2
2 5
_.2.a2 +.2. ab-.2.b2
2 3 5
3+1 ab=~ab
3 3
a3 _ a2b+ b3 -2a2b+2b3 a3 -3a2b+3b3
-3ab4
+3b5
-3ab4+3b5
15. (2+ x)' (1 + x2)_ (x2 - 2)(x2 + x- 3)= x2 (3x+ 10)+ 2(3x-1)
(4+ 4x+ x2) (1 + x2)_ (x" + x3 - 5x2 - 2x+ 6)= 3x3 + lOx2 + 6x- 2
4+ 5x2 + 4x+ 4x3 - x3 + 5x2 + 2x- 6 = 3x3 + lOx2 + 6x- 2
3x3 + lOx2 + 6x- 2= 3x3 + lOx2 + 6x- 2
14. x' - 5x2+4x
- 6x"-6x+3
- ax"+ax-3
x'-19x"+6x
x' +3x2 - x + 12 _x3+ x" -3x
4x"-4x+12 -4x"+4x-12
11.
x5 _ x3 +5x2
-2x4 +2x2-10x
+6x3 - 6x+30
x5 -2x4 +5x3 + 7x2 -16x+30 Ix2 -2x+6
_x5+2x4_6x3 x3-x+5
- x3 +7x2-16x + x3 _2x2+ 6x
5x2-10x+30 -5x2+10x-30
2x' -16x2 +5x+ 12 _x3 + 19x" -6x
x' + 3x2 - x + 12
I x2-x+3 x+4
16. x=-2 y=1
(x+ y)'(x- y)' +2(x+ y)(x- y)
= (- 2+ 1)' (- 2-1)' + 2(- 2+ 1)(- 2-1) = (-1)' (- 3)' + 2(-1)(- 3)
=1·9+2·3=9+6=15
17. x"+2x+8
x+4
x2+4x+6
x-6 4x"-8x-3 Rta
x"+4x+6
5x" -4x+3
18. -{3a+(-b+a)-2(a+b)} =- {3a-b+ a- 2a- 2b}
=- {2a-3b}
=- 2a+ 3b
-4b
2a- 3b 2a-7b Rta
19. 5x+[-(3x-(x- y))] =5x+[-(3x-x+y)] =5x+ [- 2x- y ] =5x-2x- Y
=3x- y
-2[(a+b)-(a-b)] =-2[a+b-a+b]
=-2[2b] 23. x"
=-4b -x"+x2y
x"y -x"y+xr
xr -xr+y"
8x+[-2x+(-x+ y)] =8x+[-2x-x+ y]
=8x-3x+ Y =5x+ Y
5x+ Y 3x- Y
15x' + 3xy
- 5xy- y'
15x' - 2xy- y'
20131,5,13 . ¡X + 24 X y+ 12 xy +"3Y
1 3 1, 1,
- ¡X + "8 X Y - "2 xy
1, 1 , 1 3 "6X y- 12 xy +"3Y
1, 1 , 1 3
-"6X Y+12XY -"3Y
2x+[-5x-(x- y)]
=2x+[-5x-x+y]
=2x+[-6x+y]
=2x-6x+y =-4x+y
21. [x2-(3x+2)][x2+(-x+3)] =X2(x2-4x+4)-(7x+6)
[x2 _ 3x-2 ][x2 - x+ 3] = x4 -4x3 +4x2 -7x- 6
x4 - x3 + 3x2 - 3x3 + 3x2 - 9x- 2x2 + 2x- 6 = x4 -4x3 +4x2 -7x- 6 x4 -4x3 +4x2 -
7x- 6= x4 -4x3 + 4x2 -7x- 6
22. [x(x+y)-x(x-y)]
= x2 + xy _ x2 + xy = 2xy
=2x2 +2/ - 3x2 +3/ =-x2+5/
2xy _2x3y+lOxy3
_ 2x3y+lOxy3 4x3y- 7xy3
2x3y + 3x/
Rta
-y"lx-y
x" +xy+ r
x" +3xy- r x2+ xy +y2
x4 +3x"y-x"r
+ x"y +3x"r - xy"
+ x"r +3xy" -l x4+4x"Y+3x"r+2xy"-l Rta
24. (x - y)(x2+xy+ l)-(x+ y)(x2_xy+ l)
=x3 + x2y+ xy2 _ x2y_ xy2 _ / _ [x3 _ x2y+ xy2 + x2y_ xy2 + /]
=x3 _ /_[x3+ /]
3 3 3 3
=x-y-x-y
=-2/
Rta
25. a=4 b=9 c=25
~+2(b-a)lj-3(C-b)Jf
fJ'9 ( )';,9 ( )f!5
= -+29-4 --325-9 -
25 42 9
= [36+2.5 {81-3'16'~ =~+1O'~-48'~
'1"25 '116 3 5 4 3
=~+ 45 -80 = 12+225-800 -563 =-56-'-
5 2 10 10 10
1 ,1 , "2x -¡xy+y
1 1
"2x+"3Y
- 4x + y
1 1
- "2x - "3Y
8+ 1 3-1 -2x+-3-y
9 2
-"2x+"3Y Rta
26.
X'+3x"-4x-121 x+3
- X3 -3x" x" -4
-4x-12
?
x" -4
=x-2
+4x+12
x" -4 I x-2
x"+2x x+2 Rta
2x-4
-2x+4
27. 4x2- {3x-(x2-(4+x))}+[x2-{x+(-3)}] =4x2-{3x-(x2-4-x)}+[x2-{x-3}] Si x=-2
=4x2-{3x-x2+4+x }+[x2-x+3] 6x2-5x-l
=4x2-4x+x2-4+x2-x+3 = 6(-2)" -5(-2)-1
=6x2-5x-l = 6(4)+10-1
=24+ 10-1 =33
29. (a2+b2)(a+b)(a-b) =a4-[3a+2(a+2)-4(a+l)-a+b4]
(a2+b2)(a2-ab+ab- b2) =a4-[3a+2a+4-4a-4-a+b4] (a2+b2)(a2_b2) =a4_[b4]
a4_a2b2+a2b2_b4 =a4_b4 a4 _ b4 = a4 _ b4
EJERCICIO 62
1. (m+3)' =m2+6m+9
2. (5+ x)' =25+lOx+x2 3.(6a+b)' =36a2+12ab+b2
4. (9+ 4m)' = 81 + 72m+ 16m2
5. (7x+ll)' =49x2+154x+121
( )2? ?
6. x+y =x-+2xy+y
7. (1+3x2Y =1+6x2+9i 8.(2x+3y)' =4x2+12xy+9/ 9.(ix+blY =a~i+2a2xbl+b2l
EJERCICIO 63
1. (a-3)' =a2-6a+9
2. (x-7)' =x2-14x+49
3. (9-a)' =81-18a+a2
4. (2a- 3b)' = 4a2 -12ab+ 9b2
( )2 ? ?
5. 4ax-l =16a-x--8ax+l
6. (a3_b3Y =a6_2a3b3+b6
7. (3a~ - 5b2 Y = 9a8 - 30a~b2 + 25b~
28. x2 + 7x-5 x2 -9
x4 + 7x3 -5x2
+ 21x Rta
18x3 -14x2 -84x+45 x4+ 7x3-14x2-63x+45
- 9x2 -63x+45 x4 + 7x3 -14x2 -63x+45
30. 3
- [x2 + (- 3x+4)- (- x +3)]
=-[x2-3x+4+x-3] = - [x2 - 2x+ 1]
= - x2 + 2x-l
x3 +5x2-6
x3 +5x2 - 3
x3 +5x2 - 3
x+ 1 - x2 + 2x- 1
----
x3+5x2+x-2 Rta x+l
10. (3a3+8b~Y =9a6+4Sa3b~+64b8
11. (4ms + 5n6Y = 16m10 + 40mSn6 + 25n12
12. (7 a2b3 + 5X~)2 = 49a~b6 + 70a2b3 x~ + 25i
13. (4ab2+5xiY =16a2b~+40ab2xi+25x2l
14. (Siy+9m3Y =64x~l+144iym3+S1m6
15. (xlO+lOy12Y =x2°+20xlOi2+1001~
16. (am+anY =im+2am+n+a2n
17. (ax+bX+lY =a2x +2axbx+l+b2x+2
18. (xa+1 + l-2 y = ia+2 + 2xa+ll-2 + lx-~
8. (x2-1Y=i-2x2+1
9. (xS-3alY =xlO-6axsl+9a2l
10. (a7 _b7Y =al~ -2a7b7 +bl~
11. (2m-3n)' =4m2-12mn+9n2
12. (lOx3 - 9x/Y = lOOx6 -lS0x~/ + slx2io
13. (xm - y" y = x2m - 2xmy" + in
14. (aX-2 - 5Y = a2x-~ _lOax-2 + 25
15. (xa+1 _ 3xa-2 y = X2a+2 _ 6ia-1 + 9x2a-~
EJERCICIO 64
1. (x+ y)(x- y)=x2-l
2. (m-n)(m+n)=m2-n2
3. (a-x)(x+a)=a2-x2
4. (ita2)(i-a2)=i-a~
5. (Za-1)(1+Za)=4a2-1
EJERCICIO 65
6. (n-1)(n+ 1)= n2-1
7. (1-3ax)(3ax+ 1)= 1-9a2x2
8. (Zm+9)(Zm-9)= 4m2-81
9. (a3-b2)(a3tb2)=a6-b~
1o·(l-3y)(lt3y)= / -9l
1. (x+ y+ z)(x+ y- z)= x2 + Zxy+ l- z'
2. (x- y+ z)(x+ y- z)= x2 -l + Zyz- z'
3. (x+ y+ z)(x- y- z)= x2 -l- Zyz- z'
4. (m+n+1)(m+n-1)=m2+Zmn+n2-1
5. (m-n-1)(m-n+1)=m2+n2-Zmn-1
6. (x+ y-Z)(x- y+z)=x2-l+4y-4
7. (n2t2nt1)(n2-2n-1)=n~-4n2-4n-1
EJERCICIO 66
( )3 3 ,
1. a+Z =a +6a-+1Za+8
( )3 3 ,
2. x-1 =x -3x-+3x-1
( )3 3 ,
3. m+3 =m +9m-+Z7m+Z7
4. (n-4)' =n3 -lZn2+48n-64
EJERCICIO 67
1. (a+1)(a+Z)=a2+3a+Z
2. (x+Z)(x+4)=x2+6x+8
3. (x+S)(x-Z)=x2+3x-1O
4. (m-6)(m-S)=m2-1lm+30
5. (x+7)(x-3)=x2+4x-Z1
6. (x+Z)(x-1)=x2+x-Z
7. (x-3)(x-1)=x2-4x+3
8. (x-S)(x+4)=x2-x-ZO
11. (1- 8xy )(8xy+ 1)= 1- 64x2l
12. (6x2-m2x)(6x2tm2x)= 36i -m~x2
13. (am tba )(am _ba)= a2m _b2a
14. (3xa -5ym)(5ymt3xa)= 9ia -25lm
15. (aX+1 _ 2bx-1 ) (2bx-l t aX+1)= ix+2 _ 4b2x-2
8. (a2-2at3)(a2t2at3)=a~t2a2t9
9. (m2 -m-1)(m2 tm-1)=m~ -3m2 ti
10. (Za-b- c)(Za- b+ c)= 4a2 - 4ab+ b2 - c2
11. (Zx+ y- z)(Zx- y+ z)= 4x2 -l + Zyz- z'
12. (x2 - 5xt 6)(x2 t 5x- 6)= i - 25x2 t 60x- 36
13. (a2-abtb2)(a2tb2tab )=a~ ta2b2tb~
14. (x3 - x2 - x) (x3 t x2 t x) = i - i - 2x3 - x2
( )3 3 ,
5. Zx+1 =8x +lZx-+6x+1
( )3 '3
6. 1-3y =1-9y+Z7y-Z7y
7. (2tlY =8t12lt6/t/
8. (1- Zn)' = 1 - 6n + 1Zn2 - 8n3
9. (a-U)(a+ 10)= a2 - a-UD
10. (n-19)(n+1O)=n2-9n-190
11. (a2t5)(a2-9)=a~ -4a2-45
12. (x2-1)(x2-7)=i-8x2t7
13. (n2 -1)(n2 t 20)=n~ t 19n2 - 20
14. (n3 t 3)(n3 - 6)= n6 - 3n3 -18
15. (x3t7)(x3-6)=itx3-42
16. (a~ t 8)(a~ -1)= a8 t 7a~ - 8
9. (4n+3)' =64n3+ 144n2+ 108n+Z7 10. (a2-2bY =a6-6a~bt12a2b2-8b3
11 ( )3 3 , , 3 . Zx+3y =8x +36x-y+S4;ry-+Z7y
12. (1-a2Y =1-3a2t3a~ _a6
17. (a5 - 2)(a5 t 7)= a10 t5a5 -14
18. (a6t 7)(a6-9)=a12-2a6-63
19. (ab+ S)(ab- 6)= a2b2 - ab- 30
20. (xl-9)(xl t 12)=x2y~ t3xl-108
21. (a2b2 -1)(a2b2 t 7)= a~b~ t 6a2b2 - 7
22. (xJi - ó)(xJi +8)=il +2xJi -48
23. (ax-3)(aXt8)=a2Xt5aX-24
24. (aX+1_ó)(aX+1_ S)=a2x+2_11ax+l+30
1. (x+2)' =x2+4x+4
2. (x+2)(x+3)=x2+5x+6
3. (x+ 1)(x-1)= x2-1
4. (x-1)'=x2-2x+1
5. (n+3)(n+5)=n2+Sn+15
6. (m-3)(m+3)=m2-9
7. (a+ b-1)(a+ b+ 1)= a2 + 2ab+ b2-1
8. (1 +b)' =1+3b+3b2+b3
9. (a2+4)(a2-4)=a~-16
10. (3ab-5x2Y = 9a2b2-30abx2+25x~
11. (ab+3)(3-ab)= 9_a2b2
( )2 , ,
12. 1- 4ax = 1- Sax+ 16a- x-
13. (a2+8)(a2-7)= a~+a2-56
14. (x+ y+ l)(x- y-1) = x2 -y'- 2y-1
15. (1-a)(a+1)=1-a2
16. (m-S)(m+12)= m2+4m-96
17. (x2-1)(x2+3)= i+2x2-3
18. (x3+6)(x3-8)= i-2x3-48
19. (5x3 + 6m~ y = 25x6 + 60x3m~ + 36m8
20. (x~-2)(x~+5)= i +3x~-1O
21. (1-a+b)(b-a-1)= -1+a2-2ab+b2
22. (ax + ba )(ax _ ba ) = a2x _ b2a
23. (Xa+1 - 8)(xa+1 + 9) = X2a+2 - xa+1 - 72
24. (a2b2 + C2 )(a2b2 - C2) = a~b~ - C~
25. (2a+x)' = Sa3+12a2x+6ax2+x3
26. (X2 -1l)(x2 - 2)= x~ -13x2 + 22
27. (2a3 - 5b4 Y = 4a6 - 20a3b4 + 25b8
28. (a3 + 12 )(a3 -15)= a6 - 3a3 -180
29. (m2 -m+n)(n+m+m2)=m~ +2nin+n2-ni
30. (i + 7)(i -11)=i -4i-77
31. (ll-ab)' = 121-22ab+a2b2
32. (x2i - 8)(x2i + 6) = il- 2x2i -48
33. (a + b )(a - b )(a2 - b2) = a~ - 2a2b2 + b~
34. (X+ 1)(x-l)(x2 - 2) = i - 3x2 + 2
35. (a+3)(a2+9)(a-3) =a~ -81
36. (X+ 5)(x- 5)(x2 + 1) = X~ - 24x2 - 25
37. (a+1)(a-1)(a+2)(a-2)=ax-5a2+4
38. (a+ 2)(a- 3)(a- 2)(a+ 3) = a4 -13a2 + 36
EJERCICIO 68
EJERCICIO 69 a2X+2 -100 -ax+1+10
a2_4b2 14. ax+1-10
7. ---=a-2b
a+2b 1_9x2m+4 -1_3xm+2
1. x"-1 15.
--=x-1 25-36x4 1 +3xm+2
x+1 8. -5+ 6x"
5-6x" ( )' ,
1-x2 x+y -z-
2. --=1+x 4x" -9nfn4 16. (x+ y)-z x+y+z
1-x 9. -2x-3md
2x+3md l-(a+b)'
x"-}'"
3 --=x-y 36m2 -49n2x4 17. -l-a-b
. x+y 10. 6m-7nx2 -6m+7nx" l+(a+b)
}'"-x" 81a6 -1 00b8 4-(m+n)'
4 --=y+x -9a3 -10b4 18. 2-m-n
. y-x 11. 9a3 + 10b4 2+(m+n)
x"-4 4b6 4x" 10 '( )'
5. --=x-2 a - Y -a2b3+2x4y" x-- x- y
x+2 12. a2b3+2x4y" 19. x+(x- y) -y
9-x4 x2n _ y2n n (a+xY -9
6. 3 -x" = 3+x" 13. x"+y" =x -y" 20. (a+x)+3 a+x-3
EJERCICIO 70
1+ a3 2
1 --=1-a+a
· 1+a
1-a3
2 --=1+a+a2 · 1-a
3 i'+y" =x"-xy+y" · x+y
8a3-1
4 --=4a2+2a+1
· 2a-1
8i'+27y" -4x2-6xy+9y" 5. 2x+3y
27nf-125rfl -9m2+15m+25n2 6. 3m-5n
64a3+343 -16a2-28a+ 49
7. 4a+7
216-125y" -36+30y+25y" 8. 6-5y
1 +a3b3 1 b 2b2
9. 1+ab = - a +a
729-512b3 -81+ 72b+64b2
10. 9-8b
a3i'+b3 -a2x2-axb+b2 11. ax+b
12.
n3 nfx3
- -n2+nmx+dx2
n-mx
13.
Jt -27y"
x" -.0 + 3x"y+9y"
-3y
8a9+y" 6 3,,3 ,,6
14. 2a3+ y" =4a -2a y + y
1_X12
15. 1_.0=1+.0+Jt
27Jt + 1 =9.0 -3x" + 1 16. 3x" + 1
64a3 + b9 -16a2 -4ab3 + b6 17. 4a+b3
19. 125-343/S -25+35K+49x10 5-7x
d+1 4 2
20 --=n -n +1 . d+1
EJERCICIO 71
.0-y4
1 --=i'+x"y+xy"+y" · x-y
nr+nS 4 -3 -2.2 3 4
2 ---=m -fTln+fTlfI -mn +n . m+n
aS _ns
__ =a4 +a3n+ a2d + an' +n4 3. a-n
Jt-yP S
4 --=x -.0y+i'y"-x"y"+xy4-Y · x+y
x7 +y7
6 --=Jt -Ky+.0y" -i'y"+x"y4 - xy + yP · x+y
a7 _m7
___ =a6 +aSm+a4ni +a3nf +a2m4 +anr +m6 7. a-m
1- nS 2 -3 4
13 --=1+n+ n +fI +n · 1-n
1-a6
--=1+a +a2 +a3 +a4 +as 14. 1-a
1+ a7 2 3 4 S 6
15 --=1-a +a -a +a -a +a · 1+a
1-nf -2 -3 4 -5 -6 7
16 --=1-m+fTI -fTI +m -fTI +fTI -m · 1+m
.0-16
17 --= x3 +2x" +4x+8 · x-2
x6-64
18 --= K-2.0+4i'-8x"+16x-32 · x+2
x7-128
19 ---= Jt+2K+4.0+8i'+16x"+32x+64 · x-2
20 aS +243 = a4-3a3+9a2-27a+81 · a+3
x6-729
21 ---= XS +3.0 +9i' +27x" +81x+ 243 · x-3
625-.0 2
22 ---= 125-25x+5x -x' · x+5
m8-256
23 -m7 +2m6 +4nr +8m4 +16nr +32ni' +64m+128
. m-2
x10 -1
24 --=K+K+X7 +x"+K+.0+x'+x"+x+1 · x-1
16a4 -81b4 -8a3 + 12a2b+ 18ab2 +27b3
26. 2a-3b
K +243y -.0 -3x'y+9x"y" -27xy +811
25. x+3y
64m6-729n"
-----=- 32nr -48m4n+ 72nrif -1 08ni'n' + 162mn4 + 243ns
27. 2m+3n
1 024x10-1
. -512K+256x"+128x7 +64x"+32K+16.0+8x'+4x"+2x+1
28. 2x-1
512a9+b9
------256a8 -128a7b+64a6b2 -32asb3 + 16a4b4 _8a3bs +4a2b6 -2ab7 +b8
29. 2a+b
a6-729
30 ---=aS+3a4+9a3+27a2+81a+243 · a-3
EJERCICIO 72
m1°_dO
___ -m8+m6d + m4d +ni'n6 + n" 3. ni'-d
a12 _b12
___ =a9_a6b3 +a3b6_b9 4. a3+b3
EJERCICIO 73
.0 -1
1 --=x"-1 . 1+x"
8nr+n6 -2 2 4
2 ---2 =4m -2mn +n . 2m+n
1-as
__ =1+a+a2+a3+a4 3. 1-a
1 +a3 2
7 --=1-a+a . 1+a
64x6-343y" -16.0 +28x"y +49yP 16. 4x"-7Y
16x"1-25nf -4xy"-5rrf 8. 4xy2 + 5rrf
(a+x)' -y'
18 -a+x+y
. (a+x)- y
.00 ,,40
__ -_y_=K2 + x"4/ + X16y16 + x"y"4 + y2 20. x" _ y"
32xs + 243y" -16.0 -24Ky+36x"y" -54xy +811
13. 2x+3y
25-(a+l)'
14. 5+(a+l) -4-a
9-36x10 -3-6xs 21. 3+6x"
1_X12
-----:A = 1 + .0 + x"
15. 1-x
x8-256
___ =x7 +2x" +4x" +8.0 +16K+32x" +64x+128 22. x-2
EJERCICIO 74
2. x3-3x'+2x-2-;-x+l
3 . .0-x3+5-;-x-2 =24-23+5 =16-8+5=13
1. x"-2x+3-;-x-1 =12-2.1+3 =1-2+3=2
= (-1)' -3 (-1)' +2(-1)-2 =-1-3-2 -2=-8
5. m4+rrf-rrf+5-;-m-4 =44+43_42+5 =256+64-16+5=309
6. x5+3x4-2x3+4xz-2x+20-x+3
= (- 3)' + 3(- 3)" - 2(- 3)' + 4(- 3)' - 2(- 3)+ 2 = -243+3·81-2 (-27)+4.9+6+2
= - 243+ 243+ 54+ 36+ 8= 98
4. a4 _5a3 + 2a' - 60-a+ 3
=(-3)" -5(-3)' +2(-3)'-6 =81-5(-27)+2.9-6 =81+135+18-6= 228
8.6x3+x'+3x+50-2x+1
9. 12K-21x+90-;-3x-3 =12.13-21-1+90 =12-21+90=81
7. aS-2a3+2a-4-;-a-5 =5 s -2.53 +2.5-4 =3.125 -2·125+10-4
= 3.125-250+10-4=2.881
=6( -~)+¡-%+5=- %+¡-%+5
- 3+ 1- 6+ 20 12
--=3
4 4 12. a6 + a4 - 8az + 4a + 1 O- 2a + 3
11.5x4-12x3+9x'-22x+210-5x-2 (3r (3r (3)' (3)
=5(~)4 _12(~)3 +9(~)' -22(~)+21 = -'2 + -'2 -8 -'2 +4 -'2 +1
10.15x3-11xz+10x+180-3x+2 5 5 5 5 = 729 +~-8.~-g+1
( 2)3 (2)Z (2) _ 5.~-12.~+ 9.~- 44 + 21 64 16 4 2
=15-- -11-- +10--+18- 625 125 25 5 =729+~_18_6+1=729+~_23
3 3 3 16 96 36 44 64 16 64 16
( 8) 4 20 =---+---+21
=15 -- -11·---+18 125 125 25 5 729+324-1.472_ 419
27 9 3 80 36 44 64 64
40 44 20 = - -+---+21
=------+18 125 25 5
9 9 3 -80+180-1.100+2.625 1.625
----------- --= 13
- 40- 44- 60+ 162 _ ~= 2 125 125
9 9
EJERCICIO 75
1. x"-7x+57X-3 1 -7 5 I~
~
1 -4 -7
= x-4 Res.-7
2. a2-5a+17a+2
-5 1 ~
-2 14l
1 -7 15 =a-7 Res. 15
3. K-x"+2x-27X+1 1 -1 2 -2 [2 -1 2 -4
1 -2 4-6
= x"-2x+4 Res.-6
6. n4 -5« +4n-48 +n+2
1 -5 O 4 -48~
-2 14 -28 48l
1 -7 14 -24 O
=n3-7n2+14n-24 Res. O
7 x4-3x+57X-1
·1 O O -3 511 1 1 1 -2 r 1 1 1 -2 3
= K +x2 + x-2 Res. 3
8. r+x4-12x"-x"-4x-2 +x+4 1 1 -12 -1 -4 -2 f
-4 12 O 4 O
1 -3 O -1 0-2
=x4-3x"-x Res.-2
4. K -2x2 + X -2 7 x-2 9. a5-38'+4a-6 +a-2
1 -2 1 -: I~ O -3 O 4 -6 l~
2 4 2 4 16
2 O
2 2 8 10
1 O 1 O =a4 +28' +a2 +2a+8 Res.10
= x" + 1 Re s. O
11. x6-3x5+4x4-3x"-x"+2 +x+3
1 -3 4 - 3 -1 O 2 1-3
-3 18 -66 207 -618 1.854r
1 -6 22 -69 206 -618 1.856
=r -6x4 +22x" -69x" + 206x-618 Res. 1.856
12. 2x" -3x2 + 7x-5 +2x-1
2 -3 7 - 351-±-
-1
2 -2 6 -2
=x2-x+3 Res.-2
13. 3a3 -4a2 +5a+6 +3a+2
3 -4 5 6 ~
-2 4 -6
3 -6 9 O
=a2 -2a+3 Res. O
14. 3x4 _4x3 +4K -10x +8 +3x-1
4 -10 81 ~
-1 -3
5
3
-4
3
-3
3
-9
=X3-K+X-3 Res. 5
5. a3_3a2 -6+a+3 x5-208x2+2076 +x-5
1 -3 O -6 r O O -208 O 2.076 r
-3 18 -54 5 25 125 -415 -2.075
1 -6 18 -60 10.1 5 25 -83 -415 1
=a2-6a+18 Res.-60 =x4+5x3+25x2 -83x-415 Res. 1
O -1 15 O -f~
-
8
3 9 15 O 3
-- -- --
2 4 8 2
3 5 O 3 5
2 4 2 4
15345313 Res.~
=-x --x +-x +-x--
2 4 8 2 4 4
EJERCICIO 76
1. x2-x-67x-3
Exacta (6 múltiplo de 3)
2. K+4x"-x-107X+2
Exacta (10 múltiplo de 2)
3.2x4-5K+7x"-9x+37X-1 Inexacta (1 no anula el polinomio)
4. K+x4-5x3-7x+87X+3 Inexacta (8 no es múltiplo de 3)
5.4K-8x2-11x-472x-1
Exacta (4 múltiplo de 1)
6. 6K+2x4 -3K-x"+3x+373x+1 Inexacta (- 1 no anula el polinomio)
7. a+1 Es factor de a3-2a2+2a+5
(-1)' - 2(_1)' + 2(-1)+ 5 =-1-2-2+5=0
No existe residuo, luego a + 1 divide exactaamente al polinomio, por lo que se d
educe es un factor de este.
8. x-5 divide a K+6x4+6K-5x2+2x-10
55 +6.54 +6.53 -5.52 +2.5-10 =3125-3750+ 750+ 125+ 10-10=0
Al sustituir x por 5 en el polinomio, este se anula, entonces x - 5 divide con e
xactitud a
K +6x4 +6K -5x2 +2x-1 O
9. 4x-3 divide a 4x4 -7x3 + 7~ -7x+3
324 189 63 21
=---+---+3
256 64 16 4
324-756+1.008-1.344+768 O
-------------=0
256 256
La variable x del dividendo se reemplaza por 314 (4x - 3 = O luego x = 3/4) que
es el valor de la variable del divisor. Se observa su anulación, por consiguiente,
4x - 3 es un divisor exacto de tal polinomio.
10. 3n + 2 no es factor de
3« + 2d - 3« - 2rt + 6n+ 7 porque 7 no es múltiplo de - 2 / 3, lo cual significa que a
l reemplazar tal valor en el polinomio reesultará un residuo, por ende la división n
o será exacta y 3n + 2 no se puede concebir como factor de dicho polinomio.
11. 2a3-2a2-4a+167a+2
-4 12 -16
2 -6 8 O
Exacta; coc.2a2 - 6a+ 8
12. a4 _a2 +2a+2 7a+1 -1 O -2
-1 O 2 O
Exacta; coco a3 - a2 + 2
13. ~ +5x-67X-1
1 6
1 1 6 O
Exacta; coco x3 + x2 + x + 6
14. x6 -39x4+26x3-52x2+29x-30+x-6
6 36 -18 48 -24 30
1 6 -3
8 -4
5 o
Exacta; cac.xs +6x4 -3x3 +8x2 -4x+5
15. a6 -4as _a4 +4a3 +a2 -8a+25 7a-4
4 O -4 O 4 -16
O -1 O 1 -4 9
Inexacta; coco aS - a3 + a - 4; Re s. 9
16. 16x4-24x3+37x2-24x+4+4x-1
4 -5 8 -4
16 -20 32 -16 o
Exacta; cac.4x3 -5x2 +8x-4
17. 15« + 25n4 -18« -18rt + 17n-1173n+5
-25 O 30 -20 5
15
O -18
12 - 3 -6
Inexacta; coc.5n4 - 6rt + 4n -1; Re s. - 6
18. 7x"-5x + k 7x-5 35 150
7 30 O
Sik=-150 se anula
19. K-3x"+4x+k 7x-2
2 -2 4
1 -1 2 O k+4=0,luegok=-4
20. 2a4 +25a+ k 7a+3
-6 18 -54 87
2 -6 18 -29 O
Parak=-87 se cumple que k+87=0
21. 20x3 -7x"+29x+ k 74x+1
-5 3 -8
20 -12 32 O k-8 =0 entoces k=8
EJERCICIO 77
x" +1
1 -- Inexacta Re s. 2 · x-1
aS+32
9 ---Inexacta Res. 64 . a-2
a4+b4
2 --- Inexacta Re s. 2b4 · a+b
.0-1
3 -2-Exacta · x +1
x7 -128
10 ---Inexacta Res. -256 . x+2
a11 +1
4 -- Inexacta Re s. 2 · a-1
a6 + b6
5. -2 --2 Inexacta Re s. 2b6 a +b
x7 -1
6 --Exacta · x-1
16a4 -81b4
11 ----Exacta
. 2a+3b
K-8
7 --Inexacta Res. -16 · x+2
a3x" +b9
12 2 3 Exacta
. ax +b
~-16
8 ---Exacta · x+2
EJERCICIO 78
1. 5x=8x-15
5x-8x=-15 -3x=-15
-15
x=--
-3
x=5
6. 21-6x=27 -8x
-6x+8x=27-21 2x=6
6
x=-
2
x=3
10. 5y+6y-81=7y+102+65y 11y-81=72y+102 11y-72y=102+81 -61y=183
183
y=-=61
y=-3
2. 4x+1=2 4x=2-1 4x=1
1
x=-
4
3. y-5=3y-25 y-3y=-25+5 -2y=-20
-20
y==-2
y=10
7. 11x+5x-1=65x-36 16x=65x-36+ 1 16x-65x=-35 -49x=-35
-35
x=--
-49
5
x=-
7
4. 5x+6=10x+5
5x-10x=5-6 -5x=-1
-1
x=-
-5
1
x=-
5
5. 9y-11=-10+12y 9y-12y=-10+11 -3y=1
1 y=3
8. 8x-4+3x=7x+x+14 11x-4=8x+14 11x-8x=14+4 3x=18
18
x=-
3
x=6
9. 8x+9-12x=4x-13-5x -4x+9=-x-13
-4x+x=-13-9
-3x=-22
-22
x=--
-3
22
x=-
3
11. 16+7x-5+x=11x-3-x 8x+11=10x-3 8x-10x=-3-11 -2x=-14
-14
x=--
-2
x=7
12. 3x+101-4x-33=108-16x-100 -x+68=8-16x
-x+16x=8-68
15x=-60 -60
x=--
15
x=-4
13. 14-12x+39x-18x=256-60x-657x 9x+14=-717x+256 9x+ 717x=256-14 726x=242
242
x=-
726
1
x=-
3
14. 8x-15x-30x-51x=53x+31x-172 -88x=84x-172
-88x-84x=-172
-172x=-172
-172
x=--
-172
x=1
EJERCICIO 79
1. x-(2x+1)=8-(3x+3) x- 2x-1= 8- 3x- 3 -x-1=5-3x
-x+3x=5+1
2x=6 6
x=-
2
x=3
2. 15x-10= 6x- (x+ 2)+ (- x+ 3) 15x-10= 6x- x- 2- x+ 3 15x-10=4x+1 15x-4x=10+1
11
x=-
11
x=l
3. (5- 3x)- (-4x+ 6)= (8x+ 11)- (3x- 6) 5-3x+4x-6=8x+ 11-3x+6 x-1=5x+17
x-5x= 17+ 1
-4x=18
18
x=-
-4
9
x=--
2
4. 30x- (- x+ 6)+ (-Sx+ 4)=- (SX+ 6)+ (- 8+ 3x) 30x+x-6-Sx+4=-Sx-6-8+3x 26x-2=-2
x-14 26x+2x=-14+2
28x=-12
12
x=--
28
3
x=--
7
6. 3x+[-Sx-(x+3)]=8x+(-Sx-9)
3x+ [- Sx- x- 3]= 8x- Sx- 9 3x+ [- 6x- 3]= 3x- 9
3x- 6x- 3= 3x- 9 -3x-3=3x-9
-x-1=x-3
-x-x=-3+1
-2
-2x=-2 =} x=- =1
-2
5. lSx+ (- 6x+ S)- 2- (- x+ 3)= - (7 x+ 23)- x+ (3- 2x) lSx-6x+S-2+x-3=-7x-23-x+
3-2x 10x = -10x- 20 10x+10x=-20
20x=-20
-20
x=-
20
x=-l
7. 16x- [3x- (6- 9x)]= 30x+ [- (3x+ 2)- (x+ 3)]
16x- [3x- 6+ 9x]= 30x+ [- 3x- 2- x- 3] 16x- [12x- 6]= 30x+ [-4x-S] 16x-12x+ 6= 3
0x- 4x- S 4x+6=26x-S 4x-26x=-S-6
-22x=-l1
-11 1
x=-=-
-22 2
8. x-[S+3x-{Sx-(6+x)}]=-3
x- [S+3x- {Sx- 6- x}]= - 3
x- [S+ 3x- {4x- 6}]= - 3
x- [S+3x-4x+6]=-3 x-[11-x]=-3 x-11+x=-3 2x=-3+11
9.9x-(Sx+1)-{2+8x-(7x-S)}+9x=0 9x- Sx-1- {2+ 8x-7x+ S}+ 9x= O 4x-1-{x+7}+9x=0 4x
-1-x-7+9x=0
12x- 8= O
12x= 8
8
x=-
12
2
x=-
3
11. -{3x+ 8- [-lS+ 6x- (- 3x+ 2)- (SX+ 4)]- 29}=-S - {3x+ 8- [-lS+ 6x+ 3x- 2- Sx
- 4]- 29}= - S
- {3x- 21- [- 21 +4x]}=-S
- {3x- 21 + 21- 4x}=-S
-{-x}=-S
EJERCICIO 80
8 2x=8=} x=-=4 2
10. 71 + [-Sx+ (- 2x+ 3)]= 2S- [- (3x+4)- (4x+ 3)]
71+ [-Sx- 2x+ 3]= 2S- [- 3x-4-4x- 3]
71 + [-7x+ 3]= 2S- [-7x-7]
71- 7x+3=2S+7x+7 74-7x=32+7x
74-32=7x+7x
42=14x
42
-=x
14
3=x
3. 2(3x+ 3)-4(Sx- 3)= x(x- 3)- x(x+S) 6x+ 6- 20x+ 12= x2 - 3x- x2 - Sx
x=-S
1. x+3(x-1)=6-4(2x+3) 2. S(x-1)+16(2x+3)=3(2x-7)-x
x+3x-3=6-8x-12 Sx-S+32x+48=6x-21-x
4x-3=-8x-6 37x+43=Sx-21
4x+8x=-6+3 37x-Sx=-21-43
12x= - 3 32x= - 64
-3 1
x=-=} x=--
12 4
-64
x=-=}x=-2
32
-14x+18=-8x
-14x+8x=-18
-6x=-18
-18
x=-=}x=3
-6
4.184-7(2x+5)=301+6(x-1)-6 184-14x- 35= 301 + 6x- 6- 6 149-14x= 289+ 6x
149- 289= 6x+ 14x -140=20x
-140
--=x
20
-7=x
5. 7(18- x)- 6(3-5x)= - (7x+ 9)- 3(2x+5)-12 126-7x-18+ 30x= -7x- 9- 6x-15-12 108
+ 23x= -13x- 36
23x+ 13x= - 36-108
36x=-144
-144
x=--
36
x=-4
6. 3x(x- 3)+ 5(x+ 7)- x(x+ 1)- 2(x' + 7)+4= O 3x' - 9x+ 5x+ 35- x' - x- 2x' -14+
4= O -5x+25=0
-5x=-25
-25
x=-
-5
x=5
7. - 3(2x+ 7)+ (- 5x+ 6)- 8(1- 2x)- (x- 3)= O
- 6x- 21- 5x+ 6- 8+ 16x- x+ 3= O 4x-20=0 4x=20 20
x=-
4
x=5
8. (3x-4)(4x-3)=(6x-4)(2x-5)
12x' - 9x-16x+ 12= 12x' - 38x+ 20 - 25x+ 38x= 20-12
13x=8
8
x=-
13
9. (4-5x)(4x-5)=(lOx-3)(7-2x)
- 20x' +41x- 20= - 20x' + 76x- 21 41x-76x= - 21 + 20 -35x=-1
-1
x=-
-35
1
x=-
35
10. (x+1)(2x+5)=(2x+3)(x-4)+5 2x' + 7 x+5= 2x' -5x-12+5 7x+5x=-7-5 12x=-12
-12
x=-
12
x=-l
11. (x-2)' -(3-x)' =1
x' -4x+ 4- 9+ 6x- x' = 1 2x- 5= 1 2x=6 6
x=-
2
x=3
12. 14- (5x-1)(2x+ 3)= 17 - (lOx+ l)(x- 6) 14- (10x' + 13x- 3)= 17 - (10x' -59x-
6) 14-lOx' -13x+ 3= 17 -lOx' +59x+ 6 -13x-59x=6
-72x= 6
6
x=--
-72
1
x=--
12
13. (x-2)' +x(x-3)=3(x+4)(x-3)-(x+2)(x-1)+2
x' - 4x+ 4+ x' - 3x= 3(x' + x-12)- (x' + x- 2)+ 2 2x' -7x+4= 3x' +3x- 36- x' - x
+ 2+ 2 2x' -7x+4= 2x' + 2x-36+4 -7x-2x=-36
-9x=-36
-36
x=-
-9
x=4
14. (3x-1)' - 5(x- 2)- (2x+ 3)' - (5x+ 2)(x-1)= O
9x' - 6x+ 1-5x+ 1O-4x' -12x- 9-5x' + 3x+ 2= O -20x+4=0
-20x=-4
-4
x=-
-20
1
x=-
5
15. 2(x-3)' -3(x+l)' +(x-5)(x-3)+4(x'-5x+l)=4x'-12
2x' -12x+ 18- 3x' - 6x- 3+ x' - 8x+ 15+ 4x' - 20x+ 4= 4x' -12 4x' - 46x+ 34= 4x'
-12
- 46x= -12- 34
-46x=-46
-46
x=-
-46
x=1
27
x=-
-51
9
x=--
17
19. 7(x-4)' -3(x+5)'=4(x+l)(x-l)-2
7x' -56x+ 112- 3x' - 30x-75= 4x' - 4- 2
4x' - 86x+ 37= 4x' - 6
- 86x=- 6-37
-86x=-43
-43
x=-
-86
1
x=-
2
16. 5(x-2)' -5(x+3)' +(2x-l)(5x+2)-10x'=0
5x' - 20x+ 20- 5x' - 30x- 45+ 10x' - x- 2-10x' = O -51x-27= O
-51x=27
17. x2 -5x+ 15= x(x- 3)-14+5(x- 2)+ 3(13- 2x) x2 -5x+ 15= x2 - 3x-14+ 5x-1O+ 39-
6x -5x+ 15= -4x+ 15
-5x+4x=0
-x=O
x=O
20.
5(1- x)' - 6(x' - 3x-7)= x(x- 3)- 2x(x+ 5)- 2
5-lOx+ 5x' - 6x' + 18x+ 42= x' - 3x- 2x' -lOx- 2 - x' + 8x+47= - x' -13x- 2 8x+1
3x=-2-47
21x=-49
-49
x=--
21
7
x=--
3
18. 3 (5x- 6) (3x + 2)- 6(3x+ 4)(x-l)- 3(9x+ 1)(x- 2)= O 3(15x' - 8x-12)- 6 (3x'
+ x- 4)- 3(9x' -17 x- 2)= O 45x' - 24x- 36-18x' - 6x+ 24- 27 x' + 51x+ 6= O 2lx
- 6= O 21x= 6
6
x=-
21
2
x=-
7
EJERCICIO 81
1. 14x- (3x- 2)- [5x+ 2- (x-l)]= O 14x- 3x+ 2- [5x+ 2- x+ 1]= O llx+2-[4x+3]=0 l
lx+ 2- 4x- 3= O 7x-l=0 7x=1 1
x=-
7
2.
(3x- 7)' - 5(2x+ 1)(x- 2)= - x2 - [- (3x+ 1)]
9x2 -42x+49-5(2x2 - 3x- 2)= - x2 - [- 3x-l] 9x2 + x2 - 42x+49-lOx2 + 15x+ 10= 3x
+ 1
- 27x+ 59= 3x+ 1
- 27x- 3x= 1-59
-30x=-58
-58 29
x=--=}x=-
- 30 15
6. 3(2x+ 1)(- x+ 3)- (2x+5)' = - [- {- 3(x+ 5)}+ lOx2]
3(- 2x2 +5x+ 3)-4x2 - 20x- 25= - [- {- 3x-15}+ lOx2] - 6x2 + 15x+ 9-4x2 - 20x- 2
5= - [3x+ 15+ lOx2]
-lOx2 -5x-16= - 3x-15-lOx2
-5x+3x=16-15
-2x= 1
3. 6x- (2x+ 1)= - {- 5x+ [-(- 2x-l)]}
6x- 2x-l= - {- 5x+ [2x+ 1]} 4x-l= - {- 5x+ 2x+ 1} 4x-l=-{-3x+l} 4x-l=3x-l
4x-3x=-I+1 x=O
4. 2x+ 3(- x2 -1)= - {3x2 + 2(x-l)- 3(x+ 2)} 2x- 3x2 - 3= - {3x2 + 2x- 2- 3x- 6}
2x- 3x2 - 3=- {3x2 - x- 8}
2x- 3x2 - 3= - 3x2 + x+ 8
2x-x =8+3 x=l1
5. x2-{3x+[x(x+l)+4(x2-1)-4x2]}=O x2 - {3x+ [x2 + x+4x2 -4-4x2]}= O x2 - {3x+ [x
2 + x-4]} = O x2 - {3x+x2 + x-4}= O x2 - 4x- x2 + 4= O
-4x =-4
-4
x=-
-4
x= 1
1
x=--
2
7.
(x+ 1)(x+ 2)(x- 3)= (x- 2)(x+ 1)(x+ 1) (x2 + 3x+ 2)(x- 3)= (x' - x- 2)(x+ 1)
x3 _ 3x2 + 3x2 - 9x+ 2x- 6= x3 + x2 - x2 - x- 2x- 2
-7x- 6= - 3x- 2
-7x+3x=-2+6
-4x=4
4
x=-=; x=-1
-4
8. (x+ 2 )(x+ 3 )(x-l)= (x+ 4 )(x+ 4 )(x- 4)+ 7
(x2 +5x+ 6)(x-l)= (x+ 4)(x2 -16)+ 7
x3 _ x2 + 5x2 - 5x+ 6x- 6= x3 -16x+4x2 - 64+ 7 4x2 + x- 6= 4x2 -16x- 57 x+16x=-5
7+6
17x=-51
-51
x=-=;x=-3
17
9.
(x+ 1)' - (x-l)' = 6x(x- 3)
x3 + 3x2 + 3x+ 1- (x3 - 3x2 + 3x-l)= 6x2 -18x x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1- x3 + 3x2 - 3x +
1 = 6x2 - 18x 6x2 + 2= 6x2 -18x 2= -18x
2 1
-=x=;--=x
-18 9
10. 3(x- 2)' (x+5)= 3(x+ 1)' (x-1)+ 3
3(x' -4x+ 4)(x+ 5)= 3(x' + 2x+ 1)(x-1)+ 3 (3x' -12x+ 12)(x+ 5) = (3x' + 6x+ 3)(x
-1)+ 3
3x3 + 15x' -12x' - 60x+ 12x+ 60= 3x3 - 3x' + 6x' - 6x+ 3x- 3+ 3 3x' - 48x+ 60= 3
x' - 3x
- 48x+ 3x= - 60
-45x= - 60
-60 4
x=-~x=-
-45 3
EJERCICIO 82
1. x---> N°mayor
x-8---> N°menor
x+x-8= 106 2x-8=106 2x=106+8 114
x=-
2
x=57---> N°mayor
x-8=;57-8
=49 ---> N°menor
2. x~N'mayor
x-32~N'menor x+x-32=540 2x=540+32 2x=572
572
x=--
2
x=286 ~N'mayor
x-32 =}286-32 =254~N'menor
3. A+B=1.154bs.
A-506=B A+A-506=1.154 2A=1.154+506 2A=1.660
A= 1.660
2 A=830bs.
A-506 =B =}830 -506 =B 324bs.=B
4. x ~ N' mayor x-24~N'menor x+x-24=106 2x=106+24 130
x=-
2
x=65x~N'mayor
x-24=}65-24 =41~N'menor
5. A+B=56años A+14=B A+A+14=56 2A=56-14
A= 42
2 A=21años
A+14= B 21+14=B 35 años= B
6. A + B= 1.080 soles A-1.014=B A+A-1.014=1.080 2A=1.080+ 1.014 A=2.094
2 A=1.047 soles
7.
A-1.014=B =} 1.047 -1.014=B 33soles=B x~N'mayor x-1~N'menor x+x-1=103 2x=103+1 1
04
x=-
2
x=52~N'mayor
8.
x-1=}52-1 =51~N'menor
x~N'menor x+1 ~ N'medio x+2~N'mayor x+ x+ 1+x+2=204
3x+3=204 3x=204-3 201
x=-
3
x= 67 ~ N' menor
9.
x+1=}67+1 = 68 ~ N' medio x+2=}67+2
= 69 ~ N' mayor
x~N'1 x+1~N'2 x+2~N'3 x+3~N'4 x+x+1+x+2+x+3=74 4x+6=74 4x=74-6 68
x=-
4
x=17~N'1
x+ 1=} 17 + 1 =18~N'2 x+2=}17+2 =19~N'3
x+3=}17+3 =20~N'4
10. 2x~N'menor
2x+2~N'mayor 2x+2x+2=194 4x=194-2 192
x=-
4
x=48 2x=} 2·48 =96~N'menor 2x+2=} 2·48 +2 =96+2
=98 ~N'mayor
11. x~N'mayor
x-1~N'medio x-2~N'menor x+x-1+x-2=186 3x-3=186 3x=189 189
x=-
3
x=63~N'mayor x-1=}63-1
=62~N'medio x-2=}63-2
=61~N'menor
12. caballo+coche+arreos=325 coche+ 80 = caballo coche- 25 = arreos coche+ 80 +
coche+ coche - 25 = 325 3 coches+55 =325 3 coches= 270
coche= 270 3
coche =$90
coche+ 80 = caballo =}90+80= caballo $170 = caballo coche-25 = arreos =} 90 - 25
= arreos $65=arreos
13. x~N'mayor
x-32~N'medio 16.
x-65~N'menor x+x-32+x-65=200
3x-97=200 3x=297 297
X=--
3
x=99~N'mayor x-32=}99-32
= 67 ~ N' medio x-65=}99-65 =34~N'menor
14. x ~1º cesto
x-10~2º cesto x-15~3º cesto x+x-10+x-15=575
3x-25=575 3x=600 600
X=--
3
x=200~ 1º cesto x-10=}200-10
=190~2º cesto x-15=}200-15
=185~3º cesto
15. x~mayor
x-55~medio x-70~ menor
x+ x-55+ x- 70=454 3x-125=454 3x=454+125 3x=579
579
X=--
3
x=193~mayor x-55=} 193-55
= 138~medio x-70=}193-70 =123~menor
x~1º
x-20~2º
x-20- 40~3º =}x-60~3º x+x-20+x-60=310 3x=310+80 3x=390
390
X=--
3
x=130~1º x-20=} 130-20 =110~2º x-60=}130-60
=70~3º
17. x~mayor
x-20~menor x-18~medio x+x-20+x-18=88
3x-38=88 3x=88+38 3x=126 126
x=-
3
x=42~mayor x-20=}42-20
=22~menor x-18=}42-18
=24~medio
18. x~mayor
x-36~menor x+x-36=642 2x-36= 642 2x=642+36 2x=678
678
X=--
2
x=339~mayor
x-36=}339-36 =303~menor
EJERCICIO 83
1. x~edadJuan 3x~ edadPedro x+3x=40 4x=40
40
x=-
4
x=1 O~ edadJuan 3x=}3·10
=30~ edadPedro
2. x~Arreos 4x~Caballo x+4x=600 5x=600 600
X=--
5
x= $120 ~ Arreos 4x=}4·120
= $ 480~ Caballo
3. x~1ºpiso x -~2ºpiso 2
x+":'=48
2
2x+x=48
2 3x=48·2 3x=96 96
X=-
3
x=32Habt.~1ºpiso x 32
-=}-
2 2
= 16 Habt. ~ 2º piso
4. A+B+C=300 B=2A C=3A =}A+2A+3A=300 6A=300
A= 300 6
A = 50 colones B=2A=}2·50
=100 colones C=3A=}3·50
=150 colones
5. A+B+C=133
B A=-
2
C=2B
B =}-+B+2B=133 2
'§'+3B=133 2
B+6B =133
2
7B=133·2 266 B=-
7
B=38Sucres
B 38 A=-=}-
2 2
=19Sucres C=2B=}2·38 =76Sucres
6. x~N'mayor !..~ N' menor 6
x+!..=147
6
6X+X=147
6 7x=147·6 7x=882 882
X=--
7
x=126~N'mayor x 126
-=}-
6 6
=21~N'menor
7. A+B+C=140
B=~=}2B=A
2
B=E..=}4B= C
4 2B+B+4B=140 7B=140
B= 140
7 B=20Quetz A= 2B=}2·20
=40 Quetz C=4B=}4·20
=80 Quetz
8. x~1ºparte 4x~2ºparte 5x~3ºparte x+4x+5x=850
10x=850 850
X=--
10
x=85~1ºparte 4x=}4·85
= 340 ~ 2º parte 5x=}5·85 =425~3ºparte
9. x~N'buscado 2x=x+111 2x-x=111 x=111~N'buscado
10.
x~edadRosa 3x+15~edadMaría x+3x+15=59 4x=59-15 4x=44
44
x=-
4
x=11~ edadRosa 3x+15=}3·11+15
=33+15 =48~edadMaría
11. x~N'buscado 8x=x+21 8x-x=21 7x=21
21
x=-
7
x=3~N'buscado
12. x~Mi edad 3x+ 7=100 3x=100-7 3x=93
93
x=-
3
x=31~Mi edad
13. x~1ºparte !.. ~ 2º parte 3
4x ~3ºparte 3
x 4x x+-+-=96 3 3
3x+x+4x_96 3
8x=96·3 8x=288 288
X=--
8
x=36~1ºparte
!..=} 36 =12~2ºparte 3 3
4x =} 4·36 = 4.12=48~3ºparte 3 3
14.
x ~ EdadEnrique 2x~ EdadPedro 3x~ EdadJuan 6x~ EdadEugenio x+2x+3x+6x=132
12x=132 132
x=-
12
x=11~ EdadEnrique 2x=}2·11 =22~ EdadPedro 3x=}3·11 =33~ EdadJuan 6x=}6·11 =66~ EdadEug
enio
EJERCICIO 84
1.
x~1ºparte 3x~2ºparte 3x-40~3ºparte x+3x+3x-40=254 7x=254+40 7x=294
294
X=--
7
x=42~1ºparte 3x=} 3·42 = 126 ~ 2º parte 3x-40=}3·42-40 =126-40=86~3ºparte
x~cmde azúl x-14 ~cmdeblanco 2
x+ x-14 =74 2
2x+":'=259+30 X+":'-~=74
8 2 2
16x+x=289 2x+x=74+7
8 2
17x=289·8 3x=81-2
2.312 162
x=-- x=-
17 3
x=$136~Costo traje x=54 ~ cmde azúl
x 136 x-14 54-14
-=}-=$17~Costo sombrero -2-=}---
8 8 2
x-30=}136-30=$106~Costo bastón = 40 =20~cmde blanco
2
2. A+B+C=130
C=2A B-15=C=}B-15=2A B=2A+15 A+2A+15+2A=130 5A=130-15
5A=115
A=~
5
A =23Balb.
B=2A+ 15=}2·23+ 15=46+ 15=61Balb. C=2A=}2·23=46Balb.
3.
x~1ºNúmero
x-8 ~2ºNúmero
2
x-18~3ºNúmero
x+ x-8 +x-18=238 2
2X+":'-~=256 2 2
4x+x = 256+4 2
5x=260·2 520
x=--
5
x=104~1ºNúmero
x-8 =} 104-8 = 96 =48~2ºNúmero 222
x-18=}104-18 =86~3ºNúmero
4.
x~ Costo traje
..:.~ Costo sombrero 8
x-30~ Costo bastón
x+..:.+ x-30=259 8
5.
x~1ºNúmero
x-6
--~ 2º Número 5
x-6~3ºNúmero
x-6 x+--+x-6=72 5
2X+":"-~=78 5 5
10x+x=78+~
5 5
11x 390+6
-=---
5 5
11x= 396 396
x=--
11
x= 36 ~ 1º Número
x-6 36-6 --=}--
5 5
= 30 =6~2ºNúmero 5
x- 6 =} 36 - 6 = 30 ~ 3º Número
6. A+B=99 B=3A+19 A+3A+19=99 4A=99-19 4A=80
A= 80
4 A=20bs.
B=3A+ 19=}3·20+ 19 =60+19=79bs.
7.
8.
A+B+C=152 B+8 B=2A-8=} -2-= A
B-32=C
B+8 -2-+B+B-32=152
B 8 T+"2+2B=152+32
B +4B
--=184-4
2
5B=180·2
360 B=-
5
B=$72
B+8 72+8 80 A=--=}--=-=$40
2 2 2
C= B-32=} 72-32=$40
9. x~N'buscado x-80=220-2x x+2x=220+80 3x=300
300
x=--
3
x=100~N'buscado
10. x~ Tengo ahora 2x+10=x+60 2x-x=60-10
x=50S/.~ Tengo ahora
11.
x~Parte separada x+80~Laotraparte x+x+80=910 2x=910-80
830
x=--
2
x=415cm =}4,15m~Parte separada x+80=}415+80=495 cm =}4,95m~Laotraparte
x ~ Edad padre
x-3 ..
--~EdadhlJo 3
x-3 x+--=83 3
x+":'_2=83 3 3
3x+x=83+1
3
4x=84·3 252
x=--
4
x=63~Edad padre
x-3 63-3 60 ..
--=}--=-=20~Edad hiJo
3 3 3
12.
EJERCICIO 85
1. x~N'mayor 2x ~N'menor 3
x+ 2x =100 3
3x+2x =100 3
5x=100·3 300
X=--
5
x=60~N'mayor
2x =} 2·60 =40~N'menor 3 3
13. A+B+C=9.000
B+500=A
B-800=C B+500+B+B-800=9.000 3B=9.000+300
B= 9.300
3
B=3.100 Votos A=B+500=}3.100+500=3.600 Votos C=B-800=}3.100-800= 2.300 Votos
3. x---*Partemayor
x - 232 ---* Parte menor x+x-232=1.080 2x=1.080+232 1.312
x=--
2
x = 656 ---* Parte mayor x-232=}656-232
= 424 ---* Parte menor
4. A+B=150 A-46=B A+A-46=150 2A=150+46
A=~
2
A=98 Soles B=A-46 =}98-46 =52 Soles
2. x~Edadpadre
x-15 Ed dh·· -2-~ a lJo
x+ x-15 =60
2
X+":'-~=60
2 2
2x+x=60+~
2 2
3x 120+15
-=---
2 2
3x=135 135
x=--
3
x=45~Edad padre
x-15 45-15 15 Ed dh·· -2-=}--2-= ~ a lJo
x---* Ang. mayor x+45 ---*Ang. menor 2
x+ x+45 =180 2
x+":'+~=180 2 2
2x+ x =180-~
2 2
3x 360-45
-=---
2 2
3x=315 315
x=-
3
x=105° ---*Ang.mayor
x+45 =} 105 +45 =750 ---*Ang.menor
2 2
5.
14. x ~ N' buscado 8x-60=60-7x 8x+7x=60+60 15x=120 120
x=--
15
x=8~N'buscado
15. x~Edadhombre 2x-17=100-x 2x+x=100+17 3x=117
117
x=--
3
x= 39 ~ Edad hom bre
6. x---*f".P mayor
x-88 ---*f".P menor 3
x+ x-88 =540 3
x+":'- 88 =540 3 3
3x+x =540+ 88
3 3
4x 1.620+88
3 3 4x=1.708
1.708
X=--
4
x=427 ---*f".P mayor
x-88 427-88
--=}---
3 3
= 339 =113---*f".P menor 3
7.
X---7 N° mayor
x-12
-----7 N°menor
4
x-( X-412J=36
x 12
x--+-=36 4 4
4x-x --=36-3
4
3x=33·4 3x= 132 132
x=-
3
x=44---* N° mayor
x-12 44-12
--=} --= 8---7 N°menor
4 4
8 x --+ Costo perro !.. --+ Costo collar 8
x+!..=54 8
8x+x=54 8
9x=54·8 9x=432 432
x=--
9
x= $ 48 --+ Costo perro
!..=}~=$6--+ Costo collar 8 8
11.
x --+ Parte mayor x + 16 --+ Parte menor 3
x+ x+16 =160
3
x+!..=160-~
3 3
3x+x 480-16
--=---
3 3
4x=464 464
X=--
4
x=116--+Parte mayor x+16 116+16
--=}---
3 3
= ~ = 44 --+ Parte menor 3
EJERCICIO 86
1. 2x-> Edad actual A x-> Edad actual B
2x-10=3(x-1O) 2x-10=3x-30 2x-3x =-30+10 -x=-20
x= 20-> Edad actual B 2x=} 2·20=40-> Edad actual A
2.
3x-> Edad A
x -> Edad B
3x+5=2(x+5) 3x+5=2x+1O
3x-2x=1O-5
x=5 -> Edad B 3x=} 3·5= 15 -> Edad A
9.
A+B=84 A-16=B+20 =}A-16-20=B A-36=B A+A-36=84 2A=84+36
A=~
2
A=$60
B= A - 36 =} 60 - 36 = $ 24
12.
x->N' mayor x+150 ->N' menor 3
x+ x+150 =506
3
X+":'=506-~
3 3
3x+x 1.518-150
3 3
4x=1.368 1.368
x=--
4
x=342->N' mayor x+150 342+150
---=}----
3 3
= 492 = 164-> N' menor 3
3. 2x-> TieneA
x-> TieneB 2x-30=x-5
2x-x= 30-5
x=$25-> TieneB 2x=}2·25=$50-> TieneA
x
4. '2--+ Tiene A
x--+ Tiene B
.::.+ 66= 2(x- 90) 2
x+ 132 = 2(x- 90) 2
x+ 132= 4(x- 90) x+132=4x-360 -3x=-492
-492
x=--
-3
x= 164colones--+ Tiene B
x 164
-=} -= 82--+ colones Tiene A 2 2
10. x--+ IV' Señoritas
x-15
----+ IV' Jovenes 2
x+ x-15 =60
2
x+!..=60+~
2 2
2x+x 120+15
--=---
2 2
3x=135 135
X=--
3
x= 45 --+ IV' Señoritas
x-15 45-15 .
-2-=}--2- =15--+1V' Jovenes
13. x--+Estilográfica
x -10 --+ Lapicero x+x-10=18
2x=28
28
X=-
2
x=14bs.--+ Estilográfica x-1 O=} 14-1 0=4bs.--+Lapicero
14. x --+ Parte roja
x + 4 --+ Parte negra x+x+4=84 2x=80
x= 40 cm--+ Parte roja
x + 4 =} 40 + 4 = 44 cm --+ Parte negra
5. x->N'var ones ":'->N'Srtas
3
":'+14=x-10
3
":'-x=-10-14 3
X-3X=_24
3
-2x=-72 x=36->N'varones
..:.=} 36 =12->N'Srtas 3 3
6. 3x-> Edad padre x-> Edad hijo
3x-5=2(x+1O) 3x-5=2x+20
x=25-> Edad hijo
3x=} 3·25 =75-> Edad padre
7.
x~N' mayor 2x-56~N' menor x+2x-56=85 3x=141
141
x=-
3
x=47~N' mayor 2x-56=}2·47 -56 =94-56=38~N' menor
10.
4x~ Días Trab.Pedro x~Días Trab.Enrique 4x-15=x+21 4x-x=21+15
3x=36
36
x=-
3
x=12~ Días Trab. Enrique 4x=}4·12
=48~Días Trab.Pedro
EJERCICIO 87
1. 2x~ N' Sombreros x~ N' trajes 4x+50x=702 54x=702
702
x=--
54
x=13~ N' trajes 2x=}2·13
=26~N' Sombreros
2.
x--->Cab.
x-6---> Vacas
600x+ 800(x- 6)=40.000 600x+ 800x- 4.800=40.000 1.400x= 44.800 44.800
x=---
1.400
x=32---> Cabo x- 6=} 32- 6= 26---> Vacas
8. 5x~ Tiene Enrique x~ Tienesuhno.
9.
x~Bolsa1
x-400~Bolsa2
x+x-400=1.400
2x= 1.800 x=900S/.~Bolsa1 x-400=}900-400=500 S/.~ BoIsa2
5x-0,5=x+0,5 5x-x=0,5+0,5
4x=1
1
x=-
4
x=$0,25 ~ Tiene suhno 5x=}5·0,25
=$1,25~ Tiene Enrique
12. 3x---> Edad actual Juan x---> Edad actual hijo
3x+ 22= 2(x+ 22) 3x=2x+44-22
x= 22---> Edad actual hijo 3x=> 3·22= 66---> Edad actual Juan
11. 2x---> Edad acto padre
x---> Edad acto hijo
2x-14= 3(x-14) 2x-14=3x-42 2x-3x=-42+14
-x=-28
x= 28---> Edad acto hijo Edadeshace 14wlos:
13. A+B=84=>A=84-B A+80=3(B+4) => 84- B+80=3B+12 -B-3B=12-164
-4B=-152
-152
B=-4
B= $38
A = 84- B=> 84- 38= $46
2x-14 =} 2·28-14
=42wlos---> padre x-14 =} 28-14
= 14wlos---> hijo
3. 16-x---> Prob.reslt. x---> Pr ob.no reslt.
5. 3S-x---> Trajesde30Q x---> Trajes de2SQ
30(3S- x)+ 2Sx= 1.01S 1.0S0- 30x+ 2Sx= 1.01 S
- Sx = 1.01 S - 1.0S0
-3S
x=--
-S
12(16- x)-Sx=73 192-12x-Sx=73 -17x=73-192
-119
x=--
-17
x=7---> Prob.noreslt. x=7 ---> Trajes de2SQ
16-x=} 16-7=9---> Prob.reslt. 3S-x=} 3S-7=28---> Trajesde30Q
6. x---> Traje Cal.
x-7 ---> Traje inf.
32x+ 18(x-7)= 1.624 32x+ 18x-126= 1.624
SOx= 1.1S0 1.1S0
x=--
SO
x= 3Sbalb.---> Traje Cal.
x- 7 =} 3S- 7 = 28balb.---> Traje inf.
x= 12---> Días no trabo
4. SO-x---> Días trabo
x---> Días no trabo
3(SO- x)- 2x= 90 lS0- 3x - 2x= 90 -Sx=-60
-60
x=--
-s
SO- x =} SO-12= 38---> Días trabo
7. 3x-+ N° Lápices x~ N°cuad.
0,05 ·3x+ 0,06x= 1,47 0,15x+0,06x=I,47 0,21x= 1,47 1,47
x=--
0,21
x=7 =,7 -+ N°cuad.
3x-+ 3·7=21-+ N° Lápices
EJERCICIO 88
1.
x--+ 1º
2x--+ 2º x+2x-20--+3º
=} 3x-20--+3º x+2x+3x -20=196
6x=196+20 216
x=--
6
x=36 --+ 1º
2x =}2·36= 72 --+2º 3x-20=}3·36-20
= 1 08 - 20 = 88 --+ 3º
2. 3x --+ Edad A x--+ Edad B
3x-5=4(x-5) 3x-5=4x-20 3x-4x=-20+5 - x=-15
x= 15 --+ Edad B 3x=} 3·15=45--+ Edad A
8. 3x+5-+ Sac.Frij. x~ Sac.azúc. 6(3x+ 5)+ 5x= 582 18x+30+5x=582 23x=552 552
x=-
23
x=24 =, 24-+ Sac.azúc. 3x+5=, 3·24+5
=77 -+ Sac.Frij.
9. 80- x-+ Cedro
10. 1.050-x-+ P.mayor
x---t Caoba X---t P.menor
0,75(80- x)+ O, 90x= 68 ,4il(1.050- x)- 2x= 1.825 60- O, 75x+ O, 90x= 68,4<f·150-
3x - 2x = 1.825
0,15x=8,40 -5x=1.825-3.150
840 -5x=-1.325
x=-' -
0,15
x=56
-1.325
x=---
-5
=, 56 pies3 -+ Caoba 80- x=, 80- 56
= 24pies3 -+ Cedro
x=265
=, 265-+ P.menor 1.050- x=, 1.050- 265 =785-+ P.mayor
4. X --+ Costo casa
7. X--+ Gasté
85-x=4x 85=5x 85
-=x
5
17=x
=} $17 --+ Gasté
X x -=-+2.000 4 6
x x+12.000
4 6
6x=4x+48.000 2x=48.000
48.000
X=---
2
x=24.000bs.--+ Costo casa
x -+ f\P mayor 2x-156 -+f\Pmenor 3
x+ 2x-156 =108 3
x+2x =108+~
3 3
3x+2x 324+156
3 3
5x=480 480
X=--
5
x=96-+f\Pmayor
2x-156 2·96-156
---=}----
3 3
=~=12 -+f\Pmenor 3
5.
x--+ Par zapo 2x+50--+ Traje
50(2x+50)+ 35x= 16.000
100x+ 2.500+ 35x= 16.000
135x= 16.000- 2.500 13.500
x=---
135
x=100soles--+ Parzap.
2x+ 50=} 2·100+ 50= 250soles--+ Traje
3.
6. x --+ Ancho
8. x-+ Edadact.B
2(x-12)-+ Edad A hace 12años 2(x-12)+ 24+ 68= 3(x+ 12) 2x- 24+ 92= 3x+ 36 2x-3x=36
-68 -x=-32
x=32-+ Edadact.B Edad actual de A:
2(x-12)+ 12=} 2(32-12)+ 12
= 2·20+ 12= 52 años
9.
x--+ mono lOcts.
22- x--+ mon.5cts.
O,lOx+ 0,05(22- x)= 1,85 O,lOx+ 1,10- 0,05x= 1,85
0,05x= 1,85-1,10 0,05x=0,75
0,75
x=--
0,05
x= 15--+ mon.lOcts. 22- x=} 22-15= 7 --+ mono 5cts.
461-11=9x 450=9x 450
--=x
9
50=x
=} 50 píes--+ Ancho
10. x ---> N° buscado
12(x- 24)= 24(x-27) 12x-288=24x-648 12x-24x=-648+288 -12x=-360
-360
x= -12
x= 30 ---> N° buscado
11. x ---> c / cabo 35x=40(x-1O) 35x= 40x- 400 -5x=-400
-400
x=--
-5
x=$80---> c/cab.
12. x--->N'buscado 3x-55=233-x 3x+x=233+55 4x=288
288
x=--
4
x=72 --->N'buscado
13.
x---> N°menor
x+ 1---> N°medio x+2---> N°mayor
2x+ 3(x+ 1)+ 4(x+ 2)= 740
2x+ 3x+ 3+ 4x+ 8= 740 9x=740-11 729
x=--
9
x=81
=; 81---> N°menor
x+ 1=; 81 + 1= 82 ---> N°medio x+ 2=; 81 + 2= 83---> N°mayor
14.
15.
x---> Parte hijo x+ 2.000---> Parte hijas 3x+ 2(x+ 2.000)= 16.S00
3x+ 2x+ 4.000= 16.S00
Sx= 12.S00 12.S00
x=---
S
x= 2.S00
=> 2500 colones---> Parte hijo
x+ 2.000=> 2500+ 2.000= 4.S00
=> 4.S00colones ---> Parte hijas 16. X--7 N° mayor
x-l---7 N°menor
17.
x---> A caballo 3x--->Enauto x-20---> Apie x+3x+x-20=150 5x=150+20 170
x=--
5
x=34Km---> A caballo
3x=}3·34=1 02 Km--->Enauto x-20=}34-20=14Km---> Apie
x'-(x-1)' =31
x'- x' + 2x-1= 31 2x= 32
x= 16---> N° nu¡yor x-1=> 16-1= 1S---> N° menor 3x---> Edad A
x---> Edad B
x
----> EdadC S
x-12---> EdadC
Luego:
x
-=x-12
S
x=S(x-12)
x=Sx-60
-4x=-60
x=1S---> Edad B
3x=> 3·1S=4S---> Edad A x-12=> 1S-12= 3---> Edad C
18.
19.
X--7 Lunes 2x---> Martes 4x---> Miercoles 8x--7 Jueves
Sx- 30---> Viernes
Sx- 20---> Sábado
x+ 2x+ 4x+ Sx+ Sx- 30+ Sx- 20= 911
31x -SO=911 31x=911+S0 961
x=-
31
x= $31---> Lunes
2x=> 2·31=$62---> Martes 4x=> 4· 31= $124---> Miercoles Sx=> S, 31= $ 24S---> Jueves

Sx- 30=> S, 31- 30= $21S---> Viernes Sx- 20=> S·31-20=$22S---> Sábado
20.
x--->N' 1 x-18--->N'2 x+x-18=3·18 2x=54+18 72
x=-
2
x=36 --->N' 1
x-18=}36-18=18--->N'2
x---> Edad act.A x+5
-----> Edad Ben5años 3
x+20
-----> Edad Ben20años
2
Luego:
x+5 x+20 --+15=--
3 2
x+5+45 x+20
3 2
2(x+50)=3(x+20) 2x+100=3x+60 -x=-40
x=40---> Edad act. A Edad actual de B:
x+ 20 40+ 20
--- 20=; ---- 20
2 2
= 30- 20= 10 años
21.
x---> Tiene A 3(x-16)---> Tiene B x+ 3(x-16)= 36 x+3x-48=36 4x= 84 84
x=-
4
x=$21---> Tiene A
3(x-16)=; 3(21-16)
= 3·5= $15---> Tiene B
22. 3x---> Tiene A x---> TieneB
x
----> TieneC 2
3x-1- (x- 3)=2(~+ 20)
3x-1-x+3=x+40 2x-x=40-2
x= 38---> Tiene B 3x=; 3·38=$114---> Tiene A x 38
-=; -=$19---> TieneC 2 2
23. x--+ Costo tienda x x --BOO=-
5 7
x-4.000 x
5 7
7x-2B.000=5x 2x=2B.000 x=14.000
=} 1 4.000 bs. --+ Costo tienda
24. x--+ Cab.peor
2(x+ 15)--+ Cab.mejor x+ 2(x+ 15)= 120 x+2x+30=120
3x=90
x=$30--+ Cab.peor
2(x+ 15)= 2(30+ 15) =2·45=$90--+ Cab.mejor 25. x--+ queda A
3x --+ queda B
x+3x=160
4x=160
x=40
ComoA teníaBO Q. =}/oqueperdíoA =BO-x=}BO-40=40 Q.
26. 2x--+ Emp.A
x--+ Emp.B
2(2x-400)=x+400 4x-800=x+400
3x= 1.200 x=$400--+ Emp.B 2x=} 2·400=$800--+ Emp.A
EJERCICIO 89
1. a2+ab=a (a+b)
2. b+b2=b (l+b)
3. x2+x=x (x+1) 4.3a3-a2=a2(3a-1)
5. x3_4x4=X3 (1-4x)
6. 5m2 + 15m3 = 5m2 (1+ 3m)
7. ab-bc=b (a-c)
8. x2y+ x2z= x2 (y+ z) 9.2a2x+6ax2=2ax(a+3x) 10.8m2-12mn=4m(2m-3n)
27. 4x~Cab. x~ Vacas
4x+5=3(x +5) 4x+5=3x+15 x=10~ Vacas 4x=} 4·1O=40~ Cabo
28
x~Lunes
x+6~Martes x+12~Miercoles x+ 18~ Jueves
4x~Jueves x+18=4x -3x=-18
x=$6 ~Lunes x+6=}6+6=$12~Martes x+12=}6+12=18 ~Miercoles 4x=}4·6=$24~Jueves
29. x~ Tenía ppio.
2x-50+ 2(2x-50)- 390= O 2x-440+4x-100=0 6x=540 540
X=-
6
x=90
=} 90soles ~ Tenía ppio.
12. 15c3d' +60c'd 3= 15c'd' (c+4d)
13. 35m2n3 -70m3 = 35m2 (n3 - 2m)
14. abc+abc2=abc(l+c)
15. 24a2x/- 36il = 12x/ (2a2 -3x/)
16. a3+a2+a=a(a2+a+l) 17.4x2-8x+2=2(2x2-4x+l)
18. 15/+20l-5y=5y(3l+4y-l)
30. 2x~ Largo x~ Ancho
(2x- 6)(x+ 4)= 2x2 2x2 + 2x- 24= 2x2 2x=24
x= 12m ~ Ancho 2x=} 2·12= 24m~ Largo
31. 3x~ Padrehace5años x ~ Hijo hace 5 años 3x+ 10= 2(x+ 10)
3x+ 10= 2x+ 20
x=10años Edad actual Padre:
3x+ 5=} 3·10+ 5 = 35años Edad actual Hijo:
x+5=} 10+5= 15años
32. 3x~ Edad Aen4años x~ Edad Ben4años
3x-6=5(x -6) 3x- 6=5x- 30 - 2x= - 24
x=12años Edad Actual A:
3x- 4=} 3·12- 4= 32 años Edad Actual B :
x-4=} 12-4=8años
20.2a2x+2ax2-3ax =ax(2a+2x-3)
22. 14x21- 28x3 + 56x4 = 14x2 (l- 2x+ 4x2)
23. 34ax2 + 51a 2 y - 68al = 17a (2x2 + 3ay-41)
24. 96- 48mn2 + 144n3 =48(2-mn2+3n3)
25. a2b2c2 _ a2c2x2 + a2c2y2 =a2c2(b2-x2+1)
1. a~+0+b~+0=~+0~+0
2. x(a+1)-3(a+1)=(a+1)(x-3)
3. Z(x-1)+ y(x-1)=(x-1)(Z+ y)
4. m(a-b)+(a-b)n=(a-b)(m+n)
5. Zx(n-1)- 3y (n-1)= (n-1)(Zx- 3y)
6. a(n+Z)+n+Z=(n+Z)(a+1)
7. x(a+1)-a-1=(a+1)(x-1)
8. a2+1-b(a2+1)=(a2+1)(1-b) 9.3x(x-Z)-Zy(x-Z)=(x-Z)(3x-Zy)
10. 1-x+Za(1-x)=(1-x)(1+Za) 25. (x-3)(x-4)+(x-3)(x+4)=(x-3)Zx
11.4x(m-n)+n-m=(m-n)(4x-1) 26. (a+b-1)(a2+1)-a2-1=(a2+1)(a+b-2)
12. -m-n+x(m+n)=(m+n)(x-1) 27. (a+b-c)(x- 3)-(b-c-a)(x-3)
13. a3 (a-b+ 1)- b2 (a- b+ 1)= (a-b+ 1)(a3 _b2) = (x- 3)(a+ b- c+ a-b+ c) = (x-
3)Za
14. 4m(a2+x-1)+3n(x-1 +a2 )=(a2+x-1)(4m+3n) 28.3x(x-1)-Zy(x-1)+z(x-1)=(x-1)(3x-Z
y+z)
15. x(Za+b+c)-Za-b-c 29. a(n+1)-b(n+1)-n-1=(n+1)(a-b-1)
= x(Za+ b+ c)- (Za+ b+ c)= (Za+ b+ c)(x-1) 30. x(a+ Z)- a- Z+ 3(a+ Z)= (a+ Z)(x+
Z)
16. (x+ y)(n+1)-3(n+1)=(n+1)(x+ y-3) 31. (1+3a)(x+1)-Za(x+1)+3(x+1)=(x+1)(a+4)
17. (x+1)(x-Z)+3y(x-Z)=(x-Z)(x+1+3y) 32. (3x+2)(x+ Y-Z)-(3x+2)-(x+ y-1)(3x+2)
18. (a+3)(a+1)-4(a+1)=(a+1)(a+3-4)=(a+1)(a-1) = (3x+2)(x+ y-z-1-x- y+1)=-Z(3x+2)

26. SSm2n3x+ llOm2n3x2 - 22Om2/ = SSm2 (n3x+ 2n3x2 - 4/)


27. 93a3x2y_ 62a2x3i-124a2x
= 31a2 x (3axy- 2x2i- 4)
28. X-X2+X3-i=x(1-x+x2-X3)
29. a6-3a~ +8a3-4a2=a2(a~ -3a2+8a-4)
30. 2Sx7 -lOx' + 1Sx3 -Sx2 = Sx2 (Sx' - 2x3 + 3x-1)
31. Xl5 - Xl2 + 2x9 - 3i= i (X9 - i + 2x3 - 3)
32. 9a2 -12ab+ 1Sa3b2 - 24ab3 = 3a (3a - 4b+ Sa2b2 - '6b3)
33. 16x3i-8x2y-24x4i-40x2/ = 8x2y(2xy-1- 3x2y- si)
EJERCICIO 90
34. 12m2n+24m3n2-36m4n3+48m'n4 = 12m2n(1 + 2mn- 3m2n2 +4m3n3)
35. lOOa2b3c-1S0ab2c2 +SOab3c3 - 200abc2 = SOabc(2ab2 - 3bc+ b2c2 -4c)
36. x5-i+x3-x2+x=x(i-x3+x2-x+1)
37. a2-2a3+3a4-4a'+6a6
= a2 (1- 2a+ 3a2 -4a3 +6a4)
38. 3a2b+ 6ab-Sa3b2 + 8a2bx+4ab2m = ab(3a+ 6- Sa2b+ 8ax+ 4bm)
39. a20_a16+a12_a8+a4_a2
2 (18 14 + 10 6 + 2 1)
=a a -a a -a a-
19. (x2 + 2)(m- n)+ 2(m- n)= (m- n)(x2 +4) ~.a~-0-~+~~-0=~-0~-a-~=-Z~-0 21. 5x(a
2 + 1)+ (x+ 1) (a2 + 1)= (a2 + 1)(6x+ 1)
22. (a+b)(a-b)-(a-b)(a-b)
= (a-b)(a+ b- a+b)= Zb(a- b)
~·~+0~-~+~-0~-~=~~-~
24. (x+ m)(x+ 1)- (x+ 1)(x- n)
= (x+ 1)(x+ m- x+ n)= (x+ 1)(m+ n)
EJERCICIO 91
1. a2+ab+ax+bx
= (a2 + ab)+ (ax+bx) =a(a+b)+x(a+b) =(a+b)(a+x)
2. am-bm+an-bn
= (am- bm)+ (an- bn) =m(a-b)+n(a-b)
= (a-b)(m+n)
3. ax- 2bx- 2ay+ 4by
= (ax- 2bx)- (2ay- 4by) = x(a- 2b)- 2y(a- 2b) = (a-2b)(x-2y)
4. a2x2 -3bx2 + a21- 3bl
= (a2x2 - 3bx2)+ (a21- 3bl)
2( 2 3b) ? (? )
= X a - + y- a- - 3b
=(a2-3b)(x2+1)
5. 3m-2n-2nx4 +3mx4
= (3m+ 3mx4)- (2n+ 2nx4) = 3m (1 + x4)-2n(1 + x4) =(1+x4)(3m-2n)
6. x2-a2+x-a2x
=-(a2+a2x)+(x2+X) =-a2(1+x)+x(x+1) = (x+ l)(x- a2)
7.4a3-1-a2+4a
= (4a3 +4a)- (1 + a2) =4a(a2+1)-(1+a2) = (a2 + 1)(4a-1)
8. x + x2 - xl-l
=(x +x2)-(xl+ l) =x(1+x)-l(x+1) =(x+1)(x-l)
9. 3abx2 - 21- 2x2 + 3abl
= (3abx2 + 3abl)- (21 + 2x2) = 3ab(x2 + l)- 2(x2 + l)
= (x2 + l )(3ab- 2)
10. 3a-b2+2b2x -6ax
= (3a- 6ax)- (b2 - 2b2x) = 3a (1- 2x)- b2 (1- 2x) = (1- 2x)(3a- b2)
11.4a3x-4a2b+3bm-3amx
= (4a3 x- 4a2b )+ (3bm- 3amx) = 4a2 (ax- b)+ 3m(b- ax)
= 4a2 (ax- b)- 3m(ax- b)
= (ax- b )(4 a 2 - 3m)
12.6ax+3a+1+2x
= (6ax+ 3a)+ (1 + 2x) = 3a (2x+ 1)+ (2x+ 1) =(2x+1) (3a+1)
13. 3x3 - 9ax2 - x+ 3a
= (3x3 - x)- (9ax2 - 3a) = X (3x2 -1)- 3a (3x2 -1) = (3x2 -l)(x- 3a)
14. 2a2x- Sa2y+ 15by- 6bx
= (2a2x- Sa2y)+ (l5by- 6bx) = a2 (2x-Sy)+ 3b(Sy- 2x)
= a2(2x-Sy)-3b(2x-Sy) = (2x-Sy)(a2-3b)
15. 2x2y+2xz2+ lz2+xy'
= (2x2y+ xy')+ (2xz' + lz') =xy(2x+ l)+ Z2 (2x+ l)
= (2x+ l )(xy+ z')
16.6m-9n+21nx-14mx
= (6m-14mx)- (9n- 21nx) = 2m(3-7x)- 3n(3-7x) =(3-7x)(2m-3n)
17. n2x-Sa21-n21+Sa2x
= (n2x -n21)-(Sa21-Sa2x) =n2(x -l)-Sa2(l-x) =n2(x -l)+Sa2(x -l)
=(x -l)(n2+Sa2)
18.1+a+3ab+3b =(l+a)+ (3ab+3b) =(1+a)+3b (a+1) = (1 + a )(3b+ 1)
19. 4am3 -12amn- m2 + 3n
= (4am3 -12amn)- (m2 - 3n) = 4am(m2 - 3n)- (m2 - 3n)
= (m2 - 3n)(4am-1)
20. 20ax-Sbx- 2by+ 8ay
= (20ax+ 8ay)- (Sbx+ 2by) = 4a(Sx+ 2y)- b(Sx+ 2y) = (SX+ 2y)(4a-b)
21. 3- x2 + 2abx2 - 6ab
= (3- x2)+ (2abx2 - 6ab) = (3- x2)+ 2ab(x2 - 3)
= (3- x2)_ 2ab(3- x2)
= (3-x2)(1-2ab)
22. a3+a2+a+1 =(a3+a2)+(a+1) = a2 (a+ 1)+ (a+ 1) = (a2 + l)(a+ 1)
23. 3a2-7b2x+ 3ax-7ab2
= (3a2 + 3ax)- (7b2x+ 7ab2) =3a(a+x)-7b2(x+a) =(a+x)(3a-7b2)
24. 2am-2an+2a-m+n-1
= (2am- 2an+ 2a)- (m- n+ 1) = 2a (m- n+ 1)- (m-n+ 1) =(2a-1)(m-n+1)
25. 3ax- 2by- 2bx- 6a+ 3ay+ 4b
= (3ax- 6a+ 3ay)- (2by+ 2bx-4b) =3a(x-2+ y)-2b(y+x-2) =(x+ y-2)(3a-2b)
26. a3+a+a2+1+x2 +a2x2
= (a3 + a2 + a2x2)+ (a+ 1 + x2) =a2(a+1+x2)+ (a+1+x2) =(a2+1) (a+1+x2)
27. 3a3 - 3a2b+ 9ab2 - a2 + ab- 3h2
= (3a3- 3a2b+9ab2)-(a2-ab+3h2)
( ? 2) (2 b 3h2)
= 3a a--ab+3h - a -a +
= (3a-1)(a2 - ab+ 3h2)
EJERCICIO 92
1. a2-2ab+b2=(a-b)'
2. a2+2ab+b2=(a+b)'
3. x2 - 2x+ 1= (x-1)'
4. / +21 + 1=(/+ 1Y
5. a2-lOa+2S=(a-S)' 6.9-6x+x2=(3-x)'
7. 16+40x2+25x~=(4+5x2Y 8.1-14a+49a2=(1-7a)'
9. 36+12m2+m~=(6+m2)2
10.1-2a3+a6=(1-a3Y
11. a8+18a~ +81=(a~ +9Y
12. a6_2a3b3+b6=(a3_b3Y
13. 4x2 -12xy+ 9/ = (2x- 3y)'
14. 9b2-30a2b+25a~=(3b-5a2Y
15. 1+ 14x2y+49il = (1 + 7x2yy
16. 1- 2a5 + alO = (1- a5)2
28. 2x3 - nx2 + 2xl- nl- 3n/ + 6x/
= - (nx2 + nl + 3n/)+ (2x3 + 2xl + 6xy2) =-n(x2+ l +3/)+2x(x2 + l +3/)
= (2x- n)(x2 + 3/ + l)
29. 3x3 + 2axy + 2a/- 3x/- 2ax2 - 3x2 y
= (3x3 - 3xy'- 3x2y)+ (2axy+ 2ay'- 2ax2) =3x(x2 -y'- xy)+2a(xy+ y'- x2) =3x(x2 -
y'- xy)- 2a(- xy-y' +x2)
= (3x- 2a)(x2 - xy-y')
30 a2b3 - n4 + a2b3x2 - n4x2 - 3a2b3x+ 3n4x
= (a2b3 + a2b3x2 _ 3a2b3x)- (n4 + n4x2 - 3n4x) = a2b3 (1 +x2 -3x)-n4 (1+ x2 - 3x
)
= (a2b3 - n4 )(1 + x2 - 3x)
= (7m3-San2f 29. a2+2a(a+b)+(a+b)'
18. lOOxlO-60a~x5l+9a8i2 =(a+a+b)'=(2a+b)'
=(lOx5-3a~lY 30.4-4(1-a)+(1-a)'
19. 121+ 198x6+81x12 =(1l+9i)2 =(2-1+a)'=(1+a)'
20. a2-24am2x2+144m~x~ 31.4m2-4m(n-m)+(n-m)'
= (a-12m2x2f =(2m-n+m)'=(3m-n)'
21. 16-104i + 169x~ = (4-13i)2 32. (m- n)' + 6(m- n)+ 9
22. 400xlO+40x5+ 1= (20x5 + 1Y =(m-n+3)'
a2 ? (a)2 33. (a+x)' -2(a+x)(x+ y)+(x+ y)'
23 --ab+b-= --b )2 ( )2
. 4 2 =(a+x-x-y = a-y
? ( b)2 2
24. 1+ 2b +~= 1+- 34. (m+n)2 -2(a-m)(m+n)+(a-m)
3 9 3 2 ( )2
=(m+n-a+m) = 2m+n-a
25. a~-a2b2+: =(a2_ b~r 35.4(1+a)'-4(1+a)(b-1)+(b-1)'
? 4 ( 2)2 =(2+2a-b+1)' =(2a-b+3)'
1 x- 25x 1 5x
26. 25 -3+36= 5-6 36. 9(x- y)' +12(x- y)(x+ y)+4(x+ y)'
~ ( 2)2 =(3x-3y+2x+2y)' = (Sx- y)'
6 32Y 43Y
27. 16x -2x y +16"= x-4
EJERCICIO 93
1. x'-/=(x+ y)(x- y)
2. a' -1= (a+ l)(a-l)
3. a'-4=(a+2)(a-2) 4.9-b'=(3+b)(3-b)
5. 1-4m' = (1 + 2m)(1- 2m) 6.16-n'=(4+n)(4-n)
7. a'-25=(a+5)(a-5) 8.1-/=(1+ y)(l- y)
9. 4a' - 9= (2a+ 3)(2a - 3)
10. 25- 36x~ = (5+ 6x2 )(5- 6x2) 11.1-49a'b'=(1+7ab)(1-7ab) 12.4x2-81/=(2x+9l)(2
x-9l)
13. a2b8-c2=(ab~ +c)(ab~ -e)
14. lOO-x2/= (10+ x/)(lO-x/)
15. alO-49b12=(a5+7b6)(a5-7b6)
16. 25x2l-121= (5xl + 11 )(5xl-11)
17. 100m2n4 -169/
= (lOmn2 + 13y')(lOmn2 -By')
18. a2m~n6 -144 = (am2n3 + 12)(am2n3 -12)
19. 196x2/ - 225z12
= (14xl + 15l)(14xl-15l)
20. 256a12 _ 289b4m10
= (16a6 + 17b2m')(16a6 -17b2m')
21.1-9a2b~c6d 8 = (1 + 3ab2c3d ~ )(1- 3ab2c3d ~)
22. 361xl~ -1= (19x7 + 1)(19x7 -1)
23. ±-9a'=(±+3a )(±-3a)
24 1- a2 =(1+~)(1-~)
. 25 5 5
25. 1~- ~2 =(±+ 2;)(±_ 2;)
26. ;> ;:=( ~+ x:)( ~_ x:)
30. a2n - b2n = (a" + bn )(an - bn)
31. 4x2n -i=( 2xn +~)( 2xn -~)
32. a~n - 225b~ = (a2n + 15b2 )(a2n -15b2)
?n ( n ) ( n)
16x6m _ L= 4x3m + L 4x3m _ L
33. 49 7 7
b12x ( b6X) ( b6X)
49a10n __ = 7a'n+- 7a'n_-
34. 81 9 9
35 a'nb4n - ~= (anb,n +.!.) (anb,n _.!.)
. ~ 5 5
1 'n (1 n) (1 n)
36. 100 -x- = lO+x lO-x
EJERCICIO 94
1. (x+ y)' -a'=(x+ y+a)(x+ y-a)
2. 4-(a+l)' =(2+a+l)(2- a-l)=(3+a)(1-a)
3. 9-(m+n)' =(3+m+n)(3-m-n)
4. (m-n)' -16=(m-n+4)(m-n-4)
5. (x- y)' - 4z' = (x- y+ 2z)(x- y- 2z)
6. (a+2b)' -1=(a+2b+l)(a+2b-l)
7. 1-(x-2y)' =(1+x-2y)(1-x+2y)
8. (x+Za)' -4x'
= (x+ Za+ Zx)(x+ Za- Zx)= (3x+ Za )(Za- x)
9. (a+b)' -(c+d)' =(a+b+c+d )(a+b-c-d) 10. (a-b)' -(c-d)' =(a-b+c-d )(a-b-c+d)
11. (x+1)' -16x'
= (x+ 1 + 4x)(x+ 1- 4x)= (Sx+ 1)(1- 3x)
12. 64m' - 0n- 2n)'
= (Sm+m- 2n)(Sm- m+ 2n)= (9m- 2n)(7m+ 2n)
13. (a-2b)' -(Xi y)' =(a-2b+x+ y)(a-Zb-x- y)
14. (2a-e)' -(ate)'
= (2a -e+ a + e)(2a - e- a - e)= (3a) (a - 2e)
15. (x+1)' -4x'
= (x+ 1 + 2x)(x+ 1- 2x)= (3x+ 1)(1- x)
16. 36x' - (a+ 3x)'
= (6x+ a+ 3x)(6x- a- 3x)= (9x+ a)(3x- a)
17. a6-(a-1Y =(aJta-l)(aJ-atl)
18. (a-1)' -(m-2)'
= (a-1 + m- 2)(a-1- m+ 2)= (a+ m- 3)(a- m+ 1)
19. (2x-3)' -(x-S)'
= (2x- 3+ x-S)(2x- 3- x+S)= (3x-S)(x+2)
20. 1- (Sa+ Zx)' = (1 + Sa+ Zx)(l-Sa- Zx)
21. (7x+y)' -Sl=(7x+y+9)(7x+y-9)
22. m6_(m2_1)2 =(m3tm2-1)(m3-m2tl)
23. 16a10 - (2a2 t 3f = (4as t 2a2 t 3)(4as - 2a2 - 3)
24. (x- y)' -(e+d)' =(x- y+e+d)(x- y-e-d)
EJERCICIO 95
=(a+b)' -x' =(a+b+x)(a+b-x)
=(a_1)2_b2 =(a-1+b)(a-1-b)
2. x'-Zxy+y'-m'
=(x- y)' _m' =(n+3)' _e'
=(x- y+m)(x- y-m) =(n+3+e)(n+3-e)
3. m2+Zmn+n2-1
6. a2 + x2 + Zax-4
= (m+n)' -1 =(m+n+1)(m+n-1)
=(a+xY -4 =(a+x+Z)(a+x-Z)
25. (Za+b-e)' -(a+b)'
= (Za +b- e+ a+ b)(Za+ b- e- a -b) =(3a+Zb-e)(a-e)
26. 100- (x- y+ z)' = (10+ x- y+ z)(lO- x+ y- z)
27. x2_(y-x)' =(x+ y-x)(x- y+x)=(y)(Zx- y)
28. (2x+3)' -(Sx-1)'
= (2x+3+Sx-1)(2x+ 3-Sx+ 1)= (7x+2)(4-3x)
29. (x- y+z)' -(y-z+2x)'
=(x- y+z+ y-z+2x)(x- y+z- y+z-2x) =(3x)(2z-2y-x)
30. (2x+1)'-(x+4)'
= (2x+ 1 + x+4)(2x+ 1- x-4)= (3x+ S)(x- 3)
31. (a + 2x+ 1)' - (x+ a-1)'
= (a+ 2x+ 1 + x+ a-1)(a+ 2x+ 1- x-a+ 1)
=(2a+3x)(x+2)
32. 4(x+a)' -49/=(Zx+Za+7y)(Zx+Za-7y)
33. ZS(x- y)' -4(x+ y)'
= (Sx-Sy+ Zx+ ZY)(Sx-Sy- Zx- Zy) = (7x-3y)(3x-7y)
34. 36(m+n)' -1Z1(m-n)'
= (6m+ 6n+ 1lm-lln)(6m+ 6n-1lm+ lln) = (17m- Sn)(17n- Sm)
7. a'+4-4a-9b' = (a- Z)' - 9b'
= (a+ 3b- Z)(a- 3b- Z)
10.4x'+ZSy'-36+Z0xy = (Zx+Sy)' -36
= (Zx+ Sy+ 6)(Zx+ Sy- 6)
8. x2+4y'-4xy-1
= (x-2Y)' -1
= (x- 2y+ 1)(x- 2y-1)
11.9x2-1+16a2-Z4ax =(3x-4a)2-1
= (3x- 4a + 1)(3x-4a -1)
9. a2-6ay+9y2-4x2 12.1+64a2b2-x4-16ab
= (a-3Y)' -4x2 = (Sab-1)' _x4
= (a- 3y+ Zx)(a- 3y- Zx) = (Sab-1 + x2)(Sab-1- x2)
13. a2-b2-2be-e2 =a2-(b2+2be+e2) =a2-(b+e)" =(a+b+e)(a-b-e)
14.1-a2+2ax-x2 =1-(a2-2ax+x2)
=l-(a-x)" =(l+a-x)(l-a+x)
15. m2 - x2 - 2xy- y2
=m2 - (x2 + 2xy+ l) =m2-(x+y)" =(m+x+ y)(m-x- y)
16. e2-a2+2a-1 =e2-(a2-2a+1)
=e2-(a-1)"
= (e+ a-1)(e- a+ 1)
17.9-n2-25-lOn
= 9- (n2 + lOn+ 25) =9-(n+5)" =(3+n+5)(3-n-5) =-(n+8)(n+2)
18.4a2-x2+4x-4 =4a2 - (x2 -4x+4)
=4a2-(x-2)"
= (2a+ x- 2)(2a- x+ 2)
19.1-a2-9n2-6an =1-(a2+6an+ 9n2)
=1-(a+3n)" =(a+3n+1)(1-a-3n)
20. 25- x2 -16l + 8xy
= 25- (x2 - 8xy+ 16l) =25-(x-4Y)"
= (5+ x-4y)(5- x+ 4y)
=(a-b)" -(e+dY = (3m-lOY -(a-edY
= (a -b+ e+ d)(a -b- e- d) = (3m-10+a-ed)(3m-10-a+ ed)
26. x2+2xy+y2_m2+2mn_n2 35.4a2-9x2+49b2-30xy-25/-28ab
=(x+ yY -(m-nY = (4a2-28ab+49b2)-(9x2+30xy+25/)
=(x+ y+m-n)(x+ y-m+n) = (2a-7bY -(3x+5yY
27. a2 +4b2 +4ab- x2 - 2ax- a2 = (2a-7b+ 3x+ 5y )(2a-7b- 3x-5y)
=(a2+4ab +4b2)-(x2+2ax+a2) 36. 225a2-169b2+1+30a+26be-e2
= (225a2 + 30a + 1)- (169b2 - 26be+ e2)
=(15a+1)2 -(13b-e)
= (15a+ 1 + 13b- e)(15a+ 1-13b+ e)
37. x2-y2+4+4x-1-2y =(x2 +4x+4)- V +2y+ 1) =(x+2)" -(y+1)"
= (x+ 2+ y+ l)(x+ 2- y-1) = (x+ y+ 3)(x- y+ 1)
21.9x2-a2-4m2+4am
= 9x2 - (a2 - 4am+ 4m2)
'( )2
=9x-- a-2m
= (3x+ a- 2m) (3x- a+ 2m)
22. 16x2y2 + 12ab-4a2 - 9b2 =16x2y2_(4a2 -12ab+9b2)
, '( )2
= 16x-y- - 2a- 3b
= (4xy+ 2a- 3b)(4xy- 2a+ 3b)
23. - a2 + 25m2 -1- 2a =25m2-(a2+2a+1) =25m2-(a+1)"
= (5m+ a + 1)(5m- a -1)
24. 49x4 - 25x2 - 91 + 30xy =49x4 - (25x2 - 30xy+ 91) =49x4 -(5x-3y)"
= (7 x2 +5x- 3y )(7x2 -5x+ 3y)
=(a+2b)" -(x+a)"
= (a+ 2b+ x+ a)(a+ 2b- x- a) = (2a+ 2b+ x)(2b- x)
28. x2 +4a2 - 4ax- y2 - 9b2 + 6by
=(x2 -4ax+4a2)- (y"-6by+ 9b2) = (x-2a)" -(y-3b)"
=(x-2a+ y-3b)(x-2a- y+3b)
29. m2 - x2 + 9n2 + 6mn-4ax-4a2
30.9x2+4/-a2-12xy-25b2-10ab
= (9x2 -12xy+ 4/)- (a2 + 10ab+ 25b2) = (3x-2yY _(a+5b)2
= (3x- 2y+ a + 5b )(3x- 2y- a- 5b)
31.2am-x2-9+a2+m2-6x
= (a2 + 2am+ m2)_ (x2 + 6x+ 9)
=(a+m)" -(x+3)"
=(a+m+x+3)(a+m- x-3)
32. x2-9a4+6a2b+1+2x-b2
= (x2 + 2x+ 1)- (b2 - 6a2b+ 9a4) = (x+ 1)2 - (b- 3a2)"
= (x+ 1 +b- 3a2)(x+ 1-b+ 3a2)
33. 16a2 -l-lOm+ 9x2 - 24ax- 25m2
= (16a2 - 24ax+ 9x2)- (25m2 + 10m + 1) = (4a-3x)" -(5m+1)"
= (4a- 3x+ 5m+ 1)(4a- 3x-5m-1)
34. 9m2 _a2 + 2aed- e2d 2 + 100- 60m
= - (a2 _ 2aed + e2d 2)+ (9m2 - 60m+ 100)
38. a2 -16- x2 + 36+ 12a - 8x
= (m2 + 6mn+ 9n2)- (x2 +4ax+4a2) = (a2 + 12a+ 36)- (x2 + 8x+ 16)
=(m+3n)" -(x+2a)" =(a+6Y -(x+4)'
= (m+ 3n+ x+ 2a )(m+ 3n- x- 2a) = (a+ 6+ x+4)(a+ 6- x-4) =(a+x+1O)(a-x+2)
EJERCICIO 96
2 -a
(a" + 2a2 + 1)- a2 =(a2+1Y _a2
= (a2 + a+ 1)(a2 - a+ 1)
2. m4+m2n2+n4
= (m2 + n2 + mn)(m2 + n2 - mn)
3. x8+3x4+4
4 -x
=(x4+2Y _x4
= (x4 + x2 + 2)(x4 - x2 + 2)
4. a4+2a2+9
+4a2 -4a2
=(a2+3Y -4a2
= (a2 + 2a+ 3)(a2 -2a+ 3)
7. 4a4 + 3a2b2 + 9b4 + 9a2b2
4a4 + 12a2b2 + 9b4 _ 9a2b2 = (2a2 + 3h2 y - 9a2b2
= (2a2 + 3ab+ 3h2 )(2a2 - 3ab+ 3b2)
8.4x4-29x2+2S
+ 9x2 -9x2
( " )2 "
= 2x--S -9x-
= (2x2 + 3x-S)(2x2 - 3x-S)
9. x8+4x"y"+16/
+ 4x"y" - 4x"y"
x8 + 8x"y" + 16/- 4x"y" = (x" + 4 y" Y - 4x"y"
= (x" + 2x2l + 4y" )(x" - 2x2l + 4y")
2 2 -m n
36x4 - 84x2l+49/ - 2Sx2l = (a2 + ab- b2)(a2 - ab-b2)
=(6x2-7lY -2Sx2l
= (6x2+Sxy -7l)(6x2-SXY -7l)
6. x" - 6x2 + 1
=(4m2-3n2Y _m2n2
= (4m2 + mn- 3n2)(4m2 - mn- 3n2)
= (Sa2 + 7b2 y -16a2b2
= (Sa2 + 4ab + 7b2 )(Sa2 - 4ab + 7b2)
12. 36x4 -109x2l +49/ + 2Sx2l
+4x2 -4x2 13. 81m8+2m4+1
x"-2x2+1-4x2 + 16m4 -16m4
= (x2 -lY - 4x2 81m8 + 18m4 + 1-16m4
=(x2+2x-l)(x2-2x-l) =(9m4+1Y -16m4
= (9m4 + 4m2 + 1) (9m4 -4m2 + 1)
= (e2 -lOY - 2Se2
= (e2 + Se - 10) (e2 - Se - 10)
15. 4a8 - 53a4b4 + 49b8
+ 25a4b4 _ 25a4b4
4a8 - 28a4b4 + 49b8 - 25a4b4 = (2a4 - 7b4)' - 25a4b4
= (2a4 + 5a'b' - 7b4 )(2a4 - 5a'b' - 7b4)
16. 49+ 76n2 + 64n"
49 + 112n2 + 64n" - 36n2
( 2)2 2
= 7+8n -36n
= (8n2 + 6n+ 7)(8n2 - 6n+ 7)
17.2Sx4-139x2l+81/
+ 49x2y' -49x2y'
2Sx4 - 90x2y' + 81/ - 49x2y' = (Sx2-9y'Y -49x2y'
= (Sx2 + 7xy- 9y')(Sx2 -7 xy- 9y')
18. 49x8+76x4/ +100y'
+ 64x4/ -64x4/
49x8 + 140x4/ + 100y' - 64x4/ = (7x4 + 10/)' -64x4/
= (7x4 + 8x2y' + 1O/)(7x4 - 8x2y' + 10/)
( ")2 "
= 2-11x- - 64x-
= (2+ 8x-llx2)(2- 8x-llx2)
20. 121x" -133x2y" + 36/ + x2y"
2 " -x y
121x" -132x2y" + 36/- x2y" = (l1x2 - 6y" Y - x2y"
= (11x2 + xy2 _ 6y" )(11x2 _ xy2 - 6y")
21. 144+23n6+9n12
+ 49n6 -49n6
144+ 72n6 + 9n12 -49n6 =(12+3n6Y -49n6
= (12+ 7n3 + 3n6)(12-7n3 + 3n6)
22. 16- ge4 + e8
4 -e
( 4)2 4
= 4- e - e
( 2 4)(4 2 4)
= 4+ e - e - e - e
23. 64a4 -169a2b4 + 8lb8
+ 25a2b4 - 25a2b4
64a4 -144a2b4 + 8lb8 - 25a2b4
=(8a2-9b4Y -25a2b4
= (8a2 + 5ab- 9b4 )(8a2 - 5ab- 9b4)
24. 225+ 5m2 + m4 + 25m2
=(15+m2Y -25m2
= (m2 + 5m+ 15)(m2 - 5m+ 15)
EJERCICIO 97
1. x" +64y"
+ 16x2i -16x2i
x" + 16x2i + 64y" -16x2i =(x2+8iY -16x2i
= (x2 +4.xy+ 8i )(x2 -4.xy+ 8i)
2.4x8 + y'
+4x4/
-4x4/
4x8+4x4/+ y'- 4x4/ =(2x4+/)"-4x4/
= (2x4 + 2x2/ + / )(2x4 - 2x2/ + /)
25. 1-126a2b4 + 169a4b8
+ lOOa2b4 -lOOa2b4
1- 26a2b4 + 169a4b8 -lOOa2b4 =(1-13a2b4Y -lOOa2b4
= (1 + lOab2 _13a2b4 )(1-lOab2 _13a2b4)
26. x"y" + 21x2i + 121 + x2i
2 2 -x y
x"y" + 22x2i + 121- x2i = (x2i + 11Y - x2i
= (x2i +.xy+ 11) (xV -.xy+ 11)
27. 4ge8 + 75e4m2n2 + 196m4n4
+ 12lc4m2n2 -12lc4m2n2
4ge8 + 196e4m2n2 + 196m4n4 -12lc4m2n2 = (7e4 + 14m2n2Y -12lc4m2n2
= (7e4 + 1lc2mn+ 14m2n2)(7e4 -llc2mn+ 14m2n2)
28. 81a4b8 - 292a2b4x8 + 256x16
+ 4a2b4x8
81a4b8 - 288a2b4x8 + 256x16 - 4a2b4x8 =(9a2b4-16x8Y _4a2b4x8
= (9a2b4 + 2ab2 x4 -16x8 )(9a2b4 - 2ab2 x4 -16x8)
3. a4 + 324b4
+ 36a2b2 - 36a2b2
5.4 + 625x8
+ lOOx4 -lOOx4
4+ lOOx4 + 625x8 -lOOx4 = (2+ 25x4)" -lOOx4
= (25x4 + lOx2 + 2 ) (25x4 -lOx2 + 2)
=(a2+18b2Y -36a2b2
= (a2 + 6ab+ 18b2 )(a2 - 6ab+ 18b2)
=(8+a6Y -16a6
= (a6 + 4a3 + 8)(a6 -4a3 + 8) = (2m2 + 6mn + 9n2 ) (2m2 - 6mn + 9n2)
7. 1 +4n"
+ 4n2 - 4n2
1+ 4n2+4n"- 4n2 = (1 + 2n2 f - 4n2
= (2n2 + 2n + 1)(2n2 - 2n+ 1)
EJERCICIO 98
1. x2+7x+1O=(x+5)(x+2)
2. x2-5x+6=(x-3)(x-2)
3. x2+3x-1O=(x+5)(x-2)
4. x2 + x- 2= (x+ 2)(x-1)
5. a2+4a+ 3= (a +3)(a + 1)
6. m2+5m-14=(m+7)(m-2)
7. y'-9y+20=(y-5)(y-4)
8. x2-x-6=(x-3)(x+2)
9. x2-9x+8=(x-8)(x-1)
10. e2+5e-24=(e+8)(e-3)
11. x2-3x+2=(x-2)(x-1)
12. a2+7a+6=(a+6)(a+1)
13. y' -4y+ 3= (y- 3)(y-1)
14. n2-8n+12=(n-6)(n-2)
15. x2+lOx+21=(x+7)(x+3)
16. a2+7a-18=(a+9)(a-2)
17. m2-12m+11=(m-11)(m-1)
18. x2-7x-30=(x-1O)(x+3)
19. n2+6n-16=(n+8)(n-2)
20. a2 - 21a+ 20= (a- 20)(a-1)
21. y'+ y-30=(y+6)(y-5)
22. a2-11a+28=(a-7)(a-4)
23. n2-6n-40=(n-1O)(n+4)
24. x2-5x-36=(x-9)(x+4)
25. a2 - 2a- 35= (a-7)(a+5)
26. x2+14x+13=(x+13)(x+1)
8.64x8 +y'
+ 16x4l -16x4l
64x8 + 16x4l + y'-16x4l =(8x4+lf -16x4l
= (8x4 +4x2y' + l )(8x4 -4x2y' + l)
9. 81a4 + 64b4
+ 144a2b2 - 144a2b2
81a4 + 144a2b2 + 64b4 -144a2b2
27. a2 -14a + 33= (a-11)(a- 3)
28. m2+13m-30=(m+15)(m-2)
29. e2-13e-14=(c-14)(e+1)
30. x2 + 15x+ 56= (x+ 8)(x+ 7)
31. x2-15x+54=(x-9)(x-6)
32. a2+7a-60=(a+12)(a-5)
33. x'-17x-60
~~ r;~ 2·2·5=20
15 3 3·1=3
5 =}20-3=17
1 = (x-20)(x+ 3)
34. x2 + 8x-180 180 2
90 2 2·3·3=18
45 3 2·5= 10
15 3 =} 18-10= 8
5 5 = (x+ 18)(x-1O)
1
35. m2-20m-300 300 2
150 2 2·3·5= 30
75 3 2·5= 10
25 5 =} 30-10= 20
5 5 = (m- 30)(m+ 10)
1
36. x' + x-132
132 r
66 2·2·3= 12
33 3 11·1=11
11 11 =} 12-11= 1
1 = (x+ 12)(x-11)
=(9a2+8b2)' -144a2b2
= (9a2 + 12ab+ 8b2 )(9a2 -12ab+ 8b2)
37. m2-2m-168 168 2
84 2 2·2·3=12
42 2 2·7=14
21 3 =}14-12=2
7 7 =(m-14)(m+12)
1
38. e2 + 24e + 135 135 3
45 3 3·3=9
15 3 3·5= 15
55=} 15+9=24
=(e+15)(e+9)
39. m2 - 41m+ 400 400 2
200 2 24 = 16
100 2 52 =25
50 2 =} 25+ 16= 41
25 5 = (m- 25)(m-16)
5 5
1
40. a' + a - 380 380 2
190 2 2' ·5= 20
95 5 19·1= 19
19 19 =} 20-19= 1
= (a+ 20)(a-19)
41. x' + 12x- 364 364 2
182 2 2·13= 26
91 7 2·7=14
13 13 =} 26-14= 12
= (x+ 26)(x-14)
42. a2 + 42a + 432 432 2
216 2 23.3=24
108 2 2.32=18
54 2 =} 24+ 18= 42
27 3 =(a+24)(a+18) 9 3
3 3
1
43. m2 - 30m- 675 675 3
225 5 3·5·3=45
45 3 3·5= 15
15 3 =} 45-15= 30
5 5 = (m- 45)(m+ 15) 1
44. y2 + 50y + 336 336 3
112 2 3·7·2=42
56 2 23=8
28 2 =}42+8=50
14 2 =(y+42)(y+8) 7 7
1
EJERCICIO 99
45. x2-2x-528 528 2
264 2 23.3=24
132 2 2·11 =22
66 2 =} 24- 22= 2
33 3 =(x-24)(x+22) 11 11
1
46. n2 + 43n+ 432 432 2
216 2 108 2 54 2 =}16+27=43
24 = 16 33 =27
27 3 =(n+16)(n+27) 9 3
3 3
1
240 2
120 2 24 = 16
60 2 3·5= 15
30 2 =} 16-15= 1
47. c2-4c-320 320 2
160 2 24 = 16
802 22.5=20
40 2 =} 20-16=4
20 2 =(c-20)(c+16) 10 2
5 5
1
48. m2-8m-1.008 1.008 2
504 2 22 ·7= 28
252 2 22.32 =36
126 2 =} 36-28=8
63 3 =(m-36)(m+28)
21 3
7 7
1
22. x4y"+x'/-132 132 66 33 11
Z7. -n2+5n+14
2
2 2'2'3=12
3 11-1=11
11 =? 12-11= 1
= (x'/ + 12)(x'/ -11)
25. a2 +2axy-440X2y2
440 2
220 2 22.5=20
110 2 11·2=22
55 5 =?22-20=2
=-(n2-5n-14)
= - (n-7)(n+ 2)= (7 - n)(n+ 2)
28. x'+x3-930
=? 15-7=8
11 11 =(a+22xy)(a-20xy) 1
26. mOno - 21m3n3 + 104 104 2
52 2 23=8
26 2 13-1=13
13 13 =?13+8=21
= (m3n' -13)(m3n' - 8)
930 2
465 5 2·5·3=30
93 3 31·1=31
=- (x4 - 2x2 - 48) 31 31 =? 31- 30= 1
= - (x2 _ 8) (x2 + 6) = (8 - x2 ) (x2 + 6) = (x3 + 31) (x3 - 30)
24. (c+d)2 -lS(c+d)+65 29. (4x2)' -8(4x2)-105
=(c+d-13)(c+d-5) 105 5
21 3 5·3=15
7 7 7·1=7
1
EJERCICIO 100
1. 2x' + 3x- 2 =4x'+3(2x)-4 (2x+ 4 )(2x-1) 2
= (x+ 2)(2x-1)
2.3x'-5x-2 =9x'-5(3x)-6 (3x- 6)(3x+ 1) 3
= (x- 2)(3x+ 1)
3.6x'+7x+2
= 36x' + 7 (6x) + 12 (6x+4)(6x+3) 2·3
=(3x+2)(2x+1)
31. a4 -a'b'-156b4 156 2
78 2 2'·3=12
39 3 13·1=13
13 13 =?13-12=1
= (a' -13b' )(a' + 12b')
4. 5x' + 13x- 6
= 25x' + 13(5x)- 30 (5x+ 15)(5x- 2)
5
= (x+ 3)(5x- 2) 5.6x'-5x-6
= 36x' - 5 (6x) - 36 (6x-9)(6x+4) 3·2
=(2x- 3)(3x+2) 6.12x'-x-6
= 144x' -1(12x)-72 (12x-9)(12x+S) 3-4
= (4x- 3)(3x+ 2)
7.4a'+15a+9
= 16a' + 15(4a)+ 36 (4a+12)(4a+3) 4
= (a+ 3)(4a+ 3)
8.10a'+l1a+3
= 100a' + 11(10a) + 30 (lOa+ 6)(lOa+5) 2·5
= (5a+ 3)(2a+ 1)
9.12m'-13m-35
= 144m' -13(l2m)-420
420 4 4·7=28
105 5 5·3= 15
21 3 =? 28-15= 13
7
(12m-28)(12m+ 15)
7 =------
4·3
= (3m-7)(4m+5)
32. _x2 +4ax+21a2 =_(x2 -4ax-21a2)
=-(x-7a)(x+3a) = (7a-x)(x+3a)
33. x8y'-15x4l-100a2 =(x4l-20a)(x4l+5a)
34. (a _1)' +3 (a -1)-10S lOS 2
54 2 2'·3=12
27 3 3' =9
9 3 =? 12-9=3
3 3 =(a-1+12)(a-1-9)
=(a+11)(a-lO)
35. m2+abcm-56a2b2c2 = (m+ Sabc)(m-7abc)
36. (7x2)' + 24(7x2)+ 128 128 4
32 4
8 4 4·2=8
2 2 =? 16+8=24
42 = 16
10.20y2+y-1
=400y2 + 1(20y)- 20 (20y+ 5)(20y-4) 5-4
= (4y+ 1)(5y-1)
11.
8a2-14a-15
= 64a2 -14(8a) -120 1 O 2
6 2 2·2·5=20
3 2 2·3=6
1 3=?20-6=14
(8a - 20)(8a + 6)
5 5=-----
4·2
= (2a-5)(4a+3)
12.7x2-44x-35
=49x2 -44(7 x)- 245 245 5
49 7 7 7 1
7·7 =49 5·1=5
=> 49-5=44
(7x-49)(7x+5) 7 =(x-7)(7x+5)
13. 15m2 + 16m-15
= 225m2 + 16(15m) - 225 225 5
45 5 9 3 3 3
5·5 =25 3·3=9 => 25-9=16
(15m+ 25)(15m- 9) 5·3
= (3m+ 5)(5m- 3)
14.2a2+5a+2 =4a2+5(2a)+4 (2a+4)(2a+ 1) 2 =(a+2)(2a+1)
15. 12x2-7x-12
= 144x2 -7 (12x)-144 144 2
72 2 24=16
36 2 32 = 9
18 2 => 16-9=7
(12x-16)(12x+ 9)
9 3 - 4.3
3 3 = (3x-4)(4x+ 3)
1
16.9a2+lOa+1
= 81a2 + 1O(9a) + 9 (9a+ 9)(9a + 1) 9
= (a+ 1)(9a+ 1)
17. 20n2 - 9n- 20
= 400n2 - 9(20) - 400 400 2
200 2 100 2 50 2
24 = 16
52 =25
25
=> 25-16=9
(20n- 25)(20n+ 16) 5·4
= (4n-5)(5n+4)
5
5 5 1
18. 21x2+11x-2
= 441x2 + 11(21x)-42 (21x+ 14 )(21x- 3) 7·3
= (3x+ 2)(7 x-1)
19. 15m2 + m- 6
= 225m2 + 15m- 90
(15m+ 1O)(15m- 9) 5·3
= (3m + 2)(5m- 3)
20. 15a2-8a-12
= 225a2 - 8(15a)-180 180 2
90 2 45 5 9 3
3
3
2.52 = 50
2·3=6
=> 50-6=44
(20n+50)(20n- 6)
3 = 10.2
= (2n+ 5)(lOn- 3)
23.14m'-31m-1O
= 196m' - 31(l4m)-140 140 2
70 2 5·7=35
35 5 2·2=4
7 7=>35-4=31
(14m- 35)(14m+ 4) 7·2
= (2m-5)(7m+ 2)
24.2x2+29x+90
=4x2 + 29 (2x)+ 180 180 2
90 2 45 3 15 3
5
5
22.5=20 32=9
=> 20+9=29
(2x+20)(2x+9) 2 =(2x+1O)(2x+9)
25.20a'-7a-40
=400a' -7(20a)-SOO SOO 4
200 4
50 5
10 5
22.3=12
11·1=11 => 12-11= 1
(4n+ 12)(4n-11) 4
= (n+ 3)(4n-11)
Z7. 30x2 + 13x - 10
= 900x2 + 13(30x) - 300 300 2
150 2 75 5 15 5
3
3
52 = 25 22.3=12 => 25-12= 13
(30x+ 25)(30x-12) 5·6
4'·2=32 5'=25 =>32-25=7
(20a- 32) (20a + 25)
2.32=18 2 2 4.5
5·2=10 1 = (5a-S)(4a+5)
=>18-10=8 4n2+n-33
26.
(15a-18)(15a+1O) =16n2+4n-132
3 =------
3·5 132 2
= (5a-6)(3a+ 2) 66 2
21. 9x2+37x+4 33 3
=81x2+37(9x)+36 11 11
(9x+ 36)(9x+ 1)
9
= (x+4)(9x+ 1)
22.20n2+44n-15
=400n2 +44(20n)- 300 300 2
150 2 75 5 15 5
= (6x+5)(5x-2)
EJERCICIO 101
1.6x4+Sx2-6
= (6x2? +S(6x2)- 36 (6x2 + 9 )(6x2 - 4) 3·2
= (2x2 + 3)(3x2 - 2)
2. Sx6 +4x3 -12
= (Sx3? +4(Sx3)-60 (Sx3 + 10 )(Sx3 - 6) S =V+2)(Sx3-6)
3. lOx8 + 29x4 + 10
= (lOx4? + 29 (lOx4)+ 100 (lOx4 + 2S)(lOx4 + 4) S·2
= (2x4 +S)(Sx4 +2)
4.6a2x2+5ax-21 (6ax)" + 5(6ax)-126 126 2
63 3 21 7 3 3
2·7=14
3·3 =9
=} 14-9=5
(6ax+14)(6ax-9) 2·3
= (3ax+ 7)(2ax- 3)
5. 20X2y2 +9xy-20
= (20xyY + 9 (20xy)- 400 400 2
200 2 100 2 50 2
52 = 25
24 = 16 =} 25-16=9
(20xy+ 25)(20xy-16)
25 5 5-4
5 = (4xy+5)(5xy-4)
5 1
6. 15x2 - ax- 2a2
= (15x)" - a (15x) - 30a2 (15x- 6a)(15x+5a) 3·5
= (5x-2a)(3x+ a)
7. -lOx2-7x+12
=-(lOx2+7x-12)
=- [(lOx)2 +7(lOx)-120] 120 2
60 2 30 2 15 5 =} 15- 8= 7
5·3=15
23=8
- [(lOx+ 15)(lOx- 8)]
5·2
=-(2x+3)(5x-4) = (2x+3)(4-5x)
8. 21x2 - 29xy-72y2
= 441x2 - 29 (21xy )-1.512y2 1.512 2
756 2
3
3
23.7=56
378 189
33=27
2 3
=}56-27=29 (21x-56y )(21x+ 27 y) 7·3
= (3x-8y)(7x+9y)
63
3
21 7 1
9. 6m2 - 13am-15a2
3 7
= 36m2 -13(6am)- 90a2 (6m-18a)(6m+5a)
6
= (m-3a)(6m+5a)
10. 14x4 -45x2 -14
= (14x2)2 -45(14x2)-196 196 2
98 2 49 7 7 7
7·7=49 2·2=4 =}49-4=45
(14x2 - 49 )(14x2 + 4) 7·2
=(2x2-7)(7x2+2)
11. 30a2 -13ab- 3b2
= 900a2 - 13 (30ab) - 90b2 (30a -18b )(30a + 5b) 6·5
= (5a - 3b)(6a + b)
12. 7 x6 - 33x3-1O
= (7x3? -33(7x3)-70 (7x3 -3S)(7 x3 + 2)
7 =V-S)(7x3+2)
13. -3a2+13a+30 =-(3a2-13a-30)
= -(9a2-13(3a)-90) (3a-18)(3a+5)
3
= - (a- 6)(3a+ 5)
= (6-a)(3a+5)
14. -6x8+7x4+S =-(6x8-7x4-S)
= -((6x4? -7(6x4)-30) (6x4 -1O)(6x4 +3) 2·3
= - (3x4 - S)(2x4 + 1) = (S- 3x4 )(2x4 + 1)
15. 6a2 - ax -15x2
= 36a2 - 6ax - 90x2
(6a-lOx)(6a+9x) 2·3
= (3<1- 5x)(2a+ 3x)
16. 4x2 + 7mnx -15m2n2
= (4x)" + 7mn(4x)- 60m2n2 (4x+ 12mn )(4x-5mn)
4
= (x+ 3mn)(4x-5mn)
17. 18a' + 17 ay -15y'
= (l8a)' + 17y (l8a)- 270y' 270 2
135 5 27 3 9 3
33=27
3
5·2= 10 =} 27-10= 17
(18a+ 27y )(18a-lOy) 9·2 =(2a+3y)(9a-5y)
3
18. -Sx4+2x2+15 =-(Sx4-2x2-15)
= - ((SX2)2 _ 2(Sx2)-120) (SX2 -12)(SX2 + 10) 4·2
= - (2x2 - 3)(4x2 +5) = (3- 2x2 )(4x2 + 5)
19. -25x8+5x4+6 =- (25x8 -5x4 - 6)
=-((25x4t -5(25x4)-150) (25x4 -15)(25x4 + 10) 5·5
=-(5x4 -3)(5x4 +2)
= (3-5x4)(5x4 +2)
20. 30X1D - 91x5 - 30
= (30x5t -91(30x5)-900 (30x5 -100)(30x5 + 9) 10·3
= (3x5 -1O)(lOx5 + 3)
EJERCICIO 102
3' ()3
1. a +3a-+3a+1= a+1
, 3 ( )3
2. 27-27x+9x--x = 3-x
3 , '3 ( )3
3. m +3m-n+3mn-+n = m+n
, 3 ( )3
4. 1-3a+3a--a = 1-a
21. 30m2 + 17am-21a2
= (30m) 2 + 17a(30m)-630a2 630 2
315 5
63 3
21 3
5·7=35 2.32=18 =} 35-18= 17
(30m+ 35a )(30m-18a)
7 =-------
5·6
= (6m+ 7a)(5m-3a)
7
23. -6/+ llxy-4x2 =-(6/-11xy+4x2)
=-((6y)" -l1x(6y)+24x2) (6y-8x)(6y-3x)
2·3
=-(3y-4x)(2y-x)
= (4x-3y)(2y-x)
24. -20a2+27ab-9b2
22. -15a2+16a-4 =-(15a2-16a+4)
= - ((15a)2 -16(15a) + 60) (15a-1O)(15a- 6) 5·3
= - (3a- 2)(5a- 2) = (3a - 2)(2- 5a)
= - (20a2 - 27ab+ 9b2)
= - ((20a)2 - 27b(20a)+ 180b2) 180 2
90 2
45 5
9 3 =} 15+12=27
3
22.3= 12 5·3= 15
3
(20a -15b )(20a -12b) 5-4
= - (4a- 3b )(5a - 3b) = (4a-3b)(3b-5a)
12. 8+ 36x+ 54x2 + 27x3 = (2+ 3x)'
13. S-12a2 - 64a4 - a6 = No es cubo perfecto
14. a6 + 3a4b3 + 3a2b6 + b9 = (a2 + b3 f
15. x9-9i/+27xV-27i2=(x3-3/f
16. 64x3 + 240x2y + 300xy2 + 125/ = (4x+ 5y)'
17.216-756a2+882a4-343a6=(6-7a2f
18. 125xl2 + 6ooi/ + 960X4ylO + 512i5 = (5x4 + 8/f
19. al8 + 3al2 + 3a6 + 1= (a6 + 1f
20. m3 - 3am2n+ 3a2mn2 - a3n3 = (m- an)'
6. 125x3 + 75x2 + 15x+ 1= (5x+ 1)'
7. Sa3-36a2b+54ab2-27b3=(2a-3b)'
8. 27m3 + 108m2n+ 144mn2 + 64n3 = (3m + 4n)'
9. x3 - 3x2 + 3x+ 1= No es cubo perfecto
10. 1+ 12a2b- 6ab- Sa3b3 = No es cubo perfecto
11. 125a3 + 150a2b+ 60ab2 + 8b3 = (5a+ 2b)'
21. 1+ 18a2b3 + 108a4b6 + 216a6b9 = (1 + 6ib3 f
22. 64x9 - 240x6/ + 300xV -125i2 = (4x3 - 5/ f
EJERCICIO 103
1. 1+a3=(1+a)(1-a+a2)
2. 1- a3 = (1- a)(l + a+ a2)
3. X3+/=(x+y)(x2-xy+l)
4. m3 _n3= (m -n)(m2 +mn+n2)
5. a3-1=(a -1)(a2+a+1)
6. /+1=(y+1)(l-y+1)
7. /-1=(Y-1)(l+ y+1)
8. Sx3 -1= (2x-1)(4x2 + 2x+ 1) 9.1-Sx3=(1-2x)(1+2x+4x2)
10. x3 - 27= (x- 3)(i + 3x+ 9)
11. a3+27=(a+3)(a2-3a+9)
12. Sx3 + / = (2x+ y)(4x2 - 2xy+ l) 13.27a3-b3=(3a-b)(9a2+3ab+b2)
14. 64+a6=(4+i)(16-4a2+a~)
15. a3 -125= (a - 5)(a2 + 5a + 25)
16. 1-216m3 = (1-6m)(1+ 6m+36m2)
17. Sa3 + 27b6 = (2a + 3b2 )(4a2 - 6ab2 + 9b~)
18. i _b9 = (i -b3)(X~ + x2b3 +b6)
19. Sx3-27/=(2x-3y)(4i+6xy+9l)
EJERCICIO 104
1. l+(x+ yf =(l+x+ Y)[l-(x+ y)+(x+ yY] =(l+x+ Y)(l-x- y+x2+2xy+ l) 2. l-(a+bf =[
l-(a+b)J[l+(a+b)+(a+bY]
= (l-a-b)(l+a+ b+ a2 + 2ab+b2) 3. 27+(m-nf =(3+m-n)[9-3(m-n)+(m-nY]
= (3+ m- n)(9- 3m+ 3n+ m2 - 2mn+ n2)
4. (x-yf -8=(x-y-2)[(x-yY +2(x-Y)+4] =(x- y-2)(x2-2xy+ l+2x-2y+4)
20. 1+ 343n3 = (1 + 7n)(1- 7n+ 49n2)
21. 64a3-729=(4a-9)(16a2+36a+S1)
22. a3b3 - i = (ab- i )(a2b2 + abi + x~)
23. 512+27a9=(S+3a3)(64-24a3+9a6)
24. i-si2=(x2-2/)(i+2x2/+4l) 25.1+729i=(1+9x2)(1-9x2+S1i)
26. 27m3 + 64n9 = (3m+4n3 )(9m2 -12mn3 + 16n6)
27. 343x3 +512/ = (7x+sl )(49i -56xy2 +64/)
28. xV - 216/ =(xy2 - 6/)(X2y~ +6xy5 +36/)
29. a3b3x3+1=(abx+1)(a2b2i-abx+1)
30. x9+/=(x3+/)(i-x3/+/)
31. 1.000x3 -1= (lOx-1)(lOOi + lOx+ 1)
32. a6 + 125b12 = (a2 + 5b~ )(a~ - 5a2b~ + 25b8)
33. X12+i2=(i+/)(i-i/+l)
34. 1-27a3b3=(1-3ab)(1+3ab+9a2b2)
35. Si+729=(2x2+9)(4x~-lSx2+S1)
36. a3 + Sb12 = (a + 2b~ )(a2 - 2ab~ + 4b8)
37. Sx9 -125/l = (2x3 -5YZ2)(4i + lOx3yz2 + 25ll)
38. 27 m6 + 343n9 = (3m2 + 7n3 )(9m~ - 21m2n3 + 49n6)
39. 216- X12 = (6- i )(36+ 6x~ + i)
5. (x+2yf +1=(X+2Y+1)[(X+2YY -(X+2Y)+1]
= (x+ 2y+ 1)(x2 + 4xy+4l- x- 2y+ 1)
6. 1-(2a-bf = [1-(2a-b)J[1+ (2a-b)+ (2a-bY]
= (1- 2a+ b)(l + 2a- b+ 4a2 - 4ab+ b2) 7. aJ+(a+1)' =(a+a+1)[a'-a(a+1)t(a+1)']
= (2a+ l)(a' _a' -ata' + 2a+ 1) =(2a+1)(a'+a+1)
8. 8aJ-(a-1)' =[2a-(a-1)][4a'+2a(a-1)+(a-1)']
= (2a - a + 1) (4a' + 2a' - 2a + a' - 2a + 1) = (a + 1)(7a' -4a + 1)
9.27xJ-(x-yf
= [3x- (x- y )][9x2 + 3x(x- y)+ (x- y)']
= (3x- x+ y)(9x2 + 3x2 - 3xy+ X2 - 2xy+ l) = (2x+ y)(13x2 - 5xy + l)
10. (2a-bf -27
= (2a-b-3)[(2a-b)' +3(2a-b)+9]
= (2a-b- 3)(4a2 -4ab+ b2 + 6a- 3b+ 9)
11. x6-(x+2f
= [x2 - (x+ 2)] [x" + x2 (x+ 2)+ (x+ 2)']
= (x2 - x- 2)(x" + xJ + 2x2 + x2 +4x+4) = (x2_ x- 2) (x" + xJ + 3x2 +4x+4)
12. (a+lf +(a-3f
=(a+l+a-3)[(a+l)' -(a-3)(a+l)+(a-3)']
= (2a-2)(a2 + 2a+ 1-a2 + 2a+ 3+ a2_ 6a+ 9)
= (2a-2)(a2 -2a+13)
13. (x-lf - (X+ 2f
= [x-l- (X+ 2)][(x-l)' + (x-l)(x+ 2)+ (x+ 2)']
= (x-l- x- 2)(x2 - 2x+ 1 + x2 + x- 2+ x2 +4x+4) =-3 (3x2+3x +3)=-9(x2+x +1)
EJERCICIO 105
14. (x-yf-(x+yf
= [(X- y)- (X+ y )][(X- y)' + (X- y )(X+ y)+ (X+ Y)'] = (X- y-x- y )(X2 - 2xy+ l
+ x2 -l +x2 + 2xy+ l) =-2y(3x2+ l)
15. (m- 2f + (m- 3f
= [(m- 2)+ (m- 3)][(m- 2)' - (m- 2)(m- 3)+ (m- 3)']
= (m- 2+ m- 3)(m2 -4m+ 4- m2 + 5m- 6+ m2 - 6m+ 9)
= (2m-5)(m2 -5m+ 7)
16. (2x-y)\(3x+yf
=[(2x- y)+(3x+ y)][(2x- y)2 -(2x- y)(3x+ y)+(3x+ yr]
= (2x- y+ 3x+ y)(4x2 -4xy+ l-6x2 + xy+ l + 9x2 +6xy+ l) = (5x)(7x2 + 3xy+3l)
17. 8(a+bf +(a-bf
= [2 (a + b)+ (a- b)]Ha+b r - 2(a+b)(a-b)+ (a-b n
= (2a+ 2h+a-b )(4a2 + 8ab+4b2 - 2a2 + 2h2 +a2 - 2ab+b2) = (3a+ b )(3a2 + 6ab+ 7b
2)
18. 64(m+n)' -125
= [4(m+ n)-5][16(m+ n)' +4(m+ n)(5)+ 25]
= (4m+4n-5)(16m2 +32mn+ 16n2 + 20m + 20n+25)
10. 243- 32bs = (3- 2b)(81 + 54b+ 36b2 + 24b3 + 16b~)
11. aS + bScs = (a+ bc)(a~ - a3bc+ a2b2c2 - ab3c3 + b~c~)
1. aS+l=(a+l)(a~ -a3+a2-a+l)
2. aS-l=(a-l)(a~+a3+a2+a+l) 3.1-xS=(I-x)(I+x+x2+x3+i)
12. m7 _a7x7
= (m- ax)(m6 + m'ax+ m4a2x2 + m3a3x3 + m2a4x4 + ma'x' +a6x6)
14. x7 - y" 5. m7 _n7
( )( 6 , 42 33 24 '6) =(x-Y)(X6+X5y+x"l+xJ/+X2/+xy5+l)
= m-n m +mn+mn +mn +mn +mn +n
15. a 7 + 2.187
= (a+ 3)(a6 - 3a' + 9a4 - 27a3 + 81a2 - 243a+ 729) 16. 1-128a 7 = (1- 2a )(1 + 2
a+ 4a2 + 8a3 + 16a~ + 32as + 64a6) 17. xlO +32/ = (x2 + 2y)(i - 2iy+4ii-8x2/ + 1
6/)
18. 1+ 128x4
= (1 + 2x2 )(1- 2x2 +4x4 - 8x6 + 16x8 - 32xlO + 64x12)
4.a7 +b7
= (a +b )(a6 - a'b+ a4b2 - a3b3 + a2b4 - ab' + b6)
6. aS + 243= (a + 3)(a~ - 3a3 + 9a2 - 27a + 81)
7. 32- mS = (2- m)(16+ 8m+ 4m2 + 2m3 + m~)
8. 1 + 243xS = (1 +3x)(1-3x+ 9x2 - 27x3 +81i)
9. x7 +128
= (x+ 2)(x6 - 2x' +4x4 - 8x3 + 16x2 - 32x+ 64)
= (3x- 2)(2x+ 1) 8.1+x3=(1+x)(1-x+x2) 9.27a3-1=(3a-1)(9a2+3a+1)
10. X5 + m5 = (x+ m)(x~ - x3m+ x2m2 - xm3 + m~)
11. a3-3a2b+Sab2=a(a2-3ab+Sb2)
12. 2xy- 6y+ xz- 3z
= 2y(x- 3)+ z (x- 3)= (x- 3)(2y+ z)
13. 1-4b+ 4b2 = (1- 2b)'
14. 4x~ + 3x2y' + y"
+x2y'
EJERCICIO 106
1. 5a2+a=a(5a+l)
2. m2+2mx+x2=(m+x)'
3. a2+a-ab-b=(a2+a)-(ab-b) =a(a+l)-b(a+l) = (a+ 1)(a-b)
4. x2-36=x2-62=(x+6)(x-6)
5. 9x2 - 6xy+ y' = (3x- y)'
6. x2 - 3x- 4= (x-l)(x+ 4)
7.6x2-x-2
= 36x2 - 6x-12
(6x- 4)(6x+ 3) 3·2
2 2 -X Y
4x"+4x2y'+ y"_x2y'
( 2 2)2 2 2
= 2x + y - X Y
= (2x2 + xy+ y' ) (2x2 - xy+ y')
15. x8 - 6x"y" + y'
+ 2x"y" - 4x"y"
x8 - 2x"y" + y' - 4x"y"
(" ")2 4""
=x-y - xy
= (x" + 2x2y'- y" )(x" - 2x2y'- y")
16. a2-a-30=(a-6)(a+5)
17. 15m2 + llm-14
= 225m2 + 1l(15m)- 210
(15m+ 21)(15m-1O) 3·5
= (5m+7)(3m-2)
18. a6 + 1= (a2 + l)(a~ - a2 + 1)
19. Sm3 -27/= (2m-3l)(4m2 +6ml +9l)
20. 16a2 - 24ab+ 9b2 = (4a - 3b)'
21. 1+ a7 = (1 + a)(l- a+ a2 - a3 + a~ - a5 + a6) 22.8a3-12a2+6a-l=(2a-l)' 23.1-
m2=(I+m)(I-m)
24. x~ +4x2-21=(x2+ 7)(x2-3)
25. 12Sa6 + 1= (5a2 + 1)(25a~ - Sa2 + 1)
26. a2+2ab+b2-m2
=(a+b)' -m2=(a+b+m)(a+b-m)
27. 8a2b+ 16a3b- 24a2b2 = 8a2b(1 + 2a - 3b)
28. x5-x"+x-l
= (X5 - X")+ (x-l)= x" (x-l)+ (x-l)= (x" + l)(x-l)
29. 6x2 + 19x- 20
= 36x2 + 19(6x)-120 120 2
60 2 30 2 15 3
23.3=24 5·1=5 =>24-5=19
(6x+ 24 )(6x-5) 6
= (x+ 4 )(6x- 5)
30. 2si - sil = (SX2 + 9Y)(Sx2 - 9y)
31. 1-m3=(1-m)(1+m+m2)
5
5
32. x2 _a2 +2xy+ l +2ab-b2
=(x2 + 2xy+ l)- (a2 -2ab+b2) =(x+ y)' -(a-b)'
=(x+ y+a-b)(x+ y-a+b)
33. 21m5n-7m~n2 + 7mV -7m2n= 7m2n(3m3 -m2n+mn2 -1)
34. a (x+ 1)- b(x+ 1)+ c(x+ 1)= (a- b+ c)(x+ 1)
35. 4+ 4(x- y)+ (x- y)' = (2+ x- y)'
36. 1-a2b~=(1+ab2)(1-ab2)
37. b2+12ab+36a2=(b+6a)'
38. i+4x3-77=(x3+11)(x3-7)
39. 15x4-17x2-4
= (15x2)2 -17 (15x2)- 60 (15x2 - 20)(15x2 + 3) 5·3
=(3x2-4)(5x2+1)
40. 1+ (a-3b)'
= (1 + a- 3b)[1- (a- 3b)+ (a- 3br]
= (1 + a- 3b)(1- a+ 3b+ a2 - 6ab+ 9b2)
41. x4 + x2 + 25
52. 1+ 216x9 = (1 + 6x3 )(1- 6x3 + 36i) 53 x3-64=(x-4)(i+4x+16)
54. x3-64x4=x3(1-64x)
-9x2
55. 18ax5/ - 36x4/ -54x2l = 18x2/ (ax3 - 2x2 - 3/)
56. 49a2b2 -14ab+ 1= (7ab-1)
57. (x+1r -81=(x+1+9)(x+1-9)=(x+1O)(x-8)
58. a2-(b+er =(a+b+e)(a-b-e)
59. (m+nr -6(m+n)+9=(m+n-3r
61. 9a3+63a-45a2
60. 7 x2 + 31x- 20
= (7 X)2 + 31(7 x)-140 140 2
70 2
35 5
7 7
=9a(a2+7-5a)
62. ax+a-x-1
x4 + lOx2 + 25- 9x2
=(x2+5r - 9x2
= (x2 + 3x+ 5)(x2 - 3x+5)
42. aS - 28a4 + 36
+ 16a4 -16a4
aS -12a4 + 36-16a4
22=4
=(ax+a)-(x+1) = a (x+ 1)- (x+ 1) = (a -1)(x+ 1)
7·5=35
=(a4-6r -16a4 64.1-27b2+b4
=(a4 +4a2-6)(a4 -4a2-6) + 25b2 -25b2 65. m4 +m2n2+n4
43. 343+8a3=(7+2a)(49-14a+4a2) 1-2b2+b4-25b2 +m2n2 _m2n2
, , , ( ) m4+2m2n2+n4_m2n2
44. 12a-bx-15a-by= 3a-b 4x- 5y = (1-b2 r _ 25b2
45. x2+2xy-15/ =(x+5y)(x-3y) = (1+5b-b2)(1-5b _b2) =(m2+n2r _m2n2
46.6am-4an-2n+3m ( , ')( , ')
= m- +mn+n- m- -mn+n-
= (6am+ 3m)- (4an+ 2n)
66. C4 -4d4=(c2+2d 2)(c2-2d 2) = 3m(2a+ 1)- 2n(2a+ 1)
= (3m-2n)(2a+1) 67.15x4-15x3+20x2=5x2(3x2-3x+4)
47. 81i - 4b2c8 = (9a3 + 2bc4 )(9a3 - 2bc4) 68. a2 - x2 - a- x
48. 16- (2a+b r = (4+ 2a+ b)(4- 2a-b) = (a2 - x2) - (a+ x)= (a+ x)(a- x)- (a+ x)
= (a+ x)(a- x-1)
49. 20-x-x2 =-(x2+x-20) =-(x+5)(x-4) =(x+5)(4-x)
50. n2+n-42=(n+7)(n-6)
51. a2-d2+n2-e2-2an-2ed
=; 35-4=31
(7 x+ 35)(7 x- 4) 7
= (x+5)(7x-4)
63. 8lx4 + 25/ - 90x2y =; 8lx4 - 90x2y + 25/
(' )2
= 9x- -5y
70. 6m4 + 7m2 - 20
69. x4 - 8x2 - 240
= (a2 _ 2an+ n2)_ (e2 + 2ed + d 2)
=(a-n)' -(e+d)'
= (a- n+ e+ d)(a- n- e- d)
= (x' - 20)(x2 + 12)
= (6m2)' + 7(6m2)-120 120 4
30 3 10 5 2 2
4·2=8 5· 3= 15 =; 15-8=7
240 4 60 4
15 3
5 5
4·5=20 4·3= 12 =; 20-12= 8
(6m2 + 15)(6m2 - 8) 3·2
= (2m2 +5)(3m2 - 4)
71. 9n2+4a2-12an=;9n2 -12an+4a2 84. alO-a8+a6+a~=a~(a6-a~+a2+1)
= (3n- 2a)' 85. 2x(a -1)- a+ 1= 2x(a-1)- (a-1)= (a-1)(2x-1)
72. 2x2 + 2= 2(x2 + 1) 86. (m+ n)(m- n)+ 3n(m- n)= (m- n)(m+ n+ 3n)= (m- n)(m+ 4
n)
73.7a(x+y-l)-3b(x+y-l)=(7a-3b)(x+y-l) 87. a2_b3+2b3x2_2a2x2
74. x2+3x-18=(x+6)(x-3) =_(b3_2b3x2)+(a2_2a2x2)
75. (a + m)2 - (b+ n)2 = (a+m+b+n)(a +m-b-n) = _ b3 (1- 2x2)+ a2 (1- 2x2)= (1- 2
x2 )(a2 _ b3)
76 x3+6x2Y+12x/+8/=(x+2Y)' 2 1 ( 1)2
88.2am-3b-c-cm-3bm+2a 89 x2_-x+-= x--
, . 3 9 3
77. 8a - 22a-21 = (2am- cm- 3bm)- (3b+ c- 2a)
= (8a)' - 22(8a)-168
= m(2a- c- 3b)- (3b+ c- 2a) 168 4
42 2 3·2=6 =m(2a-3b-c)+(2a-3b-c)
21 3 4·7=28 = (2a-3b-c)(m+1)
7 7 =>28-6=22
(8a- 28)(8a+ 6) 91. 81x2 - (a+ x)' = (9x+ a+ x)(9x- a- x)= (lOx+ a)(8x- a)
4·2 92. a2+9-6a-16x2
=(2a-7)(4a+3)
78. 1+ 18ab+ 81a2b2 = (1 + 9ab)'
79. 4a6 -1= (2a3 + 1)(2a3 -1)
90. 4a2n _ b4n
94.9x2-y'+3x-y
= (9x2 -y')+ (3x- y)= (3x+ y)(3x- y)+ (3x- y)= (3x- y)(3x+ y+ 1)
95. x2-x-72=(x-9)(x+8)
= (6a2 -7b2)' - 36a2b2
= (6a2 + 6ab -7b2)(6a2 - 6ab-7b2)
80. x6-4x3-480 480 4
120 3 S·4= 20
40 4 4·3·2=24
10 S =>24-20=4
2 2 = (x3-24)(x3+20)
1
81. ax-bx+b- a- by+ ay
=(ax +ay-a)-(bx +by-b) =a(x+ y-l)-b(x+ y-l) = (a-b)(x + y-l)
82 6am- 3m- 2a+ 1 97. a2 _ m2 _ 9n2 _ 6mn+4ab+ 4b2
= (6am-3m)- (2a-l) =(a2+4ab+4b2)-(m2+6mn +9n2)
=3m(2a-l)-(2a-l)=(3m-l)(2a-l) =(a+2b)' -(m+3n)'
83 IS+ 14x- 8x'
. =-(8x'-14x-lS) =(a+2b+m+3n)(a+2b-m-3n)
=-[(8x)'-14(8x)-120] 98. 1-~a8=(1+~a4)(1-~a4) 101.x2-2abx-35a2b2
120 4 9 3 3 + 36a2b2 _ 36a2b2
30 3 4·S= 20
10 S 3·2=6
2 2 => 20- 6= 14
(8x- 20) (8x+ 6) 4·2
=-(2x-S)(4x+3) = (S-2x)(4x+3)
100. 49x2-77x+30
= (49x)' -77 (49x)+ 1.470 1.470 7
210 7
30 5
6 6 1
7·5=35 7·6=42 =; 42+35=77
(49x- 35)(49x-42) 7·7
= (7x- 5)(7x-6)
x2 - 2abx + a2b2 - 36a2b2
( )2 2 2
= x-ab -36a b
= (x- ab+ 6ab)(x- ab- 6ab) = (x+ 5ab)(x-7ab)
81a8 + 144a4b6 + 64b12 -144a4b6 = (9a4 + 8b6)' -144a4b6 = (9a4 -12a2b3 + 8b6 )(9
a4 + 12a2b3 + 8b6)
3' ()3
102. 125x - 225x· + 135x - 27 = 5x - 3
103. (a-2)' -(a+3)'
= (a- 2+ a + 3)(a- 2- a - 3)= (2a+ 1)(- 5)
104.4a2m+12a2n-5bm-15bn
= (4a2m+ 12a2n)- (5bm+ 15bn)
= 4a2 (m+ 3n)-5b(m+ 3n) = (m+ 3n)(4a2 -5b)
105. 1 + 6x3 + 9 i = (1 + 3x3 y
106. a~+3a2b-40b2=(a2+Sb)(a2-5b)
107. m3 + Sa3x3 = (m+ 2ax )(m2 - 2axm+4a2x2) 108.1-9x2+24xy-16y2
= - [(9x2 - 24xy+ 16/)-1] =_[(3x_4y)2 -1]
= - [(3x-4y+ 1)(3x- 4y-l)] = (3x- 4y+ 1)(1 + 4y- 3x)
109. 1+ llx+ 24x'
= (24x)' + 11 (24x) + 24 (24x+ S)(24x+ 3) S·3
= (3x+ I)(Sx+ 1)
110. 9x2/ - 27x3/ -9x5/= 9x2/ (1- 3x- x3)
( 2 b2 2)2 9 2 2
111. a + -e - x y
= (a2 +b2 - C2 + 3xy)(a2 +b2 _C2 - 3xy)
112. S(a+lf-l
=[2(a+1)-I][4(a+1)' +2(a+l)+I] = (2a+ 2-1)(4a2 + Sa+4+ 2a+ 2+ 1) = (2a+ 1)(4a2 +
lOa + 7)
113. 100x4l-121m4
= (lOx2y' + llm2)(lOx2y' -11m2)
114. (a2+1)'+S(a2+1)-24
= (a2 + 1 + S)(a2 + 1- 3)= (a2 + 9)(a2 - 2)
115. 1+ 1.000i = (1 + lOx2 )(1-lOx2 + lOOx~)
116. 49a2-x2-9y2+6xy
= - [(x2 - 6xy+ 9/)-49a2]
=-[(x-3Y)' -49a2]
= - (7a+ x- 3y)(-7a+ x-3y) = (7a+ x- 3y )(7a- x+ 3y)
117. x~_y'+4X2+4-4yz-4i
= (x~ + 4x2 + 4)- (y' + 4yz+4z2) = (x2 + 2)' - (y+ 2z)'
=(x2+2+ y+2z)(x2+2- y-2z)
118. a3-64=(a-4)(a2+4a+16)
119. a5 + X5 = (a+ x)(a~ - a3x+ a2x2 - ax3 + x~)
120. a6 - 3a3b- 54b2 = (a3 - 9b )(a3 + 6b)
121. 165+ 4x- x'
=-(x'-4x-165) 165 5
33 3
11 11
1
5·3= 15 11·1=11 =} 15-11= 4
= - (x-15)(x+ 11) =(15-x) (x+11)
2 -a
(2 )2 2
= a +1 -a
125. a4b4 + 4a2b2 - 96
+ 100-100
= (a2b2 + 2)' -100
= (a2b2 + 2+ 10) (a2b2 + 2-10) = (a2b2 + 12)(a2b2 - S)
126. 8a'x+ 7y+ 2lby-7ay- 8a3x+ 24a'bx
= (7y+ 21by-7ay)+ (8a'x- 8a3x+ 24a'bx) = 7y(1 + 3b- a)+ 8a'x(1- a+ 3b)
= (1+3b-a)(7y+8a'x )
130. 729-125x3i2 = (9- 5xl )(81 + 45xl + 25x2l)
131. (x+ y)' +x+ y=(X+ y)' +(X+ y)=(X+ y)(X+ y+1)
132.4-(a2+b2)+2ab 4-a2-b2+2ab
+b2 _b2
127. x4 + 11x' - 390 390 3
130 2
65 5
13 13
13·2= 26 5·3=15 =>26-15=11
=(x'+26)(x'-15)
128. 7 + 33m-10m2
= _(10m2 -33m-7)
= - [(10m) 2 - 33 (10m) - 70] (lOm- 35) (10m + 2) 5·2
=-(2m-7)(5m+1)
= (7 - 2m)(5m+ 1)
129. 4(a+bY -9(c+dY
= [2(a + b)+ 3(c+ d )][2(a+ b)- 3(c+ d)] = (2a+ 2b+ 3c+ 3d)(2a+ 2b- 3c- 3d)
4-a2 +2ab-b2
=4- (a2 - 2ab+b2) =4-(a-b)' =(2+a-b)(2-a+b)
= (x] - /)+ (x- y)
=(x- y)(x2+xy+ /)+(x- y)=(x- y)(x2+xy+ /+1)
=(xJ -x) +(x2y_ y)
=3a(x+ y)(x2_xy+ /) =x(x2-1)+ y(x2-1)
8.4ab'-4abn+an' =(x2-1)(x+ y)=(x+1)(x-1)(x+ y)
=a(4b'-4bn+n')=a(2b-n)' 13 3 6 2
. 2a + a -8a
9. x"-3x2-4 ( ? ) ( )( )
=2a a-+3a-4 =2a a+4 a-1
=(x2-4)(x2+1)
= (x+ 2)(x- 2)(x2 + 1)
EJERCICIO 107
1. 3ax2 - 3a
7. 3ax] +3a/ =3a(x]+ /)
= 3a (x2 -1)= 3a(x+ 1)(x-1) 2.3x2-3x-6
= 3(x2 - x- 2)= 3(x- 2)(x+ 1)
3. 2a'x -4abx+2b'x =2x(a'-2ab+b')
=2x(a-b)' =2x(a-b)(a-b)
4.2aJ-2
=2(aJ-1)=2(a-1)(a2+a+1) 10. aJ-a'-a+1
5. a3-3a2 -28a =(aJ-a')-(a-1)
=a(a2-3a -28)=a(a-7)(a+4) =a'(a-1)-(a-1)
6. xJ-4x+x'-4 =(a-1)(a'-1)
=(xJ+x')-(4x+4) =(a-1)(a+1)(a-1)
=x'(x+1)-4(x+1) 11.2ax2-4ax+2a
= (x' - 4 )(x+ 1)= (x+ 2)(x- 2)(x+ 1) = 2a (x2 - 2x+ 1)= 2a (x-1)'
= (a2 _ b2)+ (a3 _ b3)
= (a+b)(a-b)+ (a-b)(a2 + ab+b2) = (a-b)(a+b+ a2 + ab+ b2)
12. xJ - x+ x2y_ Y
14. 16xJ - 48x2 y + 36xy2
=4x(4x2 -12xy+ 9/) =4x(2x- 3y)'
15. 3xJ-x'y-3x/+ / =(3xJ-x'y)- (3xy'- l) = x' (3x- y)- y' (3x- y)
=(3x- y)(x'- y')=(3x- y)(x+ y)(x- y)
16. 5a" +5a
= 5a(aJ + 1)= 5a(a+ 1)(a2 - a+ 1)
17. 6ax2 - ax- 2a = a (6x2 - x- 2)
= a (36x2 - 6x-12) _ a (6x-4)(6x+3)
2·3
= a (3x-2)(2x+1)
18. n" - 81
= (n2 - 9)(n2 + 9)= (n+3)(n- 3)(n2 + 9)
19. 8ax2 - 2a
= 2a(4x2 -1)= 2a(2x-l)(2x+ 1)
20. ax3 + lOax2 + 25ax
= ax(x2 + lOx+ 25)= ax(x+ 5)(x+ 5)
21. x3 - 6x2 - 7 x
= x(x2 - 6x-7)
= x(x2 - 6x-7 + 16-16) = x(x2 - 6x+ 9-16)
=x[(x-3)' _42]
= x(x- 3+4)(x- 3-4) = x(x+ 1)(x-7)
22. m3 + 3m2 -16m- 48
= (m3 + 3m2)- (16m+ 48) =m2 (m+3)-16(m+3)
= (m+3)(m2 -16)
= (m+3)(m-4)(m+4)
23. x3-6x2y+12xy'-8/
=(x-2y)' =(x-2y)(x-2y)(x-2y)
24. (a + b)(a2 _b2)_ (a2 _b2) =(a2-b2)(a+b-l)
= (a+b )(a-b)(a+ b-l)
25. 32a5x-48a3bx+18ab2x = 2cLX(16a4 - 24a2b+ 9h2) = 2CLX(4a2 - 3b)'
= 2CLX(4a2 - 3b)(4a2 - 3b)
26. x" - x3 + x2 - x =X(X3_X2 +x-l)
= x[x2 (x-l)+ (x-l)]= x [(x-l)(x2 + 1)]
Z7.4x2+32x-36
= 16x2 + 32(4x)-144 144 2
72 2 22=4
36 4 4·3·3=36
9 3 =}36-4=32
3
(4x+ 36)(4x-4) 4 =(x+9)(4x-4)
=4(x+9)(x-l)
3
"( )2
28. a - a+2
=(a2+a+2)(a2-a-2) = (a2 + a+ 2)(a- 2)(a+ 1)
29. x6-25x3-54
= (x3 - 27)(x3 + 2)
= (x- 3)(x2 + 3x+ 9 )(x3 + 2)
= a(a+ 1)(a" - a3 + a2 - a+ 1)
31. a3b+ 2a2bx+ abx2 - aby' =ab(a2+2ax+x2-y')
=ab[(a+x)' - y']
=ab(a+x+ y)(a+x- y)
32. 3abm2 - 3ab
= 3ab(m2 -1) =3ab(m+l)(m-l)
33. 81x4y+ 3xy" =3xy(27x3+ l)
= 3xy(3x+ y )(9x2 - 3xy+ l)
34. a"-a3+a-l
=(a"-a3)+(a-l) = a3 (a-l)+ (a-l) = (a-l)(a3 + 1)
= (a-l)(a+ 1)(a2 - a+ 1)
35. x- 3x2 -18x3
= x(l- 3x-18x2) = - x(18x2 + 3x-l)
= - X [{l8X)2 + 3(18x)-18] _ -x(18x+6)(18x-3)
6·3
= - x(3x+ 1)(6x-l) =x(3x+l)(1-6x)
36. 6,LX- 2bx+ 6ab- 2b2
= (6,LX- 2bx) + (6ab- 2b2) = 2x(3a -b)+ 2b(3a - b) = (3a- b )(2x+ 2b) =2(x+b)(3a
-b)
37. am3 -7am2 + 12am
= am(m2 -7m+ 12) =am(m-4)(m-3)
=4a2 (x3 -1)
= 4a 2 (x - 1) (x2 + x + 1)
39. 28x3y-7 xy3
=7xy(4x2-/) =7xy(2x- y)(2x+ y)
40. 3abx2 - 3abx-18ab = 3ab(x2 - x-6)
= 3ab(x- 3)(x+ 2)
128 4
32 4 4-4= 16
8 4 4·2=8
2 2 =} 16-8=8
= (x2 -16)(x2 + 8) =(x+4)(x-4)(x2+8)
42.18x2y+60xy2+50y'
= 2y(9x2 + 30xy+ 25/) = 2y(3x+5y )(3x+5y)
43. (x2-2xy)(a+1)+ y'(a+1) =(a+1)(x2-2xy+y')
= (a+ l)(x- y)(x- y)
44. X3 + 2x2y- 3xy2 =x(x2+2xy-3y') =x(x+3y)(x- y)
45. a2x-4b2x+2a2Y-8b2y
= (a2x- 4b2x)+ (2a2 y- 8b2 y) = x(a2 - 4b2)+ 2y(a2 -4b2) =(a2-4b2)(x+2y)
= (a- 2b)(a+ 2b)(x+ 2y)
46. 45a2x4 -20a2 =5a2 (9x4 -4)
= 5a2 (3x2 + 2)(3x2 - 2)
47. a4-(a-12)'
= (a2 + a-12)(a2 - a+ 12) = (a+4)(a- 3)(a2 - a+ 12)
48. bx2-b-x2+1
=(bx2-x2)-(b-1) = x2 (b-1)- (b-1) = (b-1)(x2 -1)
= (b-1)(x+ 1)(x-1)
49. 2x4 + 6x3 -56x2
= 2x2 (x2 + 3x- 28) =2x2(x+7)(x-4)
50.30a'-55a-50
= (30a)' - 55(30a) -1.500 1.500 2
750 2
375 5
75 5
15
5·2'=20
5' ·3=75
=> 75-20=55
(30a-75)(30a+ 20)
5 -------'
15·2
3 =(2a-5)(15a+1O)
=5(2a-5)(3a+2)
3
51. 9(x- y)' -(x- y) =(x- Y)[9(x- y)' -1] =(x- y)[3(x- Y)+l] [3(x- Y)-l] =(x- y)
(3x-3y+1)(3x-3y-1)
52.6a2x-9a3-ax2
= a (6ax- 9a2 - x2) =-a(x2-6ax+9a2)
= - a(x-3a)(x- 3a) =a(3a-x)(x-3a)
53.64a-125a4 =a(64-125a3)
= a (4-5a )(16+ 20a + 25a2)
54. 70x4 + 26x3 - 24x2
= 2x2 (35x2 + 13x-12)
= 2x2 [(35x)2 + 13(35x)-420]
420 2
210 2
105 5
21 3
7 7
1
22.7=28 3·5= 15 =} 28-15= 13
(35x+ 28)(35x-15) 7·5
= 2x2 (5x+4)(7x- 3)
55. a7 +6a6-55a3 =a3(a4 +6a3-55) = a3 (a2 + 1l)(a2 - 5)
56. 16a5b- 56a3b3 + 49ab5
= ab(16a4 - 56a2b2 + 49b4) = ab(4a2 -7b2)'
57. 7x6+32a2x4 -15a4x2
= x2 (7x4 + 32a2x2 -15a4)
=x2[(7x2)' + 32a2(7x2)-105a4]
105 5
21 3 5· 7=35
7 7 3·1=3
1 =} 35-3=32
x2 (7x2 + 35a2)(7x2 -3a2) 7
= X2(X2 +5a2 )(7x2 _ 3a2)
( m+l+ ,,)( m+l ,,)
= X xy x -xy
= x(xm + y" )x(xm _ y")
2(m+,,)(m ,,)
=x X y x-y
59.2x4+5x3-54x-135
= (2x4 -54x)+ (5x3 -135) =2x(x3 -27)+5(x3 -27) =(x3-27)(2x+5)
= (x- 3)(x2 + 3x+ 9 )(2x+5)
60. axJ + ax2 y + axl- 2ax2 - 2axy - 2al =a(xJ + x2y+ xl-2x2 - 2.xy- 2/)
= a [(xJ + x2y+.xy2)_ (2x2 + 2.xy+ 2/)] =a[x(x2+.xy+ /)-2(x2+.xy+ /)] =a(x-2)(x2
+.xy+ /)
61.(x+y)"-1
=[(x+ y)' +l][(x+ y)' -1]
=(x2+2xy+ /+l)(x+ y+1)(x+ y-1)
62. 3a5 + 3a3 + 3a =3a(a4+a2+1)
= 3a (a4 + a2 + 1 + a2 _ a2)
= 3a [(a4 + 2a2 + 1)- a2] =3a[(a2+1Y _a2] =3a(a2+a +1)(a2-a +1)
1. 1-a8 =(9x4+9x3Y)-(X2+xy)
=(l+a")(l-a") =9x3(x+ y)-X(X+ y)
=(1+a")(1+a2)(1-a2) = (9x3-x)(X+ y)
=(1+a")(1+a2)(1+a)(1-a) =x(9x2-1)(x+ y)
2. a6 -1 = x(3x+ 1)(3x-l)(x+ y)
= (a3 + 1)(a3 -1) 10. 12ax4 + 33ax2 - 9a
= (a+ 1)(a2 - a+ 1)(a-l)(a2 + a+ 1) = 3a(4x4 + llx2 - 3)
3. x4 -41x2+400 =3a[(4x2)2 + 11(4x2)-12]
400 4
100 5 42=16 3a(4x2+12)(4x2-1)
20 5 52= 25 4
4 4 =}25+16=41 =3a(x2+3)(4x2-1)
= (x2 - 25)(x2 -16) = 3a (x2 + 3)(2x+ 1)(2x-l)
=(x+5)(x-5)(x+4)(x-4) 11. x8_ y'
4. a4_2a2b2+b4 =(X"+y")(X"-y")
=(a2_b2Y = (X"+ y") (X2+ l)(x2-l)
= [(a+b)(a-b)r =(a+bY(a-bY = (X"+ y")(X2+ l)(x+ y)(X- y)
5. X5+x3-2x 12. x6-7x3-8
EJERCICIO 108
=x(x2+2)(x2-1)
= x(x2 + 2)(x+ l)(x-l)
6.2x"+6x3-2x-6
= (2x" + 6x3)- (2x+ 6) = 2x3 (x +3)- 2(x+3) = (2x3 - 2)(x+ 3)
= 2(x3 -l)(x+3)
= 2(x-l)V + x+ l)(x+ 3)
7. 3x4 -243
=(x3-8)(x3+1)
= (x - 2) (x2 + 2x + 4) (x3 + 1)
= (x - 2) (x2 + 2x + 4) (x + 1) (x2 - x + 1)
13. 64-x6
=(S+X3)(S-X3)
= (2+ x)(4- 2x+ x2)(2- x)(4+ 2x+ x2)
144 4
36 4 42=16 3 32 = 9
3 =} 16+9=25
9 3 1
=(a2-16)(a2-9 )
= (a + 4)(a- 4)(a+ 3)(a- 3)
17. a2x3-a2l+2ax3-2al
= (a2x3 - a2l)+ (2ax3 - 2al) =a2(x3-l)+2a (x3-l)
= (a2+2a)(x3-l) =a(a+2)(x- y)(x2+xy+ l)
=(a4 +2a3)-(a2+2a) =a3 (a+2)-a(a+2) = (a3-a)(a+2)
= a(a2-1)(a+2)
= a (a+ l)(a -l)(a+ 2)
=(a3-1Y
= [(a -1)(a2+a+l)r =(a -lY(a2+a+lY
14. aS_a3b2_a2b3+bs
= (as _ a3b2)_ (a2b3 _bs) = (m2 - 9) (m" + 9m2 + 81)
= a3 (a2 _b2 )_b3 (a2 _b2) = (m+ 3) (m- 3) (m" + 9m2 + 81 + 9m2 - 9m2)
= (a2 _ b2 )(a3 - b3) = (m+ 3) (m- 3) [(m" + 18m2 + 81)- 9m2]
=3(x4 -SI) =(a+b)(a-b)(a-b)(a2+ab+b2) = (m+3)(m-3)[(m2+9Y -9m2]
=3(x2+9)(x2-9) 15. Sx"+6x2-2 =(m+3)(m-3)(m2+3m+9)(m2-3m+9)
3(? 9)( 3)( 3) = 2(4x" + 3x2 -1)
= x- + x+ x- 21. x5 _ x
8. 16x 4 - 8X2y2 + y4 2[(4 2)2 3(4 2) 4]
= x + x - =x(x"-l)
=(4x2-lY? _ 2(4x2+4)(4x2-1) =x(x2+1)(x2-1)
= [(2x+ y )(2x- y)r - 2 4 2 2 = x(x2 + l)(x+ l)(x-l)
= (2x+ y )(2x- y)(2x+ y )(2x- y) = 2(x + 1)(4x -1) = 2 (x + 1)(2x+ 1)(2x-l)
22. X5-x3l+x2i-/
( 5 3 2) (2 3 5)
=X-xy +xy-y
=X3(x2-l)+ i(x2-l)
=(x3+ i)(x2-l) =(X+ Y)(X2-xy+ l)(x+ y)(X- y)
23. a4b- a3b2 - a2b3 + ab4
= (a4b- a3b2)_ (a2b3 _ ab4) = a3b(a- b)- ab3 (a- b)
= (a3b- ab3)(a - b) =ab(a2-b2)(a-b)
= ab(a+ b)(a- b)(a- b)
24. 5a4 - 3.125 =5(a4 -625)
= 5(a2 + 25)(a2 - 25)
= 5(a2 + 25)(a+ 5)(a- 5)
25. (a2+2a)' -2(a2+2a)-3 =(a2+2a)' -2(a2+2a)-3+4-4 = U(a2 + 2a)' -2(a2+2a)+I]-4}

( ? )2
= a-+2a-l -4
= (a2 + 2a-l+ 2)(a2 + 2a-l- 2) = (a2 + 2a+ l)(a2 + 2a- 3)
= (a+ 1)' (a2 + 2a- 3+4-4) = (a+ lr[(a2 + 2a+ 1)-4] =(a+lr[(a+l)' -4]
= (a+ 1)' (a+ 1 +2)(a+ 1- 2) = (a+ 1)' (a+ 3)(a-l)
26. a2x3+2ax3-8a2-16a
= (a2x3 + 2ax3)- (8a2 + 16a) = ax3 (a+ 2)- 8a (a+ 2)
= (ax3 - 8a)(a+ 2) =a(x3-8)(a+2)
= a(x- 2)(x2 + 2x+ 4)(a+ 2)
27.1-a6b6
= (1- a3b3)(1 + a3b3)
= (1- ab )(1 + ab+ a'b' )(1 + a3b3)
= (1- ab )(1 + ab+ a'b' )(1 + ab )(1- ab+ a'b')
28. 5ax3 + lOax2 -5ax-lOa =(5ax3+lOax2)- (5ax+lOa) = 5ax2 (x+ 2)-5a(x+ 2)
= (5ax2 - 5a)(x+ 2) =5a(x2-1)(x+2)
=5a(x+ 1)(x-l)(x+2)
29. a2x2+b2l-b2x2-a2l
= (a2x2 _b2 X2)+ (b2l- a2l) =x2 (a2 _b2)+ l (b2 _a2) =x2 (a2 -b2)-l (a2 _b2) =(a
2 _b2)(X2 -l) =(a+b)(a-b)(x+ y)(X- y)
30. x8+x"-2
=(x"+2)(x"-I) = (X" + 2)(x2 + 1)(x2 -1)
= (x" + 2) (x' + 1)(x+ 1)(x-l)
31. a4 +a3-9a2-9a
=(a4 +a3)-(9a2+9a) = a3 (a + 1)- 9a (a + 1) =(a3-9a)(a+l) =a(a2-9)(a+l)
= a(a+ 3)(a- 3)(a+ 1)
32. a'x'+a'x-6a'-x'-x+6
( " , 6 ') ( , 6)
= a x +a x- a - x +x-
= a' (x' + x- 6)- (x' + x- 6) =(a'-I)(x'+x-6)
= (a + 1)(a -1)(x+ 3)(x- 2)
33. 16m4-25m2+9
= (16m2)2 -25(16m2)+I44 144 4
36 4 42=16
9 3 32 = 9
3 3 =>16+9=25
1
(16m2 -16)(16m2 - 9) 16 =(m2-1)(16m2-9)
= (m+ 1)(m-l)(4m+ 3) (4m- 3)
34. 3abx2 -12ab+ 3bx2 -12b
= (3abx2 + 3bx2)- (12ab+ 12b) = 3bx2 (a+ 1)-12b(a+ 1)
= (3bx2 -12b)(a + 1) =3b(x2-4)(a+l)
= 3b(x+ 2)(x- 2)(a+ 1)
35.3a2m+9am-30m+3a2+9a-30
= (3a2m + 9am- 30m) + (3a2 + 9a- 30) = 3m(a2 + 3a -10)+ 3(a2 + 3a-1O)
= (3m+3)(a2 + 3a-1O)
= 3(m+ 1) (a + 5) (a - 2)
36. a3x'-5a3x+6a3+x'-5x+6
= (a3x' - 5a3x+ 6a3)+ (x' - 5x+ 6) =a3 (x' - 5x+ 6)+ (x' - 5x+ 6) =(a3+1)(x'-5x+
6)
= (a + 1)(a' - a + 1)(x- 3)(x- 2)
37. x'(x'-l)-(2x-l)(x'-l) = (x' - y' )[x' - (2x-l)] =(x+ y)(x- y)(x'-2x+l) =(x+
y)(x- y)(x-l)'
38. a(x3 + 1)+ 3ax(x+l)
=a(x+ 1)(x'- x+ 1)+ 3ax(x+ 1) =(x+ 1)[a(x'-x+ 1)+ 3ax]
= (x+l)(ax' -ax+a+3ax)
= (x+l)(ax' + 2ax+ a) =a(x+l)(x'+ 2x+l) =a(x+l)(x+ 1)' =a(x+ 1)'
EJERCICIO 109
6. Za4-Za3-4a'-Za'b'+Zab'+4b' 10. x7+x4-81x3-81
1. x9 _ xy' = (Za4 - Za3 - 4a')- (Za'b' - Zab' - 4b') = (x7 + x4)_ (81x3 + 81)
=x(x8_y') =Za'(a'-a-Z)-Zb'(a'-a-Z) =x4(x3+1)-81(x3+1)
( =Z(a'-a-Z)(a'-b') =(x4-81)(x3+1)
=x x4 -l)(x4 + l)
=x(x' + l)(x' _ l)(x4 + l) = Z(a- Z)(a+ 1)(a+ b)(a-b) = (x' + 9)(x' -9)(x+ l)(x'
-x+ 1)
= x(x' + l )(x+ y )(x- y)(x4 + l) = (x' + 9 )(x+ 3)(x- 3)(x+ l)(x' - x+ 1)
17 11. x -x
2. x5-40x3+144x
= x(x4 - 40x' + 144) = x(x' - 36)(x' -4)
= x(x- 6)(x+ 6)(x+ Z)(x- Z)
7. x6 + Sx5 - 81x2 - 40Sx
= (x6 + Sx5)- (81x2 + 40Sx) = x5 (x+ S)- 81x(x+ S)
= (x5 - 81x )(x+ S)
= x(x4 - 81)(x+ S)
= x(x2 - 9)(x2 + 9 )(x+S)
= x(x+ 3)(x- 3)(x2 + 9 )(x+ S)
3. a6 +a3b3 _a4 -ab3 =(a6+a3b3)_(a4 +ab3) =a3 (a3 +b3)_a(a3 +b3)
=(a3_a)(a3+b3)
8.3-3a6
= a (a' -1)(a + b )(a' - ab+ b') = 3(1- a6)
= a (a+ 1)(a-l)(a + b )(a' -ab+ b') = 3(1- a3)(1 +a3)
4.4x4-8x2+4 =3(I-a)(l+a+a')(I+a)(l-a+a')
=4(x4-2x2+1) 9.4ax'(a'-Zax+x')-a3+Za'x-ax'
=4(x2-1)(x2-1) =4ax'(a-x)' -a(a'-Zax+x')
=4(x+l)'(x-l)' =4ax'(a-x)' -a(a-x)'
7 6 = (4ax' - a )(a - x)'
5. a -ab
=a(a6_b6) =a(4x'-I)(a-x)'
= a (a3 + b3 )(a3 _ b3) = a (Zx+ 1)(Zx-l)(a - x)'
= a (a + b )(a' - ab+ b' )(a - b )(a' + ab+ b')
EJERCICIO 110
=X(X16 -1)
= x(x8 + l)(x8 -1)
=x(x8 + l)(x4 + 1)(x4 -1)
= x(x8 + l)(x4 + 1)(x' + l)(x' -1) =x(x8 + l)(x4 + 1)(x' + l)(x+ 1)(x-l)
12. 3x6 -7Sx4 -48x' + 1.200
= (3x6 -7Sx4)- (48x' -1.200) = 3x4 (x' - 2S)-48(x' - 2S)
= (3x4 -48)(x'-2S)
= 3(x4 -16)(x+ S)(x- S)
= 3(x' + 4 )(x' - 4 )(x+ S)(x- S)
= 3(x' + 4 )(x+ 2)(x- 2)(x+ S)(x- S)
13. a6x2_x2+a6x_x
= (a6x' - x')+(a6x-x)
=x'(a6-1)+x(a6-1)
= (x'+x)(a6-1) =x(x+ l)(a3 -1)(a3 + 1)
= x(x+ l)(a-l)(a' + a+ l)(a+ 1)(a' - a+ 1)
14. (a2-ax)(x4-8Zx2+81) = a(a- x)(x2 - 81)(x2 -1)
= a (a - x)(x+ 9 )(x- 9)(x+ l)(x-l)
1. x3+x'-x-l
1 1 - 1 - 1 12..!..-
1 2 1
1 2 1 O
= (x' + 2x+ 1)(x-l) = (x+ 1)' (x-l)
2. x3-4x'+x+6
1 -4 1 61~
-1 S-6
1 -S 6 O =(x'-Sx+6)(x+ 1) = (x- 3)(x- 2)(x+ 1)
3. a3-3a'-4a+12
1 -3 -4 12 +2
2 -2 -12
1 -1 -6 O =(a'-a-6)(a-2) =(a-3)(a+2)(a-2)
4. m3 -12m+ 16
1 O -12 16 + 2
2 4 -16
1 2 -s O
= (m' + 2m- S)(m- 2) = (m+4)(m-2)(m- 2) = (m+4)(m-2)'
2x3-x2-18x+9
2 -1 -18~+3
6 15 ~ 2 5 -3 O
= (2x2 +5x- 3)(x- 3) 2 5 -L-3
~
2 -1 O
= (2x-1)(x- 3)(x+ 3)
6. a3+a2-13a-28
1 1 -13 -28 L±..±-
4 20 281
1 5 7 O
=(a2+5a+7)(a-4)
5.
7.
x3+2x2+x+2
1 2 1 ll..--2
-2 O r2
1 O 1 O
= (x2 + l)(x+ 2)
8. n3-7n+6
1 O -7 6 ~
1 1 -6i 1 1-6 O
= (n2 + n- 6)(n-1)
= (n+ 3)(n- 2)(n-1)
9. x3-6x2+32
1 -6 O 321-2
-2 16 -32
1 - 8 16 O
= (x2 - 8x+ 16)(x+ 2)
= (x-4)"(x+ 2)
10. 6x3 + 23x2 + 9x-18 6 23 9 -181-=2
-18 -15 18
6 5 -6 O
= (6x2+5x- 6)(x+3)
= [(6X)2 + 5(6x)- 36](x+ 3) (6x+ 9)(6x- 4)(x+3) 3·2
= (2x+ 3)(3x- 2)(x+ 3)
11. x4-4x3+3x2+4x-4 1 -4 3 4 -4 +1
1 -3 O 4
1 -3 O 4 O =(x3-3x2+4)(x-1) 1 -3 O 4 ~
-1 4 -41 1 -4 4 O
= (x2 - 4x+ 4 )(x-1)(x+ 1) =(x-2)'(x-1)(x+1)
12. x4 - 2x3 -13x2 + 14x + 24
1 - 2 -13 14 24 ~
2 O -26 -241
1 O -13 -12 O =(x3-13x- 12)(x-2)
1 O -13 -12 L-.=.!.
-1 1 12L
1 -1 -12 O
= (x2 - x-12)(x- 2)(x+ 1) = (x-4)(x+ 3)(x- 2)(x+ 1)
13. a4 -15a2 -lOa + 24
1 O -15 -10 24 + 1
1 1 -14 - 24
1 1 -14 - 24 O =(a3+a2-14a- 24)(a-1)
1 1 -14 -24!.---==3.
-2 2 21
1 -1 -12 O
= (a2 - a-12)(a-1)(a+ 2) = (a-4)(a+ 3)(a-1)(a+ 2)
14. n4-27n2-14n+ 120
1 O -27 -14 120~
2 4 -46 -1201
12-23-60 O
=(n3+2n2-23n- 60)(n-2)
1 2 -23 -60~
-3 3 60
1-1-20 O
= (n2 - n- 20)(n- 2)(n+3) = (n-5)(n+4)(n- 2)(n+ 3)
15. x4+6x3+3x+ 140 r
1 6 O 3 140-
-4 -8 32 -140
1 2 -8 35 O
=(x3+2x2-8x+ 35)(x+4)
1 2 -8 35~
-5 15 -35 1
1 -3 7 O
= (x2 - 3x+ 7)(x+ 4)(x+ 5)
16. 8a4-18a3-75a2+46a+ 120 8 -18 -75 46 120 -2
-16 68 14 -120
8-34 -7 60 O
= (8a3 - 34a2 -7a+ 60) (a + 2) 8 -34 -7 60 +4
32 -8 -60 8 - 2 -15 O
= (8a2 - 2a-15)(a + 2)(a - 4)
= [(8a)2 - 2(8a)-120](a+ 2)(a-4) 120 4
30 3 4·3= 12
10 2 5·2=10 55=> 12-10=2 1
(8a-12)(8a+ 10) (a + 2)(a-4) 4·2
= (2a- 3)(4a+5)(a+ 2)(a- 4)
17. x4 - 22x2 - 75
1 O -22 O -75 ~
5 25 15 75 I
1 5 3 15 O
= (x3 + 5x2 + 3x+ 15)(x-5)
1 5 3 15l..=.i-
-5 O -151
1 O 3 O
= (x2 + 3 )(x- 5)(x+ 5)
21. 4x'+3x4-108x3-25x' +522x+360 24. x'-25x3+ x' -25
4 3 - 108 - 25 522 360 -G-- 1 O - 25 1 O - 25 l!-
- 8 10 196 - 342 - 360 I - 1 1 24 - 25 25 1
4 - 5 - 98 171 180 O 1 -1 - 24 25 - 25 O
= (4x4 - 5x3 - 98x' + 171x+ 180)(x+ 2) = (x4 _ x3 _ 24x' + 25x- 25)(x+ 1)
4 -5 -98 171 180 I!:.l- 1 -1 -24 25 -25 ~
12 21 -231 -180 I 5 20 -20 25 I
4 7 -77 - 60 O 1 4 -4 5 O
= (4x3 + 7x'-77x-60)(x+2)(x-3) =(x3+4x'-4x+5)(x+1)(x-5)
4 7 -77 -60 I~ 1 4 -4 5 ~
16 92 60 _ 5 5 - 5 I
4 23 15 O 1 - 1 1 O
= (4x' + 23x+ 15)(x+ 2)(x- 3)(x- 4) = (x' - x+ l)(x+ l)(x- 5)(x+ 5)
= [(4x)' + 23(4x)+ 60](x+ 2)(x- 3)(x- 4)
25 2as - 8a4 + 3a-12
= [(4x+ 20)(4x+ 3)(x+ 2)(x- 3)(x-4)]-i- 4 .
19. x5-21x3+16x'+108x- 144 2 -8 O O 3
1 O -21 16 108 -144 ~ = (x+5)(4x+ 3)(x+2)(x-3)(x-4) 8 O O O
2 4 -34 -36 144 1 22. n'-3On3-25n' -36n-180 2 O O O 3
1 2 -17 -18 72 O 1 O -30 -25 -36 -180 I~ =(2a4+3)(a-4)
( 4 3' )() - 2 4 52 -54 180
= x +2x -17x -18x+72 x-2 --------- 26 x5+2x4-15x3-3x'-6x+45
1 - 2 - 26 27 - 90 O .
1 2 -17 -18 72l-3 1 2 -15 -3 -6 45 ~3
-3 3 42 -72 -- =(n4-2n3-26n'+27n-90)(n+2) 3 15 O -9 -45
1 - 2 - 26 27 - 90 1- 5
1 -1 -14 24 O -- 1 5 O -3 -15 O
-5 35 -45 90
=(x3 -x'-14x+24)(x-2)(x+3) --------. =(x4+5x3-3x-15)(x-3)
1 -7 9 -18 O
1 -1 -14 24 ~ _( 3 _ ' _)( )() 1 5 O -3 -15r5
2 2 -24 I - n 7n +9n 18 n+2 n+5 -5 O O 15
1 -7 9 -18 ~ _
1 -12 O 6 _ 6 18 I 1 O O - 3 O
=(x'+x-12)(x-2)(x+3)(x-2) 1 -1 3 O =(x3-3)(x-3)(x+5)
= (x+ 4)(x- 3)(x- 2)(x+ 3)(x- 2) = (n' _ n+ 3)(n+ 2)(n+ 5)(n- 6) Z7. x6 + 6x5 +
4x4 -42x3 -l13x' -108x- 36
= (x+4)(x-3)(x+3)(x-2)' 23.6x'-13x4-81x3+112x'+180x-144 1 6 4 -42 -113 -108 -36
-1
6 -13 -81 112 180 -144 ~ -1 -5 1 41 72 36
20. a5-23a3-6a'+112a +96 12 -2 -166 -108 144 1 1 5 -1 -41 -72 -36 O
1 O -23 -6 112 96 ~ 6 -1 -83 - 54 72 O =(x5+5x4-x3-41x'-72x-36)(x+1)
-1 1 22 -16 -96 1 = (6x4-x3-83x'-54x+72)(x-2) 1 5 -1 -41 -72 -361~
1 -1 -22 16 96 O 6 - 1 -83 -54 72 ~ -1 -4 5 36 36
=(a4-a3-22a'+16a+96)(a+1) -18 57 78 -72 I 1 4 -5 -36 -36 O
1 -1 -22 16 96 1-2 6 -19 -26 24 O =(x4+4x3-5x'-36x-36)(x+1)(x+1)
-2 6 32 -96 I = (6x3 -19x'-26x+24)(x-2)(x+3) 1 4-5-36-36-2
1 -3 -16 48 O 6 -19 -26 24 ~ -2-4 18 36
=(a3 -3a'-16a+48)(a+1)(a+2) 24 20 -24 I 1 2 -9 -18 O
1 -3 -16 48 ~ 6 5 - 6 O = (x3+2x'-9x-18)(x+1)'(x+2)
3 O -48 I = (6x'+5x-6)(x-2)(x+3)(x-4) 1 2 -9 -18~
1 O -16 O = [(6x)'+5(6x)-36](x-2)(x+3)(x-4) -2 O 181
=(a'-16)(a+1)(a+2)(a-3) (6x+9)(6x-4)(x-2)(x+3)(x-4) 10 -9 O
= (a + 4)(a- 4) (a + l)(a + 2)(a - 3) 3·2 = (x' - 9 )(x+ l)'(x+ 2)'
= (2x+ 3)(3x- 2)(x- 2)(x+ 3)(x- 4) = (x+ 3)(x- 3)(x+ 1)' (x+ 2)'
18. 15x4 + 94x3 - 5x' -164x+ 60
15 94 -5 -164 60 e-
15 109 104 -60 1
15 109 104 -60 O
= (15x3 + 109x' + 104x- 60)(x-1) 15 109 104 - 60 !=J!-
-90 -114 60 1
15 19 -10 O
= (15x' + 19x-1O)(x-1)(x+ 6)
= [(l5x)' + 19(15x) -150](x-1)(x+ 6) (15x+ 25)(15x- 6)(x-1)(x+ 6)
5·3
= (3x+ 5)(5x- 2)(x-1)(x+ 6)
-12l-±.,:1 121
O
28. a6 - 32a4 + 18a3 + 247a2 -162a- 360 1 O - 32 18 247 -162 - 360 -1
-1 1 31 -49 -198 360
1 -1 - 31 49 198 - 360 O
= (as - a4 - 31a3 + 49a2 + 198a- 360)(a+ 1) 1 -1 -31 49 198 -360 +2
2 2 -58 -18 360
1 1 - 29 - 9 180 O
= (a4 + a3 - 29a2 - 9a+ 180)(a+ l)(a- 2) 1 1 - 29 - 9 180 + 3
3 12 -51 -180 14-17-60 O
= (a3+4a2-17a-60)(a+l)(a-2)(a-3) 1 4 -17 -60 -3
-3 - 3 60
1 1 -20 O
= (a2 + a- 20)(a+ 1)(a- 2)(a- 3)(a + 3) = (a+ 5)(a- 4)(a+ 1)(a- 2)(a- 3)(a+ 3)
30. 2x6 -lOxs - 34x4 + 146x3 + 224x2 -424x-480 2 -10 - 34 146 224 -424 -480 -1
-2 12 22 -168 - 56 480
2 -12 -22 168 56 -480 O
= (2xs -12x4 - 22x3 + 168x2 +56x-480)(x+ 1) 2 -12 -22 168 56 -480 -2
- 4 32 -20 -296 480
2 -16 10 148 -240 O
= (2x4 -16x3 + lOx2 + 148x- 240)(x+ l)(x+ 2)
2 -16 10 148 -240 +2
4 -24 -28 240
2 -12 -14 120 O
= (2x3 -12x2 -14x+ 120) (x + 1)(x+ 2)(x- 2) 2 -12 -14 120 +4
8 -16 -120 2 -4 -30 O
= (2x2 - 4x- 30)(x+ 1)(x+ 2)(x- 2)(x- 4)
= [(2X)2 - 4(2x)- 60](x+ l)(x+ 2)(x- 2)(x- 4) (2x-1O)(2x+ 6)(x+ l)(x+ 2)(x- 2)(x
- 4)
2
=~-~~x+~~+D~+~~-~~-~ =2~-~~+~~+D~+~~-~~-~
29. x6 - 4lx4 + 184x2 -144
1 O - 41 O 184 O -144
1 1 -40 -40 144 144
1 1 -40-40 144 144 O
= (x' + x4 -40x3 -40x2 + 144x+ 144)(x-l) 1 1 -40 -40 144 144 ~~
-1 O 40 O -144 1
1 O -40 O 144 O
= (x4 - 40x2 + 144 )(x-l)(x+ 1)
= (x2 - 36)(x2 -4)(x-l)(x+ 1) =~+~~-~~+~~-~~-0~+0
31. a6 _8as + 6a4 + I03a3 -344a' +396a-l44 1 -8 6 103 -344 396 -144 1+2
2 -12 -12 182 -324 144 r
1 - 6 - 6 91 -162 72 O
=(as-6a4-6a3+91a'-162a+72)(a- 2) 1 -6 -6 91 -162 721~
2 -8 -28 126 -72
1 - 4 -14 63 - 36 O
= (a4 - 4a3 -14a' + 63a- 36)(a- 2)(a - 2) 1 -4 -14 63 -36 +3
3 - 3 -51 36
1 -1 -17 12 O
=(a3-a'-17a+12)(a-2)' (a-3) 1 -1 -17 12 ~
-4 20 -121 1 -5 3 O
=(a'-5a +3)(a-2)' (a-3)(a+4)
32. x7 - 20x' - 2x4 + 64x3 + 40x2 -128
1 O - 20 - 2 64 40 O -128 ~
2 4 - 32 - 68 - 8 64 128 I 1 2 -16 - 34 - 4 32 64 O
=(x6+2x'- 16x4-34x3-4x2+ 32x+64)(x- 2) 1 2 -16 - 34 - 4 32 + 641---=:3...-
-2 O 32 4 O -64 1 O -16 - 2 O 32 O
= (x' -16x3 - 2x2 + 32)(x- 2)(x+ 2) 1 O -16 -2 O 32 It±--
4 16 O - 8 - 32 1
1 4 O -2 -8 O
0("" 4,' - 2"- r- 2)(H 2) ("-4) 1 4 O -2 -8 -4
-4 O O 8
1 O O -2 O
= (x3 - 2 )(x- 2)(x+ 2)(x- 4 )(x+ 4)
EJERCICIO 111
1. a2x,aJf mcd ax
2. ab2c,a2bc mcd abc
3. 2x"y,x2y" mcd x"y
4. 6a2b3, 15a3b4
¡ 1 ~ 11~ 1 ~
3·2=6 3 ·5=15
mcd 3 =>3a2b3
5. 8am'n,20x"m"
8 2 20 2
4 2 10 2
2 2 5 5
1 1
23 =8 22 ·5=20
mcd 22 = 4 =>4m"
6. 18md , 27a2m'n4 18 3 27 3
6 3 9 3
2 2 3 3
1 1
32.2=18 33=27 mcd32 =9
=>9md
EJERCICIO 112
7.15a2b3c,24ab2x,36b4x"
15 5 24 3 36 3
3 3 8 4 12 4
1 2 2 3 3
1 1
5·3=15 3·4·2=24 32 ·4=36 mcd3=>3b2
8. 12x2yz3,18xy"z,24x3yz2 12 3 18 3 24 3
4 2 6 3 8 4
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
3.22 =12 32 ·2=183·4·2=24 mcd 3·2=>6xyz
9. 28a2b3c4 ,35a3b4c5 ,42a4b5c6
;al: ~51; ti:
7·4=28 7·5=35 7·6=42 mcd 7 => 7a2b3c4
10. 72x3y4z4 ,96x"y"z' ,120x4ySz7
72 8 96 8 120 8
9 3 12 3 15 3
3 3 4 4 5 5
1 1 1
8.32 = 72 8·3·4=96 8·3·5=120 mcd 8·3 =>24x"y"z'
11. 42am2n, 56m3n2x, 70m4dy 4211 4 56114 70 14
3 3 4 4 5 5
1 1 1
14·3=42 14·4=56 14·5=70 mcd 14 =>14m2n
12. 75a4b3c2, 150a5b7 x" , 225a3b6y"
75115 150 15 225 15
5 5 10 5 15 5
1 2 2 3 3
1 1
15·5=75 15·5·2=15015·5·3=225 mcd 15·5 =>75a3b3
13. 4a2b,8a3b2 ,2a2bc, 1 Oab3c2
412812 212 1012
22441 55
1 1 1
22=4 2·4=8 2=2 2·5=10 mcd 2 =>2ab
14. 38a2x6y4 , 76mx4y7 , 95x5y6 38 19 76119 95119
2 2 4 4 5 5
1 1 1
19·2=38 19·4=76 19·5=95 mcd 19 =>19x4y4
9.3x3+15x2=3x2(x+5) ax2+5ax=ax(x+5) mcd x(x+5)
10. a2 _b2 =(a+b)(a-b)
a2 -2ab+b2 =(a-bt
mcd (a-b)
11. m3+n3=(m+n)(m2-mn+n2)
3am+3an=3a(m+n)
mcd m+n
1. 2a2+2ab=2a(a+b) 5. x2-x=x(x-l)
4a2-4ab=22a(a-b) X3_X2= x2(x-l)
mcd 2a mcd x(x-l)
2. 6x3y- 6x2y= 2· 3x2y(x-l) 6. 30ax2 -15x3 = 5'3x2 (2a - x)
9X3y2 + 18x2 y2 = 32 X2y2 (x+ 2) 1Oa.xy2 _ 20X2y2 = 5. 2xy2 (a - 2x)
mcd 3x2 y mcd 5x
3. 12a2b3=4·3a2b3 7. 18a2x3y4=6·3a2x3y4
4a3b2 - 8a2b3 = 4a2b2 (a- 2b) 6a2 X2y4 -18a2x/ = 6a2.ry4 (x- 3)
mcd 4a2b2 mcd 6a2x/
4. ab+b=b(a+l) 8.5a2-15a=5a(a-3)
a2+a=a(a+l) a3-3a2=a2(a-3)
mcd a+ 1 mcd a(a- 3)
12. x2-4=(x+2)(x-2)
x3 - 8= (x- 2)(x2 + 2x+4) mcd x-2
13. 2ax' + 4ax= 2ax(x+ 2)
x3 - x' - 6x= x (x' - x- 6)= x(x- 3)(x+ 2) mcd x(x+2)
14. 9x' -1= (3x+ 1)(3x-1)
9x' - 6x+ 1= (3x-1)'
med 3x-1
15. 4a2 + 4ab+ b2 = (2a+ b)'
2a2 - 2ab+ ab- b2 = (2a2 - 2ab)+ (ab-b2) =2a(a-b)+b(a-b) =(2a+b)(a-b)
med 2a+b
16. 3x2+3x-60=3(x2+x-20)
=3(x+S)(x-4)
6x2 -18x- 24= 6(x2 - 3x- 4)
=3.2(x-4)(x+1) med 3(x-4)
17. 8xJ+l=(2x+y)(4x2-2xy+y')
4ax2 - ay' = a (4x2 - y')
=a(2x+ y)(2x- y)
med 2x+ y
18. 2a3 -12a'b+ 18ab' = 2a (a' - 6ab+ 9b') =2a(a-3b)'
a3x- 9ab' x= ax(a' - 9b')
=ax(a+3b)(a-3b)
med a(a-3b)
19. ae+ ad - 2be- 2bd= (ae+ ad)- (2be+ 2bd) =a(e+d)-2b(e+d) =(a-2b)(e+d)
2e2 + 4ed + 2d 2 = 2 (e2 + 2ed + d 2 )
=2(e+d)'
med e+d
21. 4x"-l=(2x2+y)(2x2-y) (2x2+ y)' = (2x2 + y)(2x2+ y) med 2x2+ y
22. 3x5 - 3x= 3x(x' -1)= 3x(x2 + 1)(x2 -1) =3x(x2 + l)(x+ 1)(x-1) 9xJ - 9x= 9x(x
2 -1)= 32 x(x+ 1)(x-1)
med 3x(x+ 1)(x-1)
23. a2+ab=a(a+b) ab+b2=b(a+b) a3+a2b=a2(a+b) med a+b
24. 2x3-2x2 =2x2 (x-1) 3x2-3x=3x(x-1) 4x3 - 4x2 = 4x2 (x-1)
mcd x(x-1)
25.
x"-9x2=X2(x2-9) =x2(x+3)(x-3)
x" -SxJ + 6x2 = x2 (x2 - Sx+ 6)= x2 (x- 3)(x- 2) x" - 6xJ + 9x2 = x2 (x2 - 6x+ 9
)= x2 (x- 3)'
med x2(x-3)
26. a3b+ 2a2b2 + ab3 = ab(a2 + 2ab+b2)= ab(a+b)2
a4b- a2b3 = a2b (a2 - b2) = a2b(a + b)(a - b)
med ab(a+b)
27. 2x2+2x-4=2(x2+x-2) =2(x+2)(x-1) 2x2 - 8x+ 6= 2(x2 -4x+ 3)= 2(x- 3 )(x-1)
2xJ - 2= 2(x2 -1) = 2(x+ 1)(x-1)
med 2(x-1)
28.
3 2 ( 2 )
ax -2ax -8ax=ax x -2x-8
ax2 - ax- 6a= a(x2 - x- 6)
'3 " , '(' )' ( )( )
a-x -3a-x--10a-x=a-x x--3x-1O =a-x x-S x+2
med a(x+2)
= ax(x- 4)(x+ 2) =a(x-3)(x+2)
20. 3a2m2+6a2m-4Sa2=3a2(m2+2m-1S) 29.2an4-16an2+32a=2a(n4-8n2+16)
= 3a2 (m+ S)(m- 3) 6am2 x + 24amx - 30ax = 6ax (m2 - 4m - S)
= 3· 2ax(m+ S)(m-1) mcd 3a(m+S)
= 2a (n2 - 4)(n2 - 4)= 2a(n+ 2)' (n- 2)'
2an3-8an =2an(n2-4) = 2an(n+2)(n-2)
2a2n3 + 16a2 = 2a2 (n3 + 8) = 2a2 (n+ 2)(n2 - 2n+ 4)
mcd 2a(n+2)
54x3 + 250= 2(27x3 + 125) = 2(3x+5)(9x2 -15x+ 25)
18ax2 -50a= 2a (9x2 - 25) = 2a (3x+ 5)(3x-5)
18x2 + 60x+ 50= 2(9x2 + 30x+ 25)= 2(3x+5)' mcd 2(3x+5)
(x2 -1)' = [(x+ 1)(x-1)r
x2 - 4x- 5= (x-5)(x+ 1) x4 -1 = (x2 + 1)(x2 -1)= (x2 + l)(x+ 1)(x-1)
30. 4a2 + 8a-12=4(a2 + 2a- 3)= 22 (a+ 3)(a-1) 2a2 - 6a+ 4= 2(a2 - 3a+ 2) = 2(a-
2)(a-1) 6a2 + 18a- 24= 6(a2 + 3a-4)= 3· 2(a+ 4)(a-1) mcd 2(a-1)
31. 4a2-b2=(2a+b)(2a-b)
8a3 +b3 = (2a+b)(4a2 - 2ab+ b2) 4a2 + 4ab+ b2 = (2a+b)'
mcd 2a+b
32.
x2 - 2x- 8= (x- 4)(x+ 2) x2 - x-12= (x-4)(x+ 3) x3 - 9x2 + 20x= x(x2 - 9x+ 20)=
x(x- 5)(x-4) mcd x-4
33. a2+a=a(a+1)
a3 - 6a2 -7a= a(a2 - 6a-7)= a(a-7)(a+ 1)
a'+a=a(a5+1) =a(a+1)(a4-a3+a2-a+1)
mcd a(a+1) 41.
x3 + 27= (x+ 3)(x2 - 3x+ 9) 2x2 - 6x+ 18= 2(x2 - 3x+ 9)
x 4 - 3x3 + 9 x2 = x2 (x2 - 3x + 9)
mcd x2 -3x+9
34.
35. x2+ax-6a2=(x+3a)(x-2a) x2 + 2ax- 3a2 = (x+ 3a)(x- a)
2 2()2
x +6ax+9a = x+3a
mcd x+3a
36.
37.
mcd x+ 1
38.
4ax2 - 28ax=4ax(x-7)
2 3 8 2 2 7 2 2 (2 8 7) 2 ( 7) ( 1)
a x - a x + a x= a x x - x+ = a x x- x-
ax4 -15ax3 + 56ax2 = ax2 (x2 -15x+56)= ax2 (x- 8)(x-7) mcd ax(x-7)
39. 3a2 - 6a= 3a(a- 2)
a3 -4a= a(a2 -4)= a (a+ 2)(a- 2) a2b- 2ab= ab(a- 2)
a2 - a- 2= (a- 2)(a+ 1) mcd a-2
40. 3x' - x= x(3x-1)
27 x3 -1= (3x-1)(9x' + 3x+ 1) 9x' - 6x+ 1= (3x-1)'
3ax- a+ 6x- 2= (3ax- a)+ (6x- 2)
= a (3x-1)+ 2(3x-1) = (a+ 2)(3x-1)
mcd
3x-1
= a2x (a + 1)+ x(a+ 1)
= (a2x+x)(a+1)=x(a2+1)(a+1)
aS +a3 +a2 + 1= (as +a3)+ (a2 + 1)
=a3(a2+1)+(a2+1)
= (a3 + 1)(a2 + 1)= (a+ 1)(a2 - a+ 1)(a2 + 1) mcd (a2+1)(a+1)
42. 2m2 +4mn+ 2n2 = 2(m2 + 2mn+ n2)
=2(m+n)'
m3 +m2n+mn2 +n3=m2(m+n)+n2 (m+n)
= (m2 + n2 )(m+ n)
m3 +n3 = (m+n)(m2 -mn+n2) m3 -mn2=m{m2 _n2)
=m(m+n)(m-n)
mcd m+n
43. aJ - 3a2 + 3a-l= (aJ -1)- 3a (a-l) 46.
= (a-l)(a2 + a+ 1)- 3a(a-l) =(a-l)(a2+a+I-3a)
= (a-l)(a2 - 2a+ 1)= (a-l)(a-l)' a2-2a+l=(a-l)'
aJ -a= a(a2 -1)= a(a+ 1)(a-l) a2-4a+3=(a-3)(a-l)
mcd a-l
2a2 -am+4a- 2m=(2a2 -am)+(4a-2m) = a(2a-m)+ 2(2a- m) =(a+2)(2a-m)
2am2 _m3 =m2 (2a-m)
6a2 +Sam-4m2 =[(6a)2 +Sm(6a)-24m2]
= [(6a+ Sm)(6a- 3m)]7 2· 3 = (3a + 4m)(2a - m)
16a2 + 72am- 40m2 = S(2a2 + 9am-Sm2)
= S[(2a)2 + 9m(2a)-lOm] = S [(2a + IOm)(2a- m)] 7 2 =S(a+Sm)(2a-m)
44. 16aJx+S4x= 2x(SaJ + 27)
= 2x(2a+ 3)(4a2 - 6a+ 9)
mcd 2a-m
12a2x2 - 42ax2 - 90x2 = 6x2 (2a2 -7a-lS) 47. 12ax- 6ay+ 24bx-12by = (12ax- 6ay)+
(24bx-12by)
= 6x2[(2a)2-7(2a )-30] =6a(2x- y)+12b(2x- y)
= [6x2 (2a-1O)(2a+ 3)]7 2 = (6a + 12b )(2x- y)
=3.2x2(a-S)(2a+3) =3.2(a+2b)(2x- y)
= 4ax[(Sa)2 + 6(Sa)-72]
= [4ax(Sa+ 12)(Sa- 6)]7 4 = 22 ax(2a + 3 )(Sa - 6)
= 2J ax(2a+ 3)(4a- 3)
32a"x-144a2x+ 162x= 2x(16a" -72a2 + SI)
= 2x(4a2 - 9)' 48. Sa2 +Sax+SaY+SxY=Sa(a+ x)+Sy(a+ x)
=2x[(2a+3)(2a-3)r = (Sa + Sy)(a+ x)=S(a+ y)(a+x)
( ) ISaJ -ISax2 + ISa2y-lSx2y= ISa2 (a+ y)-ISx2 (a+ y)
mcd 2x 2a+3
= (ISa2 -ISx2)(a + y)
=IS(a2-x2)(a+ y) =S.3(a+x)(a-x)(a+ y) 20aJ - 20ay2 + 20a2x- 20.ry2 = 20a2 (a+ x)
- 20y2 (a+ x)
32aJx+ 24a2x- 36ax= 4ax(Sa2 + 6a- 9)
45.
= l (x2 +2.ry+ l) = l (x+ y)' x2y_ 2.ry2 - 3/ = Y (x2 - 2.ry- 31)= y(x- 3y)(x+ y
)
axJy+a/=ay(xJ+ /) =ay(x+ y)(x2_.ry+ l)
x2y_ /= y(x2-1) = y(x+ y)(x- y)
mcd y(x+ y)
3aJ + 24bJ = 3(aJ + SbJ)
= 3(a + 2b )(a2 - 2ab+ 4b2) 9a2 + 9ab-I8b2 = 9(a2 + ab- 2b2)
=32(a+2b)(a-b)
12a2 + 24ab = 12a(a+ 2b)= 4.3a(a+ 2b)
mcd 3(a+2b)
mcd
= (20a2 - 20y2)(a+ x) =20(a2- y2)(a+x) =S-4(a+ y)(a- y)(a+x)
S(a+ y)(a+x)
EJERCICIO 113
1. 12x'+ 8x + 1 I 2x'-5x-3
-12x' + 30x+ 18 6
38x +19 (0-2) 2x'-5x-3 ~
_2xz_ x x
-6x -3 (0--3) 2x+1 ~
- 2x-1 1
mcd 2x+1
2. 3(2a3-a'-6a) ; (6a'-2a-20)0-2 6a3-3a'-18a 13a'-a-1O -6a3+2a'+20a 2a
- a' +2a (o--a) 3a'- a-lO ~
-3a' +6a 3a
5a-1O (0-2) a-2 ~
-a+2 1 mcd a-2
3. 3(5a3 - 6a'x + ax' ) = 15a3 -18a'x+ 3ax'
; 3a3-4a'x+ax' =a(3a'-4ax+x')
=a (15a' -18ax+ 3x')
, '3a' 4 '
15a -18ax+ 3x I - ax+ x
-15a' + 20ax- 5x' 5
2ax- 2x' (o- 2x)
3a' 4 '
- ax+x I a-x
-3a'+3ax ~
- ax +x' (o--x)
a-x la-x
-a+x
mcd a(a-x)
4. (2x3+4x'-4x+6)0-2
x3 + 2x' - 2x+ 3 x3 + x' - x+ 2
_x3_ x' + x-2
x' - x+ 1 x3+x'-x+21 x'-x+1
_X3+X2 -x x
2x'-2x+2 (o- 2) x'-x+1 I x'-x+1
-x'+x-1 mcd
x' - x+ 1
5. 8a4-6a3x+7a'x'-3ax3
= a (8a3 - 6a'x+ 7ax' - 3x3) 3 6' 7 ' 3 3 8a - a x+ ax - x I
- 8a3 -12a'x+ 8ax'
2a3 + 3a'x- 2ax'
= a (2a' + 3ax- 2x') 2a' + 3ax- 2x' (3x) 4a
-18a'x+ 15ax' - 3x3 O- - 3
6a'x+9ax'-6x31 6a'x-5ax'+x3 - 6a'x+ 5ax' - x3
14ax'-7x3 0-7x' 6a'x-5ax'+x312a-x
- 6a'x+ 3ax' ~
2a-x I 2a-x
- 2a+ x 1
mcd a(2a-x)
6. (12ax4-3ax3+26ax2-5ax+10a)0- a
12x4- 3x3+26x2- 5x+1O I 3x4+3x3-4x2+5x-15 (5)
-12x4 -12x3 + 16x2 - 20x+ 60 4
-15x3+42x2-25x+70 (-1)
15x4+15x3-20x2+25x-75 I 15x3-42x2+25x-70 (19)
-15x4 + 42x3 - 25x2 + 70x x
57x3-45x2+95x-75 (5)
285x3 -798x2 + 475x-1.330 I 285x3 - 225x2 + 475x- 375
- 285x3 + 225x2 - 475x+ 375 1
(0--191) I 3x2 +5 95x
- 955
285x3 - 225x2 + 475x- 375
-285x3
-475x
-225x2
3x2 +5 I 3x2 +5 -3x2-5 1
- 375 (0--75)
mcd 3x2+5
6x4-4x3y- 3x'/ +5xy3_2l I 3x3-2x'y+9xy'-6y' (7) 7.
--------
-6x4+4x3y-18x'/+12xy3 2x
- 21x'/+17xy3-2l (o--y')
21x3 -14x'y+ 63xy' - 42y31 21x' -17xy + 2y'
-21x3+17x'y- 2xy' x
3x'y+ 61xy' -42y' (o- y) 21x'-17xy+ 2/ I 3x'+61xy-42/ - 21x' + 427xy+ 294/ 7
-444xy+296/ (0--148y)
3x'+61xy-42/ 3x-2y
-3x' +2xy x
63xy-42y' (0-21y) 3x- 2y I 3x- 2y
- 3x+ 2y 1 mcd 3x- 2y
8. (ax4 + 3ax3 - 2ax2 + 6ax- 8a)-;- a ; (x4 +4x3-x2-4x)-;-x x 4 + 3x3 - 2x2 + 6x
- 8
I x3+4x2-x-4 x
- x3_ x2 +lOx-8 (-1)
x3 + 4x2 - X - 4 I x3 + x2 -lOx+ 8 - x3 _ x2 + lOx- 8
(-;- 3)
Ix2+3x-4
3x2 + 9x-12 x3 + x2 -lOx+ 8 _x3_3x2 +4x
x
(-;--2)
_2x2 -6x+8
x2+3x-4 -x2-3x+4
x2+3x-4
mcd x2+3x-4
9. 3(2m4-4m3-m2+6m-3) ;
( 5 4 3 , )
3m -6m +8m -lOm-+Sm -;-m
6 4 3' 4 6 3 ,
m -12m - 3m- +18m- 9 I 3m - m +8m--lOm+S
-6m4+12m3-16m2+20m-10 2
- 19m2+38m-19 (-;--19)
3m4-6m3+8m2-lOm+S I m2-2m+1
- 3m4 + 6m3 - 3m2
3m2
Sm2-lOm+S m2-2m+11 m2-2m+1 -m2+2m-1
mcd m2-2m+1
10. Factor común a
7(3a5-6a4+16a3-2a2+Sa) ; 3(7a5-14a4+33a3+4a2-lOa)
= 21a5 - 42a4 + 112a3 -14a2 + 3Sa ; = 21a5 - 42a4 + 99a3 + 12a2 - 30a 21a4-42a3+
112a2-14a+3SI21a4-42a3+99a2+12a-30 -21a4 +42a3-99a2 -12a+30 1
13a2 - 26a+ 6S (-;-13)
21a4-42a3+99a2+12a-30 I a2-2a+S
- 21a4 + 42a3 -lOSa2 21a2
- 6a2+12a-30 (-;--6) a2-2a+SI a2-2a+S
-a2+2a-S 1
11. (45ax3 + 75ax2 -18ax-30a)-;- 3a ; (24ax3 +40ax2 - 30ax-50a)-;- 2a 4(15x3+25x
2-6x-1O); 5 (12x3+20x2-15x-25) 60x3+100x2-24x-40 I 60x3+100x2-75x-125 (-;-5) - 6
0x3 -lOOx2 + 75x+ 125 1
5lx+ 85 (-;-17) 12x3+20x2-15x-25 I 3x+5
-12x3 - 20x2 4x2
-15x-25 (-;--5) 3x+5 13x+5
-3x-5 1
mcd a (3x+5)
mcd a(a2-2a+S)
12. Factor común 2:
2x3+2ax2+2a2x +2a3 ; 10x3+4ax2+10a2x+4a3 5x3+2ax2+5a2x+2a3 Ix3 +ax2+a2x+a3
-5x3 -5ax2 -5a2x-5a3 5
-3ax2 -3a3 (-;--3a)
x3 +ax2+a2x+a3 I x2+a2
x
(-;-a)
ax +a3
x2+a2 I x2+a2
2 2
-x -a
13. Factor común 3 :
9x3 + 15ax2 + 3a2 x- 3a3 12x3 + 21ax2 + 6a2x- 3a3 (3)
12x3 + 21ax2 + 6a2 x - 3a3 I 3x3 + 5ax2 + a2 x _ a3 -12x3 - 20ax2 - 4a2 x+ 4a3 4

ax2 +2a2x + a3 (-;-a)


3x3+5ax2+ a2x_a3 x2+2ax+a2
-3x3-6ax2-3a2x 3x
- ax2 - 2a2x-a3 (-;--a) x2 + 2ax+ a2 I x2 + 2ax+ a2
-x2-2ax-a2 mcd 3(x2+2ax+a2)
14. Factor comÚn 2ab:
16.
a7 _ a6 + a4
_a7 + 2a6_a5
+1 las-2a4+a3+a-l (a)
_a3+a2 a2
a6_2a5+a4
_aS +a3 -a-l (-1)
a6 _aS+a4_a3+a' +1 I aS-a3+a+l
_a6
+a4
a
_aS+2a4_a3 -a+l (-1)
aS - a3+a+l I aS-2a4+a3+a- 1
_aS+2a4_ a3-a+l
2a4-2a3 +2 (-;-2) aS-2a4+a3+a- 1 I a4_a3+ 1
8a4b+ 4a3b' + 4ab4 ; 12a4b-18a3b' + 12a'b3 - OOb4 _ aS + a4 _ a a
3(4a3+2a'b+2b3) oo3-9a'b+OOb'-3b3 _a4 +a3 _ 1 (-1)
12a3 + OO'b + 6b3 1003 - 9a'b+ OOb' - 3b3 a4 _ a3 + 1 a4 _ a3 + 1
-12a3 + 18a'b-12ab' + 6b3 2 _ a4 + a3 _ 1
6ax4 - 4ax3 + 6ax2 - lOax + 4a ; 36ax4 - 24ax3 -18ax2 + 48ax- 24a
18x4-12x3- 9x2+24x-12 13x4-2x3+3x2-5x+2 (9) 2ab(2a'-ab+b') -18x4+12x3-18x2+30x-1
2 6
-27x2+54x-24 (-1)
27x4-18x3 +27x2-45x+18 I 27x2-54x+24 (4x)
- 27 x4 + 54x3 - 24x2 x2
24a'b-12ab' + 12b3 (-;-12b) 003 - 9a'b + OOb' - 3b3 I 2a' - ab + b'
- 003 + 3a'b- 3ab' 3a
2a'-ab+b' -2a'+ab-b'
mcd
15. Factor común 3a2n2:
9asn' - 33a4n3 + 27 a3n4 - 6a'ns ; 9asn' + 12a4n3 - 21a3n4 + 6a'ns
3a3-11a'n+ 9an' -2n313a3+4a'n-7an'+2n3 (5) -3a3- 4a'n+ 7an' -2n3
-15a'n+16an'-4n3 (-;--n)
15a3 + 20a'n-35an' + IOn3 115a' -16an+4n'
-15a3 + 1oo'n- 4an'
a
3oo'n-39an'+lOn3 (-;-n) 180a'-I92an+48n' 136a'-39an+lOn' -180a' + 195an- 50n' 5
3an- 2n' (-;- n) 3OO'-39an+lOn' I 3a-2n
- 36a' + 24an 12a
-15an+lOn' (-;--5n)
3a-2n 13a-2n
-3a+2n 1 mcd 3a'n' (3a-2n)
mcd a4_a3+ 1
17. Factor común 2a :
36x3 + 3x2 - 45x+ 18 (-;- 3)
108x3 - 216x2 + 96x I 12x3 + x2 -15x+ 6
-108x3 - 9x2 + 135x- 54 9
(25)
(12) - 225x2 + 231x- 54 (-;--3)
300x3 + 25x2 - 375x+ 150 175x2-77x+18 (111)
- 300x3 + 308x2 - 72x 4x
333x2 - 447 x+ 150 (-;- 3)
8.325x2- 8.547x+1.998 1111x2-149x+50 (2.628) -8.325x2+11.175x-3.750 75
2.628x-1.752 291.708x2-391.572x+131.400I2.628x-1.752 (-;-876)
- 291. 708x2 + 194.4 72x ll1x
-197 .100x+ 131.400 (-;- - 65.700)
3x-2 13x-2
-3x+ 2 1 mcd 2a(3x-2)
2. 8x3 + 6x2 y- 3xy2 - y' 12x3 - x2 y- 2xy2 + y' -8x3+4x2y+8xy2_4y' 4
1. 2X3_5x2_6x+912x2_5X-3 lOx2y+5xy2-5y' (0-5y)
-2x3+5x2+3x x 2x3_x2y_2xy2+y' 12x2+xy_y2
-3x+9 (0--3) _2x3_x2y+ xy2 x
EJERCICIO 114
2x2-5x-3 ~
-2x2+6x 2x
x -3 x3-2x2-5x+61 x-3 (x)
_x3+3x2 x2
x2 -5x+6
x2-3x
I x2-5x+6 1
(O- 2)
+5x-6 2x-6
x2-5x+6 Ix-3
-x2+2x
x
-3x+6 (0--3) x-3 I x-3 -x+3 1
mcd
-2x2y- xy2+ y' (0-- y)
2x2 + xy_ y' 2x2 + xy_ y2
-2x2 - xy+ y'
o
6x2- xy _ y2 12x2+ xy_ y2 - 6x2 - 3xy+ 3y' 3
-4xy+2y' (0--2y)
2x2+ xy- y' 12x- Y
-2x2+xy x
2xy- y' (O- y) 2x-y ~
- 2x+ Y 1
x-3
mcd 2x- y
4. 3a4 + 9a3x+4a2x2 _3ax3 +2x4 j a4 + 3a3x+a2x2 -3ax3- 2x4 - 3a4 _ 9a3x- 3a2x2 +
9ax3 + 6x4 3
a2x2 + 6ax3+ 8x4 (O- x2)
a4 + 3a3x+ a2 x2 - 3ax3 - 2X41 a2 + 6ax+ 8x2 (3a)
_a4_6a3x_8a2x2 a2
_3a3x_7a2x2_3ax3_2x4 (o--x)
3a3+18a2x+24ax2 I 3a3+7a2x+3ax2+2x3 (11)
_3a3_ 7a2x _3ax2_2x3 1
l1a2x +21ax2-2x3 (o-x) 33a3+77a2x+33ax2+22x3 l11a2+21ax-2x2 (14)
-33a3-63a2x+6ax2 3a
14a2x+39ax2+22x3 (o-x)
154a2+294ax- 28x2 -154a2 -429ax- 242x2
-135ax- 270x2
14a2+39ax+22x21 a+2x
-14a2-28ax 14a
l1ax + 22x2 (o-l1x ) 4a3+8a2x-ax2-2x3 I a+ 2x
-4a3-8a2x 4a2
_ ax2 _ 2x3 (-;- _ x2 ) a+2x I a+2x
-a-2x 1
I 14a2+39ax+22x2 11
(o--135x)
o
mcd a+2x
(2x3 + 2x2 - 2x - 2) O- 2
x3+x2-x-1 x3+x2-x-1
o
5x3-5x2 +2x-2 I x3+x2-x-1 (10) -5x3 -5x2 +5x +5 5
(-1)
lOx3+lOx2-lOx-1O IlOx2-7X-3 (17)
-lOx3 + 7 x2 + 3x x
17x2-7x-1O 170x2 -119x-51 -170x2 + 70x+ 100
I 17x2-7x-1O 10
-49x+ 49 (0--49) L.:.::.-1
17x
17x2-7x -10 -17x2 + 17 x
x-1 -x+1
lOx-lO L_:~ . .=..!. 1
mcd x-1
5. Factor común x 2(2x5 + 2x4 - 2x2 - 2x)
4x4+4x3 -4x-414x3_4x2+3x-3 (2)
-4x4 +4x3 -3x2 +3x X
8x3-3x2- x-4
8x3-8x2+6x-6 18x3_3x2_X-4 (5) - 8x3 + 3x2 + x + 4 1
-5x2+7x-2 (-1)
40x3 -15x2 - 5x- 20 15x2 -7 x+ 2 (41)
-40x3+56x2-16x 8x
41x2 - 21x- 20 205x2 - 287 x+ 82 - 205x2 + 1 05x+ 100
I 41x2 - 21x- 20 5
-182x+ 182 (0--182)
41x2-21x-20 ~ x-1~
-41x2+41x 41x -x+1 1
20x-20 (0-20) O
3x6 -4x4-3x3+4x I x-1 (3x4)
-3x6+3x5
3x5 -4x4 -3x3 +4x
3x5
Continua.
Continuación.
5. 3x5-3x4 13x5_4x4_3x3+4x(-;-x)
-3x5+4x4+3x3-4x 1
x4+3x3-4x (-;-x)
3x4 -4x3 - 3x' +4
-3x4-9x3 +12x
Ix3 + 3x' -4 (13) 3x
-13x3-3x' +12x+4 (-;--1)
13x3+39x' -52 I 13x3+3x'-12x-4 (3)
-13x3-3x' +12x+4 1
36x' +12x-48 (-;-12) 39x3+ 9x'-36x-121 3x' +x-4
- 39 x3 - 13x' + 52x 13x
- 4x'+16x-12 (-;--4)
3x'+ x -4 ¡X'-4X+3 -3x'+12x-9 3
13x-13 (-;-13)
x'-4x+3 I x-1
_x2+ x x
-3x+3 (-;--3) x-1 ~
-x+1 1 mcd x(x-1)
EJERCICIO 115
2. J!y, xl mcm J!I
3. ab2c, a2bc mcm a2b2c
4. a2;(3 , a3bJ! mcm a3b;(3
5. 6~n, 4m3 mcm12m3n
6. 9a;(3y, 15J!1 mcm 45ax31
7. a3 , ab2 , a2b mcm a3b2
8. J!y, xl , xyz mcm J!yz
9. 2ab2 , 4a2b, Sa3 mcm Sa3b2
10. 3x2yz, 4x3yz2 ,6x4 mcm 12x4yz2
11. 6md, 9~rf, 12m3n mcm 36m3rf
12. 3a2, 4b2 , SJ! mcm 24a2b2J!
13. 5J! , 10xy, 15xl mcm 30J!1
14. a;(31 , a3xy, a2J!y mcm a3;(3y
15. 4ab, 6a2 ,3b2 mcm 12a2b2
16. 3x3 ,6J! ,9x41 mcm 1Sx41
17. 9a2bx , 12ab2J! , 1Sa3b3x mcm 36a3b3J!
18. 10~ , 15md ,20rf mcm 60~rf
20. 20m2rf , 24m3n , 30mn2
20 24 30 6
20 4 5 5 6 ·5·4=120
4 4 1 4 ~ mcm 120m3 rf
1 1
22. 2J!y,Sxy,4a2;(3,12a3 mcm 24a3;(3y
23. 6a2 , 9x, 12al , 1S;(3 y mcm 36a2;(3 y"
24. 15md , 1 O~ , 20« , 25mn4 15 10 20 25 5
3 2 4 5 5
3 2 4 1 3
1 2 4 2
122 1
52.3.22 =300 ~mcm 300~d
25. 24a2;(3 , 36a2l ,40x2y" , 60a3y6 24 36 40 60 2
12 1S 20 30 2
6 9 10 15 3 23.32.5=360
2 3 10 5 5 ~mcm 360a3;(3y6
2 3 2 1 3
212 2
1 1
26. 3a3 , 8ab , lOb2 , 12a2b3 , 16a2b2
3 8 10 12 16 2
3 4 5 6 8 2
3 2 5 3 4 2 24.3.5=240
3 5 3 2 2 ~mcm 240a3b3
3 5 3 1 3
1 5 1 5
1
EJERCICIO 116
2a= 2a
1. 4x-8= 22(x-2)
mcm4a(x-2)
2. ab-b2=b(a-b)
3h2 = 3h2
mcm 3h2(a-b)
3. x2y+xy2=xy(X+Y)
x2y= x2y mcm x2y(x+ y)
4. 4+ 8a= 22 (1 + 2a) 8=23
mcm 23 (1 + 2a)= 8(1 + 2a) 6a2b = 2· 3a2b
5. 3a2b2 + 6ab3 = 3ab2 (a + 2b)
mcm 6a2b2(a+2b)
14x2=7·2x2
6. 6x2 +4xy= 2x(3x+ 2y)
mcm 14x2(3x+2y)
7. 9m=32m
6mn2 -12mn= 2.3mn(n- 2) mcm 2.32mn(n-2)
=; 18mn(n-2)
8. 15=5·3
3x+6=3(x+2) mcm 15(x+2)
9. 10=5·2
5-15b=5(1-3b)
mcm 10(1- 3b) 10.4ax-12ay=22a(x-3y) 36a2 = 22 .32 a2 mcm 22'32a2(x_3Y)
=; 36a2(x- 3y)
12xy2 = 22. 3xy2
2ax2y3 + 5X2y3 = x2/ (2a+ 5) mcm 12x2y3 (2a+5)
12. mn3-mn2=mn2(n-1)
11.
mn=mn m2=m2 mcm m2n2(n-1)
13. 3a2 - 6ab= 3a (a- 2b)
2a2 = 2a2
6ab= 2·3ab mcm 6a2b (a-2b) 14.5x5-5x4=5x4(x-1) xy2 = xy2
x2/ = x2/ mcm5x4/ (x-1)
15. 27a4b+81a3b2=33a3b(a+3b) 9a2 = 32a2
18b3 = 2'32b3 mcm 2.33a3b3(a+3h)
=; 54a3b3 (a + 3h) 16. 9x3Y+9x/=32xY(X2+ l) 10=5·2
6x2 = 2'3x2
mcm 5'2'32x2Y(X2+ l)
=; 90x2Y(X2 + l) 17. x2y-xy=xy(x-1)
x3+x2=x2(x+1) 4x=22 x
mcm 22x2y(x-1)(x+1) =;4x2Y(X2 -1)
18. 6m2 + 18m= 2.3m(m+ 3) 8m- 24= 23 (m- 3) 24= 23.3
mcm 23 3m (m +3)(m- 3) =;24m(m2-9) 19.3ax+3a=3a(x+1)
2a2b2 = 2a2b2
6x-18=2.3(x-3) mcm 6a2b2 (x+ l)(x- 3) 20. x2+4x+4=(x+2)"
x3 + x2 - 2x= x(x2 + x-2)
=x(x+2)(x-1)
mcm x2 (x+ 2f(x-1)
21. 9a2x-18a2Y=32a2(x-2Y) x2 - 4xy+4y2 = (x- 2y)" 6ab=2·3ab
mcm 322a2b(x-2y)"
=; 18a2b(x-2y)"
22. 9x4 - 36x2 = 32 x2 (x2 - 4)
= 32 x2 (x+ 2)(x- 2) 3x3 - 3x2 -18x= 3x(x2 - x- 6)
=3x(x-3)(x+2)
6x3=2·3x3
mcm 2· 32 x3 (x+ 2)(x- 2)(x- 3)
=; 18x3(x2-4) (x-3) 23.4x3-12x2y+9xy2=x(4x2-12xy+9y") =x(2x-3y)"
2x4 - 3x3y= x3 (2x- 3y)
mcm a2x3(2x-3Y)"
24. 9x2 - 45x= 32 x(x-5) 12x2y2 = 3.22 X2y2 8x3= 23 x3
mcm 32 23x3y2(X_5) =; 72x3 y2 (x- 5)
25.
, '( , ')
nx- + 2nxy+ ny =n x- +2xy+ y
=n(x+y)'
2n=2n
an3=an3
3( )2(, ')
mcm 2an x+ y x-+ y
26. 4x3 + 24x2 + 36x= 22 x(x2 + 6x+ 9)
3 2 (2 4 4)
2x -8x +8x=2x x - x+
= 2x(x- 2)"
x3 + x2 - 6x= x(x2 + x- 6)
=x(x+3)(x-2)
8x2= 23 x2
27. 6xJ + 6x2 = 2'3x2 (x+ 1) 2x2 - 2x+ 2= 2(x2 - x+ 1)
xJ + 1= (x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)
3xJ = 3xJ
mcm 2'3xJ (x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1) => 6xJ (x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)
29. SabJ-5b4=5bJ(a-b)
12a2 - 24ab+ 12b2 = 22 .3(a2 - 2ab+ b2)
=22.3(a-b)"
6a2b=2·3a2b 4b=22b 2a=2a
28. ax- a +bx-b= a (x-l)+b(x-l)= (a+b)(x-l) a2 +2ab+b2 =(a+b)" 4x/ =22 xy2
3x3 - 3x2 = 3x2 (x-l)
mcm 22. 3X2y2 (a + b)" (x-l) ~ 12x2y2 (a +b)" (x-l)
EJERCICIO 117
30. 14x+14=7.2(x+l)
x2 + 2x+ 1= (x+ 1)"
7 x2 + 7 = 7 (x2 + 1) 28x=7·22x
x2 + 1= (x2 + 1) mcm 28x(x+ 1)" (x2 + 1)
6. aJ+2a2b+ab2=a(a2+2ab+b2) 11. xJ+/=(x+y)(x2-xy+l)
(x+ y)' = (x+ y)'
mcm (x+y)'(x2-xy+l)
12. xJ-/=(x-y)(x2+xy+l) (x- y)' = (x- y)'
mcm (x-y)' (x2+xy+l) 13.4x2-7x-2=(4x)2_7(4x)-8
= [(4x- 8)(4x+ 1)]-0- 4 = (x- 2)(4x+ 1)
x2 + 3x-1O= (x+S)(x- 2)
mcm (x- 2)(4x+ l)(x+S)
14. a2+a-30=(a+6)(a-S)
a2 + 3a-18= (a+ 6)(a- 3)
mcm (a+6)(a-3)(a-S)
1.6x-6=2.3(x-l) 3x+3=3(x+l) mcm 2.3(x-l)(x+ 1) ~ 6(x2-1)
2. lOx2 -40=S.2(x2 -4) =S.2(x+2)(x-2) Sx+1O=S(x+2) mcm S.2(x+ 2)(x- 2)
(' ) => 6ab(x+4)(x-l)
~ 10 x--4
8. x2+2x-1S=(x+S)(x-3)
3. x2-4y2=(x+2y)(x-2y) xJ-2Sx=x(x2-2S)
x3 + 2x2y= x2 (x+ 2y)
mcm x2 (x+2y)(x-2y) ~ x2 (x2 _4y2)
4. x2-6x+9=(x-3)2 3a2 x- 9a2 = 3a2 (x- 3) mcm 3a2 (x- 3)2
aJ+a2b=a2(a+b)
=a(a+b)"
mcm a2(a+b)"
7. 2bx2 + 6bx- 8b= 2b(x2 + 3x- 4)
3ax+12a=3a(x+4)
= 2b(x+4)(x-l)
mcm 2b. 3a (x+ 4 )(x-l)
=x(x+S)(x-S) mcm x(x+S)(x-S)(x-3) ~ x(x2 - 2S)(x- 3) 9. (x-l)" = (x-l)"
x2 -1= (x+ l)(x-l) mcm (x+ l)(x-l)"
5.4a2-12ab+9b2=(2a-3b)" 10. (x+l)" =(x+l)"
4a2 - 9b2 = (2a+ 3b )(2a- 3b) x2 + 1= x2 + 1
mcm (2a+3b)(2a-3b)" mcm (x2+1)(x+l)"
15. x" + 2xJ -ISx2 = x2 (x2 + 2x-1S)
=x2(x+S)(x-3)
xJ - 9x+Sx2 -4S= x(x2 - 9 )+S(x2 - 9)
= (x+S)(x2-9) =(x+S)(x+3)(x-3) mcm x2 (x+S)(x+3)(x-3)
=> x2(X+S)(x2-9)
=; 12a2b(m+ n)' (m2 - mn+ n2)
20. ax(m-n)' =ax(m-n)'
x3 (m3 _n3)= x3 (m- n)(m2 +mn+ n2) mcm ax3(m-n)' (m2+mn+n2) 2a2 + 2a= 2a(a+ 1) 3
a2-3a=3a(a-1) a4 _ a2 = a2 (a2 -1)= a2 (a+ 1)(a-1)
mcm 2.3a2(a+1)(a-1) =; 6a2(a2-1) 22. x2+2x=x(x+2) x3 -2x2 = x2 (x-2)
x2 -4= (x+2)(x-2) mcm x2 (x- 2)(x+2) =; x2 (x2 -4) 23. x2 + x- 2= (x+ 2)(x-1) x2
-4x+ 3= (x- 3)(x-1)
x2 -x-6=(x-3)(x+2) 31. 20(x2-y')=22.5(x+ y)(x- y)
mcm(x+ 2)(x-1)(x- 3) 15(x- y)' = 5.3(x- y)'
24.4+12a+9a2=(2+3a)' 12(x+ y)' =22.3(x+ y)'
3a2+14a+8=(3a)2+14(3a)+24 mcm 22.5.3(x+ y)'(x- y)' =; 60(x+ y)'(x- y)'
=[(3a+12)(3a+2)]-;-3 =(a+4)(3a+2) 32. ax2+5ax-14a=a(x2+5x-14) =a(x+7)(x-2) 6a2 +
13a+ 6= (6a)2 + 13(6a)+ 36 = [(6a+ 9)(6a+ 4 )]-;- 3·2 = (2a+3)(3a+ 2) mcm (a+4) (
2a +3)(3a + 2)'
x6 -4x3 - 32= (x' - S)(x3 + 4)
= (x- 2)(x2 + 2x+ 4)(x3 + 4)
ax" + 2ax3 + 4ax2 = ax2 (x2 + 2x+ 4)
mcm ax2 (x- 2)(x2 + 2x+4)(x3 +4) 17. 12(x2 -y')= 22 .3(x+ y)(X- y) 8(x-y)'=23(x-
y)'
mcm 23 .3(x+ y)(X- y)' =; 24(x+ y)(X- y)' 18. 5(x+y)'=5(x+y)'
1O(x2+ l)=5'2(x2+ l)
mcm 1O(x2+ l)(x+ y)'
19. 6a(m+n)' =2.3a(m+n)'
4a2b(m3 + n3)= 22 a2b(m+ n)(m2 - mn+ n2)
16.
mcm 22 .3a2b(m+ n)' (m2 - mn+ n2)
21.
25.
lOx2 + 10= 5· 2(x2 + 1) 15x+ 15=5.3(x+ 1) 5x2 - 5= 5(x2 -1)= 5(x+ 1)(x-1)
mcm 5.2.3(x2 + l)(x+ 1)(x-1)=; 30(x2 + 1)(x2 -1)
26. ax-2bx+ay-2by=x(a-2b)+ y(a-2b) =(x+ y)(a-2b)
x'+xy=x(x+y) x'-xy=x(x- y)
mcm x(x+ y)(x- y)(a- 2b)=; x(x' -y' )(a- 2b)
4a2b+ 4ab2 = 22 ab(a+ b) 6a-6b=2.3(a-b)
15a2 _15h2 = 5.3(a2 _b2) = 5· 3(a +b )(a -b) mcm 22.3.5ab(a+b)(a-b) =; 60ab(a2-b2)

28. x2-25=(x+5)(x-5)
x3 -125= (x-5)(x2 + 5x+ 25) 2x+ 10= 2(x+ 5)
mcm 2(x+5)(x-5)(x2+5x+25)
27.
29. a3b-6a'b'+9ab3=ab(a'-6ab+9b')
=ab(a-3h)' a' - 2ab- 3h' = (a - 3b)(a+ b) ab' +b3 =b' (a+b) mcm ab'(a-3b)' (a+b)

30.
2m2 + 2mn= 2m(m+ n) 4mn-4n2 = 22n(m- n)
6m3n- 6mn3 = 2.3mn(m2 - n2)= 2.3mn(m+n)(m-n) mcm 22.3mn(m+n)(m-n) =;12mn(m2-n2)
3' (' ) ( )2
X +14x-+49x=x x-+14x+49 =x x+7
x4 + 7x3 -18x2 = x2 (x2 + 7x-18)= x2 (x+ 9)(x-2)
mcm ax2 (x+7)'(x-2)(x+9)
33. 2x3 -12x2 + 18x= 2x(x2 - 6x+ 9) = 2x(x- 3)' 38.
3x4 - 27 x2 = 3x2 (x2 - 9) = 3x2 (x+ 3)(x- 3)
5x3 + 30x2 +45x=5x(x2 + 6x+ 9 )=5x(x+ 3)'
mcm 2·3·5x2 (x+ 3)'(x- 3)' =; 30x2(x+ 3)'(x- 3)' 34.3-3a'=3(1-a')=3(1+a)(1-a) 6+6a=2
'3(1+a)
12+ 12a' = 2' '3(1 + a')
9-9a=3'(1-a)
mcm 2'· 3' (1 + a' ) (1 + a )( 1- a)
=; 36(1 + a')(l- a')= 36(1- a4)
35. 2(3n-2)' =2(3n-2)'
135n3 - 40=5(27n3 - 8)= 5(3n- 2)(9n2 + 6n+ 4) 12n- 8= 22 (3n- 2)
mcm 5.22 (3n- 2)' (9n2 + 6n+ 4)
=; 20(3n- 2)' (9n2 + 6n+ 4)
36. 12mn+ 8m- 3n- 2= 4m(3n+ 2)- (3n+ 2) = (4m-1)(3n+ 2)
48m'n- 3n+ 32m' - 2= 16m' (3n+ 2)- (3n+ 2)
= (16m' -1)(3n+ 2)
= (4m+ 1)(4m-1)(3n+ 2) 6n' -5n- 6= (6n)' -5(6n)- 36
= [(6n- 9 )(6n+ 4)]-0- 3·2 = (2n- 3)(3n+ 2)
(4m+ 1)(4m-1)(3n+ 2)(2n- 3)
=; (16m' -1) (3n+ 2)(2n- 3)
37. 15a2x5 + 16a2x4 _15a2x3 = a2x3 (lSx2 + 16x-1S)
= a2x3 [(lSx)2 + 16(lSx)- 22S] = a2x3 [(lSx+ 2S)(lSx- 9 )-o-S'3] = a2x3 (3x+ S)
(Sx- 3)
lSx3 + 60x2 +SOx= 2x(9x2 + 30x+ 2S)
= 2x[(9x)2 +30(9x)+ 22S]
= 2x[(9x+ lS)(9x+ lS)-o- 3,3] =2x(3x+S)'
mcm
12ax3 + 20ax2 = 22 ax2 (3x+ S)
mcm =22a2x3(3x+S)2(Sx-3) =4a2x3(3x+S)' (Sx-3)
16+ 8x2 + x" = (4+ x2)'
16-8x2+x"=(4-x2)' =(2-x)' (2+ x)'
16- x" = (4+ x2 )(4- x2)= (4+ x2 )(2+ x )(2- x) mcm (4+x2)'(2+x)'(2-x)'
39. l+a'= l+a'
(1 +a)' =(1+ a)'
1 + al = (1 + a)(l- a+ a') mcm (1+ a)' (l-a+a')(l+a')
40. Sn'-IOn-3=(Sn)'-IO(Sn)-24
= [(Sn-12)(Sn+ 2)]-0- 4· 2 = (2n- 3)(4n+ 1) 20n' + 13n + 2 = (20n)' + 13(20n) + 40

= [(20n+ S) (20n+ S)]-o- 4·S= (Sn+ 2 )(4n+ 1) IOn' -lln- 6= (IOn)' -ll(IOn)- 60
= [(IOn-1S)(IOn+ 4)]-0- S, 2= (2n- 3)(Sn+ 2) mcm (2n- 3)(Sn+ 2) (4n + 1)
41. 6a'+ab-2b'=36a'+6ab-12b'
= [(6a+4b )(6a- 3b )]-0- 2·3 = (3a + 2b )(2a - b)
15a' + 22ab+ 8b' = (15a)' + 22b(15a)+ 120b'
= [(15a+ 12b)(15a+ lOb)]-o- 3·5 = (5a + 4b)(3a + 2b)
lOa' + 3ab- 4b' = (lOa)' + 3b(lOa)- 40b'
= [(lOa + 8b)(lOa-Sb)]-o- 2·5 = (5a+ 4b)(2a-b)
mcm (3a+2b)(2a-b)(5a+4b)
42. 12x' +5xy- 2y' = (12x)' +5y(12x)- 24y'
= [(12x+ 8y )(12x- 3y)]-o-4.3 = (3x+ 2y )(4x- y)
15x' + 13xy + 2y' = (15x)' + 13y (15x) + 30y'
= [(15x+ lOy )(15x+ 3y )]-0- 5· 3 =(3x+2y)(5x+ y)
20x' - xy- y' = (20x) , - y(20x)- 20y'
= [(20x-5y )(20x+4y )]-0-5,4 = (4x- y)(5x+ y)
mcm (4x- y)(5x+ y)(3x+2y)
43. 6b2x2 + 6b2xJ = 2·3b2x2 (1 + x)
3a2x- 3a2x2 = 3a2x(1- x)
1- x" = (1 + x2)(1- x2)= (1 + x2)(1 + x)(l- x) mcm 2·3a2b2x2 (1+x2)(1+x)(1-x) =<6a
2b2x2 (1+x2)(1-x2)
44. x"+8x-4xJ-32=xJ(x-4)+8(x-4)
= (xJ + 8)(x- 4)
= (x+ 2)(x2 - 2x+ 4)(x- 4)
2" 22 J 822 2 2( 2 2 )
a x - a x - a x = a x x - x- 8
= a2x2 (x- 4)(x+ 2) 2x" -4xJ + 8x2 = 2x2 (x2 - 2x+4)
mcm 2a2x2(x+2)(x2-2x+4)(x-4)
47. a(ab-b2)'=a[b(a-b)r =ab2(a-b)' b(a2+ab)' =b[a(a+b)r =a2b(a+b)'
a4b2 _ a2b4 = a2b2 (a2 _ b2)= a2b2 (a +b )(a-b) a2b-ab2=ab(a-b)
"( )2( )2
mcm a-b- a+b a-b
48.
m3 -27n3 =(m- 3n)(m2 +3mn+9n2)
m2 - 9n2 = (m- 3n)(m+ 3n) m2 - 6mn+ 9n2 = (m- 3n)'
m2 + 3mn+ 9n2 = (m2 + 3mn+ 9n2)
mcm (m-3n)'(m2+3mn+9n2)(m+3n)
EJERCICIO 118
45. x4 -lOx2 + 9= (x4 -lOx2 + 9+ 4x2 - 4x2)
=(x4-6x2+9)-4x2 a2 a 21mn'x" 3n;(l
1. ab =¿; 10. 2Bm4ifx2 4rrr
(? )' ?
= x--3 -4x-
= (x2 - 2x- 3)(x2 + 2x- 3) 2a 1 42a2c3n 21n
= (x- 3)(x+ l)(x+ 3)(x-1) 2. Ba2b = 4ab 11. 26a4c5m 13a2¿m
x2 +4x+ 3= (x2 +4x+3+ 1-1) x"y2 1 7x3/zB 1
=(x2+4x+4)-1 3. x'y" = xy 12. 34x7y"Z10 2;(l/zA
= (x+2)' -1 30x"y2 2x"y2
= (x+ 2+ l)(x+ 2-1)= (x+ 3)(x+ 1) ax3 a 13. 45a3;(l z' 3a3
z'
x2 -4x+ 3= (x2 -4x+ 3+ 1-1) 4. 4x'y = 4x2y
a5b7 1
=(x2-4x+4)-1 5 6nfn' =2mn' 14 --=--
. 3a8b9c 3a3b2c
=(x-2)'-1 . 3m
= (x- 2+ l)(x- 2-1)= (x-1)(x- 3) 21a8b1Od2 a4b9do
15. 63a4b¿
9x"y" 3 3
xJ - 9x+ x2 - 9= x2 (x+ 1)- 9(x+ 1) 6. 24a2x'1 Ba2xy
=(x2-9)(x+1) 54x"y11z13 6
16. 63x10y12z15 7xyz2
= (x+ 3)(x- 3)(x+ 1) Bm4n'x2 rrrn
(x+ 3)(x- 3)(x+ 1)(x-1) =< (x2-9)(x2-1) 7. 24mdx" 3
mcm 15a12b15¿0 a
17. 75a11b16¿2 5bc2
46. 1-aJ= (1- a)(l+ a+ a2) 12x'lz' 3x"y2 zA
1-a=(1-a) 8. 32xy2z B 75a7nf 3a4
18. -
1-a2=(1+a)(1-a) 100a3m12n' 4m7n'
? ( )' 12a2b3 1
1-2a+a-= 1-a 9. -
60a3b5x" 5ab2x"
mcm (1- a)' (1 + a+ a2 )(1 + a)
13. 6x2 + 5x- 6 15x2-7x-2
(6x)' +5(6x)-36
= (15x)' -7(15x)-30
[(6x+ 9 )(6x- 4 )]73.2 (2x+ 3)(3x- 2) 2x+ 3
- 27.
- [(15x-1O)(15x+ 3)]7 5·3 - (3x- 2)(5x+ 1) - 5x+ 1
a3+1 a3+1 a3+1 1
14. a"-a3+a-1- a3(a-1)+(a-1) (a3+1)(a-1) a-1
EJERCICIO 119
3ab 3ab 3b
1. 2a2x+2a3 = 2a2(x+a)= 2a(x+a)
xy xy 1
2. 3x2y_3xy2 3xy(x- yf 3(x- y)
2ax+4bx 2x(a+2b) 2x
3 - --
. 3ay+6by 3y(a+2b) 3y
x2-2x-3 (x-3)(x+1)
4. x-3 x-3 -x+1
10a2b3c a2b3c b3c
5. SO(a3-a2bf Sa2(a-bf S(a-b)
x2-4 (x+2)(x-2) x-2
6. 5ax+lOa 5a(x+2) 5a
7. 3x2-4x-15 x2 - 5x+ 6
(3X)2-4(3x)-45 = (x-3)(x-2)
[(3x-9)(3x+5)]73 (x-3)(3x+5) 3x+5
(x-3)(x-2) = (x-3)(x-2) x-2
15a2bn- 45a2bm 15a2b(n- 3m) 3
8. lOa2b2n- 30a2b2m - lOa2b2 (n- 3m) - 2b
3x2y+ 15xy
10. x2-25
a2-4ab+4b2
11. a3 _ 8b3
15. 2ax+ay-4bx-2by ax- 4a- 2bx+ 8b
2x(a-2b)+ y(a-2b) (2x+ y)(a-2b) 2x+ y
= x(a-2b)-4(a-2b) (x-4)(a-2b) - x-4
16. a2-ab-6b2
a3x- 6a2bx+ 9ab2x
(a-3b)(a+2b) (a-3b)(a+2b) a+2b
= ax(a2-6b+9b2) ax(a-3b)' ax(a-3b)
m2+n2 m2+n2 1
17. m" -n" = (m2+n2)(m2_n2) - m2_n2
x3+/ (x+y)(x2-xy+y') x2_xy+y'
18 --3= 3 = 2
. ~+0 ~+0 ~+0
(m-n)' (m-n)' m-n
19. m2_n2 = (m+n)(m-n) m+n
(a-x)' (a-x)' (a-x)'
20. -3 -3 = ( )(' ,)- 2 2
a -x a-x a-+ax+x- a +ax+x
a2-a-20 (a-5)(a+4) a+4
21 - --
. a2-7a+1O (a-5)(a-2) a-2
(1-a2)' )(a+1)(1-a)j' =(1_a)2
22. a2+2a+1 (a+1)'
2b(3a+b) (3a + b)'
2b 3a+b
3
n -n 26.n--5n-6
n~2-D n~+D~-D n~-D
= (n-6)(n+1) (n-6)(n+1)-~
8n3 + 1 8n3 -4n2+2n
(2n+ 1)(4n2-2n+ 1) 2n+1
= 2n(4n2 - 2n+ 1) 2n
4a4-1Sa2-4 40.-,---
a--8a-20 44. lSa3b-18a2b
(4a2)' -lS(4a2)-16 20a2b2-24ab2
(a-1O)(a+2) 3a2b(Sa-6) 3a
[(4a2-16)(4a2+1)]-;-4 4ab2(Sa-6) 4b
(a-1O)(a+2) 45. 9x2-24x+16
(' )( , ) 9x4 -16x2
a--4 4a-+1
(a-1O)(a+2) (3x-4)'
( = x2(9x2-16)
a + 2)(a- 2)(4a2 + 1)
(a-1O)(a+2) (3x-4)'
= x2(3x+4)(3x-4) (a-2)(4a2+1)
a-lO
28. a2_(b_e)2 (a+b)2 _e2
(a+b-e)(a-b+e) a-b+e = (a+b-e)(a+b+e) a+b+e
29. (a+b)2_(e-dY
(a+eY _(b_d)2
(a + b+ e- d)(a+ b- e+ d) (a +b+ e- d)(a -b+ e+ d) a+b-e+d
a-b+e+d
3x3+9x2 3x2(x+3) 3x2
30. x2+6x+9- (x+3)' x+3
31. lOa2(a3+b3)
6a4 - 6a3b+ 6a2b2
lOa 2 (a+b)(a2-ab+b2) S(a+b)
6a2(a2-ab+b2) 3
a(4a2-Sab) 4a2(a-2b) 4a
32 - =-
. x(3a2-6ab) 3ax(a-2b) 3x
x3 _ 6x2 x2 (x- 6) x2
33. x2-12x+36- (x-6)' x-6
34. (x-4Y)'
x5-64x2/
(x-4Y)'
= X2(x3-64/)
(x-4Y)'
x2 (x-4y )(x2 +4xy+ 16y') x-4y
= x2(x2+4xy+16y')
x3-3x/ x(x2-3/) x
35. x-l-6x2/+9/ (x2-3/Y = x2-3/
36. m3n + 3m2n + 9mn m3-27
mn(m2 +3m+ 9) mn
= (m-3)(m2+3m+9r m-3
x-l-Sx2+1S (x2_S)(x2-3) x2-S
37. x-l-9 (x2+ 3)(x2-3) x2+3
a-l+6a2-7 (a2+7)(a2-1) a2+7
38. a-l+Sa2-9 (a2+9)(a2-1) a2+9
39. 3x2 + 19x+ 20
6x2+17x+12
(3X)2 + 19(3x) + 60 (6X)2 + 17 (6x)+ 72
[(3x+ lS)(3x+4)]-;- 3 [(6x+ 8)(6x+ 9 )]-;- 2·3 (x+S)(3x+4) x+S (3x+4)(2x+3r 2x+3
41. 12Sa+a4
2a3+20a2+SOa
a(12S+a3)
= 2a(a2 + lOa + 2S)
(S+a)(2S-Sa+a2) 2(a+S)'
a2-Sa+2S
= 2(a+S)
42. a2n2 - 36a2 an2 +an-30a
a2 (n2 - 36) = a(n2+n-30)
a(n+6)(n-6) = (n+6)(n-S)
_ a(n-6)
- n-S
43. 3m2+Smn-8n2
3 3
m-n
(3m)2 +Sn(3m)-24n2 = (m-n)(m2+mn+n2)
[(3m + 8n )(3m- 3n)]-;- 3
(m-n)(m2+mn+n2)
(3m+8n)(m-n)
(m-n)(m2+mn+n2) 3m+8n
3x-4 x2(3x+4)
46. 16a2x-2Sx
12a3-7a2-lOa
x(16a2 - 2S) a(12a2 -7a-1O)
x(4a+S)(4a-S)
= a [(12a)2 - 7 (12a) -120 ]
x(4a+S)(4a-S)
= a [(12a -lS)(12a+8)]-;-3'4
x(4a+S)(4a-S) x(4a+S) = a (4a-S)(3a+2) a(3a+2)
47. 8x4 _ xyJ
4x4_4xJy+x2y'
_ x(8xJ-/)
- x2(4x2-4xy+y')
(2x- y )(4x2 + 2xy+ y') x(2x- y)' 4x2+2xy+ y'
= x(2x- y)
48. 3an-4a-6bn+Sb 6n'-Sn-4
3n(a - Zb)- 4(a- Zb)
(6n)"-S(6n)-Z4
_ (3n-4)(a-Zb)
- [(6n-S)(6n +3)]-o-Z'3
_ (3n-4)(a-Zb) a-Zb - (3n-4)(Zn+l) Zn+l
49. x4-49x2
x3 + Zx2 - 63x
(x2+7x)(x2-7x) x(x2 + 2x- 63)
_ x2(x+7)(x-7) x(x+7) - x(x+9)(x-7) =~
4 3
50. x +x-xy-y
x3 - x- x2y+ y
_ x3(x- y)+(x- y) - x2(x- y)-(x- y)
jx3 + 1)(x- y)
- (x2 -1)(x- y)
_ (x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1) - (x+ 1)(x-l)
x2 - x+ 1 x-l
51. 2x3+6x2-x-3 x3+3x2+x+3
_ 2x2(x+3)-(x+3) - x2(x+3)+(x+3)
(2x2 -1)(x+ 3) 2x2-1 (x2+1)(x+3) - x2+1
52. a3m-4am+a3n-4an a4 _ 4a3 -12a2
_ am(a2-4)+an(a2-4)
- a2(a2-4a-12)
_ a(m+n)(a2-4) - a2(a-6)(a+2)
_ (m+n)(a+2)(a-2) - a(a-6)(a+2)
_ (m+n)(a-2)
a(a-6)
53. 4a' - (x- 3)'
(Za+x)' -9
(Za+ x- 3)(Za- x+ 3) (Za+ x+ 3)(Za+ x- 3) Za-x+3
Za+x+3
54. m- am+ n- an 1-3a+3a2-a3
_ m(l-a)+n(l-a) - (l-a3)-3a(l-a)
_ (m+n)(I-a)
- (l-a)(I+a +a2)-3a(l-a)
_ (m+n)(I-a)
- (l-a)(1-2a +a2)
m+n m+n
a2-2a+l-(a_l)'
55. 6x2+3
42x' - 9x3 -ISx
3(2x2+1)
= 3x(14x4 - 3x2 -S)
2x2 + 1
x[(14x2)' -3(14x2)-70]
2x2 + 1
X [(14x2 -1O)(14x2 + 7 )]-0- 2· 7
2x2 + 1 1
= x(7x2 -S)(2x2 + Ir x(7x2 -S)
56. a2-a3-1+a a2+1-a3-a
_ a2(I-a)-(I-a) - a2(I-a)+(I-a)
_ (a2-1)(I-a) a2-1 - (a2+1)(I-a) a2+1
57 8x3+1Zx2y+6x/+y'
. 6x2+xy-/
_ 6xy(Zx+y)+(8x3+y') - (6X)2 + y(6x)-6/
6xy(Zx+ y)+(Zx+ y)(4x2-Zxy+ /) [(6x+ 3y )(6x- Zy )]-0- 3· Z
(Zx+y)(4x2+4xy+/) (Zx+y)'
(Zx+y)(3x-y) 3x-y
58. Sn3-12S
2S-20n+4n2
_ (2n-S)(4n2+lOn+2S)
- (2n-S)'
4n2 +lOn+2S 2n-S
59. 6-x-x2 IS+ 2x- x2
_ -(x2+x-6) - -(x2-2x-lS)
(x+3)(x-2) x-2 = (x-S)(x+3) x-S
60. 3+2x-Sx2 4+Sx-6x2
_ -(Sx2-2x-3) - -(6x2-Sx-4)
(SX)2_2(SX)-24 (6X)2 -S(6x)- 24
_ [(Sx- 6)(Sx+4 )]-0- 2·4 - [(6x-S)(6x+3)]-o-2.3
_ (4x- 3)(2x+ 1) 4x- 3 - (3x-4)(2x+lr 3x-4
61. m2n2 + 3mn-1O 4-4mn+m2n2
_ (mn+S)(mn-2) mn+S - (mn-2)' mn-2
62. x3+x'y-4b'x-4b'y
4b'-4bx+x'
_ x'(x+y)-4b'(x+y)
- (Zb-x)'
jx' -4b')(x+ y)
- (x-Zb)'
_ (x+2b)(x-Zb)(x+ y) - (x-Zb)'
= (x+Zb)(x+ y)
x-Zb
63. X6+x3-2
x4-x3y-X+Y
(x3+2)(x3 -1)
= x3(x-y)-(x-y)
(x3+2)(x3-1) x3+2 = (x3-1)(x-y) - x-y
64. (x2 - x- 2)(x2 - 9)
(x2 - 2x- 3)(x2 + x- 6)
(x- 2)(x+ l)(x+ 3)(x- 3)
= (x- 3)(x+ l)(x+ 3)(x- 2)-1
65. (a2-4a+4)(4a2-4a+ 1) (a2 + a- 6)(Za2 - 5a+ Z)
(a-Z)' (Za-1)'
(a +3) (a - Z)[(Za)' - 5(Za) + 4]
(a-Z)(Za-1)'
(a + 3) [(Za - 4)(Za -1)]-0- Z
(a-Z)(Za-1)' Za-1
(a+3)(a-Z)(Za-1) a+3
66. (x'-3x)(xJ-1) (x4+xJ+x2)V-1)
x(x2 - 3)(x-1)(x2 + x+ 1) = x2 (x2 + x+ l)(x+ 1)(x-1)
x2-3
= x(x+ 1)
67. (4n2+4n-3)(n2+7n-30) (Zn2 -7n+ 3)(4n2 + 1Zn+ 9)
[(4n)2 +4(4n)-12](n+ lO)(n- 3) [(Zn)2 -7(Zn)+ 6](Zn+ 3)2
(n+1O)(n-3)[(4n +6)(4n-Z)]-o-Z'Z (Zn+3Y[(Zn -6)(Zn-1)]-o-Z' (n+1O)(n-3)(Zn+3)(Zn
-1) n+lO
(Zn+ 3)' (n- 3)(Zn-1) Zn+ 3
68. (x6-l)(x+y)
(xJ _ l)(xJ + x2y+ xy2 + l)
(xJ + l)(xJ - l)(x+ y)
= (xJ - l)[x2 (x+ y)+ l (x+ y)]
(xJ+l)(x+y) xJ+l = (x2+ l)(x+ y) - x2+ l
69. x3+3x2-4
1 3 0-4 P
-2-2 4
1 1 -2 O
=(x+2)(x2+x-2) = (x+2)(x+ 2)(x-1) =(x+2)'(x-1)
x3+x2-Sx-12
1 1 -S -12 ~
-2 2 12 1
1 -1 -6 O
=(x+2)(x2-x-6)
= (x+2)(x- 3)(x+2) =(x+2)'(x-3)
(x+2)'(x-1) x-1 =} (x+2)' (x-3)- x-3
70. x3-x'-Sx+12
1 -1 -S 12 ~
2 2 -12
1 1 -6 O
= (x- 2)(x' + x- 6)
= (x- 2)(x+ 3)(x- 2) =(x-2)' (x+3)
x4 _ 2x3 - 7 x' + 20x-12 1-2 -7 20 -12l3.-
2 0-14 121
1 O -7 6 O
(x- 2)(x3 -7 x+ 6)
1 O -7 6 ~
2 4 -61
1 2 -3 O
= (x- 2)(x- 2)(x' + 2x- 3) = (x- 2)' (x+ 3)(x-1)
(x-2)' (x+3)
=} (x- 2)' (x+ 3)(x-1) 1
x-1
71. x4-7x'-2x+S
1 O -7 -2 S~
-2 4 6-sl 1 -2 -3 4 O
(x+ 2)(x3 - 2x' - 3x+4) 1 -2 -3 4 U
1 -1 -41 1 -1 -4 O
(x+2)(x-1)(x' -x-4)
x4 - 2x3 - 9x' + lOx+ 24
1 - 2 - 9 10 _ 2?~ U -2 8 2 _!± I
1 - 4 -1 12 O
(x+ 2)(x3 -4x' - x+ 12)
1 -4 -1 12 ~
3 3 121
1 -1 -4 O
(x+ 2)(x- 3)(x' - x- 4) (x+2)(x-1)(x'-x-4) x-1 =} (x+2)(x-3)(x'-x-4) - x-3
72. aS - a3 _a' + 1
=a' (a3 -1)- (a3 -1) = (a' -IHa3 -1)
= (a-l)' (a+ lHa' +a+ 1)
aS _ Za4 _6a3 +8a' +5a- 6
1 -Z -6 8 5 -6 L
1 -1 -7 1 6 1 1-1 -7 16 O
(a-1Ha4 - a3 -7a' + a+ 6)
1 -1 -7 1 6 ~
10-7-61 1 0-7 -6 O
(a-l)'(a3-7a-6)
1 O -7 -6 ~
-1 1 6 J 1 -1 -6 O
(a-l)' (a + 1)(a' - a - 6)
= (a -1)' (a+ lHa- 3Ha + Z) (a _1)' (a+ lHa' + a + 1) =} (a-l)'(a+1Ha-3Ha+Z)
a'+a+l
= (a- 3)(a+ Z)
EJERCICIO 120
4-4x 4(1-x) 4(x-1) 2
1 -----------------
. 6x- 6 - 6(x-1f 6(x-1f 3
a2_b2 _ (a2_b2)_
2. b2_a2 -- (a2_b2r-1
m'-n' (m+n)(m-n) (m+n)(m-n) m+n
3. ----,= - --
(n-m) (n-m)(n-m) (m-n)(m-n) m-n
x'-x-12 (x-4)(x+3) (x-4)(x+3) x+3
4. 16-x' - (4-x)(4+x) (x-4)(4+x) 4+x
3y-6x
5. 2mx-my-2nx+ny
3(Y-2x)
= 2x(m-n)-y(m-n)
3(Y-2x) 3(2x- y) 3
= (2x- y)(m-nf (2x- y)(m-nf- m-n
2x2-9x-S
6. 1O+3x-x2
[(2X)2 - 9(2x)-1O]
x2-3x-1O
(2x-1O)(2x+ 1) (x- S)(2x+ 1) 2x+ 1
(x-S)(x+2) =- (x-S)(x+2) =- x+2
8-a'
7. a2+2a-8
(2-a)(4+2a+a2) (a+4)(a-2)
(a-2)(4+2a+a2) a2+2a+4
(a+4)(a-2) a+4
a' +a-2
8. n-an-m+am
(a+2)(a-1) (a+2)(a-1) (a+2)(a-1) a+2
= n(1-a)-m(1-af (n-m)(1-af (m-n)(a-1f m-n
4x2-4xy+ y' (2x- y)' (2x- y)' __ 2x- y
9. --
Sy-lOx S(y-2x) S(2x- y) 5
3mx- nx- 3my+ ny 10. ny' - nx' - 3my' + 3mx'
3m(x- y)-n(x- y)
= -3m(y'-x')+n(y'-x')
(3m-n)(x- y) (3m-n)(x- y)
= (n- 3m)(l - x') (3m- n)(x' - y')
x- y
(x+ y)(x- y)
9-6x+x2 (x-3)' x-3
11. x2-7x+12 ( )( )--4
x-4 x-3 x-
a2 _b2
12. b3_a3
(a+b)(a-b)
= (b-a)(b2+ab+a2)
_ (a+b)(a-b) a+b
-- (a-b)(b2+ab+a2) b2+ab+a2
3ax-3bx-6a+6b
13. 2b-2a-bx+ax
3x(a-b)-6(a-b) = 2(b-a)-x(b-a)
_ 3(x-2)(a-b) _ 3(x-2)(a-b) -3
- (2-x)(b-a) (x-2)(a-b)
2 2
a -x
14. x2 - ax- 3x+ 3a
(a+x)(a-x)
= x(x-a)-3(x-a)
(a+x)(a-x) (a+x)(a-x) a+x = (x-3)(x-a) - (3-x)(a-x) 3-x
3bx-6x
15.~
3x(b- 2)
= (2-b)(4+2b+b2)
_ 3x(b-2) 3x
-- (b-2)(4+2b+b2) 4+2b+b2
(1-a)' _ (1-a)' _ ( )2
16. - - ( ) - - 1- a
a-1 1-a
2x3 _ 2x2y- 2xy2
17. 3 3 3 2 3 2 y+xy-xy
2x(x2 - xy - y') 2x(x2 - xy- y') 2x
= 3y(y'+xy-x2(- 3y(x2-xy- l( 3y
x+ Y
(a-b)' (a-b)'
18. -( )2 =-( )2 =a-b
b-a a-b
2x2 -22x+60
19. 7S-3x2
[(2X)2 - 22(2x)+ 120] 3(2S- x2) (2x-12)(2x-1O)
= 3(S-x)(S+x)
(2x-12)(x-S) 2(6-x)(S-x) 2(6-x) 3(S-x)(S+x) - 3(S-x)(S+x) - 3(x+S)
6an2 - 31in2 20. b4 -4ab2 + 4a2
3n2 (2a-b2) = (b2-2ar
3n2(2a-b2) 3n2
(2a-b2)(2a-b2) - 2a-b2
(X_y)2_Z2
21. (y+ z)- x2
(x- y- z)(x- y+ z) = (y+z-x)(y+z+x)
(z+ y-x)(y-x-z) y-x-z = (z+ y-x)(y+z+xf x+ y+z
3a2 - 3ab 22. bd-ad-be+ae
3a(a-b)
= d(b-a)-e(b-a)
3a(a-b) 3a(a-b) 3a
= (d-e)(b-a) - (e-d)(a-b) e-d
(x-s)'
23. 12S-x3
(x- S)'
= (S-x)(2S+Sx+x2)
_ (x-S)'
- - (x- S)(x2 +Sx+ 2S)
(x-sr
x2+Sx+2S
13x- 6- 6x2 (6x2 -13x+ 6)
24. 6x2-13x+6 - 6x2-13x+6 -1
2xJ - 2xl + x2 - l
25. 2 2 2 2 J 2
xy+y- x-x
2x(x2-1)+ (x2-1) = l (2x+ 1)- x2 (2x+ 1)
(2x+1)(x2-1) (x2-1)
= (2x+1)(l-x2) -- (x2-1f-1
30x2y-4Sxy2 - 20xJ 26.-----
8xJ+27/
Sx(6xy- 91-4x2)
= (2x+3y)(4x2-6xy+91)
Sx(4x2-6xy+91) Sx
=- (2x+3y)(4x2-6xy+91) 2x+3y
n+1-nJ-n2 27. nJ-n-2n2+2
(n+ 1)- n2 (n+ 1) n(n2-1)-2(n2-1)
(1- n2 )(n+ 1) (1- n2 )(n+ 1) n+ 1 (n-2)(n2-1f (2-n)(1-n2) 2-n
(x- 2)' (x2 + x -12)
28. (2-x)(3-x)'
(2- X)2 (x+ 4 )(x- 3)
(2- x)(3- X)2
~-~~+~~-~ ~-~~+~
(3-4 - 3-x
Sx3-1Sx2y
29. 90x3y'- lOx'
Sx2(x-3Y) = lOx3 (9y'- x2 )
(x- 3y)
= 2x(3y-x)(3y+x) x-3y
=- 2x(x-3y)(3y+x)
-1 2x(3y+ x)
(x2 -1)(x2 - 8x+ 16)
30. (x2 -4x)(1- x2)
(x+1)(x-1)(x-4)(x-4) (1-x)(4-x) 4-x
= x(x-4)(1+x)(1-x) - x(l-x) x
EJERCICIO 121
a4 _ a3x+ a2x2 _ ax3
1. a4_a3x_2a2x2+2ax3 Factor común a
a3_a2x+ ax2 _ x3 a3-a2x-2ax2+2x3
- a3 + a2x+ 2ax2 _ 2x3
3ax2 - 3x3 -;- 3x2 a3 _ a2x- 2ax2 + 2x3 a- x
_a3+a2x
a2 -2x2
-2ax2+2x3 mcd =a(a-x) + 2ax2 - 2x3 = a2 - ax
a4 _ a3x- 2a2x2 + 2ax3 _a4 +a3x
2 a-ax
a2 _ 2x2
_ 2a2 x2 + 2ax3 + 2a2 x2 _ 2ax3
2ax4 - ax3 - ax2 - 2ax+ 2a (3)
3. ------------ Factor común a 3ax4 - 4ax3 + ax2 + 3ax- 3a (2)
6x4-3x3-3x2- 6x+6 ~ 6x4-8x3+2x2+6x-6 (5) - 6x4 + 8x3 - 2x2 - 6x+ 6 ~ 1
5x3-5x2-12x+12 (6)
30x4 -40x3 + lOx2 + 30x- 30 30x3 - 30x2 -72x+ 72 (-;- 6)
- 30x4 + 30x3 + 72x2 -72x
x
-lOx3+82x2-42x-30 (-;--2)
5x3 - 5x2 -12x+ 12 5x3 -41x2 + 21x+ 15 (12)
-5x3+41x2-21x -15
36x2 - 33x- 3 (-;- 3)
60x3 - 492x2 + 252x+ 180 12x2 -l1x-l (437)
- 60x3 + 55x2 + 5x
5x
- 437 x2 + 257 x+ 180 (-12)
5.244x2 -4.807 x- 437 5.244x2 - 3.084x- 2.160(-;-12) -5.244x2+3.084x+2.160 1
-1723x + 1723 (-;-- 1.723)
437x2-257x-180 x-l
-437x2+437x 437x
.0 +3x" +4x2 -3x-5
2 . .0 +3x3 +6x" +3x+5 180x-180 (-;-180)
.0 +3x" +4X2-3X-5I.0 +3x" +6x" +3x+5 x-l~1 mcd= a(x-l)
-.0-3x3-6x"-3x-5 1 -x+lll =ax-a
-2x"-6x-1D -;--2 =}2d-ax"-ax"-2ax+2a ax-a
.0 +3x" +6x"+3x+5 x"+3x+5 -2a.0+2ax" 2x"+x2-2
-.0-3x3-5x2 x" u-ax"
x2+3x+5 -ax"+u
x" +3x+ -x2-3x-
x" +3x+5
mcd x"+3x+5 x" +3x+5
x" -1
=}.0 +3x3 +4x" -3x-5 -.0-3x"-5x"
-x"-3x-5
x"+3x+5 .0 +3x" +6x" +3x+5 -.0-3x3-5x2
x" +3x+5 x" +1
x2+3x+5 -x"-3x-5
x" -1 x" +1
Rta.
-2ax+2a +2ax-2a
3d -4ax" +ax" +3ax-3a I -3d +3U
-ax" +ax"
+ax" -ax"
ax-a
3x" - x" +3
3ax-3a -3ax+3a
2x" +x" -2
3x" - x" + 3 Rta.
6x3 -13x2 + lSx- s (10)
4. lOx3 _ 9x2 + llx+ 12 (6)
60x3 -130x2 + lS0x- SO 60x3 - S4x2 + 66x+ 72 (-;- 6) - 60x3 + S4x2 - 66x-72 1
- 76x2+114x-1S2 (-;--3S) lOx3 - 9x2 + llx+ 12 2x2 - 3x+ 4
-lOx3 + lSx2 - 20x Sx
6x2-9x +12 (-;-3) 2x2 - 3x+ 4 2x2 - 3x+4 -2x2 +3x-4
mcd = 2x2 - 3x + 4
6x3 -13x2 + lSx- Si - 6x3 + 9x2 -12x
- 4x2+ 6x-S
+ 4x2- 6x+S
2x2 - 3x+ 4 3x-2
lOx3 - 9x2 + llx+ 12 _lOx3 + lSx2 - 20x
6x2- 9x +12 -6x2+ 9x -12
2x2-3x+4
Sx+3
3x-2 =-- Rta.
Sx+3
x4_2x3y+2x2y2_xy3 (2)
5. 2 4 S 3 4 2 2 3 Factor común x
x - x y+ x y -xy
2x3 -4x2y+ 4xy2 - 2y' 2x3 _Sx2y+4xy2 - y' _2x3+Sx2y_4xy2+ y'
x2y - y' (-;- y)
2x3_Sx2y+4xy2_ y3 x2_ y2 (S)
- 2x3 + 2xy2 2x
_Sx2y+6xy2_y' (-;--y)
Sx2 _Sy2 Sx2-6xy+ y2
-Sx2+6xy- y2
6xy-6y2 (-;-6y)
SX2-6XY+YJ x-y
-Sx2+Sxy Sx
- xy + y2 (-;-_ y)
x- Yl x- y
-x+ y 1 mcdx(x- y)=x2_xy
Continúa
Continuación
5. .0 -2i'y+2x"y"- xy -.0+i'y
- x3y +2x"y"-xy
+ x3y -x"y"
x2y" -xy _x2y" +xy
x"-xy x"-xy+y"
2.0-5x3y+4x"y"-xY x2-x
-2.0+2i'y 2x"-3xy+y"
-3x3y+4x2y" +3x3y-3x"y"
x2y"-xy -x2y"+xy x" -xy+ y" 2x" -3xy+ y"
Rta.
2a5-a4+2a3+2a2+3 (3)
6. 3a5_a4 +3a3+4a2+S (2)
6a5 - 3a4 + 6a3 + 6a2 + 9 6a5 - 2a4 + 6a3 + Sa2 + 10 (-;- 2)
- 6a5 + 2a4 _ 003 - Sa2-1O
_a4 -2a2-1
(-;- -1)
3a5 _ a4 + 3a3 +4a2
+S a4+2a2+1
-3a5
-6a3
-3a
3a
a4
-a4-3a3+4a2-3a+S (-1) +2a2
+1 11a4+3a3-4a2+3a-s _a4 -3a3 +4a2 -3a+S
---------
- 3a3 +6a2 - 3a+ 6 a4+3a3-4a2+3a-S _a4+2a3_ a2 +2a
a3-2a2+a-2
a
Sa3 -Sa2 +Sa-S
a3-2a2+a-2 a3-a2+a-1
_a3+ a2 -a+1
- a2 -1 (-;--1)
a3-a2+a-1 a2+1
3 -a
-a
a
mcd=a2+1 Continúa
Continuación
6. =}2as _a4 +2a3 +2a2 +31
-2as -2a3
+2a2+3 +a2
3a2+3 -3a2-3
3as _a4 +3a3 +4a2 +5
-3as -3a3
+4a2+5 + a2
5a2+5 -5a2-5
2a3-a2+3 3a3 _a2 +5
Rta.
a2 +1 2a3-a2+3
a2 +1
3a3 -a2+5
Continuación
7. 1-2x- x" -2K + x4 -1-x-x"
-3x-2x" -2K + x4
+3x+3x2+3x3
1+x+x2 1-3x+x"
x2+ K+x4 _x2_ x3-x4
1-2x+x" 1-3x+x"
Rta.
8. 2m3 + 2m2n - mn2 - n3
= m (2m2 - n2)+ n (2m2 - n2)= (m+ n ) (2m2 _ n2)
3m3 +3m2n+mn+n2
mcd= m+n
2m3 + 2m2n- mn2 - n3 m+ n
-2m3-2m2n
2m2_n2
-1+2x+x'+2x3-x4
_ x3 +x4 1-2x-x'-2x3+x4
2 3
-mn -n
+mn2+n3
7. 1- x
x + x' + x3 (-;- x)
1-2x- x' _2x3+X4 l+x+x' (3)
-1- x - x'
-3x-2x'-2x3+X4 (-;--x)
3+3x+3x' -3-2x-2x'+x3
3+ 2x+ 2x' - x3
x+ x' +x3 (-;-x)
'3~'
3+2x+2x,--x l+x+x-
-3-3x-3x- 3
- x - x2 _x3 (-;--x)
l+x+x' l+x+x'
-l-x-x'
=}1-x -1-x - x"
-2x- x" - X3+X4 +2x+2x2 +2x3 X2+K+X4 -x" - K _x4
mcd=l+x+x'
1+x+x2 1-2x+x"
Continúa
3m3+3m2n+mn+n2 ~
-3m3-3m2n I 3m2+n
mn+n2
-mn-n2
2m2_n2
Rta.
----
3m2+n
9.
6as + 3<14 -4a3 - 2a' + lOa+5
3a6 + 7a4 - a' + 15 (2)
6a6
-2a'
+ 30 6as + 3a4 -4a3 - 2a' + lOa+5
+ 14a4
-6a6-3as+4a4 +2a3-lOa'-5a
a
-3as + 18a4 + 2a3-12a' -5a+30
6as+ 3a4 -4a3- 2a' + lOa + 5 3as-18a4-2a3+12a'+5a-30 - 6as + 36a4 +4a3- 24a' -lO
a+ 6 2
39a4
-26a'
3as -18a4 -2a3 + 12a' +5a-30I
- 3as + 2a3 -5a
-18a4 + 12a' - 30
3a4 - 2a' +5 3a4 - 2a' +5
- 3a4 + 2a' -5 mcd= 3a4 - 2a' +5
3a4 - 2a' +5
a
Continúa
Continuación
9. 6as +3a4 -4a3 -2a2 + 10a+5
-6as
+4a3
-10a
3a6 + 7a4 - a2 +15 -3a6 +2a4 -5a2
9a4 -6a2 + 15
3a4-2a2+5 a2+3
-2a2
+5
+2a2
-5
-9a4 +6a2 -15
2a+1 a2+3
Rta.
Sx' -lOx4 + 21x3 - 2x+ 4 (3)
10·3x'-6x4+11x3+2x-4 (S)
lSx' - 30x4 + 63x3 - 6x+ 12 Sx' - 30x4 +SSx3 + lOx- 20 (-;-S) -lSx' + 30x 4 - SS
X3 -lOx+ 20 1
8x3 -16x+ 32 (-;- 8) 3X'-6X4+11X3+2X-41 x3-2x+4
- 3x' + 6x4 -12x3 3x3
- x3 +2x-4 (-;--1)
x3 -2x+4 x3 -2x+4
-x3+2x-4 mcd=x3-2x+4
Sx' -lOx4 + 21x3 - 2x+ 4 x3 - 2x+ 4
-Sx' + lOx4 - 20x3 Sx3 + 1
x3 - 2x+4
3x' - 6x4 + llx3 + 2x- 4 IX3 - 2x+ 4
-3x'+6x4-12x3 3x3-1
- x3 +2x-4
- x3 + 2x-4
11. n' - 3n5 - n4 + 3n3 + 7n2 - 2ln
=n5 (n- 3)- n3 (n- 3)+ 7n(n- 3)= (n- 3)(n5 - n3 + 7n)
+ x3-2x+4
Sx3 +1 = 3x3 -1
Rta.
n' + 2n5 _n4 -2n3 + 7n2 + 14n
=n5 (n+ 2)- n3 (n+ 2)+ 7n(n+ 2)= (n+ 2)(n5 - n3 + 7n)
n' - 3n5 - n 4 + 3n3 + 7n2 - 2ln n5 - n3 + 7n
n' +2n5 _n4 -2n3 + 7n2 + 14n
n5 _n3 +7n
, -n
-7n2
n-3
, -n
-7n2
n+2
-3n5
+3n3
-2ln
2n5
-2n3
+14n
+3n5
-3n3
+2ln
-2n5
+2n3
-14n
n-3 n+2
Rta.
12.
a7+2a'-Sa5+ 8a4+ a3 + 2a2-Sa+8 a'+2a5-Sa4+lOa3+4a2-lOa+16 (2)
-a7-2a'+Sa5-lOa4-4a3+lOa2-16a a
- 2a4- 3a3 +12a2 -21a+8 (-;--1)
2a'+4a5-lOa4+20a3+8a2 -20a+32 2a4+3a3-12a2+21a-8 (a)
- 2a' - 3a5 + 12a4 - 21a3 + 8a2 a2
a5 + 2a4 - a3 + 16a2 - 20a+ 32
2a5+3a4-12a3+21a2- 8a a5+2a4_a3 +16a2-20a+32
-2a5-4a4+ 2a3 -32a2+40a-64 2
-a4-lOa3-11a2+32a-64 (-1)
Continúa
Continuación
12. aS + 2a4 - a3 + 16a2 - 20a+ 32 - aS -lOa4 -l1a3 + 32a2 - 64a
- 8a4 -12a3 +48a2 - 84a+ 32
a
a4 +lOa3+11a2-32a+64 (2)
2a4 + 20a3 + 22a2 - 64a+ 128 2a4 + 3a3 -12a2 + 21a- 8 -2a4- 3a3 +12a2- 21a+8
17a3 + 34a2 - 85a+ 136 (-;-17)
2a4 +3a3-12a2+21a-8 a3+2a2-5a+8
- 2a4 -4a3 + lOa2 -16a 2a
-a3-2a2+5a-8 (-1)
a3 +2a2 -Sa+8 a3 +2a2 -Sa+8
-a3-2a2+Sa-8
mcd= a3+2a2-Sa+8
a6 +2as -5a: +10a' +4a2 -10a+161 a' +2a2 -5a+8
_a6 _2as +5a -8a' a' +2
2a' +4a2 -10a+16
-2a' -4a2 +10a-16
a7 +2a6-5as+8a4+a'+2a2-5a+8 _a7 _2a6 +5as _8a4
EJERCICIO 122
3 2a 6a
1. 2a· 2a = 4a2
S 4a 20a
2. 9x"· 4a = 36ax2
m 2a 2am
3. ab2· 2a = 2a2b2
3x. 3xy" _ 9x" y"
4. 8y 3xy" - 24xy
4m n 4mn
5. sif· -;; = Sn'
2x+ 7 3 6x+21
6. -S-·3"=-1-S-
2x x 2x2
7. x-1·~= x2-x
EJERCICIO 123
1.
6a3-10a2 2a
6a3 10a2
----
2a 2a
= 3a2 -Sa
a' +2a2 -5a+8
a' +2a2 -5a+8 -a' -2a2 +5a-8
Rta
a2 2a 2a3
8. a+2· 2a = 2a2 +4a
3a a+b 3a2 +3ab
9. a+b· a+b - a2 +2ab+b2
x-4 x+2 x" -2x-8
10. x+3· x+2 - x"+Sx+6
x-y 2 2x-2y
12. -6-·"2=-12-
Sx a+b Sax+Sbx
13. a-b" a+b - a2_b2
x-S 3x 3x" -1Sx 14.-·-=---
a 3x 3ax
2. 9x'y-6x"y2+3xy 3xy
9x'y 6x2y" 3xy
=-----+--
3xy 3xy 3xy
=3x" -2xy+ y"
3. x"+3 ~
~x
3 3
=x++X
Sx 2x+ y 1 Ox2 +Sxy
15. 2x+ y. 2x+ y - 4x" +4xy+ y"
x+3 x-3 x2-9
16. x+1· x-3 - x"-2x-3
2 a2-a+1 2a2-2a+2
17. a+1· a2-a+1- a3+1
x-2y 3xy 3x2y-6xy"
18. ~. 3xy - 9x2y
x-1 x+1 x2-1
19. x+1· x+1 - x2+2x+1
a+b 9ab 9a2b+9ab2
20. 7a2· 9ab - 63a3b
x+1 x-2 x"-x-2
21. x+S· x-2 - x2+3x-10
4.
10a2+1Sa -2 ~
-10a2 I 2a+3
1Sa-2
-1Sa
-2 =2a+3-~ Sa
5. 9x3-6x2+3x-5 -9x3
3x
3x2 -2x+1
-6x2 +6x2
3x -3x
-5 =3x2-2x+1-2 3x
6. x"-5x-16 x+2
-x2-2x
x-7
7.
-7x-16 +7x+14
-2
=x_7 __ 2_
x+2
12x"-6X-214X-1
-12x2+3x 3x
-3x-2
-3x-2 3x+2
=3x+ ---=3x---
4x-1 4x-1
8.
a' -a'-2a2b
a+2b
a2 -2ab+4b2
+3b3
-2a2b 2a2b+4ab2 4ab2 +3b3 -4ab2 -8b3
-5b3
=a2-2ab+4b2-~ a+2b
9. x'-x"-6x+1 -x' +3x
-x"-3x+1
x" -3
~ ~
-3x-2
-3x-2 3x+2
=x-1+---=x-1---
x"-3 x"-3
10. 3x3 +4x2Y+2xr -6Y -3x3+2x"Y
6x2Y+2xr -6x2y+4xr
6xy2 -6Y -6xy2 +4y3 _2y3
2y3 =x2+2xY+2r3x-2y
3x-2y x2+2xY+2r
11.
2x"-7x"+6x-8 2x"-x+1
-2x3+ x" -x x-3
-6x2+5x-8
6x2-3x+3
2x-5 2x-5 =x2x2-x+1
12. 2a4 -3a3 + a2 -2a4 +2a3 -2a2
a2-a+1 2a2-a-2
_ a3 _ a2
a3 - a2 +a
-2a2+ a
2a2 -2a+2 - a+2 =2a2-a-2-~ a2 -a+1
13. x4-4x"-3x I x"-2
_x4 +2x" x"-2
-2x2-3x
2x2 -4
-3x-4
=x2-2- 3x+4
x" -2
14. 1 orf -18rt -5n+3 2rt-3n+1
-1orf + 15rt -5n 5n
-3rt-1on+3
=5n 3rt+1on-3
2rt-3n+1
15. 8x4 4x2 +5x+6
-8x4 -1 ox" -12x" 2x"
-1ox3 -12x"
=2x" 1ox3+12x"
4x" +5x+6
16. 6rrr +3rrfn
-6ms +2Mrt -2m"rf
3m4n+2Mrt -2m"rf
3M-mrt+rf 2m"+mn
2Mrt - m"rf -mn4 2Mrt - m"rf -mn4
=2m" +mn+ M rt rf
3 -m +
EJERCICIO 124
4a
1. a+--
a+2
a(a+2)+4a a+2
a2+2a+4a = a2+6a = a(a+6)
a+2 a+2 a+2
3 8. x+2x-1
(x+ 2)(x-1)- 3 x-1
x2+x-2-3 x2+x-5
3 13. m2-2m+4-~ m+2
(m2 -2m+4)(m+ 2)-m3 m+2
m3+8_m3 8
m+2
m+2
x-1
x-1
n2 2. mm
{m-n)m-n2 m2-mn-n2
2 6 9 x2-3x-~
. x+2 ( )
14. x2-5x 3x x+2
(x2-3x)(x+2)-(x2-6x) x-2
m m
3 3. x+5x-2
(x+5)(x-2)-3 x-2
x2 +3x-1O-3 x-2
x2 + 3x-13 x-2
ab
4. a+ a+b
a(a+b)+ab a+b
a2+ab+ab a2+2ab
a+b a+b
1-a2
5. --+a-3
a
a(a-3)+1-a2
a a2-3a+1-a2
3a-1
a
a
a+x
6.1---
a-x
(a -x)-(a+x)
a-x
a-x-a-x
2x
a-x
a-x
2a+x
7. ---1
a+x
2a+x-(a+x) a+x
2a+x-a-x a
a+x a+x
x+2
x3 - x2 - 6x- x2 + 6x x+2
x3 _ 2x2 x2 (x- 2)
x+2 x+2
x2_ y2 10. x+y+x- y
(x+ y)(x- y)+ x2 _ y2
x- y
x2_ y2+X2_ y2 x- y
2x2 _2y2
x- y
2(x2 -y")
x- y
2(x+ y)(x- y)
x- y =2x+2y=2(x+ y)
3mn
11. --+m-2n m-n
(m-n)(m-2n)+3mn
m-n
m2 - 3mn+ 2n2 + 3mn
m-n
5ax-6x2 12.2aa+2x
(2a - 3x )(a + 2x)- (5ax- 6x2) a+2x
2a2 + ax- 6x2 -5ax+ 6x2 a+2x
2a2-4ax a+2x
(x2 -5x)(x- 2)- 3x(x+ 2) x-2
x3 - 7 x2 + lOx - 3x2 - 6x x-2
x3 -lOx2 +4x
x-2
, , 7ab2 _b3
15. a2a-b
(a2 + 3ab- b2 )(2a- b)+ 7ab2 _ b3 2a-b
2a3 + 5a2b- 5ab2 + b3 + 7ab2 _ b3 2a-b
2a3 + 5a2b+ 2ab2
2a-b
x3 + 2 ( )
16. -,--- x+1
x- - x+ 1
m2 +2n2
(x3 + 2)+ (x2 - x+ 1)(- x-1)
x2 - x+ 1 x3+2-x3-1
x2 - x+ 1
x2 - x+ 1
m-n
x3_2x2 +1 17. x+3x--4x+3
(x+ 3)(x2 -4x+ 3)- (x3 - 2x2 + 1) x2-4x+3
x3 _x2 -9x+9-x3 +2x2 -1 x2-4x+3
x2-9x+8 (x-8)(x-1) x-8 = x2-4x+3= (x-3)(x-1t x-3
3a2b+ 3ab2 18. 3a + a2 _ b2
3a (a2 - b2)+ 3a2b+ 3ab2 a2 _ b2
3a3 - 3ab2 + 3a2b+ 3ab2 a2 _b2
3a3+3a2b 3a2(a+b)
a2_b2 (a+b)(a-b)
3a2 a-b
EJERCICIO 125
a
1. b
mcm=ab
ab:,-b=a
ab
ab:'-ab=l
a a·a a2
b ab ab
1 1·1 1 a 1 ab=ab=ab=}ab'ab
4
2. ~
2a ' 3a2x
6a2x:'- 2a= 3ax
mcm =6a2x
6a2x:'-3a2x=2
x x (3ax) 3ax2 2a = 6a2x = 6a2x
4
4·2
8
3a2x - 6a2x - 6a2x
3ax2 8
=} 6a2x ' 6a2x
Rta.
1 3. 2x2
3 5 4x 8i' 8i' :,-2x" =4x
8i' :,-4x=2x"
8i' :,-8i' =1
1 1-4x 4x
2x2 = 8i' = 8i'
3 3x·2x" 6x" 4x =8T=8i'
5 5·1 5 8x3 = 8i' = 8i'
4x 6x"
=} 8i' ' 8i'
mcm =8i'
5
8i' Rta.
x3-27 19 x-3-----
. x2-6x+9
(x- 3)(x2 - 6x+ 9)- (x3 -27)
x2 -6x+9
x3 _ 9x2 +27x- 27 _x3 + 27 x2-6x+9
_-_9x_2_+_27_x __ -9x(x-3)
(x-3)" (x-3)"
- 9x 9x
= x-3= 3-x
2 2a3-11a+9
20. a -3a+5+ a2+a-2
(a2 - 3a+5)(a2 + a- 2)+ 2a3 -l1a+ 9 a2 + a- 2
a4 - 2a3 + lla-10+ 2a3 -11a+ 9 a2 +a- 2
a4-1 (a2-1)(a2+1)
= (a+2)(a-1) (a+2)(a-1)
(a2 + 1) (a + 1) (a -1) (a+2)(a-1)
Rta.
x x(ab) abx ~_ 3(b2) _ 3h2
a2b = a3b2 = a3b2 ; a3 - a3b2 - a3b2
3a2x abx 3h2
=} a3b2 ' a3b2 ' a3b2 Rta.
5. 7y 1 5x
- - -- mcm = 36x2y3
6x2 , 9xy , 12y'
36x2y':'-6x2 =6y' 36x2y':'-9xy=4xy2 36x2y':'-12y'=3x2
l..1-_ 7y(6y') _ 42/ . _1 __ 1 (4xy2) _ 4xy2 .
6x2 - 36x2y' - 36x2y' , 9xy - 36x2y' - 36x2y' ,
5x 5x(3x2) 15x3 42/ 4xy2 15x3
121 = 36x2y' = 36x2y' =} 36x2y' , 36x2y' , 36x2y' Rta.
6 a-1 5 a+2 mcm =6a2
'~'6a'---;;Z-
6a2:,- 3a= 2a 6a2:,- 6a= 1 6a2:,- a2 = 6
a-1 _ (a-1)(2a) _ 2a2 - 2a
3a 6a2 6a2
a+2 (a+2)6 6a+12
---;;Z-=(;T=(;T
7 x- y x+ y
. x2y , 3xy2 , 5
3x21:,- x2y= 3y 3x2y":,- 3xy2 = X
x- y _ (x- y)(3y) 3xy-3y"
x2y 3X2y2 3X2y2
5(3x2y2) 15x2y2
5= 3x2y" - 3x2y" =}
mcm = 3X2y2
5 5·1 5
-----
6a 6a2 6a2
2a2-2a 5
=}6T' 6a2
6a+ 12 6a2
Rta.
x+ y (x+ y)x x2+xy
--, = --,-,-=--, -,-
3xy- 3x-y- 3x-y-
x2 + xy 15x2 y"
, 3x2y" , 3x2y"
3xy-3y" 3x2y"
Rta.
m+n m-n 1
8 mcm = 10m3n2
. 2m 'Sm3n ' 10n2
10m3n2 -;- 2m= Sm2n2 10m3n2 -;-Sm3n= 2n 10m3n2 -;-10n2 =m3
(m+ n)(Sm2n2) Sm3n2 +Sm2n3
10m3n2 10m3n2
m-n (m-n)(2n) 2mn-2n2 Sm3n = 10m3n2 = 10m3n2
m+n 2m
l(m3) m
10n2 = 10m3n2 = 10m3n2 Sm3n2+Sm2n3 2mn-2n2
10m3n2 '10m3n2
m3
, 10m3n2 Rta.
a+b a-b a2+b2
9. -6- , 2;:;- 3b2
6ab2 -;- 6= ab2
6ab2 -;- 2a = 3h2
6ab2 -;- 3h2 = 2a
mcm= 6ab2
a+b 6
(a+b)(ab2)
6ab2
a2b2 + ab3 6ab2
a-b 2a -
(a-b)(3h2) 3ab2-3h3
6ab2 6ab2
a2 + b2 (a2 + b2 )(2a)
3h2 6ab2
a2b2 + ab3 3ab2 _ 3b3
6ab2 6ab2
2a3 +2ab2
6ab2 2a3+2ab2 6ab2
1 2a-b 3b-a
O. ~ 4b2
12a2b2 -;- 3a2 = 4b2 12a2b2 -;- 4b2 = 3a2 12a2b2 -;- 2= 6a2b2
a-3b
mcm = 12a2b2
2
2a-b (2a-b)4b2 8ab2 -4b3
3a2 12a2b2 12a2b2
3b-a (3b- a )3a2 9a2b-3a3
4b2 - 12a2b2 12a2b2
a-3b (a-3b)6a2b2 6a3b2 -18a2b3
2 12a2b2 12a2b2
8ab2 -4b3 12a2b2
9a2b-3a3 12a2b2
6a3b2 -18a2b3 12a2b2
2 3
11. 5" x + 1 mcm = Sx + S
(Sx+S)-;-S=x+1 (Sx+S)-;-(x+1)=S
~_2(x+1)_2x+2. 3 3·S IS
5- 5x+5 -5x+5 ' x+l=5x+5=5x+5
2x+2 IS
=} Sx+ S ' Sx+ sRta.
a b
12. a+b ' a2 _b2
mcm =a2 _b2
(a2 _b2)-;- (a+b)= a-b (a2 _b2)-;- (a2 _b2)= 1
_a_= a(a-b) = a2 -ab
a+b a2 _b2 a2 _b2
b
lb
b
---= ---= ---
a2 _b2 a2 _b2 a2 _b2
a2 -ab b
a2_b2 , a2_b2 Rta.
13. ---:- ,
x--1 x2-x-2
x2 -1= (x+ 1)(x-1) x2 - x- 2 = (x- 2)(x+ 1)
mcm = (x-1)(x- 2 )(x+ 1) = (x2 -1)(x- 2)
x3-2x2-x+2
= x3 -2x2 - x+ 2
x2-1 x3-2x2-x+2 x2-x-2
_x3+ x2 +2x
x-2
x-1
Rta.
-2x2 +2
2x2 -2
-x2+x+2 x2 - x-2
x x(x- 2)
x2 -1 = x3 - 2x2 - x+ 2
x2-2x x3_ 2x2 - x+2
l(x-1)
x-1
x2-x-2 x3-2x2-x+2 x3-2x2-x+2
x2-2x x-1
=} x3-2x2-x+2 ' x3-2x2-x+2
Rta.
14.
a-3
3a
mcm =8(a+S) 8
Rta.
4(a+S) [8(a+S)]7 [4(a+S)]=2
a-3 2(a-3) 2a-6
4(a+Sf 8(a+S) = 8(a+S)
3a 3a(a+S) 3a2+1Sa
8= 8(a+S) 8(a+S)
8(a+S)78 =a+S
2a-6 =} 8(a+S)
3a2 + ISa 8(a+S)
Rta.
[S(a2 - b2 )]0- (2a + 2b)= 4(a - b) [S(a2 - b2 )]0- S= a2 - b2
[S(a2-b2)]0-(4a-4b)=2(a+b) 21. 21 2' 2m, 2 n
m -n m +mn m -mn
1 4(a-b)
2a+2b = S(a2_b2)
a 2a(a+b) 2a2+ 2ab
4a-4b = S(a2_b2) - S(a2_b2) ;
b b(a2_b2) a2b_b3
"8= S(a2_b2) - S(a2_b2)
4(a-b) 2a2+2ab a2b_b3
=> S(a2_b2) , S(a2_b2) , S(a2_b2) Rta.
18 . ...::..., -,-y_, _3_, mcm=xy(x+y)
xy x +xy xy+y
[xy(x+ y)]-i-xy=x+ y [xy(x+ y)Hx' +xy)= y [xy(x+ y)Hxy+ y')=x
x x(x+y) x'+xy
xy = xy(x+ yt xy(x+ y)
y y 3 3x
x'+xy= xy(x+y) ; xy+y'= xy(x+y)
x'+xy y' 3x
=> -- -- -- Rta
xy(x+ y) , xy(x+ y) , xy(x+ y) .
,
15. _x_ .::: mcm= 6(a-x) 3(a-x) , 6
[6(a- x)]-i- [3(a- x)] = 2 [6(a- x)]-i- 6= a- x
2x' ax-x'
=> 6(a-x) , 6(a-x) Rta.
16. ~ ~ x+3 mcm=x'(x-1)
2' , 2
X X x-x
[x' (x-1)]0- x' = x-1 [x' (x-1)]0- x= x(x-1) [x' (x-1)]0- (x' - x)= x
3 3(x-1) 3x- 3
7= x' (x-1) = x' (x-1) ;
2 2(x'-x) 2x'-2x -:;= x'(x-1)= x'(x-1) ;
x+3 x(x+3) x'+3x x'-x = x'(x-1f x'(x-1)
3x-3 2x'-2x x'+3x
=> -(--) -(--) -(--) Rta.
x' x-1 ' x' x-1 ' x' x-1
17 1 a b (2 2)
. -- -- - mcm=Sa-b
2a+2b ' 4a-4b ' S
2 1 a (' ')
19. --'---b' , --'----b ' --'----b mcm = a a - - b-
a - a +a a-a
[a(a' - b' )]0- (a' -b')= a [a(a' -b')]o- (a' +ab)= a-b [a(a' -b')]o- (a' -ab)=a
+b
2 2a 1 a-b
a'-b' = a(a'-b') ; a'+ab - a(a'-b')
a a(a+b) a'+ab
a'-ab = a(a'-b')= a(a'-b')
2a a-b a'+ab
=> (' ')' (' ')' (' ')
a a- - b- a a- - b- a a- - b-
Rta.
3x X x3
20. -:;:¡:¡ , -:;=¡ , x2 -1
mcm =x2-1
(x2 -1)-i- (x+ 1)= x-1 (x2 -1)-i- (x-1)= x+ 1
3x 3x(x-1) 3x2-3x
-:;:¡:¡= 7-=-1= 7-=-t
~_ x2(x+l)_x3+x2 . ~-~ x -1 - x2 -1 - x2 -1 ' x2 -1 - x2-1
3x2-3x X3+X2 x
=> 7-=-t' x2-1 ' x2-1 Rta .
mcm =m(m2 - n2)
[m(m2 - n2)]0- (m2 - n2)= m [m(m2 - n2)]0- (m2 + mn)=m- n [m(m2-n2)]0- (m2-mn)=m
+n
1 m
m2_n2 = m(m2_n2) ;
_m __ m(m-n) m2-mn.
2 - (2 2) - (2 2) ,
m+mn mm-n mm-n
_n_= n(m+n) _ mn+n2 m2-mn m(m2_n2) m(m2_n2)
m m2-mn n(m+n)
=> m(m2 _ n2) , m(m2 _ n2) , m(m2 _ n2) Rta.
n+1 n-1 n2+1
22 mcm=n2-1
. -;;-::]" , -;;+1 , n2 -1
(n2 -1)-i- (n - 1)= n + 1
(n2 -1)-i- (n+ 1)=n-1 (n2 -1)-i- (n2 -1)= 1
~Jn+ l)(n+ 1) Jn+ 1)' . ~Jn-1)'
n-1- n2-1 - n2-1 ' n+1- n2-1
n2+1 n2+1 (n+1)' (n_1)2 n2+1
n2 -1 = n2 - 1 => n2 -1 ' n2 -1 ' n2 -1 Rta.
a2_b2 a2+b2 a4+b4
23. a2+b2 , a2_b2 , a4_b4
mcm=a4-b4
(a4 _b4)-;- (a2 + b2 )=a2 _b2 (a4 _b4)-;- (a2 _b2 )=a2 +b2 a 2 _ b2 _ .(_a_2 __
b_2 )_2
a2+b2 a4_b4
(a4_b4)-;-(a4_b4)=1 a2+b2 (a2+b2r
a2_b2 a4_b4 ,
a4 + b4 a4_b4 Rta.
3x x-1 1
24. ~ , x+2 ' x2+x-2
mcm= x2+x-2
(x2 + x- 2)-;- (x-1)= x+ 2 (x2 + x- 2)-;- (x+ 2) = x-1 (x2+x-2)-;- (x2+x-2)=1
3x 3x(x+2) 3x2+6x
~= x2+x-2= x2+x-2 ;
x-1 = (x-1)' . __ 1_= __ 1_ x+2 x2+x-2 ' x2+x-2 x2+x-2
3x2 + 6x (x-1)' 1
=} x2+x-2 ' x2+x-2 ' x2+x-2 Rta.
x x x-1 ()
25 - -- --- mcm=10x+3 . 2 ' Sx+ lS ' 10x+ 30
[lO(x+ 3)]0- 2= S(x+ 3) [lO(x+ 3)]0- [S(x+ 3)]= 2 [lO(x+ 3)]0- [lO(x+ 3)]= 1
x Sx(x+ 3) Sx2 + lS
'2= lO(x+ 3) = lO(x+ 3)
x 2x x-1 x-1
Sx+1S= 1O(x+3) ; 10x+30= 1O(x+3)
Sx2+1S 2x x-1
=} -- -- -- Rta
1O(x+3) , 1O(x+3) , 1O(x+3) .
26 2x-1 3x+1 4x+3 mcm= 6(x+4)
. x+4 ' 3x+12 ' 6x+24
[6(x+4)]0- (x+4) = 6 [6(x+4)]0- [3(x+4 )]= 2
[6(x+4)]0- [6(x+4 )]= 1 2x-1 6(2x-1) 12x- 6
x+4 = 6(x+4) = 6(x+4) ;
3x+ 1 2(3x+ 1) 6x+ 2
3x+ 12 = 6(x+ 4) = 6(x+ 4) ;
4x+3 4x+3
6x+24 = 6(x+4)
12x- 6 6x+ 2 4x+ 3
=} -(--) -(--) -(--) Rta.
6x+4 ' 6x+4 ' 6x+4
27. _a_ , _,2- , _S_ mcm =(a+4)(3a+S)(3a-S) a+4 9a - 2S 3a-S
[(a + 4)(3a + S)(3a - S)] o- (a + 4)= (3a+ S)(3a - S) [(a + 4)(3a + S)(3a - S)]
O- (9a' - 2S)= a + 4
[(a + 4)(3a + S)(3a - S)] O- (3a - S)= (a + 4)(3a + S)
3 3(3a+S)(3a-S) 27a'-7S
a+4 = (a+4)(3a+S)(3a-S( (a+4)(9a'-2S) ;
2 2(a+4) 2a+8
9a'-2S= (a+4)(3a+S)(3a-S( (a+4)(9a'-2S) ;
S S(a+4)(3a+S) ISa'+8Sa+100
3a-S= (a+4)(3a+S)(3a-Sr (a+4)(9a'-2S)
27a' -7S 2a + 8 ISa' + 8Sa + 100
=} (a+4)(9a'-2S) , (a+4)(9a'-2S) , (a+4)(9a'-2S) Rta.
x+ 1 x+ 2 3x ()( , )
28. x'-4 ' x'+x-6 ' x'+Sx+6 mcm x+2 x +x-6
[(x+2)(x' + x- 6)]-;- (x' -4)= x+ 3 [(x+2)(x' + x- 6)]-;- (x' + x- 6)= x+ 2 [(x+
2)(x' + x- 6)]-;- (x' +Sx+6)=x-2
x+1 (x+1)(x+3) x'+4x+3
x'-4 = (x+2)(x'+x-6) - (x+2)(x'+x-6) ;
x+2 (x+2)(x+2) (x +2)'
x'+x-6= (x+2)(x'+x-6) - (x+2)(x'+x-6) ;
3x 3x(x-2) 3x'-6x
x'+Sx+6 (x+2)(x'+x-6f (x+2)(x'+x-6)
x'+4x+3 (x+2)' 3x'-6x
=} (x+2)(x'+x-6)' (x+2)(x'+x-6)' (x+2)(x'+x-6) Rta.
a+3 Sa a+1
29. a'+a-20 ' a'-7a+12 ' a'+2a-1S
mcm= (a+ S)(a' -7a+ 12)
[(a + S)(a' -7a + 12)]-;- (a' + a- 20)= a- 3 [(a + S)(a' -7a + 12)]-;- (a' -7a +
12 )= a+ S [(a + S)(a' -7a + 12)]-;- (a' + 2a -IS)= a- 4
a+3 (a+3)(a-3) a'-9
a'+a-20 - (a+S)(a'-7a+12f (a+S)(a-4)(a-3) ;
Sa 5a(a+S) 5a'+2S
a'-7a+12 - (a+S)(a'-7a+12f (a+S)(a-4)(a-3);
a+1 (a+1)(a-4) a'-3a-4
a'+2a-1S- (a+S)(a'-7a+12f (a+S)(a-4)(a-3)
a'-9 5a'+2S a'-3a-4
=} (a+S)(a-4)(a-3)' (a+S)(a-4)(a-3)' (a+S)(a-4)(a-3) Rta.
a+ 1 2a 1
30. a3-1 ' a2+a+l ' -:;=¡ mcm=a3-1
(a3 -1)0- (a3 -1) = 1 (a3 -1)0- (a2 +a+ 1)= a-l (a3 -1)0- (a-l)= a2 +a+ 1
a+l_a+l ._2_a __ 2a(a-l)_2a2-2. a3 -1 - a3 -1 ' a2 + a + 1 - a3 -1 - a3 -1 '
1 a2+a+l a+l 2a2-2 a2+a+l
-;;:::¡=~=} a3-1 ,~,~Rta.
1 1 2
31. - , -3- , - mcm = 3(x3 -1) x-1 x -1 3
[3(x3 -1)]0- (x-1)= 3(x' + x+ 1)
[3 (x3 -1)] O- (x3 -1) = 3 [3 (x3 - 1)] O- 3 = x3 -1
1 3(x'+x+1) 3x'+3x+3
x-1 = 3(x3-1) = 3(x3-1) ;
1 3 2 2(x3-1) 2x3-2
x3-1= 3(x3-1) ;"3= 3(x3-1t 3(x3-1)
3x'+3x+3 3 2x3-2
=} (3)' -(-3 -)' -(-3 -) Rta.
3x-1 3x-13x-1
3 b 1
32. 2.a'+2ab ' a'x+abx ' 4ax'-4bx'
mcm=4ax' (a' -b')
[4ax' (a' -b')]o- (2a' + 2ab) = 2x' (a-b) [4ax' (a' -b')]o- (a'x+abx)=4x(a-b) [4
ax' (a' -b')]o- (4ax' -4bx')=a(a+b)
3 3[2x'(a-b)] 6ax'-6bx'
2.a' + 2ab 4ax' (a' - b') 4ax' (a' - b') ;
b b[4x(a-b)] 4abx-4b'x
-a'-x-+-ab-x--4ax'(a'-b') 4ax'(a'-b');
1 a(a+b) a'+ab
4ax' -4bx' = 4ax' (a' -b') = 4ax' (a' -b')
6ax'-6bx' 4abx-4b'x a'+ab
=} 4ax'(a'-b') '4ax'(a'-b') '4ax'(a'-b') Rta.
1 a+l 3(a+l) 3
33. --=-1 ' -( )" -( )3 mcm=(a-l)
a a-l a-l
(a-l)' o-(a-l)=(a-l)'
(a-l)' o-(a-l)'=a-l (a-l)' o-(a-l)'=1
1 (a-l)' a+l (a+l)(a-l) a'-1
;;-:=I= (a-l)' ; (a-l)' = (a-l)' = (a-l)' ;
3(a+l) 3a+3 (a-l)' a'-1 3a+3
-( )3=-( )3 =}-( )3 ,-( )3 ,-( )3 Rta.
a-l a-l a-l a-l a-l
2x-3 3 2x-l ()()
34 6 ' ' -- , -6- mcm= 2 3x+2 2x+l
. x +7x+2 2x+l x+4
[2(3x+2)(2x+ 1)]0- (6x'+ 7x+ 2)= 2 [2(3x+2)(2x+ 1)]0- (2x+ 1)=2(3x+ 2) [2(3x+2)(
2x+ 1)]0- (6x+4)= 2x+ 1
2x-3 2(2x-3) 4x-6
6x'+7x+2 2(3x+2)(2x+l) 2(3x+2)(2x+l);
3 6(3x+2) 18x+12
2x+ 1 = 2(3x+2)(2x+ lt 2(3x+2)(2x+ 1) ;
2x-l (2x-l)(2x+ 1) 4x' -1
6x+4 = 2(3x+2)(2x+ 1) = 2(3x+2)(2x+ 1)
4x- 6 18x+ 12 4x' -1
=> 2(3x+ 2)(2x+ 1) , 2(3x+ 2)(2x+ 1) , 2(3x+ 2)(2x+ 1) Rta.
EJERCICIO 126
x-2 + 3x+2 _ 3@-2g2hK+2q 3x-6+6x+4 _ 9x-2
1. 4 6 12 12 12
2 1 3b·2+5a 5a+6b
2. 5a2 + 3ab - 15a2b - 15a2b
3. a-2b + b-a _ 4b(a-2b)+3a(b-a)
15a 20b 60ab
4ab-8b'+3ab-3a' -3a'+7ab-8b'
60ab 60ab
a+3b a2b-4ab2 Sab(a+3b)+3(a2b-4ab2)
4. 3ab + Sa2b2 lSa2b2
Sa2b+ lSab2 + 3a2b-12ab2 lSa2b2
8a2b+3ab2 ab(8a+3b) 8a+3b
lSa2b2 - lSa2b2 - lSab
5. a-l + 2a + 3a+4
3 6 12
4(a-l)+ 2·2a+ 3a+ 4 4a-4+ 4a+ 3a+4 lla
12 12 12
n 3 2 n· n+ 3m+ 2mn 3m+ 2mn+ d
6. m" + mn + m - m"n m"n
7. l-x + x+2 +_1_
2x x' 3ax'
3ax(I- x)+ 6a(x+ 2)+ 2
6ax'
3ax- 3ax' + 6ax-12a + 2 9ax+ 12a- 3ax' + 2
6ax' 6ax'
2a-3 3x+2 x-a lOx(2a-3)+3a(3x+2)+6(x-a)
8. ~+ ~+ 5ax = 30ax
20ax- 30x+ 9ax+ 6a + 6x- 6a 30ax
29ax-24x x(29a-24) 29a-24
30ax 30ax 30a
9. ~+ x+2 + x2+2
5 2x 6x2
_ 6x2·3+ 15x(x+2)+5(x2 +2)
- 30x2
18x2 + 15x2 + 30x+5x2 + 10 30x2
_ 38x2+30x+1O 2(19x2+15x+5)
- ~~ ~X2
x- y 2x+ y y-4x
10. 12+15+30
= 5(x- y)+4(2x+ y)+2(y-4x) 60
= 5x-5y+8x+4y+2y-8x _ 5x+ y
60 - 60
11 m-n n-a 2a-m .--+--+--
mn na am
= a(m-n)+m(n-a)+n(2a-m)
amn am-an+mn-ma+2an-mn an
amn amn m
EJERCICIO 127
1 1
1. a+1 + a-1
2 1
2. x+4 x-3
2(x-3)+x+4 2x-6+x+4 3x-2
x2+x-12 - x2+x-12 - x2+x-12
3 6
3. 1-x +2x+5
3(2x+5)+6(1-x) = (1-x)(2x+5)
6x+15+6-6x
(1-x)(2x+5)
x x
4. x- y x+ y
x(x+ y)+x(x- y)
x2_ y2
x2 + xy + x2 _ xy x2_ y2
m+3 m+2 5 . m-3 m-2
_ (m-2)(m+3)+ (m-3)(m+ 2)
- (m-3)(m-2)
19x2 + 15x+ 15 15x2
x+2 x2_2 2_x3
12 --+--+--
. 3x 5x2 9x3
_ 15x2(x+2)+9x(x2-2)+5(2-x3)
- 45x3
15x3 + 30x2 + 9x3 -18x+ 10- 5x3 45x3
19x3 + 30x2 -18x+ 10
45x3
1 b" ,
13 _ ~ ab+b-
. ab + ab3 + a2b2
_ ab2+a(b2-a2)+b(ab+b2)
- a2b3
ab2 + ab2 _ a3 + ab2 + b3 a2b3
_ a3 + 3ab2 + b3 a2b3
a+3b 2a-3m 3
14. --+---+-
ab am a
_ m(a+3b)+b(2a-3m)+3bm abm
am+ 3bm+ 2ab- 3bm+ 3bm abm
am+2ab+3bm abm
6. x+ y + x- y = (x+ y)(x+ y)+(x- y)(x- y)
x- Y x+ Y x' _ y'
(x+ y)' + (x- y)'
, , x - y
_ x' + 2xy+ y' + x' - 2xy+ y'
- "
x - y
2x' +2y' , , x - y
21 (1-x)(2x+5)
x'-x+x'+2x+1
2x' +x+ 1
(x-1)' (x+ 1)
(x-1)' (x+ 1)
2 3x
8. x-5+ x2-25
2(x+5)+3x 2x+1O+3x 5x+1O
x2 _ 25 x2 - 25 x2 - 25
2x' x2_ y2
__ 1_+ x-y
9. 3x-2y 9i' _4y2
3x+2y+x-y 9i'-4~
4x+y 9i' _4y2
x+a 3a2_x2 (x-3a)(x+a)+3a2-x2
10. --+-,--, ------~---
x+3a x--9a- x2_9a2
x2 + ax- 3ax- 3a2 + 3a2 - x2 x2 _ 9a2
2m2-12
2(m2-6)
- (m-3)(m-2f (m-3)(m-2)
= x2 _ 9a2 = 9a2 _ x2
m2+m-6+m2-m -6
(m-3)(m-2)
-2ax
2ax
a a
11. -1 2 +-1-2
-a +a
a(1+a2)+a(1-a2) a+aJ+a-aJ 2a
(1-a2)(1+a2) = (1-a2)(1+a2f 1-a"
2 2 2b(a+b)+2a(a-b)
12. a2-ab + ab+b2 = ab(a2- b2)
2ab+ 2b2 + 2a2 - 2ab 2a2 + 2b2
ab(a2- b2) = ab(a2- b2)
ab a
13. -,--, +9a--b- 3a+b
ab+a(3a-b) ab+3a2-ab 3a2
9a2 _b2 = 9a2 _b2 = 9a2 _b2
1 1 a-b+a+b 2a
14. a2 _b2 + (a-b)' = (a+b)(a-b)' - (a+b)(a-b)'
3 2 3(x+ y)' +2(x2+ y')
15. -, -,+-( ),= ( )( )'
x- + y x+ y - x2 + y' x+ y -
3x2 + 6xy+ 3y' + 2x2 + 2y'
(x2 + y')(x+ y)'
5x2 + 6xy + 5y'
= (x2 + y')(x+ y)'
a2-ax=a{a-x)
ax= ax
mcm=ax(a-x)
ax-x2=x{a-x)
x' + (a+ x)(a- x)+ a'
ax(a-x)
x'+a'-x'+a' 2a' 2a
ax(a-x) ax(a-x) - x(a-x)
1 3 x-1 x+8
7. 2x+4 2x-4 x--4
2x+4=2(x+2)
2x-4=2(x-2) mem=2(x2-4)
x2-4=(x-2)(x+2)
3(x- 2)+(x-1)(x+ 2)+ 2(x+ 8) 2(x2-4) 3x-6+x2+x-2+2x+16 2(x2-4)
x2+6x+8 (x+2)(x+4) x+4
= 2(x2-4) 2(x+2)(x-2) 2(x-2)
1 1 x+ 3
18. --, +--, +--, x+x- x-x- 1-x-
x+x'=x(l+x)
x-x'=x(l-x) mem=x(l-x')
1-x'=(1+x)(1-x)
1-x+1+x+x(x+3)
x(l-x')
2+x'+3x (x+1)(x+2) x+2
= x(l-x') - x(l-x)(l+x) x(l-x)
x-y x+y 4xy
19 --+--+-- mem=x'-y' . x+y x-y x'-y'
(x- y)(x- y)+(x+ y)(x+ y)+4xy
x'- y'
x' - 2xy+ y' + x' + 2xy+ y' + 4xy x'- y'
2x'+2y'+4xy 2(x'+2xy+ y')
x' - y' - x' _ y'
2(x+y)' _2(x+y)
= (x+ y)(x- y) x-y
1 a a+S
20. a-S+ a'-4a-S+ a'+2a+l
a-S=a-S
a' -4a-S= (a-S)(a + 1)
a' + 2a + 1= (a + 1)' mcm= (a - S) (a + 1)'
(a+l)' +a(a+l)+(a+S)(a-S)
(a-S)(a+ 1)'
a' + 2a+ 1+ a' + a+a' - 2S
(a-S)(a+ 1)'
3a'+3a-24 3(a'+a-S)
= (a-S)(a+ 1)' - (a-S)(a+ 1)'
3 2 1- 85a (')
21. -+--+--,- mem=a 25a--9 a 5a - 3 25a- - 9
3 (25a2 - 9)+ 2a(5a + 3)+ a(l- 85a) a (25a2 - 9)
75a2-27+lOa2+6a+a-85a2 7a-27
a (25a2 - 9) a (25a2 - 9)
x+l x-3 x-2
22.10+ Sx-1O+-2- mcm=1O(x-2)
~+~~-~+2~-~+S~-~~-~ lO(x- 2)
x2 - x- 2+ 2x- 6+ Sx2 - 20x+ 20 6x2 -19x+ 12
lO(x- 2) - lO(x- 2)
2x x+ 1 1
26. 3x2 + llx+ 6 + x2 - 9 + 3x+ 2
3x2 + llx+ 6= (x+ 3)(3x+ 2) x2-9=(x+3)(x-3)
3x+ 2= 3x+ 2 mcm= (x2 - 9 )(3x+ 2)
_2x_(_x_-_3)_+_(x_+_l_)(_3x_+_2_)+_x_2_-_9 30. :~ ~ <: ~ <~ ~
(x2 - 9 )(3x+ 2)
x+5 x+4 x-3
23. x'+x-12+ x'+2x-15+ x'+9x+20
x' + x-12= (x+4)(x- 3)
x' + 2x-15= (x+5)(x- 3)
x' + 9x+ 20= (x+5)(x+4)
mcm= (x+5)(x+4)(x- 3)
~+~~+~+~+~~+~+~-~~-~ (x+5)(x+4)(x-3)
x' + 10x+ 25+ x' + Sx+ 16+ x' - 6x+ 9
(x+5)(x+4)(x-3)
3x'+12x+50
= (x+5)(x+4)(x-3)
1 1- 2x' x
24. x-2 + x3-S + x'+2x+4
x3 -S=(x-2)(x' + 2x+4) mcm= x3-S x' + 2x+4+ 1- 2x' + x(x- 2)
x3-S
-x'+2x+5+x'-2x 5
x3-S - x3-S
2 <1 <1+1 3
25 -+--+-- mcm=(<I+l) . <1+1 (<1+1)2 (<1+1)'
2(<1+1)2 +<1(<1+1)+<1+1
(<1 + 1)'
2<12+4<1+2+<12+<1+<1+1
(<1 + 1)'
3<12+6<1+3 3(<12+2<1+1) 3(<1+1)' 3
= (<1+1)' (<1+1)' - (<1+1)' = <1+1
2x2 - 6x+ 3x2 +5x+ 2+ x2 - 9 (x2-9)(3x+2)
6x2 - x-7
= (x2-9)(3x+2)
x2 - 4 1 3
27. x +1 x+l x--x+l
x3 + 1= (x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1) mcm= x3 + 1
x2 -4+ x2 - x+ 1+3x+ 3
x3+ 1
2x2 + 2x 2x(x+ 1) 2x
=~= (x+l)(x2-x+lt x2-x+l
1 1 x+l
28. ~+ (x-l)(x+ 2) + (x-l)(x+ 2)(x+ 3)
mcm= (x-l)(x+ 2 )(x+ 3)
(x+ 2)(x+ 3)+ x+ 3+ x+ 1
(x-l)(x+ 2)(x+ 3)
=~-0~+~~+~ ~-0~+~~+~
(x+5)(x+2) x+5
=~-0~+~~+~-~-0~+~
x-2 x-3 2x-l
29. 2x'-5x-3+2x'-3x-2+ x'-5x+6
2x' - 5x- 3= (x- 3)(2x+ 1)
2x' - 3x- 2= (x- 2)(2x+ 1)
x' - 5x+ 6= (x- 3)(x- 2)
mcm= (x- 3)(x- 2)(2x+ 1)
(x- 2)(x- 2)+ (x- 3)(x- 3)+ (2x-l)(2x+ 1) (x- 3)(x- 2)(2x+ 1)
x' -4x+4+x' -6x+ 9+4x' -1
(x- 3)(x- 2) (2x + 1)
6x'-lOx+12
= (x- 3)(x- 2)(2x+ 1)
mcm= (a-l)(a+ 2)(a- 3)
~+~~-~~-~+~-0~+~~-~+~-0~+0~+~
(a-l)(a+2)(a-3)
a3 -3a' -4a+ 12+ a3_ a' - 9a+9+ a3+ 2a' - a-2
(a-l)(a+2)(a-3)
3a3-2a' -14a+19
= (a-l)(a+2)(a-3)
EJERCICIO 128
1. x-3 _ x+2 2(x-3)-(x+2) 2x-6-x-2
4 8 8 8
2 a+Sb _ b-3
· a2 ab
b(a+5b)-a(b-3)
a2b
ab+5b2-ab+3a a2b
2 1 2(2m)-(3n) 4m-3n
3. 3mn2 - 2m2n - 6m2n2 = 6m2n2
a-3 4-3ab2
4----
· Sab 3a2b3
3ab2 (a- 3)- S(4- 3ab2) lSa2b3
3a2b2 - 9ab2 - 20+ lSab2 3a2b2 + 6ab2 - 20
lSa2b3 lSa2b3
2a+3 a-2
5. ----¡;;- - ---s;;-
2(2a+3)-(a-2) 4a+6-a+2 3a+8
8a 8a 8a
y-2x x-3y
6. 20x - 24y
6y (y- 2x)- Sx(x- 3y) 120xy
6y2 -12xy- Sx2 + lSxy 120xy
6y2 + 3.ry - Sx2 120xy
EJERCICIO 129
1 1
1· x-4 x-3
mcm=(x-4)(x-3)
x-3-(x-4) x-3-x+4 1
=~-~~-~ ~-~~-~ ~-~~-~
m-n m+n
2. m+n - m-n
m,C/11.= m2 - n2
(m- n)(m- n)- (m+ n)(m+ n)
2 2
m-n
m2 - 2mn+ n2 - m2 - 2mn- n2 - 4mn 4mn
x-8
x-1 x-2 x+3
7. -3---4---6-
4(x-1)- 3(x- 2)- 2(x+ 3) 12
4x-4-3x+6-2x-6 -x-4 x+4
12 12 12
3 2a+1 4a2+1
8. 5-~- 20a2
4a2 (3)- 2a (2a+ 1)- (4a2 + 1)
20a2 12a2-4a2-2a-4a2-1 4a2-2a-1
20a2 20a2
3 x-1 x2+2x+3
9 ----
. Sx 3x2 lSx3
3x2 (3)-Sx(x-1)- (x2 + 2x+ 3) lSx3
9 x2 - Sx2 + Sx - x2 - 2x - 3 lSx3
3x2+3x-3 3(x2+x-1) x2+x-1
lSx3 lSx3 - Sx3
1 2+b S
10. 2a - 3ab - 6a2b3
3ab3 - 2ab2 (2+b)-S 6a2b3
3ab3 - 4ab2 - 2ab3 - S 6a2b3
-
8
ab3 -4ab2 -S 6a2b3
a+b b-a
4. a2 + ab - ab+b2
a2+ab=a(a+b) ab+b2=b(a+b)
mcm=ab(a+b)
b(a+b)-a(b-a) ab+b2-ab+a2 a2+b2
ab(a+b) ab(a+b) - ab(a+b)
m+n m2+n2 (m+n)(m+n)-(m2+n2)
5. m-n - m2_n2 m2_n2
m2+2mn+n2-m2-n2 2mn
2 2
m-n
- 2 2
m-n
---------------
m2 _ n2 m2 _ n2 n2 _ m2 1 1
6.--,---, x+x- x-x-
3. 1-x _ l+x _ (l-x)(l-x)-(l+x)(l+x)
1+ x 1- x 1-x2
1-2x+x2-1-2x-x2 -4x 4x
1- x2 - 1- x2 = x2 - 1
x+x2=x(x+1) x-x2=x(1-x)
mcm= x(l- x2)
1-x-(1+x) 1-x-1-x -2x -2 2
= x (1- x2) - X (1- x2) - X (1- x2 t 1- x2 = x2 - 1
a+x x
7. -( )2 --2--2
a-x a-x
(a+ x)(a + x)- x(a - x) (a-x)" (a+x)
a2+2ax+x2-ax+x2 a2+ax+2x2
(a-x)" (a+x) (a-x)" (a+x)
a+ 1 1
8. 6a+3 -12a+6
6a+3=3(2a+1) ; 12a+6=6(2a+1) mcm=6(2a+1) 2(a+1)-1 2a+2-1 2a+1 1 6(2a+1) - 6(2a+1
) - 6(2a+1f6
a-4 a+3
9. a'-6a+9 a'+a-12
a'-6a+9=(a-3)' ; a'+a-12=(a+4)(a-3) mcm=(a-3)' (a+4)
(a + 4)(a - 4)- (a - 3 )(a + 3)
(a+4)(a-3)'
a'-16-a'+9 -7
(a+4)(a-3)' (a+4)(a-3)'
a2+4ab-3b2 b 2 2
10. -,-¡2-_-9-b-2 -- a+3b mcm=a -9b
a2 + 4ab- 3b2 - b(a- 3b)
a2 _ 9b2
a2 +4ab- 3b2 - ab+ 3b2 a2 _ 9b2
a2+3ab a(a+3b) a
= a2 - 9b2 = (a + 3b)(a - 3b) - a - 3b
11. ,x_1_(x+1), mcm=(x-1)"(x+1)
x x-1
x(x-1)- (x+ 1)(x+ 1) (x+ 1)(x-1)"
x'-x-x'-2x-1
- 3x-1
3x+1
= (x+ 1)(x-1)'
x+3
13. 6x'+x-2 4x'-4x+1
6x' + x- 2= (3x+ 2)(2x-1)
4x' - 4x+ 1= (2x-1)' mcm= (2x-1)' (3x+ 2)
(2x-1)(x+ 3)- (3x+ 2)
(3x+ 2)(2x-1)'
2x'+5x-3-3x-2 2x'+2x-5
(3x+ 2)(2x-1)' (3x+ 2)(2x-1)'
x-1 x+2
14. 4x+4-8x-8
mcm=8(x2-1)
2 (x-1)(x-1)- (x+ 2 )(x+ 1) 8(x2-1)
2x2-4x+2-x2-3x-2 x2-7x
8(x2-1) - 8(x2-1)
15. _x_, _2. mcm= y(x- y)
xy- y y
x-(x- y) x-x+ y y 1
y(x-y) - y(x-yf y(x-yf x-y
(' b')
mcm=a a -
ab-b(a-b) a(a' -b')
ab- ab+ b' b'
a(a'-b') a(a'-b')
2a-3 a-1
17. 6a+9 - 4a2+12a+9
6a+9=3(2a+3) ; 4a2+12a+9=(2a+3)2 mcm=3(2a+3)"
(2a+ 3)(2a- 3)- 3(a-1)
3(2a+3)"
4a2-9-3a+3 4a2-3a-6
= 3(2a+3)2 3(2a+3)"
(x+ 1)(x-1)" (x+ 1)(x-1)' x+ 1 x-1
18. x2+x+1- x2-x+1 mcm= (a-b)' (a2 + ab+ b2)
mcm= (x2 + x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)
1 1
12. a3_b3- (a-b)'
(a-b)' -(a2+ab+b2) (a-b)' (a2 + ab+b2)
a2 -2ab+b2 _ a2 - ab-b2 (a-b)'(a2+ab+b2)
-3ab
(a-b)' (a2 +ab+b2)
x+ 1- (x-1)
(x2 + x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)
x+1-x+1 2
= (x2 + x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1) - (x2 + x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)
a-1 1 1
19. a- +a 2a-2 2a+2
mcm= 2a(a' -1)
2~-D~-D-a~+D-a~-D
2a(a' -1)
2(a' - 2a+ 1)- a' - a-a' + a
2a(a' -1) 2a' -4a+ 2- 2a' 2a(a' -1) 4a-2
=- 2a(a'-1)
2(2a-1) 2a-1 1-2a
= - 2a(a'-lf - a(a'-lf a(a'-l)
20 _1___ 1 1
. 4a+4 8a-8 12a2+12
mcm= 24(a2 + 1)(a2 -1)
6(a2 + 1)(a-1)- 3(a2 + l)(a+ 1)- 2(a2 -1) 24(a2 + 1)(a2 -1)
6(a' _a2 + a-1)-3(a' + a2 + a+ 1)- 2a2 + 2 24(a2 + 1)(a2 -1)
6a' - 6a2 + 6a- 6- 3a' - 3a2 - 3a- 3- 2a2 + 2 24(a2 + 1)(a2 -1)
3a' -lla2 + 3a-7
24(a4 -1)
_y __ ~ __ l_
21. x'-xy x x-y
y-(x- y)-x
= x(x- y)
mcm=x(x-y)
y-x+ y-x
= x(x- y)
2y-2x 2(y-x) 2(x-y) 2
=x(x-y)=x(x-y)=- x(x-y)=-~
a 1 1
22 ------ mcm=a(a+b)
. a'+ab a a+b
a-(a+b)-a -a-b a+b 1
- a(a+b) = a(a+bf- a(a+bf--;¡
23. _,_1 ,_1 __ ~ mcm=x(x'- y')
r - xy x- + xy x - xy-
x+ y-(x- y)-2y x- y-x+ y O
(' ') - (' ') - (' ')- O
xx--y xx--y xx--y
x 3 x
24. x'+x-2 x'+2x-3 x'+5x+6
x' + x- 2= (x+ 2)(x-1)
x' + 2x- 3= (x+ 3)(x-1)
x' + 5x+ 6= (x+ 3)(x+ 2)
mcm= (x+ 2)(x-1)(x+ 3) x(x+ 3)- 3(x+ 2)- x(x-1)
(x+ 2)(x-1)(x+ 3)
x' + 3x- 3x- 6- x' + x x- 6
= (x+2)(x-1)(x+3) - (x+2)(x-1)(x+3)
3 x+ 2 1- 9x (3 )( )
25. -'--1--( )'-( 3)( ) mcm= x -1 x-1
x +x+ x-1 x -1 x-1
3(x-1)' -(x+2)(x'+x+1)-(1-9x) (x3 -1)(x-1)
3x' -6x+ 3- x3 - x' - x-2x' - 2x- 2-1+ 9x
(x3 -1)(x-1)
x3
(x3 -1)(x-1)
a'+b' a+b 1
26. a3-b3 2a'+2ab+2b' 2a-2b
a3 _b3 = (a-b )(a' +ab+b') 2a' + 2ab+ 2b' = 2(a' +ab+b') 2a- 2b= 2(a -b)
mcm= 2 (a -b )(a' + ab +b') 2(a' +b')- (a + b )(a - b)- (a' +ab+ b') 2(a-b)(a'+a
b+b')
2a' +2b'-a'+b'-a'-ab-b' 2(a-b)(a' +ab+b')
2b'-ab 2b'-ab
= 2(a-b)(a'+ab+b'r 2(a3-b3)
3a a-1 lOa-1
27. 2a2-2a -4 4a2+8a-32 8a2+40a+32
2a2-2a -4=2(a2-a-2) =2(a-2)(a+1) 4a2 + 8a- 32= 4(a2 + 2a - 8)= 4(a + 4 )(a- 2) 8
a2 + 40a+ 32= 8(a2 + 5a+ 4)= 8(a+ 4)(a+ 1) mcm=8(a+4)(a-2)(a+ 1)
12a (a+ 4)- 2(a- 1) (a + 1)- (lOa - l)(a- 2) 8(a+ 4) (a - 2)(a + 1)
12a2 +48a-2a2 +2-lOa2 + 20a+ a- 2
8(a+ 4) (a - 2)(a + 1) 69a
= 8(a+4)(a-2)(a+ 1)
1 a2+9x2 a
28. 4a-12x - a3-27x3 2(a2+3ax+9a2)
4a-12x=4(a-3x)
a3 - 27 x3 = (a- 3x)(a2 + 3ax+ 9a2) 2(a2 + 3ax+ 9a2)= 2(a2 + 3ax+ 9a2) mcm=4(a3-
27x3)
a2 + 3ax+ 9x2 -4(a2 + 9x2)- 2a(a- 3x) 4(a3-27x3)
a2 + 3ax+ 9x2 -4a2 - 36x2 - 2a2 + 6ax 4(a3-27x3)
-5a2 + 9ax- 27x2 4(a3-27x3)
Sa2 - 9ax+ 27 x2 4(a3 - 27 x3)
EJERCICIO 130
2 3
1. x-3 + x+2
4x-7 x2-x-6
mcm= (x- 3)(x+ 2)
2(x+ 2)+ 3(x- 3)- (4x-7) (x- 3)(x+ 2)
2x+4+3x-9-4x+7 x+2 1
(x- 3)(x+ 2) (x- 3)(x+ 2f x- 3
a 1 a+ 12
2 -----+--- mcm=12(a+2) . 3a+6 6a+12 12a+24
4a-2+a+12 12(a+2)
xlI 3. x2+1+~- x2
Sa+lO S(a+2) S
12(a+2f 12(a+2) 12
3x3 + x(x2 + 1)- 3(x2 + 1)
3x2 (x2 + 1) 3X3+X3+X-3x2-34x3+X-3x2-3
3x2 (x2 + 1) 3x2 (x2 + 1)
a+3 a-1 a-4 ()
4. a2-1+2a+2+ 4a-4 mcm=4 a2-1
4~+~+2~-0~-0+~-~~+0 4(a2 -1)
4a+12+2a2-4a+2+a2-3a-4 3a2-3a+1O
= 4(a2-1)
4(a2-1)
2a2-3 a+1 9a2-14
29. lOa+lO -50- SOa +SO
lOa+ 10= 10 (a + 1) SO=SO SOa+SO=SO(a+1)
mcm= SO(a+ 1)
S(2a2 - 3)- (a + l)(a + 1)- (9a2 -14) SO(a+ 1) lOa2-1S-a2- 2a-1-9a2+14 SO(a+ 1)
-2a-2 2(a+1) 1
= SO(a+1f- SO(a+1f- 2S
a-b a+b a
5 --+-----
. a2+ab ab ab+b2
mcm=ab(a+b)
b(a-b)+ (a +b)(a+b)- a2 ab(a+b)
ab-b2 + a2 + 2ab+ b2 _ a2
ab(a+b)
3ab 3
ab(a+b) - a+b
, , x - y
x' - 2xy+ y' - x' - 2xy- y' + 4x' x'- y'
4x' -4xy x'- y'
4x(x- y) 4x
(x+ y)(x- y) - x+ y
xli 7 . a2-ax a x
lnCln=ax{a-x)
x2 + x(a- x)+ a (a - x) ax(a-x)
a2 a
ax(a-x) - x(a-x)
ax(a-x)
x+1 x+4 x+S
8. x2-x-20 x2-4x-S+ x2+Sx+4
x2 - x- 20= (x-S)(x+4) x2 - 4x- S= (x- S )(x+ 1) x2 + Sx+ 4= (x+ 4 )(x+ 1) mcm=
(x-S)(x+ 4)(x+ 1)
~+0~+0-~+~~+~+~-~~+~ (x- S)(x+ 4 )(x+ 1)
x2 +2x+ 1- x2 -8x-16+ x2 -2S
(x-S)(x+ 4)(x+ 1)
= (x-S)(x+4)(x+ 1)
(x-1O)(x+4) x-lO
= (x-S)(x+4)(x+ 1f (x-S)(x+ 1)
2x+1 x2 2x
9. 12x+8-6x2+x-2+16x-8
12x+8=4(3x+2)
6x2 + x- 2= (3x+ 2)(2x-1) 16x- 8= 8(2x-1)
mcm= 8(3x+ 2)(2x-1)
2(2x+ 1)(2x-1)-8x2 + 2x(3x+2) 8(3x+ 2)(2x-1)
8x2 -2- 8x2 + 6x2 +4x
8(3x+ 2)(2x-1)
6x2+4x-2
= 8(3x+ 2)(2x-1)
2(3x2 + 2x-1) 3x2 + 2x-1
8(3x+ 2)(2x-1) 4(3x+ 2)(2x-1)
1 1 1
10. ----+- mcm= ax(a+ x) ax a'+ax a+x
a+x-x+ax ax+a
= ax(a+x) - ax(a+x)
1 1 2y
11.- __ + __
x+ y x- y x2 + y2
a(x+ 1) x+ 1
ax(a+ x) x(a+ x)
a-1 a-2 a2+2a-6 ()
12. -----+ , mcm=18 a2-1
3a+36a-6 9a--9
6(a-1)(a-1)- 3(a- 2)(a+ 1)+ 2(a2 + 2a- 6) 18(a2-1) 6a2-12a+6-3a2+3a+6+2a2+4a-12
18(a2 -1)
Sa(a-1) 18(a+1)(a-1)
Sa2-Sa
Sa 18(a+ 1)
= 18(a2-1)
123
13. a2+2a-24 + a2-2a-8 a2+8a+12
a2 + 2a- 24= (a+ 6)(a-4)
a2 - 2a- 8= (a- 4)(a+ 2)
a2 + 8a + 12= (a +6)(a + 2)
mcm= (a + 6)(a + 2)(a- 4)
a + 2+ 2(a+ 6)- 3(a- 4) = (a+6)(a+2)(a-4)
a+2+2a+12-3a+12 26
= ~+~~+~~-~ =~+~~+~~-~
x+ y x+2y y ()
14. ----, --,-- mcm=xy x+ y
xy xy+y x+xy
(x+ y)(x+ y)- x(x+ 2y)- y' xy(x+ y)
x' + 2xy + y' - x' - 2xy - y' O
---------- - O
xy(x+y) xy(x+y)
a3 a+3 a-1
15. -3-+-' ---
a + 1 a- - a + 1 a + 1
mcm=a3+1
a 3 + (a + 1) (a + 3) - (a - 1) (a2 - a + 1) a3+1
a3 +a2 +4a+3- a3 +a2 -a+ a2 -a+ 1 a3+1
3a2+2a+4 a3+1
(' , ) (' , ) 1 2x 3x2
mcm= x-- y x-+ y 16. -+-2---3-
x-1 x -1 x-1
(x- y)(x2+ y2)_(X+ y)(x2+ y2)+2y(x2_ y2) (x2 _ y2 )(x2 + y2)
mcm= (x2 -1)(x2 + x+ 1)
(x+ 1)(x2 + x+ 1)+ 2x(x> + x+ 1)- 3x2 (x+ 1) (x2 -1)(x2 + x+ 1)
x3 + x2 + x+ x2 + x+ 1 + 2x3 + 2x2 + 2x- 3x3 - 3x2 (x2 -1)(x2 + x+ 1)
x3 +.xy2 _ x2y_ y' _ x3 _.xy2 _ x2y_ y' + 2x2y- 2y' (x2_ y2)(X2+ y2)
x2+4x+1
= (x2-1)(x2+x+1)
a+b 17. a2-ab+b2
1 3a2
--+--
a+b a3 +b3
mcm=a3+b3
(a+ b )(a+ b)- (a2 - ab+ b2)+ 3a2
a3+b3
a2 +2ab+b2 - a2 + ab-b2 + 3a2 a3+b3
3a2 + 3ab = a3+b3
3a(a+b) 3a
(a+b)(a2-ab+b2)= a2-ab+b2
2 2x+3 6x+12
18. x-2 + x2+2x+4 x3-S
mcm=x3-S
2(x2 + 2x+4)+ (2x+ 3)(x- 2)- (6x+ 12)
x3-S
2x2 +4x+ S+ 2x2 -4x+ 3x- 6- 6x-12 x3-S
1- x2 x2
22. 9-x2 9+6x+x2
6x 9-6x+x2
9-x2=(3+x)(3-x); 9+6x+x2=(3+x)'
9-6x+x2=(3-x)'; mcm=(3+x)'(3-x)'
(1- x2)(9- x2)_ x2 (3- x)' - 6x(3+ x)' (3+x)'(3-x)'
9 - x2 - 9x2 + x4 - 9x2 + 6x3 - x4 - 54x- 36x2 - 6x3
9-54x-55x2
(3+x)'(3-x)'
x x+ 1 x-1 5 ()
23 -----+------ mcm=IS x2-1 . 2x+ 2 3x- 3 6x+ 6 ISx-1S
9x(x-1)- 6(x+ l)(x+ 1)+ 3(x-1)(x-1)-5(x+ 1) IS(x2 -1)
4x2-3x-1O _ (x-2)(4x+5) 4x+5 9x2-9x-6x2-12x-6+3x2-6x+3-5x-5
x3-S x3-S x2+2x+4 IS(x2-1)
3x+ 2 5x+ 1 4x-1 6x2 - 32x- S 2 (3x2 -16x-4) 3x2 -16x-4
19. x2+3x-1O x2+4x-5+ x2-3x+2 IS(x2-1) - IS(x2-1) - 9(x2-1)
x2+3x-1O=(x+5)(x-2); x2+4x-5=(x+5)(x-1) a+2 7a a-3
24 mcm=S(a2-1)
x2-3x+2=(x-2)(x-1); mcm=(x+5)(x-2)(x-1) . 2a+2 - Sa2-S - 4a-4
(3x+ 2)(x-1)- (5x+ l)(x- 2)+ (4x-1)(x+ 5) 4(a+ 2)(a-1)-7a- 2(a- 3)(a+ 1)
(x+5)(x- 2)(x-1) S(a2 -1)
3x2 - 3x+ 2x- 2-5x2 + 10x- x+ 2+4x2 + 20x- x-5
(x+5)(x- 2)(x-1)
2x2+27x-5
(x+ 5)(x- 2)(x-1)
1 1 1 1 3
20 --+------ mcm=n(n-1) . (n+ 1)' n-1 (n-1)' n
n(n-1)+ n(n-1)' - n- (n-1)'
n(n-1)'
n' -n+n3- 2n' + n- n- n3 + 3n' -3n+ 1 2n' -4n+ 1
n(n-1)' = n(n-1)'
4a2 +4a- S-7a- 2a2 +4a+ 6 2a2 + a- 2
S(a2-1) - S(a2-1)
a - 3 Za + 5 4a - 1 ()
25. ZOa+lO+ 40a+ZO- 60a+30 mcm=IZ0 Za+l
lZ(a - 3)+ 6(Za + 5)- 4(4a -1)
lZ0(Za+ 1)
IZa - 36+ IZa + 30-16a + 4 lZ0(Za+ 1)
8a-Z Z(4a-l) 4a-l
= lZ0(Za+ lf lZ0(Za+ lf 60(Za+ 1)
Z 1 3
26. Zx2+5x+3 Zx2-x-6+ x2-x-z
1 a2 - 5 a2 + 5
21. -2----)2 +-4-- mcm=(a4 -25)(a2+5)
a +5 (a2+5 a -25
a4 _ 25- (a2 - 5)(a2 - 5)+ (a2 + 5)(a2 + 5)
(a4 - 25)(a2 +5)
a4 _ 25- a4 + lOa 2 - 25+ a4 + lOa2 + 25 (a4 - 25)(a2 + 5)
Zx2 + 5x+ 3= (Zx+ 3)(x+ 1) Zx2 -x- 6= (Zx+ 3)(x-Z) x2 - x-Z= (x-Z)(x+ 1) mcm= (Z
x+ 3)(x+ l)(x-Z) Z(x-Z)-(x+ 1)+3(Zx+ 3) (Zx+ 3)(x+ l)(x- Z)
Zx-4-x-l+6x+9 7x+4
= (Zx+3)(x+ l)(x- Z) (Zx+ 3)(x+ l)(x-Z)
a4 + 20a2 - 25 (a4 - 25)(a2 + 5)
a-1 a-Z 1
27 ---+- mcm=(a-Z)(a+3)(a-1) . a-Z a+3 a-1
(a _1)' (a+ 3)- (a- Z)' (a- 1)+ (a- Z )(a+ 3) (a- Z)(a+ 3)(a-1)
(a' - Za+ 1)(a+3)- (a' -4a+4)(a-1)+ a' + a- 6 (a-Z)(a+3)(a-1)
EJERCICIO 131
1 _1_+_m_=_1 m_ mcm=nf-d
. m-n d-nf m-n nf-d
m+n-m n
nf-d nf-d
(a- Z)(a+ 3)(a-1)
a3 + 3a' - Za' - 6a+ a+ 3- a3 + a' +4a' -4a-4a+4+ a' + a- 6
7a' -lZa+ 1
= (a-Z)(a+3)(a-1)
x 2x x' 2x x 2x
2. x--xy y-x x(x-y) x-y x-y x-y
mcm=x- y
x+ 2x 3x
=--=-
28 2+3a _ 2-3a _ a mcm=(4-9a')(2-3a)
. 2-3a 2+3a (2-3a)'
(2+3a)(4-9a')-(2-3a)' -a(2+3a) (4- 9a' )(2- 3a) 8-18a' + 12a- 27a3 - 8+ 36a- 54a
' + 27a3 - 2a- 3a' (4- 9a' )(2- 3a)
x- y x- y
1 x 1 x
3. --, +-,-=-----, 2x-x- x--4 x(2-x) 4-x-
mcm=x(4-x2)
2+x-x2 (2-x)(1+x) l+x
= x(4-x2t x(2-x)(x+2t x(2+x)
46a-75a2 a+b a a+b a
= (4-9a2)(2-3a) 4. a2-ab + b2_a2 = a(a-bf a2_b2
mcm= a (a2 _b2)
1 1 1 ( ')( ') (a+b)(a+b)-a2 a2+2ab+b2-a2 2ab+b2
29. --+--- , mcm=lO l+a- 1-a- --------------
5+5a 5-5a 10+ lOa- a(a2_b2) a(a2_b2) a(a2_b2)
2(1 + a2)(1- a)+2(1 + a2)(1 + a)- (1-a2) 1O(1+a2)(1-a2)
2-2a+2a2-2a3+2+2a+2a2+2a3-1+a2 1O(1+a2)(1-a2)
1 1 x x
30. -----+--, ---, 3-3x 3+3x 6+6x- 2-2x-
3-3x=3(1-x) ; 3+3x=3(1+x) 6+ 6x2 = 6(1 + x2) ; 2- 2x2 = 2(1- x2) mcm= 6(1 + x2 )
(1- x2)= 6(1- x4)
2(1 + x2)(1 + x)- 2(1 + x2)(1- x)+ x(l- x2)_ 3x(1 + x2) 6(1-x4)
2+ 2x+ 2x2 + 2x3 - 2+ 2x- 2x2 + 2x3 + x- x3 - 3x- 3x3
6(1-x4)
2x x
= 6(1-x4t 3(1-x4)
x-4 x x-4 x
5 ------ +--
. x'-2x-3 6-2x (x-3)(x+1) 2(x-3)
mcm= 2(x- 3)(x+ 1)
2(x-4)+x(x+1) 2x-8+x'+x x'+3x-8
= 2~-~~+0 =2~-~~+0=2~-~~+0
1 1 1 1
6. x2+Zx-8 + (z-x)(x+3) (x+4)(x-Z) (x-Z)(x+3)
mcm= (x- z)(x+ 3)(x+ 4)
x+3-(x+4)
= (x-Z)(x+3)(x+4)
x+3-x-4
= (x- Z)(x+3)(x+ 4)
-1 1
=~-~~+~~+~-~-~~+~~+~
1 Z 7 1 Z 7
7 . Zx+Z 1-x 4x-4 Z(x+1) x-1 4(x-1)
mcm=4(x2-1)
Z(x-1)- 8(x+ 1)+ 7(x+ 1) 4(x2 -1)
Zx-Z-8x-8+7x+7
x-3
- 4(x2 -1)
2a 3a 2a 2a 3a 2a
8. a+3 + a-3 + 9-a2 = a+3 + a-3 - a2-9
mcm=a2-9
2a (a - 3)+ 3a (a + 3)- 2a
a2 -9 2a2-6a+3a2+9a-2a Sa2+a
a2-9 a2-9
x+3y 3/ x x+3y 3/ x
9. --+-,--, ---=--+-,--, ---
y+x x--y y-x y+x x--y x-y
mcm=x2- y2
(x+ 3y)(x- y)+ 3/ + x(x+ y)
x2_ y2
x2 - xy+ 3xy- 3/ + 3y2 + x2 + xy 2x2 + 3xy
x2 _ y2 x2 _ y2
x x- 3 1
10. x2+2x-3+ (1-x)(x+2)+-x+-2
x x- 3 1
------ ---_.+-
- (x+ 3)(x-1) (x-1)(x+ 2) x+ 2
mcm= (x+ 3)(x+ 2)(x-1)
x~+~-~-~~+~+~+~~-0 (x+ 3)(x+ 2)(x-1)
x2+2x-x2+9+x2+2x-3 x2+4x+6
~+~~+~~-0 ~+~~+~~-0
11 _3 1 4 3 1_+_4_
. 2a+2 4a-4 S-8a2 - 2(a+1) 4(a-1) S(a2-1)
mcm= S(a2 -1)
12 (a -1)- 2(a + 1)+ 4 S(a2-1)
12a-12-2a-2+4 lOa-lO 1O(a-1) 5
S(a2-1) - S(a2-1f S(a-1)(a+1f 4(a+1)
EJERCICIO 132
i'y 10a3 9m 90i' ya3m 6a3y
2. S' 3nf . x' - 15x'nf - xm
5x2 41' 14m 14·5·4i'my" 8
3. 7Y' 7m' . 5.0 - 49·5.0m'Y - 7i'nfy
1 a+1 2
12 ---+ +
. a-3 (3-a)(a-2) (2-a)(1-a)
1 a+1 2
= a-3- (a-3)(a-2)+ (a-2)(a-1)
mcm= (a- 3)(a - 2)(a-1)
~-~~-0-~+0~-0+2~-~ (a-3)(a-2)(a-1)
a2-3a+2-a2+1+2a-6
(a-3)(a-2)(a-1)
-a-3
a+3
= (a-3)(a-2)(a-1) (3-a)(a-2)(a-1)
2x 2x3+2x2 1
13. -+ 3 +-,--
x-1 1-x x-+x+1
2x 2x2 (x+ 1) 1
= x-1- x3-1 + x2+x+1
mcm=x3-1
2x(x2 + x+ 1)- 2x2 (x+ 1)+ (x-1) x3-1
2x3 +2x2 + 2x-2x3 -2x2 +x-1 3x-1
x3-1 - x3-1
x+2 x+1 4x'+6x+3
14. 3x- 1 + 3- 2x + 6x' - llx+ 3
x+2 x+1 4x'+6x+3
------+
- 3x-1 2x- 3 (2x- 3)(3x-1)
mcm= (2x- 3)(3x-1)
(x+ 2)(2x- 3)- (x+ 1)(3x-1)+ 4x' + 6x+ 3 (2x- 3)(3x-1)
2x' - 3x+ 4x- 6- 3x' + x- 3x+ 1 + 4x' + 6x+ 3
(2x- 3)(3x-1)
3x'+5x-2 (x+2)(3x-1) x+2
= (2x- 3)(3x-1) - (2x- 3)(3x-1) - 2x- 3
2x3 3a2 5i' 15· 2a2 x5 2.0
5. 15a3 'y' 7Xy" - 15·7a3xY - 7ay
7a 3m 5n4 7·3·5amd if
6. 6nf '1od '14ax = 14·6·10anfdx - 8mx
2x2 + x S x(2x+ 1) 4 2x
7 --+------.-----
. 6 4x+2 - 3 2(2x+1f 3
Sx+25 7x+7 _ s(x+s) 7(x+1) _ x+1
8. 14 lOx+SO- 14 lO(x+S) 4
(a+l)(a-b) 3 1 1
= (a+l)(a+l)' 6a(a-b) - 2a(a+l) - 2a2+2a
(x- y)' x2+x+l (x- y) , x- y
14 --'---, ------·x-+x+l=-
. x3-1 (x-y)- (x-l)(x2+x+l) x-l
2a-2 a2-4a-S 2(a-l) (a-S)(a+l)
15. 2a2-S0' 3a+3 - 2(a2-2S)' 3(a+l) _ a(a-3) _ a2-3a
(a-l)(a-S) a-l a-l - a-6 - a-6
= 3(a+S)(a-S)= 3(a+S)= 3a+1S x2-3xy-l0y" x2-16y" x2-6xy
2 ( )( ) () 26. 2 2' 2 .--
2x -3x-2 3x+6 x-2 2x+l 3 x+2 x -2xy-Sy x +4xy x+2y
16. 6x+3 'x2-4= 3(2x+l) '(x-2)(x+2fl
y2+9y+1S Sy-2S (y+6)(y+3) S(y-S)
17. y-S 'Sy+1S= y-S 's(Y+3fY+6
m+n n2 n n
= n (m- n )'(m+ n )(m- n f -(m---n-)" - -m-2 --2-m-n-+-n-2
xy-2y" x2+2xy+ y"
10. -, -'--,--
x- + xy x- - 2xy
y(x-2y) (x+y)" _y(x+y)=xy+y"
= x(x+ y) x(x-2y) x2 x2
x2 -4xy+4y" x2
11. x2+2xy 'x2-4y"
(x-2y)" x2 x(x -2y) x2-2xy
= x(x+2y)'(x+2y)(x-2yf (x+2y)" - x2 +4xy+ y"
2x2+2x x2-3x 2x(x+l) x(x-3)
12. ~'x2-2x-3- 2x2 '(x-3)(x+lfl
a2-ab+a-b 3
13. a2+2a+l '6a2-6ab
18 x3 + 2x2 - 3x . 2x2 + 3x . 4x2+Sx+3 x2-x
x(x2+2x-3) x(2x+3)
= (2x+ 3)(2x+ 1)' x(x-l)
x(x+3)(x-l) x(x+3) x2+3x = (2x+ l)(x-l) - 2x+ 1 = 2x+ 1
x3-27 a2+a+1
19. a -1 x-+3x+9
(x- 3)(x2 + 3x+ 9) a2 + a+ 1 x- 3
= (a-1)(a2+a+1) 'x2+3x+9- a-1
a2+4ab+4b2 2a+4b (a+2b)" 2(a+2b) 2
20. 3 (a+2b)' 3 (a+2b)' 3
1-x a2+a x2 1-x a(a+l) x2
21 -·--·-=-·--·-=x
· a+l x-x2 a a+l x(l-x) a
x2+2x x2-2x-S x2+4x
22. x2-16' X3+X2 'x2+4x+4
x~+~ ~-~~+~ x~+~
= (x-4)(x+4) x2(x+l) (x+2)(x+2)
x2(x+2)2(X-4)(x+4) 1
= x2 (x+2f(x-4)(x+4)(x+ 1)= x+l
(m+nY _x2 {m-nY _x2
23 ( )2 2' 2
· m+x -n m +mn-mx
(m+n+x)(m+n-x) (m-n+x)(m-n-x)
= (m+n+x)(m-n+x) m(m+n-x)
m-n-x
m
24. 2a3+2ab2 x3-x x
2ax2 -2ax' a2x+b2x' x+ 1
2a(a2+b2) x(x2-1) x
- ·---·--1
- 2ax(x-1) x(a2+b2) x+1-
a2-Sa+6 6a a2-2S
25 . .
· 3a-1S a2-a-30 2a-4
0-~0-~ ~ 0+~0-~
3(a-S) . (a-6)(a+S)' 2(a-2)
(x-Sy)(x+2y) (x+4y)(x-4y) x(x-6y)
= (x-4y)(x+2y)' x(x+4y) x+2y
(x-Sy)(x-6y) x2-11xy+30y"
x+2y x+2y
x2 + 4ax+ 4a2 2ax-4a2 6a + 6x
27. 3ax-6a2 ax+a x2+3ax+2a2
(x+2a)" 2a(x-2a) 6(a+x)
= 3a(x-2a)' a(x+l) (x+2a)(x+a)
4(x+2a) 4x+Sa
= a(x+l) = ax+a
a2-S1 a+ll 2a-12 a3+Sa2 28. 2a2+lOa'a2-36'2a+1S' 2a+22
(a+9)(a-9) a+ll 2(a-6) a2(a+S)
= 2a(a+S) . (a+6)(a-6)' 2(a+9)' 2(a+ll)
a (a - 9) a2 - 9a
= 4(a+6)= 4a+24
a2+7a+1O a2-3a-4 a3-2a2-3a
29. a2 _ 6a _ 7 . a2 + 2a - 15' a2 - 2a - 8
(a+5)(a+2) (a-4)(a+l) a(a2-2a -3) - (a-7)(a+l)' (a+5)(a-3)' (a-4)(a+2)
a(a-3)(a+l) a(a+l) a2+a
= (a-3)(a-7) =~= a-7
EJERCICIO 133
1 (a+~)(a __ a )
. b b+ 1
a ab+a a(b+l)
=} a+-=--=---
b b b
a a(b+l)-a ab+a-a ab
=}a--= - --
b+l b+l b+l b+l
a(b+l) ab Z
=}---·-=a
b b+l
2 (x_~)(x+_l )
. x+l x+2
2 x(x+l)-2 x2+x-2 (x+2)(x-l)
=}x--= - -
x+ 1 x+ 1 x+ 1 x+ 1
1 x(x+ 2)+ 1 x2 + 2x+ 1 (x+ 1)(x+ 1)
=}x+--= - -
x+2 x+2 x+2 x+2
=} (x+ 2)(x-l). (x+ 1)" = (x-l)(x+ 1)= x2-1
x+ 1 x+2
(x)( x)
1--- 1+-
3. a+x a
x a+x-x a
=} 1- --= ---=--
a+x a+x a+x
x a+x
=} 1+-=--
a a
a a+x =}--·--=1
a+x a
( ab ) ( bZ)
a+-- 1--
4. a-b aZ
ab =} a+ a-b
a(a-b)+ab a-b
aZ-ab+ab a-b
bZ aZ _bz
=}1-2=--z-
II II
aZ aZ_bz (a+b)(a-b)
=}--·--z-= -a+b
a-b a (a-b)
x" + 27x x"+x x
30. J 2 ." 3 J 9 2'-( -)-2'-3 x - x + x x - x + x x x+ 3 x-
x(xJ + 27) x(xJ + 1) x
= x(x2-x+l)' X2(x2-3x+9)' (x+3Y(x-3)
(x+3)(x2-3x+9) (x+l)(x2-x+l) 1
x2-x+l x2-3x+9 . (x2-9)(x+3)
x+l
= x2 - 9
( 12 )( 1O-3X)
5 x+2--- x-2+--
. x+l x+5
12
=}x+2---
x+l
(x+ 2)(x+ 1)-12 x+l
xZ+3x+2-12 xZ+3x-1O (x+5)(x-2)
x+l x+l x+l
1O-3x
=}x-2+--
x+5
(x- 2)(x+5)+ 10- 3x x+5
xZ+3x-1O+1O-3x XZ
x+5 x+5
(x+5)(x-2) XZ xZ(x-2) x3_2xz
=} x+l 'x+5= x+l - x+l
(x) ( x2)
1+- x---
6. y x+ y
=} 1+~= y+x y y
x x(x+y)-x2
=}x---=
x+ y x+ y
y+ x xy =}--·--=x
y x+ y
7. (a+x- :++;:)(1+ a:x)
X2+XY_X2 ~
x+ y x+ y
ax+x2 =}a+xa+2x
(a+ x)(a+ 2x)- (ax+ x2) a+2x
Z a
a2+3ax+2x2-ax-x2 a2+2ax+x2 (a+x)"
a-b
a+2x
a+2x
a+2x
x a+x+x a+2x
=} 1 +--= ---=--
a+x a+x a+x
(a+x)" a+2x =}---·--=a+x a+2x a+x
( X3 - 6XJ ( 8 J
x--- x+1---
8. x'-25 x+3
x3 - 6x x(x' - 25)- (x' - 6x)
=> x- x'-25= x'-25
(m-~)(l+ n:)
9. m+n m
mn m(m+n)-mn m2+mn-mn m2
=>m---=
m+n m+n m+n m+n
x3 - 25x- x3 + 6x -19x 19x
x'-25 - x'-25= 25-x'
n3 m3+n3 (m+n)(m2-mn+n2)
=>1+'=--3-= 3
m m m
m (m+n)(m2-mn+n2) m2-mn+n2
=> m+n' m3 m
8 (x+ 1)(x+ 3)- 8
=>x+1----------
x+3 x+3
x'+4x+3-8 x'+4x-5 (x+5)(x-1)
x+ 3 x+ 3
19x (x+5)(x-1)
=> 25-x' x+3
19x(x-1) 19x' -19x 19x' -19x
= (5- x)(x+ 3) = 5x+ 15- x' - 3x = 15+ 2x- x'
x+3
(a + 2x )(2a + x)-14x' 2a+x
2a'+5ax+2x'-14x' 2a'+5ax-12x' (a+4x)(2a-3x)
2a+x 2a+x 2a+x
a b+a => l+¡;=-b-
b a-b =>1a a
b2 a2
=> 1+ a2_b2 = a2_b2
b+a a-b a a2 a
=> ---- ----
b . a . (a+b)(a-br ab - b
( 14x' J( a'+5x'J
a+2x--- a-x+---
10. 2a+x a+4x
14x' =>a+2x---
2a+x
a2+5x2 ~aa+4x
(a - x )(a + 4x)+ a2 + 5x2 a+4x
a2+3ax_4x2+a2+5x2 2a2+3ax+x2 _ (a+x)(2a+x)
a+4x a+4x a+4x
12. (2+ X~1)(3 X:2)(1+~)
2 2(x+1)+2 2x+4 _ 2(x+2)
=>2+ x+1= x+1 x+1 - x+1
6 3(x+2)-6 3x+6-6 3x
=>3---= - ---
x+2 x+2 x+2 x+2
1 x+ 1
=> 1+-=--
x x
2(x+2) 3x x+1
=>---·--·--=6 x+1 x+2 x
(a+4x)(2a-3x) (a+x)(2a+x)
=> .-----
2a+x a+4x
= (2a- 3x)(a+ x)= 2a' - ax- 3x'
EJERCICIO 134 ~-'- 2x -~.L- xy
1. 3y" . Y - 3y" 2x - 6
x-1 2x-2 x-1 6
--'-----·---1
7. 3 . 6 - 3 2(x-1r
3a2b -'- a2b3 = 3a2b ._1_=_3_
2. sJf . sJf a2b3 Sb2Jf
Srrf 10rrf Srrf 14an4 an
3. 7« 714an4 = 7« . 10m4 = rrf
2 . .3 a2x 2 . .3 S .2
4. 6a X 7-=6a X ·-=30x
S a2x
1Srrf . 20y" 1Srrf 38a3x4 3rrfa2x
5. 19ax' 7 38a3x4 = 19ax" 20y" =2T
11Jfy -'-22y4- 11x2y ._1 __ ~
6. 7m2' - 7rrf 22y4 - 14m2y
3a2 Sa3 3a2 ab(a+ 3b) 3b
8. a2 + 6ab+ 9b2 . a2b+ 3ab2 (a+ 3b)2 Sa3 - S(a+ 3b)
x3-x 5x2-5x x(x2-1) 2(x+3) x+1
9 -2--7---= .---=--
. 2x + 6x 2x+ 6 2x(x+ 3) 5x(x-1) 5x
1 2
10. a2-a-30: a2+a-42
1 (a+7)(a-6) a+7
= (a-6)(a+S)' 2 - 2(a+S)
20x2 - 30x 4x- 6 Sx(4x- 6) x+ 1 1
11. lSx3 + lSx2 : ~= lSx2 (x+ 1)' (4x- 6) = 3x
a2-6a+5 a2+2a-35
12. a2-15a+567 a2-5a-24
(a-5)(a-1) (a-8)(a+3) (a - 8 )(a -7)" (a + 7 )(a - 5)
(a-1)(a+3) a2+2a-3
(a-7)(a+7) a2-49
8x2 + 26x+ 15 6x2 + 13x-5
13. 16x2-9 9x2-1
(2x+ 5)(4x+ 3) (3x+ 1)(3x-1) _ 3x+ 1 (4x+ 3)(4x- 3)'(2x+5)(3x-1) 4x- 3
x3 _ 121x x2 -l1x 14. x2-49 :~
x(x2-121) (x+7) _x+ll = (x+ 7)(x-7f x(x-llf x-7
ax2+5 a3x2+5a2
15. 4a2-1: 2a-1
ax2 +5 2a-1 1
(2a+ 1)(2a-1f a2 (ax2 +5) a2 (2a+ 1)
a"-l a"+4a2+3
16. a3+a2 7 3a3+9a
(a2+1)(a2-1) 3a(a2+3) 3(a-1)
a2(a+1) '(a2+3)(a2+1) a
x3 + 125 x3 -5x2 + 25x
17. x2-64: x2+x-56
(x+5)(x2-5x+25) (x+8)(x-7)
(x+8)(x-8) 'x(x2-5x +25)
(x+5)(x-7) x2-2x-35
= (8) x2 - 8x
x x-
EJERCICIO 135
J1+ a:b)7(1+ 2ba)
a a+b+ a 2a+b
=} 1+--=---=--
a+b a+b a+b
2a b+2a =}l+¡;=-b-
2a+b b+2a 2a+b b b
=} . -----.--=--
a+b -,- b - a+b b+2a a+b
16x2-24xy+9/. 64x3-27y'
18. 16x-12y . 32x2+24xy+18/
(4x-3y)' 2(16x2+12xy+9/) 1
- 4(4x-3y)'(4x-3y)(16x2+12xy+9/) 2
a2-6a a2+3a-54 a(a-6) a(a+9)
19. a3+3a2: a2+9a a2(a+3)" (a+9)(a-6) a+3
15x2+7x-2. 6x2+13x+6
20. 25x3 _ X -,- 25x2 + lOx+ 1
(3x+2)(5x-1) (5x+1)' 5x+1 5x+1
x(5x-1)(5x+ 1)' (2x+ 3)(3x+ 2) x(2x+ 3) - 2x2 + 3x
x3-1 7x2+7x+7
21.? : 7 3 7
2x--2x+2 x +
(x-1)(x2 + x+ 1) 7 (x3 + 1) = 2(x2-x+1) '7(x2+x+1)
= ((;-1) f(X+1)(x2-X+1)
2 x - x+ 1
(x-1)(x+ 1) x2-1
2 2
2mx-2my+nx-ny 8 4
22 : m+ n
. 3x-3y
(2m+n)(x-y) 1 1
3(x-y) '4(2m+n) 12
x2-6x+9 x2+5x-24 23. 4x2-1 72x2+17x+8
(x- 3)' (2x+ l)(x+ 8) _ x- 3
= (2x+ 1)(2x-1f (x+ 8)(x- 3) 2x-1
2a2+7ab-15b2 a2-3ab-40b2
24. a3+4a2b : a2-4ab-32b2
(a+ 5b )(2a- 3b) (a - 8b)(a+ 4b) a2(a+4b) . (a-8b)(a+5b)
2a-3b
2 a
2 x(x+1)-2 x'+x-2
=} x- x+ 1 = x+ 1 x+ 1
x x(x+1)-x _~
=} x- x+ 1 = x+ 1 x+ 1
x'+x-2 =} x+1
x'
x'+x-2 x+1
x' + x- 2
'-,= x
, x
x+1
x+1
(l-a+~Jo-(l++-lJ
3. l+a a -
a2 (1-a)(1+a)+a2 1_a2+a2 1
=>l-a+-- - --
l+a l+a 1 +a l+a
2 a2-1+2 a2+1
=>1+ a2-1=~= a2-1
1 a2+1 1 a2-1 a-1
=>¡:;:-;;-o- a2-1 =¡:;:-;;-o a2+1 = a2+1
( 2J( 3J
x+- ~ x+-
~ x+3 o x+4
2 x(x+3)+2
=> x+ -
x+3 x+3
x2+3x+2 _ (x+1)(x+2)
x+3 x+3
3 x(x+4)+3 x2+4x+3 (x+3)(x+1)
::::::}x+ - - =-----
x+4 x+4 x+4 x+4
(x+1)(x+2) (x+3)(x+1)
=> :----
x+3 x+4
(x+ 1)(x+2) x+4 (x+2)(x+4) x2 +6x+8
x+3 (x+3)(x+1) (x+3t x2+6x+9
5 (a+b+~Jo-(l-~bJ
. a-b a+
b2 (a+b)(a-b)+b2 a2_b2+b2 a2
=>a+b+-= - --
a-b a-b a-b a-b
b a+b-b a
=>1--=--=-
a+b a+b a+b
a a a2 a+b a(a+b) a2+ab
=> a-b O- a+b = a_bo-a-=~=~
EJERCICIO 136
3x o By -'-~-~o 3x2 _ 2x"
1. 4y 9x· 3x2 - 3 z2 - z2
a+1 3a-3 a2+a
3. a-lo 2a+2 o- a2+a-2
a+1 3(a-1) (a+2)(a-1) = a-¡" 2(a+1)" a(a+1)
3(a+2)(a-1) 3a2+3a-6 2a(a+1) - 2a2+2a
6. (1--/ Jo-(x+-1 J
x +2 x-1
1 x3+2-1 x3+1 (x+1)(x2-x+1)
=> 1- x3+2 =~= x3+2 - x3+2
1 x(x-1)+1 x2-x+1
=>x+-= ---
x-1 x-1 x-1
(x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1) x2 - x+ 1
=> x3 + 2 : ----;:::¡-
(x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1) x-1 (x+ 1)(x-1) x2-1
x3+2 °x2_x+1= x3-2 =x3+2
(X+_1_J~(1+-3-J
7. x+2 o x2_4
1 x(x+2)+1 x2+2x+1 (x+1)2
=>x+-- - ---
x+2 x+2 x+2 x+2
3 x2-4+3 x2-1 (x+1)(x-1)
=> 1+-------------~
x2-4 - x2-4 - x2-4 - (x+2)(x-2)
(x+1)2 (x+1)(x-1)
=>--~
x+2 o (x+2)(x-2)
(x+1)2 (x+2)(x-2) (x+1)(x-2)_x2-x-2
=~o (x+1)(x-1) x-1 x-1
8 (n- 2n-1Jo-(n2+1_ n-1J
. n2 +2 n
2n-1 n(n2+2)-(2n-1) n3+2n-2n+1 n3+1
=> n - n2 + 2 = n2 + 2 n2 + 2 n2 + 2
n-1 n(n2+1)-(n-1) n3+n-n+1 n3+1
=> n2 + 1 -
n n n n
n3 + 1 n3 + 1 n3 + 1 n n
=> n2+2°--n-= n2+2°n3+1= n2+2
64a2-S1b2 (x-9)' Sa2 +9ab
4. x2-S1 o Sa-9b o- (x+9)'
(Sa+9b)(Sa-9b) (x-9)' (X+9)2
(x+9)(x-9) o Sa-9b o a(Sa+9b)
(x-9)(x+9) _ x2 -SI
el el
x2-x-12 x2-x-S6 x2-Sx-24
5. x2_49°X2+X_20°- x+S
(x-4)(x+3) (x-S)(x+7) x+S 1
= (x+7)(x-7)" (x+S)(x-4) o (x-s)(x+3f x-7
a2-Sa+7 a2-36 a2-a-42 6. a2-11a+30 o~o- a2-4a-S
(a-7)(a-1) (a+6)(a-6) (a-S)(a+1)
= (a-6)(a-S)" (a+1)(a-1) o (a-7)(a+6f1
x'-27x x2+20x+lOO x2-lOO X(X-3)(x2+3x+9) (x+1O)2 x-3 x-3
7. x2+7x-30' x3+3x2+9x : ~= (x+1O)(x-3) 'x(x2+3x+9)'(x+1O)(x-lOf x-lO
(a2+1) (a3+a 4X+8) a2+1 a(a2+1) 4(x+2) a2+1 3(a-2)(x-3) x-3 x-3
8 ---'- --,-- ----'----,-----, - ----
· 3a-6 . 6a-12 x-3 - 3(a-2)" 6(a-2) x-3 - 3(a-2) 2a(a2+1)(x+2f 2a(x+2f 2ax+4a
8x2 -lOx- 3 4x2 - 9 8x2 + 14x+ 3 (2x- 3)(4x+ 1) (2x+ 3)(2x- 3) (3x+ 2Y (2x- 3Y 4
x2 -12x+ 9
9 2 '-2--;- 2 "
· 6x +13x+6 3x +2x 9x +12x+4 (2x+ 3)(3x+ 2) x(3x+2) (2x+3)(4x+1) x(2x+3) 2x2+3x
(a+bY _e2 (a+eY _b2 a+b+e (a+b+e)(a+b-e) (a+b+e)(a-b+e) a2 a(a+b+e) a2+ab+ae
10. (a-bY _e2' a2+ab-ae: -a-2 -= (a-b+e)(a-b-e)' a(a+b-e) a+b+e - a-b-e a-b-e
a2 -Sa -,-(a2 + 6a-S5 ax+ 3a J= a(a-S) b2 (b+ 1)(b-1)(a+ 11) = b(b-1) = b2 -b
11. b+b2' b2-1 ab2+11b2 b(l+b) a(a+11)(a-S)(x+3) x+3 x+3
m3 + 6m2n+ 9mn2 4m2 - n2 m3 + 27n3
12. 2m2n+7mn2+3n3' 8m2-2mn-n2 : 16m2+8mn+n2
m(m+ 3n)" (2m + n)(2m- n) (4m+ n)" m(4m+ n) 4m2 + mn
= n(m+ 3n)(2m+ n)' (2m- n)(4m+ n)' (m+ 3n)(m2 - 3mn- 9n2) = n(m2 - 3mn+ 9n2) = m
2n- 3mn2 + 9n3
(a2-axY 1 (a3_a2x a2_x2 J
13. a2+x2 'a3+a2x 7la2+2ax+x2' a3+ax2
_ (a2-axY 1 a(a+xY(a2+x2) a2-ax a(a-x) 1 - a2+x2 a2(a+x)'a(a2-ax)(a+x)(a-xt a2(a
-xt a2(a-xt-;;-
(a2-3aY 27-a3 a'-9a2
14. -------~----
9-a2 (a+3Y -3a . (a2+3aY
(a2-3aY (3-a)(9+3a+a2) (a2+3aY (a2-3a)(a2+3a) a(a2-3a)(a+3) 3 2
=----,------ - - - a -3a
(3+a)(3-a) a2+3a+9 (a2-3a)(a2+3a) 3+a a+3
EJERCICIO 137
a ab- a
a-b -b- a(b-1) a
1. b-~ = b2-1 = (b+1)(b-1f b+1 b b
1 xl_1
X2_~ -x- (x-1)(x2+x+1) 2
2 --1-=--1 = =x +x+1
· 1-- ~ x-1
x x
a b a2 _b2
1L_!L~_ (a+b)(a-b)
3. b - a+b - b(a+b)
1++a
a-b b
a
1 1 m+n
-+- m+n
4. 7 ~ = n~~ = n- m
m n mn
x 2x+x
x+2 -2- 2(3x)
---------2
5. x- 4x-x- 3x -
x-- --
4 4
x y x2_y"
y-~ xy (x+ y)(x- y) x- Y
6. 1+2' = x+y = y(x+y) y
x x
3 x2+4x+3
x+4+~ x (x+1)(x+3) x+3
7. x-4-~ = x2-4x-S = (x-S)(x+1t x-S
x x
4 a2-4a+4
a-4+- (a-2)(a-2)
a a a-2
8. --2-= a-2 (a-2)
1--
a a
2a'-b' ----b a
9. 4a'+b' ---+1 4ab
2a'-b'-ab
a
= 4a'+b'+4ab
4ab 4b(2a'-b'-ab) 4a'+b'+4ab
4b(a-b)(2a+b) (2a+b)'
_ 4b(a-b) _ 4ab-4b' - 2a+b - 2a+b
2+ 3a 10b+3a
----.ill2... 5b 3
10. a+ 10b 3a+10b 5b
3 3
11.
x' aa+x ,
, a
a ---
a+x
a+x
12.
a'
a' (a+ x-1) 14 a+S--
a
8 7 l+~+7
a'+5a-14
a+ x-1
a
= a'+8a+7 a'
a(a+7)(a-2) = (a+7)(a+ 1)
13.
_ a(a-2)_a'-2a - a+1 - a+1
1 9 20 -;;-7+--;;
16 --a a
a'-9a+20 a3 16-a'
a
(a-S)(a-4) = a'(4+a)(4-a)
a-S a-S S-a
=- a'(a+4)=- a3+4a'= a3+4a'
20x' +7x- 6
14.
x
4 7-2S
(4x+ 3)(Sx- 2)
x 4- 2Sx'
x'
x(4x+3)(Sx-2) = (2+Sx)(2-Sx)
4x'+3x Sx+2
1 1++x-1
15. 1+x'-1
x-1+1
~ x(x+1) x+1
= x'-1+1 =-x-'-=~
~
ab aa+b
16. a+a-b
a' +ab-ab a+b a'-ab+ab a-b
a'(a-b) a-b = a'(a+b( a+b S
x-1---
x+3
17. 3S
x+Sx+3
x' + 2x- 8 x+3
x' + 8x- 20 x+3
18.
(x+4)(x- 2) x+4 = (x+10)(x-2) = x+10
7a+9 a+2---
a+3
Sa-l1 a-4+--
a+1
a'+Sa+6-7a-9 a+3
= a'-3a-4+Sa-11 a+1
(a+ 1)(a' - 2a- 3) = (a+ 3) (a' + 2a-1S)
(a+ 1)(a- 3)(a+ 1) = (a+3)(a+S)(a-3)
(a+ 1)' a' + 2a+ 1
= (a+3)(a+Sf a'+8a+1S
EJERCICIO 138
1.
x+1 1+x-1
1
x-1 x+ 1 x-1+x+1
x-1 2x(x+ 1) ,
= ----=x +x
x+1-(x-1) 2
x' -1
1 2 x-1 x+ 1
2. x-2 2x+6 --+--
x x+1
x+1+2(x-1) x' -1
= (x'-x-2)+x(2x+6) x(x+ 1)
x (3x-1)
= (x-1)(3x' + Sx- 2)
x (3x-1)
= (x-1)(3x-1)(x+ 2)
X
x' + x-2
3.
a b
a-b a+b a+b a a-b +¡;
a(a+b)-b(a-b) (a-b)(a+b)
= b(a+b)+a(a-b) b(a-b)
a2+ab-ab+b2 a2+b2
a+b a+b b
= ab+b2+a2-ab - a2+b2 = a+b
b
b
x+3 x+1
-----
x+4 x+2
4. x-1 x-3
-----
x+2 x+4
(x+3)(x+ 2)- (x+ 1)(x+ 4) (x+4)(x+2) (x-1)(x+ 4)- (x- 3)(x+ 2) (x+2)(x+4)
x' +Sx+ 6- x' -Sx-4 x' +3x-4-x' +x+6
221
= 4x+2 = 2(2x+1)= 2x+1
2x a+x b+x
1+- --
1+x2 a-x b-x
7. 2 2x5+2 9. 2 2
x+ - a-x b-x
1-x4
5.
2 2 ?
m m -n-
-+ -
n m+n
m-n n -+-
n m
m2 (m+ n)- n(m2 _ n2) n(m+n)
m(m- n)+ n2
1+x2 +2x 1+x2
2x(1- x4)+ 2x5 + 2
(1 + x2 )(1- x2)
x2+2x+1 2x-2x5 +2x5 +2 1- x2
nm
m3 + m2n- m2n+ n3
m+n m2-m.n+n2
(x+1r 2(x+ 1) (x+ 1)(1- x)
_ (x+ 1r '(x+ 1)(1- x)
- 2(x+ 1)
(x+1)"(1-x) 2
= (x2+2x+1)(1-x) 2
x2 - x3 + 2x - 2x2 + 1- x 2 1+X-X2_X3
m+n
2 ,
m -mn+n-
m
(m+n)(m2-mn+n2) m+n m2-m.n+n2
m
=m2-m.n+n2, m. ? -m.
m2-m.n+n-
2
a2 1
17+-;
6. a b- a
b a-b
x+ y x- y
8. x+ y
x
x- y x+ y x+2y x+ y
a3+b3
_ ab3
- a(a-b)-b(b-a)
b(a-b) (a+b)(a2-ab+b2)
ab3 a2-ab-b2+ab
b(a-b)
(a+b)(a2-ab+b2)
ab2 a2 _b2
(x+ y)" -(x- y)" (x- y)(x+ y) (x+ y)" - x(x+2y) x(x+ y)
x2 + 2xy+ y2 _ x2 + 2xy- y2 x- y
x2 + 2xy + y"- x2 - 2xy x
a-b
_ (a+b)(a2-ab+b2)
- ab2
a2-ab+b2 ab2
4xy x- y
y"
x
a-b
(a+b)(a-b)
4xy X 4x2 4x2
= x- y '-.;;= y(x- yf xy-y"
(a+ x)(b- x)- (b+ x)(a- x) (a-x)(b-x) 2(b-x)-2(a-x) (a-x)(b-x)
= ab- ax+ bx- x2 - ab+ bx- ax+ x2 2b-2x-2a+2x
2bx- 2ax 2b-2a
2x(b-a) 2(b-a)
x
a a
2a-a
~
a(a+x)+a(a-x) (a-x)(a+x)
10.
a+x 2a+2x
a a
- + --
a-x a+x
a
2 a2+ax+a2-ax
a-x
a
2 a a-x a-x
= 2a2 =2" 2a2 =~
a-x
11.
a(a+2b)+b(a-b) a(a-b) (a+b)(a-b)+3ab a(a-b)
a2 + 2ab+ ab-b2 a2 _b2 + 3ab
a2+3ab-b2 a2+3ab-b2
7 12
1--+-
x x2
16
xx
a+2b b a-b a
a+b 3b
- + -
a a-b
12.
x2-7x+12 x2
x2 -16
x
(x-4)(x-3)
_ x
- (x-4)(x+4)
= (x-4)(x-3)
1
(x-4)(x+4)
x
x-3 x-3
= x(x+4)= x2+4x
13.
b a
1 1 b b+~+ a2
a3_b3 ab =a2+ab+b2
a2b a3_b3 =a2+ab+b2
a
=(a-b)(a2+ab+b2). , a ,
a-+ab+b-
=a(a-b)=a2-ab
4y"
x-2y---
x+ y
14. Sy2
x-3y---
x+ y
(x-2y)(x+ y)-4y"
x+ y
= (x-3y)(x+ y)-Sy"
x+ y
x2-xy-6y"
x2-2xy-Sy"
(x-3y)(x+2y) x-3y
= (x-4y)(x+2yf x-4y
2 2
--+--
1-a l+a
15. 2 2
l+a 1-a
2(1+a)+2(1-a)
= (l-a)(l+a)
2(1-a)-2(1+a)
(l+a)(l-a)
2+2a+2-2a 4
2-2a-2-2a 4a a
x+ y+z
16. 1
x- y+ z 1
x- y+ z x+ y+ z x- y+z-x- y-z
(x+ y+ z)(x- y+ z) - 2y
= ---=-1
x+ y+z-x+ y-z 2y
(x- y+ z)(x+ y+ z)
17.
1+ 2b+c a-b-c
1- c-2b a-b+c a-b-c+2b+c a-b-c a-b+c-c+2b a-b+c
a+b a-b-c
~
a-b+c
a+b a-b+c a-b+c
------=---
a-b-c a+b a-b-c
18.
a 1-a
--+--
1-a a
1-a a
a 1-a
a2+(1-aY a(l-a) (l-aY _a' a (1- a)
a' + 1- 2a+ a' 1- 2a+ a2 - a2
2a' -2a+1 1-2a
19.
6x+12 x+1x+2
x-s llx- 22 xx-2
x+7
6(x+ 2) x+1----
x+2 x-S
x- S x- S
-------- ---1
ll(x- 2) x+ 7-
x-4+~ x+7
x+7
_1_=_1_=1~=~
20. 1+~ x+1 x+1 x+1
X X
21.
1 1
--1-=--1-
1+-- 1+--
1-~ x-1
X X
1+~ x-1
1 x-1+x x-1
1 x-1 x-1
= 2x-1 =1· 2x-1 = 2x-1 x-1
1 22.1---1-
2+~-1
3
=1- 1 2+_1_ x-3
3
=1 1_
2+_3_ x-3
=1 __ 1_ 2x-3
x-3
=1- x-3 2x-3
2x-3-x+3 2x-3
2
23. --2-
1+1+-
X
2 --2-
1+ x+2 X
2
1+ 2x x+2
2 x+2+2x x+2
_ 2 -2 x+2 _2x+4 - 3x+2 - . 3x+2 - 3x+2
x+2
X
2x-3
24.
X xx2 xx+1
X
x- X2+X_X2
x+1
X xX
x+1
x2+x xX
______ -_1_=_1
X2_X2_X -x
X X
25.
1
a+1 a+2---1
aa
1
~ a(a+1)
a+2- , 1 a+2-----
~ (a+1)(a-1)
a
26.
x-1 x2+2 x+2x-2 xx+1
x-1
x2+2 x+2x2 + x- x+ 2
x+1
EJERCICIO 139
x-2
1 --Parax---'>2 · x+3
2-2 O
--=-=0
2+3 5
x-2
2 --Parax---'>3 · x-3
3-2 1
--=-=00
3-3 O
Jf _a2
3 ~2 Parax---'>a · x +a
a2 _a2 O
--=-=0 a2 +a2 2a2
Jf+y2 y2+y2 2y2
4. _2 _ .;2 Parax---'> y -----00
x y y2-y2 - O -
x-1 -3-Parax---'>2
5.
x-2
2-1 =~=~=O
3 3 00
- -
2-2 O
x2 -9
62 Parax---'> 3
· x +x-12
(x+ 3)(x- 3) x+ 3 3+ 3 6 (x+4)(x-3f x+4 = 3+4 =7
a2 -a-6
7 2 Para a---,> 3
· a +2a-1S
(a-3)(a+2) a+2 3+2 S (a+S)(a-3) - a+S= 3+S="8
x2-7x+10
8. 3 2 Para x---'> 2
x -2x -x+2
(x-S)(x-2) x2 (x- 2)- (x- 2)
(x-S)(x-2) x-S 2-S -3
- ---------1
(x2-1)(x-2) x2-1- 4-1- 3 -
1 1 a-1 a-1
(a+2)(a-1)-a - a'+a-2-a -1-a'_2= a'-2
a-1 a-1
a a+2a-1
x-1 x-1
x2+2 = (x2 + 2)(x+ 1)
x+2-? x+2------
x- + 2 x2 + 2
x+1
x-1 ------x-1 x+2-x-1
x'-2x+1
9. x3 _ 2x' _ x+ 2 Para x---'> 1
(x-1r
x' (x- 2)- (x- 2)
(x-1r
= (x' -1)(x- 2)
(x-1r x-1 1-1 O
= (x-1)(x+1)(x-2f x'-x-2 --1'-_-1_-2=-=2=0
a3-8
10. ? Para a---,> 2
a- + lla- 26
(a-2)(a'+2a+4) a'+2a+4 2'+2-2+4 12 4
(a+13)(a-2) = a+13 = 2+13 1S S
x'-7x+6
11. x' -2x+ 1
(x-6)(x-1) x-6 1-S -4
Para x---'>1 ,--=-=-=00
(x-1) x-1 1-1 O
x3 -3x- 2
12. x3-7x+6 Para x---'>2
x3-3x-2= 1 0-3 -2 ~ 2 4 21 121 O
=> (x- 2)(x' + 2x+ 1) x3-7x+6= 1 0-7 2 4
6~ -61
1 2 -3 O => (x- 2)(x' + 2x- 3)
~-~~+~ ~+~ b+~ 9
(x-2)(x'+2x-3t x'+2x-3= 2'+2-2-3="5
x2 -16
13. 3 , Para X--74
x -4x--x+4
(x-4)(x+4) (x-4)(x+4)
x2(x-4)-(x-4) - (x2-1)(x-4)
14 4x2-4x+1 1
. 4x2+8x-5 Para X--7"2
, 1
(2x-1)- 2x-1 2'2-1 1-1 O
----------------0
(2x+5)(2x-1f 2x+5- 2.~+5 -1+5- 6-
2
x+4 4+4 8
-,-=-,-=-
x--1 4--1 15
1 8x2 - 6x+ 1 1
5. 4x3+12x2-15x+4 Para X--7"2
=? 8x2 - 6x+ 1= (8x)" - 6(8x)+ 8
= (8x- 4 )(8x- 2)= (2x-1)(4x-1)
=?4x3+12x2-15x+4 = 4 12 -15 4 l=.±±-16 16 -41
4 -4 1 O
= (x+4 )(4x2 -4x+ 1)= (x+4 )(2x-1)"
x3-9x+1O
16. x4-x3-11x2+9x+18
=? x3 - 9x+ 10
1 O -9 10 I...l... 2 4 -10
1 2 -5 O =(x-2)(x2+2x-5)
Para x--72
=? x4 _ x3 -l1x2 + 9x+ 18
1 -1 -11 9 181~ 2 2 -18 -18
-9 -9 O =(x-2)(X3+x2-9x-9)
(x-2)(x2+2x-5)
=? (x-2)(X3+x2-9x-9)
x2+2x-5 22+2.2-5 3 1
X3+x2-9x-9 23+22-9.2-9 -15 5
3 3
X -a
17.x-a
Para X--7 a
(x-a)(x2+ax+aZ)? ????? ------- x- + ax+ a- = a- + a- + a- = 3aax-a
a2-2ab+b2
18. a2-ab
(a-b)" a-b a-a
--------0
a(a-bf a - a -
Para b--7 a
2 2
X - Y
19. --2 Para Y--7 x
xy- y
(x+y)(x-y) y(x-y)
x+ y x+x 2x
--=-=-=2
y x x
3 3
X -a
20. -2--3 Para X--7 a a x-a
(x- a )(x2 + ax+ a2)
a2(x-a)
x2 + ax+ a2 a2 + a2 + a2
a2 a2
3a2 -, =3 a-
x3 -3x+2 21. 2x3-6x2+6x-2
Para X--71
=? x3 -3x+2
1 O -3 21~
~
1 1 -2 O = (x-1)(x2+x-2)
=(x-1)(x+2)(x-1) =(x-1)2(x+2)
=? 2x3 -6x2 +6x-2
2 -6 6 2 -4 2 -4 2
-~ I~
O = (x-1)(2x2 -4x+ 2) = (x-1)(x-1)(2x- 2) =(x-1f(2x-2)
(x-1)2(x+2) =? (x-1)" (2x-2)
x+2 1+2 3
2x-2 = 2.1-2 =0=00
X4-x3-7x2+x+6 22. x4 _ 3x3 _ 3x2 + 11x- 6
Parax--73
=?X4-x3-7x2+x+6
1 - 1 - 7 1 61----=:1.
-2 6 2 -6
1 -3 -1 3 O (x+ 2)(x3 - 3x2 - x+3) 1 -3 -1 31_1
1 -2 -3
1 -2 -3 O
= (x+ 2)(x-1)(x2 - 2x- 3) = (x+ 2)(x-1)(x- 3)(x+ 1)
Continúa
Continuación
22. =} x4 - 3x3 - 3x' + llx- 6
1 -3 -3 11 -6 1-=-
-2 10-14 6
1 -S 7 -3 O
= (x+2)(x3-Sx'+7x-3) 1 -S 7 -3 L
1 -4 3 1
1 -4 3 O
= (x+2)(x-l)(x' -4x+3) = (x+ 2)(x-l)(x- 3)(x-l)
(x+ 2)(x-l)(x- 3)(x+ 1) =} (x+ 2)(x-l)(x- 3)(x-l)
x+l 3+1 4
=-=-=-=2
x-l 3-1 2
Continuación
24. (x-1)(x3 - x' -lOx- 8) 1 -1 -10 -8 ~
4 12 8
1 3 2 O
= (x-1)(x-4 )(x' + 3x+ 2) (x-1)(x- 4)
=> (x-1)(x- 4 )(x' + 3x+ 2)
1 1 1
= x'+3x+2 1'+3·1+2 '6
Sx'+6x-9 3
26. 12x' _ 13x+ 3 Para X---7 4
(Sx)' + 6(Sx)-72
=> (12x)'-13(12x)+36
(SX+ 12)(Sx- 6)
= (12x-9)(12x-4)
(2x+ 3) (4x- 3)
= (4x- 3)(3x-l)
3 9
2x+3 2'4+3 2 36 IS = 3x-l =-3-="5=1O=S 3'4-1 4
x'-4x3+Sx'-32
25 , 3 , Para x---; 2
3x3-Sx'-4x+4 . x -3x +lOx -4x-40
23. x4+2x3-3x'-Sx-4 Parax---;2 =}x'-4x3+Sx'-32
=}3x3-Sx'-4x+4 1 O -4 S O -32 12-
3 -S -4 4 ~ 2 4 O 16 32 1
6 2 - 4 1 1 2 O S 16 O
3 1 -2 O (x-2)(x4+2x3+Sx+16)
= (x- 2) (3x' + x- 2) 1 2 O S 16 b..i-
=}x4+2x3-3x'-Sx-4 -2 O O -16 I
1 2 - 3 - S - 4 I~ 1 O O S O
2 S 10 4 = (x-2)(x+2)(x3+S)
1 4 S 2 O
(x- 2)(x3 + 4x' + Sx+ 2) 14 S 21=3-
-2 -4 -2 I
1 2 1 O
= (x- 2)(x+ 2)(x' + 2x+ 1) (x-2)(3x'+x-2) =} (x- 2)(x+ 2)(x+ 1)'
x3+6x'+12x+S 2
27. x4-Sx'+16 Parax---;-
=}x3+6x'+12x+S
1 6 12 S L
-2 -S -SI 1 4 4 O
= (x+ 2)(x' + 4x+ 4)= (x+ 2)'
=}x4-Sx'+16
1 O -S O 16 L
- 2 4 S -16 1
1 -2 -4 S O
(x+ 2)(x3 - 2x' - 4x+ S) 1 -2 -4 SI~
-2 S -S
1 -4 4 O
= (x+2)' (x-4x+4) = (x+ 2)' (x- 2)'
(x+2)'
=} (x+ 2)' (x- 2)'
-~-~=~=O
- (x- 2)' - (- 2- 2)' 16
3x' + x- 2
(x+ 2)(x+ 1)' 3·2'+2-2 12 1 (2+2)(2+1)' - 36='3
x'-Sx+4
24. x4 _ 2x3 _ 9x' + 2x+ S Parax---; 1
=} x' -Sx+4= (x-l)(x-4)
=} x4 _ 2x3 - 9x' + 2x+S
1 -2 -9 2 S l.!..--
1 -1 -10 -S 1
1-1-IO-S O
Continúa
=} x' - 3x3 + IOx' - 4x- 40
1 O -3 10 -4 -40 L
24224401
1 2 1 12 20 O
(x- 2 )(x4 + 2x3 + x' + 12x+ 20) 1 2 1 12 20 l:L
- 2 O -2 -20 1 -
1 O 1 10 O
(x- 2 )(x+ 2 )(x3 r x: 10)
1 O 1 10
-2 4 -10
1 - 2 5
O
= (x- 2 )(x+ 2)' (x' - 2x+ 5) (x- 2)(x+ 2)(x3 + S)
=} (x- 2 )(x+ 2)' (x' - 2x+ 5)
x3+S
(x+ 2) (x' - 2x+ 5)
23+S 16 4
(2+2)(2'-2'2+5f 20 ='5
9x3+3x'+3x+l 1
28. 27x3+1 Para x---;-'3
3x' (3x+ 1)+ (3x+ 1) 27x3 + 1
(3x' + 1)(3x+ 1)
= (3x+ 1) (9x' - 3x+ 1) 3x' + 1
= 9x'-3x+l
3( -ir +1 ~ 4
= 9(-~r-3(-~)+1-3=9
x2+x-2 (x-1)(x+2) x+2 1+2 3
---- ------ ---- -----1
xJ-1 (x-1)(x2+x+1) x2+x+1-f+1+1-3-
(x+S)(x- d ~J= (x+S)(x-1)=} (2+ 5)(2-1)= 7 lX-2
1 3
29. x-1- xJ-1 Parax---'71
30. (X2+3X-1O/1+-1-J Parax---'72 l x-2
EJERCICIO 140
12x2 + 31x+ 20
1. 18x2+21x-4
(12x)2 + 3l(12x)+ 240 = (18x)2 + 2l(l8x)-72
(12x+ 16)(12x+ 15) (3x+ 4)(4x+ 5) = (18x+ 24)(18x- 3) (3x+ 4)(6x-1)
4x+S 6x-1
2. (~+ :2 + :3 )7( a+2- 2aa+1)
= ( a2 +:,a+ 1)7 ( a2 + 2aa-2a-1)
(a+1)' a a+1 a+1
=-a3-'(a+1)(a-1f a2(a-1f a3_a2
3. x3+3x2+9x x'-27x2
x(x2+3x+9) x2+3x+9 1
= X2(x3-27) = x(x-3)(x2+3x+9f x(x-3)
(x+y)' x(x-y)'
4.-------
y xy
x(x+ y)' -x(x- y)'
xy
xJ + 2x2y+ xy2 _ xJ + 2x2y- xy2 4x2y
-----------·----=4x
xy xy
5. a4-2b3+a2b(b-2)
a4_a2b_2b2
a4 _ 2b3 + a2b2 - 2a2b
= (a2-2b)(a2+b)
a2(a2+b2)_2b(b2+a2) (a2_2b)(a2+b2) a2+b2
(a2-2b)(a2+b) = (a2-2b)(a2+b) = a2+b
1+5a a3-Sa+1+Sa a3+1 (a+1)(a2-a+1)
6. a+ a2-S - a2-S - a2-S= a2-S
a+S a2+a-a-S a2-S
a--=
a+1 a+1 a+1
(a+1)(a2-a+1) a2-S 2
=} a2-S . a+1 =a -a+1
xJ-29 7. x2+Sxx-s
(x- S)(x2 + Sx- 4)- xJ + 29 x-s xJ-29x+20-xJ+29 49-29x
---
x-s x-s
170- x2 x+34+---
x-s
x2 + 29x-170+ 170- x2 x-s
29x x-s
49-29x 29x 49-29x x-s 49-29x
=} ---7 --= ---.--= ---
x-S x-S x-S 29x 29x
4x" -5xy+ y" 4x" 5xy y" 4x 5y y"
8. - --+-=---+-
3x 3x 3x 3x 3 3 3x
m- n- x m n x 1 1 1
9. mnx = mnx - mnx - mnx = nx - mx - mn
3 2
X -xy ,
10 --=x-+xy . x- y
x(x2-y')
=} - x(x+ y)
x- y
x(x+ y)(x- y)
=} - x(x+ y)=} x(x+ y)= x(x+ y)
x- Y
9x-3x2 x3-1 11. x2x-3 x-l
(x-Ir (x- 3)-3x(3-x) (x-l)(x2 + x+ 1)
=} -
x-3
x-l
x3 -Sx2 +7x- 3- 9x+3x2 2
=}-------=x +x+l x-3
x3 -2x2 -2x- 3 =}------x2+x+l
x-3
(x-3)(x2+x+l) 2 2 2
=}------ x +x+l =} x +x+l=x +x+l x-3
a4-Sa'+4 2+4a
12 -a-3+--
. a3+a'-4a-4 2a+l
(a- 2)(a -l)(a + 2)(a + 1) 2a' -Sa - 3+ 2+4a
=} (a-2)(a+l)(a+2) 2a+l
2a'-a-l (2a+l)(a-l)
=}a-l----=}a-l- =}a-l=a-l
2a+l 2a+l
1 1 2a
13. -+-+ ? ?
a-b a+b a--ab+b-
a3 + b3 + (a -b )(a2 - ab+b2)+ 2a (a2 - b2) (a3+b3)(a-b)
(a3+b3)(a-b)
4a3-2a2b
= (a3+b3) (a-b)
( a2 a") ( 1 + aJ)
----- . l-a+--
14. l-a2 l-a" a2
=( a2(1;_a)-a"J{ a2(1-j+l+aJ] = (a2:~:~a" H a2-a::l+aJ)
a2 a2+1 1
= l-a"'7 = l-a2
16- 81x' 17. 72x'-5x-12
(4-9x)(4+9x) (72x)' -5(72x)- 864
(4- 9x )(4+ 9x)
= (72x-32)(72x+27)
(4-9x)(4+9x) (4-9x)(4+9x) 9x+4
= (9x-4)(8x+3) (4-9x)(8x+3) - 8x+3
(1 2 3 J (x x 6 J
18·l-:;- x+2+ x+3 7lx+2+ x+3+ x2+5x+6
x2 + 5x+ 6- 2x(x+ 3)+ 3x(x+ 2) x(x+ 3)+ x(x+ 2)+ 6
x(x2+5x+6) : x2+5x+6
x2+5x+6-2x2-6x+3x2+6x x2+5x+6
x(x2+5x+6) 'x2+3x+x2+2x+6
2x2+5x+6 1 1
x . 2x2+5x+6 - x
b 1+-
a a-b
19. ---¡;'l+ a-3b
1----,- 2---
a- a-b
b a-b+b
a a-b
= a'-b' + 2a-2b-a+3b
b
j (x+ 3)(x- 3). x(x+ 3)J. a' (X-4)(X+4).( 2~+?1)= x+4
l (x-4)(x+3) x-3 (x+3)(2x+1) a-x- x
16 3x3-x'-12x+4
. 6x4+x3-25x'-4x+4
=? 3x3 - x' -12x+ 4
3 -1 -12 41~ -6 14 -4
3 -7 2 O
= (x+ 2) (3x' -7x+ 2)= (x+ 2)(x- 2)(3x-1)
6x4 + x3 - 25x' - 4x+ 4
6 1 -25 -4 4 ~
-12 22 6 -4 1
6 -11 -3 2 O
(x+ 2) (6x3 -l1x' - 3x+ 2) 6 -11 -3 2 ~
12 2 - 2 I
6 1 -1 O
= (x - 2) (x + 2) (6x' + x - 1)
= (x- 2)(x+ 2)(2x+ 1)(3x-1)
(x+ 2)(x- 2)(3x-1) 1
=? (x- 2)(x+ 2)(2x+ 1)(3x-1) 2x+ 1
a'
a-b
a
a'b a-b
a(a' -b') + a+b a-b
a'b a
a(a' -b') + a+b
a'b+a'(a-b) a'b+a3-a'b
a(a' -b') a(a' -b')
a3
a'
a(a' -b') a' -b'
20. !(X2-36 -,-_X_J._1_._1_
3 x . x2-4 36 4
x-- x--
x x
=!((X+6)(X-6) (X+2)(X-2)] '_2_1_'_21_
3 x x x -36 x -4
----
x x
(x+6)(x-6) (x+2)(x-2) x x
3x X· x2 - 36 . x2 - 4
x2 (x+ 6)(x- 6)(x+ 2)(x- 2) 1
=~2~+~~_~~+~~_~-~
1 1 1 1
23 ----------, +---9 . 3x-9 6x+12 2(x-3) xx
3a S 1
- +- +(a-2bY a-5b a-2b
21. 3a' -14ab+ IOh'
a'-4ab+4b'
3a(a-5b)+S(a-2b)' + (a-2b)(a-5b) (a-2bY(a-5b)
3a' -14ab+ IOh'
(a-2bY
3a' -ISab+Sa' - 20ab+ 2Oh' +a' -7ab+ lOb' (a- 5b )(3a' -14ab+ lOb')
9a' - 42ab+ 30b' 3(3a' -14ab+ IOh')
= (a-Sb)(3a'-14ab+lOb') (a-5b)(3a'-I4ab+lOb')
x+ 1 x-l
~-~ x'+1 2x
22. x-l x+l'2a'-2b7 a'-b x+l + x-l
1 1 1 x
------------, + ,
- 3(x-3) 6(x+2) 2(x-3) x -6x+9
2(x- 3)(x+ 2)- (x- 3Y - 3(x+ 2)+ 6(x+ 2) 6(x- 3Y (x+ 2)
2x' - 2x-12- x' + 6x- 9- 3x- 6+ 6x' + 12x
6(x- 3Y (x+ 2)
3 a-5b
7x' + 13x- 27
6(x- 3Y (x+ 2)
24.
a' +b' b'
a-b+ a-+-b b+--;; 1
a'-2b" a-b '~
a+b- -- 1+ -b-
a-b
a'-b'+a'+b' ab+b'
(x+ 1)' - (x-l)'
x'-1 x'+1 a'-b
= (x-l)' +(x+l)' , 2(a'-b)' 2x
x'-1
x'+2x+l-x'+2x-l x'+1 4x x'+1 1 x'-2x+l+x'+2x+l'~= 2(x'+I)'~=2
EJERCICIO 141
x 1
1 -+S=--x
. 6 3
x+30 1-3x
=>-6-=-3-
x+30=2(1-3x) x+30=2-6x x+6x=2-30
7x=-28 -28
x=-7-
x=-4 3x 2x 1
2 ---+-=0 mcm=15 . 5 3 5
9x-10x+3=0
-x=-3
x=3
1 1 1 1
3. 2x +4- 10x ="5
10+5x-2=4x 5x-4x=-10+2
x=-8
mcm=20x
a+b a 1
a'-b'-a'+2b' '~' b+2a-b b
a-b
2a' b(a+b)
a+b -a 1 2a'(a-b) _b(_a_+b_)~_1
=b"~ -2-a-----b'-(-a-+-b-) 'a(a-b) 2a-
a-b b
":'+2--"':"'=":'-~ mcm=12
4. 2 12 6 4
6x+24-x=2x-15 6x-x-2x=-15-24 3x=-39 -39
X=--
3
x=-13
3x 1 5 3x
5. 4-"5+2X=¡- 20 mcm=20
15x-4+40x=25-3x
55x +3x=25+4
58x=29
29
X=-
58
1
X=-
2
~-~=2--2+1 mcm=30x
6. 3x x 10 2x
20-150=21x-45+30x -130+45=51x
-85
--=X
51
-5
-=X
3
x-4
7 ----5=0 mcm=3 · 3
x-4-15=0
x-19=0 x=19
x+2 5x
8 x---=- mcm=12
· 12 2
12x- x-2=30x
11x-30x=2 -19x=2
2
x=--
19
5x-1 3
9 x---=4x-- mcm=15
· 3 5
15x-25x+5=60x-9
-10x-60x=-9-5
-70x=-14
-14
x=--
-70
1
x=-
5
8x- 3 ( )
10. lOx--4-=2 x-3 mcm=4
40x- 8x+ 3= 8(x- 3)
40x- 8x= 8x- 24- 3 40x-16x= - 27
-27
x=-
24
9
x=--
8
x-2 x-3 x-4
11. -3---4-=-S- mcm=60
20(x- 2)-lS(x- 3)= 12(x- 4)
20x-40-1Sx+4S= 12x-48 Sx-12x=-48-S -7x=-S3 S3
x=-
7
x-1 x-2 x-3 x-S
12. -2---3---4-=--S-
mcm=60
30(x-1)- 20(x- 2)-lS(x- 3)= -12(x-S)
30x- 30- 20x+ 40-1Sx+ 4S= -12x+ 60 -Sx+SS=-12x+60
-Sx+12x=60-SS
7x=S S
x=-
7
13. x-(Sx-1)- 7-Sx =1 mcm=lO 10
lOx-1O(Sx-1)- (7 -Sx)= 10 lOx- SOx+ 10- 7 + Sx= 10 -3Sx+3=1O
-3Sx=7
-7
X=-
3S
1
X=--
S
Sx-6 1( )
14. 2x--4-+"3 x-S =-Sx
mcm=12
24x- 3(Sx- 6)+ 4(x- S)= - 60x 24x-1Sx+ 18+ 4x- 20= - 60x 13x-2=-60x 13x+ 60x= 2
2
X=-
73
15.4_10x+1=4x_16x+3 mcm=12
6 4
48- 2 (lOx+ 1)= 48x- 3(16x+ 3) 48- 20x- 2= 48x- 48x- 9 -20x+46=-9
- 20x= -ss
-ss
X=-
-20
11
x=-
4
111
16. "2(x-1)-(x-3)="3(x+3)+"6 mcm=6
3(x-1)- 6(x- 3)= 2(x+ 3)+ 1
3x- 3- 6x+ 18= 2x+ 6+ 1 -3x+1S=2x+7
-Sx=-8
8
x=-
S
17. 6x+1_ 11x-2 -2.(Sx-2)=~(6x+1) mcm=36
3 9 4 6
12 (6x+ 1)-4(1lx- 2) - 9(Sx- 2)= 30(6x+ 1) 72x+ 12-44x+ 8-4Sx+ 18= 180x+ 30 -17x
+ 38= 180x+ 30
-197x=-8
8
x=-
197
18. 4x+1 =2.(4x-1)- 13+2x -2.(x-3) mcm=6
3 3 6 2
2(4x+ 1)= 2(4x-1)- (13+ 2x)- 3(x- 3)
8x+ 2= 8x- 2-13- 2x- 3x+ 9 2=-6-Sx
8=-Sx
8
--=x
S
2 3 1 6
19 -(Sx-1)+-(lOx-3)=--(x-2)-- mcm=lO
·s 10 2 S
4(Sx-1)+ 3(lOx- 3)= -S(x- 2)-12 20x- 4+ 30x- 9= -Sx+ 10-12 SOx-13= -Sx+ 10-12 SO
x-13= -Sx- 2
SSx= 11
1
x=-
S
3x-1 Sx+4 x+2 2x-3 1
20. -2---3---8-=-S--1O
mcm=120
60(3x-1)- 40(Sx+4 )-lS(x+ 2)= 24(2x- 3)-12 180x- 60- 200x-160-1Sx- 30= 48x-72-12

- 3Sx- 2S0= 48x- 84


-83x= 166
x=-2
7x-1 S-2x 4x-3 1+4x2
21. -----=--+--
3 2x 4 3x
mcm=12x
4x( 7 x-1)- 6(S- 2x)= 3x(4x- 3)+4(1 +4x2) 28x2 -4x- 30+ 12x= 12x2 -9x+4+ 16x2 8x
-30=-9x+4
17x=34
x=2
2x+7 2(x2-4) 4x2-6 7x2+6
22. -3-- Sx ~=3T
mcm= lSx2
Sx2 (2x+ 7)- 6x(x2 - 4)- X (4x2 - 6)=S(7 x2 + 6) lOx3 + 3Sx2 - 6x3 + 24x- 4x3 +
6x= 3Sx2 + 30 30x=30
30
x=-
30
x=l
23 3.(X+1)=~(X-6) mcm=60
. 3 S 4 3
8(x+ 1)= lS(x- 6) 8x+ 8= lSx- 90 8x-1Sx=-90-8 -7x= - 98
-98
X=--
-7
x=14
x
3x+S 11 2
25·10--6-=3T2-4
60-3x-S 47 x
=} 6 -"12-s
4(SS- 3x)= 94- 3x 220-12x= 94- 3x -12x+ 3x= 94- 220
-9x=-126
-126
X=--
-9
x=14
mcm=24
26. 9X-2-7X(.!.-.!.)= 1+~ +21.
x 2 2 4
(2-X) x+2 11
=} 9x-2-7x -2- =-4-+4
=} 9X_2_7(2;X)= X:13 mcm=4
36x- 8-14(2- x)= x+ 13
36x-8- 28+ 14x= x+ 13
SOx -36=x+13 49x=49 x=l
3x 7 12x-S 2x-3 4x+9 7 27.8-10--1-6--20+-4-+ 80=0 mcm=160
60x-112-1O(12x- S)- 8 (2x- 3)+ 40(4x+ 9)+ 14= O 60x-112-120x+SO-16x+ 24+ 160x+ 3
60+ 14= O 84x+336=0 84x=-336 -336
x=--
84
x=-4
24 ~(2X-1)_~(3X+2)_~(X-2)+~=0
·S 6 3 4 S 3 S
mcm=60
6(2x-1)- 20(3x+ 2)-4(x- 2)+ 12= O 12x- 6- 60x-40-4x+ 8+ 12= O -S2x-26=0
26 1
X=--=--
S2 2
Sx 3 ( ) ( ) x+ 24
28.4-17 x-20 - 2x-1 =34 mcm=68
8Sx-12(x- 20)- 68(2x-1)= 2(x+ 24) 8Sx-12x+ 240-136x+ 68= 2x+48
- 63x+ 308= 2x+ 48
-6Sx=-260
-260
X=--
-6S
x=4
x 1 ( X) 2 1 ( 5X)
29.5+4="3 2-"2 -"3+4 10-3
=} 20+x =.!.(4-X)_~+.!.(30-5X)
4 3 2 3 4 3
20+x 4-x 2 30-5x
=} --=----+--
4 6 3 12
mcm=12
3(20+ x)= 2(4- x)- 8+ 30- 5x 60+ 3x= 8- 2x- 8+ 30- 5x 60+ 3x= -7x+ 30
lOx= - 30
x=-3
30. 5(x+2) +~_ 22-x =3x-20- 8-x _ 20-3x mcm=36
12 9 36 12 18
15(x+2)+ 16- 22+ x= 108x-720-3(8- x)-2(20-3x) 15x+ 30- 6+ x= 108x-720- 24+ 3x- 4
0+ 6x 16x+ 24= 117x-784
-101x=-808
x=8
6-x 3-x X
=}-----=7-- mcm=6
232
3(6- x)- 2(3- x)=42- 3x 18- 3x- 6+ 2x=42- 3x 12-x=42-3x 2x=30 x=15
32. (X+3)(X-3)-x2-¡=( X-~)-(3X-¡)
=>x2_9_X2_~= 4x _ 12x-3
4 5 4
41 16x- 60x+ 15
=> -4=--20--
41 -44x+ 15 =>--=--- mcm=20
4 20
- 205= -44x+ 15
-220=-44x
5=x
33. 2X-( 2x- 3x8-1J=~( X:2J_±
16x- 3x+ 1 2x+ 4 1
=>2x- ----- mcm=72
8 18 4
144x- 9(13x+ 1)=4(2x+4)-18 144x-117 x- 9= 8x+ 16- 18 27x-9=8x-2
19x= 7
7
x=-
19
EJERCICIO 142
3 3
1 -+--=0 mcm=5(2x-1)
· 5 2x-1
3(2x-1)+15=0 6x-3+ 15=0 6x=-12 x=-2
2 3
2 --=-- mcm=16x2-1
· 4x-1 4x+ 1
2(4x+ 1)= 3(4x-1) 8x+2=12x-3 -4x=-5
5
X=-
4
5 1 3. x"-1= x-1
mcm=x2-1
5=x+1 4=x
3 1
4 -----=0 mcm=x2-1 · x+ 1 x2-1
3(x-1)-1= O 3x-3-1=0 3x=4 4
X=-
3
5x+8 5x+2
5 --=-- mcm=(3x+4)(3x-4)
· 3x+4 3x-4
(3x- 4)(5x+ 8)= (5x+ 2)(3x+ 4) 15x2 + 4x- 32= 15x2 + 26x+ 8 - 26x+4x= 8+ 32
-22x=40
40
X=--
22
20
X=--
11
6 lOx2 -5x+8
· -2 mcm=5x2+9x-19
5x2 + 9x-19
lOx2 - 5x+ 8= 2 (5x2 + 9x-19) lOx2 - 5x+ 8= lOx2 + 18x- 38 - 5x-18x= - 38- 8
-23x=-46
-46
x=--
-23
x=2
7 _1_+_1_= __ 1_ mcm=12(x'-l) . 3x-3 4x+4 12x-12
4(x+ 1)+ 3(x-1)= x+ 1 4x+4+3x-3=x+1
7x-x=0
6x=0
x=O
8 ~_ x2-8x =7... mcm=4(4x-5)
. 4 4x-5 4
x(4x- 5)- 4(x2 - 8x)= 7(4x- 5) 4x2 - 5x- 4x2 + 32x= 28x- 35 27x= 28x-35 -x=-35 x
=35
2x-9 2x-3 x ()
9. --+--=- mcm=10 2x-1
10 2x-1 5
(2x- 9 )(2x-1)+ 10 (2x- 3)= 2x(2x-1)
4x' - 20x+ 9+ 20x- 30= 4x' - 2x -21=-2x
-21
-=x
-2
l07=x
10. (3x-1)' = 18x-1 mcm=2(x-1)
x -1 2
2(9x2 - 6x+ 1)= (x-1)(18x-1) 18x2 -12x+ 2= 18x2 -19x+ 1 -12x+19x=1-2
7x=-1
1
x=--
7
2x+7 2x-1 mcm= (5x+ 2) (5x-4)
11. 5x+2 - 5x-4 =0
(2x+ 7)(5x- 4)- (2x-1)(5x+ 2)= O lOx' + 27 x- 28-lOx' + x+ 2= O 28x=26 13 x= 14
12 (5x-2)(7x+3) O mcm=7x(5x-1)
. 7 x(5x-1) 1=
(5x- 2)(7 x+ 3)-7 x(5x-1)= O 35x' + x- 6- 35x' + 7 x= O 8x=6 3
x=-
4
328
13 --=--+ , mcm=x'-7x+12
. x-4 x-3 x -7x+12
3(x-3)=2(x-4)+8
3x-9= 2x-8+8
3x-2x=9
x=9
6x-1 3(x+2) 1+3x mcm=18(5x-6)
14. ~- 5x-6 =-9-
(6x-1)(5x- 6)-54(x+ 2)= 2(1 + 3x)(5x- 6) 30x' -41x+ 6-54x-108= - 26x-12+ 30x' -
95x-102= - 26x-12
-69x=90
90
x=--
69
x=-lf,
5 3 6 mcm= 1-x'
15. l+x -l-x -l-x' =0
5(1- x)- 3(1 + x)- 6= O 5- 5x- 3- 3x- 6= O -8x-4=0
-8x=4
1
X=--
2
1+2x 1-2x 3x-14 mcm=1-9x'
16. 1+3x - 1-3x =- 1-9x'
(1 + 2x)(1- 3x)- (1- 2x)(1 + 3x)= - 3x+ 14 1-x- 6x' -1- x+ 6x' =- 3x+ 14 -2x=-3x
+14 x=14
3x-1 1 7
17. x'+7x+12 - 2x+6+ 6x+24
=} x' + 7 x+ 12= (x+ 3)(x+4) =} 2x+6=2(x+3)
=} 6x+24=6(x+4) mcm=6(x+3)(x+4)
6(3x-1)= 3(x+ 4)+ 7 (x+ 3)
18x- 6= 3x+ 12+ 7 x+ 21
18x- 6= 10x+ 33
8x=39
39
x=-
8
x=4f
18. _1_, __ 3_= __ 3_ mcm=2(x-1)' (x+1)
(x-1)- 2x-2 2x+2
2(x+ 1)- 3(x-1)(x+ 1)= - 3(x-1)'
2x+2-3x'+3=-3x'+6x-3 2x+5=6x-3 -4x=-8
x=2
5x+13 4x+5 x
19. ~- 5x-15="3 mcm=15(x-3)
(5x+ 13)(x- 3)- 3(4x+ 5)= 5x(x- 3) 5x2 - 2x- 39-12x-15= 5x2 -15x -14x-54=-15x x=
54
2x-l x-4 2
20 -- ---- mcm=3(2x+l)(3x-2)
·2x+I-3x-2-3
3(2x-l)(3x- 2)-3(x-4)(2x+ 1)=2(2x+ 1)(3x- 2)
18x2 - 21x+ 6- 6x2 + 21x+ 12= 12x2 - 2x- 4 18=-2x-4 22=-2x
-l1=x
4x+3 3x+8
-- ---1 mcm=(2x-5)(3x-7) 21·2x-5-3x-7-
(4x+ 3)(3x-7)- (3x+ 8)(2x-5)= (2x-5)(3x-7)
12x2 -19x- 21- 6x2 - x+40= 6x2 - 29x+ 35 -20x+19=-29x+35 9x=16
16
x=-
9
x=lf
22 lOx - 7 3x + 8 5x' - 4 ()
. 15x+3 =12- 20x+4 mcm=125x+1
4(lOx-7)= (3x+ 8)(5x+ 1)- 3 (5x' -4) 40x- 28= 15x' + 43x+ 8-15x' + 12
40x- 28= 43x+ 20
-3x=48
x=-16
4x-l x-2 8x-3
23 --+----- 1-'- mcm=IO(2x-7)
. S 2x-7- 10 - 10
2(4x-l)(2x-7)+ lO(x- 2)= (8x- 3)(2x-7 )-13(2x-7) 16x' -60x+ 14+ IOx-20= 16x' - 6
2x+21- 26x+ 91 -SOx-6=-88x+112
38x= 118
118
x=-
38
x=3-&
1 2 3 2}
24. x-1 x-2 2x-2 2x-4
7
__ 2 3 3_
x-1 x-2 2x-2 2x-4
2
3
7
x-1 x-2 2x-2 6x-12
mcm= 6(x-1)(x- 2)
6(x- 2)-12(x-1)= 9(x- 2)-7(x-1)
6x-12-12x+12=9x-18-7x+7 -6x=2x-11
-8x=-11
-11
x=-=lt -8
1 2 H 2
25. x+3-5x-20=3x-12- x+3
mcm= 15(x-4 )(x+ 3)
15(x+ 3)
15(x-4)- 6(x+ 3)= -2-- 30(x- 4)
15x+45
15x- 60- 6x-18= ---- 30x-120
2
2(9x-78)= 15x+45- 2(30x-120) 18x-156= 15x+ 45- 60x+ 240 18x-156= -45x+ 285
63x=441 x=7
1 4 10 3
26. 6-2x - 5-5x = 12-4x -10-10x
mcm= 20(1- x)(3- x)
10(1- x )-16(3- x)= 50(1- x)- 6(3- x)
10-10x-48+ 16x=50-50x-18+ 6x 6x-38=-44x+32 50x=70
7
x=-
5
x=lf
27. ~_ 6~' =_2_ 3 9x--1 3x-1
mcm= 3(9x' -1)
2(9x' -1)-18x' = 6(3x+ 1) 18x' - 2-18x' = 18x+ 6 -2=18x+6
-8=18x
4
--=x
9
Sx2 - 27x 1
28. -----=x-6
Sx+ 3 x
mcm= x(Sx+ 3)
X (Sx2 - 27x)- (SX+ 3)= x(Sx+ 3)(x- 6) Sx3 - 27 x2 -Sx- 3=Sx3 - 27 x2 -18x -Sx-3
=-18x
13x=3
3
x=-
13
4x+l 6 4x-l
29. -----, -=-- mcm=16x2-1 4x-l 16x--l 4x+l
(4x+ 1)' - 6= (4x-l)'
16x2 + 8x+ 1- 6= 16x2 - 8x+ 1
16x-S= 1
16x= 6
3
X=-
8
30. 3(::~J+2(:~~J- :'X5;~~~
mcm=x' -3x-4
3(x-l)(x-4)+2(x+ 1)' =Sx(x-l) 3x' -ISx+ 12+ 2x' +4x+2=Sx' -Sx -l1x+ 14= -Sx
-6x=-14
-7
X=-
-3
x=2+
31. 2(:~~J-3(;X-+23J=2:22::~6
mcm= (x- 2)(2x+ 3)
2(x+ 2)(2x+ 3)- 3(x- 2)' = x2 + 78 4x2 + 14x+ 12- 3x2 + 12x-12= x2 + 78 26x=78 x
=3
1 1 3
32. x'+3x-28 x'+12x+3S- x'+x-20
=} x' + 3x- 28= (x+ 7)(x- 4)
=} x' + 12x+ 3S= (x+ 7)(x+S)
=} x' + x- 20= (x+S)(x-4)
mcm= (x+7)(x+S)(x-4)
x+ S- (x- 4)= 3(x+ 7) x+S-x+4=3x+21
9=3x+21
-12= 3x
-4=x
x-2 2x-S x-2
33. x'+8x+7- x'-49- x'-6x-7
=; x' + 8x+ 7 = (x+ 7)(x+ 1)
=; x' - 49= (x+ 7)(x-7)
=; x' - 6x-7= (x-7)(x+ 1)
mcm= (x+ 7)(x-7)(x+ 1)= (x' -49)(x+ 1) (x- 2)(x-7)= (2x- S)(x+ 1)- (x- 2)(x+ 7)
x' - 9x+ 14= 2x' - 3x-S- x' -Sx+ 14 -9x+14=-8x+9
-x=-S
x=S
4x+S 2x+3 2x-S
34. 1Sx' + 7x- 2 12x' -7x-1O 20x' _ 29x+S - O
=; 1Sx' + 7x- 2= (3x+ 2)(Sx-1)
=; 12x' -7x-1O= (4x- S)(3x+ 2)
=; 20x' -29x+S= (4x-S)(Sx-1)
mcm= (3x+ 2)(Sx-1)(4x-S)
(4x+ S)(4x- S)- (2x+ 3)(Sx-1)- (2x- S)(3x+ 2)= O
16x' -2S-lOx' -13x+ 3- 6x' + llx+ 10= O -2x-12=O
- 2x= 12
x=-6
7 3 2 3(x+1)
35. 2x+ 1 - x+4 = x+ 1 2x' + 9x+4
mcm=(2x+ 1)(x+4)(x+ 1)
7 (x+4)(x+ 1)- 3(2x+ 1)(x+ 1)= 2(2x+ 1)(x+ 4)- 3(x+ 1)' 7x' + 3Sx+ 28- 6x' - 9x-
3=4x' + 18x+8- 3x' - 6x- 3 26x+2S=12x+S
14x=-20
10
x=--
7
x=-lt
36 (x+3)' _ x-1 + 2(7x+1)
. ( )2 - 2
x-3 x+1 x -2x-3
mcm= (x- 3)' (x+ 1)
(x+ 3)' (x+ 1)= (x- 3)' (x-1)+ 2 (7 x+ 1)(x- 3)
x3 + 7x2 + 1Sx+ 9= x3 -7 x2 + 1Sx- 9+ 14x2 - 40x- 6 9=-1S-40x
24=-40x
3
--=x
S
37 x-4 _ x+l __ 12(x+3) mcm=(x+5Y(x-2)
. x+5 x-2 - (x+5Y
(x+ 5)(x- 2)(x-4)- (x+ 5Y (x+ 1)= -12(x+ 3)(x- 2)
x3 - x2 - 22x+40- x3 -l1x2 - 35x- 25= -12x2 -12x+ 72 -57x+15=-12x+72
-45x=57
57
x=--
45
x=-In-
x-3 x-2 x+2 x+3
38. x-4 x-3 x+l x+2
mcm= (x-4 )(x- 3)(x+ 1)(x+ 2)
(x- 3)" (x+ 1)(x+ 2)- (x2 -4)(x-4)(x+ 1)= (x+ 2)" (x-4 )(x- 3)- (x2 - 9 )(x- 4)(
x+ 1)
x4 - 3x3 -7 x2 + 15x+ 18- x4 + 3x3 + 8x2 -12x-16= x4 - 3x3 -12x2 + 20x+48- x4 +
3x3 + 13x2 - 27 x- 36 3x+2=-7x+12
lOx=lO
x=1
x+6 x+l x-5 x
39 . x+2 x-3 x-l x+4
mcm= (x+ 2)(x- 3)(x-l)(x+ 4)
x4 + 6x3 -13x2 - 66x+ 72- x4 - 6x3 -7x2 + 6x+ 8= x4 - 2x3 - 25x2 + 26x+ 120- x4
+ 2x3 + 5x2 - 6x - 60x+ 80= 20x+ 120
-80x=40
1
x=--
2
EJERCICIO 143
1. a(x+l)=1 1 x+l==a
1 -1+x+l=--1 a
l-a
x==a
2. ax-4=bx-2
ax-bx=4-2
x(a-b)=2
2
X=--
a-b
3. ax+b2=a2-bx ax+bx=a2-b2
x(a+b)= (a+b)(a-b)
x=a-b
4.3(2a-x)+ax=a2+9 6a - 3x+ ax= a2 + 9
x(a-3)=a2+9-6a
x(a - 3)= (a - 3)"
x=a-3
5. a(x+b)+x(b-a)=Zb(Za-x) ax+ba+ xb- ax=4ab- Zbx xb+Zbx=4ab-ab 3bx=3ab
3ab
x=-
3b
x=a
6.
(x-a)' -(x+a)' =a(a-7x)
-4ax+7ax=a2 3ax= a2
a2 X=-
3a
a X=-
3
7. ax-a(a+b)=-x-(I+ab) ax-a2-ab=-x-l-ab ax+x=a2-1
x(a+ 1)= (a+ 1)(a-l)
x= a-l
8. a2 (a- x)-b2 (x-b)=b2 (x-b)
a3 _ a2x-b2x+ b3 =b2x_b3
- a2x- 2b2x= - a3 _ 2b3 a2x+2b2x=a3+2b3 x(a2 + 2b2)= a3 + 2b3 a3+2b3 x= a2+2b2
9.
(x+ a)(x- b)- (x+ b )(x- Za)= b(a- Z)+ 3a x' -bx+ ax- ab-x' +Zax-bx+ Zab= ab- Zb
+3a - Zbx+ 3ax+ ab= ab- Zb+ 3a
x(3a-Zb)=3a-Zb
x=l
10. x2+a2=(a+xY -a(a-1)
a2 = 2ax+ a
a(a-1)
---=x
2a
a-1
--=x
2
11. m(n-x)-m(n-1)=m(mx-a)
lnl1-1n:x- tnn+ ln= 7n2x- Uln
2
-ln:x-ln X=-Uln-ln
-xm(1+m)=-m(a+1) a+1
x=--
m+1
12. x-a+2=2ax-3(a+x)-2(a-S) x-a+2=2ax- 3a- 3x-2a+ 10 x-a=2ax-Sa-3x+8 x+4a-8=2ax-
3x
4(a-2)=2ax-4x 4(a-2)=2x(a-2)
2=x
13. a(x-a)-2bx=b(b-2a-x) ax- a2 - 2bx= b2 - 2ab- bx ax- bx= b2 - 2ab+ a2
x(a - b)= (b- a )(b- a) (a-b)(b-a)
x=-
a-b
x=-(b-a)
x=a-b
16. (m+4x)(3m+x)=(2x-mY +m(1Sx-m)
3m2 + 13mx+4x2 =4x2 -4mx+m2 + 1Smx-m2 2mx=-3m2
3m2
x=---
2m
3m
x=--
2
17. a2 (a- x)-a2 (a+ 1)- b2 (b- x)- b(1-b2)+ a(1+a)= O
a3 _a2x_a3 _a2 _ b3 + b2x-b+ b3 + a+ a2 = O -a2x+b2x-b+a=0
x(b2-a2)-(b-a)=0 x(b-a)(a+b)=b-a x(a+b)=1
1
x=--
a+b
18.
(ax-bY = (bx- a)(a- x)- x2 (b- a2)+ a2 +b(1- 2b)
a2x2 _ 2abx+ b2 = abx+ bx2 - a2 - ax-bx2 + a2x2 + a2 + b-2b2
ax(1-3b)=b(1-3b) b
x==a
19. (x+bY -(x-aY -(a+bY =0
x2 + 2bx+b2 - x2 + 2=-a2 _a2 - 2ab-b2 = O 2bx+ 2=- 2a2 - 2ab= O
2x(b+a)- 2a(a+b)= O 2(x-a)(a+b)=0 2x=2a
14. ax+bx=(x+a-br -(x-2b)(x+2a)
x(a+ b)= x2 + 2ax- 2bx+ a2 - 2ab+ b2 - x2 - 2ax+ 2bx+ 4ab x(a+ b)= a2 + 2ab+b2
x(a+b)=(a+br
x=a+b
15. x(a+b)-3-a(a-2)=2(x-1)-x(a-b) ax+bx- 3- a2 + 2a= 2x- 2- ax+ bx 2ax- 2x= a2 -
2a+ 1
2x(a-1)= (a-1r
a-1
x=--
2
x=a
20. (x+m)' -12m3=-(x-m)' +2x3
x3 + 3x2m+ 3xm2 + m3 -12m3 = - x3 + 3x2m- 3xm2 + m3 + 2x3 2x3 + 6xm2 - 2x3 = 12m
3
6xm2= 12m3
12m3
x= 6m2
x=2m
m 2
1. ---=-
mcm=mx
x-3a 2a-x
7. -----;;z-- ---;;¡;-= a mcm= a2b
b(x- 3a)- a(2a - x)= - ab
bx- 3ab- 2a2 + ax= - ab
bx+ ax= 2ab+ 2a2 x(a+b)=2a(a+b)
x=2a x+m x+n m2+n2
8. -----=----2 mcm=mn
m n mn
n(x+m)-m(x+n)=m2 + n2 - 2mn xn+mn-mx-mn=m2 - 2mn+ n2
EJERCICIO 144
x m m ni-x=2x
ni=3x ni
-=x
3
2. !!.+.É.= 4a x 2 x 2a+bx=8a bx=6a 6a
x=-
b
mcm=2x
3 ~_l-x-~
mcm=2a2 . 2a a2 - 2a
aX-2(1-x)=a
ax-2+2x= a x(a+2)=a+2 a+2
x=--
a+2
x=l
x(n- m)= (m- n)2
x(n- m)= - (n- m) (m- n) x=-(m-n)
x=n-m.
x-b x-a
9. -a-=2--b- mcm=ab
b(x- b)= 2ab- a(x- a)
bx-b2 = 2ab- ax+ a2 bx+ ax= a2 + 2ab+b2
m=x
x(a+b)=(a+b)"
x=a+b
4x 3
10. 2a+b -3=-"2 mcm=2(2a+b)
8x- 6(2a+ b)= - 3(2a +b) 8x-12a- 6b= - 6a- 3b
8x= 6a+ 3b
3(2a+b)
x=
8
4. ~+~=~+1 mcm=mx x m x
m2 + nx= mn+ mx m2-m.n=mx-nx
m(m- n)= x(m- n)
a-l 1 3a-2
5. --+-=--
a 2 x
mcm=2ax
2x(a-l)+ ax= 2a (3a- 2) 2ax- 2x+ ax= 6a2 -4a 3ax- 2x= 2a (3a - 2) x(3a - 2)= 2a
(3a- 2)
x=2a
11. 2a+3x = 2(6x-a)
x+a 4x+a
mcm= (x+ a )(4x+ a)
(2a + 3x)(a +4x)= (2x+ 2a)(6x- a)
2a2 + llax+ 12x2 = 12x2 + 10ax- 2a2 ax=-4a2
b(a- x)- a (b- x)= 2(a- b)
ab- bx- ab+ ax= 2(a-b)
x(a-b)=2(a-b)
x=2
x=-4a 2(x-e) 2x+e
12. 4x-b = 4(x-b) mem=4(4x-b)(x-b)
8(x- e )(x- b)= (2x+ e )(4x- b)
8x2 - 8xb- 8xe+ 8be= 8x2 - 2xb+4xe-be - 6xb - 12xe= - 9be
- 6x(b+ 2e)= - 9be
3be x= 2(b+ 2e)
6. a-x_b-x=2(a-b)
a b ab
mcm=ab
1 m 1 1
13. ---=--- mcm=xmn nxmnx
x/11.-m,2n=x-mn
XI11.- x= m,2n- m,n
x(m-I)=mn(m-I)
x=mn
14.
(x-Zb)(Zx+a) -z mcm=(x-a)(a-Zb+x) (x-a)(a-Zb+x)
(x- Zb)(Zx+ a)=Z(x- a)(a- Zb+ x)
Zx' + ax- 4bx- Zab = - 4bx+ Zx' - Za' + 4ab ax=6ab-Za' ax=Za(3b-a)
x=Z(3b-a)
mcm=(m+x)(x-n)
15. x+m = n+x x-n m+x
(x+m)' = (x+n)(x-n)
x2 + 2rnx+ m2 = x2 _ n2 2rnx= - m2 _n2
m2+n2
x=----
2m
x(Zx+ 3b )(x+ b) 2 2
16. - x+3b --Zx -bx+b mcm=x+3b
x(Zx+ 3b )(x+ b)= (x+ 3b )(Zx2 - bx+ b2)
Zx3 + Sx2b+ 3b2x= Zx3 + 5bx' - Zb2x+ 3b3 3b2x+ Zb2x= 3b3
3b
x=5
17. ~(.::.+.::.)=.!:.(.::._.::.)+ Sa+13b
4 b a 3 b a IZa
=}~(ax+bx)=.!:.(ax-bx)+ Sa+13b
4 ab 3 ab IZa
3ax+3bx ax-bx Sa+13b =}---=---+--- mcm=IZab
4ab 3ab IZa
3(3ax+ 3bx)=4(ax- bx)+ b (Sa+ I3b) 9ax+9bx=4ax-4bx+Sab+ 13b' Sax+ I3bx=Sab+ I3b'

x(Sa+ 13b)= b(Sa+ I3b)


x=b
x+a (X_b)2 3ab-3b2 ()
18. --3-= 3x-a + 9x-3a mcm=3 3x-a
(x+a)(3x-a)=3(x-b)' +3ab-3b2
3x2 + Zax- a2 = 3x2 - 6bx+ 3b2 + 3ab- 3b2 Zax+ 6bx= a2 + 3ab Zx(a+3b)=a(a+3b)
a x=-
Z
Sx+a Sx-b ()()
19 mcm= 3x+b 3x-a
. 3x+b = 3x-a
(3x- a )(Sx+ a)= (Sx- b)(3x+ b)
ISx2 - 2ax- a2 = ISx2 + 2bx- b2 - 2ax- 2bx= a2 _b2
- 2x(a +b)= (a +b )(a- b)
b-a
x=--
2
(x+a)' -(x-a)' =a(2x+ab)
x' + 2ax+ a' - x' + 2ax- a' = 2ax+ a'b 4ax= 2ax+ a'b 2ax=a'b
ab
x=-
2
2x-3a lla
21. ----2-, ,
x+4a x--16a-
(2x- 3a)(x- 4a)- 2(x' -16a')= lla
2x' - Ilax+ I2a' - 2x' + 32a' = Ila -llax+44a'=lla
-l1ax= lla - 44a'
mcm= x' -16a'
-l1ax= lla(I-4a) x=-(1-4a)
x=4a-I
1 x' x+ a
+ - mcm=a(x+a)
22. x+a a'+ax --a-
a+x'=(x+a)'
a+ x' = x' +2ax+ a' a-a'=2ax
a(l-a)
-----=x
2a
I-a
---=x
2
2(a+x) _ 3(b+x)= 6(a'-2b')
23. b a ab
2a (a+ x)- 3b(b+ x)= 6(a' - 2b')
mcm=ab
2a' + 2ax- 3h' - 3hx= 6a' -12b' 2ax- 3hx= 4a' - 9b'
x(2a- 3b)= (2a- 3b)(2a+ 3b) x=2a+3b
24. m(n - x)- (m- n )(m+ x)= n2 - ~(Zmn2 - 3m2n)
n
nm(n - x)- n (m- n )(m+ x)= n3 - (Zmn2 - 3m2n)
mcm=n
mn2 - mnx- m2n+ mn2 - mnx+ n2x= n3 - Zmn2 + 3m2n
- Zmnx+n2x=-4mn2 + 4m2n+ n3
EJERCICIO 145
1. x ---> N° buscado 3x
x-- =Zx-11 8
8x- 3x= 8(Zx-11) 5x=16x-88 -l1x=-88
-88
X=--
-11
x=8
2. x -'> N° buscado 5x x+6=3x-14
6x+ 5x= 6(3x-14) 11x= 18x- 84 -7x=-84
-84
x=--
-7
x= 12
3. X ---> N° que se resta
6x ZZ-x=l1+-
5
5(ZZ-x)=55+6x 110-5x=55+6x -l1x=-55
x=5
4. X ---> fVl que tiene diferencia
~x-2:.x=30 mcm=8
4 8
10x-7x=240
3x=240 x=80
5. x ---> fVl buscado
x-17=~x-.!-x mcm=30 5 6
30x-510=18x-5x -510=-17x
30=x
nx(n- Zm)= n(n2 - 4mn+ 4m2)
x(n-Zm)=(n-Zm)'
x=n-Zm
6. x ---> N° buscado
~+~X-49=Z(~x-l~ x)
x 3 x
=}-+-x-49=- mcm=lZ0 586
Z4x+ 45x- 5.880= ZOx 49x=5.880 x=lZ0
7. x ---> Edad de A 3x
S--->Edad de B
x+ 3; _4=Z(3;) mcm=5
5x+ 3x- ZO= 6x Zx=ZO
x= 10 años ---> Edad de A
3·10 30
=}--=-=6años---> Edad de B 5 5
8. x ---> Lo que tiene A 7x
8---> Lo que tiene B
X+90=Z(7;) mcm=8 8x+nO=14x
- 6x= -no
x=$lZ0 ---> Tiene A
7·1Z0 =}--=$105---> TieneB 8
9. X ---> Long.pieza
x- 3x =40 mcm=5 5
5x-3x=200
2x=200 x=100m
10. X -'> Lo que tenia x-(~X+iX)=39 mcm=24 24x- 8x- 3x= 936
13x= 936
x=72bs.
11. X ---> fVl buscado
3x-48=~ mcm =3
3
9x-144=x
8x=144
x=18
12. x -'> IV' buscado
4x-19=~+30 mcm=2 2
8x-38=x+60
7x=98
x=14
13. x -'> IV' buscado
80-~=x-l0 mcm=2 2
160-x=2x-20 -3x=-180
x=60
14. x -'> IV' buscado
7x -2= 4x mcm=40
8 5
35x-80=32x 3x=80 80
x=-
3
x=26-t
15. x -'> Ancho del buque 800-744= 8x
9
56= 8x
9 504=8x 504
--=x
8
63 Pies = x
EJERCICIO 146
1.
x ~ N° lnel10r
2.
x+ 1---> N° mayor
4(x+ 1)
---=x-4
5
4x+4 --=x-4
5
4x+4=5(x-4) 4x+4=5x-20 - x=-24
x ---> N° menor x+ 1---> N° mayor
7x 3(x+ 1)
--17=--- mcm=40
8 5
35x- 680= 24(x+ 1) 35x- 680= 24x+ 24 11x=704
x= 64---> N° menor
x= 24---> N° menor =} x+ 1
=24+1=25 ---> N°mayor
=}x+1
= 64+ 1= 65---> N° mayor
4.
x+ 1 ~ N° mnyor
1 1 3(x+1)
-(x+1)+-x-8=--- mcm=660
5 33 20
132 (x+ 1)+ 20x-5.280= 99(x+ 1) 132x+ 132+20x-5.280= 99x+ 99 152x- 99x=5.148+99
53x=5.247
x= 99 ~ N° menor
=:> x+ 1 = 99+ 1= 100---> N° mayor
7.
x ---> Gane ayer x+ 1 ---> Gane hoy 2x x+x+1-25=-
5
5(2x-24)=2x lOx-120=2x 8x=120
x=$15 ---> Gane ayer =} x+1=15+1=$16---> Gane hoy
9. x ---> N° menor
x+ 1 ---> N°medio x+2 ---> N° mayor
3x 5(x+ 2) -+----31=x+1 mcm=30
5 6
18x+ 25(x+ 2)- 930= 30x+ 30 18x+ 25x+50- 930= 30x+ 30 43x-30x=880+30 13x=91O
x=70 x ---> N° menor
=}x+1=70+1=71 ---> N° medio =}x+2=70+2=72 ---> N° mayor
5.
2x ~ N° menor
2x+2 -+ N° mayor (2x+2)2 -(2X)2=324 4x2+8x+4-4x2=324 8x=320 x=40
=:>2x=2-40=80-+ N° menor
3.
x ~ N° lnel10r
x+1---> N°mayor
3x 2(x+ 1)
x-81= ----- mcm=20
4 5
20x-1.620= 15x- 8(x+ 1) 20x-1.620= 15x- 8x- 8 13x= 1.612
x=124---> N° menor
=} x+ 1
=124+1=125 x ---> N° mayor
6.
x -+ Tiene B
x+ 1 -+ Tiene A
4(x+ 1)
x-8=----4 mcm=5 5
5x-40=4x+4-20
5x- 4x= 40-16
x= $24 -+ Tiene B
=:> 2x+2=80+2=82 -+ N° mayor =:> x+ 1= 24+ 1=$25=:> Tiene A
8.
x ---> N° menor
x+1 --->N°medio x+2 ---> N°mayor
x x+1 x+2
20 +27+41=9 mcm=22.140
1.107 x+ 820(x+ 1)+ 540(x+ 2)= 199.260
1.107 x+ 820x+ 820+ 540x+ 1.080= 199.260
2.467 x= 197.360
x= 80 ---> N° menor
=} x+1=80+1=81---> N° medio =} x+2=80+2=82 ---> N° mayor
x ---> N° menor x+ 1 ---> N°medio x+2 ---> N°mayor
3(x+1) _ 3x -1=J:.-(x+2) 71011
330(x+ 1)- 231x-770= 70(x+ 2) 330x+ 330- 231x-770= 70x+ 140 29x=580
10.
mcm=770
x= 20 ---> N° menor =}x+1=20+1=21 ---> N°medio
=} x+2=20+2=22 ---> N°mayor
11.
x---> Edad B x+2 ---> Edad A x-2 ---> Edad e
7(x+ 2) x+x-2-12=---
8
8(2x-14)=7(x+2) 16x-1l2=7x+14
9x= 126 x=14--->EdadB =}x+2=14+2=16---> Edad A =} x- 2= 14- 2= 12 ---> Edad e
EJERCICIO 147
1. x ~ N° mayor
59- x ~ N° menor x-5
--=2
59-x
x-5=2(59-x) x-5= l1S- 2x 3x= 123
x= 41 --+ N° mayor =>59-x=59-41=IS --+ N° menor
2. x ~ N° mayor
436- x --+ N° menor x-73
436-x =2
x-73=2(436-x) x-73=S72-2x 3x= 945
x=315 --+ N° mayor
=> 436- x= 436- 315= 121 --+ N° menor
EJERCICIO 148
1. X ---> Ganó el 1er día 2.
!.. ---> Ganó el 2º día
2
!.. ---> Ganó el 3 er día 4
x x
x+-+-=175 mcm=4 2 4
4x+2x+x=700
7x=700
x=$100 --->Ganó e/1er día
=>!..=~=$50 --->Ganó e/2ºdía 2 2
=>!..=~=$25 ---> Ganó e/3er día 4 4
12. x ---> Edad B
x-l ---> Edad A x+l ---> Edad e
(x+l)" _x2= 17(x-l)_4 5
5(x2 + 2x+ 1)-5x2 = 17(x-l)- 20 5x2 + lOx + 5 - 5x2 = 17 x - 17- 20 -7x=-42
x=6 ---> Edad B =}x-l=6-1=5 --->EdadA =}x+l=6+1=7 --->Edad e
3. x ~ N° mayor
x-44 ~ N° menor x-2
--=3
x-44
x- 2=3(x-44) x-2=3x-132 -2x=-130
x = 65 --+ N° mayor
=> x-44=65-44=21 --+ N° menor
4. x ~ N° mayor
x-56 ~ N° menor x-S
--=3
x-56
x-S= 3(x-56) x-S=3x-16S -2x=-160
x = SO --+ N° mayor
=> x-56=SO-56=24 --+ N° menor
mcm=5
5.
x ---t Parte mayor 260- x --+ Parte menor 2x-40
3(260-xr2 2x-40=6(260-x) 2x- 40= 1.560- 6x Sx= 1.600
x= 200 --+ Parte mayor => 260- x
= 260- 200= 60 --+ Parte menor x ---> Parte de A
6.
196- x ---> Parte de B 3x
8-16 196-x =1
5
3x-12S 5
---·--=1
S 196-x
5(3x-12S)= S(196- x) 15x- 640= 1.56S- Sx 23x=2.20S
x= 96soles---> Parte de A
=> 196- x
=196-96=100soles---> Parte de B
x ---> Perdió miercoles 3. x ---> Tiene A
3 ~x T{·ene B
"5 x ---> Perdió jueves 3 ~ l'
~ x ---> Perdió viernes ~ x ---> Tiene e
2 5
x+~x+~x=252 mcm=10 x+ 2x + 2x =248 mcm=15
5 2 3 5
10x+6x+5x=2.520 15x+10x+6x=3.720
21x=2.520 31x=3.720
x=$120 --->Perdió miercoles x=120 suco ---> Tiene A
=>~.120=$72 --->Perdió jueves =>~.120=80sucres---> Tiene B
5 3
=>~.120=$60 --->Perdió viernes =>~.120=48sucres---> Tiene e
2 5
4. x~ Edad A
~x~EdadB 5
~x ~ EdadC 40
x+ 3x + 9x = 73 mcm=40 5 40
40x+24x+9x=2.920 73x=2.920
x=40
40 años ~ edadde A
=}~.40=24 años ~ edaddeB 5
=}~.40=9 años ~edaddeC 40
5. x~ 1er día ..!.x~ 2º día 3
..!.x ~ 3º día 9
...2- x ~ 4º día 27
x+..!.x+..!.x+...2-x=120 mcm=27
3 9 27
27x+9x+3x+x=3.240 40x=3.240 x=81 Km.
81 Km. ~ 1er día =}"!'.81=27 Km. ~ 2º día 3
=}..!..81=9Km. ~ 3º día 9
=}...2-.81=3Km. ~ 4º día 27
6.
x~ 1ª semana ..!..!. x ~ 2ª semana 10
~ x ~ 3ª semana 100
1. 331 ~ 4ª semana 1.000
x+..!..!.x+~x+ 1.331 x=4.641
10 100 1.000
1.000x+ 1.1 OOx+ 1.21 Ox+ 1.331x=4' 641.000 4.641x=4'641.000 x=1.000 Km.
Continúa
Continuación
6. 1. 000 Km. ~ 1ª semana
=}..!..!..1. 000 = 1.1 00 Km. ~ 2ª semana 10
=}~.1.000=1.210Km. ~ 3ª semana 100
=} 1.331.1.000=1.331Km. ~ 4ª semana 1.000
7. x ~ la Persona
x
"2 ~ 2a Persona
x
40 ~ 4a Persona
x
8 ~ 3a Persona
x
400 ~ Y Persona
x x x x
x+-+-+-+-=330.500 mcm=400 2840400
400x+200x+50x+ lOx+ x= 132 '200.000
661x= 132 '200.000
x= 200.000 colones 200.000 colones ~ la Persona
x 200.000
=}"2= --2--= 100.000colones ~ 2a Persona
x 200.000
=} 8= --8--= 25.000colones ~ 3a Persona
x 200.000
=}-=---=5.000colones ~ 4a Persona
40 40
x 200.000
=} 400 = ----:;¡:oo = 500 colones ~ Y Persona
8.
x ~ Re c. en barco ~x ~ Re c. en tren 9
~x ~ Re c. en avión 18
x+ 4x + 5x =9.362 mcm=18 9 18
18x+8x+5x=168.516
31x=168.516
mcm=1.000 x=5.436 Km.
5.436 Km. ~ Re c. en barco
=}~X=~.5.436=2.416Km. ~ Rec. en tren
9 9
=}~X=~.5.436=1.510Km. ~ Re c. en avión
18 18
EJERCICIO 149
1. x ---> Tenía al principio
2(x-20)
x-20- -10 mcm=3
3
3x- 60- 2(x- 20)= 30 3x- 60- 2x+ 40= 30 x-20=30 x=50 $50 ---> Tenía al principio
2. x ---> Tenía al principio
":'-":'=21 mcm=4
2 4
2x-x=84
x=84
84 Q. ---> Tenía al principio
3. x ---> Tengo ahora
4(x+7)
x+7----=20 mcm=5 5
5x+ 35- 4(x+ 7)= 100 5x+ 35-4x- 28= 100 x+ 7= 100 x=93 $ 93 ---> Tengo ahora
4. x ---> Tenía al principio
2x 3 d"
x-5="5x---> que o
5 3 1 " _·-x=-x ---> presto
6 5 2
Luego
x-~x-..!.x=500 mcm=10 5 2 10x-4x-5x=5.000
x=5.000
5.000 bs. ---> Tenía al principio
EJERCICIO 150
1.
x ---> Edad actual A 3x ---> Edad actual B 1
x-15="6(3x-15) mcm=6
6x- 90= 3x-15
3x=75
x= 25 años ---> Edad actual A
=} 3x= 25·3= 75 años ---> Edad actual B
5. X ---> A ves en la granja ~x---> Palomas
5
x-~x=":' Resto 5 5
L~=~x ---> Gallinas 5 4 20
x- 4x _ 3x =4 mcm=20 5 20
20x-16x-3x=80
x=80
80 ---> A ves en la granja
=}~X=~.80=64 ---> Palomas 5 5
=}~X=~.80=12 ---> Gallinas 20 20
4 ---> Gallos
6. x ---> Tenía al principio
4 x d"
x-"5x="5 ---> que o
~ . ..:.=~x --->Perdí 3 5 15
x-~x-~x-8=0 mcm=15 5 15
15x-12x-2x-120=0
x=120
120 soles ---> Tenía al principio
7. x ---> Tenía al principio
x-~x+42=x+2 mcm=12 12
12x-5x+504=12x+24 -5x=-480
x=96
$ 96 ---> Tenía al principio
8. x ---> Tenía al principio x-":'-15=30 mcm=2 2
2x-x-30=60
x=90
$ 90---> Tenía al principio
9. x ---> Tenía al principio x-~x+1.300=x+1 00
4
mcm=4 4x-3x+5.200=4x+400 -3x=-4.800 x=1.600 1.600suc.---> Tenía al principio
10. x ---> Tenía al principio
3 x
x--x=- ---> quedó 4 4
2 x x
---> Libros
3 4 6
x-~x-":'=~X-38
4 6 5
mcm=60 60x-45x-10x=24x-2.280 -19x=-2.280 x=120
$120 ---> Tenía al principio
2. x ---> Edad actual B 3x ---> Edad actual A
3x+ 20= 2(x+ 20) 3x+ 20= 2x+40
x= 20 años ---> Edad actual B =}3x=3·20=60años ---> Edad actual A
3.
x ---> Edad actual A x-5=.2.-(x+5) mcm=l1 11
11x-55=9x+45
2x=100
x=50
50 años ---> Edad actual A
4. x ---> Edad actual A 2(x-6)=x+24 2x-12= x+ 24 x=36
36 años ---> Edad actual A
5. x ---> Edad hijo 3x ---> Edad padre
2(x+ 16)= 3x+ 16 2x+ 32= 3x+ 16 16=x
16 años ---> Edad hijo
=} 3x= 3·16= 48 años ---> Edad padre
6. x---> Edad padre 2
- x ---> Edad hijo 5
2(x- 8) 2x ---=--8 mcm=35
7 5
lOx- 80= 14x- 280
200=4x
50=x
50 años ---> Edad padre
=}~x=~.50=20años---> Edad hijo 5 5
7. x ---> Edad actual de A 65- x ---> Edad actual de B
5(x+ 10)
65- x+ 10=--1-2- mcm= 12
900-12x= 5x+ 50
850=17x
50=x
50 años ---> Edad actual de A
=} 65- x= 65- 50= 15años ---> Edad actual de B
8. x---> Edad padre
x- 25 ---> Edad hijo
3(x-15) x-25-15=--8--
8x-320=3x-45
5x=275
x=55
55 años ---> Edad padre
=} x-25=55-25=30años ---> Edad hijo
mcm=8
9. 2x ---> Edad padre hace 10 1lI1os
x ---> Edad hijo hace 10 1lI1os 2x+ 10 ---> Edad actual padre
x+ 10 ---> Edad actual hijo
3(x+10+10)
2x+10+10 2 mcm=2
4x+40=3x+60
x=20
=} 2x+ 10= 2·20+ 10= 50 1lI1os ---> Ed. acl. padre =} x+ 10= 20+ 10= 30 1lI1os ---
> Ed. act.hijo
10. x+ 18 ---> Edad de A x---> Edad de B
5(x-18)
x+18-18=--2--
2x=5x-90
90= 3x
30=x
30 años ---> Edad de B =}x+18=30+18=48años---> Edad A
mcm=2
11. 3x ---> Edad A x---> Edad B 3x-4+x-4=x+16 4x-8=x+16 3x=24 x=8
8 años ---> Edad B
=} 3x=3·8=24 años ---> Edad A
EJERCICIO 151
1.
x ~ Tiene B 2x ~ Tiene A
4(x+20)
2x- 20= 5
lOx-100=4x+80
6x= 180
x=30
30 soles ~ Tiene B
=} 2x = 2·30 = 60 soles ~ Tiene A 2. X~ TieneB
mcm=5
!.. ~ Tiene A 2
x-24=!..+24 2 2x-48=x+48 x=96
mcm=2
96 colones ~ Tiene B 8.
=}!..= 96 =48 colones ~ Tiene A
2 2
3. x ~ Tiene A
2x ~ Tiene B 3
S(2x-6)=x+6 mcm=5
6x-18=5x+30
x=48
$48 ~ Tiene A
=} 2x=2·48=$96 ~ Tiene B
4. x ~ Tiene A
3
S-X ~ Tiene B
3 9
s-x+30=S(x-30) mcm=5
3x+ 150= 9x- 270
420= 6x 70=x $70 ~ Tiene A 3 3
=} - x= -·70= $42 ~ Tiene B
5 5
5. X ~ Tiene A yB
x-30= x+30 mcm=2 2
2x-60=x+30
x=90
90 suc. ~ Tiene A yB
6. x ~ Tiene A 2
"3x ~ Tiene B
2 7
- x+ 22=-(x- 22)
3 5
lOx+ 330= 21x- 462
792= llx
mcm=15
72=x $72 ~ Tiene A 2 2 =}-x=-·72=$48~ Tiene B 3 3
7. x~ TieneB
~x~ Tiene A 5
~x+13=x-5 mcm=5 5
4x+65=5x-25
90=x $90 ~ Tiene B 4 4
=}-x=-·90=$72 ~ Tiene A 5 5
x~ Tiene A
!.. ~ Tiene B 2
X 1
-+-x=x+5 mcm=6 2 3
3x+2x=6x+30
5x=6x+30
30=x $30 ~ Tiene A
=}!..= 30 =$15 ~ Tiene B 2 2
9. x ~ Empezaron A y B
x-~x=x-24 mcm=5 5
5x-3x=5x-120 -3x=-120
x=40
40 balboas ~ Empezaron A y B 10. X -'> Empezaron A y B
3 x
x-"4 x="4 -'> Le queda B
x
12 -'> 3" parte de lo queda B
X x+ 288
12 + 24 = -1-2- -'> ha ganado A
¡= x- (x+1~88J mcm= 12 3x= 12x- x- 288
3x= llx- 288
- 8x= - 288 x=36
36 soles -'> Empezaron A y B
EJERCICIO 152
1. x ~ N° años que pasan
3 28+x=-(x+38) mcm=4 4
112+4x=3x+114
x=2
2 ~ años pasan
2. x ~ N° años que pasan
7 30+x='6(x+25) mcm=6
180+ 6x= 7 x+ 175
5=x
5 ~ años pasan
3. x ~ N° años hace
48-x= :0(52-X)
mcm=lO 480-lOx= 468- 9x 12=x
12 ~ años hace
4. x ~ N° años hace
1 18-x=¡(27-x)
mcm=4 72-4x=27-x 45=3x 15=x
15 ~ años hace
5. x ~ La suma de dinero 3
S-(50+x)=x+22 mcm=5
150+ 3x= 5x+ 110
40= 2x
20=x
$20 ~ La suma de dinero
6. x ~ Gastó cada uno 3
U(90-x)=50-x mcm=l1
270- 3x= 550-11x 8x=280
x=35
35Q. ~ Gastó cada uno
7. x ---7 Edad actual hermano 3
¡ x ---7 Edad actual persona
3 (x+x)+¡x+x=75
3
3x+-x=75 mcm=4 4
12x+3x=300
x=20
20 años ---7 Edad actual hennano
8. X ---7 ganó cada uno 54+x+32+x=4x+66 2x+86=4x+66 20=2x 10=x
$ 10 ---7 ganó cada uno
3 3
o=> ¡ x= ¡. 20= 15 años ---7 Edad actual persona
EJERCICIO 153
1. x+ 3 ---7 Long. recto x ---7 Ancho recto
(x+4)(x+ 1)- 22= x(x+ 3)
x' +5x+4-22=x' +3x
2x= 18 x=9
9m ---7 Ancho rect. o=>x+3=9+3=12m---7 Long.rect.
2. x ---7 Una de las dimensiones 2x ---7 La otra dimensión
(x+ 5)(2x+ 5)-160= 2x2 2x2 + 15x+ 25-160= 2x2 15x= 135 x=9 9m·18m ---7 Dimensiones

3. x+ 2 ---7 Una dimensión x ---7 Otra dimensión


(x-5)(x- 3)+ 115= x(x+ 2) x2 -8x+ 15+ 115= x2 +2x -10x=-130 x=13
15m' 13m ---7 Dimensiones
x
4. "2+24 ---7 Long.delrect.
x
"2-12 ---7 Ancho del recto
Continúa
Continuación ":'+24=x
4. 2
x+48=2x 48=x
mcm=2
5.
48m·12m ---7 Dimensiones x ---7 Long. del cuadrado Equiv. al recto
x+ 7 ---7 Long. del recto
x- 6 ---7 Ancho del recto
x2+x-42=x2
x=42
o=> x+7=42+7=49---7 Long. del recto o=> x- 6= 42- 6= 36---7 Ancho del recto 49m·36
m ---7 Dimensiones
6.
x ---7 Ancho x+ 30 ---7 Longitud
(x+ 30- 20)(x+ 15)+ 150= x(x+ 30) (x+ lO)(x+ 15)+ 150= x2 + 30x x2 + 25x+ 150+ 1
50= x2 + 30x 300=5x 60=x
60m ---7 Ancho
o=> x+ 30= 60+ 30= 90m ---7 Long. 90m . 60m ---7 Dimensiones
7. x ---7 Ancho
x+ 10 ---7 Longitud
(x+ 8)(x+ 1)= x(x+ 10)
x2+9x+8=x2+10x
8=x ---7 Ancho
o=> x+10=8+10= 18---7 Long. 18m·8m ---7 Dimensiones
9. x ---7 Le dió A a B
1 153-x=¡(12+x) mcm=4
612-4x=12+x
600=5x
120=x
120bs. ---7 Le dió A a B
EJERCICIO 154
1. x --+ Numerador
x- 2 --+ Denomin ador
x 1
---=-
x-2+7 2
x 1
x+5 2 2x=x+5
x=5
5 --+ Numerador
5-2=3 --+ Denominador
5 --+ fracción
3
x --+ Numerador x+ 1 --+ Denomin ador
x 1
---=-
x+1+15 3
x 1
--=-
x+16 3
3x=x+16 2x=16
x=8
8 --+ Numerador
8+1=9 --+ Denominador
~ --+ Fracción
9
3. x- 8 --+ Numerador
2.
x ---t Denolninador
x- 8+ 1 3
~=¡
x-7 3
x+ 1 - 4
4(x-7)= 3(x+ 1) 4x-28=3x+3 x=31
31- 8 = 23 --+ Numerador 31 --+ Deno min ador
23
----t Fracción 31
4.
x ---> Numerador 2x+1---> Denominador x-4 1
2x+1 =3
3(x-4)=2x+1 3x-12=2x+1
x=13
13 ---> Numerador
2·13+ 1= 27 ---> Deno minador 13 27
---> Fracción
7.
x ---> Numerador 3x-1---> Denominador
x+8 11
------
3x-1+4 12
x+8 11
----
3x+3 12
12(x+ 8)= 33(x+ 1) 12x+96= 33x+33 63=21x 3=x
3 ---> Numerador 3·3-1=8---> Denominador
3 8
---> Fracción
EJERCICIO 155
1.
x ---> cifra de unidades x+ 2 ---> cifra de decenas
1O(x+2)+x
lOx+20+x
11x + 20 ---> El Número 11x+20
----7
2(x+ 1) -
11x+ 20= 14(x+ 1) 11x+ 20= 14x+ 14
6=3x 2=x
2 ---> cifra de unidades
2+ 2= 4 ---> cifra de decenas 42 ---> N° buscado
5.
x ---> Numerador 2x+ 6---> De/lO minador
x+15 4
2x+6-1 3 x+15 4
----
2x+5 3
3(x+ 15)=4(2x+5) 3x+45= 8x+ 20 25=5x
5=x
5 ---> Numerador
2·5+ 6= 16 ---> De/lO minador
5
---> Fracción 16
8.
x ---> Numerador x-22---> Denominador
x x-15
-------=3 mcm=x-22 x-22 x-22
x- (x-15)= 3(x- 22)
15=3x-66 81= 3x 27=x
27 ---> Numerador 27-22=5 ---> Denominador
27 5
---> Fracción
2.
x ---> cifra de unidades x - 4 ---> cifra de decenas
1O(x-4)+ x
lOx-40+x
llx-40 ---> El Número llx-40
2(x_2(4
llx-40=8x-16 3x=24
x=8
8 ---> cifra de unidades
8 - 4 = 4 ---> cifra de decenas 48 ---> N° buscado
6.
x ---> Numerador x+1---> Denominador
x+:+4 -3(X:1J-2
_x_=~_2 mcm= (x+5)(x+ 1) x+5 x+1
x(x+ 1)= 3x(x+5)- 2(x+5)(x+ 1) x2 + x= 3x2 + 15x- 2x2 -12x-1O x= 3x-1O
1O=2x
5=x
5 ---> Numerador
5+ 1= 6 ---> Deno minador
5
---> Fracción 6
3. x ---> cifra de unidades 2x ---> cifra de decenas 1O(2x)+x-9
21x-9 ---> N° disminuido en 9
21x- 9 --=6 3x
21x-9=18x
3x=9 x=3
63 ---> N° buscado
4.
x ~ cifra de unidades x+ 1 ~ cifra de decenas
lO(x+ 1)+ x
3(l1x+ 10)
33x+30~ N° multip.*3 33x+30=21(2x+1) 33x+ 30=42x+ 21
9=9x l=x
~ Cifra de unidades
1 + 1= 2 ~ Cifra de decenas 21 ~ N° buscado
5.
x ~ cifra de unidades 7 - x ~ cifra de decenas
1O(7-x)+x+8
78- 9x ~ N° aumentado en 8
7(8-9X)=6
27-x
78-9x=12(7-x) 78-9x=84-12x 3x=6
x=2
52 ~ N° buscado
6. x ~ cifra de unidades
x+ 2 ~ cifra de decenas
lO(x+ 2)+x
llx+ 20 ~ El Número 11x+ 20- 27 = lOx
llx-7= lOx
x=7
7 ~ cifra de unidades
7 + 2= 9 ~ cifra de decenas 97 ~ N° buscado
7. x ~ cifra de unidades 2x ~ cifra de decenas 1O(2x)+x-4
21x-4 ~ N° dismin en4 21x-4
--=20
2x-x
21x-4=20x
x=4
84 ~ N° buscado
EJERCICIO 156
1. X ~ Días trabaj. juntos ..!.+~=..!. mcm=6x
3 6 x
2x+x=6
3x=6 x=2
2 días ~ Hacen la obra
2. x ~ Tiempo en llenar depósito ....!...+....!...=..!. mcm=20x
10 20 x
2x+x=20
3x=20
20
x=-
3
x=6t
6tmin. ~ En llenar depósito
3. x ~ Hacen obra juntos ..!.+..!.+....!...=..!. mcm=12x 4 6 12 x 3x+2x+x=12
6x=12 x=2
2 días ~ Hacen obra juntos
4. x ~ Hacen obra juntos
1 1 1 1
-+-+-=-
1~ 6 2% x
2 1 5 1
-+-+-=- mcm=12x 3 6 12 x
Continúa
EJERCICIO 157
1.
Continuación
4. 8x+2x+5x=12 15x=12 12
x=-
15
4
x=-
5
~ de día hacen la obra 5
5. x ~ Tiempo en llenar depósito ..!.+..!.+....!...=..!. mcm=60x
5 6 12 X
12x+ 1 Ox+5x=60 27x=60 60
x=-
27
x=2% 2% min ~ Llenar el depósito
6. x ~ Tiempo en llenar depósito ..!.+..!._....!...=..!. mcm=40x 4 8 20 x 10x+5x-2
x=40
13x=40
40
x=-
13
x=3*
3* mino ~ Llenarel depósito
ABCO=x
AB=5
BC=lS-
12 CO=30
x=5+30+~ 12
x=35+~ 12
12x=420+x 11x=420
_ 420 =38.E..
x- 11 11
2.
AB=x BO=15 AC=50 CO=..!.-
12
AB+BO=AC+CO
x+15=50+~ mcm=12 12
12x+ 180=600+ X
11x=420
420
x=-
11
x=38fr
AB=x BO=45 AC=50
CO=~
12
AC+CO=AB+BO
50+~=x+45 mcm=12 12
600+x=12x+540 60=11x
60
-=x
11
5fT=x
3.
AB=x BO=30 AC=40
CO=~
12
AB+BO=AC+CO x+30=40+~ mcm=12 12
12x+360=480+ x
11x=120
120
x=-
11
x=10*
4.
A B 12
ft'
6
e
AB=~
12
BC=30 ABC=x ABC=AB+BC
x=~+30 mcm=12 12
12x=x+360
11x=360
360
x=-
11
x=32*
5.
ABCO=x AB=10 BC=.!.... 12 CO=15
ABCO= AB+ BC+ CO x=10+.!....+15
12
x=25+'!""
12
mcm=12 12x=300+x 11x=300
300
X=-
11
x=27it
6.
ABC=x
AB=20
BC=~
12
ABC=AB+BC
x=20+~ mcm=12 12
12x=240+x
11x=240
240
x=-
11
x=21*
7.
ABCO=x
AB=30
BC=-.!....
12
CO=15 ABCO=AB+BC+CO
x=30+-.!....+15 mcm=12 12 12x=360+x+180
11x=540
540
x=-
11
x=49n
AB=x BO=15 AC=30 CO=-.!....
12 AB+BO=AC+CO
x+15=30+-.!....
12
x--.!....=15 mcm=12 12
12x-x=180
11x=180
180
x=-
11
x=161r
8.
ABC=x
AB=50
BC=-.!....
12
ABC=AB+BC
x=50+-.!.... mcm=12 12 12x=600+x
11x=600
600
x=-
11
x=54*
9.
AB=x BO=15 AC=35 CO=-.!....
12 AB+BO=AC+CO
x+15 = 35+-.!.... 12 12x+ 180=420+ X 11x=240
240
x=-
11
x=21*
10.
ABCO=x AB=15 BC=.!.... 12 CO=5
ABCO= AB+ BC + CO
x=15+.!....+5 12
x=20+'!"" mcm=12 12
12x=240+x
11x=240
240
X=-
11
x=21*
11.
ABCO=x
AB=40
BC=-.!....
12
CO=10 ABCO=AB+BC+CO x= 40 +-.!.... + 1 O 12
x=50+-.!.... mcm=12 12 12x=600+x
11x=600
600
x=-
11
x=54* Continúa
11. Continuación
AB=x BO=10 AC=40 CO=l!....
12 AB+BO=AC+CO
x+10=40+l!....
12
x-l!....=30 12 mcm=12 12x-x=360 11x=360 360
x=--
11
x=32fT
3. x ~ fVl buscado x+6
--+5
8
x+46 .
-- ~ Cociente sumado 5
8
x+46
-8- x+46
--=--~Nueva sum-cen2
2 16
x+46 =4
16 x+46=64
x=18 ~ fVl buscado
EJERCICIO 158
1. x ~ N° mayor
x-6 ~ N° menor
'::'-1O=~(x-6) mcm=8
2 8
4x- 80= 3x-18
x= 62 ~ N° mayor 62-6=56 ~ N° menor
2. x ~ Le dió A a B 11
1O(120-x)=90+x mcm=lO
1.320-11x= 900+ lOx 420=21x
20=x
$ 20 ~ Le dió A a B
4. x ~ Persona favorecida 5
- x ~ Persona que recibió menos 7
x+~x=48.000 mcm=7
7
7x+5x=336.000
12x= 336.000
x=28.000
28.000 soles ~ Pers. favorecida
~.28.000 =20.000
7
20.000soles~ Pers. que rec.men.
5.
x ---> Parte mayor
84- x ---> Parte menor
~x=.!.(84-x)
10 4
2x=5(84-x) 2x=420-5x 7x=420
x=60
mcm=20
60 ---> Parte mayor 84-60=24 ---> Parte menor
6.
x ---> Parte mayor 120 - x ---> Parte menor
120-X=~X mcm=5 5
600-5x=3x
600=8x
75 = x ---> Parte mayor 120 - 75 = 45 ---> Parte menor
7.
x ---> Sueldo mensual
x 3 7
-+-x=-x ---> mensual
2 8 8
15X-15G·x )=300 mcm=8 120x-105x= 2.400
15x= 2.400
x=160
$160 ---> Sueldo mensual
8. x ---> Lo que tenía
.2. x ---> Gastó en ropa 5
~ x ---> Gastó en libros 8
9.
x---> Edad deA ~x ---> Edad deB 5
3...~x=~x ---> Edad de C
3 5 15
2 4
x+-x+-x=25 mcm=15
5 15
15x+6x+4x=375 25x=375
x=15
15 años ---> Edad de A
~.15=6años ---> Edad de B 5
~.15 =4 años ---> Edad de C 15
10. x ---> Costo auto 8.000+~=x+2.000 mcm=3 3
24.000+x=3x+6.000 18.000=2x
9.000=x
9.000bs---> Costo auto
11.
x ---> Libros compre 7x _ 5x=8 mcm=2 2 2
7x-5x=16
2x=16
x=8 ---> Lib. compre
12. x ---> Cierto N° de libros
3x ---> Vr.cierto N° de libros 4
3X(~)= 21x ---> Vr.~del N0
4 10 40 4
mcm=40 de lib. ant.
x-.2.x-~x-1 02=0 5 8 40x-8x-15x-4.080=0
17x=4.080 x=240
.2..240=$48---> Gastó en ropa 5
~.240=$90---> Gastó en libros 8
3x 21x 51x -+-=- ---> Vr.totalde
4 40 40
lib. compré
3x 7x
x+-=- ---> total lib. comp. 4 4
Continúa
12. Continuación
7 x .~= 21x ---> Vr. total vta.
4 2 8
de todos los lib.
Luego
21x _ 51x =54 mcm=40
8 40
105x-51x=2.160 54x=2.160 x=40
7x = 7·40 =70
4 4
70 ---> Total libros comprados
13. x ---> 1ª parte
5x
- ---> 2ª parte
6
3 5x 1 a
-·-=-x ---> 3- parte
5 6 2
.2. . .2.X=.2.X---> 4ª parte 326
5x 1 1
x+-+-x+-x=150
6 2 6
mcm=6 6x+5x+3x+ x=900 15x=900 x=60
60 ---> 1ª parte
~.60=50 ---> 2ª parte 6
.2..60=30 ---> 3ª parte 2
.2..60=10 ---> 4ª parte 6
14.
ABC=x AB=45 BC=-.!....
12
ABC= AB+BC
x=45+-.!.... mcm=12 12 12x=540+x
11x=540
540
x=--
11
x=49-rr
15. x ~ Edad A x-lO ~ Edad B
3 x-1O-15=-(x-15) mcm=4 4
4x-40-60=3x-45
4x-100=3x-45
x=55
55 años ~ Edad A 55-10= 45 años ~ Edad B
16. x ~ Puede hacerla A
1 1 1
-+-=- mcm=60x 10 x 6
6x+60=10x
60=4x 15=x
15 días ~ Puede hacerla A x ~ Parte mayor
650 - x ~ Parte menor
17.
":'=650-x-50 5
":'=600-x mcm=5 5
x=3.000-5x
6x=3.000 x=500
500 ~ Parte mayor =}650-500=150~ Parte menor
18. x ~ Edad actual B
x
4 ~ Edad actual A
'::'-lO=~(x-lO) mcm=40
4 10
lOx-400=4x-40
6x=360
x=60
60 años ~ Edad actual B 60
4= 15 años ~ Edad actual A
19. x ~ N° mayor x-l ~ N° menor
x' - (x-Ir - 43= ~(x-l) 11
, , 1 ( )
x--x-+2x-I-43=- x-l
11
1
2x- 44= -(x-l) 11
11(2x-44)= x-l 22x-484= x-l 21x= 483 x=23
23 ~ N° mayor 23-1= 22 ~ N° menor
20. x ~ Vr. sortija
(3.000+X) 24.
7 12 = 1.500+ x mcm= 12
21.000+ 7 x= 18.000+ 12x 3.000=5x
600= x
600 sucres ~ Vr. sortija
21.
x ~ fIIl personas
1 6x '" . d
x+5"x=s ~ IV- mas e pers.
120 100
""6X=-X
5
100 120
--=---2 mcm=x x x
100=120-2x
2x=20
x=10
10 personas ~ Se repartió $
22. x ~ libros que compró x+":'= 5x ~ Libros más
4 4
400 320 5x=-X
4
320 400
--=---2 mcm=x
x x
320=400-2x
2x=80
x=40
40 libros ~ compró
400 =$10 ~Pagóporc/ u 40
23.
x ~ Suma repartida
x
-- 30 ~ Re cibió A 2
3x
7+20~ Recibió B
x 3x
"2- 30+ 7+ 20+ 30= x
mcm=14
7 x+ 6x+ 280= 14x 280=x
280
2-30=$110 ~ Rec. A
3(280)
-7-+20=$140 ~ Rec. B
x ~ Lib. comprad 6x ~ Vr. de x lib.
5
x-":'= 2x ~ Resto
3 3
2x .~= 3x ~ Vr. vta resto 3 4 2
3x 6x
---=9 mcm=10 2 5
15x-12x=90
3x=90
x=30
30 ~ Libros comprados
25. x ~ Fortuna
x-'::'_'::'_'::'=2.500 246
mcm=12 12x-6x-3x-2x=30.000 x=30.000 30.000 colones ~ Fortuna
26. x -¿ sueldo anual x- 3x -~-~=810
5 8 20
mcm=40 40x-24x-5x-2x=32.400 9x=32.400 x=3.600 3.600 balboas-¿ sueldo anual
27. x -¿ Ahorros
3x 5x 5x x----=- -¿Lequedaba
8 12 24
3 5x x
_._=-
5 24 8
5x -~=400 mcm=24 24 8
5x-3x=9.600
2x=9.600 x=4.800 $4.800 -¿ ahorros
28. x ~ Parte mayor 3S0-x ---> Parte menor
3x 17 ( )
3S0-x--=x-- 3S0-x
S IS
mcm=IS
S.2SO-1Sx-9x= ISx-S.9S0+ 17x -24x-32x= -11.200
-S6x=-I1.200
x=200 200 ---> Parte mayor
3S0- 200= ISO ---> Parte menor
29.
x -¿ Suma repartida $15 -¿ Recibió A x-15= B+ C
x-15-C=B C=A+B
C= 15+ (x-15- C) C=x -C
2C=x
x C=-
2
2 x x 15+15+-·-+-=x 322
x x
30+ -+ -= x mCm= 6 3 2
180+ 2x+ 3x= 6x
180= x
$180 -¿ Suma recibida
30.
x -¿ Pesos
3
¡ x -¿ N° piezasde20ctvs
2 3x x
"3·4="2 -¿ N° piezasdelOctvs
3( ) O,lOx
x+¡ 0,20x +-2-=9,60
mcm=4 4x+0,6x+0,2x=38,4 4,8x=38,4 x=8
8 -¿ Pesos
3
¡.8= 6 -¿ piezas de 20 ctvs
8
"2=4 -¿ piezasdelOctvs
Continuación
33. x2+2x+1=x2+111 2x=110 x=55
55-¿ hombres en el lado del 1" cuadrado
(55)2 +36
= 3.061 -¿ Homb.en la tropa
34.
x -¿ Lo que tenía x- 5x -20=~+16
8 4
mcm=8 8x-5x-160=2x+ 128 x=288
$ 288 -¿ tenía
x -¿ Capital primitivo
1 35. x ---> Empezó a jugar
-x -¿ 1er año 2x-60 ---> Le quedaba
5
X 4x
x--=- -¿ Le quedaba 5 5
~. 4x = 6x -¿2º año 10 5 25
4x + 6x = 26x -¿ Tenia al term. SOx-2.400-24x+720-3Sx=0
5 25 25 21x= 1.6S0
31.
e/2º año ~. 26x = 78x -¿ 3er año
5 25 125
x-~+ 6x + 78X=13.312
5 25 125
125x-25x+30x+ 78x=1'664.000 208x=1'664.000 x=8.000 8.000 Q. -¿ Capitalprimitivo
32. x -¿ Edad de A
2 x-lO= "3(x+ 5)
3x- 30= 2x+ 10
x=40
40 años -¿ Edad de A
mcm=3
33. x -¿ Canto hombres
en el lado del 1" cuadrado x2 + 36 -¿ Hombres en la tropa
(x+1)" =x2+36+75
Continúa
3 ( ) 6x-lS0 - 2x-60 =---
10 10
(6X-lS0) 7x x+x-60- -1-0- -8=0
mcm=40
x=SO so Lempiras ---> Empezó a jugar
36.
x -¿ Cifra unidades
x + 5 -¿ Cifra decenas
1O(x+5)+ x-18= 6(x+ 5+ x) lOx+50+ x-18= 12x+ 30
2=x 2 -¿ Cifra unidades
2+ 5= 7 -¿ Cifra decenas 72 -¿ N° buscado
37. x -¿ Unidades
9 - x -¿ Decenas
10(9- x)+ x- 27 = 10x+ 9- x 90-10x+ x- 27= 10x+ 9- x
54= 18x 3=x
3 -¿ Unidades 9-3=6 -¿ Decenas 63 -¿ N° buscado
38. x ---7 Mangos que había
x 2x-12
x-"3-4=--3- ---7 Quedaban
~(2X-12)+6= 2x+42
3 3 9
2x+42
-9- x+102
--2-+9=-9-
X_~_4_(2X;42)_( X+;02)=O
mcm=9
9x- 3x- 36- 2x- 42- x-102= O 3x= 180 x=60
60 ---7 Mangos había
39. x ---7 Ganó c/u 7
1O(80+x)=50+x mcm=lO
560+ 7x=500+ lOx
60= 3x
20=x
$20 ---7 Ganó c/u 43.
40. x ---7 Pluma fuente 3
"5 x ---7 Lapicero
5 3
"6 (x- 0,20)="5 x+0,30
mcm=30 25x-5=18x+9 7x= 14
x=2
$ 2 ---7 Costo la pluma 3·2
5=$1,20 ---7 Costo lapicero
41. x ---7 Tenía el lunes antes de 44.
x x+4
-+2=-- ---7 Lunes
2 2
x- ( X;4) = x; 4 ---7 Quedaba
x-4
-2- x+4
--+2=-- ---7 Martes
2 4
x-4 (X+4) x-12
--- -- =-----7 Quedaba
2 4 4
x-12
-4- x+4
--+ 2= -- ---7 Miercoles
2 8 Continúa
Continuación
41. x~12 _( X;4)=0
2x-24-x-4=0 x-28=0 x=28
mcm=8
=> $28---7 Tenía el lunes antes de
42. x ---7 Capital primitivo
x+":'-6.000- 3x-12.000 ---7 Tenía
2 2
3x-12.000
2 6.000- 3x-36.000 ---7 2º año
2 4
3x-12.000 + 3x-36.000 _ 9x-60.000 ---7 Tenía 244
9x-60.000
4 2 9x-60.000 9x-108.000
----+ -32.250 mcm=8
4 8
18x-120 .000+9x-1 08.000=258.000 27x=486.000 x=18.000
6.000- 9x-1 08.000 ---7 3º año 8
$18.000 ---7 Capital primitivo X ---7 Pr ecio traje
$15 ---7 Pr ecio bastón
s+15=3X
4
x+15-5=2s
X+ 10 ---7 Pr ecio sombrero 2
x+10 +15= 3x mcm=4
2 4
2x+20+60=3x
80=x
$ 80 ---7 Pr ecio traje
80+10 .
---=$45 ---7 PrecIo sombrero
2
X---7 Espacio recorrido por perro y conejo
Perro Conejo
2 5
? 50
supuesto Pregunta 2·50
Luego: -- ---7 Saltos del perro con respecto a la ventaja 5
supuesto Pregunta 8x Luego::3
Perro Conejo
3 8
x ?
---7 Saltos que avanza el conejo al ser alcanzado
Continúa
Continuación
46.
44. Perro Conejo
supue~o 2 5
Pregunta x ?
5x
Luego: - ~ Saltos que da el perro 2
para alcanzar al conejo
Entonces:
8x 2·50 5x 3--5-=2 mcm=6
16x-120=15x
x=120
5 ·120
-2-=300 ~ Saltos del perro
para alcanzar el conejo
AB=x AC=50
CO=-.!....
12
BO=6 AB+BO=AC+CO x+6=50+-.!.... 12
45. x ~ Espacio recorrido
por perro y liebre Perro Liebre
supuesto 3 4
Pr egunta ? 60
3·60
Luego: -- ~ Saltos del perro con 4
x--.!....=44 12 12x-x=528 11x=528 528
x=--
11
x=48
mcm=12
respecto a la ventaja Perro Liebre
supuesto 5 8
Pregunta x ?
8x
Luego: - ~ Saltos que avanza la 5
47. x ~ Aporta A 3
¡X ~ Aporta B
x 4x
x-5=5 ~ 1" año A
3x + 3.000= 3x+ 12.000
4 4 ~ 1" año B
4x 4x+8.000
5+ 1.600 5 ~ 2° año A
3x+ 12.000 .!.(3X+ 12.000)
4 9 4 mcm=36
27x+ 108.000- 3x-12.000
36
24x+ 96.000 3(8x+ 32.000)
36 36
8x+ 32.000 12 Entonces:
liebre al ser alcanzada Perro Liebre
supuesto 3 4
Pregunta x ?
4x
Luego: 3 ~ Saltos que da el perro
para alcanzar a la liebre
Entonces:
8x 3·60 4x
----=-
543
8x -45= 4x
5 3 mcm=15
24x-675=20x
4x=675
x=168,75
4
3.168,75 = 225 ~ Saltos del perro
para alcanzar la liebre
4x+ 8.000 8x+ 32.000
5 12
48x+ 96.000= 40x+ 160.000 8x=64.000
x= 8.000 8.000bs ~ Aportó A 3·8.000
4 = 6.000 bs ~ Aportó B
mcm=60
48. x ~ Años para que la edad del padre sea = a la suma de sus hijos 60+x=16+x+14+
x 60+x=30+2x
30=x
30 años ~ Edad del padre sea igual a la suma
de sus hijos
49. x ~ Km. recorridos ~+~=12 mcm=50 50 10
x+5x=600
6x=600
x=100
1 00 ~ Km. recorridos
EJERCICIO 159
1. a=30m V=S~ V'=5~ 30·S
x=--
S-5
240
x=--
3
x=SOm
2. a=160Km v=50K~
V'=-30K~ 160·50 x 50-(-30) 8.000
x=--
80
x=100 Km.
3. a=200Km V=90K~
V'=40K~ 200·90
x=---
90-40
Continúa
Continuación
so. Buey ~ $ SO P+SO=2C
C+SO= 13P 2
Luego:
P+SO =C 2
P+SO 13P
--+SO=-- mcm=2
2 2
P+SO+160=13P 240=12P 20=P
$ 20 ~ Costo el perro 20+S0 --C
mcm=2
2
20+S0=2C
100=2C
50=C
$ 50 ~ Costo el caballo
s. a=550Km v=100K~
v'=-120K~ De A.
3. x= 1S.000
50
x=360 Km de A De B.
Como la distan cia entre A y B es 200 Km
Entonces B recorrió
360 Km-200 Km=160 Km
4. a=SOKm V=90K~
V'=70K~ SO·90
x=---
90-70
7.200
x=--
20
x=360 Km
El tiempo empleado en encontrarse será. 360Km
Krnl 4 horas 90 nh
550·100 x- 100-(-120)
55.000
x=---
220
x=250 Km
Como los trenes pasan por A yB a las 8am Entonces De A. x=250Km
v=100K~
Tiempo empleado para los 250 Km. es
250 Km
m/ 2,5horas 100 K? h
2,5horas ~ 2h30min. Luego:
8am+ 2h30min= 10:30 10:30am ~ Se encuentran
6. a=70Km v=9K~
v'=-5K~
x ~ Distancia recorrida por A al encontrarse
70·9 x= 9- (-5)
630
x=-
14
x=45 Km -+ A
Como A recorrió 45Km Entonces B
70 Km-45 Km=25Km -+ B 9. a=186Km
v=v
v'=-v
186v x= v-(-v)
186v
x=--
2v
x=93Km.
EJERCICIO 162
1. b=10cm h=8cm A=b.h
2 10cm·8cm A2
A=40cnf
2. d=8m d2
A=T
(8 m)"
A=-2-
A=32m2
3. t=15s
v=9%
e=v·t
e=135m
7. A Y B distantes 291 Km =} 291 Km- 21 Km= 27 Km a=27 Km
v=5K~
v'=-4K~
27·5 x= 5-(-4)
135 x=9
x=15 Km
Luego A recorre 15Km+21Km=171Km
B recorre 291Km-171Km=12Km
4. V=9% e=108m
e 108m
t=~=} t= 9%
t=12 s
7. r=5m n=3,14 A= n ·r2
A=3,14(5m)2 A=3,14'25m2 A=78,5m2
5. b=4m c=3m a2=b2+c2
8. r=5m
n=3,14 C=2n·r C=2·3,14·5m C=10m·3,14 C=31,4m
a2 = (4m)2 + (3m)2 a2 = 16m2 + 9m2 a2= 25m2
a=·h5m2
a=5m
9. h=9m r=2m n=3,14
6. a=13m c=5m
h·n·r2 v=---
3
9m·3,14(2m)2 3
v= 12m2 ·3,14
v=37,68m2
b2 = (13m) 2 _ (5m)2 b2 = 169m2 _ 25m2 b2 = 144m2
b=.J144m2 b=12m
v
8. Recorrido tren de carga en 3horas es
42 Km (3h)= 126 Km
h
a=126Km
v=60K~
V'=42K~
126·60 x= 60-42
7.560 x=~
x=420 Km
420 Km~ Alcanza el tren de pasajeros al de carga El tiempo empleado es:
420 Km
mi -7horas 60Kjh
10. P=8,24g V=8cnf 0= E..
v
0= 8,24g 8cm3
D=1,03%nf
11. L=4m
L'.J3
A=-4-
(4m)2.J3 A= 4
A=4m2.J3 A=6,92m2
12. N= 6 5=180'(6-2) 5=180'(4) 5=720'
EJERCICIO 163
1. e= v· t v=~ Rta t
t=~ Rta v
A=h (b:b')
2A=h(b+b') 2A
--=h Rta b+b'
3. e=..!.a.f
2
2e=a·f 2e
f=a Rta
A=..!.a./.n
4. 2
2A=a·/·n 2A=a Rta /·n
~=/ Rta n·a
2.
2A=n Rta /·a
~=r
Rta
6. a2 =b2 + cf -2bx
a2 _b2 - cf =-2bx a2_b2_cf
------=-x
2b
b2+e2_a2 ------x Rta 2b
7. V= Vo+a·t V-a' t= \fa V- \fa=a·t
V- \fa =a Rta t
Rta
V- \fa =t Rta a
8. V= Vo-a·t V+a·t=\fa Rta a·t= \fa- V
\l.-V
a=_o_
t
\l.-V t=_o_ Rta
a
Rta
9. D=~ V
DV=P
V=~ O
P=VD
Rta
Rta
10. a2=b2+e2 a2_e2=b2
Ja2-cf =b Rta a2_b2=e2
Ja2 _b2 = e Rta 11. V=a·t
~=t Rta
a
V a=- Rta t
1 1 1
12. T¡;-p
LLj·p-f·p'
f'p',p f'p',p
p,·p=f(p-p')
, f(p-p')
p=p
f·p f·p'
p'=---
p p
p'=f-U
p
p,+U=f
p
p'.p+ f·p' =f P
p'(p+ f)=p·f p·f
p'=-- Rta
p+f
Continúa
Continuación p'·p+f·p'
12. - f
p
p'.p f·p' -+-=f
p p
f·p' p'+--=f p
f,p'=f-p'
p
f·p'=p(f-p') f·p' Rta f-p'=P
13. v=~ V=~
d
V·d=e Rta e
d=7 Rta
1
e= \fa. t+-a· f 2
2e=2\fa·t+a·f
2e-a·f=2\fa·t
2e-a·f = \fa Rta 2·t
14.
15.
1 ?
e=Vo·t-'2a.r
2e=2Vo·t-a·t2 2e+ a· t2 = 2Vo·t 2e+a·t2
-----Vo Rta
2·t
a· t2 = 2Vo ·t- 2e 2Vo·t-2e a-
t2
2(Vo·t-e)
a=---- Rta t2
16.
h·Jr·f V=3
3V =h Rta Jr·f
~=f
Jr·h
~ 3v =r Rta Jr·h
17.
/= e· t·r 100 100/= e· t·r
100/=e Rta t·r
100/=t Rta r·e
100/=r Rta e· t
18. E=/·R ~=R Rta /
~=/Rta
R
19.
V'
e=-
2a
2ae= V'
~=VRta
u=a+(n-l)r
20.
u- (n-l)r= aRta u-a=(n-l)r
u-a --=n-l r
u-a --+l=n
r
u-a+r ---=n Rta r
u-a+r=nr
u-a=nr-r
u-a=r(n-l)
u-a
--=r Rta
n-l
21. u=a.rn-1
U
n:T=a Rta r
U n-1
-=r
a
n-1H=r Rta
22. /= Q
t
Q=f.t Rta
Q=t Rta /
EJERCICIO 164
1. x-5<2x-6 -5+6<2x-x 1<x
1 ~ Lim. inf erior de x
2. 5x-12>3x-4 5x-3x>12-4 2x>8 x>4
4~ Lim. inf eror de x x-6>21-8x x+8x>21+6
9x>27
x>3
3~ Lim. inf erior de x
3.
4. 3x-14<7x-2 -14+2<7x-3x
-12<4x
-3<x
2x-~>~+10
5. 3 3
6x-5>x+30 6x-x>30+5 5x>35 x>7
3x-4+":'< 5x +2 4 2 12x-16+x<10x+8 12x+x-10x<16+8 3x<24
6.
x<8
7.
x2 -2x+ 1-7> x2 -4x+4 -6-4>-4x+2x
-1O>-2x
1O<2x 5<x
EJERCICIO 165
1. x-3>5 y 2x+5>17
x-3>5 2x+5>17
x>5+3 2x>12
x>8 x>6
x>8 Rta
8. (x+2)(x-1)+26«x+4)(x+5) x2 + x- 2+ 26< x2 + 9x+ 20
24-20<9x-x 4<8x
1
-<x
2
9. 3(x- 2)+ 2x(x+ 3» (2x-1)(x+ 4)
3x- 6+ 2x2 +6x>2x2 +7x-4 9x-6>7x-4 9x-7x>-4+6 2x>2
x>1
10.6(x2+1)-(2x-4)(3x+2)<3(5x+21) 6x2 + 6- 6x2 + 8x+ 8 < 15x+ 63 8x+14<15x+63 8x-
15x< 63-14 -7x<49 7x>-49 x>-7
x2 + x- 20< x2 -5x+ 6 5x+x<20+6 6x<26
26 x<(i
13 x<3
13.
2x+1 2x+5
-->--
3x-1 3x+2
(3x+ 2 )(2x+ 1» (2x+ 5)(3x-1) 6x2 + 7 x+ 2> 6x2 + 13x- 5
2+5>13x-7x 7>6x
7
->x
6
14.
x+ 3 4 x ----->-
3 x+2 3
(x+ 2)(x+ 3)-12> x(x+ 2)
x2 + 5x+ 6-12> x2 + 2x 5x-2x>6 3x>6 x>2
5 20 2
15 -----<--
. 3x+1 9x2-1 3x-1
5(3x-1)- 20< 2(3x+ 1) 15x-5-20<6x+2 15x- 6x< 25+ 2 9x<27 x<3
1 1 1
16 . x"+x x"-x x"-1
x-1>x+1-x
x>2
17. x ~ /IP s. enteros
(2x-3)" +4x2(x-7)<4(x-2)' 12.
4x2 -12x+ 9+4x3 - 28x2 < 4x3 - 24x2 +48x- 32
-12x-48x< -9- 32
-60x<-41
60x>41 41 x>>60
~+15>":'+1
3 2
2x+90>3x+6 90-6>3x-2x 84>x
/IP s. enteros menores que 84 Rta
5-x>-6 2x+9>3x 3. 6x+5>4x+11 4-2x>10-5x
2. y
-x>-6-5 -x>-9 2x>6 3x>6
x<11 x<9 x>3 x>2
x<9 Rta x>3 Rta
4. 5x-4>7x-16 y 8-7x<16-15x
12>2x 8x<8
6>x x<1
x<1 Rta
5.
":'-3> ":'+2
2 4
2x-12>x+8 x>20
y 2x+~<6x-23""
5 5
10x+3<30x-117 120<20x
6<x x>20 Rta
6. 2x-3<x+10 y 2x-x<10+3 x<13 10<x<13
6x-4>5x+6 6x-5x>6+4 x>10 Rta
7.
":'-1>":'-1.1. y
4 3 2
3x-12>4x-18 18-12>4x-3x 6>x
2x-32>X+~ 5 5
10x-18>5x+2 5x>20 x>4
4<x<6 Rta
x' + x- 2< x' - x- 6
x'+8x+1S>x'+7x+12 x>-3
2x<-4 x<-2
-3<x<-2
Rta
9.
x+2 x-2
-->--
x+8 x+3
y
x-1 x-S
--<--
x+4 x-1
(x+ 2)(x+ 3» (x- 2)(x+ 8)
(x-1r «x-S)(x+4)
x'+Sx+6>x'+6x-16 x'-2x+1<x'-x-20
22>x 21<x
21<x<22 Rta
10. X ---'> IV" s. enteros
3x-6>":'+4 y 4x+8<3x+15
2
6x-12>x+8 x<7
5x>20
x>4
4<x<7 Luego son 5 y 6 Rta
EJERCICIO 166
4. x=KYZ A=!5. 6. B=!i
1. x=Ky 2. x=Ky 3. A=KBC 5. A
4=K(3)(6) B 1 K
9=K6 2=K3 30= K (2)(S) 4 3=!5. "3=j
-=K -
~=K ~=K 30 18 5 2
-=K 15=K ~=2K
6 3 10 2
-=K 3
x=~.8 2 3=K 9 A=!5.
24=-y 1O=Ky9 ~=K
2 3 A=3(7)(4) 7
2 6
x=12 3·24 A=~=2.1.
-2-=y A=84 10=9y9 1
7 7 -
1 6 1 1
10= 2y -=-=}-=-
36=y 12 A 12 6A
5=y =} 6A=12 =} A=2
A=KB K 11. A ---'> Area del 12. Ap ---7 Area piramide
x=Ky x=K(y'-1) 10. x---
7. 8. 9. - y'-1 cuadrado
e Z a ---7 apotema
8= K12 3= 4K 48= K(S2 -1) K d ---'> Diagonal pb ---7 perim. de
la b.
9---
3 8 48= K(2S-1) - (3'-1) A= Kd' Ap=Kapb
8=4K 24=4K 48 K 18m2 = K(6m)' 480m2 = K(12m)(80m)
2=K 6=K -=K 9=- 480m2 = K(960m2)
24 8 18m2
2·7 10=~ 2=K 72=K --=K 480m2
A=- 36m2 ---K
14 Z x= 2(72 -1) 72 1 960m2 -
A=1 Z= 42 x= (S'-1) -=K 1
x= 2-48 2 -=K
10 2
x=96 72 A=2.(lOm)' 1
Z=4t x=- Ap = 2( 6m) (40m)
24 2
x=3 100m , 2
240m
A=-- Ap=-2-
2
A=SOm2 Ap= 120m 2
13. Vp -7 Vol. piramide h -7 Altura
Ab -7 Area base Vp= KhAb
96m3 = K.8m(36m2) 96m3 = K(288m3)
1
3=K
Vp= i'12m(64m2) 768m3 Vp=--
3
Vp=256m3
EJERCICIO 167
1. A=KB 10=K5
2=K =} A=2B
2. e -7Espacio
V -7 Velocidad t -7 Tiempo e=KVt
Si K=1=} e= Vt
3. Ar -7 Area rombo D -7 Diag mayor D' -7 Diag menor A=KDD'
24 cnf =K·8 cm·6 cm 24 cnf =K·48 cnf
"!'=K
2
A=..!.DD'
2
4. A=KB C
K=3 =}A= 3B C
5. C=Kr
132cm=K·21cm 132cm =K 21cm
44 =K 7
C= 44 r 7
14. Aa -7 Area circulo r -7 Radio
Ao=Kr2
616cm2 = K(14cm)2 616cm2
196cm2 = K
22 -=K 7
Ao= 22 (7cmY 7
Ao=22'7cm2 Ao=154cm2
6. e -7 Espacio (h) t -7 Tiempo
h -7 Altura (e) e= K·t2
19 ,6m= K(2s)2 19,6m 4T=K
m 4,9,=K
s-
e=4,9t2
7. F=KmVZ r
8. y -7Función
x -7 Vble. indep. y=2x+3
9. L -7 Lado de un cuad
inscrito en un circulo r-7 Radio
L=K·r
K=.J2
L=.J2. r
10. Y -7 Función
x -7 Vble. indep.
Jf y=-+2 2
15. Lo -7 Long. circunf r -7Radio
Lo=Kr 44cm=K·7cm
44 =K
7
66cm= 44r
7 462cm=44r 462
--cm=r
44
10tcm=r
16.
K
x=-
r
4=~
62
36·4=K 144=K
9= 144
r
r= 144 9
y=±P:4
y= +.,g - 3
y=±4
5-2x 11 y=--
. 3
12. F -7 Fuerza de atracc. m -7 Masa cuerpo1 m'-7Masa cuerpo2
d -7 Distan cia
K·m·m' F=d2
13. h -7 Altura ~
A -7 Area del ~ B-7 Base h=K.A
B
10 K·20cm2 cm4cm
10cm=K·5cm
2=K
h=2A B
14. W -7 Energ. cinetica m -7 Masa
V -7 Velocidad W=KmVZ
K="!'
2 W=..!.mVZ 2
15. B ~ Area base piramide V~ Volumen
h~Altura
B=KV
h
100= K·400
12 1.200=K·400
3=K
B=3V
h
EJERCICIO 173
1. x+y=5 y=5-x
5-x ~ Entero y+
Para que y sea entero y+ el mayor valor que podemos dar a x es 4. Por tan to las
soluciones enteras y + son:
x=1 y=4
x=2 y=3
x=3 y=2
x=4 y=1
2. 2x+3y=37 2x=37-3y x= 37-3y 2
x= 36 +.2._ 2y _1. 2 222
x=18-y+ 1-y
2
x-18+y= 1-y
2
1-y ~ Entero 2
3-3y ~ Entero
2
~+.2._ 2y_1. 2 2 2 2
1- y+ 1- y ~ Entero 2
Continúa
16. x=~ Y
2=~ 5
10=K 10
x=-
Y
2. Continuación
1- Y
--=ln
2
1- y=2m -y=2m-1 y=1-2m
=} 2x+3(1-2m)=37 2x+3-6m=37 2x=34+6m
2(17+ 3m)
x-
2
x=17+3m y=1-2m ~ m entero x=17+3m
m=O y=l x=17 sol
m=l y=-l ~ no
m=-l y=3 x=14 sol
m=-2 y=S x=ll sol
m=-3 y=7 x=8 sol
m=-4 y=9 x=S sol
m=-S y=ll x=2 sol
m=-6 y=13 x=-l ~ no
3. 3x+5y=43 3x=43-5y 43-5y
x=---
3
42 1 3y 2y
x=-+-----
3 3 3 3
1-2y x=14-y+--
3
Continúa
17. x=.!.... y2
3='!""
22 12=K 12 x=7
A=KB
18. C
3=K.24
4 12=K·24
.2.= K
2
..!.B A=L C
A=~ 2C
3. Continuación
1-2y x-14+Y=-3-
1-2y
-3- ---> Entero
2-4y
-3- ---> Entero
3._ 3y _ 1y
3 3 3
2- Y -Y+-3-
2- Y
--=m
3
2- y=3m
- y=3m-2 y=2-3m 3x+S(2-3m)=43
3x+ lO-lSm= 43 3x=33+ lSm
3(1l+Sm)
x=
3
x=ll+Sm
y=2-3m x=ll+Sm
m=O x=ll
m=l x= 16
m=-l x=6 m=-2 x=l m=-3 x=-4
y= 2 sol y=-l ---> No y= S sol y= 8 sol
---> No
4. x+3y=9
x=9-3y 9-3y ---> Entero 3- y ---> Entero 3- y=m
- y=m-3 y=3-m x+3(3-m)=9 x+9-3m=9 x=3m
y=3-m x=3m
m=O x=O y=3 ---> No
m=l x=3 y=2 sol
m=2 x=6 y=l sol
m=3 x=9 y=O ---> No
m=4 x=12 y=-l ---> No
5. 7 x+ 8y= l1S 7x=l1S-8y l1S- 8y
X=---
7
112 3 7y Y
x=-+-----
7 7 7 7
3- Y x=16- Y+-7-
3- Y
7 ---> Entero
24-8y
--7- ---> Entero
24 7y Y
-----
7 7 7
24- Y -Y+-7-
24- Y
--=m
7
24- y=7m
- y=7m-24 y=24-7m
7 x+ 8(24-7m)= l1S
7 x+ 192- S6m= 11S 7x-S6m=-77
7(8m-11)
x-
7
x=8m-11
Continúa
5. Continuación y=24-7m x=8m-11
m=O x=-11 --->No
m=1 x=-3 --->No
m=2 x=5 y=10 sol
m=3 x=13 y=3 sol m=4 x=21 y=-4 --->No m=-1 x=-19 --->No
6.1Sx+7y=136
7y= 136-1Sx 136-1Sx 7
133 3 14x x y=7 7 7 7
3-x y=19-2x+--
7
3-x y-19+2x=--
7
3-x
y
---> Entero 7
24-8x 7 24 7x x
7 7 7
24-x -x+--
7
---> Entero
24-x
--=ln
7
24-x=7m
-x=7m-24
x=24-7m
lS(24-7m)+ 7y= 136 360-10Sm+ 7y= 136 -10Sm+ 7y= - 224
7(lSm- 32)
y- 7
y=lSm-32
x=24-7m y=lSm-32
m=O x=24 y=-32 ---> No m=l x=17 y=-17 ---> No m=2 x=10 y=-2 ---> No m=3 x=3 y=13
sol
m=4 x=-4 ---> No
m=-l x=-31 ---> No
x=31 y=-47 ---> No
7. x+Sy=24 x=24-Sy x=24+1-1-Sy 2S 1 Sy
x=-----
S S S
1 x+j=S- y
S- y=m
- y=m-S y=S-m x+S(S-m)=24 x+2S-Sm=24 x=Sm-1
y=S-m x=Sm-1
m=O x=-l ---> No
m=l x=4 y=4 sol
m=2 x=9 y=3 sol
m=3 x=14 y=2 sol
m=4 x=19 y=l sol
m=S x=24 y=O ---> No
m=6 x=29 y=-l ---> No
m=-l x=-6 ---> No
8. 9x+ 11y=203 9x=203-11y x- 203-11y 9
198 5 9y 2y
x=--+-----
9 9 9 9
5-2y x=22-y+--
9
5-2y x-22+y=--
9
5-2y --->Entero 9
25-10y --->Entero 9
~+2._ 9y_1. 9 9 9 9
2-y+ 7-y
9
7-y =m
9
7-y=9m -y=9m-7 y=7-9m Continúa
8. Continuación
9x+ 11(7 - 9m)= 203 9x+ 77 - 99m= 203
9(14+ 11m) 9 x=14+11m
x
y=7-9m x=14+11m
m=O x=14 y=7 sol
m=l x=25 y=-2 --->No
m=-l x=3 y= 16 sol
m=-2 x=-8 ---> No
9.5x+2y=73 2y=73-5x 73-5x y=--
2
72 1 4x x y=222 2
1-x y=362
1-x y-36+2x=--
2
1-x --=ln
2
1-x=2m -x=2m-1
x= 1-2m
5(1- 2m)+ 2y=73 5-10m+2y=73 2(34+5m) 2 y=34+5m
y
x=1-2m
y=34+5m
m=O x=l y=34 sol
m=l x=-l ---> No
m=-l x=3 y=29 sol
m=-2 x=5 y=24 sol
m=-3 x=7 y=19 sol
m=-4 x=9 y=14 sol
m=-5 x=l1 y=9 sol
m=-6 x=13 y=4 sol
m=-7 x=15 y=-l ---> No
10. 8x+ 13y= 162
8x= 162-13y 162-13y
x=
8
160 2 8y 5y
x=-+-----
8 8 8 8
2-5y x=20- y+--
8
2-5y x8
2-5y
8 ---> Entero
1O-25y
8 ---> Entero
10 _ 24y 2'.
8 8 8
10- Y -3Y+-8-
10- Y -8-= m
10- y=8m
- y=8m-1O y= 10- 8m
8x+ 13(10- 8m)= 162 8x+ 130-104m= 162
8(4+ 13m)
x=
8
x=4+ 13m
y=1O-8m x=4+ 13m
m=O x=4
m=l x=17
m=2 x=30
y= 10 sol
y= 2 sol
y=-6 ---> No
m=-l x=-9 ---> No
11. 7x+5y=104 5y=104-7x 104-7x y=--5-
100 4 5x 2x y=5+5"-S-S
4-2x y=20-x+--
5
4-2x y5
4-2x
-- ~Entero 5
12-6x
--- ~Entero 5
Continúa
11. Continuación
10 2 5x x
-+-----
555 5
2-x 2-x+--
5
2-x 2-x+--
5
2-x --=ln
5
2-x=5m -x=5m-2 x=2-5m
7(2- 5m)+ 5y= 104 14- 35m+ 5y= 104
5(18+ 7m)
y- 5
y=18+7m
x=12-5m
y=18+7m
m=O x=2 y= 18 sol
m=l x=-3 ---> No
m=-l x=7 y=l1 sol
m=-2 x=12 y=4 sol
m=-3 x= 17 y=-3 ---> No
12. 10x+ y= 32
y=32-10x y=32+2-2-10x 30 2 10x y=lü+ 10-10
2 y=3+10-x
2
y-10=3-x
3-x=m
-x=m-3
x=3-m
10(3- m)+ y= 32 30-10m+ y=32
y= 2+ 10m
m=O x=3 y=2 sol m=l x=2 y=12 sol m=2 x=l y=22 sol m=3 x=O y=32 ---> No m=4 x=-l
---> No m=-l x=4 y=-8 ---> No
13.9x+4y=86 4y=86-9x 86-9x y=-4-
84 2 8x x
y=4+¡-4-¡
2-x y=21-2x+-4-
2-x y-21+2x=-4-
2-x
--=ln
4
2-x=4m -x=4m-2 x=2-4m
9(2- 4m)+ 4y= 86 18-36m+4y=86 4(17+9m) y-
4
y= 17 +9m
x=2-4m
m=O x=2 y= 17 sol
m=l x=-2 ---> No
m=-l x=6 y=8 sol
m=-2 x= 10 y=-l--->No
14.9x+11y=207 9x=207-11y x- 207-11y 9
198 9 9y 2y
x=-+-----
9 9 9 9
9-2y x=22-y+--
9
9-2y x-22+y=--
9
9-2y ---> Entero 9
45-10y ---> Entero 9
45 9y Y
-----
9 9 9
45-y =m
9
45-y=9m -y=9m-45 y=45-9m Continúa
14. Continuación
9x+ 11(45- 9m)= 207 9x+ 495- 99m= 207
9(l1m-32) 9
x= 11m-32
x
y=45-9m x= 11m-32
m=O x=-32 ---> No
m=l x=-21 ---> No
m=2 x=-lO ---> No
y=18 sol y= 9 sol y=O ---> No y=-9 ---> No
---> No
m=3 x=l
m=4 x=12
m=5 x=23
m=6 x=34
m=-l x=-43
15. 11x+ 12y= 354 11x=354-12y 354-12y 11
352 2 11y Y
x=-+-----
11 11 11 11
2- Y x=32- Y+u
x
2- Y x-32+ y=u
2- y
--=ln
11
2- y= 11m
- y=l1m-2 y=2-11m
11x+ 12(2-11m)= 354 11x+ 24-132m= 354
11(30+ 12m)
x-
11
x=30+12m
y= 2-11m
m=O x=30 y=2 sol
m=l x=42 y=-9 ---> No
m=-l x=18 y=13 sol
m=-2 x=6 y=24 sol
m=-3 x=-6 ---> No
16. lOx+13y=294
lOx= 294-13y 294-13y 10
290 4 lOy 3y
x=-+-----
10 10 10 10
4-3y x-29+ y=lO
x
4-3y
10 ---> Entero
28-21y
-1-0- ---> Entero
28 20y Y
---
lO 10 10
28- Y -2y+1O
28- Y
--=m
10
28- y=lOm
- y=lOm-28 y=28-lOm
lOx+ 13(28-lOm)= 294
lOx+ 364-130m= 294 1O(13m-7)
x-
10
x= 13m-7
y=28-lOm m=O x=-7 m=l x=6 m=2 x= 19 m=3 x=32 m=-l x=-20
---> No
y=18 sol y=8 sol y=-2 ---> No
---> No
17. 11x+8y=300 8y=300-11x 300-11x y-
8
296 4 3x 8x y=8 8 8 8
4-3x y=37-x+--
8
4-3x y8
4-3x
-- --->Entero
8
12-9x
--- --->Entero 8
Continúa
Continuación
12 8x x
17. s-s-s
12-x
--=ln
8
12-x=8m
- x=8m-12
x=12-8m
1l(12- 8m)+ 8y= 300
132- 88m+ 8y= 300 8(21+11m) y= 8
y=21+11m
x= 12- 8m
m=O x=12 y=21 sol
m=l x=4 y=32 sol
m=2 x=-4 ---> No
m=-l x=20 y=10 sol
m=-2 x=28 y=-l ---> No
18. 21x+2Sy=70S
21x= 70S- 2Sy 70S-2Sy
x=
21
693 12 21y 4y
x=-+-----
21 21 21 21
12-4y x=33- Y+-2-1-
12-4y ---> Entero
21
192-64y ---> Entero 21
192 _ 63y _L 21 21 21
192- Y -3Y+-2-1-
192- Y
---=m
21
192- y=2lm
- y=21m-192
y=192-2lm
21x+ 2S(192- 2lm)= 70S 21x+4.800-S2Sm= 70S 21(2Sm-19S)
x=
21
x=2Sm-19S
Continúa
18. Continuación y=192-21m
m=O x=-195 --->No
m=7 x=-20 --->No
m=8 x=5 y=24 sol m=9 x=30 y=3 sol m=10 x=55 y=-18 --->No m=-1 x=-220 --->No
19. 3x-4y=S 3x=S+4y S+4y
X=--
3
2 3 3y Y X=-+-+-+-
3 3 3 3
2+ Y x=l+ Y+-3-
2+ Y x-1- y=-3-
2+ Y
--=m
3
2+y=3m
y=3m-2
3x-4(3m-2)=S 3x-12m+8=S 3(4m-1)
x=
3
x=4m-1
y=3m-2
m=l x=3 y=l sol m=2 x=7 y=4 sol m=3 x=ll y=7 sol
20. 5x-8y=1 5x=1+8y x= 1+8y 5
1+8y ---> Entero 5
2+ 16y ---> Entero
5
2 15y Y 555
3 2+y y+5
2+y =m
5
Continúa
20. Continuación
2+ y=Sm y=Sm-2
SX-8(Sm-2)=1 Sx-40m+16=1
S(8m-3)
x=
S
x=8m-3
y=Sm-2 m=l x=S m=2 x=13 m=3 x=21
y=3 sol y= 8 sol y= 13 sol
21.7x-13y=43 7x=43+13y 43+ By
X=---
7
42 1 7y 6y X=-+-+-+-
7 7 7 7
1+6y x=6+Y+-7-
1+6y x-6- y=-7-
1+6y
-7- --->Entero
6+36y
--7- ---> Entero
~+ 3Sy +1.
7 7 7
6+ Y SY+-7-
6+ y
--=m
7
6+y=7m
y=7m-6
7x-13(7m-6)=43
7 x- 91m+ 78= 43 7(13m-S)
x=
7
x=13m-S
y=7m-6
m= 1 x= 8 m=2 x=21 m=3 x=34
y= 1 sol y= 8 sol y= lS sol
22. 11x-12y= O
11x= 12y
12y x=il
11y y x=U+li
y
x- y=li
y
-=m
11
y= 11m
11x-12(11m)= O 11x-132m=0 x=12m
y= 11m
m=l x=12 y=l1 sol m=2 x=24 y=22 sol m=3 x=36 y=33 sol
23. 14x-17y=32 14x=32+17y 32+17y x=-1-4-
28 4 14y 3y x= 14 + 14 +14+14
4+3y x=2+Y+14
4+3y ---> Entero
14
20+ 15y ---> Entero 14
14 6 14y Y 14 + 14 +14+ 14
6+ Y
1+ Y+J:"4
6+ Y
--=m
14
6+ y=14m
y=14m-6
14x-17(14m- 6)= 32
14x- 238m+ 102= 32 14(17m-5) x- 14
x=17m-5
y=14m-6
m=l x=12 y=8 m=2 x=29 y=22 sol m=3 x=46 y=36 sol
sol
24.7x-11y=83 7x=83+ 11y 83+ 11y
X=---
7
77 6 7y 4y x=--;:¡+7+7+7
6+4y x=l1+ Y+-7-
6+4y
x-11- y=-7-
6+ 4y ---> Entero 7
12+ 8y ---> Entero 7
7 5 7y Y 7+7+7+7
5+ Y 1+ Y+-7-
5+ Y
--=m
7
5+y=7m
y=7m-5
7 x-11(7m- 5)= 83 7x-77m+55=83
7 (11m + 4) 7 x=11m+4
x
y=7m-5
m=l x=15 y=2 m=2 x=26 y=9 m=3 x=37 y=16 sol
sol
sol
25. ax-13y=407 ax=407+13y 407+13y x-
a
400 7 ay 5y x=a a a a
7+5y x=50+y+--
a
7+5y X-50-y=-a-
7+5y ---> Entero a
35+25y ---> Entero a
32 3 24y Y a a a a
Continúa
25. Continuación
3+ y 4+3Y+-8-
3+ Y
--=m
8
3+ y=8m
y=8m-3
8x-13(8m- 3)=407 8x-104m+ 39=407
8 (13m + 46)
x-
8
x=13m+46
y=8m-3
m=l x=59 y=5 s~ m=2 x=72 y=13 sol m=3 x=85 y=21 sol 26.20y-23x=411
20y= 411 + 23x 411+23x
y= 20
400 11 20x 3x y=20+ 20 +20+ 20
11+ 3x
y = 20+ x+----w-
11 + 3x y-20-x=----w-
11+ 3x
-- --->Entero 20
77+21x
--- --->Entero 20
60 17 20x x 20+ 20+20+ 20
17+x 3+ x+----w-
17+x
--=m
20
17+ x= 20m
x= 20m-17
20y- 23(20m-17)= 411 20y- 46Om+ 391= 411
20 (23m + 1) 20
y
x= 20m-17 y=23m+ 1
m=l x=3 y=24 sol m=2 x=23 y=47 sol m=3 x=43 y=70 sol
27.5y-7x=312 5y=312+7x 312+7x y=--5-
310 2 5x 2x y=5+"5+5+5
2+2x y=62+x+--
5
2+2x y-62-x=-5-
2+2x
-5----> Entero
6+6x
-5----> Entero
5 1 5x x -+-+-+-
5 5 5 5
l+x 1+x+-5-
l+x
--=m
5
1+x=5m
x=5m-1
5y-7(5m-1)=312 5y-35m+7=312
5(7m+ 61) 5 y=7m+61
y
x=5m-1 m=l x =4 m=2 x=9 m=3 x=14
y=68 y=75 y=82
EJERCICIO 174
1. X ---> Billetes $2 y ---> Billetes $5 2x+5y=42 2x=42-5y x= 42-5y 2
40 2 3y 2y
x=-+-----
2 2 2 2
2-3y x=20-y+--
2
2-3y x2
2-3y ---> Entero 2
Continúa
1. Continuación 2 2y Y
-----
222
2- Y -Y+-2-
2- Y
--=m
2
2-y=2m -y=2m-2 y=2-2m
2x+ 5(2- 2m) = 42 2x+10-10m=42
2 (5m+ 16)
x=
2
x=5m+16
y=2-2m
m=O x=16 y=2 sol
m=l x=21 y=O ---> No
m=2 x=26 y=-2 ---> No
m=-l x=l1 y=4 sol
m=-2 x=6 y=6 sol
m=-3 x=l y=8 sol
m=-4 x=-4 ---> No
1 de $2 y 8 de $5 6 de$2 y 6de$5
11 de$2 y 4de$5 Ó 16de$2 y 2de$5
2. x ---> Monedas de $5 y ---> Monedas de $10 5x+lOy=45 5x=45-lOy
45-lOy
X=---
5
x=40+~_5y_5y
5 5 5 5
5-5y x=8-Y+-5-
x-8+y=1-y
1- y=m
- y=m-1 y=l-m 5x+ 10(1- m)= 45 5x+1O-lOm=45
5(2m+7) 5 x=2m+7 Continúa
x
2. Continuación y=1-m
m=O x=7 y=1 sol
m=1 x=9 y=O --->No
m=-1 x=5 y=2 sol m=-2 x=3 y=3 sol m=-3 x=1 y=4 sol m=-4 x=-1 --->No 1de$5 y4de$1
0 3de$5 y3de$10
5de $5 y 2 de$10 7de$5 y 1 de$10 3.5x+3y=62
3y=62-5x 62-5x y=-3-
60 2 3x 2x y=3+3-3-3
2-2x y=20-x+--
3
2-2x y-20+x=-3-
2-2x
-3- ---> Entero
lO-lOx
--3- ---> Entero
9 1 9x x
-+-----
3 3 3 3
1-x 3-3x+-3-
1-x
--=m
3
1-x=3m -x=3m-1 x=1-3m
5(1- 3m)+ 3y= 62 5-15m+3y=62
3 (5m+ 19) 3 y=5m+19
y
x=1-3m
m=O x=l y=19 sol
m=l x=-2 --->No
m=-l x=4 y=14 sol
m=-2 x=7 y=9 sol
m=-3 x=lO y=4 sol 1 y 19 ; 4 Y 14; 7 Y 9 ; 10 Y 4
4. x ~ Sombreros
y ~ Pares de zapatos 8x+15y=340
8x= 340-15y x= 340-15y 8
336 4 8y 7y
x=--+-----
8 8 8 8
4-7y x=42-y+--
8
4-7y x8
4-7y
-8- ~ Entero
28-49y
8 ~ Entero
24 4 48y Y
-+------
8 8 8 8
4- Y 3-6y+--
8
4- Y -8-=m
4-y=8m
-y=8m-4 y=4-8m
8x+ 15(4- 8m)= 340 8x+ 60-120m= 340
8(15m+ 35)
x
8
x= 15m+35
y=4-8m
m=O x=35 m=l x=50 m=-l x=20 m=-2 x=5 m=-3 x=-lO ~ No
5 sombreros y 20 pares de zapo 20 sombreros y 12 pares dezap. 35 sombreros y 4 p
ares de zapo
y=4 sol
y=-4 ~No
y=12 sol
y=20 sol
5. x ~ Metros de lana y ~ Metros de seda 1,50x+ 2,50y= 42
~ Si multiplico por 2 la ecuación inicial no se altera. Luego 3x+5y=84
3x=84-5y x= 84-5y 3
81 3 3y 2y
x=-+-----
3 3 3 3
3-2y x=273
3-2y x3
3-2y
-3-~ Entero
15-lOy
--3- ~ Entero
12 3 9y Y
-+-----
3 3 3 3
3- Y 4-3y+--
3
3- Y -3-= m
3- y= 3m
- y=3m-3 y=3-3m
3x+ 5(3- 3m) = 84 3x+ 15-15m= 84
3 (5m+ 23)
x
3
x=5m+23
y=3-3m
m=O x=23
m=1 x=28
m=-1 x=18 m=-2 x=13 m=-3 x=8 m=-4 x=3 m=-5 x=-2 ~ No
3m de lana y 15m de seda 8m de lana y 12m de seda 13m de lana y 9m de seda 18m d
e lana y 6m de seda 23m de lana y 3m de seda
y=3 sol
y=O ~No
y=6 sol
y=9 sol
y=12 sol
y=15 sol
6. x ~ niños
y ~ adultos 0,45x+ y=17 (20) 9x+20y=340
9x=340-20y x 340-20y 9
333 7 18y 2y
x=-+-----
9 9 9 9
7-2y x=37-2y+--
9
7-2y x9
7-2y
-9-~ Entero
98-28y
--9-- ~ Entero
90 8 27y Y
-+------
9 9 9 9
8-y 1O-3y+--
9
8- Y -9-=m
8- y=9m
-y=9m-8 y=8-9m
9x+ 20(8- 9m)= 340 9x+ 160-180m= 340
9 (20m + 20)
x
9
x=20m+20
y=8-9m
m=O x=20 y=8 sol m=1 x=O y=-1 ~ No m=-1 x=O y=17 ~ No m=-2 x=-20 ~ No
20 niños y 8 adultos
7. x ~ Caballos y ~ Vacas
460x+ 440y= 41.000 (-;- 20) 23x+22y=2.050 22y=2.050-23x 2.050- 23x
22
2.046 4 22x x y=--+------
22 22 22 22
Continúa
y
7. Continuación
4-x y=93-x+n
4-x
--=ln
22
4-x=22m -x=22m-4 x=4-22m
23(4- 22m) + 22y= 2.050 92-506m+22y=2.050
22 (23m + 89) y- 22
y=23m+89
8. Continuación
y=3m-1
m=O x=-1 ~No
m=1 x=4 y=2 sol Los N' s son 4 y 2
x=4-22m
9. x ~ Monedas de 0,25
y ~ Monedas de 0,10 0,25x+0,lOy=2,1O (100) 25x+lOy=21O lOy=21O-25x 21O-25x
y- 10
200 10 20x 5x y=lO+lO-lO-lO
1O-5x
y= 20- 2x+----w-
2-x y-20+2x=-2-
2-x
--=m
2
2-x=2m -x=2m-2 x=2-2m
25(2- 2m) + lOy= 210 50- 50m+ lOy = 210
10 (5m+ 16) y= 10
y=5m+16
m=O x=4 y=89 sol
m=l x=-18 ~No
m=-l x=26 y=66 sol
m=-2 x=48 y=43 sol
m=-3 x=70 y=20 sol
m=-4 x=92 y=-3 ~No
4 caballos y 89 vacas 26 caballos y 66 vacas 48 caballos y 43 vacas 70 caballos
y 20 vacas 8. 3x+3=5y+5
3x-5y=2 3x=2+5y 2+5y
x=--
3
2+5y
-3- ~ Entero
4+ lOy
--3- ~ Entero
3 1 9y y -+-+-+-
3 3 3 3
1+ Y 1+3Y+-3-
1+ Y
--=m
3
1+ y=3m
y=3m-1
3x-5(3m-1)=2 3x-15m+5=2
x=2-2m
m=O x=2
m=l x=O
m=-l x=4 m=-2 x=6 m=-3 x=8 m=-4 x=lO 2 mono de 0,25 4 mono de 0,25 6 mono de 0,2
5 8 mono de 0,25
y= 16 sol ~No
y= 11 sol
y= 6 sol
y= 1 sol y=-4 ~ No
y 16 mono de 0,10 y 11 mono de 0,10 y 6 mono de 0,10 y 1 mono de 0,10
3(5m-1)
x=---
3
x=5m-1 Continúa
EJERCICIO 175
21. x+1=O x=-1
y-4=O y=4
~
V
y 4
~
¿

X' O X
~
,
11
><
V'
Intersección ---> (-1,4)
22. 3x=2y 3x-2y=O x=1 y=1-t
con
x+y=5 x=O y=5 x=5 y=O
---- ------
V
~ ,l'.I
1\ f.>+ 11
, 1/
/ 1\ x
..
~ r\ 1$'
11 ~ r\.
X' .1 O "- X

V'
Intersección ---> (2,3)
23. x-y=2
x=O y=-2 x=2 y=O
con 3x+y=18 x=O y=18 x=6 y=O
Escala 1:2
.-
y
\
1 "
7'
\
\ 1/
, M 1/ +
\~ '/ "1-'
X
/ \
X' O / \ X
1/
y'
Intersección
---> (5,3)
24. 2x-y=O x=1 y=2
con 5x+4y=-26
x=O y=-6-t
x=-2 y=-4
y <:> 1I

, 1/
n~
I
X' I X
~ O
"'IX V
17-
'\ i'o, I
~t;t
) ~
rT l""f. r\.
,
~
"
y'
Intersección ---> (-2, -4)
25. SX+6y=-9 con
x=o y=-1t
x=3 y=-4
4x-3y=24 x=o y=-8 x=3 y=-4
-
y
"-
X' s. 1'- O X
"~ .. .
. /
09 "-
~ L r~ - n
L .....
J ~
/:'f.r"
V ~
I
I y' I
Intersección ~ (3, -4)
26. x+s=o x=-S
con 6x-7y=-9
x=2 y=3
x=-S y=-3
1------ ,-
y
Sb
'\~ /
o 'O /
11
10 V
+
>< V
X' / O X
/
/
/ (-5 -3)
,
y'
Intersección ~ (-5, -3)
27. 3x+8y=28 x=4 y=2 x=o y=3t
con
Sx-2y=-30 x=o y=15 x=-2 y=10
Escala 1:2
y
J
~;
,,~/
.:/
-;
~ . .... 3X D.
\,: .,/ ¡-... ..... "c ~
... 1""-
X' _L O X
IY'
Intersección ~ (-4,5)
28. y-4=O con
y=4
7x+2y=22 x=o y=11 x=2 y=4
'L Y
,
1
\ 8
\ ~
1\
\ Ii
-4 ~O 1 ~'
\
\
,
X' O X
y'
Intersección ~ (2,4)
29. 6x=-5y con
6x+5y=O
x=5 y=-6
Escala 1:2
4x-3y=-38 x=-2 y=10 x=1 y=14
-
y
./
Ift'O
~'17
,0/
" Il<)
V' -5, )
/ .... ..
, "
X' Oi'. (JJ.. X
1'-..: '61
K
. ..
Y'
Intersección ---> (- S, 6)
EJERCICIO 176
1. x+6y=27 ; 7x-3y=9 x=27-6y 7x=9+3y 9+3y
X=--
7
9+3y 27-6Y=-7-
7(27-6y)=9+3y 189- 42y= 9+ 3y 180= 4Sy 4= y x+6(4)=27
x+ 24= 27 x=3
sol: x=3 y=4
2. 3x-2y=-2 3x=-2+2y 2-2y
x=---
3
_ 2-2y =_ 60+8y
3 S
S(2- 2y)= 3(60+8y) 10-10y= 180+ 24y -170=34y
-S=y
3x-2(-S)=-2
3x+10=-2 3x=-12 x=-4 sol:x=-4 y=-S
30. 5x-2y=-14 con
x=O y=7
x=-2 y=2
8x-5y=-17
x=1 y=5
x=-4 y=-3
I Y
I
I
I / "
I >;" "- 7
I ~/ , 1/
//
I , I ~ ~
l~
I ¡ti¡
I /
x' 1/ O X
~
1t1-< ,-3)
I
I Y'
Intersección ---> (-4,-3)
Sx+8y=-60 Sx=-60-8y 60+8y
x=---
S
3.3x+Sy=7; 2x- y=-4
Sy=7-3x - y=-4-2x
7-3x
y=-S- y=4+2x
7-3x
--=4+2x
S
7 - 3x= S(4+ 2x) 7 - 3x= 20+ 10x -13=13x
-1=x
2(-1)- y=-4 -2-y=-4
- y=-2
y=2
sol: x=-1 y=2
4.7x-4y=5 ; 9x+8y=13
7x=5+4y 9x=13-8y
5+4y 13-8y
x=-7- x=-9-
9(5+4y)=7(13-8y) 45+36y=91-56y 92y=46
46 1 y= 92 ="2
9X+8(~)=13
9x+4=13 9x=9 x=1
7.15x-lly=-87 15x=l1y-87 lly-87
X=---
15
1 sol:x=1 y="2
5.9x+16y=7 ; 4y-3x=0
16y=7-9x 4y=3x
7-9x 3x
y = ----¡-(i y = 4
4(7-9x)=16(3x) 28-36x=48x
28=84x
28 1
X=-=-
84 3
4y-1=0
4y= 1
1
y=¡
1 1
sol: x=3 y=¡
6.14x-lly=-29 ; 13y-8x=30
14x=l1y-29 -8x=30-13y
lly-29 13y-30
X=--- X=---
14 8
8(l1y- 29)= 14(13y- 30)
88y- 232= 182y-420
188= 94y
2=y
13(2)-8x=30
26-8x=30
-8x=4
-12x-5y=-27 12x=27-5y 27-5y
x=--
12
12 (11y - 87)= 15(27 - 5y) 132y-1.044= 405-75y 207y= 1.449 1.449
y=--=7
207
12x+5(7)=27 12x+35=27 12x=-8
8 2
X=--=--
12 3
2
sol: X=-- y= 7
3
8.7x+9y=42 9y=42-7x 42-7x y=--
9
1 x=-"2
1
X=-- y=2
2
12x+lOy=-4 lOy=-4-12x 4+12x y=--1-0-
1O(42-7x)= - 9(4+ 12x) 420-70x= - 36-108x 38x=-456 x=-12
12(-12)+lOy=-4 -144+lOy=-4 lOy=140 y=14
sol: x=-12 y=14
sol:
9. 6x-18y=-85 ; -18y=-6x-85 6x+ 85 y=--
18
5(6x+ 85)= 18(5+ 24x) 30x+ 425= 90+ 432x 335=402x
335 5
x=-=-
402 6
6(~)-18Y=-85 5-18y= - 85 -18y=-90 y=5
5
sol: x="6 y=5
24x-5y=-5
- 5y= - 5- 24x 5+ 24x y=--
5
2. Sx+7y=-1 -3x+4y=-24
Sx=-1-7y
1+ 7y
X=---
S
3e+S7Y )+4Y=- 24 3+ 21y -S-+4Y=-24
3+ 21y+ 20y= -120
41y=-123 y=-3
- 3x+ 4(- 3)= - 24
-3x-12=-24
-3x=-12
x=4 sol: x=4 y=-3
3. 3x+4y=8 ; 8x-9y=-77 4y=8-3x
8-3x
y=-4-
8x- 9( 8-43X) =-77 32x-9 (8- 3x)= - 308 32x-72+27x=-308
S9x=-236 x=-4
EJERCICIO 177
1. x+3y=6 ; Sx-2y=13 x=6-3y
S(6-3y)-2y=13 30-1Sy-2y=13 -17y=-17
y=1
x+3(1)=6 x+3=6 x=3
sol: x=3 y=1
4. x-Sy=8; -7x+8y=2S 8y=2S+7x 2S+7x y=-8-
X_S(2S~7X)=8
8x-S(2S+7x)=64 8x-12S- 3Sx= 64 -27x=189
6.lOx+18y=-11 ; 16x-9y=-S lOx=-11-18y
x=-7 11+18y
-7-Sy=8 x=--1-0-
-Sy=1S (11+18Y)
-16 -1-0- -9y=-S
y=-3
sol: x=-7 y=-3 -16(11+18y)-90y=-SO
5. 1Sx+11y=32 ; 7y-9x=8 -176-288y-90y=-SO
7y=8+9x -378y=126
8+9x 126 1
y=-7- y=- 378=-"3
lOX+18( -~)=-11
lOx-6=-11 lOx=-S 1
X=--
2
1 1
sol: x=-"2 y=-"3
3(-4)+4y=8 -12+4y=8 4y=20 y=S
sol: x=-4 y=S
(8+ 9X)
1Sx+ 11 -7- = 32
lOSx+ 11(8+ 9x)= 224 lOSx+ 88+ 99x= 224 204x=136
136 2
X=-=-
204 3
1S(~)+l1Y=32 10+ 11y= 32 11y=22 y=2 2
sol: x="3 y=2
7. 4x+5y=5; -4x-lOy=-7 10y=7-4x 7-4x y=--
10
4X+5(7~~X)=5
8x+7-4x=1O 4x=3
3
x=-
4
4(¡)+5Y=5
3+5y=5 5y=2 2
y=-
5
3 2
sol: x=¡ y="5
EJERCICIO 178
8. 32x-25y=13 ; 16x+15y=1 16x= 1-15y 1-15y x=----u;-
32e-1~5Y) - 25y= 13 2(1-15y)-25y=13
2- 30y- 25y= 13 2-55y=13
-55y=11
1
y=-s
16X+15( -~)=1
16x-3= 1
16x=4
1
x=¡
1 1
x=¡ y=-s
sol:
9.11x-13y=-163 ; -8x+7y=94
11x= -163+ 13y
163-13y
x=---l1-
( 163-13Y) 7 94
8 --11- + y=
8(163-13y)+ 77y= 1.034 1.304-104y+ 77y= 1.034
- 27y= - 270 y=10 11x-13(10) = -163 11x-130= -163
11x= - 33
x=-3
sol: x=-3 y=10
1. 6x - Sy= -9 (2) 3. 3x- 4y =41 (3) 5. lOx- 3y =36
4x + 3y= 13 (-3) llx+ 6y =47 (2) 2x + Sy =-4 (-S)
12x-lOy=-18 9x-12y=123 lOx- 3y=36
-12x- 9y=-39 22x+12y=94 -lOx-2Sy=20
-19y=-S7 31x =217 -28y=S6
y=3 x=7 y=-2
4x+3(3)=13 3(7)-4y=41 lOx- 3(- 2)= 36
4x+9= 13 21-4y=41 lOx=30
4x=4 -4y=20 x=3
x=l y=-S sol:x=3 y=-2
sol: x=l y=3 sol: x=7 y=-S (S)
6. llx- 9y = 2
2. 7x -15y=1 4. 9x +l1y =-14 (4) 13x- lSy=-2 (-3)
-x - 6y=8 (7) 6x -Sy =-34 (-6) SSx-4Sy=1O
7x-15y= 1 36x+44y=-S6 -39x+4Sy= 6
-7x-42y=56 -36x+30y= 204 16x =16
-57y=57 74y=148 x=l
y=-l y=2 11(I)-9y=2
7x-15(-1)= 1 6x-S(2)=-34 11-9y=2
7x+15=1 6x-1O=-34 -9y=-9
7x=-14 6x=-24 y=l
x=-2 x=-4 sol: x=l y=l
sol: x=-2 y=-l sol: x=-4 y=2
7. 18x+ 5y = -11 (2) 12x+ 11y= 31 (-3) 36x+lOy=-22
- 36x- 33y= - 93
-23y=-115
y=5 18x+5(5)=-11 18x+ 25=-11 18x= - 36 x=-2 sol: x=-2 y=5
8. 9x+ 7y =- 4 (-11) 11x- 13y =-48 (9) -99x- 77y= 44 99x-117y= -432 -194y= - 388

y=2 9x+7(2)=-4
9x+14=-4
9x= -18
x=-2
sol: x=-2 y=2
EJERCICIO 179
1. 8x-5=7y-9 8x-7y=-9+5 8x-7y=-4 6x=3y+6
6x-3y=6
8x - 7y =-4 (3) 6x - 3y = 6 (-4) 24x-21y=-12
-24x+12y=-24
-9y=-36
y=4 6x-3(4)=6 6x-12=6 6x= 18 x=3 sol: x=3 y=4
9. 12x-14y = 20 (7) -14x+ 12y = -19 (6) 84x-98y=140 -84x+72y=-114
-26y= 26
y=-l
12x-14(-1)= 20 12x+14=20 12x=6 1
x=-
2
sol: 1
X="2 y=-l
10. 15x - y = 40 (8) 19x +8y=236 120x- 8y= 320
19x +8y=236
139x =556
x=4
15(4)- y=40 60- y=40
- y=-20 y=20
sol: x=4 y=20
2. x-1= y+ 1 x- y= 2 x-3=3y-7 x-3y=-4
x- y = 2
x-3y=-4 (-1) x- y = 2
-x+3y=4 2y=6 y=3 x-3=2 x=5
sol: x= 5 y= 3
11. 36x-11y=-14 (2) 24x-17y= 10 (-3) 72x- 22y= -28 -72x+51y=-30 29y=-58 y=-2
36x-11(- 2)= -14 36x+22=-14 36x=-36 x=-l
sol: x=-l y=-2
12. 12x-17y=104 (5) 15x+19y=-31 (-4) 60x-85y=520
- 60x-76y= 124
-161y=644
y=-4
12x-17(-4)=104 12x+ 68= 104 12x=36 x=3 sol: x=3 y=-4
3. 3(x+ 2)= 2y 2( )
y+5 =7x
3x+6=2y 2y+10=7x
3x-2y=-6 7x-2y=1O
3x-2y=-6; 7x-2y=10 3x=-6+2y x=- 6-2y 3
-7(6- 2y)= 3(10+ 2y)
-42+14y=30+6y
8y=72 y=9 7x-2(9)=10 7x-18= 10 7x=28
7x=10+2y x= 10+2y 7
x=4
sol: x=4 y=9
4. x-1=2(y+6) x-1= 2y+ 12 x-2y=13 x=13+2y x+6=3(1-2y) x+6=3-6y x+6y=-3 x=-3-6y 1
3+2y=-3-6y -3-6y-2y=13
- 8y= 16
y=-2
x-2(-2)=13
x+4=13 x=9
sol: x=9 y=-2 5.30-(8-x)=2y+30 30-8+x=2y+30
x-2y=8
5x- 29= x- (5- 4y) 5x-29=x-5+4y 4x-4y=24
x-y=6 x-2y=8
x-y=6 (-1)
x-2y=8 -x+ y =-6
- y=2
y=-2 x- 2(- 2)= 8
x+4=8 x=4
sol: x=4 y=-2
6. 3x-(9x+ y)=5y-(2x+9y) 3x-9x-y=5y-2x-9y -4x+3y=0
4x- (3y+ 7)=5y- 47 4x-3y-7=5y-47 4x-8y=-40 x-2y=-10 -4x+3y= O
x -2y=-10 (4) -4x+3y= O
4x- 8y= - 40 Continúa
6. Continuación
-5y=-40 y=8 x-2(8)=-1O x-16=-1O x=6
sol: x=6 y=8
7. (x-y)-(6x+8Y)=-(lOx+5y+3) x- y- 6x- 8y= -10x- 5y- 3 - 5x- 9y= -10x- 5y- 3 5x-
4y=-3
(x+ y)- (9y-llx)= 2y- 2x x+ y-9y+llx=2y-2x 12x-8y=2y-2x
14x-10y= O
5x - 4y =-3 (5)
14x-10y= O (- 2)
25x- 20y= -15
-28x+20y= O
- 3x = -15
x=5
5(5)-4y=-3 25-4y=-3 -4y=-28 y=7 sol: x=5 y=7
8.5(x+3y)-(7x+8y)=-6 5x+ 15y-7 x- 8y= - 6 -2x+7y=-6 7 x- 9y- 2(x-18y)= O
7 x- 9y- 2x+ 36y= O 5x+27y=0
- 2x + 7 y = - 6 (5)
5x+27y= O (2)
-lOx+35y=-30 lOx+54y= O 89y=-30
30
y=--
89
Continúa
8. Continuación
-2X+7( - :~)=-6
-178x-21O=-534
-178x=-324
324 73
x=m=l89
30 y=- 89
sol: x= 1 p.-
9. 2(x+5)=4(y-4x)
2x+10=4y-16x 18x-4y=-10
lO(y-x)= lly-12x 10y-10x= lly-12x
2x- y= O 18x-4y=-10
2x-y=0 (-9)
18x-4y=-10
-18x+9y= O 5y=-10 y=-2
2x- (- 2)=0
2x+2=0 2x=-2 x=-l sol:x=-l y=-2
10·3x-4y-2(2x-7)=0 3x- 4y- 4x+ 14= O -x-4y=-14 x+4y= 14
5(x-1)-(2y-1)=0
5x-5-2y+1=0 5x-2y=4 x +4y=14
5x-2y=4 (2)
x +4y=14 10x-4y=8
llx =22
x=2 2+4y= 14 4y=12 y=3
sol: x=2 y=3
Sx
2. 12-y=9
Sx-12y= lOS Sx=10S+12y
10S+ 12y
x-
S
(10S+12Y)
4 S -3y=60
4(10S+ 12y )-lSY= 300 432+4Sy-1Sy= 300 33y=-132 y=-4
11. 12(x+2Y)-S(2x+ y)=2(Sx-6y) 12x+24y-16x-Sy=10x-12y -4x+ 16y= lOx-12y
-14x+2Sy=0
-x+2y=0
20(x-4y)= -10 20x-SOy=-1O 2x-Sy=-1
-x +2y= O (2) 2x-Sy=-1 -2x+4y= O 2x-Sy=-1 -4y=-1
1
y=¡
-X+2(±)=0
-4x+2=0
-4x=-2
1
X=-
2
sol: x=..!:. 2
1
y=-
4
EJERCICIO 180
3x 1·2+y=1l
3x+2y=22
x+2'.=7 2
2x+ y=14 3x+2y=22 3x=22-2y 22-2y
x=--
3
2(22- 2y)= 3(14- y) 44-4y=42-3y
- y=-2
y=2 2x+2=14
2x=12
2x+y=14 2x=14- y 14- Y
x=--
2
4x-3(-4)=60 4x+12=60 4x=4S x=12
sol: x=12 y=-4
x=6
sol: x=6 y=2
12. x(y-2)- y(x-3)=-14
xy- 2x- xy+ 3y= -14 -2x+3y=-14 y(x- 6)- x(y+ 9 )=S4 xy-6y-xy-9x=S4 -9x-6y=S4 3x+
2y=-lS -2x+3y=-14 (3) 3x+2y=-lS (2) -6x+9y=-42 6x+4y=-36 13y=-78
y=-6 -2x+3(-6)=-14
-2x-1S=-14
-2x=4
x=-2 sol: x=-2 y=-6
3y x--=lS 4
4x-3y=60
x y x
3. "7+3"=S ; 3Y-14=26
3x+ 7y= lOS ; 42y- x= 364 3x+ 7y = lOS
-x+42y =364 (3)
3x+ 7y =lOS
- 3x+ 126y= 1.092 133y=1.l97
y=9 3x+7(9)=lOS
3x+63= lOS
3x=42
x=14
sol: x=14 y=9
4.
x y 5-4
4x=5y
4x-5y=0 4x -5y= O
x - y= 3 (-4) 4x-5y= O
-4x+4y=-12
-y=-12
y=12 x-12=3 x=15
sol: x=15 y=12
y x -=--1
3 3
y=x-3
x- y=3
3x 1
5. S-¡y=2
12x-5y=40
5y 2x=-
2
4x=5y
4x-5y=0
4x-5y= O 12x-5y= 40 4x -5y= O
-12x+5y=-40
-8x =-40
x=5
4(5)-5y=0 20-5y=0 -5y=-20 y=4
sol: x=5 y=4
(-1)
2x 3y 6.3-4=1
8x-9y=12 8x -9y=12 -20x+3y=48 (3) 8x -9y= 12 -60x+9y=144
-52x =156
1 5x
; S-Y-(i=2
3y-20x=48
x=-3
8(-3)-9y=12 -24-9y=12
-9y=36
y=-4
sol: x=-3 y=-4
7.
x y 11 x y-59
8 5 10' 5+¡=40
5x-8y=-44 ; 8x+lOy=-59
5x-8y=-44 (5) 8x+lOy=-59 (4) 25x-40y=-220 32x+ 40y= - 236 57x =-456
x=-8
5(-8)-8y=-44 -40-8y=-44
-8y=-4
1
y=-
2
1 sol: x= -8 y=2"
1 3y -x--=7
7 4
4x-21y=196
4x= 196+ 21y 196+ 21y
x=
4
x y
8. "7+8=0 ;
8x+7y=0 ; 8x=-7y -7y
x=--
8
- 28y= 8(196+ 21y)
- 28y= 1.568+ 168y
-196y= 1.568
y=-8
-7(- 8)
x=---
8
x=7
sol: x=7 y=-8
2x+1 y
9. -5-=¡ 2x-3y=-8
4(2x+1)=5y
8x+4=5y
8x-5y=-4
2x-3y=-8 (-4) 8x-5y=-4 -8x+12y=32
8x- 5y=-4
7y=28
y=4
Continúa
9. Continuación
8x-5(4)=-4 8x-20=-4 8x= 16 x=2
sol: x=2 y=4
10. 12x+5y+6=0 12x+5y=-6 5x 7y ---=-12
3 6
lOx-7y=-72
12x+ 5y =-6 (5) lOx- 7y =-72 (-6) 60x+25y=-30
- 60x+ 42y= 432 67y=402 y=6 lOx-7(6)=-72 lOx-42=-72 lOx=-30 x=-3 sol: x=-3 y=6
11. ~=3(y+2) x=15(y+2) x=15y+30
2:.+ 3x= 224
5 5
y+15x=224
15x=224- y 224- Y
x=--
15
15(15y+30)=224- y 225y+450=224- y 226y=-226
y=-1
x= 15(-1)+30 x=-15+30 x=15
sol: x=15 y=-1
12.
'::'_1'.= 1
5 6 30 6x-5y=-1
6x - 5y=-1 20x - 3y=65 18x -15y= -3 -lOOx+ 15y = - 325
-82x =-328
x=4
6(4)-5y=-1 -5y=-25 y=5 sol: x=4 y=5
x-3 y-4
13. -3---4-=0
4(x-3)-3(y-4)=0 4x-12-3y+12=0 4x- 3y= O 3y
x=-
4
(3Y)
54 +2y=46
15y+ 8y= 184 23y= 184 y=8
3(8)
x=-
4
x=6
sol: x=6 y=8
x-1 y-1 13
14. 2 -3-= 36
18(x-1)-12(y-1)= -13 18x-12y=-7 18x-12y= -7
2x- 3y =-3 (-4) 18x-12y= -7
- 8x+ 12y= 12
10x =5
1
x=-
2
2(~)-3Y=-3
-3y=-4 4 Y=3
1 4
sol: x="2 y=3
x _L=.!2 3 20 12 20x- 3y= 65
(3)
(-5)
x-4 y+2 -+--=3
2 5
; 5(x-4)+2(y+2)=30 5x-20+2y+4=30 5x+ 2y= 46
.::..::..!:._~= 2
3 2 3
; 2x+2-3y-3=-4 2x-3y=-3
x+1 = y-4 x-4 = y-2
10 5 5 10
x+ 1= 2(y-4) ; 2(x-4)= y-2
x+1=2y-8 2x-8=y-2
x-2y=-9 2x-y=6
x= 2y- 9
2(2y-9)- y=6
4y-18- y= 6
3y=24
y=8 x=2(8)-9
x=7
sol: x=7 y=8
15.
3y+3
x=---
4
4x=-3y-3
4x+ 3y= - 3
4x+ 3y= -3 5x+ 4y= -1 16x+12y=-12 -15x-12y= 3
x =-9
4(-9)+3y=-3 -36+3y=-3 3y= 33 y= 11 sol: x=-9 y=l1
17. x+ y = x- y
6 12
2(x+ y)= x- y 2x+ 2y= x- y x+3y=0 x=-3y
2(-3y)-3y=9 -6y-3y=9
-9y=9
y=-l
x=-3(-1)
16.
x=3
sol: x=3 y=-l
1+5x y=---
4
4y=-1-5x
4y+5x=-1
(4)
(-3)
2x
3=y+3
2x= 3(y+ 3) 2x=3y+9 2x-3y=9
18.3x-y-3=6 5
15x- y+3=30
15x-y=27 15x=27+ y 27+ Y
x=--
15
x-2 3Y--7-=9
21y-x+2=63 -x+21y=61
-x=61-21y
x= 21y- 61
27 + y= 15(21y- 61) 27+ y=315y-915 -314y=-942
y=3
27+3
x=--
15
x=2
sol: x=2 y=3
19.
x+ y y-x 7
6 3 24
4(x+ y)-8(y-x)=7 4x+4y-8y+8x=7 12x-4y=7 .::.+ x-y =2-
2 6 12 6x+2(x- y)=5 6x+2x-2y=5
8x-2y=5 12x-4y = 7
8x - 2y= 5 (-2) 12x-4y= 7
-16x+4y=-10
-4x =-3
3
x=-
4
12(¡)-4Y=7
9-4y=7 -4y=-2 1 y="2
sol: x=¡ y=~
x-2 y-x
20. -----=x-7
4 2
x- 2- 2(y- x)=4(x-7) 3x-4x-2y=-28+2 x+2y=26
3x- y 3y-x -8---6-=y-13
3(3x- y)-4(3y-x)=24(y-13) 13x-15y- 24y= - 312 13x-39y=-312
x + 2y = 26 (-13) 13x-39y=-312
-13x- 26y= - 338 13x-39y=-312 -65y=-650
y=10
x+2(1O)=26
x+20=26
x=6
sol: x=6 y=10
21.
3x-2y 12--6-=3y+2
72- 3x+ 2y= 6(3y+ 2) - 3x+ 2y-18y= 12-72
3x+16y=60
5y-3x -3-=x-y
5y-3x=3(x- y)
-3x-3x+5y+3y=0
6x-8y=0 3x+16y=60
6x- 8y =0 (2)
3x+16y=60 12x-16y= O
15x =60
x=4
6(4)-8y=0 -8y=-24 y=3 sol: x=4 y=3
22. y(x-4)=x(y-6)
xy-4y= xy- 6x 6x-4y=0
5 11
----=0 x-3 y-1
5(y-1)-11(x- 3)= O 5y-5-11x+33=0
11x-5y=28
6x- 4y = O (5)
11x- 5y =28 (-4) 30x-20y= O
-44x+20y=-112
-14x =-112
x=8
11(8)-5y=28 -5y=28-88
-5y=-60
y=12 sol: x=8 y=12
23.
3(x+3y) 21 5x+6y-17
51(x+ 3y)= 21(5x+ 6y) 5lx+ 153y= 105x+ 126y -54x+27y=0
2x- y=O
4x-7y
--=-2
2y+1
4x-7y=-2(2y+1) 4x-7y=-4y-2 4x-3y=-2
2x- y = O (-2) 4x-3y= 2 -4x+2y= O 4x-3y=-2
y=2 2x-2=0
2x=2
x=l
sol: x=l y=2
24.
7 7
2x-3y+6 3x-2y-1
7(3x-2y-1)= - 7(2x-3y+6) 21x-14y-7= -14x+ 21y- 42 3Sx- 3Sy = - 3S
x- y=-l
6 10
x- y+4 y+2 6(y+2)= 10(x- y+4) 6y+ 12= 10x-10y+40 - 28= 10x-16y
-14=Sx-8y
x - y =- 1 (- 8)
Sx-8y=-14 -8x+8y= 8 Sx-8y=-14
-3x =-6
x=2 2-y=-1
- y=-3 y=3
sol: x=2 y=3
25.
x+ y --=-7 x- y
x+ y=-7(x- y) x+ y=-7x+7y 8x-6y= O x+y+1=~
x+ y-1 4
4(x+ y+1)=3(x+ y-1) 4x+ 4y+ 4= 3x+ 3y- 3 x+ y=-7 8x-6y= O
x+ y =-7 (6) 8x-6y= O 6x+6y=-42 14x =-42
x=-3
-3+ y=-7 y=-4 sol: x=-3 y=-4
26.
x 3y 33 --8=---
4 2 4
x-32=6y-33
x-6y=-1
y-x_2x+y_ 17 32-24
8(y- x)-12(2x+ y)=-17 8y- 8x- 24x-12y= -17 32x+4y=17 x - 6y=-1 (2)
32x+ 4y = 17 (3)
2x -12y=-2 96x+12y=Sl
98x =49
1
x=-
2
1
"2- 6y=-1
1-12y=-2 -12y=-3
1
y=-
4
1 1
sol: x=- y=-
2 4
27.
x-2=y-7 x+2 y-S
(y- S )(x- 2)= (y -7 )(x+ 2)
xy- 2y-Sx+ 10= xy+ 2y-7x-14 2x-4y=-24 x-2y=-12 x=-12+2y x+1=y-3
x-1 y-S
(y- S)(x+ 1)= (x-1)(Y- 3)
xy+ y-Sx-S=xy-3x- y+3 -2x+2y=8
-x+ y=4
x= y-4 -12+2y= y-4
y=8 x=8-4 x=4
sol: x=4 y=8
28.
x-y-1= 3 x+y+1 17
17(x- y-1)= - 3(x+ y+ 1) 17x-17 y-17 = - 3x- 3y- 3 20x-14y=14
lOx-7y=7
x+y-1=_lS x- y+ 1
x+ y-1= -lS(x- y+ 1) x+ y-1= -lSx+ lSy-1S
16x-14y= -14
8x-7y=-7 lOx-7y=7 8x-7y =-7 (-1) 10x-7y=7 -8x+7y=7
2x = 14
x=7
10(7)-7y=7 -7y=-63 y=9 sol: x=7 y=9
29.
6x+ 9y-4 2 4x-6y+S S
S(6x+ 9y- 4)= 2(4x- 6y+ S) 30x+4Sy- 20= 8x-12y+ 10 22x+S7y=30
2x+3y-3 6
3x+ 2y-4 - 11
11(2x+ 3y- 3)= 6(3x+ 2y- 4) 22x+ 33y- 33= 18x+ 12y- 24 4x+21y=9
22x+S7y =30
4x + 21y = 9 44x+ 114y= 60 -44x-231y=-99
-117y=-39
1 Y="3
4X+21(~)=9
4x+7=9 4x=2 1
x=-
2
1 1
x="2 Y="3
(2) (-11)
sol:
3x+2y
30. __ -"--. - - 9
x+ y-15
3x+2y=-9(x+ y-15) 3x+ 2y= - 9x- 9y+ 135
12x+ 11y= 135
4x 5(y-1) ""3--8-=-1
32x-15(y-1)= - 24 32x-15y+ 15= - 24
32x-15y= - 39 12x+ 11y= 135 (8)
32x-15y= - 39 (- 3)
96x+ 88y= 1.080
-96x+45y=117 133y= 1.197 y=9
12x+ 11(9)= 135 12x= 135- 99 12x= 36
x=3
sol: x=3 y=9
2x+5
31. 17-(5- y)=-60
2x+5-17(5- y)= -1.020 2x- 85+ 17y= -1.025
2x+ 17y=-940 y+62 -2--(1-x)=40
y+ 62- 2(1- x)= 80
y-2+2x=18
2x+ y=20 2x+ 17y=-940
2x+ y = 20 (-1) 2x+ 17y=-940
-2x- y = -20
16y=-960 y=-60 2x-60=20 2x=80 x=40
sol: x=40 y= - 60
3x+4y 30
32. x-6y 23
23(3x+4y)= - 30(x- 6y) 69x+ 92y= - 30x+ 180y 99x-88y=0
9x-8y=0
9x- y 63
3+ x- y - 37
37 (9x- y)=-63(3+x- y) 333x- 37y= -189- 63x+ 63y 396x-100y= -189 396x-100y= -189

9x - 8y = O (-44)
396x-100y= -189 -396x+352y= O 252y=-189
-3
y=""4
9X-8( -43)=0
9x+6=0
9x=-6
-2
x=-
3
-2 -3 x=3 y=""4
sol:
33. x- 4x+1=2y-S
9 3
9x- (4x+ 1)= 3(2y- S) 9x- 4x-1= 6y-1S Sx-6y=-14
3y+ 2 x+ 18 y--7-=1O
70y-1O(3y+ 2)= 7(x+ 18) 70y- 30y- 20= 7x+ 126 -146=7x-40y
7x - 40y =-146 (-S) Sx - 6y =-14 (7)
- 3Sx+ 200y= 730
3Sx- 42y =-98
lS8y= 632
y=4 Sx-6(4)=-14 Sx=-14+24
x=2
sol: x=2 y=4
E]ERICIO 181
1. x+y=a+b; x-y=a-b x+y=a+b
x-y=a-b
x =a a+y=a+b y=b
sol: x=a y=b
2. 2x+ y=b+2
2bx+by=b2 + 2b bx- y=O -2bx+2y=0
-2bx+2y =0
2bx +by=b2 + 2b
2y+by=b2 + 2b y(2+b)=b(b+2) y=b 2x+b=b+2
2x=2
x=1
sol: x=1 y=b
3. 2x-y=3a; x-2y=O -2x+4y=O
2x- y=3a -2x+4y= O
3y=3a y=a
2x-a=3a 2x=4a x=2a
sol: x=2a y=a
4. x- y=1-a ; x+ y=1+a x-y=1-a
x+y=1+a
2x =2
x=1
1+ y=1+a
y=a
sol: x=1 y=a
x x
5. -¡;+ y=2b b- y=a-b
x+ ay=2ab x-by= ab- b2
x+ ay 2ab
- x + by = b2 - ab
ay+ by= b2 + ab y(a+b)=b(b+a) y=b x+ab=2ab
x=ab
sol: x=ab y=b
6.
'::+2'.=2
b a ax+by=2ab
abx+b2y=2ab2
x y a2+b2 -+-=---
a b ab
bx+ay=a2+b2
- abx- a2y= - a3 - ab2
abx+b2y 2ab2
- abx - a2y= - a3 - ab2
b2y_a2y=_a3+ab2
y=a
ax+ba=2ab a(x+b)=2ab x+b=2b x=b
sol: x=b y=a
7.
x+ y=a+b -ax- ay=- a2 - ab ax+by=a2+b2
-ax
-ay=-a2
-ab
ax+by a2+b2
by- ay= b2 - ab
y(b- a)= b(b- a) y=b
x+b=a+b
x=a
sol: x=a y=b
8.
a+b
ax- by= O x+ y=---¡;¡;-
abx-b2y=0 abx+aby=a+b
abx-b2y =0
-abx - aby=- a-b
-b2y-aby=-(a+b)
- yb(b+a)=-(a+b)
1 - yb=-l =? y==b
1
ax=l =? x==a
1 1
sol: x=- y=-
a b
9. mx-ny=m2+n2 mnx- n2y= m2n+ n3 -mnx+n2y
mnx +m2y=m3
nx+my=m2+n2 mnx+m2y=m3+mn2
2 3
-m n -n
+mn2
n2y+ m2y= m3 _ m2n+ mn2 _ n3
y(m2 + n2 )=m2 (m- n)+ n2 (m- n) y(m2+n2)= (m2+n2)(m-n)
y=m-n -mny=m3+mn2 n2x+mny=
m2n+n3
m2x+n2x
=m3+mn2+m2n+n3
x(m2 + n2 )=m(m2 + n2)+ n(m2 + n2)
x(m2 + n2)= (m+n)(m2 + n2)
x=m+n sol: x=m+n y=m-n
10.
"::'+2'.= 2m m n
xn+ ym=2m2n xmn-n2y=m3n-mn3
xmn+ ym2 2m3n
-xmn +n2y= mn3-m3n
3 2
mx-ny=m -mn
ym2 + yn2 = mn3 + m3n
y (m2 + n2 )=mn(n2 + m2)
y=mn
xn+ m2n= 2m2n
xn=m?n ::::::> x=m?
sol: x=m2 y=mn
-ay-by=
ab+ b2
-a'x-a'y=-2a'c
_a2x_a2y= -2a2c
a'x-a'y=2a3 -2a'y=2a3-2a'c
- 2a'y= 2a' (a- c)
- y=a-c
y=c-a x+c-a=2c
a' (x- y)= 2a3 a'x-a'y=2a3
14. x+ y=2c
11. x+y=a ax+ay=a2
'IX-by= a(a+b)+ b2 'IX-by= a2 + ab+b2
-'IX- ay
'IX
-by= a2+ab+b2
- y(a+b)=b(a+b)
-y=b
y=-b
x-a=c =; x=c+a
sol: x=a+c
y=c-a
x-b=a x=a+b sol: x=a+b
15.
a2 _ b2
~-ry=O ~-m=---
ab
b2ax-b3y=0 a2by_b2ax=a2_b2
b2~ -b3y=0
-b2ax+a2by =a2_b2
a2by_b3y= a2_b2 by (a2 _ b2)= a2 _ b2 by=l
1 y=¡;
y=-b
12. x-y=m-n mx-my=m'-mn
mx
-ny= m'
, -n
-mx+my
=_m2 +mn
my-ny=
, mn-n
y(m-n)=n(m-n)
y=n
~=1 1
x==a
x-n=m-n
x=m
sol: x=m y=n
1
sol: x==a
1
y=-
b
16.
x y ,+,=a+b b- a-
a2x+ b2y= a3b2 + a2b3
x- y=ab(b-a)
x y x 2y 2b'-a'
13. -+-=0 -+-=---
a b b a ab
bx+ay=O ~+2by=2b'-a'
-abx -a'y=O
abx+2b'y =2b3-a'b
2b'y- a'y= 2b3 - a'b
y (2b' - a')= b(2b' - a') y=b
_a2x_b2y
x- y=ab2-a2b a2x- a2y= a3b2 _ a4b = _ a3b2 _ a2b3
_ a2y= a3b2
_b2y_a2y=
x b -+-=0 a b
bx+ab=O
bx=-ab
_ y(a2+b2)=_a2b(b2+a2) - y=-a2b
y= a2b
x=-a sol: x=-a
y=b
x a2b
b2 +7=a+b
x+b3=ab2+b3 x= ab2
sol: x=ab2 y=a2b
17.
3 3
m-n
mxmn
nx+my=m+n
3 ,
=-m -m n
-mn'y= m3
3 -n
3 2 2 3
-m y-mn y= -m n-n
_ ym(m' + n')= - n (m' + n')
ym=n
n y==m
nx+m(~)=m+n
nx+n=m+n
nx=m
m x==n
m sol: x==n
n y==m
18. (a-b)x-(a+b)y=b2-3ab ax-bx- ay-by=b2 - 3ab (a+b)x- (a-b) y= ab- b2 ax+ bx- a
y + by= ab- b2 -ax+bx+ ay+by= _b2 + 3ab ax+bx-ay+by= _b2 +ab
2bx + 2by= - 2b2 +4ab
2b(x+ y)=2b(2a-b) x+ y=2a-b ax-bx-ay-by= b2-3ab ax+bx- ay+by= _b2 + ab
2ax - 2ay - 2ab 2a(x- y)=-2ab
x-y=-b x+y=2a-b x-y=-b
2x =2(a-b)
x=a-b a-b-y=-b
-y=-a y=a
sol: x=a-b y=a
19.
x+b y-b a+b -a-+-b-=-b-
b(x+b)+ a (y-b)= a (a +b)
bx+b' +ay-ab= a' + ab abx+ab' +a'y- a'b=a3 +a'b
- abx- ab' - a'y= - a3 - 2a'b x-a y-a =_ a+b
b a a
a (x- a)-b(y- a)= -b(a+b)
ax- a' -by+ba = -ba-b' abx- a'b- b' y+ b'a = - b' a - b3 abx- a'b-b'y= - 2b'a _b
3
-abx-ab' -a'y =-a3-2a'b
abx -a'b -b'y= -2b'a-b3
-ab' -a'b-a'y-b'y=- a3 -2a'b-2b'a-b3 ab' +a'b+a3 +b3 =a'y+b'y
b' (a +b)+ a' (b+ a)= y(a' +b')
(b' + a')(a+b)= y(a' +b')
a+b= y
x+b a+b-b a+b
-a-+--b--=-b-
b(x+ b)+ a' = a (a +b)
bx+b' + a' = a' +ab
bx=ab-b' =} bx=b(a-b) =} x=a-b sol: x=a-b y=a+b
20.
x y 1
a+b a+b ab
x y a'+b'
-+-----
b a - a'b'
abx+aby=a+b a'bx+ab'y=a'+b'
- a'bx- a'by = - a' - ab
-a'bx -a'by =-a' -ab
a'bx+ab'y a'+b'
ab'y-a'by=
b'-ab
ayb(b-a)=b(b-a) ayb=b
ay=l
1
y==a
abx+ ab(~) =a+b
abx+b=a+b
sol:
1 abx=a =}bx=l =} x=-¡;
1 1
x=- y=-
b a
EJERCICIO 182
127 214
1. -+-=- ; -+-=-
xy6 xy3
247
----=--
x y 3
214
-+-= -
X Y 3
~=-1 Y
3=y 214
-+-=-
X 3 3
6+x=4x
6=3x=} 2=x sol: x=2 y=3
3 2 1 2 5 23
2 ---=- . -+-=-
. X Y 2 ' x y 12
-~+~=-1 x y
6 15 23
-+-=-
x y 4
19 19 Y 4
4=y 321
---=-
x 4 2
6-x= x
6=2x 3=x
sol: x=3
y=4
5 4
3. -+-=7
x y
~+~=21 x y
~-~=8
x y
2.-~=4
x y
29
=29
x
1=x ~+~=7
1 y
5y+4=7y
4=2y 2=y
sol: x=1 y=2
12 5 13 18 7 19
4 -+-=-_. -+-=--
·xy 2'xy 2
36 15 39
----=-
x y 2
36 14 38
-+-=--
x y 2
1
Y 2 -2=y
36-7x=-19x 12x=-36 x=-3
sol: x=-3 y=-2
9 3 5 4
5. -+-=27; -+-=22
x y x y
~+..!.=9
x y
-~-~=-36
x y
~+~= 22 x y
7
=-14
x
1
-=x
2
~+~=22 ..!. y
2
4 =}10+-=22
Y
10y+4=22y 4=12y 1
3"=y
1 1
sol: x=2" y=3"
6 8 4 11
6 ---=-23; -+-=50
. x y x y
-~+~=46
x y
~+ 33=150
x y
49 =196 Y
1
¡=y
Continúa
6. Continuación
~+.!2=50 x 1
4
~+44=50
x
4+44x=50x
4=6x 2
-=x
3
2 1
sol: x=3" y=¡
9 10 7 15
7 -+-=-11· ---=-4
. x y , x y
27 + 30 =-33
x y
~_ 30 =-8
x y
41
=-41
x
-1=x
-2.-~=-4
1 Y
-7y-15=-4y
-15=3y
-5=y
sol: x=-1 y=-5
1 3 3
8. ---=-
2x y 4
1 3 3
--- =-
2x y 4
1 5 2
---=-
2x 4y 3
17 17 4y 12 -12=4y
-3=y
1 5 4 ~+ 2(-3f-"3
1 5 4
-+-=--
x 2y 3
6-5x=-8x 3x=-6 x=-2
sol: x=- 2 y=-3
2 1 11 1 3 4
9. 5x 3y 45; lOx - 5y - 5
2 1 11
--+-=-
lOx 6y 90
2 6 8
W:;-S;;=S
31 31 30y - 18
-18= 30y
3 -S=y
1 3 4
-+----
lOx 5(~) - 5
3+30x=24x
sol:
1 6x=-3 =} x=-2
1 3
x=-2 y=-S
1 1 1 1
12. -+-= a ; ---=b
x y x y
1 1
-+-=a x y
1 1
--+-=-b
x y
2 2
-=a-b=> -=y
y a-b
~ __ l_=b
x 2
a-b
2-x(a-b)=2bx 2-ax+xb=2bx -ax=bx-2
- ax-bx=- 2
2 x(a+b)=2 => x==a+b
2 2
sol:x=- y=-
a+b a-b
EJERCICIO 183
1.1: ~14'3-2'5=12-10=2 2.1~ ~12'5-3'7=10-21=-11
1-2 51
3. 4 3 -2·3-4·5=-6-20=-26
4.1; _~17(-2)-9'5=-14-45=-59
37218103
10. ~- 3y ="3 4x +-;;=s¡-
3 7 1
---= -
4x 12y 6
3 24 309
-- -=
4x y 84
-295 -295
12Y=s¡-
y=7 372
X 3(7) - 3
9-x=2x 9=3x 3=x sol: x=3 y=7
3 1 107
11. lOx 3y 60
3 2 107
-+-=-
5x 3y 30
317
---=--
5x 8y 5
13 13 24y =6
1 ¡=y
6 1 14
5x + 4(:~r5
6+5x=14x 6=9x 2
-=X
3
2 1
sol: x="3 y=¡
2 2 m+n m n -+-=--; ---=0
x y mn x y
2n 2n m+n
-+-=--
x y m
2m 2n ---= O
x y
2(m+n) = m+n
6 1 14
-+-=-
5x 4y 5
2 3b 2-3a a b
13 ---=-- . -+-=2
'xy a 'xy
2a 3ab ---=2-3a
x y
_2a_2b=_4
x y
b(-3a-2) ----=--3a-2 y
14.
b=y
a b -+-=2 x b
a+ x= 2x
x m
2m=x
a=x
m n ---=0 2m y
y-2n=0 y=2n
sol: x=2m y=2n
sol: x=a y=b
1 5 -31
5. 5(-8)-(-3)(-2)=-40-6=-46
-2 -8
1 9 -111 )
6. -3 7 9.7-(-11)(-3 =63-33=30
1-15 -11 )
7. 13 2 -15.2-13(-1 =-30+13=-17
112 -11
8. 13 -9 12(-9)-(13)(-1)=-108+13=-95
110 31
9 10·13-3·17=130-51=79
. 17 13
11.1_~ ~IS(0)-2(-3)=0+6=6
EJERCICIO 184
1. 7x+8y=29 5x+11y=26
I~: 1811 319-208 111
x=---- --=3
17 81 77-40 37
5 11
I~ ~:1182-145 37
y-17 81- 37 - 37 =1
5 11
sol: x=3 y=1
2. 3x-4y=13 8x-5y=-5
1~35 ~;I -65-20 -85
x=---= ---=-5
13 -41 -15+32 17
8 -5
I~ ~~I -15-104 -119
y-13 -41- 17 - 17 =-7
8 -5
sol: x=-5 y=-7
3. 13x-31y=-326 25x+37y=146
1-326 -311 146 37
X-I~~ -~;I
x- -12.062+4.526 _ -7.536 =-6
481+775 1.256
113 -3261
25 146
y-113 -311
25 37
_ 1.898+8.150 _ 10.048_8
Y 1.256 1.256 -
sol: x=-6 y=8
1-5 -SI
10. (- 5)(- 21)- (- S )(-19)= 105-152= - 47
-19 - 21
1 31 -S51
12. -20 43 31-43-(-S5)(-20)=1.333-1.700=-367
4. 15x-44y=-6 -27x+32y=-1
I=~ -:~I X=I_~~ _::1
-192-44 -236 1
x=----==---=
480 - 1.188 - 708 3
I-~~ =~I
y= 115 -441 -27 32
-15-162 -177 1
y= - 708 - 708 =¡
sol: 1 1
x="3 y=¡
5. 8x=-9y 8x+9y=0
7 2x+5+3y==2
4x+10+6y=7 4x+6y=-3
I-~ :1
X=---
1: :1
x- 0+27 _ 27 _ 9 -21 - 48-36 -12-¡- "4
1: -~I
y=l: :1
-24-0 -24 y=-1-2-=-1-2-= - 2
sol: x=2f y=-2
6. ax-by=-1 ax+by=7
1-; -:1
x-I: -~
-b+7b 6b 3
x=---=-=-
ab+ab 2ab a
7a+a 8a 4
y=--=-=-
2ab 2ab b
3 4
sol: x=- y=-
a b
7.3x-(y+2)=2y+1 3x- y-2= 2y+ 1 3x-3y=3 x-y=l
5y-(x+3)=3x+1 5y-x-3=3x+1 -4x+5y=4
11 -11
4 5 5+4
X=11 -1Ix=5-4=9 -4 5
I-~ :1 4+4
y=11 -lIY=-l-=S
-4 5
sol: x=9 y=S
8. ax+2y=2 ax 2-3y=-1
ax-6y=-2
I-~ -:1 -12+4 -8
X-la 21- -6a-2a -8a a
a - 6
1: -~I -2a-2a -4a 1
y=-I a 21 = -8a - -8a -"2
a - 6
1 1
sol: x=- y=-
a 2
9 ":'+1:=-4 ·46
3x+2y=-48
":'_..L=O 8 12 3x-2y=0
1~48 _~I X-I~ _~I
I~ -4~1
Y
I~ -~I
96-0 96
=-=-8
-6-6 -12
0+144 -12
12
sol: x=-8
y=-12
10.3x+ay=3a+1
x -+ay=2 a
x+a'y=2a
13a+ 1 al
2a a'
x=l~ :,1
3a3+a'-2a' a'(3a-1)
x 3a'-a - a(3a_1)-a
3a+ 11 2a
:,1
6a-3a-1 3a-1 1
y a(3a-1) = a(3a-1t~ 1
sol: x=a y==a
11.
x+2 _ y-3_~
3 8 - 6
8(x+ 2)- 3(y- 3)= 20 8x+ 16- 3y+ 9= 20 8x- 3y+ 2S= 20 8x-3y=-S y-S 2x-3 -6---S-=
0
S(y-S)- 6(2x- 3)= O Sy-2S-12x+18=0 -12x+Sy-7=0
-12x+Sy=7
I-~ -:1 x 1_182 _ ~
-2S+21 -4
x= 40-36 =4=-1
1-1~ -~I y= 1 8 31
-12 S
S6-60 -4
y= 40-36=4=-1
sol: x = - 1 y = -1
12.3x-2y=S mx+4y=2(m+1)
Is -21
2(m+ 1) 4
x I~ -~I
6(m+ l)-Sm y-
- 2(6+m)
sol: x=2
m+6 1
2(6+mf"2 1
y=-
2
13.
2y+3 2x-~=y+2
34x- (2y+ 3)= 17(y+ 2) 34x-2y-3=17y+34 34x-19y= 37
4x+1 3y-~=3x+5
63y- (4x+ 1)= 21(3x+ 5) 63y- 4x-1= 63x+ 105 -67x+63y=106
1~~6 -6~1
X=134 -191 - 67 63
2.331 + 2.014 4.345
x 2.142-1.273 -8(;9=5
1_3:7 1~:1
y=134-191 -67 63
3.604+ 2.479
y 869 -7
sol: x=5 y=7
14.
x+ Y =4 x- y
x+ y=4(x- y) x+ y=4x-4y
-3x+5y=0 x- y-1 1 x+y+1="9
9(x- y-1)=x+ y+1 9x- 9y- 9= x+ y+ 1 8x-lOy= 10 4x-5y=5
I~ -~I 0-25 -25
X=-1_3 51 = 15-20=--=-5=5
4 -5
1-: ~I -15-0
y=-1-3 51=-----=-S-=3
4 -5
sol: x=5 y=3
15. x-y=2b _x_+_Y_=2 a+b a-b
x(a- b)+ y(a+b)= 2(a2 _b2)
I 2b -1 I
2(a2_b2) a+b
x= 11 1 1
a-b a+b
2b(a+b)+2(a2-b2) 2a(b+a)
x= - -b+a
a+b+a-b 2a
la~b 2(a2~b2)1
y= 11 1 1
a-b a+b
2(a2-b2)-2b(a-b) 2a(a-b)
y= - -a-b
2a 2a
sol: x= a+ b y= a-b
EJERCICIO 185
1. x-y=1
x=o y=-1 y=O x= 1
x+y=7
x=o y=7
y=O x=7
~
y
"
"- +
x
" ~ /
..
, l'l
,-1
" /'
/ ~ 1,;:' )
/ f'.
V "
X' / ",X
/
Y'
sol: x=4 y=3
x+9 y+21
16. x-9= y+39
(x+ 9 )(y+ 39)= (x- 9 )(y+ 21)
xy+ 39x+ 9y+ 351= xy+ 21x- 9y-189 18x+18y=-540
x+ y=-30
x+8 y+19
----
x-8 y+ll
(y+ ll)(x+ 8)= (y+ 19 )(x- 8)
xy+ 8y+ llx+ 88= xy- 8y+ 19x-152 - 8x+ 16y= - 240
-x+2y=-30
I=~~ ~I -60+30 -30
x- ---=-=-10
11 1 1 2+ 1 3
-1 2
I-~ =~~I -30-30 -60 y=I_~ ~1--3-=-3-=-20
sol: x=-10 y= - 20
2. x-2y=10 x=o y=-5 y=O x=10
2x+3y=-8 x=o y=-2t y=O x=-4
y
"'- .J" ..
X' "' ./ ¡,.o"" X
~: r'\. ,,~ ,/ ,
~ i\ ..¡.' ~ "
"" ./' r
'-
"""" /' ~ ,-4
L/ ~ "i'I.
,. ...
y
sol: X = 2 Y = - 4
3. 5x-3y=O x=3 y=5
7x-y=-16 x=O y=16 y=O x=-2t
Escala 1:2
y
,
J
I )/
J ~J
.d '?+ /
. /
"
~ I
I J /
X' / X
l'
(-. ,-5 J

y'
sol: x=-3 y=-5
4. 3x=-4y 3x+4y=O x=4 y=-3
5x-6y=38 x=-2 y=-8 y=-3 x=4
-
~ y
.. . ~
.z' O
"-
X' .. . X
. .. i'...
r-..... / (4 -3)
V . . ..
V
~ r
n.
,,:>:,.
¿..+ /'
-/
y'
sol: x=4 y=-3
5.3x+4y=15 x=5 y=O x= 1 y= 3
2x+y=5 x=O y=5 x=2 y=l
y
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sol: x=1 y= 3
6.5x+2y=16 x=2 y=3 x=4 y=-2
4x+ 3y= 10 x=-2 y=6 x= 1 y= 2
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sol: x=4 y=-2
7. x+8=y+2 x-y=-6 x=o y=6 x=-6 y=O
y-4=x+2 -x+y=6 x=o y=6 x=-6 y=O
y
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sol : Equivalentes
3x y
8·5+¡-=2
12x+5y=40 x=O y=8 x=5 y=-4
x-5y=25 x=O y=-5 x=5 y=-4
y
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sol: x=5
y=-4
x y 1
9. ---=-- 3x-2y=-1
2 3 6
x=3 y=5; x=-3 y=-4 x y 7
-+-=-- 4x+3y=-7
3 4 12
x=-1 y=-1 ; x=-4 y=3
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sol:x=-1 y=-1
10. x+3y=6 x=o y=2 x=6 y=O
3x+9y=10 x=o y=1t x=3+ y=O
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sol : Incompatibles
11. 2x+3y=-13
x=-2 y=-3;x=-5 y=-1 6x+9y=-39
x=-2 y=-3, x=-5 y=-1
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sol : Equivalentes
x-2 y-3 y-2 x-3 11
12. -2---3-=4 -2-+-3-=-3
3(x- 2)- 2(y- 3)= 24 3(y- 2)+ 2(x- 3)= - 22
3x- 6- 2y+ 6= 24 3y- 6+ 2x- 6= - 22
3x-2y=24 2x+3y=-lO
x=6 y=-3 x=4 y=-6
x=4 y=-6 x=-2 y=-2
y
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sol : x = 4 Y = - 6
13. x+ y=9
x=6 y=3 ; x=4 y=5 x-y=-1
x=o y=1 ; x=2 y=3 x-2y=-6
x=o y=3; x=2 y=4
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sol:x=4 y=5
14. x+y=5
x=o y=5 ; x=2 y=3 3x+4y=18
x=2 y=3; x=-2 y=6 2x+3y=13
x=2 y=3; x=5 y=1
y
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sol: x=2 y=3
15.2x+y=-1
x=O y=-1 ; x=-1 y=1 x-2y=-13
x=-5 y=4 ; x=-3 y=5 3x-2y=-19
x=-5 y=2; x=-3 y=5
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sol:x=-3 y=5
16. x- y=1 2y- x=-4 4x-5y= 7
x=O y=-1 x=O y=-2 x=-2 y=-3 x=1 y=O x=2 y=-1 x=3 y=1
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sol:x=-2 y=-3
EJERCICIO 186
1. x+ y+z=6
x- y+2z=5 x-y-3z=-1O x+y+ z=6 x- y+2z=5 2x +3z=11
x+ y+ z = 6 x-y-3z=-1O
2x -2z=-4
x-z=-2 2x+3z= 11
x- z =-2 (3) 2x+3z=11
3x- 3z= - 6
5x =5
x=1
2(1)+ 3z= 11 2+ 3z= 11 3z=9 z=3
1+ y+3=6 y+4=6 y=2 sol: x=1 y=2 z=3
2.x+y+z=12
2x- y+ z=7
x+ 2y- z= 6 x+y+z=12 2x-y+z=7
3x +2z=19 2x- y+ z= 7 (2)
x+ 2y- z= 6 4x-2y+2z=14
x+2y- z =6
5x + z =20
3x+ 2z= 19
5x+ z =20 (-2) 3x +2z= 19
-lOx- 2z= - 40
-7x
=-21
x=3
Continúa
2. Continuación 5(3)+z=20 15+z=20
z=5
3+ y+5= 12 y+8=12
y=4
sol: x=3 y=4 z=5
3. x- y+ z=2
x+ y+ z=4 2x+2y-z=-4 x-y+z=2
x+ y+z =4 2x +2z=6
x+ z=3
x - y + z= 2 (2) 2x+2y-z=-4 2x-2y+2z= 4 2x+2y- z=-4
4x + z= O
x+z=3 (-1) 4x+ z= O -x-z=-3 4x+z= O
3x =-3
x=-l
-1+ z= 3 z=4 -1- y+4=2
- y+ 3=2
- y=-l
y=l
sol: x=-l y=l z=4
4. 2x+ y-3z=-1 x-3y-2z=-12 3x-2y-z=-5
2x+ y-3z=-1 (2) 3x-2y-z=-5 4x+2y-6z=-2 3x-2y- z =-5 7x -7z=-7
x-z=-l
Continúa
4. Continuación 2x+ y-3z= -1 (3) x-3y-2z=-12 6x+ 3y- 9z= - 3 x-3y-2z=-12
7x -llz=-15
x- z =- 1 (-7) 7x-llz=-15 -7x+7z = 7 7x-llz=-15 -4z=-8
z=2
x-2=-1 x=l
2(1)+ y-3(2)=-1 2+y-6=-1 y-4=-1 y=3 sol:x=l y=3z=2
5. 2x+ 3y+ z= 1 6x-2y-z=-14 3x+ y-z=l
2x+ 3y+ z= 1 3x+ y -z=l 5x+4y =2
2x+ 3y+ z= 1 6x-2y-z=-14
8x+ y =-13
5x+4y= 2
8x+ y =-13 (-4) 5x +4y= 2 -32x-4y=52
- 27x =54
x=-2
8(-2)+ y=-13 -16+ y=-13 y=3
2(- 2)+3(3)+ z= 1 -4+9+z=1
5+ z= 1 z=-4 sol: x=- 2 y= 3 z=-4
6.5x-2y+z=24 2x+5y-2z=-14 x-4y+3z=26
5x-2y+ z= 24 (2) 2x+5y-2z=-14 lOx-4y+2z= 48
2x+5y-2z=-14 12x+ y = 34 5x-2y+ z =24 (-3) x -4y+3z=26 -15x+6y-3z=-72
x -4y+3z= 26
-14x+ 2y = -46
12x+ y = 34 (-2) -14x+2y=-46
-24x-2y=-68
-14x+2y=-46
-38x =-114
x=3
12(3)+ y=34
36+ y=34 y=-2
3-4(-2)+3z=26 3+8+3z=26 3z= 15 z=5
sol: x=3 y=-2 z=5
7.4x+2y+3z=8 3x+4y+ 2z=-1
2x- y+5z=3
4x+2y+3z= 8 (-2) 3x+4y+2z=-1 -8x-4y-6z=-16 3x+4y+2z=- 1
-5x -4z=-17
5x+4z=17 4x+2y+3z=8
2x- y+5z=3 (2) 4x+2y+ 3z=8 4x-2y+lOz=6
8x + 13z= 14
Continúa
7. Continuación
8x+13z=14 (-5) 5x+ 4z=17 (8) -40x- 65z=-70
40x+32z=136 -33z=66 z=-2
5x+4(-2)=17 5x-8=17 5x=25 x=5
2(5)- y+5(-2)=3
10- y-l0= 3 -y=3 y=-3 sol:x=5 y=-3 z=-2
8.6x+3y+2z=12 9x-y+4z=37 lOx+5y+3z=21 6x+3y+2z=12
9x- y +4z=37 (3) 6x +3y+ 2z=12 27x- 3y+ 12z= 111
33x + 14z= 123
9x- y+4z=37 (5) lOx+5y+3z=21 45x-5y+20z=185 lOx+5y+ 3z =21
55x +23z=206
33x+ 14z= 123 (5) 55x+23z=206 (-3) 165x+ 70z= 615
-165x- 69z= - 618
z=-3
33x+ 14(- 3)= 123 33x-42= 123 33x= 165 x=5
6(5) + 3y + 2(- 3)= 12 30+ 3y- 6= 12 3y+24=12 3y=-12 y=-4
sol: x=5 y=-4 z=-3
11.7x+3y-4z=-35 3x-2y+5z=38
x+ y- 6z= - 27 2(3)+ z= 3
7x+3y-4z=-35 z=-3
x+ y -6Z=-27(-3) 4(3)- y+5(-3)=-6
7x+3y- 4z =-35 12- y-15=-6
-3x-3y+18z= 81 -y-3=-6
4x +14z=46 -y=-3
2x+7z=23 y=3
3x-2y+5z= 38 sol: x=3 y=3 z=-3
x+ y -6z=-27 (2) 13. 9x+4y-lOz=6
3x-2y+ 5z= 38 6x-8y+5z=-1
2x+ 2y-12z= -54 12x+ 12y-15z= 10
1 5x - 7z=-16 6x- 8y + 5z=-1 (-2)
Z="3 2x+7z= 23 12x+12y-15z=1O 5x-7z=-16
-12x+ 16y-lOz= 2
7x = 7 12x+12y-15z=1O
x=l
28y-25z=12
9x+4y-lOz=6 (2) 6x-8y+ 5z=-1 (-3) 18x+ 8y -20z=12 -18x+24y-15z= 3 32y- 35z= 15 C
ontinúa
9.2x+4y+3z=3 lOx-8y-9z=0 4x+4y-3z=2
2x +4y+3z=3 (3) lOx-8y-9z=0 6x+ 12y+ 9z= 9
lOx- 8y -9z=0 16x+ 4y =9 lOx-8y-9z=0
4x+4y-3z=2 (-3) lOx- 8y - 9z= O -12x-12y+9z=-6
-2x-20y =-6
x+ lOy= 3 16x+ 4y = 9 (5) x +lOy=3 (-2)
80x+20y=45 -2x-20y=-6
78x =39
1
x=-
2
16(~)+4Y=9
8+4y=9 4y=1 1
y=-
4
2G)+4( ¡ )+3Z=3
sol:
1+ 1+3z=3 3z= 1 1 Z="3
1 1
x="2 y=¡
10.3x+y+z=1 x+2y-z=1
x+ y+2z=-17
3x+ y+z=l x+2y-z=1 4x+3y =2 x+2y- z = 1 (2) x+ y +2z=-17 Continúa
10. Continuación 2x+4y-2z= 2 x+ y +2z=-17
3x+5y =-15
4x+3y= 2 3x+5y=-15 12x+ 9y = 6
-12x-20y=60
-l1y=66
y=-6
4x+3(-6)=2 4x-18=2 4x=20 x=5 5-6+2z=-17 2z=-16 z=-8
sol: x=5 y=-6 z=-8
2(l)+7z=23 7z=21 z=3
1+ y-6(3)=-27 y-17=-27 y=-lO
sol: x=l y=-lOz=3
12. 4x- y+5z=-6 3x+3y-4z=30 6x+2y-3z=33
4x- y + 5z= - 6(3) 3x+3y-4z= 30 12x- 3y+ 15z= -18
3x+3y- 4z = 30
15x + 11z= 12
4x- y +5z=-6 (2) 6x+2y-3z= 33
8x- 2y+ lOz= -12
6x+ 2y- 3z= 33
14x + 7z=21
2x+z=3
15x+ 11z= 12
2x+ z = 3 (-11) 15x+ 11z= 12
- 22x-11z= - 33
(3) (-4)
-7x
=-21
x=3
13. Continuación 28y- 25z= 12 (- 8) 32y-35z=15 (7)
- 224y+ 200z= - 96
224y- 245z= 105 -45z=9
1
z=--
5
28Y-25(-~)=12 28y+5=12 28y=7
1 y=¡
6X-8(¡)+5( -~)=-1
6x-2-1=-1 6x=2
1
X=-
3
1 1
y=¡ z=-S
sol: x=.!. 3
14. 5x+3y-z=-11
lOx- y+ z= 10 15x+2y-z=-7 5x+3y-z=-11 lOx- y +z= 10 15x+2y =-1
lOx- y+z=lO 15x+2y-z=-7 25x+ y = 3
15x+2y=-1
25x+ y= 3 (- 2) 15x+2y=- 1
-50x-2y=-6
-35x =-7
1
X=-
5
15(~)+2Y=-1 3+2y=-1 2y=-4 y=-2 Continúa
14. Continuación lOx-(-2)+z=1O
lOG)-(-2)+Z=1O
2+2+z=1O z=6 1
sol: x=S y=-2 z=6
15. x+ y= 1 y+z=-1 z+x=-6
x+ y = 1
y+z=-1 (-1)
x+ y = 1
- y- z= 1
x -z=2
x-z= 2 x+z=-6
2x =-4 x=-2
- 2+ y= 1 y=3
3+ z=-1 z=-4
sol: x=-2y=3z=-4
16. x+2y=-1 2y+z=0 x+2z=11
x+2y =-1
2y+z= O (-1)
x+2y =-1
-2y-z= O
x -z=-1
x- z= -1 (-1) x+2z= 11
- x+ Z = 1 x+2z=11
3z= 12
z=4 x-4=-1 =}x=3 3+2y=-1
2y=-4 =} y=-2 sol: x=3 y=-2 z=4
3x-2y=0 3y-4z=25
z-5x=-14
3y-4z= 25 20. x-2y=0
-5x + z =-14 (4) y-2z=5
3y-4z= 25 x+ y+z=8
-20x +4z=-56 x +y+z=8
-20x+3y =-31 x-2y =0(-1)
-20x+3y=-31 (2) x+ y+z=8
3x-2y= O (3) -x+2y =0
-40x+6y=-62 3y+z=8
9x -6y= O 3y+z=8 (2)
-31x =-62 y-2z=5
x=2 6y+2z=16
y -2z= 5
7y =21
y=3 x-2(3)=0
17. y+z=-8
2x+z=9
3y+2x=-3
y+z=-8
2x +z= 9 y+z=-8 -2x -z=-9
-2x+y =-17
-2x+ y =-17
2x+3y=- 3 4y=-20 y=-5 -5+z=-8 z=-3 2x-3= 9
2x= 12
x=6
sol:x=6 y=-5 z=-3
18.
3(2)-2y=0 6-2y=0 -2y=-6 y=3 3(3)-4z=25 -4z= 16
z=-4 sol:x=2 y=3 z=-4
19. 3z-5x=1O 5x-3y=-7 3y-5z=-13
-5x +3z=1O
(-1) 5x-3y =-7
-3y+3z= 3
- y+z= 1
3y-5z=-13
- y+ z= 1 (3) 3y-5z=-13 -3y+3z= 3
-2z=-1O
z=5 - y+5=1
-y=-4
y=4 5x-3(4)=-7 5x-12=-7 5x=5
x=1
sol: x=1 y=4 z=5
x-6=0
x=6 6+3+z=8
z=-1 sol:x=6 y=3 z=-1
21.5x-3z=2
2z- y=-5 x+2y-4z=8 x+2y-4z=8
- y + 2z=-5 (2) x+2y-4z= 8 -2y+4z=-10
x =-2
5(-2)-3Z=2 -10-3z=2
-3z=12
z=-4
2(-4)- y=-5 -8- y=-5
-y=3
y=-3
sol: x=-2 y=-3 z=-4 22.2x-z=14
4x+ y-z=41
3x- y+5z=53
4x+ y- z =41 3x- y+5z=53 7x +4z=94
7x+4z=94
2x- z =14 (4) 7x+4z=94 8x-4z=56
15x = 150
x=lO
2(1O)-z=14 20-z=14 -z=-6 z=6 4(10)+ y-6=41 y+34=41 y=7
sol: x=lO y=7 z=6
23. x+y-z=1 z+x-y=3 z-x+y=7 z+x-y=3 z-x+y=7
2z =10 =}z=5
Continúa
23. Continuación
x- y+z=3 x+y-z=1
2x =4
x=2 2-y+5=3 -y+7=3
-y=-4
y=4
sol: x=2 y=4 z=5
24.
x y z
"2+"2-"3=3
3x+3y-2z=18 x y z
"3+6-"2=-5
2x+ y-3z=-30 x y z
6-"3+"6=0
x-2y+z=0
3x+3y-2z=18 (2) x -2y+ z=O (3) 6x+6y-4z=36 3x-6y+3z= O
9x - z=36
2x+ y-3z=-30 (2) x -2y+z= O 4x+2y-6z=-60 x-2y+ z= O
5x -5z=-60
x-z=-12 9x-z= 36 x-z=-12 (-1) 9x-z=36 -x+z= 12
8x =48
x=6
6-z=-12 -z=-18 z= 18
Continúa
24. Continuación 6-2y+18=0 -2y+24=0
-2y=-24
y=12
sol: x=6 y=12 z=18
25.
x y z "3+"4+"3=21
4x+3y+4z=252 x y z
"5+6-"3=0
6x+5y-lOz=0 x y z
10 +"3-"6=3
3x+lOy-5z=90
6x+ 5y-lOz= O (-2) 3x+lOy- 5z=90 -12x-lOy+ 20z= O
3x+ lOy- 5z = 90
-9x +15z=90
-3x+5z=30
4x+ 3y + 4z= 252 (10) 3x+lOy-5z=90 (-3) 40x+ 30y+40z= 2.520 -9x-30y+15z =-270 31
x +55z=2.250
-3x+ 5z =30 (-ll) 31x+55z=2.250 33x-55z=-330 31x+55z=2.250
64x = 1.920
x=30 -3(30)+5z=30
-90+5z=30
5z= 120
z=24 6(30)+5y-1O(24)= O 180-240+5y=0 5y=60 y=12 sol: x=30 y=12 z=24
y+z
26. x--3-=4
3x- y-z=12 x+z Y--8-=1O
8y-x-z=80 z- y-x =S 2
2z- y+x=lO
3x- y -z=12 (-1) -x+8y-z=80
-3x+ y+z=-12
- x +8y-z= 80
-4x+9y =68
-x+8y- z =80 (2)
x- y +2z=1O
- 2x+ 16y- 2z= 160 x- y +2z= 10
-x+1Sy =170
-4x+ 9y= 68
- x +1Sy=170 (-4)
-4x+ 9y= 68
4x-60y=-680 -S1y=-612 y=12 -4x+9(12)=68
-4x+108=68
-4x=-40
x=lO
3(1O)-12-z=12 30-12-z=12 18-z=12 z=6 sol:x=lO y=12 z=6
27.
x+ y _ y+4
7 - S
S(x+ y)=7(y+4) Sx+Sy=7y+ 28 Sx-2y=28
x-z=y-4
S 2
2(x-z)=S(y-4)
2x-2z=Sy-20 2x-Sy- 2z= - 20 Continúa
27. Continuación y-z_x+2
3 - 10
1O(y-z)=3(x+2) lOy-lOz= 3x+ 6 3x-lOy+ lOz=-6
2x- Sy- 2z=-20 (S) 3x-lOy+lOz= -6 lOx- 2Sy-lOz= -100 3x-lOy+lOz= -6
13x- 3Sy = -106
13x-3Sy=-106 (2)
Sx - 2y= 28 (-3S)
26x -70y=-212 -17Sx+70y=-980
-149x =-1.192
x=8
S(8)-2y=28 40-2y=28 -2y=-12
y=6 2(8)-S(6)- 2z= - 20 16- 30- 2z= - 20 -2z=-6 z=3 sol: x=8 y=6 z=3
z+4
28. y--2-=x-6
2y- z- 4= 2x-12 -2x+2y-z=-8
x-7 z--3-=y-S
3z-x+7=3y-1S - x- 3y+ 3z= - 22 y+2 x--S-=z+4
Sx- y-2=Sz+20
Sx- y-Sz=22
- 2x + 2 y - z = - 8
- x-3y+3z=-22 (-2)
-2x+ 2y- z = -8
2x+6y-6z= 44 8y-7z= 36 Continúa
28. Continuación Sx- y -Sz= 22 -x-3y+3z=-22 (S)
Sx- y - Sz= 22 -Sx-1Sy+ 1Sz= -110
-16y + lOz= - 88
-8y+Sz=-44
-8y+Sz=-44
8y-7z= 36 -2z= -8 z=4
8y-7(4)=36 8y-28=36
8y=64
y=8 -x-3(8)+3(4)=-22
-x-12=-22
x=10 sol: x=lO y=8 z=4
29.
y-z x- Y+-2-=3
2x-2y+ y-z=6 2x-y-z=6 x- y x- z
-2--4=0
2x-2y-x+z=0 x-2y+z=0
y-z -2--x=-S
y-z-2x=-1O
2x- y-z= 6 -2x+ y-z=-lO
-2z=-4
z=2
x- 2y+ z= O
2x- y-z=6 (-2)
x-2y+z= O -4x+2y+2z=-12
- 3x + 3z= -12
-3x+3(2)=-12
-3x+6=-12
-3x=-18
x=6 Continúa
29. Continuación 6-2y+2=O -2y+8=O
-2y=-8
y=4
sol: x=6 y=4 z=2
1 1
30. -+- =5 x y
+'!'=6 (-1)
x z
1 1
-+- 5
x y
-.!.=-6
x z
'!'_'!'=-1
y z
'!'_'!'=-1
y z
1 1 -+-= 7 Y z
2
=6
y
1 1 -+-=5 x .!.
3
.!.+ 3= 5
x
1 -=2 x
1
-=x
2
1 1 -+-=6 1 z
2
1
2+-=6 z
1 -=4 z
1
-=z
4
1 1 1
sol: X="2 Y="3 z=¡
3 2
31. -+- = 2
x y
2 2 3
-+-= pY z 2
3 2 x y
2 2 Y z
3 2
x Z
(-1)
2
3 2
1 2
~-~=.!. (2)
x z 2 144
x z 3
~-i=l
x z
144 ~+~=3
7 7 -3
x=3
x
3 2 -+-=2 3 Y
2
1+-=2 Y
2 -=1
Y
2=y
3 2 1
---=-
3 z 2
2 1
1-~="2
2 1 z 2 4=z
sol: x=3 y=2 z=4
142
32. -+-+-=-6 x y Z
~+~+i=3 (-2)
x y z
142 -+-+-=-6 x y z
-~-~-~=-6
x y z
_2 _~ = -12
x z
Continúa
32. Continuación .!.+ ~ + ~ = - 6 (5)
x y z
6 5 6 31 (4) x y z
2+ 20 + 10 =-30 x y z
24 _ 20 _ 24 = 124 x y z
29 14
--=94
x z
-2-~=12 (-7)
x z
29 _ 14 =94 (3)
x z
35 + 42 =84 x z
87 _ 42 =282 x z
122
=366
x
122= 366x 1
-=x
3
-2.-~=-12 1 z
3
6 -15--=-12 z
6
--=3 z
-2=z
1 4 2 -+-+-=-6 .!. y -2
3
4 3+--1=-6 Y
i=-8
y
1 -"2=y
1 1
sol: x="3 y=-"2 z=-2
EJERCICIO 187
1. 2 1 7. 5 2 -8
3 4 -3 -7 3
O 2 4 O -1
2 1 5 2 -8
3 4 -3 -7 3
=}6+0+8-3-0-4=7 =}35+0+24-224+0-6=-1n
2. 1 2 -2 8. 3 2 5
1 - 3 3 -1 -3 4
-1 4 5 3 2 5
1 2 -2 3 2 5
1 -3 3 -1 -3 4
=}-15-8-6+6-12-10=-45 =}-45-10+24+45-24+10=0
3. -3 4 1 9. 5 2 3
2 -3 O 6 1 2
1 2 7 3 4 5
-3 4 1 5 2 3
2 -3 O 6 1 2
=}63+4+0+3+0-56=14 =}25+ 72+ 12-9-40-60=0
4. 2 5 -1 10. 12 5 10
3 -4 3 8 -6 9
6 2 4 7 4 -2
2 5 -1 12 5 10
3 -4 3 8 -6 9
=}-32-6+90-24-12-60=-44 =} 144+320+315+420-432 +80=847
5. 5 -1 -6 11. -9 3 -4
-2 5 3 7 -5 -3
3 4 2 4 6 1
5 -1 -6 -9 3 -4
-2 5 3 7 -5 -3
=}50+48-9+90-60-4=115 =}45-168-36-80-162-21=-422
6. 4 1 5 12. 11 -5 7
3 2 -6 -12 3 8
12 3 2 -13 1 9
4 1 5 11 -5 7
3 2 -6 -12 3 8
=} 16+45-72-120+ 72-6=-65 =} 297 - 84+ 520+ 273- 88- 540= 378
EJERCICIO 188
1. x+y+z=11 x- y+3z=13 2x+2y-z=7
11 1 1
13 -1 3 7 2-1
11 1 1
13 -1 3
1 1 1
1 -1 3 2 2 -1
1 1 1
1 -1 3 11+26+21+ 7-66+13
x-
1+2+6+2-6+1
x
1 11 1
1 13 3
y= 2 7 -1
1 11 1
1 13 3
-13+ 7 +66-26-21+ 11
Y 6
1 11 -1 13 z= 2 2 7
1 11 -1 13
z- -7+22+26+22-26-7 6
sol: x=2 y=4 z=5
2. x+y+z=-6 2x+y-z=-1 x-2y+3z=-6 -6 1 1
-1 1-1
-6 -2 3
-6 1 1
-1 1 -1
1 1 1 2 1 -1 1 -2 3 1 1 1 2 1 -1
x
12 -2 6
2. Continuación
x- -18+2+6+6+12+3 3-4-1-1-2-6
1 -6 1
2 -1 -1
y= 1 -6 3
1 -6 1
2 -1 -1 -3-12+6+ 1-6+36
y- -11
1 1-6 2 1 -1
z= 1 -2 -6
1 1-6
2 1 -1 -6+24-1+6-2+12
z-
-11
sol: x=-1 y=-2 z=-3 3.2x+3y+4z=3 2x+6y+8z=5 4x+9y-4z=4
33
-3
-11
11 -11
-1
22 -11
2
24 3 3 4
4 5 6 8
6
4 9 -4
3 3 4
5 6 8
x
2 3 4
2 6 8
4 9 -4
30 2 3 4
-5 2 6 8
6
-72+180+96-96-216+60 -48 1
x -96 - 2
-48+72+ 96-96-144+24
2 3 4
2 5 8
y= 4 4 -4
2 3 4
2 5 8
-40+ 32+ 96-80-64+ 24 -32 1
y= -96 -96-
3
2 3 3
2 6 5
z= 4 9 4
2 3 3
2 6 5
48+54+60-72- 90- 24 -24 1
z= -
-96 -96 4
1 1 1
sol: x=- y=- z=-
2 3 4
4.4x-y+z=4 2x+2y-z=2 6x-2y+3z=12 4 -1 1 2 2 -1 12 -2 3
4 -1 1 2 2-1
x=-';-------;-
4 -1 1
2 2 -1
6 -2 3
4 -1 1
2 2 -1 24-4+12-24-8+6
x-
24-4+6-12-8+6
4 4 1
2 2-1
y= 6 12 3 441 2 2 -1
_ 24+24-24-12+48-24 _ 36_3
Y 12 "12-
4 -1 4
222
z= 6 -2 12
4 -1 4
222
z- 96-16-12-48+16+24 _ 60 =5
12 12
1
sol: x=- y=3 z=5 2
6 1 12 2
5. x+4y+5z=11 3x-2y+z=5 4x+ y-3z=-26
11 4 5
5 -2 1 -26 1 -3 11 4 5 5 -2 1
1 4 5
3 -2 1 4 1 -3
1 4 5
3 -2 1
x
Continúa
5. Continuación
x- 66+25-104-260-11+60 _ -224 =-2
6+15+16+40-1+36 112
1 11 5
3 5 1
y= 4 -26 -3
1 11 5
3 5 1
_ -15-390+44-100+26+99 _ -336 --3
Y 112 112 -
1 4 11
3 -2 5 z= 4 1 -26
1 4 11
3 -2 5
z- 52+33+80+88-5+312 _ 560 -5
112 112
sol: x=-2 y=-3 z=5
6. 7x+10y+4z=-2 5x-2y+6z=38 3x+ y-z=21
-2 10 4 38 -2 6 21 1 -1 -2 10 4
38 -2 6
7 10 4
5 -2 6 3 1-1
7 10 4
5 -2 6
x
x- -4+152+1.260+168+12+380 _ 1.968 =8
14+20+180+24-42+50 246
7 -2 4
5 38 6
y= 3 21 -1
7 -2 4
5 38 6 -266+420-36-456-882-10 -1.230
y- 246 -~=-5
7 10 -2
5 -2 38
z= 3 1 21
7 10 -2 5 -2 38
z- -294-10+1.140-12-266-1.050 _ -492 =-2
246 246
50/: x=8 y=-5 z=-2
7. 4x+ 7y+5z=-2 6x+3y+7z=6 x- y+9z=-21
-2 7 5
6 3 7
-21 -1 9
-2 7 5
6 3 7
4 7 5
6 3 7
1 -1 9
4 7 5
6 3 7
x- -54-30-1.029+315-14-378 _ -1.190 =5
108-30+49-15+28-378 -238
4 -2 5
6 6 7
y= 1 -21 9
4 -2 5
6 6 7
216-630-14-30+588+108 _ 238 --1
y- -238 -238
4 7 -2
6 3 6
z= 1 -1 -21 4 7 -2
6 3 6
x
-252+12+42+6+24+882 714
z= -----=-3
-238 -238
sol: x=5 y=-1 z=-3
8. 3x-5y+2z=-22 2x-y+6z=32 8x+3y-5z=-33 -22 -5 2 32 -1 6 -33 3-5
-22 -5 2
32 -1 6
3 -5 2
2 -1 6
8 3-5
3 -5 2
2 -1 6
x
Continúa
8. Continuación
x -110+192+990-66+396-800 602 =-2
15+12-240+16-54-50 -301
3 -22 2
2 32 6
y= 8 -33 -5
3 -22 2
2 32 6
-480-132-1.056-512+594-220 -1.806 6
Y _ 301 -301
3 -5 -22
2 -1 32
z= 8 3 -33
3 -5 -22
2 -1 32 99-132-1.280-176-288-330 -2.107
z- - =7
-301 -301
sol: x=-2 y=6 z=7
9. x+ y+z=3 x+2y=6 2x+3y=6
3 1
6 2 6 3
3 1
6 2
1 1
1 2
2 3
1 1
1 2
1 o o 1 o 1 o o 1 o
x=
0+18+0-12+0+0 6
x=------------- 6
0+3+0-4+0+0 -1
1 3 1
1 6 o
y= 2 6 o
1 3 1
1 6 o
y_ 0+6+0-12+0+0 _ -6 -6
-1 -1
1 3
2 6
z= 2 3 6
1 3
2 6 12+9+12-12-18-6 -3
z- -3
-1 -1
sol: x=-6 y=6 z=3
10. 3x-2y=-1 4x+z=-28 x+2y+3z=-43 -1 -2
-28 O
-43 2
-1 -2
-28 O
3 -2
4 O
1 2
3 -2 4 O
o 1 3 O 1 O 1 3 O 1
x
x- 0+0+86+0+2-168 _ -80 =-5
0+0-2+0-6+24 16
3 -1 O
4 -28 1
y= 1 -43 3
3 -1 O
4 -28 1
_ -252+0-1+0+ 129+ 12 _ -112 _ 7
Y 16 16 -
3 -2 -1
4 O -28
z= 1 2 -43
3 -2 -1 4 O -28
z= 0-8+56+0+168-344 _ -128 =-8
16 16
sol: x=-5 y=-7 z=-8
11 ":'-1:.+":'=1 ·34 4
4x-3y+3z=12
":'+1:.-z=1
6 2
2x+6y-12z=12 x+3y-6z=6 ":'-1:.-":'=0 282 4x-y-4z=0
12 -3 3 6 3-6 O -1 -4 12 -3 3
6 3 -6 4 -3 3 1 3 -6 4 -1 -4 4 -3 3 1 3 -6 Continúa
x
11. Continuación -144-18+0+0-72-72 -306
x- -6
-48-3+72-36-24-12 -51
4 12 3
1 6-6
y= 4 0-4 4 12 3 1 6-6
y_ -96+0-288-72+0+48 _ -408 =8
-51 -51
4 -3 12
1 3 6
z= 4 -1 O
4 -3 12
1 3 6
z- 0-12-72-144+24+0 _ -204 -4
-51 -51
sol: x= 6 y=8 z=4
12.
~+ y=2z+3 3
x+3y=6z+y
x+3y-6z=9 9 3 -6
1 -1 O
44 -1 4
9 3 -6 1 -1 O
x= -1-1,------:3:-----=-6+
1 -1 O
4 -1 4
1 3 -6 1 -1 O
x=-36+6+0-264+0-12_-306_9
-4+6+0-24+0-12 -34
x- y=1
x+z=1.+11 4
4x+4z=y+44 4x-y+4z=44
1 9 -6
1 1 O
y= 4 44 4
1 9 -6
1 1 O
y= 4-264+0+24+0-36 _ -272 -8
-34 -34
9
1
44
9
1
1 1 z= 4 1 1
3 -1
-1
3 -1
z- -44-9+ 12+36+ 1-132 _ -136 =4
-34 -34
sol: x=9 y=8 z=4
EJERCICIO 191
1. x+2y+z=8
Plano ABC x+2y+z=8 Para y=O z=o x=8 Para x=o z=o y=4 Para x=o y=O z=8
2x+2y+z=9
Plano DEF 2x+2y+z=9 Pam y=O z=o x=4+ Pam x=o z=o y=4+ Para x=o y=O z=9
3x+3y+5z=24 Plano GHI 3x+3y+5z=24 Para y=O z=o x=8
Para x=o z=o y=8
Pam x=o y=O z=4t
1'- - ,- ,- --
Z
n
I \
1- k-\
11 j ~
I 11 \ ~
~
/1 / ........ \ ~
11 V -....., 0 ~
~
I 1/ V 7 .- ~ ,
.- ,
I '/ / " \ ........ ~
R i 3
f/ -' - . . 1"'-- ~- ...... ~(
l'.A 1 - - -
- -
;/ 1 / / V r- f.¿ :::='1 Q X
---
/1/ L / ~ .------- ...- .----- ,.......-
--- ----- V /
1/ !j ,/ l::::: ------ ---- V
..--' .......--
/~ ~ ,;.-- ..----
..-----
! .....---- V
/ ,/ / .-----
/ / / V
H" :.-----
/
y
Sol:x =1 y=2 z=3
2. x+y+z=5 3x+2y+z=8 2x+3y+3z=14
Plano ABC x+y+z=5 PlanoDEF 3x+2y+z=8 Plano GHI 2x+3y+3z=14
Para y=o z=o x=5 Para y=o z=o x=2t Para y=o z=o x=7
Para x=o z=o y=5 Para x=o z=o y=4 Para x=o z=o y=4t
Para x=o y=o z=5 Para x=o y=o z=8 Para x=o y=o z=4%
I z
D
j \
I \
V \
,.., ~
/ h \
I W ~ .. ...
fA Y /1\ ~ r--------
/ 11 /. 3 I~ ~
ü \ "--
//; I 1 \F ~ -..... ~I
... > e
'1 / LItI' / .....- ....---- -----
IJ./ -------- /'
..-"
J / V / ........- ..------ V .--
-------- /
I/R Ñ ;::- ..-----
¿
j / J . .. . /
iif/
y
sol:x=1 y=1 z=3
3. 2x+ 2y+ 3z= 23
Plano ABC 2x+2y+3z=23 Para y=O z=O x=l1+ Para x=O z=O y=l1t Para x=O y=O z=7f
2x+ 3y+ 2z= 20
Plano DEF 2x+3y+2z=20 Para y=O z=O x=lO Para x=O z=O y=6f Para x=O y=O z=lO
4x+3y+2z=24
Plano GHI 4x+3y+2z=24 Para y=O z=O x=6
Para x=O z=O y=8
Para x=O y=O z=12
--
Z
...
\
In \
\,1\
/ I 1"\ n
11 A ......... !\\
I I / / ~ \ ~
I / 1/; ~ ~
l I tI ~ \ -........ ~
I ! I 1 \ f\
/ ¡; ... 5 \ "\
I
! /1 J I \;
... I \ ~
1// I ... \1 1\. }. e
l'
M Ilfl'j (1 V / ...---- v / X
./
;/ 1/ iI /2 / ------ V /"
I /1 /; 2 V ------ ./ V
I 1/ / I I /" V /" .---
I .......- ./
/ / t 1,1 ! l5 .--- ......--
¿
Ir=/ / A ~~ ..------
/ / '- ? V
~V ./ .------
/
V / /
/ 1/ ...-----
1/ V

Y
sol: x=2 y=2 z=5
4.2x+2y+3z=24
Plano ABC 2x+2y+3z=24 Para y= O z= O x= 12
Para x=O z=O y=12
Para x=O y=O z=8
4x+5y+2z=35
Plano DEF 4x+5y+2z=35 Para y=O z=O x=8¿ Para x=O z=O y=7
Para x=O y=O z=17+
3x+2y+z=19
Plano GHI 3x+2y+z=19 Para y=O z=O x=6~ Para x=O z=O y=9+
Para x=O y=O z=19
r:>Z
,ó ,\
II! \\
j /
/11 ~ Q
1I J " '\
1 ¡ 1 \\
1
I 11 1 \
1
1I \ \
/ !
/ ! A I \ \
/ / -........ \
I / V 1 -............ \
,
/ f / 1 -............ ,\
1
/ / 1 \'-...... \
I 1
1/ V, / -......:: N
I / / V 1 / J Y \' '-......
~
! ! / / J \ -............
~ 4
¡ r¡ J I V .. .....
~ ~
¡ M} ~ ~ L/: / / / / ,/ X
/1 1/ 1 / ./ ------- V
------ ~
I / ! / '/ ----; ------- / ./
! ;
,'/ ::.--- ./
-----
1/ ! ;' V VR / .-----
J J ;' .-----: V ./ ./"
/1 E¡¿ :..----- ... ... /" V
/ ;' ... .. .... ......- V
'~ L ... .... /" /""
/ ~ ./ ,.------
" / -------
rP ,...---
y
sol:x=3 y=3 z=4
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M M
M
M
5. 3x+4y+5z=35
Plano ABC 3x+4y+5z=35 Para y=O z=O x=11i Para x=O z=O y=8t
Para x=O y=O z=7
2x+5y+3z=27
Plano DEF 2x+5y+3z=27 Para y=O z=O x=13t Pam x=O z=O y=5t Para x=O y=O z=9
2x+y+z=13
Plano GHI 2x+y+z=13 Pam y=O z=O x=6t Para x=O z=O y=13 Para x=O y=O z=13
~
Z
1 1\
(
1I \
/ \
1/ \
/ u ~ \
( /. -...,~ o
! r -....... ~
/
/ / 11 "'-..J, \ "
~
/ 1// l' ~ ~
( fl J \ 1-"""'" '-....,
lA
/ j , , V J / 1\ . ...... .........
,
r
I '1 / , ~ y \ '-.. ~
, 3 ......
/ It , \1 ~ e -........
F
~
I I ! IJ / ~ r~ .-/ ..----
l(
I ? V
/ / 4 J/ V # ---
J :,p
1/ / ! J 1/ V r:: ? N
~
/ ! " / ~ --- .-/
.--:;
/ / ~ ..---' V V .5 ,./
1=, ~
/ 1 / P v
! / / ~-/
( B r/ ------ ../' /"'
! J v /
¡ " V
/ I /
I~ /
~~
/
y
sol: x=4 y=2 z=3
6. 4x+3y+5z=42
Plano ABC 4x+3y+5z=42 Para y=O z=O x=10+ Para x=O z=O y=14
Para x=O y=O z=8t
3x+4y+3z=33
Plano DEF 3x+4y+3z=33 Para y=O z=O x=11
Para x=O z=O y=8t Para x=O y=O z=11
2x+5y+2z=29
Plano GHI 2x+5y+2z=29 Para y=O z=O x=14+ Pam x=O z=O y=5t Para x=O y=O z=14+
Z
",G
I \...
I I\.
D "
¡ ~ "
/ ! ~
\.
! r
1".....
"
I ! '" "..... '"
/ ~ '" 1"
f '-..., '\
RlIí / / . .... ~
, ' / V '" 1".....
"11 /- , / 5 ~ 1".....
- ,
/; ~ ~ ~
.. -. .... ~
1/ , , ~ C ....... ~ F
I
-
! I ~ X - - ,/ ~ ..-----
~ ·X
, -
/ I I / , w ~ ~ ,..-
/ ~ 2/ , .... 0 ;..-
,
/ ! ~ l---:: ~ /
! / ...--' ----- ./ V
---
1I ; --- ,.- ---/ /
-------
I I ;1 / V /
....-
'/ / .--- V
/ I,¡I E /
! / /
/ / /
/'
/ " /
:1 /
E'I
./
'y
sol: x=2 y=3 z=5
5. x ---> Cifra decenas y ---> Cifra unidades lOx+ y-17
-- -5
x+ y
lOx+ y-17=5(x+ y) 5x-4y=17 lOx+y-2
-- -19
y-2
lOx+ y- 2= 19(y- 2) lOx-18y=-36 5x-9y=-18 5x-4y= 17 5x-9y=-18 (-1) 5x-4y=17
-5x+9y=18
5y=35 => y=7 5x-4(7)=17 5x-28=17
5x=45=>x=9 sol:97
6. x ---> Cifra decenas y ---> Cifra unidades lOx+ y+ 9= lOy+ x 9x- 9y= - 9
x- y=-1 lOy+x-1
7 -6
x+lOy=43
x- y = -1 (-1) x+ lOy=43
-x+ y = 1
x+ lOy=43
lly=44 => y=4
x-4=-1 => x=3 sol:34
7. x ---> Cifra decenas y ---> Cifra unidades x+ y= 9
1O(x+1)+ y-1=lOy+x lOx+ 10+ y-1= lOy+ x
9x-9y=-9
x-y=-1 x+ y= 9
x- y=-1
2x =8 => x=4
4+ y=9 => y=5 sol: 45
EJERCICIO 199
1. x ---> Monedas de 20 cts. y ---> Monedas de 10 cts.
x + y = 78 (-10) 20x+ lOy= 1.130 -lOx-lOy= -780
20x+ lOy= 1.130
lOx =350
x=35 35+ y= 78
y=43
sol: 35 Mon. de 20 cts. 43 Mon. de 10 cts.
2. x ---> Monedas de $5 y ---> Monedas de $4
x+ y= 91 (-4) 5x+4y=404 -4x-4y=-364 5x+4y= 404
x =40
40+ y=91 y=51
sol: 40 Mon. de$5 51 Mon. de$4
3. x ---> N° de adultos y ---> N° de niños
x+ Y = 700 (-15)
40x+ 15y= 18.000 -15x-15y= -10.500 40x+ 15y= 18.000
25x = 7.500 x=300
300+ y=700 y=400
sol: 300 adultos y 400 niños
4. x ---> Monedas de 20 cts. y ---> Monedas de 25 cts.
x + y = 44 (-20) 20x+25y=995
- 20x- 20y= - 880 20x+25y= 995 Continúa
4. Continuación 5y=115 y=23 x+23=44
x=21
sol: 21 Monedas de 20 cts. 23 Monedas de 25 cts.
5. x ---> Billetes de $1 y ---> Billetes de $ 2
x + y = 287 ( - 1) x+2y=419
-x- y =-287
x+2y= 419 y = 132 x+ 132= 287 x= 155
sol: 155 Billetes de $1 132 Billetes de $2
6. x ---> Libros de 3 col. y ---> Libros de 7 col.
x+ y= 34 (-3) 3x+7y=174 -3x-3y=-102 3x+7y= 174 4y=n
y=18 x+18=34
x=16
sol: 16 libros de 3 col. 18 libros de 7 col.
7. x ---> N° de trajes
y ---> N° de sombreros
x + y = 54 (- 45) 375x+ 45y= 6. no
- 45x- 45y= - 2.430 375x+ 45y= 6. no
330x =4.290
x= 13 13+ y=54 => y=41 sol: 13 trajes
41 sombreros
EJERCICIO 200
1. A-1=B+1 A-B=2
A+1=3(B-1) A-3B=-4
A- B= 2 (-1) A-3B=-4
-A+ B=-2
A-3B=-4 -2B=-6 B=3 A-3=2
A=5
sol:A --->$5 B--->$3
2. B-2=A+2 A-B=-4
2(A-2)=B+2 2A-B=6
A -B=-4 (-1) 2A-B= 6 -A+B=4 2A-B=6
A =10
1O-B=-4 - B= -14 B=14
sol: A ---> 10 soles B---> 14 soles
3. P ---> Pedro 1 ---> luan
P-3=1+3 P- 1=6
4(J-3)=P+3
P-41=-15
P- 1 = 6 (-1) P-41=-15 -P+ 1=-6
P-41=-15 -31=-21 1=7
P-7=6 =} P=13 sol: Pedro ---> $13 1uan---> $7
4. A-10=2(B-1O) A-2B=-10
3 ¡(A+10)=B+10
3(A+10)=4(B+10)
3A-4B=10 A-2B=-10 (-2) 3A-4B=10 -2A+4B=20
3A-4B=10
A =30
30-2B=-10 -2B=-40 B=20
sol: A ---> 30 AlIaS B ---> 20 AlIaS
5. A-6=2(B-6) A-2B=-6
8 A+6=j(B+6)
5(A + 6)= 8(B+ 6) 5A-8B=18 A-2B=-6 (-4) 5A-8B=18 -4A+8B=24 5A-8B=18
A =42
42-2B=-6 -2B=-48 B=24
sol: A ---> 42 AlIaS B ---> 24A,Ios
6. A-5=~(B-5)
2
2(A - 5)= 3(B-5) 2A-3B=-5
~(A+10)=B+10 7(A+ 10)= 9(B+ 10)
7A-9B=20 2A-3B=-5 (-3) 7A-9B=20 Continúa
6. Continuación -6A+9B=15 7A-9B=20
A =35
2(35)- 3B=-5 70- 3B=-5 B=25 sol: A ---> 35Años B ---> 25Años
7. x ---> Edad Hombre y ---> Edad Esposa 9y
x=-
5
3
j(x+4)= y+4
3x+12=5y+20 3x-5y=8 5x-9y=0 (3)
3x-5y=8 (-5) 15x-27y= O -15x+ 25y= -40 y=20
x=~(20)
5
x=9(4) x=36
sol: 36 Años---> tiene el hombre 20 Años ---> tiene la esposa
8. A-25=B+25 A-B=50
5 17(A+35)=B-35
5A+ 175= 17B-595 5A-17B=-770
A- B = 50 (-5) 5A-17B=-770 -5A+ 5B=-250 5A-17B=-770
-12B=-1.020 B=85 A-85=50
A=135
sol: A---> 135 Lempiras B ---> 85 Lempiras
9. x --+ Edad padre y --+ Edad hijo
!'(x- 6)= y- 6 5
x-6=5y-30
x-5y=-24
2
-(x+9)=y+9
5
2x+lS=5y+45 2x-5y=27 x-5y=-24 (-1) 2x-5y= 27 -x+5y=24 2x-5y=27
10. P+15=5(J-15) P-5J=-90
3(P- 20)= 1+ 20 3P-J=SO P-5J= - 90 (- 3) 3P- J = SO
- 3P+ 15J= 270 3P- J = SO 14J = 350 J=25 3P-25=SO 3P= 105 P=35
x =51
51-5y=-24 -5y=-75
y= 15
sol: 51 Años --+ Edad padre 15 Años --+ Edad hijo
11.
A+f+60=4( B-f-60)
2A+ B+ 120= SB-4B-4S0 2A+ B+ 120=4B-4S0 2A-3B=-600 B+SO-310=A-SO B-230=A-SO A-B=
-150 2A-3B=-600
A- B=-150 (-2) 2A-3B=-600 -2A+2B= 300 B=300 A-300=-150
A= 150 cts.
sol: $1,50 --+ tiene A $ 3 --+ tiene B
sol: 35 cts.--+ tenia Pedro
25 cts.~ tenia Juan
EJERCICIO 201
1. X ---+ Veloc. bote agua tranq. y ---+ Veloc. del rio
x+ y---+ Veloc. bote a favor del agua
x- y---+ Veloc. bote contra la corriente
~=1
x+y
x+ y=10
_4_=1 x-y
x- y=4 x+ y=10 x-y= 4
2x =14
x=7 7-y=4 y=3
sol: 7 K~ ---+ Veloc.
bote agua tranq. 3 K'j'h ---+ Veloc. del rio
2. x ---+ Veloc. bote agua tranq. y ---+ Veloc. del rio
x+ y---+ Veloc. bote a favor del agua
x- y---+ Veloc. bote contra agua
28 7
x+y 4
7x+ 7y=112
x+ y=16
~=3
x-y
3x-3y=24
x-y=8 x+y=16 x-y= 8
2x =24
x=12 12-y=8 y=4
sol: 12 K~ ---+ Bote
4K'j'h ---+Rio
12. x --+ Edad de Enrique y --+ Edad hermana
x-6=%(y-6) 2x-12= 3y-lS 2x-3y=-6
4(x+6)=5(y+6) 4x+24=5y+30 4x-5y= 6
2x-3y=-6 (-2) 4x-5y= 6 -4x+6y=12
4x-5y= 6 y=IS 2x-3(lS)=-6 2x-54=-6 2x=4S x=24
sol:24 Añ.--+ Ed. Enrique IS Añ. --+ Ed. herm.
3. X ---+ Tiempo ida
y ---+ Tiempo vuelta x+y=5
8 12
X Y 12x-8y=0 x+y=5(8) 12x-8y= O 8x+8y=40
20x =40
x=2
12(2)-8y=0 -8y=-24 y=3
sol: 2h---+ Tiempo ida 3h ---+ Tiempo vuelta
4. x ~ Veloe. bote agua tranq. y ~ Veloe. rio
x+ y~ Veloe. bote a favor de la cte
x- y~ Veloe. bote en contra de la cte
40 5
x+y 2
5x+5y=80
x+ y=16
40
--=5 x-y
5x-5y=40
x-y=8 x+ y=16 x-y= 8
2x =24 =} x=12 12- y=8 =} y=4
sol: 12h ~ Veloc. bote 4h ~ Veloc. rio
5. x ~ tiempo ida
y ~ tiempo vuelta x+y=6
20 40
x y 40x- 20y= O 2x- y=O
x+y=6 2x- y=O
3x =6 =} x=2
2(2)- y=O
-y=-4=}y=4 sol: 2h ~ tiempo ida 4h ~ tiempo vuelta
2. x ~ Pr ecio kilo azúcar y ~ Pr ecio kilo café
z ~ Pr ecio kilo fríjoles 5x+3y+4z=1,18 4x+5y+ 3z= 1,45
2x+ y+ 2z= 0,46
5x+3y+4z=1,18 (-3) 4x+5y+ 3z= 1,45 (4)
Continúa
6. x ~ tiempo ida
y ~ tiempo vuelta x+ y=5
8 12
x y 12x-8y=0 3x-2y=0 x+ y =5 (2) 3x-2y=0 2x+2y=1O 3x-2y= O
5x =10
x=2 2+ y=5 y=3
sol: 2h~ tiempo ida 3h ~ tiempo vuelta Entonces
32Km Km/ ..
~= 16 / h ~ Veloc.rlO abajO
12Km Km/ ..
3h=4 / h ~ Veloc.rlO arriba
Luego
x ~ Veloc. bote y ~ Veloc. rio x+y=16
x- y= 4
2x =20
x=lO 1O+y=16 y=6
sol:lOK~ ~ Veloc. bote
6 K~ ~ Veloc. rio
2. Continuación -15x- 9y -12z=-3,54
16x+20y+12z= 5,80
x +l1y 2,26
4x+5y+3z=1,45 (2) 2x+ y + 2z= 0,46 (- 3) 8x+lOy+6z= 2,90 -6x- 3y -6z=-1,38 Conti
núa
2. Continuación 2x+ 7y = 1,52
x+lly=2,26 (-2) 2x+ 7y= 1,52 -2x-22y=-4,52 2x+ 7y = 1,52 -15y=-3
1
y=-
5
y=0,2
Continúa
EJERCICIO 202
1. x ~ N° mayor y ~ N° medio z ~ N° menor
z-1= x+ Y 3
3z-3=x+ Y x+ y-3z=-3 x+ y+z=37
y-z=x-13 x-y+z=13
x+ y+ z =37 (-1) x+ y-3z=-3
-x- y-z =-37
x+ y-3z=- 3 -4z=-40
z=lO x+y+z = 37 x-y+z = 13 2x +2z=50 2x+2(1O)=50
2x=30 x= 15 15+ y+ 10= 37 y+25=37 y=12 sol: 15 , 12 , 10
2. Continuación 2x+7(0,2)=1,52 2x+1,4=1,52 2x=0,12
x=0,06
2(0,06)+ 0,2+ 2z= 0,46 0,12+ 0,2+ 2z= 0,46 2z=0,14
z=0,07
sol: 6 cts. ---> Kilo Az. 20 cts. ---> Kilo café
7 cts. ---> Kilo fríjoles
x+ y+z=15 3z x+Y=2
2x+2y=3z 2x+2y-3z=0 100x+ lOy+ z- 99= 100z+ lOy+ x
99x-99z=99 5. x ---> Cifra centenas
x - Z = 1 Y ---> Cifra decenas
x + y + z =15 (-2) z ---> Cifra unidades
2x+2y-3z= O x+ y+z=6
-2x-2y-2z=-30 100x+ lOy+ z
-41
2x+2y-3z= O x+ y
100x+ lOy+ z=41x+ 41y
59x-31y+z=0
7 x ---> N° de vacas
100x+ lOy+ z+ 198= 100z+ lOy+ x .
y ---> N° de caballos
99x- 99z= -198
3. x ---> Cifra centenas y ---> Cifra decenas z ---> Cifra unidades
4. Continuación 20(45)-3y=774 900-3y=774 -3y=-126 y=42 45+ 42 + z=127 z=40 sol: 45
, 42 , 40
-5z=-30
z=6
x-6=1
x=7
x- z=-2
x+ y+z=6 (31) 59x-31y+z=0
31x+ 31y+ 31z= 186 59x-31y+ z= O
90x + 32z= 186
45x+ 16z=93
x - z =-2 (-45) 45x+ 16z=93 -45x+45z=90
45x+ 16z=93
61z= 183
z=3
7+ y+6=15 y+13=15
y=2 sol:726
4. x ---> N° mayor y ---> N° medio z ---> N° menor
x+ y+z=127
z y x "2+3"+"9=39
2x+6y+9z=702
x-4= y+z 2 2x-8=y+z
2x- y-z=8
x+ y+z=127 2x-y-z= 8
3x = 135
x=45 2x+6y+9z=702
2x- y - z= 8 (9) 2x+6y+9z=702 18x-9y-9z= 72 20x-3y =774
x-3=-2 x=l
1+ y+3=6 y+4=6
y=2 sol: 123
6. X ---> Angula mayor y ---> Angula medio z ---> Angula menor X+ y+z=180
x-35=z x-z=35 Continúa
Continúa
6. Continuación
z-20=x-y x-y-z=-20 x+ y+z=180 x-y-z=-20
=160 x=80 80-z=35 z=45 80+y+45=180 y+125=180 y=55
sol: 800,550, 450
2x
z ---> N° de terneros
x+ y+z= 110 x y z "8+"9+"5=15
45x+ 40y+ 72z=5.400 z+x=65
x+ y+z= 110
x + z= 65 (-1)
x+ y+z= 110
-x -z=-65
y =45
45x+ 40y + 72z=5.400
x + z = 65 (-45)
45x+40y+72z= 5.400
-45x -45z=-2.925
40y+27z= 2.475 40(45)+ 27z= 2.475 1.800+ 27z= 2.475 27z=675
z=25 x+45+25=110 x+70=110
x=40
sol: 40 vacas;
45 caballos; 25 terneros
8. x ---> Cifra centenas y ---> Cifra decelUls z ---> Cifra unidades x+ y+z=10
x+y-4=z x+y-z=4 x+z-6= y
x- y+z=6
x+ y+z=10
x+ y-z= 4 (-1)
x+ y+z= 10 -x- y+z=-4 2z=6
z=3 x+ y+ z= 10
x- y+ z= 6
2x +2z=16
x+z=S x+3=S x=5 5+y+3=10
y=2 sol: 523
9. x ---> Angula mayor y ---> Angula medio z ---> Angula menor x+y+z=lS0 x+y=135
y+z=110 x+y+z=lS0
y+z=110 (-1) x+ y+z = lS0
- y-z=-110
x =70
70+ y= 135
y=65 70+65+z=lS0 135+ z= lS0 z=45 sol: 70' ,65' ,4Y
10. A+B+C=140
A C=2
A-2C=0 A-lO=B
A-B=lO A+B+C=140 A-B = 10 2A +C=150
2A+ C =150 (2) A -2C= O
12. x+ y+z=6
41(100x+ lOy+ z)
100z+lOy+x- 107
10. 700z+ 1.070y+ 107 x= 4.100x+ 41Oy+41z 3.993x- 660y-1O.659z= O
1.331x- 220y- 3.553z= O 100x= 300 x=3 1.331x- 220y- 3.553z= O
x + y + z =6 (220)
1.331x- 220y- 3.553z= O 220x + 220y + 220z = 1.320 1.551x - 3.333z= 1.320 1.551(
3)- 3.333z= 1.320
4.653- 3.333z= 1.320 z= 1
4A+2C=300 A -2C= O
5A =300
A=60 2(60)+C=150 C=30 60+ B+ 30= 140 B=50
sol: A ---> 60bs. B ---> 50bs.
C ---> 30bs.
3+ y+1=6 y+4=6 y=2
sol:
321
13. A-2=B+2 A-B=4 B-1=C+1 B-C=2
11. A-1=C+1 A-C=2
B-1=C B-C=l A+5=2C A-2C=-5
A - C= 2
B- C= 1 A+ B-2C=3 A+B-2C= 3
s A="5C
5A-SC=0 A-B =4 B-C=2
A -C=6
A- C =6 (-S) 5A-SC=0
- SA+SC= -4S 5A-SC= O
-3A =-4S
A=16 16- B=4
B=12 12-C=2
C=lO
sol: A ---> 16Q
B ---> 12Q C ---> lOQ
A
-2C=-5
(-1)
A+B-2C=3
- A +2C=5
=S
B S- C= 1
C=7
A-7=2
A=9
sol: A ---> $9
B--->$S C--->$7
14. x ---> Cifra centena y ---> Cifra decena
z ---> Cifra unidades 100x=400
x=4 x+ y+z=9
16(100x+ lOy+ z)
100z+ lOy + x= 49
4.900z+ 490y+49x= 1.600x+ 160y+ 16z 1.551x- 330y-4.884z= O 517x-ll0y-1.628z= O
517 x-ll0y-1.628z= O
x + y + Z = 9 (110) 517x-ll0y-1.628z= O 110x+ll0y+ 110z =990 627x -1.518z=990 62
7(4)-1.518z= 990
2.508-1.518z= 990 -1.518z= -1.518 z= 1
4+ y+1=9 y+5=9
y=4 sol: 441
EJERCICIO 203
1. x ---> Ancho y ---> Largo
2(x+ y)= 18 4y=5x 5x-4y=0
x+ y =9 (4) 5x-4y=0 4x+4y=36 5x-4y= O
9x =36
x=4 4+ y=9 y=5
sol: 5m· 4m
2. A=28
A-28=0 A-12=8+12 A-8=24 Continúa
2. Continuación A-2B= O
A- B =24 (-1) A-2B= O -A+ B =-24 B=24 A-24=24
A=48
sol: A ---> 48 balboas B ---> 24 balboas
3. x ---> Ancho y ---> Largo
(x+ l)(y+ 1)= 26+ xy xy+x+ y+1=26+xy
x+ y=25
(x+ 2)(y-3)= 19+ xy xy- 3x+ 2y- 6= 19+ xy -3x+2y=25 Continúa
15. 2A+B=C+32
2A+ B- C=32
B "3+2C=A+9
B+6C=3A+27
3A-B-6C=-27 A+B --=C-1 3
A+B=3C-3 A+B-3C=-3 2A+B- C= 32 3A-B-6C=-27
5A -7C=5
3A- B-6C=-27 A +B-3C=- 3 4A -9C=-30
5A-7C= 5 (-4) 4A-9C=-30 (5) -20A+28C= - 20
20A-45C=-150 -17C=-170
3. Continuación
x + y =25 (3) - 3x+ 2y= 25 3x+3y=75
- 3x+ 2y= 25 5y=100 y=20 x+20=25
x=5
sol: 20m· 5m
4. X ---> Pr ecio carro
y ---> Pr ecio caballo z ---> Pr ecio arreos x+y+z=200
x+z=y+20 x-y+z=20 y+z=x+40 x-y-z=-40 Continúa
15. Continuación
C=lO 5A-7(1O)=5 5A=75 A=15 2(15)+ B-lO= 32 B+ 20= 32 B=12 sol: 15,12 10
4. Continuación x+y+z=200 x-y-z=-40
2x =160
x=80 x+y+z=200 x-y+z= 20
2x+2z=220
x+z=110 80+ z=110 z=30
80+ y+30=200 y+110=200 y=90
sol: $ 80 ---> Costo carro $ 90 ---> Costo caballo $ 30 ---> Costo arreos
5. x ~ 1er Número y~ 2º Número z~ 3er Número
x+y=z+18 x+ y-z=18 x+z-78=y x-y+z=78
y+z=x+102
x-y-z=-102 x+y-z=18 x-y+z=78
2x =96
x=48 x-y+z= 78 x-y-z=-102
2x-2y =- 24
x-y=-12 48-y=-12 y=60 48+60-z=18 108-18=z 90=z sol: 48 , 60 , 90
6. x ~ Cifra decenas y ~ Cifra unidades x+y=6
10x+ y-36=10y+x 9x-9y=36
x-y=4 x+y=6 x-y=4
2x =10
x=5 5+y=6
y=1 sol: 51
7. x ~ Veloe. pájaro y ~ Veloe. viento
x+ y ~ Veloe. pájaro a favor x- y ~ Veloc. pájaro contra
~=1
x+y
x+y=55
~=1
x-y
Continúa
7. Continuación
x-y=25 x+y=55
2x =80
x=40 40-y=25 y=15
sol: 40K~~ Veloe. del pájaro tranq. 15K~~ Veloe. del viento
8. x ---> N° de libros
y ---> Precio de c/u
xy= (x+ 5)(y- 2)
xy=xy-2x+5y-10 2x-5y=-10
xy=(x-5)(y+4)
xy=xy+4x-5y-20
4x-5y=20
2x-5y=-10
4x-5y= 20 (-1) 2x-5y=-10
-4x+5y=-20
-2x =-30
x=15 2(15)-5y=-10 30-5y=-10 -5y=-40 y=8
sol: 15 ---> Libros compró $ 8 ---> cas tó c/u
9. x ---> Pr ecio kilo café y ---> Pr ecio kilo té
7x+6y=4,8 (-9) 8x+9y=6,45 (6) -63x-54y=-43,2
48x+54y= 38,7
-15x =-4,5
x=0,3 Continúa
9. Continuación
7(0,3)+6y=4,8 2,1+6y=4,8 6y=2,7 y=0,45
sol: 30 cts. ---> Costo kilo café 45 cts. ---> Costo kilo té
10. x ~ trajes de $40 y ~ trajes de $35
x + y = 50 (-40) 40x+35y=1.91O -40x-40y= -2.000 40x+35y= 1.910 -5y=-90 y=18
x+ 18=50
x=32
sol: 32 ~ trajes de$40 18 ~ trajes de$35
11. x ---> Numerador
y ---> Denominador x-1 1
y 3
3x-3=y
3x- y=3
x 1
y-2-2
2x= y-2 -2x+ y=2
3x- y=3 -2x+ y=2 x =5
3(5)-y=3 -y=-12
y=12
5 sol: à12
12. x ~ 1· bolsa y ~ 2· bolsa x+y=200 x-15=y+15 x-y=30
Continúa
12. Continuación x+y=200
x-y= 30
2x =230
x=115 115+y=200 y=85
sol: 115 soles ~ 1· bolsa 85 soles ~ 2· bolsa
13. x ~ Pr ecio caballo y ~ Pr ecio coche x+20=3y x-3y=-20
3x 20+ y=5
3x= 100+Sy 3x-Sy=100
x-3y=-20 (-3) 3x-Sy=100 -3x+9y= 60 3x-Sy=100 4y=160 y=40 x-3(40)=-20
x=100
sol: 100 soles ~ Costó el caballo 40 soles ~ Costó el coche
14. x ~ Cifra decenas y ~ Cifra unidades
lOx+ y=6(x+ y) lOx+ y=6x+6y 4x-Sy=0
lOx+ y-9=lOy+x 9x-9y=9
x- y=l 4x-Sy=0
x-y=l (-S)
4x-Sy= O -Sx+Sy=-S
-x =-S
x=S
S- y=l y=4
sol:S4
15. x ---> N° de personas y ---> Precio c/ u
xy= (x+ lO)(y- S)
xy= xy- Sx+ 10y- SO Sx-10y= -so
x-2y=-10
xy= (x- 6)(y+ S)
xy= xy+ Sx- 6y- 30 Sx-6y= 30
Sx-6y= 30
x-2y=-10 (-3) Sx-6y= 30 -3x+6y=30
2x =60
x=30
30-2y=-10 -2y=-40 y=20
sol: 30 ---> Personas 20bs. ---> c/u
16. A+B=1.080
2A B
A--=B--
S 4
20A - 8A= 20B-SB
12A-1SB=0 4A-SB=0
A + B= 1.080 (S) 4A-SB = O SA+SB=S.400 4A-SB = O
9A =S.400
A=600 600+ B= 1.080
B=480
sol: A ---> 600 sucres B ---> 480 sucres
17. x ---> gané ayer y ---> gané hoy y+lO=x
Sx
Y=6
Sx-6y=0 Sx-6y= O
x- y=lO Continúa
(- 6)
17. Continuación
5x-6y= O -6x+6y=-60
-x =-60
x=60 60-y=10 y=50
sol: $ 60 ~ gané ayer $ 50 ~ gané hoy
18. x ---> 1" numero y --->2° numero x 3
y S
x-lO 1 y-lO="2
Sx-3y= O
2x- y =10(-3) Sx-3y= O
-6x+3y=-30
-x =-30
x=30
2(30)- y=lO 60- y= 10 y=SO sol: 30 , SO
19. A+4=B-4 A-B=-8
B+4=2.(A-4) S
SB+20=9A-36 9A-SB=S6
A- B =-8 (-S) 9A-SB=S6 -SA+SB=40 9A-SB=S6
4A =96
A=24 24-B=-8 B=32
sol: A ---> 24 lempiras B ---> 32 lempiras
20. A-20=2(B-20) A-2B=-20
9 A+30="7(B+30)
7A+210=9B+270 7A-9B=60
A -2B=-20 (-7) 7A-9B= 60 -7A+14B=140 7A- 9B = 60
5B=200 B=40 A-2(40)=-20 A-80=-20 A=60
sol: A ---> 60 AlIaS B ---> 40 AlIas
21. X ---> tiempo ida y---> tiempo vuelta x+y=3
4 8
x y 8x-4y=O 2x-y=O x+y=3 2x-y=O
3x =3 x=1
1+y=3 y=2
Si 1 h ---> tiempo de ida
2 h ---> tiempo de vuelta Entonces
16Km mi
--:¡¡:;-=16K? h---> Veloe. a favor
16Km fn/.
~=8f(, / h---> Veloc. en contra
Luego
x ---> Veloe. del bote y ---> Veloe. delrio x+y=16
x-y= 8
2x =24
x=12 Continúa
21. Continuación 12+y=16
y=4
sol: 12 K~ ---> Veloe. bote
4K~ ---> Veloc. rio
A B --2=-
9 5
5A- 90= 9B
5A-9B=90 2B= A-15 A-2B=15 5A-9B=90
A -2B=15 (-5) 5A- 9B = 90 -5A+lOB=-75
22.
B= 15 A - 2(15)= 15 A-30=15 A=45
sol: A ---> 45 Años B ---> 15 Años
23. 5A-4=4B 5A-4B=4 7A-2=6B 7A-6B=2 5A-4B=4 (6) 7A-6B=2 (-4) 30A-24B=24 -28A+24B
=-8 2A =16 A=8
5(8)-4B=4 40-4B=4 -4B=-36 B=9
sol: A ---> 8 Km B ---> 9 Km
24. x ---> Cifra decenas y ---> Cifra unidades y-x=4 10x+y+10y+x=66
11x+11y=66 x+y=6 Continúa
24. Continuación
-x+y=4 x+y=6
2y=10 y=5 x+5=6 x=1 sol: 15
25. x ---> Largo y ---> Ancho
2(x+ y)=58 2x+2y=58 x+ y=29
(x+ 2)(y- 2)= xy-46 xy-2x+2y-4= xy-46 -2x+2y=-42 x- y=21
x+ y=29 x- y=21 2x =50
x=25 25+ y=29 y=4
sol: 25m· 4m
26. x ---> Largo y ---> Ancho 2x+2y=56 x+ y=28
(y- 2)(x+ 2)= xy
xy+2y-2x-4=xy 2x-2y=-4 x- y=-4
x+ y=28 x- y=-4
2x =24
x=12 12+y=28 y=16
sol: 16m· 12m
EJERCICIO 204
1. m=6 n=3
3 A6 = 6.5 .... (6- 3+ 1) 3 A6=6.5.4
3 A6=120
2. Ps=5!
Ps=5·4·3·2 Ps=120
3. m=7 n=5
s s A7 7.6 .... (7-5+1)
C =--=--~-~
7 P S 5!
7·6·5-4·3
Sc -----
7 - 5-4.3.2.1
S 2.520
C7=12O
S C 7 =21
4. m=6 n=2
2 A 6 = 6.5 .... (6- 2+ 1) 2 A6=6.5
2 A 6 = 30
5. m=5 n=3
3 As=5-4 .... (5-3+1) 3As=5-4'3
3 As=60
6. m=12 n=5
S S A 12 12.11.. .. (12-5+1)
C =---- ------
12 P S 5!
12·11-10·9·8
5Cp=-----
- 5·4·3·2·1
S C 12 =3·11·2·3-4 S C 12 =792
7. P7=7!
P7=7·6·5·4·3·2 P7=5.040
8. m=7 n=4
4 4 A7 7.6 .... (7-4+1)
C =--=-----
7 P 4 4!
7·6·5·4
4C7=---
4·3·2·1
4C7=7·5
4 C 7 =35
9. PS-1=P4 P4=4!
P4 =4·3·2 P4=24
10. P6=6!
P6 =6·5·4·3·2 P6=720
11.
Siendo e/1º P6=6!
P6 =6·5·4·3·2 P6=720
sin lugar fijo P7=7! P7=7P6 P7=7·720 P7=5.040
12.
En un banco P6=720
En una mesa redonda P6-1=PS Ps=5! Ps=120
13. m=9 n=3
3 A9=9.8 .... (9-3+1) 3 A9=9.8.7
3 A 9=504
14. P4-1=P3 P3=3! P3=6
16. PS-2=P3 P3=3! P3=3·2 P3=6
17. m=5 n=3
3 As=5.4 .... (5-3+1) 3 As=5.4.3
3 As=60
18. P11-1 =P1O P10 =10!
P10 =10·9·8·7 ·6·5·4·3·2 P10 =3.628.800
19. m=8 n=3
3 As 3C s=
P3
8·7·6
3C = __
s 3.2
3Cs=4·7·2 3 C s =56
8.7 .... (8-3+ 1) 3!
20. m=6 n=3
S A 6=6.5 .... (6-3+1) sA6=6·5·4
S A 6= 120
21.
Palabras distintas Pa=8!
Pa =8·7·6·5·4·3·2 Pa =40.320 Vocales fijas Ps=5!
Ps=120
m=5 n=3
3 3 As 5.4 .... (5-3+1)
C =---- -----
S P3 3!
3 5-4·3 22. P -1 =P 4
CS=-- s
3·2 P4=4!
3Cs=5·2 P4=4·3·2
3 C S = 10 P 4 = 24
15.
EJERCICIO 205
1. (4a2)2=16a~
2. (- 5a)' = -125a3
3. (3xy)' = 27 xV
4. (-6a2bY =36a~b2
5. (-2i/Y =-8i/
6. (4a2b3c4)3 = 64a6b9cl2
7. (-6x~iY = 36iylO
8. (- 7 ab3 c~ y = - 343a3b9 Cl2
9. (ambn y = amxbnx
10. (-2x3ilt =16xl2loz2~
EJERCICIO 206
1. (as+7b~Y
= alO + 2as (7b~)+ 49bs = alO + 14asb~ + 49bs
( ~ 3)2
2. 3x -5xy
= 9x8 - 2(3x~ )(5xy3) + 25x2/
( 2 3 S)2
3. a b -a
= a~b6 _ 2a2b3 (aS)+ alO = a~b6 _ 2a 7b3 + alO
(S 3 ~)2
4. 7x -8x y
= 49xlO - 2 (7xs)(8x3/ )+ 64x6/ = 49xlO -112x8/ + 64x6/
11. (-3m3nY =-27m9n3
12. (a2b3ct =a2mb3mcm
13. (-m2nx3t =mBn~xl2
14. (-3a2bY =-243alOb5
15. (7x5/ZBY = 49xlO/2Zl6
16. (- ;J2 = :;2
17. (- ~7r =_ 8~3
( ab2)3 _ a3b6
18. 5 - 125
7. (xy_a2b2Y
= x2/ - 2(xy )(a2b2)+ a~b~ = x2/ - 2a2b2xy+ a~b~
(X 2y)2
8. 2+3
x2 (X)(2Y) 4/
=4+22 3 +9
x2 2xy 4/
=-+-+-
4 3 9
(~_ 3a3b7i'
11. 9 7)
=~_2(~1(3a3b71+ 9a6b14
81 9 ) 7) 49
EJERCICIO 207
1. (2a + 3bf = 8aJ + 3(4a2)(3b)+ 3(2a) (9b2)+ 27bJ = 8aJ + 36a2b+ 54ab2 + 27bJ
2. (4a- 3b2 y = 64a3 - 3(I6a2 )(3b2)+ 3(4a)(9b~)- 27b6 = 64a3 -144a2b2 + 108ab~
- 27b6
3. (5x2 +6/Y = 125i + 3(25x~)(6/)+ 3(5i)(36l)+ 216/ = 125x6 +450x~/ +540il + 216
/
4. (4x3 - 3xlY = 64x9 - 3(16i)(3xl)+ 3(4x3)(9x2y~)- 27xV = 64x9 -144x7l + 108x5l
- 27x3l
5. (7a~ -5a2bJf
= 343a12 - 3(49a8)(5a2bJ)+ 3(7a~ )(25a~b6)-125a6b9 = 343a12 -735a10bJ + 525ib6 -
125a6b9
6. (i + 9a5x~ r = i~ + 3(a16)(9a5x~)+ 3(i)(81alOi)+ 729a15x12 = i~ + 27ilX~ + 24
3a18i + 729a15x12
7. (8x~-7x2lf
= 512x12 - 3(64i)(7x2y~)+ 3(8x~ )(49x~l)- 343x6y12 =512x12 -1.344xlOy~ + 1.176il
- 343x6y12
8. (3a2b-5aJb2f
= 27a6bJ - 3(9a~b2)(5aJb2)+ 3 (3a2b )(25a6b~ )-125a9b6 = 27a6bJ -135a7b~ + 225ib
5 -125a9b6
9. (~a+ 2:2r = a; +3( :)( ~2)+3(~)( 4~~)+ ~; = ~] + a;2 + 2at + ~;
(3a2 _ 4b2)] = 27a6 _3(9a~)(4b2)+3(3a2)(I6b~)_ 64b6 = 27a6 _ 27a~b2 + 36a2b~ _ 6
4b6
10. 4 5 64 16 5 4 25 125 64 20 25 125
(5a2b _ 3b4 Y 11.610)
= 125a6b3 _ 3( 25a4b2i (3b4i + 3(5a2b i (9b8i_ 27b12 = 125a6b3 _ 5a4b6 + 9a2b9 _
27b12
216 36 ) 10) 6) 100) 1.000 216 8 40 1.000
(7X5 4lY 12. -8---7-)
= 343x15 _3(49Xl°i(4li+3(7X5i(16/2i+ 64/8 = 343x15 _ 21x1°l + 6X5/2 + 64/8
512 64) 7) 8) 49) 343 512 16 7 343
(X 3Yj3 X3 ( X2 j(3Y) (X j(9/j 27l x3 9 27y 27l
13. -+2 =-3 +3 -2 2 +3 - -4 +-6-=-3 +-+-3 +-6-
2 Y x 8 y 4 Y x 2 y x x 8 y 4 Y 2x x
( 4 3xj j? ( 8)(3xj ( 4)(9X2j 27x3 j? 144x9 108x6 27x3
15. 4x -, =64x --3 16x ,+3 4x -6 --9-=64x ----3-+-6---9-
y Y Y Y Y Y Y
(3a 4b2Y_27a3 (9a2i(4b2i (3ai(I6b4i 64b6_27a3 27a2 72ab3 64b6
16. 2b + 5 ) - 8b3 +3 4b2) 5 r3 2b) 25 r 125 - 8b3 + 5 + 25 + 125
(7 4 ,)3 343 (49) 4' (7) 8 10 12 l' 343 147x4/ 21x8iO 12 l'
17 --x y =--3 - x y +3 - x y -x y =-----+----X y
· 8 512 64 8 512 64 8
18 (m3 _ 6n2Y ='!!!'-_3(m6i(6n2i+3(m3i(36n4i_ 216n6 =.!!!.-_ m4n2 + 18n4 _ 216n6

· 6 m2) 216 36) m2) 6) m4) m6 216 2 m m6


EJERCICIO 208
1. x2-2x+l
= x4 + 4x2 + 1+ 2x2 (- 2x)+ 2x2 (1)+ 2(- 2x)(1) = x4 + 4x2 + 1- 4x3 + 2x2 - 4x=
x4 -4x3 + 6x2 -4x+ 1 2.2x2+x+l
= 4x4 + x2 + 1 + 2(2x2)(x)+ 2(2x2)(I)+ 2 (x)(I) = 4x4 + x2 + 1 + 4x3 +4x2 + 2x=4
x4 +4x3 + 5x2 + 2x+ 1
3. x2 - 5x+ 2= x4 + 25x2 +4+ 2(x2)(- 5x)+ 2(x2)(2)+ 2(- 5x)(2) = x4 + 25x2 +4-lO
x3 +4x2 - 20x = x4 -10x3 + 29x2 - 20x+4
4. xJ - 5x2 + 6= x6 + 25x4 + 36+ 2(xJ)(- 5x2)+ 2(xJ)(6)+ 2(- 5x2 )(6)= x6 + 25x4
+ 36-lOx5 + 12xJ - 60x2
= x6 -lOx5 + 25x4 + 12xJ - 60x2 + 36 5. 4a4 - 3a2 +5= 16a8 + 9a4 + 25+ 2(4a4)(-
3a2)+ 2 (4a4 )(5)+ 2(- 3a2 )(5)
= 16a8 + 9a4 + 25- 24a6 + 40a4 - 30a2 = 16a8 - 24a6 +49a4 - 30a2 + 25
6. x+ 2y- z= x2 + 4y' + Z2 + 2(x) (2y)+ 2(x)(- z)+ 2(2y)(- z)= x2 + 4y' + Z2 + 4
xy- 2xz- 4yz 7·3_xJ_x6
= 9+ x6 + X12 + 2(3)(- xJ)+ 2(3)(- x6)+ 2(- xJ)(_ x6)= 9+ x6 + X12 - 6xJ - 6x6 +
2x9 = X12 + 2x9 -5x6 - 6xJ + 9
8. 5x4 -7x2 + 3x= 25x8 + 49x4 + 9x2 + 2(5x4)(-7x2)+ 2 (5x4) (3x) + 2(-7x2 )(3x)
=~+~~+~-m~+~~-~~=~-m~+~~+~~-~~+~ 9. 2a2 + 2ab- 3h2 = 4a4 + 4a2b2 + 9b4 + 2(2a2)(
2ab)+ 2(2a2)(- 3h2)+ 2(2ab) (- 3h2)
= 4a4 + 4a2b2 + 9b4 + 8a3b-12a2b2 -12ab3 =4a4 + 8a3b- 8a2b2 -12ab3 + 9b4 10. m3
- 2m2n+ 2n4 =m6 + 4m4n2 + 4n8 + 2 (m3)(_ 2m2n) + 2 (m3)(2n4) + 2(- 2m2n)(2n4)
=m6+4m4n2 +4n8 -4m'n+4m3n4 - 8m2n' =m6-4m'n+4m4n2 +4m3n4 -8m2n' +4n8
a e a2 ? e2 (a)( ) (a)(e) ( )(e) a2 ? e2 ae be
11 --b+-=-+b-+-+2 - -b +2 - - +2 -b - =-+b-+--ab+---
· 2 4 4 16 2 2 4 4 4 16 4 2
x 5 x2 ? 25 (X)( ) (X)(5) ( )(5) x2 ? 25 2x 50y
12. --5y+-=-+25y+-+2 - -5y +2 - - +2 -5y - =-+25y-+--2xy+---
5325 95 53 325 9 33
x2 2x ? 50y 25
=--2xy+-+25y--+-
25 3 3 9
x2 2 X 4 ? 4 ( X2 ) ( X2 ) ( 2) ( 2) X 4 ? 4 3 2x2 4x
13. --x+-=-+x-+-+2 - (-x)+2 - - +2 - (-x)=-+x-+--x +---
23492 233 4933
x4 3 5x2 4x 4
=--x +---+-
4 3 3 9
a 1 x a2 1 x2 (a)( 1) (a)(x) (l)(X) a2 1 x2 2a 2x
14. ---+-=--,+-+--,+2 - -- +2 - - +2 -- - =--,+-+--,--+2--
x 3 a [ 9 a- x 3 x a 3 a [ 9 a- 3x 3a
a2 2a 2x x2 19 =x2 3x 3a a2 9
15. ~2 _~+~=91a64 + :2 +~~+2(3:2J(_~)+2(3:2J(~)+2(_~)(~)
9a4 a2 16 3a3 6a2 4a 9a4 3a3 29a2 4a 16
=1"6+4+ 25-4+5-5=1"6-4+---W--5+ 25
2 3 b2 4 9 b4 (2)( 3) (2)(b2) (3)(b2)
16. : -5+9= ~6+ 25+81+2 a4 -5 +2 a4 9 +2 -5 9
a 9 b4 3a2 a2b2 2b2 a4 3a2 a2b2 9 2b2 b4
=-+-+---+----=---+--+---+-
16 25 81 10 18 15 16 10 18 25 15 81
17. xJ - x2 + x+ 1= x6 + x" + x2 + 1 + 2(xJ)(- x2)+ 2(xJ)(x)+ 2xJ + 2(- x2 )(x)+
2(- x2)+ 2x
= x6 + x" + x2 + 1- 2x5 + 2x" + 2xJ - 2xJ - 2x2 + 2x= x6 - 2x5 + 3x" - x2 + 2x+
1
18. xJ-3x2-2x+2
= x6 + 9x" + 4x2 + 4+ 2 (xJ)(_ 3x2)+ 2 (xJ)(_ 2x)+ 2(xJ)(2)+ 2(- 3x2 )(- 2x)+ 2(
- 3x2 )(2)+ 2(- 2x)(2) = x6 + 9x" + 4x2 + 4- 6x5 - 4x" + 4xJ + 12xJ -12x2 - 8x=
x6 - 6x5 + 5x" + 16xJ - 8x2 - 8x+ 4
19. x4 +3x2-4x+5
= x8 + 9x4 + 16x2 + 25+ 2 (x4)(3x2)+ 2 (x4)(_ 4x)+ 2(x4 )(5)+ 2 (3x2)(- 4x)+ 2(3
x2)(5)+ 2(-4x)(5)
= x8 + 9x4 + 16x2 + 25+ 6x6 - 8x' + lOx4 - 24x3 + 30x2 - 40x= x8 + 6x6 - 8x' + 1
9x4 - 24x3 + 46x2 - 40x+ 25 20.x4-4x3+2x-3
= x8 + 16x6 + 4x2 + 9+ 2 (x4)(_ 4x3)+ 2(x4 )(2x)+ 2 (x4)(_ 3)+ 2(-4x3)(2x)+ 2(-
4x3)(- 3)+ 2(2x)(- 3)
= x8 + 16x6 + 4x2 + 9- 8x7 +4x' - 6x4 -16x4 + 24x3 -12x= x8 - 8x7 + 16x6 + 4x' -
22x4 + 24x3 + 4x2 -12x+ 9 21.3-6a+a2-a3
= 9+ 36a2 +a4 + a6 + 2(3)(- 6a)+ 2(3)(a2)+ 2(3)(- a3)+ 2(- 6a )(a2)+ 2(- 6a)(- a
3)+ 2 (a2)(_ a3) = 9+ 36a2 +a4 + a6 - 36a+ 6a2 - 6a3 -12a3 + 12a4 - 2a' = a6 - 2
a' + 13a4 -18a3 +42a2 - 36a+ 9
x6 4 4x2 ,2x4 3 4x3 ? 8x X6 ,5x4 2x3 32x2 8x
=-+X +-+4-x +-+2x ---4x-+-=--x +-+----+-+4
4 9 3 3 343393
= XIO + X8 + X6 + X4 + X2 + 4+ 2 (x')(- x4)+ 2 (x')(x3)+ 2(x')(- x2)+ 2(x')(x)+
2(x')(- 2)+ 2(- x4 )(x3) + 2(- x4 )(- x2) + 2(- x4 )(x)+ 2(- x4 )(- 2)+ 2(x3)(-
x2)+ 2(x3)(x) + 2(x3)(- 2)+ 2(- x2)(x) + 2(- x2)(_ 2)+ 2(x) (- 2)
= xlO + x8 + x6 + x4 + x2 +4- 2x9 + 2x8 _ 2x7 + 2x6 -4x' - 2x7 + 2x6 - 2x' +4x4
- 2x' + 2x4 -4x3 - 2x3 +4x2 -4x = xlO _ 2x9 + 3x8 -4x7 +5x6 - 8x' + 7x4 - 6x3 +5
x2 -4x+4
EJERCICIO 209
1. x2 + x+ 1= x6 + x3 + 1 + 3(x2)" (x)+ 3(x2)" (1)+ 3(X)2 (x2)+ 3(X)2 (1) + 3(x2
)+ 3(x)+ 6(x2 ) (x)(1) =x6 + x3 + 1 + 3x5 + 3x-l + 3x-l + 3x2 + 3x2 + 3x+6x3 =x6
+ 3x5 +6x-l + 7x3 +6x2 + 3x+ 1
2. 2x2 - x-1= 8x6 - x3 -1 + 3 (2x2)" (- x)+ 3 (2x2)" (-1)+ 3(- xy (-1)+ 3(- xy (
2x2)+ 3(-lY (2x2)+ 3(-lY (- x) +6(2x2)(-x)(-1)
= 8x6 - x3 -1-12x5 -12x" -3x2 + 6x" + 6x2 -3x+ 12x3 = 8x6 -12x5 -6x" + 11x3 + 3x
2 - 3x-1
3. 1-3x+2x2
= 1- 27x3 + 8x6 + 3(1)2 (- 3x)+ 3(f)(2x2)+ 3(- 3x y (1)+ 3(- 3xY (2x2)+ 3(2x2t (
1)+ 3(2x2t (- 3x) + 6(l)(-3x)(2x2)
= 1- 27x3 + 8x6 - 9x+ 6x2 + 27x2 + 54x4 + 12x4 - 36x5 - 36x3 = 1- 9x+ 33x2 - 63x
3 + 66x4 - 36x5 + 8x6
4.2-3x+X2
= 8- 27x3 + x6 + 3(2)" (- 3x)+ 3(2)" (x2)+ 3(- 3xt (2)+ 3(- 3xt (X")+ 3 (x" Y (2
)+ 3 (x" Y (- 3x)+ 6(2) (-3x)(x2)
= 8- 27 x3 + x6 - 36x+ 12x2 + 54x2 + 27 x4 + 6x4 - 9x' - 36x3 = x6 - 9x' + 33x4
- 63x3 + 66x2 - 36x+ 8
= x9 - 8x6 - 64+ 3(X3)2 (- 2x2)+ 3(x3t (-4)+ 3(- 2x2 y (x3)+ 3(- 2x2 t (-4)+ 3(-
4t (x3)+ 3(-4t (- 2x2) + 6(x3)(- 2x2 )(- 4)
= x9 - 8x6 - 64- 6x8 -12x6 + 12x7 -48x4 + 48x3 - 96x2 +48x5 = x9 - 6x8 + 12x7 -
2üx6 +48x5 -48x4 +48x3 - 96x2 - 64
6. x"-x2-2
= X12 _ x6 - 8+ 3(x" t (- x2)+ 3(x" t (- 2)+ 3(- x2 y (x")+ 3(- x2 y (- 2)+ 3(-
2Y (x")+ 3(- 2Y (- x2) +6(x")(-x2)(-2)
= X12 _ x6 _ 8- 3xlO - 6x8 + 3x8 - 6x" + 12x" -12x2 + 12x6 = X12 - 3xlO - 3x8 +
11x6 + 6x" -12x2 - 8
7. a3+ a22 _~=a9 + a86 - ;~ +3(a3)'( a:)+3(a3)'( -~)+3( a: r (a3)+3( a:r (-~)+3(
-~r (a3) +3( -~r( a:) +6a3( a:)( -~)
9 a6 a3 3a8 7 3a 7 aS aS a4 6 9 3a8 a 7 7 a6 aS a4 a3
=a +---+--a +---+-+--a =a +-----+-+---
8 27 2 4 4 3 6 2 4 8 12 6 27
8. ~ -~+2= ~6 - ;~ +8+3( ~r (-~)+3(X2)22(2)+3( -~r( ~)+3( -~r (2)+3(2)'( ~)
+3(2)2 ( -~)+6( ~)( -~}2)
x6 x3 xS 3x4 x4 2x2, 3 x6 xS 5x4 55x3 20x2
=---+8--+-+-+-+6x--4x-2x =---+---+---4x+8
8 27 4 2 6 3 8 4 3 27 3
= a9 - a6 + a3 -1 + 3(a3)2 (- a2)+ 3(a3)' (a)+ 3(a3)' (-1)+ 3(- a2)' (a3)+ 3(- a
2)' (a) +3(- a2 )'(-1)+3a2 (a3)+ 3a2 (- a2 )+3a2 (-1)+3(-1)' (a3)+3(-1)' (- a2 )
+3(-1)' (a) + 6(a3)(- a2)(a) + 6(a3)(- a2)(-1)+ 6(a3)(a) (-1)+ 6(- a2 )(a) (-1)
= a9 _ a6 + a3 -1- 3a8 + 3a7 - 3a6 + 3a7 + 3as - 3a4 +3as -3a4 - 3a2 +3a3 -3a2 +
3a- 6a6 + 6as -6a4 +6a3 = a9 - 3a8 + 6a7 -lOa6 + 12as -12a4 + lOa3 -6a2 + 3a-1
10. xJ - 2x2 + x- 3= x9 - 8x6 + xJ - 27 + 3(xJ)' (- 2x2)+ 3(xJ)' (x)+ 3(xJ)' (-
3)+ 3(- 2x2)' (xJ)+ 3(- 2x2)' (x) + 3(- 2x2)' (- 3)+ 3x2 (xJ)+ 3x2 (- 2x2)+ 3x2
(- 3)+ 6 (xJ)(_ 2x2 )(x)+ 6(xJ)(- 2x2 )(- 3) + 6(xJ)(x)(- 3)+ 6(- 2x2 )(x) (- 3)
+ 3(- 3)' (xJ)+ 3(- 3)' (- 2x2)+ 3(- 3)' x
= x9 -8x6 + xJ - 27 - 6x8 + 3x7 -9x6 + 12x7 + 12x5 - 36x4 + 3x5 - 6x4 - 9x2 -12x
6 +36x5 -18x4 +36xJ + 27xJ -54x2 +27x
= x9 - 6x8 + 15x7 - 29x6 +51x5 - 60x4 +64xJ - 63x2 + 27 x- 27
11. x3-4x2+2x-3
= x9 - 64x6 + 8x3 - 27 + 3(x3)' (-4x2)+ 3(x3)' (2x)+ 3(x3)' (- 3)+ 3(-4x2)' (x3)
+ 3(-4x2)' (2x) + 3(-4x2)' (- 3)+ 3(2x)2 (x3)+ 3 (2x)' (-4x2)+ 3 (2x)' (- 3)+ 3(
- 3)' (x3)+ 3(- 3)' (-4x2)
+ 3(- 3)' (2x)+ 6(x3)(-4x2 )(2x)+ 6(x3)(-4x2)(- 3)+ 6(x3)(2x)(- 3)+ 6(- 4x2)(2x)
(- 3)
= x9 - 64x6 + 8x3 - 27 -12x8 + 6x7 - 9x6 + 48x7 + 96xs -144x4 + 12xs - 48x4 - 36
x2 + 27 x3 -108x2 + 54x-48x6 + 72xs - 36x4 + 144x3
= x9 -12x8 + 54x7 -121x6 + 180xs - 228x4 + 179x3 -144x2 + 54x- 27
12. 1- x2 + 2x4 - x6 = 1- x6 + 8X12 - X18 + 3(- x2) + 3 (2x4 )+ 3(- x6)+ 3(- x2)
' + 3(- x2)' (2x4)+ 3(- x2)' (- x6) + 3 (2x4 y + 3 (2x4 )' (- x2 )+3 (2x4 y (- x
6)+ 3(- x6)' + 3(- x6)' (- x2)+ 3(- x6)' (2x4)
+ 6(- x2 )(2x4)+ 6 (2x4 )(- x6)+ 6(- x2 )(- x6)+ 6(- x2 )(2x4 )(- x6)
= 1- x6 + 8X12 - X18 - 3x2 + 6x4 - 3x6 + 3x4 + 6x8 - 3xlO + 12x8 -12xlO -12x14 +
3X12 - 3X14 + 6X16 -12x6 -12xlO + 6x8 + 12x12
= 1- 3x2 + 9x4 - 16x6 + 24x8 - 27 xlO + 23x12 -15x14 + 6X16 _ X18
EJERCICIO 210
( )4 4· 3 2 6· 2 3 4
1. x-2 =x4-4x3(2)+2x2(2) -3x(2) +(2) =x4-Sx3+24x2-32x+16
( )4 4·3 2 6·2 3 4
2. a+3 =a4+4a3(3)+2a2(3) +3a(3) +(3) =a4+12a3+54a2+lOSa+Sl
( )5 ()5 ()4 5-4 ( )3 2 10· 3 ( )2 3 10· 2 ( ) 4 5 2 3 4 5
3. 2-x = 2 -52 x+22 x --3- 2 x +-4- 2 x -x =32-S0x+SOx -40x +lOx -x
4. (2x+5yf
( )4 ( )3( ) 4'3( )2( )2 6'2( )( )3 ()4 4 3 ? ? 3 4
= 2x +42x 5y +2 2x 5y +32x 5y + 5y =16x + 160x y+600x-y-+1.Oooxy +625y
( )6 6 5 () 6·5 4 ()' 15·4 3 ()3 20· 3 '( t 15· 2 ()5 ()6
5. a-3 =a -6a 3 +2a r--3-a 3 +4a- 3 --5-a 3 + 3
= a6 -ISa5 + 135a4 - 540a3 + 1.215a2 -1.45Sa+ 729
( )6 ( )6 ( )5 6'5( t' 15'4( )33 20'3( )' 4 15'2( ) 5 6
6. 2a-b = 2a -62a b+22a b---3- 2a b +-4- 2a -b --5- 2a b +b
= 64a6 -192a5b+ 240a4b2 -160a3b3 + 60a2b4 -12ab5 + b6
( , 3)5 (,)5 (,)4( 3) 5-4( ')3( 3)2 1O.3( ')2( 3)3 1O.2( ')( 3)4 ( 3)5
7. x-+2y = x- +5 x- 2y +2 x- 2y +-3- x- 2y +-4- x- 2y + 2y
=x10 + lOx8y' +40x6l+ SOx4l +SOX2/2 +32/5
8 (3 )6 (3)6 (3)5() 6.5( 3)4()2 15-4( 3)3()3 20.3( 3)2()4 15.2( 3)()5 ()6
. X + 1 = x + 6 x 1 + 2 x 1 + -3- x 1 + -4- x 1 + -5- x 1 + 1
= X18 + 6X15 + 15x12 + 20x9 + 15x6 + 6x3 + 1
9. (2a-3b)' =(2a)5-5(2at(3b)+ 5;4(2a)3(3b)2_1O/(2a)2(3b)3+ 1O/(2a)(3bt-(3b)5 = 3
2a5 - 240a4b+ 720a3b2 -1.0S0a2b3 + S10ab4 - 243b5
10. (x4-5y't
( 4)6 (4)5 ( 3) 6·5 ( 4)4 ( 3)2 15·4 ( 4)3 ( 3)3 20·3 ( 4)2 ( 3)4 15·2 (4)( 3)5 ( 3)6
= X - 6 x 5y + 2 x 5y - -3- x 5y + -4- x 5y - -5- x 5y + 5y
= X24 _ 30x20y' + 375x16l- 2.500X12l + 9 .375x8/2 -IS. 750X4/5 + 15.625/8
11. (2X-fr
=(2X)6_6(2X)5(f)+ 6~5(2Xt(fr _15~4(2X)3(fr + 2~'3(2X)'(fr _15~2(2X)(fr +(fr
6 5 4 , 3 3 15 , 4 3 5 y6
=64x -96x y+60x y--20x y +4X-y -S"XY + 64
12. (3- ~2j5 =(3)5_5(3t( ~2j+ 5;4(3)3( X:r _10/(3)'( X:r + 1~2(3)( X:r _( X:j5
? 4 10 6 5 8 XlO
=243-135x-+30x --X +-X --
3 27 243
13. (2m3 - 3n4 t = (2m3t - 6 (2m3)' (3n4)+ 6~5 (2m3r (3n4)' _ 15~4 (2m3)' (3n4)'
+ 2~' 3 (2m3)' (3n4 r
15·2 ( 3)( 4)5 ( 4)6
--5- 2m 3n + 3n
= 64ml8 - 576m15n4 + 2.160m12n8 - 4.320m9n12 + 4.S60m6n16 - 2.916m3n20 + 729n24
14. (x2-3r
= (x2)" -7 (x2t (3) +~(X2)' (3)2 _ 21·5 (x2 r (3)3 + 35·4 (X2)' (3)4 _ 35·3 (x2Y (3)'
+ 21·2 V )(3)6 - (3)"
2 3 4 5 6
= X14 _ 21x12 + 189xlo - 945x8 + 2.835x6 -5.103x4 +5.103x2 - 2.187
( b2Y , 4(b2i 5·4 3(b2Y 10·3 '(b2Y 10·2 (b2Y (b2Y
15. 3a-3) =(3a) -5(3a) 3t2(3a) 3) --3-(3a)- 3) +-4-(3a) 3) - 3)
10 5 blO
= 243a' -135a4b2 + 30a3b4 - 3a2b6 + 27 ab8 - 243
(' ,)7 (,)7 (')6( ') 7.6( ')'( ,)2 21'S( ')4( ,)3 3S-4( ')3( ,)4
16. x-+2y- = x- +7 x- 2y- +2 x- 2y- +-3- x- 2y- +-4- x- 2y-
3S'3( )2( )' 21'2()( )6 ( )7
+-S- X2 2y' +-6- x2 2y2 + 2y2
= X14 + 14x12y' + 84xlOy4 + 280X8y6 +S60x6y' + 672x4ylO + 448x2y12 + 128y14
17. (x3 -1)' = (x't _ 8(x3)" (1)+ ~(x't (1)2 _ 28·6 (X3)' (1)3 + 56·5 (x'Y (1)4 _ 70
-4 (X3)3 (1)'
2 3 4 5
+ 56·3 (x3)' (1)6_ 28·2 (X3)(l)7 +(1)8
6 7
= X24 _ 8X2l + 28x18 _ 56xl' + 70X12 - 56x9 + 28x6 - 8x3 + 1
18. (X2 -%r = (x2Y _9(X2)8( %) + 9~8 (x2)" (%r - 3~7 (x2t (%)' + 8:6 V)' (%r - 1
2~'5 (x2r (%)' + 12:-4(X2)'(%r - 8~'3(X2)2(%r + 3~2(X2)(%r -(%r
18 9 16 14 2 21 12 3 63 10 4 63 8' 21 6 6 9 4 7 9 2 8 /
=X --X y+9x y --X Y +-X y --X Y +-X y --X Y +-X y --
2 2 8 16 16 32 256 512
19. (2m3-n4r = (2m3)" -7(2m3t(n4)+ 7~6(2m3)'(n4)' _ 2~'5(2m3r(n4)' + 3~4(2m3)'(n
4r
35·3 ( 3)2 (4)' 21·2 ( 3)( 4)6 (4)7
- -5- 2m n + -6- 2m n-n
= 128m2l- 448ml8n4 + 672ml'n8 _ 560ml2n12 + 280m9n16 _ 84m6n20 + 14m3n24 _ n28
xlO 5x8y' 5x6l 20x4l 40x2y' 32io =-+--+--+--+--+--
32 24 9 27 81 243
1 3a 3a2 5a3 375a4 1.875as 15.625a6
=----+---+-----+---
15.625 625 20 2 16 16 64
EJERCICIO 211
NOTA: Triángulo necesario para el desarrollo de los problemas del presente ejercic
io
2
3 3
4 6 4
5 10 10 5
6 15 20 15 6
7 21 35 35 21 7
8 28 56 70 56 28 8
9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9
10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10
1. (a + 2bt = a6 + 6as (2b)+ 15a4 (2b)2 + 20a3 (2b)3 + 15a2 (2bt + 6a (2b)S + (2
b)6 = a6 + 12asb+ 60a4b2 + 160a3b3 + 240a2b4 + 192abs + 64b6
2. (2m2-3n3Y = (2m2r -5(2m2)' (3n3)+1O(2m2)' (3n3)' -1O(2m2)' (3n3)' + 5 (2m2)(3
n3)' -(3n3r
= 32mlO - 240m8n3 + 720m6n6 -1.080m'n9 + 81Om2n12 - 243n15
3. (x2+ y't =(x2t +6(X2)5 (y')+ 15(x2)'(y')' +20(X2)3(y')' + 15(X2)2(y')' + 6 (x
2)(y'r +(y't
= X12 + 6xlOy' + 15x8l + 20x6/ + 15x'/2 + 6X2/5 + /8
4. (3-/f =(3f -7(3)6V)+21(3)5V)' -35(3)'V)' +35(3)3(/)' -21(3)2Vr +7(3)Vt -VY =
2.187 -5.103/ +5.103/' -2.835/1 + 945/8 -189y35 +21y" -/9
5. (2x3-3/t
= (2x3 t - 6(2x3)5 (3/)+ 15(2x3)' (3/)2 - 20(2x3)' (3/)' + 15(2x3)' (3/ r - 6(2x
3 )(3/ y + (3/ t
= 64x18 -576x15/ +2.160X12/-4.320X9/2 +4.860X6/6 - 2.916x3/O + 729/'
a6 2as 5a4 20a3 135a2 486a 729
----+----+-----+-
- 729 27b 3b2 b3 b4 bS b6
8. (1-x't
= (l)8-8(lr(X')+ 28(1)6 V)' -56(1)5V)' +70(1)'Vr -56(1)3 (X'r +28(1)2Vt -8(l)VY
+VY
= 1- 8x' + 28x8 - 56x12 + 70X16 - 56x20 + 28x2.( _ 8X28 + x32
(2 3)7 (2)7 (2 )6 ( 3 ) ( 2 )' ( 3 )2 j 2 )4 ( 3 )3 ( 2 )3 ( 3 )4
9. 3x - 2y = 3x -7 3x 2y +21 3x 2y -3~3x 2y +35 3x 2y
-21(:J2(:yr +7(32J (23yr -(:yr
128 224 56 70 105 567 1.701 2.187
=---7 ---6-+-'-' --4-3 +-3-4 --,-, +--6 ---7
2.187 X 243x y 9x y- 3x y 2x y 8x-y 32xy 128y
(2 2)7 (2)7 (2)6( 2) (2)'( 2)2 (2)4( 2)3 (2)3( 2)4
10. ;;-~ =;; -7;; ~ +21;; ~ -35;; ~ +35;; ~
-21(~r( ~2)' +7(~) (~2r _( ~2r
128 224 168 ? 35m' 21m8 7ml1 m14
=-7 --4 +--7Om-+-----+---
m m m 2 8 32 128
11. (x3 + mnr = (x3Y +8(x3)" mn+ 28(x3t (mn)2 +56(x3Y (mn)3 + 70(x3)' (mn)' +56(
x3)' (mn)S + 28(x3Y (mn)6 + 8 (x3)(mn)" + (mn)8
= x2-l + 8x21mn+ 28x18m2n2 + 56x1Sm3n3 + 70x12m-ln-l + 56x9mSnS + 28x6m6n6 +8x3m
7n7 + m8n8
( 1)10 (1) (1)2 (1)3 (1)4 (1)' (1)6
13. 1-~ =(1)10-10(1)9 ~ +45(1)8 ~ -120(1)" ~ +210(1)6 ~ -252(1)' ~ +210(1)4 ~
(1)7 (1)8 (1)9 (1)10
-120(1)' ~ + 45(1)2 ~ -10(1) ~ + ~
10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 1 =1--+2--3 +-4 --, +-6 --7 +8-9+10
xx x x x x x x x x
14. (2m2-5nsr = (2m2t -6(2m2Y (5ns)+ 15(2m2}' (5nS)2 -20(2m2)'(5ns)' + 15(2m2)2(
5ns)' -6(2m2)(5nsY + (5nst
= 64m12 - 960m10nS + 6.000m8n10 - 20.000m6n1S + 37 .500m-ln20 - 37 .500m2n25 + 1
5.625n30
15. (4- :r
=(4)" _7(4)6( :)+21(4)'( :r -35(4)'( :r +35(4)3( :r -21(4)'( :r +7(4)( :r -( :r
, 10 l' 35x20 21x25 7 x30 x35
=16.384-7.168x +1.344x -140x +-4--~+ 1.024 -16.384
EJERCICIO 212
1. (x- y)' donde r=3
5·4 S-Z()Z 3 Z
=-(x) -y =lOxy
1·2
4. (3x-2y)" donde r=4
= 6·5-4 (3X)6-3 (-2ytl 1·2·3
= 20(27x3)(- 8y') =-4.320x3y'
7. (xz-2yr donde r=7
= 10·9·8· 7 ·6·5 (XZ)1O-6 (_ 2yr-! 1·2·3·4·5·6
= 21O(x8)(64y")
= 13.440x8y"
2. (a-4b)" donde r=4 = 7.6.5(a)"-3(_4btI 1·2·3
=35a4(-64b3) =-2.240a4b3
5. (az-2bf donde r=5
= 9.8.7.6(azt4(_2br 1·2·3·4
= 126 (alO)(16b4 ) = 2.016alOb4
9.(a2+bY' donde r=lO
_ 15·14·13·12·11-10·9·8· 7 (a2 r-9 (b)lO-I
- 1·2·3·4·5·6·7·8·9
= 5.005a12b9
11. (2a-b2t donde r=6
= 6·5·4·3·2 (2a)6-S (-b2t! 1·2·3·4·5
= 6(2a)(_blO)
=-12ablO
EJERCICIO 213
1. ~4a2b4 =±2ab2
2. J25X6y" =±5x''l
3. ~=3ab3
4. V-8a3b6x12 =-2ab2X'
5. J64x"y1° =±8X'y
6. ~h 6a8b16 =±2a2b4
3. (1+ x)" donde r=5
= 11-10·9·8 (1)[[-4 (X)'-l 1·2·3·4
= 330x4
6. (2a-%r donde r=6
= 8·7·6·5·4 (2a)8-S(_!?-)6-I
1·2·3·4·5 2
=56(8a3)( - ~~)
=-14a3bs
8. (x- ir donde r=8
_ 11-1O.9.8.7.6.5(xt-7 (- ir! 1·2·3·4·5·6·7
= 330x4 (_/4)
=-330X4/4
10. (1-x2r donde r=9
= 12·11-10·9 ·8· 7·6· 5 (1)12-S (_ x2 tI 1·2·3-4-5·6·7·8
= 495xI6
12. (3x2 - i)' donde r = 5
= 8· 7 ·6·5 (3x2t4 (_ irl 1·2·3·4
=70(81xs)(l) =5.670xsy'
~ 3a
16. V"'25j(4 = ± 5x2
o~ 3a
17. V-B"47=- 4x'
9. V-243m5d5 =-3mn'
7. Vx15r°z"5 =x'y4i' 14. ~49a2nb4n =±7anb2n
8. V-64a3x"y18 =-4~1 15. V_x'ny10x =-x"rx
125x" 5x'
22. 3 - 216m12 =- 6m4
EJERCICIO 214
I 16x2 - 24xl + 9/ 4x- 31
1. " t---'-----------
-16x2 (Sx-31) (-31)
- 24xl + 9/ = - 24xl + 9/
24xl-9/ O
2. ~ 25a4-70a3x+49a2x2 5a2-7ax
-25a4 (lOa2-7ax)(-7ax)
-70a3 x+ 49a2 x2 70a3x-49a2x2
= -70a3 x+ 49a2 x2
O
3. ~ x4-4xJ+6x2-4x+1 x2-2x+1
t--------
_x4 (2x2-2x)(-2x)
-4xJ+6x2 =-4xJ+4x2
4xJ-4x2
2x2-4x+1 (2x2-4x+1)(l)
-2x2+4x-1 =2x2-4x+1
O
4. ~ 4a4+4aJ+5a2+2a+1 2a2+a+1
-4a4 (4a2+a)(a)
4aJ+5a2 =4aJ+a2
-4aJ _ a2
4a2 + 2a + 1 (4a2 + 2a + 1)(1)
-4a2-2a-1 =4a2+2a+1
O
5. ~ n4-lOnJ+29n2-20n+4 n2-5n+2
_n4 (2n2-5n)(-5n)
-lOnJ + 29n2 = - lOnJ + 25n2
lOnJ - 25n2
4n2-20n+4 (2n2-lOn+2)(2)
- 4n2 + 20n-4 = 4n2 - 20n+ 4
O
6 -X
6. ~ x6 -lOx5 + 25x" + 12x3 - 60x2 + 36
-lOx5+25x" lOx5 - 25x"
= -lOx5 + 25x"
12x3 - 60x2 + 36 - 12x3 + 60x2 - 36
-1
(2x3 -lOx2 + 6)(6)
= 12x3 - 60x2 + 36
~ 8 6 4 ')
7. 16a - 24a + 49a - 30a- + 25
-16a8
-24a6+49a4
24a6 - 9a4
40a4 - 30a2 + 25 - 40a4 + 30a2 - 25
8. ~ x2+4xy-2xz-4yz+4/+z2
2 -X
4xy-2xz -4xy
-2xz-4yz 2xz+4yz
O
12 -X
2x9 -5x6 - 2x9 _ x6
-6x6 -6x3 +9 6x6 + 6x3 - 9
O
10. ~ 25x8_70X6+30X5+49x"-42x3+9x2 -25x8
------
-70x6 + 30x5 + 49x"
70x6 -49x"
30x5 -30x5
O
+4y2
-4/
-42x3 +9x2 +42x3-9x2
O
4a4 -3a2+5
(Sa4-3a2)(-3a2) =-24a6+9a4
(Sa4 - 6a2 + 5) (5)
= 40a4 - 30a2 + 25
x+2y-z
(2x+ 2y )(2y) =4xy+4/
2 -z
(2x+4y-Z)(-Z)
= - 2xz- 4yz+ Z2
(2x6 + 2x3 - 3) (- 3)
= - 6x6 - 6x3 + 9
5x"-7x2+3x
(lOx" -7 x2 )(-7 x2) =-70x6+49x"
(lOx" -14x2 + 3x) (3x)
= 30x5 - 42x3 + 9x2
O
11. ~ 4a4+8a3b-8a2b2-12ab3+9b4 -4a4
-----
8a3b-8a2b2 -8a3b-4a2b2
-12a2b2 -12ab3 + 9b4 12a2b2 + 12ab3 - 9b4
o
6 -X
- 2x5 + 3x4
2x5 _ x4
2x4 - x2 + 2x
- 2x2 + 2x+ 1 +2x2 -2x- 1
o
13. ~ x6-6x5+5x4+16x3-8x2-8x+4 6
-X
-6x5+5x4 6x5 -9x4
- 4x4 + 16x3 - 8x2 4x4 -12x3 - 4x2
4x3 -12x2 - 8x+4 - 4x3 + 12x2 + 8x-
o
8 -X
6x6 - 8x5 + 19x4
-6x6 - 9x4
- 8x5 + lOx4 - 24x3 + 46x2
8x5 + 24x3 -16x2
lOx4 -lOx4
+ 30x2 - 40x+ 25 - 30x2 + 40x- 25
o
2a2 + 2ab- 3b2
(4a2 + 2ab) (2ab)
= 8a3b+ 4a2b2
(4a2+4ab-3b2) (-3b2)
= -12a2b2 -12ab3 + 9b4
x3 - x2 + x+ 1
= -2x5+X4
(2x3 - 2x2 +x) (x)
=2x4-2x3+X2
(2x3 - 2x2 + 2x+ 1) (1)
= 2x3-2x2+2x+l
(2x3 -3x2) (-3x2)
= - 6x5 + 9x4
(2x3 - 6x2 - 2x) (- 2x)
=-4x4+12x3+4x2
(2x3-6x2-4x+2) (2) =4x3-12x2-8x+4
x4+3x2-4x+5
(2x4 + 6x2 - 4x) (- 4x)
= - 8x5 - 24x3 + 16x2
(2x4 + 6x2 - 8x+ 5) (5)
=lOx4 +30x2-40x+25
15. ~ x8 - 8x7 + 16x6 + 4x5 - 22x" + 24x3 + 4x2 -12x+ 9
8 -X
-8x7 + 16x6 8x7 -16x6
4x5 - 22x" + 24x3 + 4x2
-4x5+16x" -4x2
- 6x" + 24x3 6x" -24x3
-9
-36a+ 42a2 36a- 36a2
6a2 -18a3 + 13a4 _ 6a2 + 12a3 _ a4
- 6a3 +12a4-2a5+a6 6a3 -12a4 + 2a5 _ a6
(2x" - 4x3) (- 4x3) = - 8x7 + 16x6
(2x" - 8x3 + 2x) (2x) =4x5-16x"+4x2
-12x+9 + 12x-9
(2x" -8x3+4x-3) (-3)
=-6x" + 24x3 -12x+9
o
3- 6a+ a2 _ a3
(6- 6a)(- 6a) = - 36a+ 36a2
(6-12a+ a2 )(a2)= 6a2 -12a3 + a4
= - 6a3 + 12a4 - 2a5 + a6
o
17. ~ 9x6-24x5+28x"-22x3+12x2-4x+1 3x3-4x2+2x-1
-9x6 (6x3-4x2)(-4x2)= -24x5+ 16x"
-24x5 + 28x"
24x5 -16x"
12x" - 22x3 + 12x2 -12x" + 16x3 - 4x2
- 6x3 + 8x2-4x+1 6x3-8x2+4x-1
o
18. ~ 16x6 - 40x5 + 73x" - 84x3 + 66x2 - 36x+ 9 -16x6
-40x5 + 73x" 40x5-25x"
--------
48x" - 84x3 + 66x2
- 48x" + 60x3 - 36x2
- 24x3 + 30x2 - 36x+ 9 24x3 - 30x2 + 36x- 9
o
(6x3 - 8x2 + 2x) (2x)
= 12x" -16x3 + 4x2
(6x3 - 8x2 + 4x-1) (-1)
= - 6x3 + 8x2 - 4x+ 1
4x3 - 5x2 + 6x- 3
(8x3 -5x2) (- 5x2) = - 40x5 + 25x"
(8x3 -lOx2 + 6x) (6x)
= 48x" - 60x3 + 36x2
(8x3 -lOx2 + 12x- 3) (- 3)
= - 24x3 + 30x2 - 36x+ 9
m3 - 2m2n + 2n"
6 -m
-4m'n + 4m"n2 4m'n-4m"n2
=-4m'n+4m"n2
4m3n" - 8m2n' +4n8 (2m3 -4m2n+ 2n") (2n")
-4m3n" +8m2n' -4n8 =4m3n" -8m2n' +4n8
o
20. ~ 9x6 - 6x'y+ 13x"y'-16x3/ + 8x2y" - 8.xy' + 4/ 3x3 - x2y+ 2.xy2 - 2/ +---"-
----'-_....::..-_-------
- 9x6 (6x3 - x2y)(_ x2y)= - 6x'y+ x"y'
---
-6x'y+13x"y'
6x'y- x"y' (6x3 - 2x2y+ 2.xy2) (2.xy2)
12x"y'-16x3/ + 8x2y" = 12x"y'- 4x3/ + 4x2y"
-12x"y' + 4x3/ -4x2y"
-12x3/ + 4x2y" - 8.xy' +4/ (6x3 - 2x2y+ 4.xy2 - 2/) (- 2/)
12x3/-4x2y" + 8.xy' - 4/ = - 12x3/ + 4x2y" - 8.xy' + 4/
O
21. ~ 16a6-24a5b+25a4b2-20a3b3+lOa2b4-4ab5+b6 -16a6
a3-3a2b+2ab2-b3
- 24a5b+ 25a4b2 24a5b- 9a4b2
16a4b2 - 20a3b3 + 10a2b4 -16a4b2 + 12a3b3 - 4a2b4
(8a3 - 6a2b+ 2ab2) (2ab2)
= 16a4b2 -12a3b3 + 4a2b4
- 8a3b3 + 6a2b4 -4ab5 +b6 8a3b3- 6a2b4+4ab5-b6
(8a3-6a2b+4ab2-b3) (_b3)
= -8a3b3+6a2b4-4ab5+b6
O
22.
36x8 -36x6/ +48x5/ -15x4/- 24x3/ + 28x2/-16xy' +4y 6x4 -3x2/ +4x/ - 2/
- 36x8 (12x4 - 3x2/)(- 3x2/)= - 36x6/ + 9x4/
- 36x6/ +48x5/ -15x4/
36x6/ - 9x4/
48x5/ - 24x4/-24x3/ + 28x2/
-48x5/ +24x3/-16x2/
-24x4/ + 12x2/-16xy' +4/
24x4/ - 12x2/+16xy' -4/
O
=48x5/ -24x3/ + 16x2/ (12x4 -6x2/ + 8x/ -2/) (-2/)
= -24x4/+12x2/-16xy' +4/
23. ~ 2Sa6-40a5x+26a"x2-28a3x3+17a2x"-4ax5+4x6 a3-4a2x+ax2-2x3
-+----------------
- 2Sa6 (lOa3 -4a2x)(-4a2x)= -40a5x+ l6a"x2
-40a5x+26a"x2
40a5x-16a"x2
- 20a3x3 + l6a2x" -4ax5 +4x6 20a3x3 -16a2x" +4ax5 -4x6
(lOa3 - 8a2x+ 2ax2 - 2x3)(- 2x3)
= - 20a3x3 + l6a2x" -4ax5 +4x6
o
24. ~ 4a8 -12a7 + l7a6 -16a5 + l4a" -10a3 + Sa2 - 2a+ 1 -4a8
-12a7 +17a6
l2a7 - 9a6
8a6 -16a5 + l4a" - 8a6 + l2a5 - 4a"
2a"-3a3+2a2-a+l
(4a" - 6a3 + 2a2) (2a2)
= 8a6 -12a5 + 4a"
4a5 - 6a" + 4a3 - a2
(4a" - 6a3 +4a2 - a)(- a)
=-4a5 +6a"-4a3+a2
- 4a5 + lOa" -10a3 + Sa2
4a" - 6a3 +4a2-2a+l
-4a" + 6a3 -4a2+2a-l (4a" - 6a3 +4a2-2a+l)(l)
O =4a"- 6a3 +4a2-2a+l
25. ~ xlO -2x9 +3x8 -4x7 +Sx6 - 8x5 + 7x" -6x3 +Sx2-4x+4 x5 - x" + x3 - x2+ x-2
- xlO (2x5 - x" )(- x")= - 2x9 + x8
-2x9 +3x8
2x8 - 4x7 + Sx6 - 2x8 + 2x7 _ x6
(2x5 - 2x" + 2x3 - x2 )(- x2)
-2x7+4x6-8x5+7x" 2x7 -2x6+2x5- x"
2x6 - 6x5 + 6x" - 6x3 + Sx2 -2x6+2x5-2x"+2x3- x2
(2x5 - 2x" + 2x3 - 2x2 + x) (x)
= 2x6-2x5+2x"-2x3+X2
-4x5 + 4x" - 4x3 + 4x2 - 4x+4 4x5 -4x" +4x3 -4x2 +4x-4
O
(2x5 - 2x" + 2x3 - 2x2 + 2x- 2)(- 2) = -4x5 + 4x" - 4x3 +4x2 -4x+ 4
EJERCICIO 215
X2 2 --x+-
2 3
4
(2 )() 3 2
X -X -X =-X +X
3 5x2 -X ++3
3 2
X-X
2x2 4x 4 339
2x2 4x 4
--+---
339
O
2.
a2 2a 19 2x x2 x2 3x 9 3a a2
a 1 X
---+-
X 3 a
(2: -~)( -~)=- ~: +i
a2 x2
2a 19
3x 9
2a 1 3x 9
(2a _3.+'::')('::')=2- 2x + <
x3aa 3aa
2x x2 2- 3a a2
2x x2 3a a2
O
3.
a2 ? ae be e2 a e --ab+b-+---+- 4 4 2 16 2 4
a2
4
(a-b) (-b)=-ab+b2
-ab+b2
ab-b2
ae be e2 4 2 16
ae be e2
4 2 16
O
4.
9a4 3a3 29a2 4a 16
---+----+-
16 4 20 5 25
9a4 16
3a3 29a2 --+--
4 20
3a3 a2
4 4
6a2 4a 16
---+-
5 5 25
6a2 4a 16
--+---
5 5 25
O
5.
a4 a3b 3a2b2 b4 16 2 4 4
16
a3b 3a2b2 -+--
2 4
a2b2 3 b4
----ab +-
4 4
a2b2 b4
--+ab3--
4 4.1
O
6.
X2 2x 25 50y ? -+--2xy+---+25y-
25 3 9 3
x2
25
2x 25 --2xy+-
3 9
2x 25
3 9
-2xy
50y --+25y' 3
50y +--25y' 3
2xy
O
3a2 a 4 4 2 5
(3;2 _~)(_~)=_ 3:3 + a:
x 5 -+--5y 5 3
(2X +~)(~)= 2x + 25
5 3 3 3 9
( 2x 10 ) () 50y? -+--5y -5y =-2xy--+25y-
5 3 3
7.
x' 4xJy 62x2y2 4xyJ y'
----+-----+-
9 3 15 5 25
x'
9
4xJy 62x2/ 4xyJ
---+-----
3 15 5
2x2/ 4xyJ y"
-----+-
15 5 25
2x2/ 4xyJ y"
---+----
15 5 25
O
8.
a4 3a2 9 a2b2 2b2 b4 16 10 25 18 15 81
a4
16
3a2 9
10 25
3a2 9 10 25
a2b2 2b2 b4
----+-
18 15 81
a2b2 2b2 b4
---+---
18 15 81
O
? 4 1
x-+4x+2--+-
9. y x2
1 x+2x
2 -X
(2x+ 2)(2)= 4x+ 4
4x+2
x2 y2 --2xy+-
3 5
(2x2) 4xJy? ?
-3--2xy (-2xy)=- -3-+4x-y
a 3 b2
---+-
4 5 9
(a22 -~)(-~)=-31a;+;5
-4x-4
4 1 Y x2
4 1 2+Y x2
O
x2
9
lOx 79
--+-
3 3
lOx --2S
3
4 20 4 3-~+ x2
4 20 4
-3+~-7
O
a4 ? 30 9 --Sa-+28--+-
11. 4 a2 a4
a4
4
-Sa2+28
Sa2 - 2S
o
12.
a4 2a' a2 2ax x2 9 3x x2 3 a2
9
2a' a ~+ x2
2a' a2 3x x2
2ax x2
---2+-
3 a2
2ax x
-+2--
3 a2
x 2 3 x
( 2x ) ( ) lOx
3-S -S =--3-+2S
(2X -1O+~)(~)=.=!:.- 20 + 42
3 x x 3 x x
a2 3
2 a2
(a2 -S)(-S)= -Sa2 + 2S
a2 a x
-+---
3 x a
(2a2 + !!..) (!!..) = 2a' + a:
3 xx 3xx
o
13.
9a2 3a 65 x 4x2 7- 2x +1"6- 3a + 9a2
9a2
2 X
3a 65
2x 16
3a 1 2x 16
X 4x2 43a 9a2
x 4x2 3a 9a2
O
14.
-9x4
30x2 +55
-30x2-25
o
4a2
257
2a 19
5x 12
2a 1 5x 4
4 5x 25x2 "3- 3a + 9a2
4 5x 25x2
-"3+3c;-%2
O
3a 1 2x
---+-
x 4 3a
(6: -¡)( -¡)=- ~: + 1~
(6x2 + 5) (5) = 30x2 + 25
2a 1 5x
---+-
5x 2 3a
(:: -~)( -~)=- ~: +¡
(4a -1+ 5X)(5X)=,::_ 5x + 25~2 5x 3a 3a 3 3a 9a-
x' xJy 3X2y2 xyJ y' ---+--+-+-
16. 16 4 20 5 25
x'
16
x2/ xyJ y" ---+-+-
10 5 25
x2/ xyJ y"
10 5 25
O
x2 xy / 425
( ~ _ ~ ) ( _ ~) = _ X:y + X:2
2ab 21
7xy 20
2ab 1 7xy 4
4 7xy 49x2/ "5 - 5ab + 25a2b2
4 7xy 49x2/
-"5 + s;;¡;-~
O
18.
9a2x2 6ax 23 4mn 4m2n2
--,-, ---+----+--,-,
25m-n- 25mn 75 45ax 81a-x-
9a2x2 25m2n2
6ax 23 25mn 75
6ax 1
----
25mn 25
20 4mn 4m2n2 75 - 45ax + 81a2x2
20 4mn 4m2n2
- 75 + 45ax - 81a2x2
O
2ab 1 7xy 7xy 2 5ab
(4ab _.!.)(_.!.)=_ 2ab +.!.
7xy 2 2 7xy 4
(4ab -1+ 7XY)(7XY)
7xy 5ab 5ab
4 7xy 49x2/ ="5- 5ab + 25a2b2
3ax 1 lOmn
----+--
5mn 5 45ax
( 6ax _~+ lOmn)(10mn)
5mn 5 45ax 45ax
20 4mn 4m2n2 = 75 - 45ax + 81a2x2
19.
x' 5 5x4 2x3 32x2 8x --X +-+----+-+4
4 3 3 9 3
x'
4
( 3 2)( 2) 5 4
X -X -X =-X +X
5 5x4 -X ++3
5 4
X-X
( 3 2 2X) (2X) 2x4 4x3 4x2
X -2x +- - =---+-
3 3 3 3 9
2x4 2x3 32x2
-+----
3 3 9
2x4 4x3 4x2
--+---
339
3 ? 8x
2x -4x-+3+4
3 ? 8x
-2x +4x----4 3
o
1 3a 59a2 3a3 43a4 2as la'
---+----+----+-
20. 4 4 48 2 36 3 4
1
4
1 3a 2a2 a3
---+---
2 4 3 2
(1- ~) ( _ 3; ) = _ 3; + 91~2
3a 59a2 4 48
3a 9a2
4 16
2a2 3a3 43a4
---+--
3 2 36
2a2 3 4a4
--+ a
3 9
a 3a4 2as a
--+---+-
2 4 3 4
a 3a4 2as a'
---+---
2 4 3 4
O
( 3a 4 2 3)( 3)
1-2++- a2 - a2
a 3a4 2aS a
=--+---+-
2 4 3 4
EJERCICIO 216
V 8-36y+54y'-27/ 1.
-8
-36y+54y'-27/ 36y-54y' + 27/
2-3y 3(2)2 = 12
3(2)2 (-3y)=-36y 3(2)(-3y)' =54y' (-3yf =-27/
O
2. V 64a6 + 240a-lbZ + 300aZb-l + 125b6 4az + 5bz
-64a6 3(4azy = 48a-l
240a-lbZ + 300aZb-l + 125b6 3(4azy (5bZ)= 240a-lbZ
- 240a-lbZ - 300aZb-l -125b6 3(4az )(5bz y = 300aZb-l
O (5bz r = 125b6
3x5+6x4+7x3
3(x2Y = 3x4 3(x2Y(x)=3x5 3(x2)(x2)=3x4
6 -X
-3x5-3x4- X3
3x4 + 6x3 + 6x2 + 3x+ 1 - 3x4 - 6x3 -6x2 - 3x-1
X3=X3
o
3(x2 + x)' = 3x4 +6x3 + 3x2 3(x2 + x)' (1)= 3x4 + 6x3 + 3x2 3(x2+x) (1)2=3x2+3x
(1)3 = 1
3 8x' -12x5 - 6x4 + llx3 + 3x' - 3x-1 4.
2x'-x-1
- 8x' 3(2x')' = 12x4
-12x5-6x4 +l1x3 3(2x')' (-x)=-12x5
12x5-6x4 + x3 3(2x')(-xY =6x4
-12x4+12x3+3x'-3x- (-x)' =_x3
12x4 -12x3 - 3x' + 3x+ 1
o
3(2x' - x)' = 12x4 -12x3 + 3x' 3(2x' - x)' (-1)= -12x4 + 12x3 - 3x' 3(2x' - x )(
-1)' = 6x' - 3x (-1)'=-1
5.3 1-9x+33x2-63x3+66x4-36x5+8x6 1-3x+2x2
-1 3(1)2 = 3
- 9x+ 33x2 -63x3 3(1)2 (- 3x)=- 9x
9x-27x2+27x3 3(1)(-3x)' = 27x2
6x2 - 36x3 + 66x 4 - 36x5 + 8x6 (- 3x)' = - 27 x3
- 6x2 + 36x3 - 66x4 + 36x5 - 8x6
o
3(1- 3x)' = 3-18x+ 27 x2 3(1- 3x)' (2x2)= 6x2 - 36x3 + 54x4 3(1-3x)(2x2)' =12x4-
36x5
( 2)3 6 2x =8x
6. V X6 - 9x5 + 33x" - 63x3 + 66x2 - 36x+ 8
6x" - 36x3 + 66x2 - 36x+ 8 - 6x" + 36x3 - 66x2 + 36x- 8
( 2)2 "
3 x =3x
3(x2Y(-3x)=- 9x5 3V)(-3xY =27x" (-3x)' =-27x3
6 -X
- 9x5 + 33x" - 63x3
9x5 - 27x" + 27x3
o 3(x2-3xY =3x"-18x3+27x2
3(x2 - 3x y (2) = 6x" - 36x3 + 54x2 3(x2 - 3x)(2)2 = 12x2 - 36x (2)3=8
- 12x6 + 48x5 - 48x" + 48x3 - 96x2 - 64 12x6 - 48x5 + 48x" - 48x3 + 96x2 + 64
O 3(x3-2x2Y =3x6-12x5+12x"
3(x3-2x2Y(-4)= -12x6+48x5-48x" 3(x3-2x2)(-4Y =48x3-96x2
(-4)' =-64
3(x3Y =3x6
3(x3Y (- 2x2)= - 6x8 3(X)3(-2x2Y = 12x7 (- 2x2)' = - 8x6
9 -X
( ")2 8
3 X =3x
3(x" y (- x2)= - 3xlO 3(x")(-x2Y =3x8
12 -X
- 6x8 + 12x6 + 6x" -12x2 - 8 6x8 -12x6 - 6x" + 12x2 + 8
O
3(x"-x2Y =3x8-6x6+3x" 3(x" - x2Y (-2) = - 6x8 + 12x6 -6x" 3(x"-x2)(-2Y =12x"-12x
2
(-2)' =-8
9. V 8x6 - 36x5 + 66x" - 63xJ + 33x2 - 9x+ 1 -8x6
12x" - 36xJ + 33x2 - 9x+ 1 -12x" + 36xJ - 33x2 + 9x-l
( 2)2 "
32x = 12x
3(2x2Y (- 3x)= - 36x5 3(2x2)(-3xY = 54x"
(- 3x)' = - 27xJ
- 36x5 + 66x" - 63xJ
36x5 - 54x" + 27 xJ
o
3 (2x2 - 3xY = 12x" - 36xJ + 27x2 3 (2x2 - 3xY (l) = 12x" - 36xJ + 27x2 3 (2x2 -
3X)(l)2 = 6x2 - 9x
(l)J = 1
10. V 27a6-135a5+117a"+235aJ-156a2-240a-64 -27a6
3a2 - 5a- 4
-108a" + 360aJ -156a2 - 240a- 64 108a" - 360aJ + 156a2 + 240a+ 64
3(3a2Y=27a"
3(3a2 y (- 5a)= -135a5 3 (3a2)(- 5aY = 225a"
(- 5a)' = -125aJ
-135a5 + 117a" + 235aJ
135a5 - 225a" + 125aJ
o
3(3a2-5aY = 27a" -90aJ+75a2
3(3a2 - 5aY (- 4)= -108a" + 360aJ - 300a2 3(3a2-5a) (-4Y = 144a2-240a
(-4)' =-64
3a"b2 -12a3b3 + 15a2b" - 6ab5 + b6 - 3a"b2 + 12a3b3 -15a2b" + 6ab5 - b6
3(a2)2 = 3a"
3(a2)2 (- 2ab)= - 6a5b 3(a2)(- 2ab)2 = 12a"b2 (-2ab)' =-8a3b3
6 -a
- 6a5b+ 15a"b2 - 20a3b3
6a5b-12a"b2 + 8a3b3
o
3(a2 - 2ab y = 3a" -12a3b+ 12a2b2 3(a2 - 2abY (b)2 = 3a"b2 -12a3b3 + 12a2b" 3(a2
- 2ab)(b2)2 = 3a2b" - 6ab5
(b2r=b6
12. V X6 - 9x5y+42x"/-117xJy' +210x2/ - 225xy5 + 125/
6 -X
15x"/- 80xJy' + 210x2/ - 225xy5 + 125/ -15x"/ + 80xJy'- 210x2/ + 225xy5 -125/
3VY(-3xy)=-9x5y 3(x2) (-3xyY = 27x"/ (-3xy)' =-27xJy'
- 9x5y+42x"/-117xJy' 9x5y-27x"/+ 27xJy'
o
3(x2-3xyy =3x"-18xJy+27x2/
3(x2 - 3xy Y (5/)= 15x"/- 80xJy' + 135x2/ 3(x2 - 3xy )(5/ Y = 75x2/ - 225xy5
(sir = 12S/
12a8 - 24a6 + 60a" -48a2 + 64 -12a8 + 24a6 - 60a" + 48a2 - 64
3(a"Y =3a8
3(a" y (- a2)= - 3alO 3(a" )(- a2 t = 3a8
(_a2)' =_a6
12 -a
o
3(a"-a2t =3a8-6a6+3a" 3(a" - a2 t (4)= 12a8 - 24a6 + 12a" 3 (a" - a2 )(4)2 = 48a
" - 48a2
(4)3= 64
14. V a9 - 9a8x+ 27a7 x2 _21a6xJ - 36a5x" + 54a"x5 + 12aJx6 - 36a2x7 + 8x9 aJ -
3a2x+2xJ
_ a9 (aJ)' = 3a6
- 9a8x+ 27a7 x2 - 21a6xJ 3(aJ)'(-3a2x)=- 9a8x
9a8x-27a7 x2 + 27a6xJ 3(aJ)(_ 3a2xY = 27a7 x2
6a6xJ_36a5x" + 54a"x5 + 12aJx6_36a2x7 +8x9 (-3a2x)' =_27a6xJ
_ 6a6xJ + 36a5x" -54a"x5 _12aJx6 + 36a2x7 _ 8x9
o
3(a3-3a2xt =3a6-18a5x+27a"x2 3(a3 - 3a2xt (2x3)= 6a6x3 - 36a5x" + 54a"x5 3(a3 -
3a2x) (2x3Y = 12a3i - 36a2x7
(2x3)' = 8x9
3a7-9a6+12a5-12a4+10a3 -3a7 +6a6- 6a5 + 3a4 _ a3
o
3(a3t = 3a6
3(a3t (_a2)=_3aS 3(a3)(- a2 y = 3a 7
( 2)3 6
-a =-a
3(a3_a2Y =3a6-6a5+3a4 3(a3 - a2 y (a)= 3a 7 - 6a6 + 3a5 3(a3 _ a2 )(a2)= 3a5 _ 3
a4 (a3)= a3
3(a3-a2+at =3a6+3a4+3a2-6a5+6a4-6a3 3(a3 - a2 +aY (-I)=-3a6 +6a5 - 9a4 +6a3 -3a2
3(a3-a2+a)(-IY =3a3-3a2+3a
(-1)' =-1
16. 3 x9 -12x8 + 54x' -121x6 + 180x5 - 228x4 + 179x3 -l44x' +54x- 27
I
9 -x
x3 -4x' + 2x-3
( 3)' 6 (3)' ( ') 8
x =3x 3 x -4x =-12x
3(x3)(-4x')' = 48x' (-4x')' =-64x6
-12x8 + 54x' -121x6 12x8 -48x' + 64x6
6x' -57x6 + 180x5 -228x4 + 179x3 3(x3 -4x')' =3x6 -24x5 + 48x4
-6x' +48x6-108x5+ 48x4 - 8x3 3(x3-4x't(2x)=6x' -48x6+96x5
- 9x6 +72x5 -180x4+171x3 -l44x' +54x-27 3(x3-4x')(2x)'=12x5-48x4
9x6 -72x5 +180x4-171x3 + 144x' -54x+27 (2X)3=8x3
o
3(x3 -4x' + 2x)' = 3x6 + 48x4 + 12x' - 24x5 + 12x4 - 48x3
3(x3 - 4x' + 2x)' (- 3)= - 9x6 -144x4 - 36x' + 72x5 - 36x4 + 144x3 3(x3 - 4x' +
2x)(- 3)' = 27x3 -lü8x' + 54x
(- 3)' = - 27
EJERCICIO 217
X6 X5 5x4 55x3 20x2
3 ---+----+---4x+8
1. 8 4 3 27 3
8
x5 5x4 55x3
--+----
4 3 27
x X x3
--- + -
4 6 27
3x4 3 20x2
2 - 2x +-3--4x+8
3x4 3 20x2
-- + 2x ---+4x-8
2 3
o
2.
9 3a8 a7 7a6 a5 a4 a3 a +-----+-+---
2 4 8 12 6 27
2 4 8
2 4 8
5 4 3
7 6 a a a
a + a 12 6 27
o
x2 x ---+2 2 3
3( ~r 3;4
3( ~r (-~)=- : 3( ~J(-~r = :4
(-~r =- ~~
x3 9x2 60 36 8
3 ---+15x-45+---+-
3. 8 4 X x2 x3
x3
8
9x2 --+15x-45 4
9x2 27x ---+27 4 2
3x 60 36 8 --18+---+-
2 x x2 x3
3x 60 36 8
--+18--+---
2 x x2 x3
o
4.
a 3a2 15a 5 15b 3h2 bJ
J + + +_
8bJ 4b2 8b 2 8a 4a2 8aJ
aJ 8bJ
3a2 15a 5
--+---
4b2 8b 2
3a2 3a ---+ 1 4b2 2b
3a 3 15b 3h2 bJ 8b -"2+ g;- 4a2 + 8aJ
3a 3 15b 3b2 bJ
--+---+---
8b 2 8a 4a2 8aJ
o
x 2 2 x
( )2 3 2
3 ~ =-¡-
3(~r (-3)=- 9:2
(x)( )2 27x
3 - -3 =-
2 2
(- 3)' = - 27
( )2 3 2
3 ~-3 =-¡--9x+27
(X )2 (2) 3x 54
3 "2-3 -:; =2-18+~
a b
2b 2a
(a)2 3a2
3 2b = 4b2
( )2 3 2
3 ~ (-1)=-~
2b 4b2
(a)()23a
3 - -1 =-
2b 2b
(-1)'=-1
8aJ 2a2 a 13 x x xJ
27xJ - 3x2 + 18x + 24 - 36a - 6a2 - 27aJ 5.
2a2 a 13
3x2 18x 24
2a2 a 1 3x2 - 2x +"8
4a 2 x X xJ
- 9x +"3- 36a - 6a2 - 27aJ
4a2x x xJ
g:;-"3+ ~+ &;2+ z:¡;;J
O
6.
8a3 4a2 3a 27b 27b2 27b3
3 --+-+-+4+-+--+--
27b3 3h2 b 8a 16a2 64a3
8a3
27b3
4a2 3a 3h2 +b+4
4a2 2a
-3h2-b-1
a 27b 27b2 27b3 ¡;+3+-g;;-+ 16a2 + 64a3
a 27b 27b2 27b3
---3-----, ---3
b 8a 16a- 64a
o
2a 1 x 3x 2 3a
( 2a)2 4a2
3- =-,
3x 3x-
2a 3h 3h 4a
( 2a)2 4a2
3- 3h - 3h2
(2)2 4 2
3; (1)= ;2
( 2a) ()2 2a
3 - 1 =-
3h b
(1)3 = 1
(2a )2 4a2 4a
3 -+1 =-+-+3
3h 3h2 b
(2a )2 (3b) a 9b
3 -+1 - =-+3+-
3h 4a b 4a
(2a )(3h)2 9b 27b2
3 -+ 1 - =-+--,
3h 4a 8a 16a-
( 3b)3 = 27b:
4a 64a
EJERCICIO 218
1
1. x3=(X
3
2. m5=~
3
3·4a4=4W
1
4. xy2 = x..¡y
4 3
5. a5b2 = ~.[ti
=~M =b~.Jb
3 1 1
6. x2 y4 Z5 =N VY ifZ
= ¡;¡-; VY ifZ =xJX VY ifZ
4 S
7. 2a5b2 =2 ~!ti
=2~~b2b2b =2b2 ~.Jb
EJERCICIO 219
1. a2b-3=~ b3
2. 3X-s=~ XS
1
a-4b-2 _ 1 1
3. ---1 =-4-
a4b2 a.Jb
1
3x-2i' =_3_=_3_
4. x"y~ x" VY
1
m 2 -s 1
5. n =-1-
m2nS
a2b-1 _ a2c 6. cb
4x"i~ = 4x"
7. 3
yS
2 4 2
8. 3x7y5Z7=3W WW
1 s 7
9. a4b4c4=~
=:¡Jab4bc4c3 =bc:¡Jabc3
8
10. Bmn' =Bmif;f"
= BmVn'n'n2 =Bmn2 W
7 s
11. 4a2b'cs =4a2WV;S
=4a2 Vb3b3b V;S =4a2b2 ifb V;S
2 3 4
12. 5m5n5x5 =5~Mn'X4
s
13. #=é-
9. x"
2x-2 2
3
10. x-1y-S =3xy
11. 2a-2b-3 2a4c 2a2c
a-4c-1 = a2b3 =~
12. X-1y2z-3 a2bsc8
a-2b-sc-8 xy2z'
1 1
3m-4n 2 3Mn -2d ~
13. 3n2
Bm-3n-4 Bm4 Bm
1 .1. 2
14. 4a2 4a2a4c'
2 7b2
7a-4b2c-'
9 2
4a2c'
-7tj2
2
a2m3mSn-4d 2
- a2m8n'
19. 3# # =3X~ y~
21. 5 sí.2.:3=9 .2. -'- -"-
a:yx y z" =5axs yS ZS
1
a 2 x-2
16. 3a3x"y1
y
1 3a3a2x"x2
y
--7-
3a2x4
17.
19.
3a2mn
1 3
a-3m-2n-4
1 3
3a2a3mm2nn4
3 7 =3aSm2n4
2 1
x-:Jy -¡
20. 1
x2yZ-Z
EJERCICIO 220
4mrt 3. x'
~
3e 3 3
5. 7 2
7e3
1
2x4 2
6. Sy" ----
1
SX-4y"
m-3 1
7. --=--
S snf
3a-2b3 3
8. -e-4-= a2e4b-3
EJERCICIO 221
-~ 1 1
1. x 2=_=_
) ¡;
1
_1 __ a2 la
2. a -~ b~ - if¡j = if¡j
sa%b-L s¡[;5 _ s¡[;5
3. b~ - ifb
3x-1 3 3 3
4. x-~ = x-~ x = x~ = ¡;
1
6. --1 = 4 3r;
4x3 "'X
11.
1
3x-1i2 3 3
-y--=--1 =--7
xyy2 xy2
12.
2
13. _=2a-1 a
3a -2
14. tj2=3ab
x2y
15. ---=2=X2ff =x"y y
4 ~
-1-=4x2y2 16. --
x2y"
~
3a 2 3
8. --1-=-3-
x4 a2 if; 3
~if;
3 alaif;
1 a 2
9. 4a2 4a2a2
( a _~)3
12. l
1 1
a ~ = ..¡;¡ = a"¡;;
3
3aSx'y4
7
3as
17. 3
7x-si4
1 4 ~
18. ---1 =a b3 a-4b-3
23.
1 m-2n-1x-2
m-4n-Sx-2
( 2 )-2 4
13. x3 =x-3
1 ----;¡=3"= 3/ x3 'Vx~x X'\lX
14. (~r~ = a~; = b;
b 2 a2
.JlJb b.,fh = .¡;¡; = a"¡;;
( -~)~ ~ 1 1
15 x 2 =x-6 =---
. 1 -6/
- '\Ix x6
~ -~ 1
16. va - =a 2 =-3
a2
2 2
- - 2 5
a3 a3 --
18 --=-s =a3 x2
. ¡;¡s x-2
2 2 3
3 if;;f 3m3 3m3 n4
19. 5~ = 5n-¡ =-5-
3
-~A~ b-4 1
20. a s ~b-3 =~= ~ ~
aS aSb4
1 3
21. x"R =x"X-2=X2
2 4
3x-3 3y2 3}'" 23. r::=¡ = ~ =----y-
vy x3 x3
-~ -~ 1
.¡;;¡¡ if;F3 =m 2n 3 =-1-
24. m2n
25. 16L.J(UY
= ~(16)2 (16) = 16M = 64
2
26. 83 =~ =~ =4
3 1 ~
27. 814 =812 814
=.J81 V81 =9·3=27
-~ 1
28.9 2 =-S
92 1
J95
1 1 1
= J92929 = 81./9 = 243
29. (-27)% =V(-27)'
=:¡j-27 :¡j-27 =-3·-3=9
30. (- 32)~ = V(- 32)' =s..}-32 s..}-32
=-2·-2=4
1 1
31. 49 2 r;;;::¡
.J493 ,,492.[49
1 1
49·7 343
(4)% P
32. "9 = #
J42424 = J92929 16../4
=81.J9
16·2 32
----
81·3 243
1 1
33. (~)-3 = 2~3
27 83
_ ifii =Ll.l -VS 2 2
1
(~)-5 _ 243'
35. 243 - ~
32'
= V243 =~=H
V32 2 -
(_ 27)-% = 64%,
36. 64 :o
-273
V642
= V(-27)' V64V64 = :¡j-27 :¡j-27
4-4 16 7
-----1-
= -3.-3- 9 - 9
37 _1_=93 = 729 . 9-3
, ,
(16)-4 814
38. - =-,
81 164
V8f'V81 = W1V16
81·3 243 19
=--=-=7"
16·2 32 -
2
( ~)-5 _ 243'
39. - 243 - ~
-32'
V243V243 s..}-32 s..}-32
=~=~=2i -2·-2 4
3
~ (25)-2
40. (2tf2 = 9
92
=-3
252
#.J9 g .fi5
9·3 27 25·5-125
1
~ (81)-4
41. (5i6T4 = 16
42. 8~.4L~~.J42J4
=2·2-4·2=32
~ -~ J95 43. 92.27 3 = __
if27
_._./929_2_./92_92_./9_9 __ - 81 3
1 ~
44. 243-5.1287
if1283 7J128 7J128 7J128
~ 3
= 2·2·2 =~=2i 3 3
EJERCICIO 222
1
1. a-2+a-1b2 +xo para a=3 b=4 1
=3-2+3-1.42 +xo
=...2...+ 1.J4 +1
32 3
=..!.+~+1= 1+6+9 =~=1L
9 3 9 9 9
1 1
2. 3x -2 + x2y-3 + xOy3 para x= 4 y= 1
1 1
= 3(4)2 + 42 (It3 + 1 (1)3
3 3 3+34 37 1
= 1.+16+1=-+17=--=-=18."
,,4 2 2 2 -
-4 1 3
3 2a-3b+!.!.-+a2b-¡ para a=4 b=16
. b-1
4-4 ~ _2
=2(4)-3 .16+-+42.164 16-1
2 16 ..J4
= 4'.16+ 44 + V(16)2 .16
1 1 2 1 1 1 8+ 1 + 4 13
=-+-+-1--=-+-+- =---=-
2 16 162:Vi6 2 16 4 16 16
3
x4 ~ ~ x
4. ---=2+x 2y 3-XO/+4 para x=16 y=8
y -
y3
164 _~ _~ 16
=-+162'83-16°'8°+-
8 -2 <\
83
4~ 4¡';: 2 1 16
='\116- ,,16·8 + ¡,;: 3/n-1+ v( )
,,16 \18 3 83 8
1 16 1
=4·2·64+--1+ 3/n=512+--1+1
4·2 8\18 8
=512t
o -3 3
X Y ° -_?
5 -+-+2x +x4y - para x=81 y=3
. x-1 yO
1 3-3 2
=--+-+2(1)+814.3-2
81-1 1
1 ;J812 V81
=81+-+2+----
33 32
=83+~+~=83+~+3= 86+~=86..l..
27 9 27 27 27
~ ~ ~ ~ 1
6. a2x3+a 2X 3+-1-+3xo para a=16 x=8
a -¡x-1
1 1 ~ 1
=162,83+16-2,8-3+ 1 +3(1)
16-¡ .8-1
1
=-56 VS+ ¡,;: 3/n+V16·8+3 ,,16 \18
1 1 1
=8+-+ 16+3=27+-=27g
4·2 8
-2 -2 t
7 !.!.-+ 3a-1b2e-3 __ a_+ b¡ + eO
. b-1 ~
b2e-1
para b=16 e=2 a=3
3-2 3-2 ~
= ----:[+ 3(3r1 .162 (2r3 - -1--+ 164 + 1
16 162.T1
= 16 +~. 256 __ 2_+V16+ 1 32 3 23 32-56
16 1
=-+32--+2+ 1
9 18
16 1 32+ 630-1 661 13
=-+35--= --=3618
9 18 18 18
XO 2 ~ x-z
8 _+X3-y5+_+yO parax=8 y=32
. 3/ y-l
1 2 8-2
= -+ 83 - 325 + --+ 1
3(1) 3T1
=~+V(23)' -V32+ ~; +1
1? 1 1 1 2+ 18+ 3 23 5
='3+2--2+'2+1='3+3+'2= 6 =6=36
~ 1 ~ 1
9. a-3 --4 +aob- if;.b5 ------z para a=27 b=243
-- --
b 5 a 3
_~ 1 ~ 1
= 27 3 - --4 + (l) 243- V27. 2435 - --2
-- --
243 5 27 3
= Jz:¡-V(35r +243-3 V(35)' - V(33)'
1 4 ()"
=--3 +243-33 --3-
3
1 1 1
='3+ 162- 27- 9='3+ 126= 126,
EJERCICIO 223
2 3 2 3 1
7·3m'm-'=3m'-'=3m-'
3 1 3 1 1
8. 2a4a-2 =2aT2 =2a4
1 1 7
9. x-2x-' =x-2-, =x-'
-~ 2-~ ±
10. 3rtn 3 =3n 3 =3n3
1 1 1 1 3
5. x2 x4 =x2+¡ =x4
1 -2-~ _~
11·4a-2a-2=4a 2=4a 2
12. a-1b-2ab2 =a-1+1b-2+2 =aobo =1
3 1 3 1 4
6. a4a4 =a4+4 =a4 =a
EJERCICIO 224
1. a-4 +3a-2 +2 a-4_a-2 +1
a-s +3a-6 +2a-4
- a-6 -3a-4 -2a-2 a-4 +3a-2 +2
2. x"-1+x-2 x"+2-x-2
~-x2+1 2x"-2+2x-2
-1 + x-2 _x-4
3 1 1
4. 2a4 -a2 +2a4
~ ~
5. a3 - 2 +2a 3
1 1
a4 + 1 -a 4
~ -~
3a3 -6+6a 3
3 1
2a -a4 +2a2
2 4
+ 1 -2a 3 +2a 3
2 4
-- --
-4a 3 +8a 3 -8a-2
1 1 3
x4 +2x-4 -x-4
3 1 1
2a4 - a2 +2a4
1 1
-2a2 +a4-2
1 1 1 1
13. x-3y2 x-2i2 =X-3-2y2-2 =x-s/ =x-s
1 1 1 1
14. 3a2b2 2a-2b-2 =3.2a2-2b2-2 =6aobo =6
1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 4
16. a-2b4a2b4 =a-2+2b4+4 =aOb4 =b
2112 2112 33
17. m-'n'm-'n' =m-'-'n'+' =m-'n' =m-1n
3 3 5 5
18. 2a-1b4 ab-2 =2a-1+1b4-2 =2aob-4 =2b-4
~ 1
3. x+2x3 + x3
1 1
x3 - 2 +x 3
4 ~
x3 +2x+ x3
~ 1
-2x-4x3 -2x3
~ 1
x3 +2x3 +1
4 ~
x3 -2x3 +1
3 1 1
6. x4 +2x4 -x-4
1 1
x2-2 +x-2
3 1 1
-2x4 -4x4 +2x-4
~ 3a3 -5
3 1 1
2a + a4 - a2 +3a4 -2
7. a2b-1+a+b
a-2b-2 _a-3b-1 +a-4
b-3+a-1b-2 +a-2b-1
_a-1b-2 _a-2b-1 _a-3 a-2b-1 +a-3+a-4b
5 1 1 3
x4 -4x4 +4x-4 -x-4
8. X-1y1 +X-3y3+X-SyS X-3y2_x-Sy4 +X-7y6
X-4y3 +x-6ys +X-Sy7 _x-6yS_x-Sy7 _X-10y9
+X-Sy7 +X-10y9 +X-12y11
3 1 1
9. a4b-3+a4b-2_a-4b-1
1 _~
a2b-1-2+3a 2b
5 3 ~
a4b-4+ a4b-3_a4b-2
3 1 _~
-2a4b-3 -2a4b-2 +2a 4b-1
1 1 _~
3a4b-2 +3a-4b-1-3a 4
5 3
a4b-4 -a4b-3
1 1
10. a-1 +2a-2b-2 +2b-1
1 1
a-1_ a-2b-2 +b-1
1 _~
+5a-4b-1-3a 4
3 1
a-2 +2a-2b-2 +2a-1b-1
3 1 1 3
_ a 2b 2 -2a-1b-1-2a-2b 2
1 3
+ a-1b-1 +2a-2b-2 +2b-2
3 1
a-2+ a-2b-2 +a-1b-1
3 1 ~ ~
11. 4x"-x2y2 +xy-x2y2
1 1
x2 + y2
5 1 3 ~
4x2 -x"y2 +X2y-xy2
1 3 3 ~
4x" y2 - x2 y+ xy2 - x2 y2
5 ~
4x2 +3x2y2
1 2 2 1
12. x-2a3x3+a3x3-3a
4 2 2 ~
x3 +3a3 x3 +2a3 x
1
-x2y2
7 1 2 5 i
x3 -2a3x2+ a3x3 -3ax3
25 4 ± ~~
+3a3 x3 -6ax3 +3a3 x-9a3 x3
1 2 5 ± ±
+2a3 x2 -4a3 x3 +2ax3 -6a3 x
7 x3
13. 5a2-3a+4-2a-1 3a+2-5a-1
15a3-9a2 +12a-6
1 Da2 - 6a + 8 - 4a-1
-25a+ 15-2Da-1 + 1Da-2
15a3 + a2 -19a+17-24a-1+1Da-2
4 4 5 2
- 7ax3 -3a3 x- 9a3 x3
14. 2x-3+x-1+4x-2
x-1_2x-2+x-3
2-3x-1 + x-2 +4x-3
-4x-1 +6x-2 -2x-3 -8x-4 +2x-2-3x-3+ x-4+4x-5
2- 7x-1 +9x-2 - x-3 - 7x-4 +4x-5
1 1 _~ ~
15. m-m2n2 +n-m 2n2
1 1 _~
m2 +n2 +m 2n
3 1 ~ ~
m2 -mn2 +m2n-n2
1 1 3 ~
+mn2 -m2n+n2 -m-2d
1 3 1 ~
- - -- 2 -1 2
+m2n -n2 +m 2n - m n
3 m2
1 3
+m2n-n2
3 ~ 1
-
16. aS +2a5-a 5
2 2
-2+a5-a 5
3 1 1
-2aS -4a5 +2a 5
3 1
+2a5 - a5 +a
1 1 3
a5 -2a 5 +a 5
-
1 3
-6a5 +a+a 5
2 1
17. m+3m3+2m3
1 ~
- 3+2m 3
2-2m
2 ~
2m+6m3+4m3
2 1
-2m3 -6m3-4
1 _~
+2m3+6+4m 3
~ 2m+4m3
1 +2+4m 3
18.
3 3 1 1 1
X-4y2 +3x-4y-x4y2
5 1 3 _~_-.!
X-4y2 -3x-4 -x 4y 2
3 3 [2y2+3x-2y2 _ [1y
3 3 1 1
-3x-2 y2 -9[1y+3x-2 y2
1 1
- x-1y _ 3x 2 y2 +1
+1
19. x"y1 +5x"y3 +2.0y5 x-3/, _ x-2y+3x-1y1
x-1y2+5+2xy2
- 1-5xy2 -2x"y4
+3xy2 +15x"y4 +6x"y6
x-1y2+4 +13x"y4+6x3y-6
EJERCICIO 225
1. a27a-2=a2-G2~a2+2=a4
2. X-3 7 x" =X-3-2 =X-5
4. a27a5=a2-5=a-3
5. X-37X-7 =X-3-G7~X-3+7 =.0
1 ~-1-~
6. a27a=a2 =a 2
2 1 2 (1) 2 1 3
8. a 5 7 a -5 = a 5- -5 = a 5+5 = a 5
3 1 3 1 5
9. m-¡ 7m2 =m-¡-2 =m-¡
~ ~ 1 ~
10. a37a=a3- =a-3
11. 4x~ 72x-~ =~)-Ht2xH =2)
2
EJERCICIO 226
1. x-8+2x-6 + x-2 +21 X-4_x-2+1
_X-8+X-6 _ x-4 x-4+3x-2+2
3x-6 _ x-4 + x-2
-3x-6 +3x-4 -3x-2
2x-4 -2x-2 +2 -2x-4 +2x-2-2
2 1 4 3
20. a-'b2 +2a-'b-a-2b2
2 1 2 1
3a3b 2 +1+a 3b2
2 1 4
3+6a 3b2 -3a 3b
2 1 4 3
+ a-'b2 +2a-'b-a-2b2
4 3 8
a 'b+2a-2b2 -a-'b2
2 1 3+7a 3b2
3 8
+a-2b2 -a-'b2
7 ( 7) 7 5
12. a-3 7 a -¡ = a -3- -¡ = a -3+¡ = a-¡
~ ~ ~-1 ~-1 -~-~
14. a2b37ab=a2 b3 =a 2b 3
3313313353 17. m4n 4 -7-m-2n4 =m4+2n-¡-¡ =m4n-2
1 1 1 1 7
19. a'b7a-4b-3=a'+4b1+3=a12b4
2.
4 ~
a3 -2a3
+1
~ 1
a+2a3 +a3
4 ~
-a3 -2a- a3
1 1
- --
a3 -2+a 3
~ -2a-3a3
~ 1
+2a+4a3 +2a3
~ 1
a3 +2a3 +1
~ 1
-a3 -2a3-1
3.
m4 +rrf -2+3m-2 _m-41 rrf -1+m-2
_m4 +rrf -1 rrf +2-m-2
2rrf-3+3m-2
-2rrf +2-2m-2
3 1 1
4. 2x+ x4 - x2 +3x4 -2
1 1
- --
x4 +1-x 4
3 1
-2x-2x4 +2x2
3 1 1
- - -
2x4 -X2 +2x4
3 1 1
- - -
X4 +X2 +3x4
-1 +m-2_m-4 +1_m-2+m-4
3 1 1
- - -
+ x4 +x2 - x4
1 1
2x2 +2x4-2
1 1
-2x2 -2x4 +2
~
5. 3m3-5
4
+10m '-8m-2
-~ _±
3+m 3-4m 3
6.
1 1 3
-4a4 +4a 4 -a 4
1 1
- --
a2 -2+a 2
-3m3 -1+4m 3
~ 2
m3 -2+2m 3
2 4
-6+4m 3 +10m 3
S 3 1
- - -
-a4 +2a4 -a4
3 1 1
a¡ +2a¡ -a-¡
2 4
+6+2m 3 - 8m 3
~ 1 1
2a4 -5a4 +4a 4
2 4
6m-' + 2m-' -8m-2
3 1 1
-2a¡ +4a¡ -2a-¡
2 4
-6m-' -2m-' +8m-2
1 1 3
- -- --
- a4 + 2a 4 -a 4
1 1 3
+ a¡ - 2a-¡ +a-¡
7. 4x-s-7x-4- x-3 +9X-2-7X-1+214X-2+X-1-3+2X
-4x-s- x-4 +3x-3-2x-2 x-3 -2x-2+x-1
-8x-4+2x-3 +7x-2-7x-1 8x-4 +2x-3 -6x-2 +4x-1
4x-3 + x-2 -3x-1 +2 - 4x-3 - x-2 +3x-1-2
+a-4b-31 a-7b-6_a-5b-4+a-3b-2 a-5b-5 + a-3b-3 + a-1b-1
a-lOb-9
_a-lOb-9 +a-8b-7 _a-6b-5
a-8b-7 _a-6b-5+a-4b-3 _a-8b-7 +a-6b-5_a-4b-3
+n-31 m-4 _m-3n-1 +m-2n-2 n+m+m"n-1
m-3
_m-3 +m-2n-1_m-1n-2
m-2n-1_m-1n-2 +n-3 _m-2n-1 +m-1n-2 _n-3
10. 15a3 + a2 -19a+ 17 -24a-1 + 1 oa-213a+2-5a-1
-15a3 -1 Oa2 +25a 5a2 -3a+4-2a-1
- 9a2 + 6a+17
+ 9a2+ 6a-15
12a+ 2-24a-1 -12a- 8+20a-1
- 6 - 4a-1+10a-2
+ 6 + 4a-1-10a-2
11.
1 1
éb-1-2+3a-2b
5 3 1
_a4b-4 +2a4b-3 -3a4b-2
3 1 1
a4b-3 +a4b-2 _a-4b-1
3 1 1
a4b-3 -3a4b-2+5a-4b-1
3 1 1
_a4b-3 +2a4b-2-3a-4b-1
1 1 3
- a4b-2 +2a-4b-1-3a-4
1 1 3
+ a4b-2 -2a-4b-1 +3a-4
3 1
12. X-2+x-2i2 +X-1y1
3 1
-X-2+x-2i2 _X-1y1
1 1
X-1 +2x-2 i2 +2y1
3 1
2x 2y 2
3 1 1 3
-2x-2 i2 +2X-1y1_2x-2 i2
1 3
2X-1y1_2x-2 i2 +2y2
1 3
_2X-1y1 +2x-2 i2 _2y2
13.
1 - 6ms
14.
~ 2x+4x3
1 +2+4x 3
3 1 1
mS +2mS-m s
3 +m s
m
~ 1
-m-2mS+ mS
2 2
- --
mS -2-m s
2 1
-2x-6x3 -4x'
3 1
-2mS-5mS
2 1
-2X' -4x' +2
3 1 1
2mS +4ms -2m-s
2 1
+2x' +6x' +4
1 1 3
-mS - 2m-s +m-s
1 1 3
+mS + 2m-s -m-s
1 1
- --
2x3 +6+4x 3
1 1
-2x' -6-4x-'
S 1
15. 4x2 +3x2y2
1
-x2/
1 1
x2 + y2
S 1
-4x2 _4x2y2
3 1 1 3
4x" _x2y2 -xy-x2 y2
1 _ x2y2
1
+ x"y2 -x2y
-x2y
~ ~
+X2y-xy2
3 1
-xy2_X2/
3 1
+xy2+X2/
7 16. x3
4 4 5 2
-7ax' -3a' x-9a3 x3
4 1 2 2
x' +2a' x+3a3 x3
7 1 ~ ~
- x' -2a' x" -3a3 x3
1 2 2 1
- - --
x-2a3 x3 +a3 x3 -3a
1 2 5 ~
-2a' x" -3a3 x3 -7ax3
1 2 5 i
+2a' x" +4a3 x3 +6ax3
2 5 4 4
a' x' - ax' -3a' x
2 5 4 4
-a' x' -2ax' -3a' x
4 4 5 2
-3ax' -6a' x-9a3 x3
4 4 5 2
+3ax' +6a' x+9a3 x3
2 1
x+3x' +2x'
17.
3 1 ~
a2 +a2b-b2
~ 1 1
-a2 -ab2 -a2b
1 ~
-ab2 -b2
1 1 ~
+ab2 +a2b+b2
1 a2b
1 3 1
-a"b-b" -a-"b2
3 1 5
-b" -a-"b2 _a-lb"
3 1 5
+b" +a-"b2 + a-lb"
18.
3 3 -m-2n2-3m-2n2+ m-1n
3 3
- 3m -2n2 -lOm-1n
3 3 1 1
+3m-2n2 + 9m-1n-3m-2n2
1 1
- m-1n -3m-2n2+1
1 1
+ m-1n +3m 2n2-1
19.
x-Y+4 +13x"y4+6x'y6
-x-y+1-3xy2
5-3xy2 + 13X2y4 -5+5xy2_15x"y4
2xy2 _2x2y-4 +6X3y6 -2xy2 +2x"y4 -6x'y6
20.
2 1 3+ 7a 3b2
3 8
+a-2b" -a-'b2
2 1
-3-a 3b2 -a 3b
2 1 4 3
6a 3b2 - a 3b + a-2b2
2 1 4 3
- 6a-'b2 -2a-'b -2a-2b2
4 3 8
-3a-'b _a-2b2 -a-'b2
4 3 8
+3a-'b +a-2b2 +a-'b2
J 1 1 1
a2 +b2 +a 2b
1 1 1 3
a-a2b2 +b-a 2b2
5 1 3 1 1
m -¡n 2 - 3m -¡ - m -¡n -2
I x-3y' - x-2y+3x-lyl x"yl +5x'y3 +2x4y5
j 2 1 2 1
3a3b 2 +1+a 3b2
2 1 4 3
a-'b2 +2a-'b-a-2b2
EJERCICIO 227
1 ( _1)2 -1·2 -2
. a =a =a
2. (a-2b-1 y = a-23 b-13 = a-6b-3
3. (a~r =a~2 =aLa3
4. ()) 3 = )3 =)
5. (m¡r =m¡2 =mLm~
6. (a-%r=a-%3=a-La-2
EJERCICIO 228
3 3 1 2
- - - -
=x2-2x4y3 + y3
1 1
=m-1 + 4ml-2 +4m2 =m-1 + 4m2 +4m2
4. (a-2b3-a3b-2t
= (a-2b3)2 _ 2(a-2b3)(a3b -2)+ (a3b _2)2 = a -4 b6 _ 2a -2+3b3-2 + a6b-4
= a-4b6 - 2ab+ a6b-4
3 3
= a-2 _ 6a-1b -¡ + 9b-2
1 =a-4+2a-2b2+b
9. (a-3b-1t =a-34b-14=a-12b-4
10. ()y ~r=)6y ~6=xqy-Lx4y-3
11. (3a~b-3r =35)\-35=243a~b-15=243a2b-15
12. (2m-~n-ir =23m-~\+ = Sm-%n-LSm-%n-I
3 3 1
=x2 -2x¡y -2 + y-l
1 1 1
= m -4n 2 _ 2m -2+2n¡-1 + mn-2
1 3 3
=m-4n2 - 2m -2n -¡ + mn-2
(1 1)3
9·la3+b3
2 1 1 2
=a+3a3b3 +3a3b3 +b
10. (W - 3y-l r
4 2
= x2 _ 9x3 y-l +27x3 y-2 _ 27y-3
1 2 4
= X-S -4x-6y -3 + 6x-4y -3 _4x-2y-1 + y-3
5 4 3 3 2 9 1 15
= X 3 + Sx 3 y -4 + lOxy -z + lOx 3 y -4 + Sx 3 y - 3 + y -4
5 1 3 2 1 4 5
=mZ -Sm2n3 + lOmZn3 -lOmn+SmZn3 - n3
18. {az -Z.¡;;;r
= (azt - 6(aZr (zm~)+ lS(aZr (zm~ r -ZO(aZf (zm~ J + lS(azy (zm~ r -6(aZ)( Zm~ J
+ (zm~ r
1 3 5
= a1Z -lZalOmz + 60a8m-160a6mz + Z40a4mZ -l92azmz + 64m3
1 1 3 5
= X -15 + Sx -12y4 + lOx -9 yZ + lOx -6y4 + Sx -3y + y4
20. (a-Z+3a-1+ZY =(a-zy + (3a-1Y +(Z)Z +Z(a-Z)(3a-1)+Z(a-z)(Z)+Z (3a-1)(Z)
= a-4 + 9a-z + 4+ 6a-3 +4a-z + lZa-1 = a-4 + 6a-3 + 13a-z + lZa-1 +4
1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1
= x+ XZ +4x -Z - Zx4 +4x4 -4= X - Zx4 + XZ +4x4 -4+4x-z
1 1 1 1
=a-1+9+a+6a-Z +Z+6aZ =a+6aZ +11+6a-Z +a-1
3 7 3 5 7 3 5
=m2 + 4m2 + 9m+4m4 - 6m2 -12m4 =m2 +4m4 - 2m2 -12m4 + 9m
2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
= ab-' + 4+ a-lb' -4a2b-' + 2-4a -lb' = ab-' - 4a2b-' + 6- 4a-lb' + a-lb'
25. ()+)-lr =()r +()r +(-lY +3()r())+3()r (-1)+3()r())+3()r (-1) +3(-lY() )+3(-l
Y() )+6())( ))(-1)
3 3 5 1 1 1 3 3 5 3 1
-- - - - - -- - --
= x2 + x' -1 + 3x' - 3x+ 3x- 3x2 + 3x2 + 3x' - 6x' = x2 + 3x' - 5x' + 3x' -1
26. (J -2+a -%r =( Jr + (-2f +( a -%r +3( Jr (-2)+3( Jr (a -%)+3(-2Y (a%)+3(-2Y
(a -%) +3( a -%r (J)+3( a-%r (-2)+6( J}-2)( a-%)
2 2 2 2
= a2 -8+ a-2 -6a' +3a' + 12a3 + 12a -3 +3a -3 -6a -3 -12
2 2.
= a2 -6a3 + 15a3 - 20+ 15a -3 -6a -3 + a-2
27. (m~ +2m~+m~ r =( m~ r +( 2m~ r + (m~ r +3( m~ r( 2m~ )+3( m~ r( m~ )+3( 2m~r
( m~) + 3 ( 2m ~ r ( m ~ ) + 3 ( m ~ r ( m ~ ) + 3 ( m ~ r ( 2m ~ ) + 6 ( m ~ J(
2m ~ ) ( m ~ )
1 3 2 5 5 7 7
- - - - - - - -
=m2 + 8m+ m2 +6m3 + 3m6 + 12m6 + 12m6 + 3m6 +6m3 + 12m
3 7 5 2 1
- - - - - -
=m2 +6m3 +15m6 +20m+15m6 +6m3 +m2
EJERCICIO 229
1.~ x-4+6x-3+13x-2+12x-l+4 x-2+3x-l+2
+-----------
_x-4 (2X-2+3x-l)(3x-l)=6x-3+9x-2
--
+ 6x-3 + 13x-2
-6x-3- 9x-2 (2x-2+6x-l+2)(2)
4x-2+12x-l+4 =4x-2+12x-l+4
-4x-2-12x-1-4
-m
~ -6m2 - 9
~ -6a+25a3
2 +6a- a3
-24a3 +8a3 -16
2 -a
7 3
+4a'¡ -2a2
3 5
-6a2-12a'¡+9a
3 5
+6a2+12a'¡-9a
2 =-6a+a3
=24a3 - 8a3 + 16
3 j
a+2a'¡ -3a2
7 3
=4a'¡+4a2
3 5
=-6a2 -12a'¡ +9a
l l l l
m2n-3 -2+m-2n3
2 -mn 3
l l 2
2-4m-2n3+m-1n3
l l 2
-2 +4m-2n3 _m-1n3
l l 2
=2 -4m-2n3 +m-1n3
3 2
+8a5 -16a5
2 l
6a5+24a5+9
3 1
9a-2 - 36a -2 + 63a-1-54a -2 + 27
-3
-a
5 3
- 6a -2 + 21a-2 -44a-2
5 3
+ 6a-2 -12a-2+ 8a-2
3 1
- 9a-2 + 36a -2 - 63a-1 + 54a -2 - 27
( 1 )2 3
3 a-1_ 2a -2 (3)= 9a-2 - 36a -2 + 36a-1
3(a-1-2a-~ }3)2=27a-1 -54a-~
(3)3 = 27
3()r=3) 3()r (-2)=-6) 3()j(-2Y=12)
(-2f =-8
2 -X
.¡ ~
-6x3 +15x3 -20
.¡ ~
+6x3 -12x3 + 8
2 2"
3x3 -12+ 15x-j - 6x-j + x-2
2 2"
- 3xj + 12-15x-j + 6x-j - X-2
3 1 1 1
-5a"+3a"-1 2+a"-1
3 1
-3a -6a"+3a"-1
+3a" -5a"+3a"
~ 3
-3a"-3a- a"
3 1
+ 3a + 6a" - 3a" + 1
(-lf=-l
EJERCICIO 230
2 -2 -a x
2ax-1 19 3 9
2ax-1 1 +3 9
~ ? 4 2 -1 4 -? 4 -3 -4
2. x - + x + x - x + x
z -x
-4+2x-1+4x-Z +4 -4x-z
2 -1 - X
+4x-3_x-4
4 -a
-lOa+4+ 25a-2 +lOa - 25a-2
+4 -4
- 20a-3 +4a-4 + 20a-3 -4a-4
4
-5m2 + 28 + 5m2 - 25
3- 30m-2 + 9m-4 - 3+ 30m-2 - 9m-4
2ax-1 1 =---+-
3 9
( _1 2 -1) ( _1 )
2ax -"3+a x a x
=-lOa+ 25a-2
(2a2 -lOa-1 + 2a-2 )(2a-2) = 4- 20a-3 +4a-4
(m2 - 5)(- 5)= - 5m2 + 25 (m2 -10+ 3m-2 ) (3m-2 ) =3-3Om-2+9m-4
4xZy-Z 2xy-1 19 5x-1y 25x-zy'
------+----+---
5. 25 5 12 3 9
4xZy-Z
----
25
2xy-1 19
---+-
5 12
2xy-1 1 +----
5 4
4 5x-1y 25x-zy'
----+---
3 3 9
4 5x-1y 25x-zy'
--+------
3 3 9
a"
9
2ax _? ?
---2+a 3
2ax _? ?
+-3-+2-a -x-
7. ~ 9m4 + 30m2 +55+50m-2 + 25m-4 -9m4
+ 30m2 +55 - 30m2 - 25
30+ 50m -2 + 25m-4 _ 30- 50m -2 _ 25m-4
8.
4aZbZx-Zy-Z 49
2abx-1y-1 21 7xya-1b-1 49xzy'a-zb-z
----+ ------+ -----
7 20 5 25
4aZbZx-Zy-Z 49
2abx-1y-1 21
------.+-
7 20
2abx-1y-1 .!.
7 4
2xy-1 1 5x-1y
----+--
5 2 3
(4~-1 -~J( _~)=_ 2~-1 +¡
(4xy-1 5X-1YJ(5X-1YJ
---1+-- --
533
4 5x-1y 25x-zy'
=----+---
3 3 9
(2aZ -1 -1 J( -1)
-3-+2ax -a x -a x
2ax _? ?
=---2+a 3
3m2+5+5m-2
(6m2 + 5)(5) = 30m2 + 25
(6m2 + 10+ 5m-2)(5m-2) = 30+ 50m -2 + 25m-4
2abx-1y-1 1 7a-1b-1xy
--+----
7 2 5
(4abX;ly-1 ~J(-~)
2abx-1y-1 1 ----+-
7 4
(4abX;ly-1 1+ 7a-1;-lxy J (7a-1;-lxy J
4 7a-1b-1xy 49a-zb-zxzy'
=------+
5 5 25
4 7xya-1b-1 49xzy'a-zb-z
5 5 + 25
4 7xya-1b-1 49a-zb-zxzy'
--+----- -----
5 5 25
1 1 2
2- 4a -zb:; + a-lb:;
1 1 2
- 2+ 4a -zb:; - a-lb:;
10. ~ a4b4 + 6a2b2 + 7 - 6a-2b -2 + a-4b-4 _a4b4
+6a2b2+7 -6a2b2-9
_ 2-6a-2b-2+ a-4b-4 + 2+ 6a-2b -2 _ a-4b-4
1 1 2
2- 8x-z y -:; + x-ly-:;
1 1 2
_ 2+8x-ZY-:;-X-ly-:;
EJERCICIO 231
1. .J18 =..JN2 = 3.J2
2. 3.J48=3P =3.22../3=12../3
3. if16 =~2'23 =2 V2
4 2if128 =2~26 ·2 =2.22 V2 =2 V2
. 2 2 2
5. 21,[243 =2V34 ·3 =2·3 V3 =6 V3
6. ~50a2b = ~2'52 a2b = 5a..fib
1 1 1 1
aZb -:; - 2+ a -zb:;
1 1 2
=2- 4a -zb:; + a-lb:;
1 1 1 1
xZy:;-4+x-Zy-:;
1 1 2
= 2- 8x-Zy-:; + x-ly-:;
7. 3~81x"1 =3~g2.x"xl =3.gx¡JX=27X¡JX
8 2~108a5b7 =2 '22.32.3·a4ab6b
. 2 2"
=~.3a2b3 .,J3ab=3a2b3.,J3ab 2
9 ~~125mn" =~ '52.5mn6 =~n' '5rñ=3n' '5rñ
. 5 5" 5 ~~n ~~n
10. 2a~44a3b7c9 =2a~22.11a2ab6bc8c
= 2·2a· ab3c' .Jllabc =4a2b3c' = .J11abc
11.2~
=2 V23.2Jfy6y=2.2y2 V2x2y=4y2V2Jfy
12. ~ V27nin" 3
=~ V33nin6d =~d Vnid =2dVnid
3 3
13. 5a V160x7y" Z13 =5aV23 ·20x6xy"z12z
=5.2ax2yz4 ~./20xz=10aJfYz4 ~./20xz
14. V80a4b5d2 =V24 ·5a4b4bd2 =2abc3 ~
15. 3V5x"y14z16 =3V5x"y12rz16 =3Jfyz! V51
17. 2XY~ =2xy V26 ·2JfY"r
=2.22 xyr V2Jfr =8xy V2Jfr
18 ~h7a3m7 . 3a
1~ 3am3~ ~
=- 32·3a2am6m=--,,3am=m3 ,,3am
3a 3a
EJERCICIO 232
19 ~ V375a8b . 5x
=~V53 .3a6a2b = 3·5a2 ~ha2b= 3a2 ~ha2b
5x 5x x
20 ~V81a4b=~V34 a4b=~a Vb=a Vb
. 3 3 3
21. ~=~9(a+2b)=~32(a+2b)=3~a+2b
22. ~3a3b2 - 3a2b2
= ~3a2b2 (a-1) = ab~3(a -1) = ab~3a- 3
23. ~8X2 y" + 16xy "
=~22 ·2xy" (x+2)=2/ ~2x(x+2)=2/ ~2X2 +4x
24. ~2X2 - 4xy+ 2/
=~2V - 2xy+ /)= ~2(X- yY = (x- y)Ji
25. ~(a-b)(a2-b2)
= ~(a-b)(a-b)(a+b)
= ~(a-bY (a+b) = (a-b)~a+b
26. ~2am2+4amn+2an2
= ~2a (m2 + 2mn+ n2) = ~2a (m+ nY = (m+ n)'¡¡;
27. ~9a3-36a2+36a =~32a(a2-2a+4)
=3~a(a-2Y =3(a-2)~ =(3a-6)~
# ".32 1 3r;-;;
10 3-=3 __ =-,,18
· 3 33 3
11 5,fI =5 J52 =~ \f52 =V25
· V-S V53" 5
~ V23.3X 23,;:::: 12 3-=3 __ =-V3x
· 9Jf 33 x' 3x
V81a2 34·22a2xY 2·3xy,~ ,~
15 2xy 4 -- =2xy 4 4 .A,A =--~4a2xy =3~4a2xy
. 4x"y 2 x y 2xy
EJERCICIO 233
2 1
1. V9=V32=34=32=J3
2 1
2. '44 =~ =26 =2' = 9J2
3 1
3. ifi.7 =~ =39 =3' = ~
4 1
4. '?J16 =~ =28 =22 =./2
1 1
8. ~ =V34.0Y =32x2y=y.J3X
9. 1~32x1Dy15
1 3
= 1~25 x1Dy15 =22 xy2 =x-/21 =X~2y2y=xy..J2Y
10. 1V64m6d8
1 1 3
= 1~ =22 m2n2 =bmn' =~2mdn =n.J2mn
11. ~343a9x12
6 1
5. 31{/64 =31/26 =3.212 =3.22 = 3./2
6. ~25a2b2
2 2 2 1 1 1
=~52a2b2 =54 a4b4 =52 a2b2 =.J5ab 12. 1Vm1Dd5x"D
1 1 2 2 4
7. 5~4ga2b4 =5 ~72a2b4 =5·7'a'b' =5 ~7ab2 =m'nx' =n ~rn".0 =n Vrn"x"x=nx(;h
1 3
=~73 a9x12 = 72 a2 x2 =x".,f7;j =x2 ~7a2a =ax2 J7a
EJERCICIO 235
1 . .J5 =w =V12S 9J2=~ ='44
2 . ..fi = if22 = V4
if3 =if3
3. .J3 = 1:J36 = lifi29 V4 = 1?Ji' = llflli V8 = 1:j83 = l~
4. J2=1W =1V64 V3=1W =1V81 ~=1W=1V125 ifi = 1;[i2 = 1V49
5 . .,fu = V(5x) 3 = V125x3
V4x2y = V(4X2y)2 = V16x'l
V7a3b =V7a3b
6. J.,j2;;¡; = l~(2ab)5 = lV32a5b5
V3a2x = l~(3a2Xr = lV27a6x3
9. ~ = 2~(3a)S = 2~243as V2iJ =2~(2b2t =2~1(i)8 llfh3 = 2~(7 X3)2 = 2~49x6
10. 2 ~ =2lV;¡ =2lV;¡ 3.,fib =3l~(2b)6 =3lV64b6
4Vi1 =4l~(5x2)3 =4lV125x6
11.3 V;;Z =3lV(a2)6 =3lif;F ~W =~lV(b3)3 =~lW
222
4 ifl =4lV(XSY =4l!{F
12. Ji;;¡ = l~(2m)5 = l~32m5
3 Va3x' =3l~(a3x'Y =3 ~a6i
2l~X7l =2l~X7l
l5~532 "l/Ja-x-
l5~532 = "l/Ja-x-
8. V;Z = lV(X2 t = lWZ V21 =lV(2/Y =l~
VSm7 = lV(Sm7Y = l~2Sml4
EJERCICIO 236
1. .J5 =?J53 = if125 9J2=V22=~
Luego el orden es:.J5, 9J2
2. V15 = lV(15)2 = llflli if7 = llfi3 = lVID
Luego el orden es: if7 , V15
3. JU=V(1l)3 =V1.331 V43=V(43)2 =V1.849
Luego el orden es: V43 , JU
4 . .j3 =V33 =ifll 9J5 =~ =V25 ~ =~
Luego el orden es: ~,.j3 ,9J5
5. 1,[3 =2'&5 =2':/243 ?J4 = 2V44 = 2'W56 1 m = 2if152 = 2':./225
Luego el orden es: ?J4 , 1,[3, 1m
6. 9J2 = 1".[26 = 1'f/64 ?J3 = 1V33 = 1V27 ~=1W=1V81
Luego el orden es:~ , 9J2 , ?J3
EJERCICIO 237
1.7.fi -lS.fi = (7 -lS).fi = - 8.fi 3 . .JS - 22.JS - 8.JS = (1- 22- 8).JS = - 2
9.JS
2. 4.[3- 20.[3 + 19.[3 = (4- 20+ 19).[3 = 3.[3 4 . .fi - 9.fi + 30.fi -40.fi = (
1- 9+ 30-40).fi = -18.fi
3 1 (3 1) (3-2) 1
5 -.J2--.J2= --- .J2= - .J2=-.J2
'4 2 42 4 4
3 (3) (3- S) 2
6 -.[3-.[3= --1 .[3= - .[3=--.[3
. S S S S
1 3
7.2..[5--..[5+-..[5
2 4
( 1 3) (8-2+3) 9
= 2-"2+4 ..[5= -4- ..[5=4..[5
1 1
8. 4.[3+S.[3-8../3
=(±+S_~)../3=(2+:0-1)../3= :1../3
9. a"¡¡; - 3a"¡¡; + 7 a"¡¡; = (a - 3a + 7 a)"¡¡; = 5a"¡¡;
EJERCICIO 238
1. ../45= ~32.S =3..[5 -.J2j = - ~32. 3 = - 3.[3
-.fiO= - ~22 ,S = - 2..[5
Entonces:
= 3..[5 - 3.[3 - 2..[5
= (3- 2)..[5 - 3.[3 =..[5 - 3.[3
2. -!fi5 = ~S2 ·7 = sJ7 -fi43 = .JF3 = 9.[3
-./63= _~32'7=-3J7
-2~=-2~S2'3=-10.[3
Entonces:
= sJ7 + 9../3 - 3J7 -10../3
= (S- 3)J7 + (9-10)../3 = 2J7 -../3
3. ../80= ~= 22..[5=4..[5
- 2.J252=- 2~22 .32.7 = - 2·2·3J7 =-12J7
3.J405= 3~= 3-32..[5=27..[5
- 3.J500 = - 3~22 ·S2 ·S= - 3·2·S..[5 = - 30..[5
Entonces:
= 4..[5+ 27..[5 - 30..[5 -12J7 =(4+27-30)..[5-12J7 =..[5-12J7
10. 3x¡Y + (a- x).JY - 2x ¡y =(3x+a-x-2x)¡Y=a ¡y
11. (x-1).j3 +(x-3) J3+4 J3 =(x-1+x-3+4) .[3=2x J3
1 2
12. - if2 - - ifi + 2 ifi
3 3
(1 2 ) 3~ (1-2+6) 3~ S 3~ = '3-3"+2 ",2= -3- ",2='3 ",2
3 1 1 (36-1S+10) 31
13. "5 if2 -4 if2 +6 if2 = --6-0 - if2 = 60 if2
14. xv;7 -(a-2x)v;7 + (2a-3x)v;7 =(x-a+2x+2a-3x)v;7 =av;7
4. 7.J456= 7~32'S2'2= 7·3·S.J2=lOS.J2 -4J320= -4~= -4.23..[5=-32..[5
3../80= 3~24.S= 3.22..[5=12..[5
- s.J800= - S~24 ·2·S2 = - S, 22 ,s.J2 = -100.J2
Entonces:
= lOS.J2 -100.fi - 32..[5 + 12..[5
= (lOS-100).J2 + (- 32+ 12)..[5 = s.J2 - 20..[5
5 .l.-.J12= .l.-~22.3=../3
. 2 2
_!.J18= _!~32.2=-.fi
3 3
~.J48 = ~..f2G3 = 3../3
4 4
1 ~ 1~? ~ -",72=- 2-·2·Y =",2
6 6
Entonces:
= 3m + m - 2..[5 +..[5
= (3+ l)m - (2+ 1)..[5 =4m -..[5
7 ~J147= ~~3.72 =.13
. 7 7 10.
1 = 1 r;:;z;:z:::; r:=;
- 5",700= - 5,,2- ·5-·7 = - 2",7
2-../28= 2-~22.7=~../7
10 10 5
~~2.187= ~~=9J3
3 3
Entonces:
1
= .13 + 9.13 - 2../7 + 5../7
=(1+9).13+( -2+~)../7
9 =10.13--../7
5
[= {3 =~J3 8. V"3 V"32 3
_ [= {2 =-~./2
V"2 VZZ 2
fI=~ 3 =~J3
V¡ 22 2
Entonces:
111 =-.13+-.13--./2 322
(1 1) 1
= -+- .13--./2
3 2 2
5 1
=-.13--./2
6 2
9.
Entonces:
Entonces:
1 1 1 1
= -..[15 - -..[15 - -.13 +-.13
3 3 4 2 12 r
14 2vm-n = 2m",n
( 1 1) 1 .
= -¡+"2 J3=¡J3 _·Jgm2n= -,)32m2n=-3m..J,;
,)16mn2 = ,)24mn2 =4n.,f,;¡
- ,)4mn2 = - ,)22mn2 = - 2n.,f,;¡
Entonces:
1 1
= 40./2 - 35./2 - 9.13 + 9.13
= (40- 35)./2 = 5./2
12. 2.fiOO= 2~22'52'7=20../7 -15 {T =-15~ 5 =_ '5
V "45 32.52 "':J
4{5= 4{5=.J5
V16 V24
-56 [= -56 r: =-8../7
V7 V "7'
Entonces:
=20../7 -8../7 - .J5+ .J5 = (20- 8)../7 = 12../7
Entonces:
= 2m..J,; - 3m..J,; + 4n.,f,;¡ - 2n.,f,;¡ = (2m- 3m)..J,; + (4n- 2n).,f,;¡
= - m..J,; + 2n .,f,;¡
15. a.,/320x = a ~26 ·5x = 8a.,J5;.
-7,)5a2x =-7a.,J5;.
-(a-4b).,J5;.
Entonces:
= 8a .,J5;. - 7 a .,J5;. - (a - 4b).,J5;. = (8a -7a - a + 4b).,J5;. = 4b.,J5;.
16. ~9x-9=~32(x-1)=3~x-1 ~4x- 4 = ~22 (x-1)= 2~x-1 -50
Entonces:
=3~x-1+2~x-1-50 =(3+2-5)~x-1=0
17.
2~a"x+3a"y= 2~a"(x+3y)=2a2~x+3y
- a2 fh+27Y=- a2 ~32 (x+3y)=-3a2 ~x+3y ~2Sa"x+7Sa"y= ~S2a"(x+3Y)=Sa2 ~x+3y Enton
ces:
=2a2 ~x+3y-3a2 ~x+3y+Sa2 ~x+3y =(2a2-3a2+Sa2)~x+3y=4a2 ~x+3y
18.
~+1
3a -, = a-
-~4a+4= -~22(a+1)=-2F+1
(a+1)~ 1 =(a+1) (a+1)2 =.¡;;+i
a+1 a+1
Entonces:
=3.¡;;+i-2.¡;;+i+ F+1= (3-2+ 1).¡;;+i=2 a+
( )~a+b aZ_bz
19. a -b a-b = (a-b) (a-bY =~az_bz
-(a+b)t-b = -(a+b) (aZ-b): =_~az_bz
a+b a+b
(2a-2b)~a~b =2(a-b)~(:~:y =2~a-b
entonces:
=~aZ _bz _~az _bz +2~a-b =2~a-b
4. sV48= SV23.6=lOW
-3 V3.64S = -3V36.S=-27 V5
-2~=-2V26.6=-SW
4 V1.71S= 4V73 ·S= 2sV5
Entonces:
6.
= lOW-SW-27 V5+2S V5 =(1O-S)W+(-27+2S) V5=2 W+ V5
~V24= ~3f233=V3
2 2"¿'-'
_~V54=_~3~=-2V2
3 3"-' .¿
l.vm= l.3fs33=3 V3
S S"J 'J
_~Vi28=_~3'262= -V2
4 4"¿'¿
Entonces:
=V3+3V3-2V2-V2
= (1+ 3)V3+ (- 2-1)V2 =4V3- 3V2
EJERCICIO 239
1. V54= ~33'2=~ -V24=-~23'3=-29,{3
- if16 = - ~23'2 =-2 ~
Entonces:
=3~-2~-29,{3=~-29,{3
V40= V23.S=2V5
V1.029= V73.3=7 V3 - W25= - Vs3.s= -S V5
2.
Entonces:
=2V5-sV5+7V3
= (2-s)V5+7V3=7V3-3V5
3. 2 V250= 2 VS3.2=1OV2
-4 V24 = -4V23.3=-S V3
- 6V16= - 6V23 ·2 = -12 V2
V2.1S7= V36.3=9V3
Entonces:
=1OV2-12V2+9 V3-s V3 =(1O-12)V2+(9-S) V3= V3-2 V2
5. 9J81= ~33.3=39,{3
-39,{375 = -3~53.3=-159,{3
~= ~73.2= 7~
2 V648 = 2~23.33.3 =12 9,{3 Entonces:
=39,{3+129,{3-15 9,{3+7 ~=7~
7.
=3 V5+ V5-6 ifi-3 ifi
= (3+ 1).~Í5+ (- 6- 3)ifi= 4V5 - 9ifi
8.
Entonces:
Entonces:
Entonces:
Entonces:
1 7 (1 7)
=2 V5-2 V5+-ifi+ -ifi= -+- ifi= ifi
8 8 8 8
12.3 !J-24=3 V(-2)'. 3=-6 V3 -4 ~=-4V(-3)'. 3=12 V3
-!J-37S=-V(-S)'. 3=S V3
Entonces:
=-6 V3+12 V3+s V3 = (- 6+ 12+ s)V3 = 11 V3
13. 4!J- 320 = 4 V(2)6 (- S) = 16 ~ -10 V-40=-1O V(2)3(-S)=-20 ~
-2 !J-S4= -2 V(3)3(-2)=-6 ¡pi
3 V-1.024 = 3 V(2)9 (- 2) = 24 ¡pi
Entonces:
=16 ~-20 ~-6 ¡pi+24 ¡pi = (16- 20)~ + (- 6+ 24)¡pi =-4~+18¡pi
14. 3 ifi;l = 3a ifi
-b V128=-b ~.}26.2=-4b ifi (4b-3a) ifi
Entonces:
=3a ifi-4b ifi+(4b-3a) ifi = (3a-4b+4b- 3a)ifi =0
15. a V2S0b = a VS3 2b = Sa V2b - V3ab3 = - b V?;;
-s V2a3b=-Sa V2b
3bV?;;
Entonces:
Sa V2b - Sa V2b - b V?;; + 3b V?;; =(-b+3b) V?;;=2b V?;;
EJERCICIO 240
1 . ./3 . ./6=J18=~=3,/2
2. 5../21.2./3= 10./63 =10J32.7 =30.J7
3. 2114·3..../21=2,[294 =2J72 ·6 =./6
2 7 7 7
4. if12. 9J9 =if108 =V33 ·4 =3 V4
5. %9[15,12 9J5O =10 ifi50 =10 V53.6 =509,/6
6. x.,J2a.2.¡sa=!..~10a2 =x.,[1O
a a
7. 5,f12.3.J?5 =15J9QO =15J22 .32 .52 =450
8 . .¡. ~8 ~=6 ~27a'b=6a ~=18a ~
EJERCICIO 241
1. ,/2-./3 ,/2
=J4-./6 = 2-./6
2. 7./5+5./3 2./3
=14..{15+10.J9 =14..{15+30
3. 2../3 + J5 - 5.fi
4.J1S
= 8.J45 + 4.fi5 - 20../30
= 4(2~+.j523 - 5../30) = 4(6J5 + 5../3- 5../30)
4. ,/2-./3 ,/2+2./3
J4-./6 +2./6-2.J9
=J4 +./6 -2.J9 2+./6 -6 ./6-4
9. 3./6·114·2./35 =6~2.940 =6J22 .72 ·15 =84..{15 10 2../21.3..J42.~.J22
· 2 3 7
=2~19.404 =2J22 f .32 ·11 =6/11
7 7
11. 3 ~~~4 ii/2O =2 ~13.500 =2 ~53334 =30 (ti
12 ~ E.~ fI=2 fI=2 [2=2,/2 · 6 fa 5 V7 2 V2 2 V22 4
13. 3..M·~ [1 =~ ~=~ rax =.2.-.¡a;
x 2V7 xVa xvl1 ax
14 2 ~.6 [=2 ~ =2~2XY =~ '2;;y
· 3v7 Vr v7 y4 y"v"-J<Y
5. ./5 +5./3 2./5 +3./3 2,[25 +10..{15
+ 3..{15+15.J9
=2,[25 +13..{15 +15.J9 10 +13..{15 + 45 = 55+13..{15
6. 3.J7 -2./3 5./3 +4.J7
15../21-10.J9
- 8../21 +12,J49
= 7 ../21-1 0.J9 + 12,J49 = 7 ../21- 30 + 84
=7../21 +54
7. la -2JX 31a +JX
3W -6.¡a;
+.¡a; - 2 #
=3W -5.¡a;-2# =3a-5.¡a; -2x
8. 7./5 -11.J7 5./5 -8.J7
35,[25 -55./35
- 56./35 +88,J49
=35,[25 -111./35 +88,J49 =175-111./35+616
= 791-111./35
9. ,/2+./3+./5 ,/2-./3
J4 +./6 +.,[10
-./6 -.J9 -..{15
=J4 +.,[10 -.J9-..{15
= 2 +.,[10 - 3 -..{15
=.,[10 -..{15 -1
10. .,fi - 3.J3 +.J5 .,fi + 2.J3 - .J5
J4 - 3-./6 + J10
+ 2-./6 - 6.,/9 + 2.J15
- J10 + 3.J15 - ..J25
= J4 - -./6 - 6.,/9 + s.J15 -..J25
= 2 --./6 - 18 +s.J15-s
=S.J15--./6-21
11. 2./3 -.J6 +./5
./3 +.J6+3./5
2.J9 - J18 + /15
+2J18 -,/36 + .J3Q
+6/15 -3.J3Q+3J25
=2.J9+~+7/15-,/36-2.J3Q+3J25 =6+3J2+7/15-6-2J31)+15 =7/15+3J2-2J31)+15
12. ~+F+1 ~+2F+1
N +~a2+a
+2P¡-;;+2~
=N +3~a2 + a + 2~(a+ Ir = a+ 3~a2 + a + 2a+ 2
= 3a+ 3~a2 + a + 2
13. 2~-3~a-b 3~+~ 6N -9~a2-ab
2~-3~ =6N -7 ~a2 - ab-3~(a-br
=6a-7 ~a2 - ab -3a+ 3b =3a+3b-7~a2-ab
14. ~1-x2 +x
2x+~
2x~l- x2 + 2x2
x~ +H
= 3x ~1- x2 + 2x2 + 1- x2 = 3x ~1- x2 + x2 + 1
15.
F+1+~ ..¡;;+i+2~
~(a+lr +~a2-1
+2~+2H
= a+l +3~a2-1+ 2a-2 =3a+3~a2-1-1
16. 2~x+2-2
.p+2-3
2~(x+2r -2~x+2
-6.p+2+6
=2~(x+2r -8~x+2+6 =2x+4-8~x+2+6 =2x+1O-8~x+2
17. 3~-2~a+x 2~+3~
6N -4~a2+ax
+9~-6~ =6N +5~a2+ax-6~(a+xr = 6a+5~a2 + ax -6a-6x
= 5~a2+ax-6x
18.
~a+x-~a-x
'¡;;+;-2~
~(a+xr - ~a2_x2
-2~+2H =~(a+xr -3~a2-x2 +2~(a-xr
=a+x-3~a2-x2 +2a-2x = 3a- x- 3~a2 - x2
EJERCICIO 242
1. .[;=W
!.j2;2 =V(2x2t =~ W·~=~
=V4x6x
=x§./4;
2. 3..j2;;b = 3 V(2ab)2 = 3V4a2b2 3 V4a2b2 AV&1 =12~
= 12V2" ·2a"ab2 = 24aV2ab2
3. V9X2Y=V(9x2yt =V81x"/
V81x"/' V81x5 =V6.561x9/ =V36'32x6X3/ =3x V9x3/
4. Va2b2 =lV(a2b2)" =1~a8b8
2 V3a3b = 2 lV( 3a3b )3 =2 1~27a9b3
1~a8b8. 2 1~27a9b3 =21~ = 21~27a12a5bl1 = 2a 1~27 a5bl1
5. :t}25x"l = 1~(25x"lr
= 1~15.625x6l V125x" = 1~(125x")"
= 1~15.625x" 1~15.625x6y9 . 1~15.625x" = 1~244.140.625xlOl
= 1~51"XlOl=51~XlOl 2 3r::-:i 215~( 2)5
6. 3\/4m-=3V~4m-)
=~1~45mlO
3
3 5~ 31~( 2 4)3 - \/16mn=- 4 m n
4 4
=~1~46m12n3
4
2 15r::s1rl45 10 3 15~46 12 3 -v4-m-- '-v4-m--n-
3 4
=.!. 1~411m22n3
2
=.!. 1~222m22n3 2
1 1~215 27 15 7 3
=- . m m n
2
15r::7""""7'127 7 3 1~128 7 3
=mvLmn- =m m n
EJERCICIO 243 4.J6 =2 ~=2J2
1. 2.J3 V3
2-& =..!- {3a ="!-.J3
2. 1 OJa 5 V-;- 5
~J3XY =~~3XY =3-J3Y
3. ~JX 6 x 3
4
J75Jfl' =..!-t5JfI' =..!-b5xr =..!-b2 xr = y,fx
4. 5~ 5 3xy 5 5
8. & = 1~(2x)5 = 1~25 x5 V¡;;=1~(22xt =1~2"X2
1~25 x5 . 1~2" x2 .l~ 1 16x2
5 (1 H
6V2 _ 15 2 _ 1 3 _ 1 3 _ 1 3
6. 10 [- 60 3- -¡l-¡&-a.J3
3 V3 3
4x"¡;¡;¡ _2X~a3x" =2x ~=2X rax =2..¡ax
7. 2~a2x' a2x' Vx V7"
EJERCICIO 244
3. V8a3b = 1~(Z3 a3b t = I~ZI" a1"b4 = Za lif!J v;¡;; =1~(4a"Y =1~Z6a6
Za1if!J
= I~Z6a6
Z6 6b4
=Za1" _a_=12/Z4 ·Z"a4a"b4
ZI" al" V
4 "
= (Zab)12 ·(Za)12
1 1
=(Zab)3·(Za)6=vz;;b. vz;¡
~ vz;;b = V(Zab)" = V4a"b" =V4a"b".VZ;¡ =V8a3b"
EJERCICIO 245
1. (4v"2Y =42.fj =16·2=32
2. (2,,/3"t=22H=4.3=12
3. (5.J7Y =52# =25·7=175
1
= Zx(Zx)2: = Zx&
8. (ViSy = if183 = (18)i = (18)~ = ffi, =.J3Gi = 3fi
9. (4a~t = (4a)2 ~(2X)2 =16a2(2x)=32a2x
10. (2~x+lr =22~(X+lr =4(x+l)=4x+4
11. (3~x-ar =32~(x-ar =9(x-a)=9x-9a
(4 ~ha3b-l)3
12.
=436 (32a3b-lr
= 64 V36 a6 a3b6b6 = 192ab2 V;;;
3 1 r
= 192ab2 (a)6 = 192ab2 (a)2 = 192ab2 Va
13. (fi-.J3r =H -2fi.J3+H = 2- 2../6 + 3=5- 2../6
(4fi+.J3r =42H +2-4fi.J3+H 14.
= 32+ 8../6 + 3= 35+ 8../6
15. (.f5-/7r =H-2.f5/7+H =5-2~+7=12-2~
EJERCICIO 246
2 1
1. ~\fa2 =if;1=(a)6=a3=V¡;
3 1
2. ifJ8 = V8 = (2)6 = (2)2 =.fi
-l 1
3. V.J8i = if3l = (3)8 = (3)2 =.J3
4. J.J3a=~
2 1
5. ~V4c1 = V22 a2 = (2a)6 = (2a)3 = ifi¡;
6. V2fi =V~22.2 =w =(2)'¡=(2)~ =fi
2 1
7. ~V25a2 = V52 a2 = (5a)8 = (5aF = vs;;,
EJERCICIO 247
16. (5/7 -6r =52H -2·5·6/7 +62
= 175- 60/7 + 36= 211- 60/7
17. (...Ix+~x-lr =N +2...1x0+~(x-lt
=x+2~x2-x+x-l =2x+2~x2-x-l
18. (~x+I-4...1xr
=~(x+lt -2-4~x+l...1x+42N
= x+ 1-8~x2+ x+ 16x= 1?x+ 1-8~x2 + x
19. (¡;+i-~r
=~(a+lt -2¡;+i~+ ~(a-lt
=a+I-2~+a -1 =2a-2~
20. (2~2x-l+~2x+l r
= 22 ~(2x-lt + 2'2~2x-l ~2x+ 1 + ~(2X+ lY = 4(2x-l)+ 4~4x2 -1 + 2x+ 1
= 8x-4+4~4x2 -1 +2x+ 1
= 10x-3+4~4x2 -1
1 .,[3 .,[3 .,[3
1 . .,[3' .,[3= ../32=3
5 .,[2 5.,[2 5.,[2 2 . .,[2'.,[2 = J22 =-2-
5 V28. 5 V28. 5 V28. 5. W·V28.= ~h3a3 =~
1 ~ ~ ~
6. 9J9X'~= ~h3x" =~
_3_. ~h2a3 _ 3V32a3 _ 3vg;j _ vg;j
7. V9a V32a3 - V34a4 - 3a - a
1 ~ ~ ~
10 -_._-=--=-
. ~ ~ ~h5a5 2a
6 ~ 6~ 6vg;¡ 2vg;¡ 8. 5~·~32XZ - 5~33x" - 15x - 5x
x ~x~x~~
9 -_._-=--=--=--
. V27XZ ~ V34~ 3x 3
5rf Jmñ 5rf Jmñ 5rf Jmñ 11. 3Jmñ·Jmñ- 3~rrfrf - 3mn
1 ~ ~ ~
12. 5a V25x" . ~ - 5a V54 ~ - 25ax
5nJmñ 3m
EJERCICIO 248
3-./2 .1-./2 = 3-3./2 -./2 +../22 _ 3-4./2 +2 _ 5-4./2 -4./2-5
1. 1+./2 1-./2 1-../22 1-2 -1
5+2../3. 4+../3 _ 20+5../3 +8../3 +2132 _ 20+ 13../3 +6 _ 26+ 13../3 -2+../3
2. 4-../3 4+../3 42-132 16-3 13
J2 -./5 J2 -./5 ../22-2./2./5 +.f52 2-2J1Q +5 7 -2J1Q 2J1Q - 7
3 . ./2+./5. J2 -./5 - ../22 -.f52 - 2-5 - -3 - 3
.J7 +2./5 .J7 +./5 .[i2 +../35 +2../35 +2.f52 7+3../35+10 17+3../35
4 . .J7 -./5 . .J7 +./5= .[i2 -.f52 - 7-5 - 2
./2-3./5 2./2-./5 2../22 -J1Q-6J1Q+3.f52 4-7J1Q+15 19-7J1Q
5. 2./2+./5·2./2-./5 - 22../22 -.f52 - 8-5 - 3
19 5./2+4../3 95./2+76../3 95./2+76../3 95./2+76../3
6.5./2-4../3.5./2+4../3- 52../22-42132 50-48 - 2
3./2 7./2+6../3 21../22+18../6 42+18../6 42+18../6 21+9../6
7·7./2-6../3·7./2+6../3- 72../22-62132- 98-108 - -10 5
4../3-3..[7 2../3-3..[7 8# -12.J2l-6.J2l+9.J72 24-18.J2l+63 87-18.J2l 6.J2l-29
8. 2../3+3..[7· 2../3-3..[7- 22# -32.J72 - 12-63 - -51 17
5./2 -6../3 4./2+3../3 20../22+15../6-24../6-18132 40-9../6-54 -14-9../6 14+9../
6
9.4./2-3../3.4./2+3../3- 42../22-32132 - 32-27 - 5 5
.j7 +3/11 5.j7 -4/11_ 5,[72 -4m +15m -12M _ 35+11m -132 _ -97+11m -97-11m
10. 5.j7+4/11 5.j7-4/11 52,[72-42M 175-176 -1
11 ./5+./2 7-2J1Q _7./5-2./50+7./2-2./20
. 7+2.J1O 7-2.J1O 72_22..[102
7./5-2J5"2+7./2-2J2"5 49-40
7./5 -10./2 + 7./2 -4./5 _ 3./5 -3./2 _ ./5-./2 993
9./3 -3.j2 6+,/6 54./3 +9J18 -18.j2 -3.[12
12. 6-,/6 ·6+,/6 - 62-.J62
54./3+9.j322-18.j2-3.j223 54./3+27.j2-18.j2-6./3 = 48./3+9.j2 = 16./3+3.j2
36-6 30 30 10
.¡a+~ 2.¡a-~
13. -2.¡a-a-+-~-x '-2.¡a-a---~-x
2.w -Ja;+2Ja;-H 22.w - H
2a+Ja;-x 4a-x
x-2~+x-l ~
= () -2x-1-2"x -x
x- x-l
~x+2+..fi ~x+2+..fi
16 ,---
. ~x+2-..fi ~x+2+..fi
H + 2.p+2 ..fi +.f22 ~(x+2)' -.f22
x+2+2~+2 x+4+2~
x+2-2 x
.¡;;+4 - ~ .¡;;+4 - ~
17. ~a+4+~'~a+4-~
H-2.¡;;+4 ~+N ~(a+4)' -N
a+4-2~+a 2a+4-2~
a+4-a 4
a+2-~ 2
.¡;;+b - ~ .¡;;+b - ~
18. ~a+b+~a-b' ~a+b-~a-b
~-2.¡;;+b~+~ ~(a+b)' -~(a-b)'
a+b-2~ +a-b 2a-2~
a+b-a+b - 2b
EJERCICIO 249
.J3 ( .J2 + .J3) + .J5
1 . .J2+.J3-.J5' (.J2+.J3)+.J5
../6 + .J9 + .J15
( .J2 +.J3r - ( .J5r
3+../6+.J15 3+../6+.J15 2../6 6../6+2.J36+2.J90 6../6+12+6.J1O 6(../6+2+.J1O) 2+
../6+.J1O
= 2+2../6+3-5- 2../6 '2../6= (2../6r 24 24 4
fi (fi + .J3) - ../6
2. fi+.J3+../6' (fi+.J3)-../6
2+../6-M
- (fi +.J3r - (../6r
2+../6-2.J3 2+../6-2.J3 2../6+1 4../6+2+12+../6-4../18-2.J3 5../6+14-12fi-2.J3
=2+2../6+3-6= 2../6-1 '2../6+1= (2../6)2-1 = 23
2-13 (2+ 13)- ./5 3. 2+13+./5' (2+13)- ./5
4- 3- 2./5 + M
= (2+.J3t -(./5t
1-2./5+M
= 4+4.J3+3-S
1-2./5+M 2-413
= 2+ 413 . 2- 413
2-4.J3-4./5+8M+2M-4~ 22 -(4.J3t
2- 413 - 4./5 + 10M -12./5 -44
2(213 + 8./5 - SM -1) _ 213 + 8./5 - SM -1
44 22
../6 + .J3 +../2 (../6 + .J3) + ../2
5. ../6 + .J3 - ../2' (../6 + .J3) + ../2
6+3+2+2~+2~+2../6
(../6 +.J3)' - (../2)'
11 + 6../2 + 4.J3 + 2../6 6+2~+3-2 11+6../2+4.J3+2../6 2~-7
2~+7 '2~-7
22~ 77+12~-42../2+8~-28.J3+4~-14../6 (2~)' -49
66../2-77 + 72-42../2 + 24../6- 28.J3 + 24.J3 -14../6 72-49
24../2 - 4.J3 + 10../6 - 5
23
EJERCICIO 250
J2 . J2 -.13 = 2-.,f6 = 2-.,f6 =.,f6-2
1. J2+J3 J2-J3 2-3 -1
.13 .13+2./5 2. -.13=3 --2-./5=5 . .13 +2./5
3+2..[15 3+2..[15
3-20 -17
3+2..[15 17
13 +./5 (E + 13)-./5 4. E + 13 + ./5 . (E + 13) - ./5
.J6+ .fl6+3-S
= (E +.J3t - (./5t
.fl6+.J6-2
= 2+2.J6+3-S .fl6 +.J6 - 2 2.J6
2.J6 . 2.J6
2..J60 + 2.J36 - 4.J6 (2.J6t 4M+ 12-4.J6
24
4(M+3-.J6) _ M+3-.J6
24 6
E - J5 (E + ./5) + .JlQ 6. E + J5 -.JlQ' (E + J5)+.JlQ
2- S+.J20 -.J5Q
= 2+2.JlQ+S-1O
2./5-sE-3 2.JlQ+3
= 2.JlQ-3 . 2.JlQ +3
4.J5Q + 6./5 -1O.J20 -1sE - 6~ 40-9
20E + 6./5 - 20./5 -1sE - 6.JlQ - 9 31
sE -14J5- 6.JlQ- 9
31
2+./5 1+./5
3. 1-./5' 1+./5
2+2./5+./5+5 7+3./5 __ 7+3./5
1- 5 -----=-:¡- - 4
J2+./5J2+./5 4--·--
. J2-./5 J2+./5
2+2110 +5 7+2110
2-5 -3
7+2110 3
2./3-./7./3-./7
5. ./3+./7'./3-./7
6-2./21-./21 + 7 3-7
-./6 + 2.J5 2-./6+.J5
6. 2-./6-.J5· 2-./6 +.J5
EJERCICIO 251
1. ~x-8=2
(~x-8r =22
x-8=4 x=12
2. 5-~3x+1=O
5=~3x+1 52 = (3x+ 1)' 25=3x+1 24=3x
8=x
3. 7 + V5x- 2 = 9 V5x-2=2
(V5x- 2)' = 23
5x-2=8 5x= 10 x=2
4. ~9x2-5-3x=-1 ~9x2-5=3x-1
9x2-5=9x2-6x+1 -6=-6x
1= x
5. ~x2-2x+1=9-x
~(x-1)'=9-x
x-1=9-x 2x=1O x=5
8. ~3x-5+~3x-14=9 (~3x-5r =(9-~3x-14r
3x-5=81-18~3x-14+3x-14 -72= -18~3x-14
42 = (~3x-14 r
13-3./21 = 3./21-13
-4 4
12+5v"30+1O 22+5v"30
24-5 19
6. 15- V7x-1 = 12
3= V7x-1
33 =(V7x-1)'
27=7x-1 28=7x 4=x
7 . ..[;+~x+7=7
(~x+7r = (7-..[;Y
x+ 7 = 49-14..[; + x 7=49-14..[;
1= 7 - 2..[;
- 6= - 2..[;
3= ..[;
32 = (..[;y
9=x
16= 3x-14 30=3x lO=x
5./2 +3./3 3./2+4./3
7. 3./2-4./3' 3./2 +4./3
30+29./6 +36 = 66+29./6
18-48 -30
66+29./6 30
.j7 -2.[11 2.j7 -.[11 14-5.j77 +22 36-5.j77
8. 2.j7+.[112.j7-.[11- 28-11 - 17
9. ~x+1O-~x+19=-1 (~x+lOr =(~x+19-1r
x+ 10= x+ 19-2~x+ 19 + 1 -1O=-2~x+19
5=~x+19 52=(~x+19r
25= x+ 19 6=x
10. ~4x-ll=7~2x-29
(~4x-llY =(7~2x-29 r 4x-ll=49(2x-29) 4x-ll= 98x-1.421 1.41O=94x
15=x
11. ~5x-19-~=-1 (~5x-19r =(~-lY
5x-19=5x-2~+1 -20=-2~ 1O=~ lOO=5x
20=x
12.
~x-2+5=~x+53 (~x-2+5r =(~x+53r
x- 2+ lO~x- 2+ 25= x+53 1O~x-2=30 ~x-2=3
x- 2= 9 x=l1
13. ~9x-14=3~x+1O-4 (~9x-14r =(3~x+1O-4r
9x-14= 9(x+ 10)- 24~x+ 10+ 16 -14= 90- 24~x+ 10+ 16
-120= - 24~x+ 10
5=~x+1O 25= x+ 10 15=x
14. ~x-16-~x+8=-4
(~x-16r =(~x+8-4r
x-16= x+ 8- 8~x+ 8 + 16
-40=-8~x+8 5=~x+8 25=x+8 17=x
~5x-1+ 3= ~5x+ 26
(~5x-1+3r =(~5x+26r
5x-1+ 6~5x-1 +9=5x+26 6~5x-1=18 ~5x-1=3 5x-1=9 5x=1O
15.
16.
x=2
13-~13+4x=2'¡;
(13- 2'¡;)' = (~13+4x r
169- 52'¡; +4x= 13+ 4x - 52'¡; = -156 '¡;=3
x=9
~x-4+~x+4=2~ (~x-4+~x+4)' =(2~)'
x-4+2~x' -16+ x+4=4(x-1) 2x+2~x'-16=4x-4
(2~x'-16r = (2x-4)'
4x' - 64=4x' -16x+ 16 -SO=-16x
5=x
17.
~9x+ 7 -.¡; - ~16x-7 = O 18.
(~9x+7-.¡;r =(~16x-7r
9x+ 7 - 2~9x2 + 7 x + x= 16x-7 - 2~9x2 + 7 x = 6x-14
(-2~9x2+7xr = (6x-14)'
4(9x2 + 7 x)= 36x2 -168x+ 196 36x2 + 28x= 36x2 -168x+ 196 196x= 196
x=l
19.
~9x+ 10 - 2~x+ 3 = ~x- 2
(~-2~x+3r =(~x-2r
9x+ 10- 4~9x2 + 37x+ 30 + 4(x+ 3)= x- 2
13x+ 22 - x+ 2 = 4~~9x-2-+-3-7 x-+-3-0
12x+ 24= 4~9x2 + 37x+ 30 3x+ 6= ~9X2 + 37x+ 30
(3x+ 6)' = (~9X2 + 37x+30 r
9x2 + 36x+ 36= 9x2 + 37x+ 30 36-30=37x-36x 6=x
20. ~18x-8-~2x-4-2~2x+1=0
(~18x-8r =(~2x-4+2Jb+lr
18x- 8= 2x-4+4~4x2 - 6x- 4 + 4(2x+ 1) 18x- 8= 10x+4~4x2 - 6x- 4
8x- 8= 4~4x2 - 6x- 4 2x-2=~4x2_6x- 4
(2x-2)2 =(~4x2-6x-4r
4x2 - 8x+ 4= 4x2 - 6x- 4 -2x=-8
x=4
21.
~8x+ 9 - ~18x+ 34 + ~2x+ 7 = O (..¡s;+9+~2x+7r =(~18x+34r
8x+ 9+ 2~16x2 + 74x+ 63 + 2x+ 7= 18x+ 34 10x+ 16+ 2~16x2 + 74x+ 63 = 18x+ 34 2~1
6x2 + 74x+ 63 = 8x+ 18 ~16x2 + 74x+63 =4x+ 9
(~16x2+74x+63f =(4x+9Y
16x2 + 74x+ 63= 16x2 + 72x+ 81 2x= 18
x=9
22. ~x-2-~x-5=~4x-23
(0-~x-5r =(~4x-23r
x-2- 2~X2 -7x+ 10+ x-5=4x- 23
2x-7 - 4x+ 23= 2~~~-2 --7-x-+-1-0
-2x+16=2~x2-7x+10
-x+8=~x2-7x+10
(8-xY =(~x2-7x+10f
64-16x+x2=x2-7x 10 54= 9x
6=x
23.
~x+ 6-~9x+ 70=- 2~x+ 9 (F+6+2~x+9 r = (~9x+70r
x+ 6+ 4~X2 + 15x+ 54 +4(x+ 9 )= 9x+ 70 5x+ 42+ 4~X2 + 15x+ 54 = 9x+ 70 4~ x2 + 1
5x+ 54 = 4x+ 28 ~X2 + 15x+54= x+ 7
(~X2+ 15x+54f =(x+7Y
x2 + 15x+ 54= x2 + 14x+ 49 x=-5
24.
~x- a +~x+ a =~4x- 2a
(~x-a+~x+ar =(~4x-2ar
x-a+2~x2-a2 +x+a =4x-2a 2x+2 ~x2_a2 =4x-2a 2~x2_a2 =2x-2a ~x2_a2 =x-a
x2 _ a2 = x2 - 2ax+ a2 2ax=2a2
x=a
25. ~ x- 4ab = - 2b+.,f;
(~x-4abr = (.,f;+2bf
x-4ab= x-4b.,f; + 4b2 4b.,f; =4b2 +4ab
F=b+a
(.,f;f =(a+bY
x=(a+bY
~x+4a-~x+2a-1=1 26.
(~x+4a-1r =(~x+2a-1r
x+ 4a- 2~x+4a + 1= x+ 2a-1 2a+2=2~x+4a a+ 1=~x+4a
(a+ 1Y = (~x+ 4a r
a2+2a+1=x+4a a2-2a+1=x
(a-1Y=x
EJERCICIO 252
1.
r 10 "x+~x+5= .[;
R +~x2+5x=1O
(~x2+5xr =(lO-Rr
x2 + 5x= 100- 20x+ X2 25x= 100
x= 4
2.
~4x-11+2.[;= ~ ,,4x-11
~-(4-x--11-Y + 2 ~~x (-4x-- 1-1) = 55
4x-11 + 2~4x2 -l1x = 55 2~4x2 -l1x = 66- 4x ~4X2 -l1x = 33- 2x
(~4x2-11xr = (33-2xY
4x2 -l1x= 1.089-132x+ 4x2 121x= 1.089
x=9
3.
.[;-~x-7= ~
í2~ "x- - V x - 7 x = 4
x2-8x+16=x2-7x 16=x
4.
.[;-2 .[;+1 .[; + 4 = .[; + 13
(.[; - 2)(.[; + 13)= (.[; + 1)(.[; + 4) R + 11.[;-26=R +5.[;+4 6.[;=30
.[;=5
(.[;t = 52
x=25
5.
6
~x+8 =~x+8-.[;
6=~(x+8Y -~x(x+8)
6=x+8-~X2 +8x ~x2+8x=x+2
x2 + 8x= x2 +4x+4 4x=4
x=l
8
6. ~x-3+--=~x+9
F+9
~(x- 3)(x+ 9 )+ 8= ~(x+ 9 y
~X2 + 6x- 27 + 8= x+ 9
(~x2+6x-27r =(x+1Y
x2 + 6x- 27 = x2 + 2x+ 1 4x= 28
x=7
.[;+4 .[;+11 .[;-2= .[;-1
(.[; + 4)(.[; -1)= (.[; + 11)(.[; - 2) R+3.[;-4=R+9.[;-22 18=6.[;
3= .[;
(3)2=(.[;t
7.
9=x
8. 2~x+6-~4x-3=_9-
~4x-3
2~(x+6)(4x-3)-~(4x-3Y =9
2~4x2 + 21x-18 - (4x- 3)= 9
2~4x2 + 21x-18 - 4x+ 3= 9
(2~4x2+21x-18r = (4x+6r
4 (4x2 + 21x-18)= 16x2 +48x+ 36 16x2 + 84x-72= 16x2 +48x+ 36 36x=108
x=3
J;-2 2J;-5 J;+2 = 2J;-1
(J; - 2)(2J; -1)= (2J; -5)(J; + 2) 2H -5J;+2=2H -J;-1O 12=4J;
3=J;
(3)2=(J;t
9=x
9.
EJERCICIO 253
1. p=~a2(-1)=aF1=ai
2. F2=~2(-1) = J2F1= J2i
3. 2F9=2~32(-1)=6F1=6i
4. F81=~92(-1)=9F1=9i
5 . ..F6=~6(-1)=J6F1=¡;i
6. 3.p1 = 3~b2b2 (-1) = 3h2 ~(-1) = 3h2 i
EJERCICIO 254
1. R= ~22(-1)=2i -F16=~42(-1)=4i
=2i+4i=6i
2. pi5= ~52(-1)=5i F81= ~92(-1)=9i -~-49 = - ~72 (-1)=-7i =5i+9i-7i=7i
3. 2H= 2~32(-1)=6 i 3~-lOO = 3~102 (-1) = 30i =6i+30i=36i
~x+14~x-7
~(x+14)(x-7)-~(x-7Y =6
~X2+ 7x- 98- (x-7)= 6
~X2 + 7x- 98- x+ 7= 6
10.
x2 + 7 x- 98= x2 - 2x+ 1 9x=99
x=l1
7. FU=~22'3(-1)=2.¡i.0=2i.J3
8. F'7=fi0)=.fi.j0) =.fii
9. ~-27=~32'3(-1)=3.J3F=3i.J3
10. ~-4m4 =~22m2m2 (-1)= 2m2 F=2im2
fl~l 1
11. V-16=V¡d-1)=¡F=¡i
12. ~_a2_b2 =~-1(a2+b2)=fl~a2+b2 =i~a2+b2
4. 3~-64= 3~82 (-1)=24i -5~- 49 = - 5~72 (-1) = - 35i 3~-121= 3~112(-1)=33i =24i
-35i+33i=22i
5. 2P= 2ffi=2ai ~ I 2 2( 1) ?
v-a =Va a - =a 1
p =~a4a2(-1)=aJi
= 2ai+ a2i+ aJ i =i(2a+ a2 + aJ)
6. F18= ~32.2(-1)=3./2i R= ~22.2(-1)=2./2i 2-F50 = 2~52 .2(-1) = 10./2 i = 3./2
i + 2./2 i + 10./2 i= 15./2 i
7. 3~-20= 3~22.5(-1)=6.J5i
- 2~- 45 = - 2~32 .5(-1)= - 6.J5 i 3~-125= 3~52.5(-1)=15.J5i = 6.J5 i - 6.J5 i +
15.J5 i = 15.J5 i
8. ~_a4 = ~=a2i
4~- 9a4 = 4~32 a4 (-1) = 12a2 i - 3~-4a4 =- 3~22 a4 (-1)= - 6a2 i = a2 i+ 12a2 i
-6a2 i=7a2 i
EJERCICIO 255 1 . .p16)-2S =4..0'S..0
=20(..0)'
= 20(-1)
=-20
2. FS1)-49 =9..0.7..0
=63(..0)'
= 63(-1) =-63
3. S~-36.4~-64 =S.6..0.4.8..0
=30..0.32..0
=960(..0)'
= 960(-1)
=-960
4 . .p3.pi =~..0 . ..[2..0
=~(..0Y =~(-1)
=-~
5.2.,F5.3.pl =2../5..0.3..[7..0
=6../35(..0Y =6../35(-1) =-6../35 .p3.~-7S
6.
=~..0.Ji5,f3..0
=sH(..0)'
= lS(-l)
=-lS
7. 2.pl.3~-28
=2..[7 ..0.3.J4..[7 ..0
=6.J4#(..0Y =12.7(-1)
=-84
8. ~-49·R·F9 =7.p.2.p.3.p
,...['i 3. =42W-1 J
=42e.pj =-42.p =-42i
13 . ..pi+3F5 2..pi-6F5
2.J4(FlY +6J1O(FlY
-6J1O(FlY -18../25 (FlY 4(-1) - 90(-1)
= -4+90 = 86
EJERCICIO 256
9. pi·3.,F5·FW =..[2..0.3../5 ..0.J1O ..0
=3~2SlO (..0)' =3v'16O(-¡=I)
=-30¡=I
=-30i
10. ~-12)-27'F8)-SO =2~¡=I.3,f3¡=I.2..[2 ¡=I.s..[2 ¡=I
= 60 J9.J4(¡=If
=60·3·2(1)
=360
11. -S~'3FY =-S.[; Fl·3.fY Fl
=-ls.FY(FlY =-lS.FY(-l)
= lS.FY
12. R+.pi p2S-Ff6
lO(FlY + ls(FlY
- 8(FlY -12(FlY 10(-1) + 7(-1) - 12(-1) = -10-7+12 =-S 14.2..pi+S..p3
pi-4..p3
2.J4(FlY +s~(FlY
-8~(FlY -20J9 (FlY 4(-1) - 3~(-1) - 60(-1)
= -4+3~+60
= S6+3~
~-90 = 3.J1O.p -3 (10 =3./2
4. F5 .J5 .p v-S
~-150 = 5,/6.p -5 [=5./2 5. F3 .j3 .p V3
10~-36 60.p
- -6
6. 5R 10.p
EJERCICIO 257
1.2+3.p 5-2.p
7+.p 7+ i
4. 5+ .p 7+ 2.p 9+ 7.p
21+10.p 21+10i
2. -4-5.p -2+S.p
-6+3.p
-6+3i
5. 3 - 2i 5 - Si -10+13i
-2 +3i
3. 12-11.p S+7.p
20-4.p 20-4i
6. 1 - i 4 + 3i ./2 + 5i
5+./2 +7i
EJERCICIO 258
7.2+.f2 4-.[3
6+ (../2Fl-.J3Fl) 6+ (../2i-.J3i)
6+ (../2- .J3)i
8. 7+..f5
../2-.p
-4+F16
(3+ ../2)+ (./5 Fl-.J9 Fl +.J16 Fl) (3+ ../2)+ (./5 i - 3i + 4i)
(3+ ../2)+ (./5 i + i)
(3+ ../2)+ (./5 + l)i
1. (7-2.fl)+(7+2.fl) = (7 + 7)+ (- 2+ 2).fl =7·2
= 14
3. (9+ i v'3)+ (9- i v'3) = (9+ 9)+ (i - i)v'3 =9'2
=18
5. (8- 3¡=2)+ (8+ 3¡=2) = (8+8)+ (- 3+ 3)v'2.fl =8·2
=16
2. (-5-3.fl)+(-5+3.fl) = (- 5- 5)+ (- 3+ 3).fl =-5·2
=-10
4. (-7-5.fl)+(-7+5.fl) = (-7 -7)+ (- 5+ 5).fl =-7·2
=-14
6. (../2+ i .J3)+ (../2 - i.J3) = (../2 + ../2)+ (i - i).J3 =2../2
EJERCICIO 259
1. (3-2¡=1)-(5+3¡=1) 5. (15-4¡=1)-(S-7¡=1) 8. (4+ ..F5)- (2+ Fi)
3-2¡=1 15-4¡=1 4+..F5
-5-3¡=1 -2-Fi
-S+7¡=1
-2-5¡=1 7+3¡=1 2 +..[s Fl- ¡iR
-2-5i 2+ (..[si-f3i)
7+3i
2. (S+4¡=1)-(3-1O¡=1) 2+ (..[s - f3)i
S+4¡=1 6. (11+soF)-(3-50F) 9. (.J2-5Fi)-(../3+6Fi)
-3+1O¡=1 11+S0F .J2-5i
5+14¡=1 -3+50F -../3-6i
5+14i S+130F (.J2 - ../3)+ (- 5i - 6i)
3. (-1-F)-(-7-sF)
S+ 130i (.J2-../3)+(-lli)
-1- F
+7+SF 7. (5-.f25)-(3+6i) (.J2 - ../3)-lli
6+7F 10. (S-.p7)-(-7+Fi)
5-.f25
6+7i S-.p7
-3- 6i
4. (4-7¡=1)-(5-3¡=1) 2+ (-JiSF-6i) 7-.f3
4-7¡=1 2+(-5i-6i) 15+(-.J7 Fl-f3Fl)
-5+3¡=1 2+ (-lli) 15+ (-.J7i-f3i)
-1-4¡=1
2-11i 15- (.J7 + f3)i
-1-4i
EJERCICIO 260
3. (-3-7F)-(-3+7F) 5. (vIz+Fi)-(vIz-Fi)
1. (2-F)-(2+F) vIz+Fi-vlz+Fi
2-F-2-F -3-7F+ 3-7F = (vIz - vIz)+ (1 + 1)f3 F
=(2-2)+(-1-1)F = (- 3+ 3)+ (-7-7)F =2f3F
=-2F =-7'2F =2f3i
= -2i =-14i 6. (-..[s -4pi)- (-..[s +4pi)
2. (7+3F)-(7-3F) 4. (-5+pi)-(-5-pi) -..[s-4pi+ ..[s-4pi
7+3F-7+3F -5+pi+5+pi -..[s-4pi
=(7-7)+(3+3)F =(-5+5)+(1+ l)vlzF +..[s-4pi
=6F =2v1zF -Spi=- SvIz¡=1
=6i =2v1zi = -Svlzi
EJERCICIO 261
1. 3-4Fl 5-3Fl 15-20Fl
- 9Fl+12(Flf 15-29Fl + 12(-1) 15-29i-12
3-29i
2. 4+7Fl -3-2Fl
-12-21Fl
- 8Fl-14(Flf
-12-29Fl-14(-1)
-12-29i+l4
2-29i
3.7-P 5+..f9
35-5J4Fl
+7J9Fl-J4J9(Flf 35-lOFl +21Fl- .J36(-1) 35-10i+21i+6
41+ lli
4.8-..f9 1l+..f25
88-11J9Fl
+8Ji5Fl-J9 Ji5(..pif
88- 33i + 40i -15(-1) 88+7i+15
103+7i
5.3+..f2 5-..f2
15+5fiFl
-3fiFl-fifi(Flf 15+2fi Fl-J4(-l) 15+2fii+2
17+2fii
6.4+F3 5-..f2
20+5../3Fl
-4fiFl-fi../3(FlY 20+ 5../3 i -4fi i -.,/6(-1) 20+ (5../3 -4fi)i +.,/6
(20+ .,/6)+ (5../3 -4fi)i
7. fi+FS ../3+.pi
.,/6 + ../3 ..[s Fl
+ fi fi Fl +..[s fi (FlY .,/6 +.J15 i +.J4 i +.J1O (-1)
.,/6 + (.J15 i + 2i )-.J1O
(.,/6 - .J1O)+ (.J15 + 2)i
8 . .J5+F3 .J5+2..p3
Ji5 + .J5 J3 ..pi
+ 2.J5 J3 ..pi + 2 J9 (..pif 5+.Ji5i + 2.Ji5 i + 6(-1) 5+3.Ji5i-6
3.Ji5i-1
EJERCICIO 262 1. (l-i)(l+i)
1 '. 2 = -1
=l-(Rf =1- (-1)
=1+1=2
2. (3+ 2..pi)(3- 2F)
= 32 - (2..piY
= 9- [4(-1)]
=9+4=13
(fi-Si)(fi+Si)
3.
=(fif -(sif
= 2- [2s(Flr] = 2- [2S(-1)]
=2+ 2S=27
4. (2../3+4i)(2../3-4i)
= (2../3f -(4if
=4(3)-[16(FlY] = 12- [16(-1)]
=12+16=28
5. (S- .pi)(s+.pi)
=2S-(.piY =2s-(fiFY =2s-[2(FY] =2S-[2(-1)]
=2S+2=27
6. (-9-F5)(-9+F5)
= 81-(F5Y
= 81- (.J5 FY = 81- [S(-l)]
=81+S=86
EJERCICIO 263
EJERCICIO 265
1. 3x2 - 5x + 2 = O , 5x 2 x---+-=O 3 3
, 5x 2
x---=--
3 3
, 5x 25 25 2
x---+-=---
3 36 36 3
(X-~)' = 25;624
X-~=íH
5 1
x=-+-
6-6
5+1
xl=-=l
6
5-1 4 2 x2=(j="6="3
2. 4x2 + 3x- 22= O
, 3x 22 x-+-=-
4 4
,3x9119
x4 64 2 64
(X+~)2 = 352+9
8 64
Continúa
8-5i 7-6i 56-83i+30i2 56-83i-30 26-83i
4. 7+6i'7-6i- 49-36i2 - 49+36 ----ss
4+.p3 5+4.p3 2Ü+21vSR+4(vSY(-1)
5. 5-4.p3'5+4.p3- 25-(4vSRY
2Ü+21vSi-12 8+21vSi
25-(-48) - 73
-fi+2FS 4-fi+FS
6 '
. 4-fi-FS 4-fi+FS
4(-fiY + 9-fi.J5R + 2(.J5Y (-1) 16(-fiY -(.J5RY
8+9Mi-1O 9Mi-2
32+5 37
2. Continuación
X+~=íJ361
8 64
3 19
x=--+-
8 - 8
x1= -3+19 =~=2
8 8 -3-192211 x2 =-8-=-""8=-4
3. x2+11x=-24
? 121 121
x-+11x+-=--24 4 4
(X+ 121)' = 121~96
X+~=í {25
2 V4"
11 5
x=--í-
2 2
4. x2=16x -63
x2-16x=-63
x2 -16x+ 64= 64- 63
(x-8r =1
x-8=í1 x=8í1
Xl =8+1=9 x2=8-1=7
5. 12x-4-9x2=0 -9x2+12x=4 9x2-12x=-4 , 12x 4
x---=--
9 9
, 4x 4 4 4 x---+-=---
3 9 9 9
( 2)2
x-"3 =0
2
x--=O
3
2
Xl =x2="3
6. 5x2 -7x- 90= O
7± ~72 - 4(5) (- 90)
x= 2(5)
7±~49+1.800
x= 10
7±.JUA9 7±43
x= 10 -10
7+43 50
x =--=-=5
[ 10 10
7-43 36 3
x2 =10=-10=-3,
7. 6x2 = x+ 222
6x2 - x- 222= O 1±~f +4(6)(222)
x- 2(6)
1±.J53i9
x- 12
1±73
x=--
12
_1+73=74=6.1
x[ - 12 12 6
1-73 -72
x =--=-=-6
2 12 12
8. x+ 11= lOx2
lOx2 - x-11= O
1±~f -4(10)(-11)
x- 2(10)
1±.Ji+440 20 1±21
x=--
20
1+21 22 [
x[ =---w-= 20 = 1w
1-21 -20
x =--=-=-1
2 20 20
x
9. 49x2 -70x+ 25= O
70± ~(70)2 - 4(49)(25)
x- 2(49)
70± ~4.900- 4.900
x- 98
70 5
Xl =X2 = 98=7
10. 12x-7 x2 + 64= O -7x2+12x+64=0
-12± ~(12)2 -4(-7)(64)
x= 2(-7)
-12± ~144+ 1.792
x= -14
-12±F936
-14
-12±44
x=~
X
-12+44 32 ,
X =---=--=-2t
[ -14 14
-12-44 -56
X =---=-=4
2 -14 -14
11.
x2=15x-56
x2 + 15x+ 56= O
-15± ~(15)2 - 4 (1) (56)
x= 2(1)
-15± ~225- 224 2
-15± 1
x=--
2
-15+1 -14 7
x[ =-2-=-2-=-
-15-1 -16
X =--=-=-8
2 2 2
X
12. 32x2 + 18x-17= O
-18± ~(18)2 - 4(32) (-17)
x= 2(32)
-18± ~324+ 2.176
x= 64
-18±F500 64 -18± 50
x=---
64
-18+50 32 1 x[=~=64=2
-18-50 -68 [
--------1-
X2 - 64 - 64 - [6
X
13. 176x=121+64x2
64x2 -176x+ 121= O
176± ~(176)' -4(64)(121)
x- 2(64)
176± ~30.976- 30.976 128
176 3
Xl =x2= 128=18
14. 8x+5=36x2
-36x2+8x+5=0
- 8± ~(8)2 - 4(- 36)(5)
x= 2(- 36)
- 8 ± -J64+72O
-72
- 8±-J784
x= -72
- 8± 28
x=--
-72
X
-8+28 20 5
x[ =~=-72 =-18
-8-28 - 36 1 X2=~= -72=2
15. 27x2+12x-7=0
-12± ~(12)2 - 4(27) (-7)
x= 2(27)
-12± ~144+ 756 54 -12±.J9QO
54
-12+30 18 1
x[ = 54 54 - 3
-12-30 -42 7
x2= 54 54 9
X
X
16. 15x= 25x2 + 2
25x2 -15x+ 2= O
15± ~(15)' - 4(25) (2)
x
2(25)
15± ~225- 200
x
50
15± ..fi5
x-
50
15+5 20 2 x¡=5ü= 50="5
15-5 10 1
x')=--=-=-
- 50 50 5
EJERCICIO 266
1.
x(x+3)=5x+3 x2+3x=5x+3 x2 + 3x-5x- 3= O x2-2x-3=0
2± ~(- 2)' - 4(1)(- 3)
x-= --------'-
2(1)
2±.J4+12
x
2
2±4
x=-
2
2+4 6
Xl =-2-="2=3
2-4 -2
x2=-2-=T=-1
2.
9x-6=-x2+16 x2+9x-22=0
- 9± ~(9)2 -4(1)(- 22)
x=--~-~--'---'-
2(1)
9±.J169
2
-9+13 4
Xl =-2-="2= 2
-9-13 -22
x2=-2-=-2-=-1l
x
17. 8x2 - 2x- 3= O
2± ~(2)2 - 4(8) (- 3)
x= ---'------'--~
2(8)
2±..J4+%
x
16
2±.JiQO 16 2±1O
x=--
16
2+10 12 3 xl=16=16=¡
2-10 -8 1
x =----- -
2 16 - 16 -- 2
x
3.9x+l=3(x2-5)-(x-3)(x+2) 5. 9x+ 1= 3x2 -15- x2 + x+ 6
9x+ 1= 2x2 + x- 9
0= 2x2 - 8x-1O
8±~(-8)' -4(2)(-10)
x-= ------'--'-
2(2)
8±.j64+80
x-
4
8±12
x=--
4
8+ 12 20
xl=-4-=4=5
8-12 - 4
x2=-4-=4=-1
4.
(2x-3)' -(x+5)' =-23
4x2 -12x+ 9- x2 -lOx- 25+ 23= O 3x2 - 22x+ 7= O
22± ~(22)2 - 4(3) (7)
x=
2(3)
22±.J400
6
22± 20
x=--
6
22+ 20 42
Xl =-6-=(j= 7
22-20 2 1 x2=-6-=(j=3
x
18. 105= 2x2 + x
2x2 + x-105= O
-l±~(1)2 -4(2)(-105)
X
2(2)
-l±.J1+84O
x=
4
-l±.J841
x=
4
-l±29
x=--
4
-1+29 28
Xl =-4-=4=7
-1-29 -30 x2=-4-=4=-7t
25(x+2)' =(x-7)' -81 25x2 + 100x+ 100= x2 -14x+ 49- 81 24x2 + 114x+ 132= O
4x2 + 19x+ 22= O
-19± ~(19)2 - 4(4) (22)
x= ----'-----...:...
2(4)
-19 ±~361-352
x
8
-19±3
x=--
8
-19+3 -16
Xl =-8-=-8-=-2
-19-3 -22
x2 =-8-=-8-=-2t
6. 3x(x- 2)- (x- 6)= 23(x- 3)
3x2 - 6x- x+ 6= 23x- 69 3x2-30x+75=0
x2 -lOx+ 25= O
1O±~(-1O)' -4(1)(25)
x=-~-----
2(1)
1O± ~100-1O0
x=
2
10
Xl =x2 =2=5
7.7(x-3)-5(x2-1)=x2-5x(x+2)
7 x- 21- 5x2 +5= x2 -5x2 -lOx 7 x-16- 5x2 = - 4x2 -lOx -x2+17x-16=0
-17± ~(17)2 -4(-1)(-16)
x- 2(-1)
-17±..fi25
x-
-2
-17± 15
x=---
-2
-17+15 -2
x =---=-=1
1 -2 -2
-17-15 -32
x =---=-=16
2 -2 -2
8.
(x-5r -(x-6r =(2x-3)" -118
x2 -lOx+ 25- x2 + 12x- 36= 4x2 -12x+ 9-118 2x-ll= 4x2 -12x-109 4x2-14x-98=0 2x2-
7x-49=0
7±~(-7r -4(2)(-49)
x- 2(2)
7±.J441
x-
4
7+ 21 28
x =--=-=7
1 4 4
7-21 -14
x =--=-=-3+
2 4 4 -
9. (5x- 2)" -(3x+ 1)" - x2 - 60= O
25x2 - 20x+4- 9x2 - 6x-l- x2 - 60= O 15x2 - 26x-57 = O
26±~(-26)" -4(15)(-57)
x= 2(15)
26±..J676+3.420
x=
30
26±64
x=--
30
26+64 90
x =--=-=3
1 30 30
26-64 -38
x -------1.±. 2 - 30 - 30 - 15
(x+4)' -(x-3)' =343
10. x3 + 12x2 + 48x+ 64- x3 + 9x2 - 27 x+ 27 - 343= O
21x2 + 21x- 252= O
-x2-x+12=0
1± ~(-IY - 4(-1)(12)
x- 2(-1)
l±.J49
x=--
-2
1± 7
x=-
-2
1+ 7 8
x =-=-=-4
1 -2 -2
1-7 -6
x =-=-=3
2 -2 -2
11.
(x+2)' -(x-l)' =x(3x+4)+8
x3 + 6x2 + 12x+ 8- x3 + 3x2 - 3x+ 1= 3x2 + 4x+ 8 6x2+5x+l=0
_5±~(5)2 -4(6)(1) 2(6)
-5±~
x-
12
-5+1 -4 1
x =--=-=--
1 12 12 3
-5-1 -6 1
x =--=-=--
2 12 12 2
x
12.
(5x-4Y - (3x+5)(2x-l)= 20x(x- 2)+ 27 25x2 -40x+ 16-6x2 -7x+5=20x2 -40x+27 19x2 -
47 x+ 21= 20x2 -40x+ 27 _x2 -7x-6=0
7±~(-7Y -4(-1)(-6)
x 2(-1)
7±~
x-
-2
7±-J25
x=--
-2
7+5 12
x =-=-=-6
1 -2 -2
7-5 2 x2=-=-2= _2=-1
EJERCICIO 267
1. x2 -3x+ 2= O
2. x2-2x-15=O
X=- (-2)± (-2)' -(-15)
2 4
x=l±~1+15
x= l±4
Xl =1+4=5 x2=1-4=-3
3. x2 = 19x- 88
x2-19x+88=O
4. x2 + 4x= 285
x2 +4x- 285= O
4 (4)'
x=--± --(-285)
2 4
x=-2±~4+285 x=-2±.J289 x¡=-2+17=15 x2=-2-17=-19
5. 5x(x-1)-2(2x2-7x)=-8 5x2 -5x-4x2 + 14x+ 8= O
x2+9x+8=O
X=_~±~(~2 -8
X=_~±~~1_8 X=-~±ff
9 7 -2
Xl =--+-=-=-1
2 2 2
9 7 -16 x2=-z-z=T=-8
6. x2-(7x+6)=x+59 x2-7x-6-x-59=O x2-8x-65=O
x=- (-8)± (-8)' -(-65)
2 4
x=4±~16+65 x=4±9
Xl =4+9=13 x2=4-9=-5
(x-1)' + l1x+ 199= 3x2 - (x- 2)'
x2 - 2x+ 1 + l1x+ 199=3x2 - x2 +4x-4 x2 + 9x+ 200=2x2 +4x-4 x2-Sx-204=0
(-s) (S)2 x=--± --(-204)
2 4
S~ x=2±V4+204
x=~± {841
2 V4
S 29 34 xl=2+2=2=17
S 29 -24
X =---=-=-12
2 2 2 2
8. (x-2)(x+2)-7(x-1)=21 x2-4-7x+7-21=O x2-7x-18=O
9.2x2-(x-2)(x+5)=7(x+3)
2x2 - x2 - 3x+ 10= 7 x+ 21 x2 -lOx-11= O
x=- (-1O)± (-10)' -(-11)
2 4
x=5±~25+11 x=5±../36
Xl =5+6=11 x2=5-6=-1
10. (x-l)(x+ 2)-(2x- 3)(x+4)-x+ 14= O x2 + x- 2- 2x2 - Sx+ 12- x+ 14= O - x2 -Sx
+24=0 x2 +Sx-24=0
13 3
2. 4x--=- mcm=2x x 2
8x2 -26=3x
8x2-3x-26=0 51
,.-----,- 5. ---=1 mcm=x+2
3±~(-3)' -4(8)(-26) x x+2
2(8) 5(1+~)-1=X+2 mcm=x
3±..j9+ff32 5x+ 10- x= x2 +2x
X 16
3±29 x=----ui
3+29 32
x =--=-=2
l 16 16
3-29 -26
x =--=-=-12-
2 16 16 8
EJERCICIO 268
1. x2 _~=2 mcm=lO 5 2 10
2x2-5x=3
2x2-5x-3=0
5±~(-5)' -4(2)(-3) 2(2) 5±..fi5+24
4
5±7
x=-
4
5+ 7 12
x =-=-=3
l 4 4
5-7 -2 1
x -------
2- 4 - 4 - 2
x
x
x
3. ~ -~=3(x-5) mcm=6 x2 - 3x= 18(x- 5) x2-3x=18x-90 x2-21x+90=0
x=- (-21) ±~(-21)' -90
2 4
x=3..!.± (81
2 V4"
21 9 30
x =-+-=-=15 l 2 2 2
21 9 12
x =---=-=6
2 2 2 2
4. ¡(x-4)+~(x-5)=~(x2-53)
mcm=20
5(x-4)+ 8(x-5)=4(x2 -53) 5x-20+8x-40-4x2+212=0 -4x2 + 13x+ 152= O
-13± ~(13)2 -4(-4)(152) 2(-4)
-13± ~169+ 2.432
-8
-13±51
x=---
8
-13+51 38 3
X =---=-=-44 l -8 -8
-13-51 -64
X =---=-=8
2 -8 -8
X
X
x2-2x-1O=0
(-2) (-2)' x=--± ---(-10)
2 4
x=l±~l+lO x=l±m
XI =l+m x2 =l-m
15 llx+5
6. ----2 -=-1
X X
2 mcm=x
15x- (l1x+ 5)= - x2 x2+4x-5=0
4 ~4)2 )
x=--± --(-5
2 4
x=-2±~4+5 x=-2±3 x,=-2+3=1 x2 =-2-3=-5
7. ~+ 5x-1 = 3 mcm= (3x+5)(x+ 1) 3x+5 x+1
8x(x+ 1)+ (5x-1)(3x+ 5)= 3(3x+ 5)(x+ 1) 8x' +8x+ 15x' + 22x-5= 9x' + 24x+ 15
23x'+ 30x-5= 9x' + 24x+ 15 14x' + 6x- 20= O
_6±~(6)2 -4(14)(-20)
x= 2(14)
-6±.JU56 -6±34
x= =--
28 28
-6+34 28
x =--=-=1
l 28 28
-6-34 -40 x2=~=28=-lt
1 1 1
8. x-2- x-1="6
mcm= 6(x- 2)(x-1)
6~-0-6~-~=~-~~-0
6x- 6- 6x+ 12= x2 - 3x+ 2 6=x2-3x+2 0=x2-3x-4
x=- (-3)±l-3)' -(-4)
2 4
X=2±~5!.-+4
2 4
x=%±~ =%±%
358
X =-+-=-=4 l 2 2 2
3 5 -2
X =---=-=-1
2 2 2 2
2x- 3 x-2 ()
9. 1---=- mcm=10 x+5
x+5 10
lO(x+ 5)-1O(2x- 3)= (x+5)(x- 2)
lOx+ 50- 20x+ 30= x2 + 3x-1O -lOx+ 80= x2 + 3x-1O 0= x2 + 13x- 90
13
x=--±
2
(13)2 _ (- 90) 4 Continúa
9. Continuación
13 ~ x=-2±'f¡-+90
x=- 13 ±~S29
2 4
-13 23
x=-±-
2 2
-13 23 10 xl=2+2=2=S
-13 23 -36
x =---=-=-18
2 2 2 2
10. x-13 10 (Sx + 3) 2
-X-=S- X2 mcm=x
x(x-13)=Sx2 -lO(Sx+ 3) x2 -13x=Sx2 -SOx- 30 -4x2+37x+30=0
-37±~(37)2-4 (-4)(30)
x= 2(-4)
- 37± ~ 1.369 + 480
x=
-8
37±.¡I:S49
x=
-8
-37±43
x=
-8
-37+43 6 3
Xl = -8 -8 4
-37-43 -80
x2 -- ---8---- ---8 = 10
11 x x- 2 S ()
. ---=- mcm=2x x-2
x-2 x 2
2x(x)- 2(x- 2)(x- 2)=Sx(x- 2)
2x' - 2(x' -4x+4)=Sx' -lOx 2x' - 2x' + 8x- 8= Sx' -lOx O=Sx'-18x+8
-(-18)±~(-18)' -4(S)(8)
x= 2(S)
18± ~324-160
x=
10
18± .J164
x=
10
18±.fi'41
x=
10
9+m
xl=-S-
18±2m 9±m
10 - S
9-m
; x,=-S-
4x2 1-3x 20x ()
12. ----=- mcm=12 x-1
x-1 4 3
12 (4x2)- 3(x-1)(1- 3x)= 4 (x-1)(20x)
48x2 + 9x2 -12x+ 3= 80x2 - 80x - 23x2 + 68x+ 3= O
- 68± ~(68)2 -4(- 23)(3)
x= 2(-23)
- 68± ~4.624+ 276 - 68±..J47iOO
x=
-46 -46
-68+70 2 1 -68-70
X - ----. x-
1- -46 -46- 23' 2- -46
-68±70
-46
-138
--=3
-46
3x-1 2x 7
13. -------=0 mcm=6x(2x-1)
x 2x-1 6
6(2x-1)(3x-1)- 6x(2x)-7 x(2x-1)= O 6(6x2 - Sx+ 1)-12x2 -14x2 + 7 x= O 36x2 - 30x
+ 6-12x2 -14x2 + 7 x= O lOx2 - 23x+ 6= O
23 ± ~(23)2 - 4(10)(6)
x= 2(10)
23± ~S29- 240 23±.J289 23± 17
x= - ---
20 20 20
23+ 17 40 23-17 6 3
Xl = -2-0 -= 20 = 2 x2 = ----w-= 20 = 10
Sx-8 7x-4 14.--=--
x-1 x+ 2
(x+ 2)(Sx- 8)= (7x- 4)(x-1)
Sx2 + 2x-16= 7x2 -l1x+ 4 0= 2x2 -13x+ 20
13± ~(13)2 - 4(2) (20)
x= 2(2)
13± ~169-160 13±.J9 13± 3
x= ---=--
4 4 4
13+3 16 13-3 10 S 1
Xl =-4-=4=4 ; X2 =-4-=4="2=22
x+3 5x-1
15. 2x-1- 4x+7=0
mcm= (2x-1)(4x+7)
(x+ 3)(4 x + 7)- (5x-1)(2x-1)= O 4x2 +19x+21-lOx2 +7x-1=0 - 6x2 + 26x+ 20= O 3x2
-13x-1O= O
13±~(-13r -4(3)(-10)
x- 2(3)
13± .J169 + 120
x=
6
13+ 17 30
x =--=-=5
, 6 6
13±.J289 13± 17
6 6
13-17 -4 2
; x2=-6-=6=-"3
5 6 5
18 . x2 _ 1 - x+ 1 - 8
mcm= 8(x2 -1)
40-48(x-1)=29(x2-1) 40- 48x+ 48= 29x2 - 29 -29x2-48x+117=0
- (- 48)± ~(482)-4(- 29 )(117)
x= 2(-29)
48± .J2.304+ 13.572 _ 48± 126
x= -58 -58
48+ 126 174 48-126 -78 10
x, = ----=-ss- = _ 58 = - 3; x2 = ----=-ss- = _ 58 = 129
1 1 1
16. 4-x -"6= x+1
mcm= 6(4- x)(x+ 1)
6(x+ 1)- (4- x)(x+ 1)= 6(4- x)
6x+ 6+ x2 - 3x- 4= 24- 6x x2 +3x+ 2 = 24- 6x x2 + 9x- 22= O
x-l x+l 2x+9 ()()()
19. -+-=-- mcm= x+l x-l x+3
x+ 1 x-l x+3
(x-l)(x-l)(x+ 3)+ (x+ l)(x+ l)(x+ 3)= (2x+ 9 )(x+ l)(x-l) (x2 -2x+ 1)(x+ 3)+ (x2
+ 2x+ l)(x+ 3)= (2x+ 9)(x2 -1)
x3 + 3x2 - 2x2 - 6x+ x+ 3+ x3 + 3x2 + 2x2 + 6x+ x+ 3= 2x3 - 2x+ 9x2 - 9 2x3 + 6x
2 + 2x+ 6= 2x3 + 9x2 - 2x- 9 O=3x2-4x-15
x+ 4 x+ 2 1 ()()
17. x+5- x+3=24 mcm=24 x+5 x+3
24(x+ 3)(x+ 4)- 24(x+ 2)(x+5)= (x+ 5)(x+ 3) 24x2 + 168x+ 288- 24x2 -168x- 240= x
2 + 8x+ 15 48= x2 + 8x+ 15 0= x2+ 8x- 33
x=-~± (9)2 -(-22) 2 4
X=-~±~~+22=-~±~=-:±~
- 9 13 4 - 9 13 - 22
x =-+-=-=2 . x =---=-=-11
'222 '2222
x=-~± (8)2 -(-33) 2 4
x= - 4± .J16+ 33 = -4± J49 = -4± 7 x,=-4+7=3; x2=-4-7=-1l
4± ~(4)2 -4(3)(-15)
x= 2(3)
4 ± .J"i6+l8O 4 ± .J1% 4 ± 14
6 6 6
4+ 14 18 4-14 -10 ,
x =--=-=3 x =--=-=-1,
j 6 6 2 6 6
x
3 1 1
20 . x+2 x-2 x+1
mcm= (x+ 2)(x- 2)(x+ 1)
3~-~~+0-~+~~+0=~+~~-~
3x2 - 3x- 6- x2 - 3x- 2= x2-4 2x2 - 6x- 8= x2-4 x2-6x-4=0
x=- (-6) ±~(-6r -(-4)=3±.J9+4=3±Ji3
2 4
Xl =3+Ji3 ; X2 =3-Ji3
EJERCICIO 269
x2-x-6=0
1. (x- 3)(x+ 2)= O
x,=3 x2=-2
2. x2 + 7x= 18
x2+7x-18=0
(x+9)(x-2)=0
x,=-9 x2=2
3. 8x- 65= - x2
x2+8x-65=0
(x+13)(x-5)=0
XI =-13 x2 =5
4. x2 = 108- 3x
x2 + 3x-108= O
108 2
54 2 22.3_32 27 3 12-9=3 9 3
3 3
1
(x+12)(x-9)=0
XI =-12 X2 =9
5. 2x2+7x-4=0
(2X)2 +7(2x)-8= O (2x+ 8)(2x-1)
-------0
2
(x+ 4 )(2x 1)= O
x+4=0 2x-1=0
1
x =-
2 2
6.
6x2 =lO-11x 6x2 + llx-lO= O
(6X)2 + 11(6x)-60=0
(6x+ 15)(6x- 4)
-------0
3·2
(2x+5)(3x- 2)= O
2x+5=0 3x-2=0
5 I 2
x'=-'2=-2, x2=3
20x2 - 27x= 14 20x2 -27x-14=0 (20X)2 - 27 (20x) - 280= O (20x- 35)(20x+ 8)
------=-0
5-4
(4x-7)(5x+2)=0
7 3 2
XI =4'=14 x2=-S
8. 7x=15-30x2 30x2+7x-15=0
7.
(30X)2 + 7 (30x) - 450= O (30x+ 25)(30x-18)
~------=O
5·6
(6x+5)(5x-3)=0
6x+5=0 5x-3=0
6x=-5 5x=3
-5 3
XI ="'6 x2=S
9. 60= 8x2 + 157 X
8x2 + 157x- 60= O (8X)2 + 157 (8x) - 480= O (8x+ 160)(8x- 3)
8 O
(x+ 20)(8x- 3)= O
x+20=0 8x-3=0
x,=-20 8x=3
3 x2="8
10. x(x-1)-5(x- 2)= 2
x2-x-5x+1O-2=0 x2-6x+8=0
(x-4)(x-2)=0
x-4=0 x,=4
x-2=0
11.
(x-2)' -(2x+3)' =-80
x2 -4x+4-4x2 -12x-9+ 80= O -3x2-16x+75=0 3x2 + 16x-75= O (3X)2 + 16(3x)-225=0 (3
x+ 25)(3x- 9) ------0 3
Continúa
11. Continuación (3x+ 25)(x- 3)= O
3x+25=0 x-3=0
3x=-25 x2=3
25 I
XI =-3=-8,
6 9 4
12. 7--:;=-3 mcm=3x'
18-27x=-4x' 4x'-27x+18=0 (4x)' - 27(4x)+ 72= o (4x- 24)(4x- 3) ------0
4
(x- 6)(4x- 3)= O
x-6=0 4x-3=0
x,=6 4x=3
3 x2=¡
x+2 74
13. --+x=- mcm=x
X X
x+ 2+ x2 = 74
x2 + x-72= O
(x+9)(x-8)=0
x+9=0 x-8=0
XI =-9 X2 =8
4 ( )' 2x-5
1 . x+2 ---=3 mcm=3 3
3(x+2)' -(2x-5)=9 3x' + 12x+ 12- 2x+ 5- 9= O 3x' + lOx+ 8= O (3x)' + 1O(3x)+ 24=
O (3x+ 6)(3x+ 4)
-----=-0
3
(x+2)(3x+4)=0 3x+4=0
x+2=0
x,=-2
3x=-4 -4 x'=3=-1+
X 3x+ 15 ()
15. x-2 +x=-4- mcm=4 x-2
4x+ 4x(x- 2)= (3x+ 15)(x- 2) 4x+ 4x2 - 8x= 3x2 + 9x- 30
x2 -13x+ 30= O
(x-1O)(x-3)=0
x-lO=O x-3=0
x,=10 x2=3
16. _6 __ ~=2 mcm=12x(x-4) x-4 x 12
72x-48(x-4)= 5x(x- 4)
72x- 48x+ 192= 5x2 - 20x
5x2 - 44x-192= O
(5X)2 - 44 (5x) - 960= O
(5x- 60)(5x+ 16) _ O 5 (x-12)(5x+ 16)= O x-12= O 5x+ 16= O
x¡=12 5x=-16
-16
x =-=-3.1
2 5 5
(X- 2)' - (x- 3)' = 37
17.
x3_6x2 + 12x-8- x3 +9x2 - 27x+ 27- 37=0 3x2 -15x-18= O (3X)2 -15(3x)- 54= O (3x-
18)(3x+ 3)= O 3x+3=0
3x=-3
3x-18= O 3x= 18
x¡=6 x2=-1
x-1 x+3 mcm=3(x+1)
18. x+1-2=-3-
3(x-1)- 6(x+ 1)= (x+ 3)(x+ 1)
3x- 3- 6x- 6= x2 + 4x+ 3 x2+7x+12=0 (x+4)(x+3)=0
x+4=0 x+3=0
x¡=-4
EJERCICIO 270
4x-1 2x+ 1
19. 2x+3= 6x+5
~x+~~x-0=~x+0~x+~
24x2 + 14x-5= 4x2 + 8x+ 3 20x2 + 6x- 8= O lOx2+3x-4=0
(lOx)2 + 3(lOx)-40= O (lOx+ 8)(lOx- 5)
-------0
2·5
(5x+ 4 )(2x-1)= O 5x+4=0 2x-1=0
5x=-4 2x=1
-4 1
x¡=S x2="2
3x+2 9x+14
20 --=5--- mcm=12x
. 4 12x
3x(3x+ 2)=60x- (9x+ 14) 9x2 + 6x= 60x- 9x-14 9x2-45x+14=0
(9X)2 - 45(9x) + 126= O (9x-42)(9x-3)
~-----=O
3·3
(3x-14 )(3x-1)= O
3x-14= O 3x-1= O
3x= 14 3x= 1
14 1
x¡=3 x2="3
x1= 4i
2. lOx2 = 36a2 - 37ax 3. a2x2 + abx- 2b2 = O
lOx2 + 37ax- 36a2 = O (a2x)2 + ab(a2x)-2a2b2 =0
- 37a± ~(37a)2 - 4(10) (- 36a2) (a2 x+ 2ab )(a2 x- ab)= O
x- 2(10) a2x-ab=0
a2x+2ab=0
-37a±~2.809a2 -37a±53a a2x=-2ab a2x=ab
x 20 20 -2ab ab
-37a+53a 16a 4a Xl=~ x2 = a2
---
Xl 20 20 5 2b b
-37a-53a -90a -9a X =-- x2=-
------ 1 a a
x2 = 20 20 2
1. x2+2ax-35a2=0 (x+7a)(x-5a)=0 x+7a=0 x-5a=0
Xl =-7a
4. 89bx= 42x2 + 22b2
42x2 - 89bx + 22b2 = O
-(-89b)±~(-89b)' -4(42)(22b2)
x- 2(42)
89 ±..j4225i1 8% ± 65b
x= =
84 84
89b- 65b 24b 2b
X¡= 84 84=7
89b+65b 154b llb
x2= 84 =84=6
9. x2-2ax=6ab-3bx
x2 + 3bx- 2ax- 6ab= O
x(x+ 3b)- 2a(x+ 3b)= O (x+3b) (x-2a)=0
x+3b =0 x¡ =-3b
x-2a=0
x2 =2a
(x+5a)(x-4a)=0
x+5a=0 x-4a=0
X¡ =-5a X2 =4a
6.2x2=abx+3a2b2
2x2 - abx- 3a2b2 = O
10. 3(2x2 - mx)+4nx- 2mn= O 3x(2x- m)+ 2n(2x- m)= O (2x- m)(3x+ 2n)= O 2x-m=0 3x
+2n=0
2x=m 3x=-2n
5. x2 + ax= 20a2
x2+ax-20a2=0
m x==¡ 2
2n
x =--
2 3
(2X)2 - ab(2x)- 6a2b2 = O (2x- 3ab )(2x+ 2ab)
2 O
(2x- 3ab )(x+ ab)= O
2x-3ab=0 x+ab=O
11. x2-a2-bx-ab=0
(x2 - a2)_ b(x+ a)= O (x+ a)(x- a)- b(x+ a)= O (x-a-b)(x+a)=O
x-a-b=O x+a=O
x¡ = a + b X2 = - a
2x= 3ab 3ab x¡=T
x=-ab
x2 =-ab
12. abx2 - x(b- 2a)= 2
abx2 -bx+ 2ax- 2= O abx2 + 2ax-bx- 2= O
7.
b2 x2 + 2abx= 3a2 b2x2 + 2abx- 3a2 = O
ax(bx+ 2)- (bx+ 2)= O (bx+ 2)(ax-l)= O
(b2x)' + 2ab(b2x)-3a2b2 =0 (b2 x+ 3ab )(b2 x- ab)
b.b =0
(bx+3a) (bx-a)=O
bx+3a=0 bx-a=O
bx=-3a bx=a
3a a
x¡=-b x2=¡;
bx+2=0 bx=-2 -2 x1=---¡;
ax-l =0 ax=l
13. x2-2ax+a2-b2=0
x-b=O X¡ =b
x+a=O
- (- 2a)± ~(2a)2 -4(a2 - b2)
x=
2
2a±~4a2-4a2+4b2 2a±2b
x=
2 2
2a+2b 2(a+b)
x =--=---=a+b
¡ 2 2
2a-2b 2(a-b)
x =--=---=a-b
2 2 2
8.
x2 + ax- bx= ab x2 + ax- bx- ab= O
x(x+a)-b(x+a)=O (x-b) (x+a)=O
14.4x(x-b)+b2=4m2 4x2 -4bx+ b2 -4m2 = O
X= -(-4b)±~(-4b)' -4(4)(b2-4m2) 2(4)
4b± ~16h2 -16h2 + 64m2
x=--------
8
4b ± ..¡¡;;;;;; 4b ± 8m
x= ---
8 8
4b+8m 4(b+2m) b+2m
Xl
8 8 2
_ 4b-8m 4(b-2m) b-2m X2---8-= 8 --2-
15. x2-b2+4a2-4ax=0 x2 - 4ax- b2 + 4a2 = O
19. x2+m2x(m-2)=2m5
x2 + xm3 - 2xm2 - 2m5 = O x(x+m3)-2m2 (x+ m3)= O
(x+ m3)(x- 2m2)= O
x+ m3 =0 x-2m2 =0
Xl =_m3 x2 = 2m2
x= -(-4a)±~(-4a)' -4(-b2+4a2) 2 4a±~16a2+4b2-16a2 4a±2b
x= --
2 - 2
_ 4a+2b 2(2a+b)
Xl --2-= 2 -2a+b
_ 4a-2b 2(2a-b)
x2 --2-= 2 -2a-b
16. x2-(a+2)x=-2a
x2-ax-2x+2a=0
x(x-a)-2(x-a)=0 (x-a)(x-2)=0
x-a=O x-2=0
20.6x2-15ax=2bx-5ab
6x2 - 2bx-15ax+5ab= O 2x(3x-b )-5a(3x-b)= O (3x-b)(2x-5a)=0 3x-b=0 2x-5a=0
3x=b 2x=5a
b 5a
Xl ="3 X2=T
21 3x a x2
·4+"2- 2a =0 mcm=4a
3ax+2a2-2x2=0 2x2 - 3ax- 2a2 = O (2X)2 - 3a (2x) - 4a2 = O (2x-4a)(2x+a)
2 O
(x-2a)(2x+a)=0
x-2a=0 2x+a=0
x2 =2
Xl =2a
2x=-a
17.
x2 + 2x(4- 3a)=48a x2 + 8x- 6ax- 48a= O x(x+ 8)- 6a (x+ 8)= O (x+ 8)(x- 6a)= O
x+8=0 x-6a=0
a x2=-"2
Xl =m+2
2x-b 2bx-b2
22. --=---
2 3x
3x(2x-b)= 2(2bx-b2) 6x2 - 3bx-4bx+ 2b2 = O 3x(2x-b)- 2b(2x- b)= O (2x-b)(3x-2b)=
0
2x-b=0 3x-2b=0
2x=b 3x=2b
b 2b
xl="2 x2=3
Xl =-8
18.
x2 -2x=m2 +2m x2 - m2 -2x-2m= O
(x+ m)(x- m)- 2(x+ m)= O (x- m- 2)(x+ m)= O
x-m-2=0 x+m=O
a+x + a-2x __ 4 mcm=a'-x'
23. a-x a+x-
(a+ x)(a+ x)+ (a- 2x)(a- x)= - 4(a' - x')
a' + 2ax+ x' + a' - 3ax+ 2x' = - 4a' + 4x' 6a'-ax-x'=O x'+ax-6a'=O
(x+3a)(x-2a)=O
x+3a=O x-2a=O
Xl = - 3a x, = 2a
24.
x
x
a' ± ~a4 - 8a3 + 16a'
2(2a-4)
a'±~a'(a'-8a+16) 4a-8
x
a'±~a'(a-4)' _a'±a'-4a
4(a-2) 4(a-2)
a'+a'-4a 2a'-4a 2a(a-2)
Xl = 4(a-2) - 4(a-2) 4(a-2) 2
a'-(a'-4a) 4a a
x,= 4(a-2) 4(a-2t a-2
X
2 1
25. x+-=-+2a mcm=ax X a
ax' + 2a= x+ 2a'x
ax' - x+ 2a- 2a' x= O
x(ax-l)- 2a(ax-l)= O (ax-l)(x-2a)=O
ax-l= O x-2a=O
ax=l x=2a
1
X =- x, =2a
1 a
2x-b x 2x ()
mcm=4b x+b
26. -b-- x+b = 4b
4(2x- b)(x+ b)-4bx= 2x(x+b) 8x' + 4bx - 4b' - 4bx = 2x' + 2bx 6x' - 2bx- 4b' = O

3x' - bx - 2b' = O
(3x)' - b(3x)- 6b' = O (3x-3b)(3x+2b) O 3 (x-b)(3x+2b)=O
x-b= O 3x+ 2b= O
Xl =b 3x=-2b
2b
X =--
, 3
EJERCICIO 271
1. 3i'=48 i'=16 x=J16 x=±4
a
2. 5i' -9=46 5i' =55 i' =11 x=J11 x=±J11
3. 7i'+14=O x2+2=O x2=-2
x=F2 x=.J2F1 x=±.J2¡
4. 9x2-a2=O 9i' = a2
a2 x2=_
9
x=f;
x=±~ 3
5. (x+S)(x-S)=-7
x2-2S=-7
x2=18
x=.J18
X=~32.2 x=±3..fi
6. (2x- 3)(2x+ 3)-135= O 4x'-9-135=0 4x'=144 x'=36
x=.J36
x=±6
7. 3(x+2)(x-2)=(x-4)' +8x
3x' -12= x' - 8x+ 16+ 8x 2x' - 28= O
2x' =28
x'=14
x=±M
? 1 1 x-----=O
9 3
? 4 x-=-
9
x=±~
2
x=+-
-3
9. (2x-1)(x+2)-(x+4)(x-1)+5=0 2x' + 3x- 2- x' - 3x+4+5= O x'+7=0 x'=-7
x=.n Fi
x=±.n¡
5 1 7
10. 2x" - 6x" =12
30-2=7x" 28= 7x"
mcm=12x"
J4=X ±2=x
EJERCICIO 272
1. x'=5x
x'-5x=0
2. 4x'=-32x
4x'+32x=0 4x(x+8)=0 4x=0 x+8=0
x(x-5)=0
xl=O x-5=0 x, =5
Xl =0 X, =-8
2x-3 x-2
11. --=- mcm=(x-3)(x-1) x-3 x-1
(2x-3)(x-1)= (x-2)(x- 3)
2x' -5x+ 3= x' -5x+ 6 x'-3=0
x'=3
x=±.J3
12.
x"-5 4x"-1 14x"-1 --+-----=0
3 5 15
5x" -25+12x2 -3-14x" +1=0 3x"-27=0 3x" =27 x" =9
x=J9 x=±3
x2 + 1 13·2x-3---=-7 mcm=x-2 x-2
2x(x- 2)- 3(x- 2)- (x2 + 1)= -7(x- 2)
2x2 -4x- 3x+ 6- x2 -1= -7x+ 14 x2+5=14
x2=9
x=.J9
x=±3
14.
3
3--,-=2 mcm= 4x'-1 4x- -1
3(4x' -1)- 3= 2 (4x' -1) 12x' - 6= 8x' - 2 4x'=4
x' = 1
x= ..[i
x=±l
3. x'-3x=3x'-4x 0= 2x' - x
0= x(2x-1) O=xl 0=2x-1
1
1= 2x=>"2= x,
4. 5x"+4=2(x+2) 5x" +4=2x+4 5x"-2x=0
(x-3)" -(2x+5)" =-16
5.
x(5x-2)=0
Xl =0 5x-2= O 5x=2 2 xI="5
X2 - 6x+ 9-4x2 - 20x- 25+ 16= O -3x2-26x=0 x(3x+ 26)= O
Xl =0 3x+26=0
3x=-26
-26 x2=-3-=-8+
7. (4x-1)(2x+3)= (x+3)(x-1)
8. ~_ x+4=1 x-1 x-2
mcm=(x-1)(x-2)
8x" + 10x- 3= x" + 2x- 3 7x"+8x=0
X" x-9 3
6. 3- -6-="2 mcm= 12
4x" - 2x+ 18= 18 2x(2x-1)=0
2x=0 2x-1=0
Xl =0 2x=1
1
xI="2
X" - x-2-x" -3x+4= x" - 3x+2 O=x"+x
3. ~5x-1+~x+3=4
(~+~x+3r =16
5x-1 + 2~5x2 + 14x- 3 + x+ 3= 16
2 ~5X2 + 14x- 3 = 14- 6x
(~5X2+14x-3r = (7-3x)"
5x2 + 14x- 3= 49-42x+ 9x2 0=4x2 - 56x+ 52
0=x2-14x+13
0= (x-13)(x-1)
x-13=0
Xl = 13 ~ Rechazo por sol extraña x-1=0
x2 = 1 ~ sol que satisface
x(7x+ 8)= O
xl=O 7x+8=0
7x=-8 8
x =--
I 7
xI=-1f
EJERCICIO 273
1. x+~4x+1=5 ~4x+1=5-x
(~4x+1)' = (5-x)'
4x+ 1= 25-lOx+ x" 0= x" -14x+ 24
0=(x-12)(x-2)
x-12=0
Xl = 12 ~ Rechazo sol extraña x-2=0
XI = 2 ~ sol que satisface
2. 2x-~x-1=3x-7
7-x=~x-1
(7-x)"=~(x-1)"
49-14x+ x" = x-1 x"-15x+50=0
(x-lO)(x- 5)= O
x-lO= O
Xl = 1 O ~ Re chazo sol extraña x-5=0
XI = 5 ~ sol que satisface
0= x(x+ 1)
x+1=0
xI=-1
4. 2'¡;-~x+5=1
(2'¡;)' =(1+~x+5)'
4x=1+2~x+5+x+5 3x-6=2~x+5
(3x-6)' =(2~x+5)'
9x2 - 36x+ 36=4x+ 20 9x2 - 40x+ 16= O
(9X)2 - 40(9x) + 144= O (9x-36)(9x-4)
-----=0 9
(x-4)(9x-4)= O
x-4=0
Xl = 4 --7 sol que satisface 9x-4=0
9x=4
4 I-
X = - --7 Rechazo por so. extrana 2 9
~2x-1+~x+3=3
5.
(~2x-1)' =(3-~x+3)'
2x-1= 9-6~x+ 3+ x+3 x-13=-6~x+3
(6~x+ 3)' = (13- x)'
36(x+ 3)= 169- 26x+ x2 36x+ 108= 169- 26x+ x2 0= x2 - 62x+ 61
0= (x- 61)(x-1)
x-61=0
Xl = 61 --7 Rechazo por sol extraña x-1=0
x2 = 1 --7 sol que satisface
6.
~x-3+~2x+1-2~=0 (0+~2x+1Y =(2~)'
x-3+2J2x2-5x-3+2x+l=4x
(2J2x2-5x-3)' =(x+2)'
4(2x2 - 5x- 3)= x2 + 4x+4 8x2 - 20x-12= x2 + 4x+ 4 Continúa
6. Continuación 7x2-24x-16=0 (7X)2 - 24(7x)-112= O (7x-28)(7x+4)
------=-0
7
(x-4)(7x+4)=0
x- 4= 00=> Xl = 4 --7 sol factible 7x+4=0
4
7 x= - 40=> x2 = -"7 --7 sol inadmisible
7.
~5x-1-~3-x =f2;
(~-f2;)' =(~3-x)'
5x-1- 2~lOx2 - 2x + 2x= 3- X
- 2~lOx2 - 2x=-8x+4 8x-4=2~lOx2-2x 4(2x-1)= 2~lOx2 - 2x
(4x-2)' =(~lOx2-2xY
16x2 -16x+4= 10x2 - 2x 6x2-14x+4=0
(6X)2 -14(6x)+24=0 (6x-12)(6x- 2)
---- --O
6
(x-2)(6x-2)=0
x-2=0
Xl = 2 --7 sol factible 6x-2=0
6x=2
1
X = - --7 sol inadmisible 2 3
8. .p;+i +.J5; = ~16x+ 1
3x+ 1 + 2~15x2 + 5x + 5x= 16x+ 1 2~15x2 + 5x = 8x (~15x2 + 5x y = (4X)2 15x2 + 5
x= 16x2
0=x2-5x
0=x(x-5)
Xl = O --7 sol admisible x-5=0
x2 = 5 --7 sol admisible
~2x+~4x-3 =3 9.
2x+~4x-3=9
(~4x-3)' = (9-2x)'
4x- 3= 81- 36x+ 4x2 0=4x2 -40x+ 84 0= x2 -lOx+ 21
12.
8 2.[;.=~x+7+ ~ ..,¡x+7
2~X2+7x=~(x+7)' +8 (2~x2+7xr =(x+15)'
4x2 + 28x= x2 + 30x+ 225
3x2 - 2x- 225= O (3X)2 - 2(3x)- 675= O (3x- 27)(3x+ 25)
------=-0
3
(x- 9)(3x+ 25)= O
x - 9 = O =; Xl = 9 --7 sol aceptada 25
3x + 25= O =; x, = - - --7 sol inadmisible - 3
x-7=0
Xl = 7 --7 Rechazo por sol inadmisible
x-3=0
X2 = 3 --7 sol aceptada
13.
~x+~x+8 =2.[;. x+~x+8=4x
(~x+ 8)' = (3X)2
6
10. ~x+3+ ~x+3 =5
(~x+3)' +6=5~x+3 (x+9)' =(5~x+3)'
x+8=9x2 9x2-x-8=0
x2-7x+6=0
(9x)' -1(9x)-72=0 (9x-9)(9x+8) -------0 9
X - 1 = O =; Xl = 1 --7 sol aceptada
8
9x+ 8= O =; X, = - - --7 sol rechazada - 9
~6- x+ ~x+7 -~12x+ 1=0 14.
(~+~x+7)' =(~12x+1)'
6- x+ 2~42- x- x2 + x+ 7= 12x+ 1 2~42- x- x2 = 12x-12
(~42- x- x2 r = (6x- 6)'
(x-1)(x- 6)= O
x-1=0
Xl = 1 --7 sol admisible x-6=0
x2 = 6 --7 sol admisible
11.
4
.[;. + .[;. = 5
(.[;.)' + 4 = 5.[;. (x+4)' = (5.[;.)'
x2+8x+16=25x x2-17x+16=0
42- x- x2 = 36x2 -72x+ 36 0=37x2-71x-6 (37x)2 -71(37x)- 222= O (37x-74)(37x+ 3)
--------0
37
(x- 2)(37x+ 3)= O
x- 2= O =; Xl = 2 --7 sol aceptada 37x+3=0
(x-16)(x-1)= O x-16=0
Xl = 16 --7 sol admisible x-1=0
x2 = 1 --7 sol admisible
3
37 x= - 3 =; x, = - - --7 sol inadmisible - 37
EJERCICIO 274
11. x"-4x+3=O x y
O 3
1 O
2 -1
3 O
-1 8
r y
1
I 1\ J
I \ I
I \ I
I \ I
I
I I¡, J
I \ /
"- /
X· '- /' X·
I y.
SO/:x1 ~1 x2 =3
12. x" -6x+8=O x y
O 8
1 3
2 O
3 -1
4 O
r y
I I
I I
I \ I
I \ I
I \ f
,
J
\ J
, I
X' '- / X
y'
SO/:x1 ~2 x2 =4
13. x"-2x-3=O x y
O -3
1 -4
2 -3
3 O
-1 O
1- - ----
~
! , ,
\ I
X· \ I X
\ I
\ 1(
\.. /
y.
14. x" +4x+3=O x y
O 3
-1 O
-2 -1
-3 O
1 8
I y
I
I \ I
I \ /
\ f
I \ I
"
~ J
\ I
'- I
X' . . .... / X
y'
SO/:x,=-3 x2=-1
15. x"=6-x x"+x-6=O
x y
O -6
1 -4
2 O
3 6
-1 -6
-3 O
Y

\ J
l J
\ I
\ I
.X" X
\. /
'\. ,
'- /
. .. . 1/
'--'
y'
so/:xl~-3 x2= 2
16. x"=2x-1
x"-2x+1=O x y
O 1
1 O
2 1
3 4
-1 4
I y
I
I ~ I
I \ I
I I
I \ I
, I
'" /
X' X
I
I Y'
sol: x, = X2 = 1
17. x"+8x+16=O
ix ~6
-2 4
-4 O
-6 4
y

I \ J
I \ I
\ 1
\ I
\
I \ I
I \ 1
I \ I
I \
I
I /
"- /
. .
.... .. /
X' X
I
I y'
so/:x, = x2 ~ -4
18. x2-4=O x y
1 -3 2 O
3 5 -1 -3
-2 O
-3 5
O -4
y
I
\ J
\ 1
\ I
,
x' ~ J X
\ J
\ 11
. .. .. /
Y'
19. x"=3x+10 x"-3x-10 =0 x y
O -10
3 -10
5 O
-1 -6
-2 O
\ y I
1 IJ
X' l X
\ I
\ {
\ {
\
,
I
\ f
\ f
,
j
1"- ",
Y'
20. x2-4x=-4
x2-4x+4 =0 x y
O 4
1 1
2 O
3 1
-1 9
I -
y
I
I \ I
I \ I
I \ 1I
I
I j
I \ I
I \ ;
"- /
X' X
I
I Y'
21. 2x2-9x+10=0 x y
O 10
1 3
2 O
3 1
4 6
r y
I
\
\
\
\ ~
\ I
1
\ I
\
x' '\" / X

Y'
22.2x"-5x-7=0 x y
O -7
1 -10
3 -4
4 5
-1 O
r y
,
\
l I
l I
I
X' I X
111 I
1\ 11
\
\ j
l /
.1
/
"- 1/
y'
EJERCICIO 275
1. x --7 N° mayor
9 - x --7 N° menor
x2+(9_x)2=53 x2 +81-18x+x2 =53 2x2 -18x+ 28=0 x2-9x+14=0
(x-7)(x-2)=0
x1=7 x2=2
7 --7 N° mayor
9 - 7 = 2 --7 N° menor
2.
x ---7 N° positivo
3x
5 --7 Otro Número
Xe;J=2.160
3x' = 10.800 x' = 3.600
x=±~3.600 XI = 60 x, = - 60 60 --7 N° positivo 3(60)
-5-= 36 --7 Otro Número
3. x --> Edad de A
x- 3 --> Edad de B
x2+(x-3r =317 X2+X2-6X+9=317 2x2 - 6x- 308= O
x2 - 3x-154= O
(x-14 )(x+ 11)= O
xl=14 x2=-11
14 años --> Edad de A
14- 3= 11 años --> Edad de B
4. x --> Un Número
3x --> El otro Número (3X)2 - x2 = 1.800
9x2 - x2 = 1.800
8x2 = 1.800 x2=225 x=±.J225
Xl = 15 x2 = -15
15 --> Un Número 3(15) = 45--> El otro Número
5. x --> N° buscado x2-9=8(x-2) x2-9=8x-16 x2-8x+7=0
(x-7)(x-1)= O
XI =7 x2 =1
7 --> N° buscado
6. x+ 1 --> N° mayor X --> N° menor
(x+1)' -57=3x x2 + 2x+ 1- 57= 3x x2-x-56=0
(x- 8)(x+ 7)= O
XI =8 x2=-7 8 --> N° menor
8+ 1= 9 --> N° mayor
7. x+4 --> Largo X --> Ancho
Area=x(x+4)
=x2+4x
Doble del area = 2x2 + 8x (x+ 8)(x+ 4)= 2x2 + 8x
x2 + 12x+ 32= 2x2 + 8x
x2-4x-32=0
(x-8)(x+4)=0
XI =8 x2 =-4
8m+4m=12m--> Largo 8m --> Ancho
8. x--> N° sa cos comp. 1.000
--bs.--> costo cada saco x
1.000 1.000
--=---5
x+ 10 x
1.000x= (x+ 1O)1.000-5x(x+ 10)
103 x= 103 x+ 104 - 5x2 -50x 5x2 + 50x-104 = O
x2 + lOx-2.000= O (x+50)(x- 40)= O
x¡ = - 50 X2 = 40
40 --> N° sa cos comp. 1.000
4Obs.= 25bs.--> costo cada saco
9. 4x--> Costo caballo
x --> Costo arreos
(4X)2 + x2 = 860.625 16x2 + x2 = 860.625 17x2 = 860.625 x2=50.625
x= ± .J50.625 Xl = 225 x2 = - 225 4(225)=900
900 sucres--> Costo caballo 225 sucres --> Costo arreos
10. x-7 --> N° menor X --> N° mayor
(x-7 + x)(x-7)= 184 (2x-7)(x-7)= 184 2x2 - 21x+49= 184 2x2 - 21x-135= O (2X)2 -
21(2x)- 270= O (2x- 30)(2x+ 9)= O (x-15)(2x+ 9)= O
9
Xl =15 x2 =-"2
15 --> N° mayor 15-7=8 --> N° menor
11 . X --> Edad de A
23- X --> Edad de B
x(23-x)=102 23x-x2= 102 x2 - 23x+ 102= O
(x-17 )(x- 6)= O
x¡=17 x2=6
17 años --> Edad de A 6 años --> Edad de B
12. x ---> N° de libros 180
- ---> Costo c/u x
180 180 --=-+1
x-6 x
180x= 180(x- 6)+ x(x- 6) 180x= 180x-1.080+ x2 - 6x 0= x2 - 6x-1.080
0= (x- 36)(x+ 30)
Xl = 36 x2 = - 30
36 ---> Libros
180
3"6=$5 ---> Costo c/u
13. x ---> N° de filas 180
- ---> N° soldados cada fila x
180
--8=x
x
180-8x=x2 0=x2+8x-180
0= (x+ 18)(x-1O)
Xl = -18 x2 = 10 10 ---> N° de filas 180
10= 18---> N° soldados
cada fila
14. x ---> Costo del reloj
x2 x% de X=100
x2 --+x=75 100
x2 + 100x= 7 .500 x2 + 100x-7 .500= O (x+ 150)(x-50)= O
xl=-150 x2=50
50 soles ---> Costo del reloj
15. x ---> Pers. comp. 1.200 ---194=x x
1.200-194x= x2
x2 + 194x-1.200= O (x+ 200)(x- 6)= O Xl = - 200 x2 = 6
6 ---> Pers. comp. el auto
16. X ---> Re lojes comp.
192 . -- ---> Costo cada reloj x
192 3x
x 4 768=3x"
256=x2
±.J256=x
x1=16 x2=-16
16 ---> Re lojes comp.
192 $ . --= 12---> Costo cada reloj
16
17. x ---> Libros comp.
150
-- ---> Costo cada lib. x
150 150 -+1=--
x x-5
150(x-5)+ x(x- 5)= 150x 150x-750+ x2 -5x= 150x x2-5x-750=0
(x- 30)(x+ 25)= O
Xl = 30 x2 = - 25
30 ---> Libros comp. 150
30= $5 ---> Costo cada lib.
18. x ---> Libros comp. 200
--lO=x x
200-lOx=x2
x2 + lOx- 200= O 22.
(x+20)(x-1O)=0
Xl = - 20 x2 = 10 10 ---> Libros comp.
19. X ---> Plumas comp. 24
- ---> Precio c/ u x
24 24
x x+4
24(x+4)- x(x+4)= 24x 24x+96-x2 -4x=24x x2+4x-96=0
(x+ 12)(x- 8)= O
Xl =-12 x2 =8
8 ---> Plumas comp. 24
8=$3 ---> Precio c/u
20. X ---> Tiempo de recorrido
240 240 -+20=--
x x-2
240(x- 2)+ 20x(x- 2)= 240x 240x - 480 + 20x2 - 40x = 240x 20x2 - 40x- 480= O x2-
2x-24=0
(x-6)(x+4)=0
xl=6 x2=-4
6 horas ---> Tiempo de recorrido
21.
X --7 Caballos comp.
2.000
-- --7 Pr ecio cada caballo x
2.000 2.000+ SO --+60=----
x x-2
2.000(x- 2)+ 60x(x- 2)= 2.0S0x 2.000x-4.000+ 60x2 -120x= 2.0S0x 60x' - 200x-4.00
0= O
3x' -lOx- 200= O
(3x)' -1O(3x) - 600= O
(3x- 30)(3x+ 20)= O
(x-lO )(3x+ 20)= O
20
xl=lO x'=-3
10 --7 Caballos comp. 2.000
-----¡:o-= $ 200--7 Pr ecio c I caballo
x ---> N° menor
x + 1 ---> N° int ermedio x+ 2 ---> N° mayor x+2 3x
x+l =10
lO(x+ 2)= 3x(x+ 1) lOx+ 20= 3x2 + 3x 0=3x2-7x-20
0= (3X)2 - 7 (3x) - 60 0= (3x-12)(3x+5) 0= (x-4)(3x+5)
-5 xl=4 x2=""3
4 ---> N° menor
4+ 1=5 ---> N° intermedio 4+ 2= 6 ---> N° mayor
23.
X~ Un/ll'. 180
-- ~ El otro /11'. x
180
----K-=1f
x
180 5
7=4
720=5x" 144= x"
±J144=x x1=12 x2=-12 12 ~ Un/ll'. 180
-=15 ~ El otro /11'. 12
24.
x ~ N° naranjas comp. 150
---;- ~ Costo c / naranja
C~O +1)(X-5)=150 (150+ x)(x-5)= 150x 150x-750+ x" -5x= 150x x" -5x-750=0
(x- 30)(x+ 25)= O Xl = 30 XI = - 25
30~ N° naranjas comp. 150
3O=5ctvs. ~ Costo c/naranja
25. X ~ Costo del caballo
X" -+x=171 100
x" + 100x= 17 .100
x" + 100x-17 .100= O (x+190)(x-90)=0
xl=-190 xI=90
90 Q. ~ Costo del caballo
26. X ~ /11' mayor
352 ~ /11' menor
X
X 10
352 =2+ 352
X X
~=2+ 10x 352 352
x" = 704+ 1 Ox Continua
26. Continuación
x" -lOx-704= O
(x- 32)(x+ 22)= O
Xl = 32 x, = - 22 32 ~ N° mayor 352
3"2=11 ~ N° menor
27. X ~ Long. pieza mayor
20- X ~ Long. pieza menor
x·x= 9(20- x)(20- x) x" = 9(400- 40x+ x") x" = 3.600- 360x+ 9x"
0= 8x" - 360x+ 3.600 0=x"-45x+450
0= (x- 30)(x-15)
xl=30 xI=15
15m ~ Long. pieza mayor 20-15=5m ~ Long. pieza menor
28.
X ~ Tiempo en horas
200
- ~ Veloc. del tren X
200 200 -=--+10 X x-l
200(x-l)= 200x+ lOx(x-l) 200x- 200= 200x+ lOx2 -lOx 0= lOx2 -lOx+ 200 0= x2 - x+
20
0=(x-5)(x+4)
xl=5 x2=-4
200 n/
S=40Kn;h ~ Veloc. del tren
29. X ---> Dias trabj.
84
~ ---> Valor del jornal
84 84
X x+2
84(x+ 2)- x(x+ 2)= 84x 84x+ 168- x" - 2x= 84x x" + 2x-168= O
(x+ 14)(x-12)= O
xl=-14 xI=12
12 ---> Dias trabj. 84
"12= 7 col ---> Valor del jornal
30.
X ~ Personas que van
90
- ~ Valor c/u X
90 90
x-3 X
90x- x(x- 3)= 90(x- 3) 90x- x" + 3x= 90x- 270 x" - 3x- 270= O (x-18)(x+ 15)= O
Xl =18 18 ~ 90
18=$5 ~ Valor c/u
31. X ---> N° buscado
XI = -15 Personas que van
84
--5=x X
84-5x=x"
x" +5x-84= O
(x+ 12)(x-7)= O
xl=-12 xI=7
7 ---> N° buscado
32. X ---> Edad actual A x-6=~x+6
(x-6)' =(~x+6r
X" -12x+ 36= x+ 6 x" -13x+ 30= O
(x-1O)(x-3)=0
xl=10 xI=3
10 años ---> Edad actual A
33.
X ---> Libros comp. 40
- ---> Pr ecio de c / libro X
x- 2 ---> N° de plumas
40 40
-=---1 X x-2
40(x- 2)=40x- x(x- 2) 40x- 80= 40x- x" + 2x x" -2x-80=0
(x-lO)(x+ 8)= O
Xl =10 XI =-8
10 ---> Libros comp. 40
10=$4---> Precio c/libro
EJERCICIO 276
1.3x2+5x-2=0
b2 -4ac= 52 - 4(3)(- 2)= 25+ 24= 49 Re ales y desiguales, racionales 2.2x2-4x+1=
0
b2-4ac=(-4)" -4(2)(1)=16-8=8
Re ales y desiguales, irracionales 3.4x2-4x+1=0
b2-4ac=(-4)" -4(4)(1)=16-16=0 Reales e iguales
4.3x2-2x+5=0
b2 - 4ac= (- 2)" - 4(3)(5) =4- 60= -56
hnaginarias
5. x2 -lOx+ 25= O
b2-4ac=(-1O)" -4(1)(25)=100-100=0 Reales e iguales
6. x2-5x-5=0
b2-4ac=(-5)" -4(1)(-5)=25+20=45
Re ales y desiguales, irracionales
EJERCICIO 277
1. x2+x-6=0
Suma 2+ (- 3)=-1 Producto 2(-3)=-6 Si son raices
4. Continuación Producto -{~)=-1 Si son raices
2. Jf -4x-5=O Suma1+5=6 No son raices 3.2x2-x-1=0
, x 1 x-----=O
2 2
5. 5x2-11x+2=O Jf-~+~=o 5 5
Suma 2-.!-=~ 5 5
No son raices
6.4x2+17x+4=0 , 17x x-+-+1=0
4
1 1 Suma 12 2
Producto 1( -~) =-~
Si son raices
1 17
Suma -4--=--
4 4
Producto -4( -±) = 1 Si son raices
4. 3x2+8x-3=O Jf+8x_1=O 3
Suma -3+.!-=-~ 3 3 Continúa
7. 5x2+24x-5=O Jf+ 24 x-1=O 5 Continúa
7.2x2-9x+7=0
b2-4ac=(-9)" -4(2)(7)=81-56=25
Re ales y desiguales, racionales
8. 36x2 + 12x+ 1= O
b2 - 4ac= (12)" -4(36) (1)= 144-144= O Reales e iguales
9.4x2-5x+3=0
b2-4ac=(-5)" -4(4)(3)=25-48=-23
hnaginarias
10. x2+x-1=0
b2 - 4ac= (1)2 - 4(1) (-1)= 1 + 4= 5 Re ales y desiguales, irracionales 11.5x2-7
x+8=0
b2-4ac=(-7)" -4(5)(8)=49-160=-111
hnaginarias
12. x2-lOx-11=0
b2 -4ac= (-10)" - 4(1)(-11)= 100+ 44= 144
Reales y desiguales, racionales
7. Continuación Suma -5-.!-=- 26 5 5 No son raices
8. x2 + 3x- 28= O
Suma 4-7=-3
Producto 4(-7)=-28 Si son raices
9. 6x2 + x- 2= O , x 1 x-+---=O 6 3
1 2 1
Suma ---=--
2 3 6
Producto G) (-%)=-i
Si son raices
10. 8x2 -2x-3=O Jf-.!-x-~=O 4 8
Suma .!244 No son raices
EJERCICIO 278
1. Suma 3+4=7
Pr oducto 3(4) = 12 Luego x2-7x+12=0
2. Suma - 1 + 3= 2
Pr oducto -1(3) = - 3 Luego x2 - 2x- 3= O
3. Suma -5-7=-12 Producto -5(-7)=35 Luego x2 + 12x+ 35= O
4. Suma -10+ 11= 1 Producto -10(11)= -110 Luego x2 - x-ll0= O
1 3 5. Suma 1+2 2
Producto 1 (~)= ~
, 3x 1 Luego x- - -+ -= O 2 2
=? 2x2-3x+1=0
1 11
6. Suma -2--=--
5 5
Producto -2( -~)=~
, llx 2 Luego x- + -+ -= O 5 5
=? 5x2 + llx+ 2= O
2 7
7. Suma 3--=-
3 3
Producto 3( -~)=-2 , 7x
Luego x----2=0 3
=? 3x2-7x-6=0
3 7
8. Suma -2--=--
2 2
Producto - 2( -~) = 3 , 7x
Luego x-+-+3=0 2
=? 2x2+7x+6=0
131 9. Suma 244
Producto (-~)(¡)=-%
, x 3 Luego x-----=O 4 8
, 3
=? 4x--x-"2=0
=? 8x2-2x-3=0
2 33
10. Suma 7 7
Producto -5(~)=- 1~
, 33x 10 Luego x-+7-7=0
=? 7x2+33x-1O=0
5 13
11. Suma 6--=-
3 3
Producto 6( -~) =-10 , 13
Luego x--3x-1O=0
=? 3x2 -13x- 30= O
1 17
12. Suma 8 8
Producto -2( -~)=±
,17 1
Luego X-+SX+¡=O
=? 8x2 + 17 x + 2 = O
13. Suma 18-52=-34 Producto 18(-52)=-936 Luego x2+34x-936=0
14. Suma -15-11=-26 Producto -15(-11)= 165 Luego x2 + 26x+ 165= O
15. Suma 0+ 2= 2 Producto 0(2)=0 Luego x2 - 2x= O
1 1
16. Suma 0--=--
3 3
Producto o( -~) = O
, x
Luego x-+"3=O
=? 3x2 +x=o
17. Suma 5-5=0 Producto 5(- 5)= - 25 Luego x2 - 25= O
1 1
18. Suma ---=0 2 2
Producto (~)( -~)=-±
, 1 Luego x- - ¡= O
=? 4x2-1=0
19. Suma 7 + 7 = 14 Producto 7(7)=49 Luego x2-14x+49=0 11 13
20. Suma 8--=-
3 3
( 11) 88
Producto 8 -3 =-3
, 13 88
Luego x- -3 x-3= O
=? 3x2 -13x- 88= O
5 9 16 21. Suma 6 2 3
Producto (-~)( -~)=~
,16 15
Luego X-+3X+4=0
=? 12x2+64x+45=0
11 2 73 22. Suma 2 7 14
Pr oducto ( - 121) ( ~ ) = - 171
,73 11
Luego x-+14x-7=0
=? 14x2 + 73x- 22= O
23. Suma 2a- a= a Producto 2a(- a)= - 2a2 Luego x2 - ax- 2a2 = O
2b b 5b
24. Suma --+-=--
3 4 12 26. Suma b+a-b=a
( 2b)(b) b2
Producto -3 "4 =6
5b b2
Luego x2 +- x--= O
12 6
~ 12x2 + 5bx- 2b2 = O
25. Suma m-!!!:=!!!: 2 2
Producto m(-~)=- ~2
2
? m. m.
Luego x--"2x-2=0
~ 2x2-mx-m2=0
EJERCICIO 279
1. x2-11x+30=0
(x-6)(x-5)=0
x,=6 x2=5
2. x2 + 33x+ 260= O
33 (33)2
x=--± ---260
2 4
x= - 33 ± ~1.089-1.040
2 4
x= -~3±f!
-33 7 x=2 2
33 7 -26
x =--+-=-=-13
I 2 2 2
-33 7 -40
x =---=-=-20
222 2
3. x2+x-306=0 (x+ 18)(x-17)= O
x,=-18 x2=17
4. x2+49x+294=0 (x+42)(x+7)=0
XI = - 42 x2 = - 7
5. x2 - 6x- 247 = O (x-19)(x+ 13)= O x,=19 x2=-13
Producto b(a- b)= ab-b2 Luego x2-ax+ab-b2=0
a b 3a-2b 27. Suma ---=--
2 3 6
(a)( b) - ab
Pr oducto 2 -"3 = -6-
28. Suma 1+.fi+1-.fi=2 Producto (1+.fi)(1-.fi)=-1
Luego x2 - 2x-1= O
29. Suma 2+.J5+2-.J5=4
Pr oducto (2 + .J5)( 2 - .J5) = - 1 Luego x2-4x-1=O
L x2_ 3a-2b x- ab =0 30. Suma 3+P+3-P=6
uego 6 6
~ 6x2 _ (3a-2b)x-ab= O Producto (3+P)(3-P)= 10 Luego x2 - 6x+ 10= O
6.
x2-~x-1=0 2
2x2-3x-2=0
(2X)2 -3(2x)-4=0 (2x-4)(2x+1)=0 (x- 2)(2x+ 1)= O 1
XI =2 X2 =-2
7.
x2 + 22 x+8=0 3
3x2 + 22x+ 24= O
(3X)2 + 22(3x)+ 72= O (3x+18)(3x+4)=0 (x+ 6)(3x+ 4)= O 4
XI =-6 x2=-"3
8.
, X 3
x-----=O
4 8
8x2-2x-3=0
(8X)2 - 2(8x)- 24= O (8x-6)(8x+4)=0 (4x-3)(2x+1)=0
3 1
X =- X =--
I 4 2 2
x2+ 95 x-6=0 7
7 x2 + 95x-42= O
(7X)2 +95(7x)-294=0 (7x+98)(7x-3)=0 (x+14)(7x-3)=0 3
x,=-14 x2=:¡
,10
10. x-+-x+1=0 3
3x2 + lOx+ 3= O
9.
-1O± ~(1O)' - 4(3) (3)
x= 2(3)
-1O±.J64 -1O± 8
x= =--
6 6
-10+8 -2 1
x=--=-=--
j 6 6 3
-10-8 -18
X -------3 2- 6 - 6 -
11.
,31 3
x---x+-=O
40 20
40x2 - 31x+ 6= O
(40X)2 - 31 (40x) + 240= O (40x-16)(40x-15)= O (5x- 2)(8x- 3)= O
2 3
XI ="5 x2="8
12.
, x 5 r+---=O 6 9
18x' + 3x-1O= O
(18x)' + 3(18x)-180= O (18x+ 15)(18x-12)= O (6x+5)(3x-2)=0
-5 2
x¡=6 x'="3
13.
,7 3
x---x--=O
20 10
20x' -7x-6=0
(20x)' -7 (20x) -120= O (20x-15)(20x+ 8)= O (4x- 3)(5x+ 2)= O
3 -2
x¡=¡ x'=5
14.
x,_21x_4=0 5
5x' - 21x- 20= O
(5x)' - 21(5x)-100= O (5x-25)(5x+4)=0 (x-5)(5x+4)=0 4
x¡ =5 x,=-S
15.
,59 1
x---x+-=O 72 6
72x'-59x+12=0
(72x)' -59(72x)+864=0 (72x- 32)(72x- 27)= O (9x-4)(8x-3)=0
4 3
x¡ ="9 x'="8
16. x2-2x-4=O
-----
-(-2)±~(-2)' -4(1)(-4)
x- 2(1)
2±.J2Q 2±2.,)5
x=-2-=-2-
x = 2+ 2.,)5 = 2(1+.,)5) -1+.,)5
¡ 2 2
x = 2-2.,)5 = 2(1-.,)5t1_.,)5
2 2 2
, 11
17. x--x--=O
4
4x2-4x-11=O
-(-4)±~(-4)' -4(4)(-11)
x= 2(4)
4±.¡;¡:3 4± 8.J3
x= 8 =-8-
_ 4+8.J3 _ 4(1+2.J3) _1+2.J3 =1.-+.J3
x¡ - 8 - 8 2 2
_ 4-8.J3 _ 4(1-2.J3) _1-2.J3 =1.--.J3
x2 - 8 - 8 2 2
,4 59
18. x-+-x--=O 3 9
9x2+12x-59=O
-12± ~(12)2 -4(9)(- 59)
x- 2(9)
-12±Ji268 -12±.J22347
18 18
-12+ 18.J7 6(- 2+ 3.J7)
18 18
-12-18.J7 - 6(2+ 3.J7)
x2= 18 18
x
19. x'-ax-2a'=0
(x- 2a )(x+ a)= O
x¡=2a x,=-a
20. x' + 7bx+ lOb' = O (x+ 5b )(x+ 2b)= O X¡ = - 5b x, = - 2b
21.
, x'- mx -~=O 2 9
18x' - 9mx- 2m2 = O
(18x)' -9m(l8x)- 36m' =0 (18x-12m)(18x+ 3m) = O (6x-4m)(6x+ m)= O
m x =--
, 6
-12± 18.J7
18 -2+3.J7 -_3..+.J7
3 3
-2-3.J7 -_3..-.J7
3 3
EJERCICIO 280
1. x2 -16x+ 63= O
-(-16)±~(-16)" -4(63)
x=---~----
2
16±.J4 16± 2
x=--=--
2 2
16+ 2 18
xl=-2-=2=9
16- 2 14
x2=-2-=2=7
x2 -16x+ 63= (x- 9)(x-7)
2. x2+24x+143=0
- 24± ~ (24)2 -4(143)
X
2
-24±.J4 -24±2
2 2
-24+2 -22
Xl =-2-=-2-=-11
-24-2 -26
x2=-2-=2=-13
X
X2 + 24x+ 143= [x- (-11)][ x- (-13)] = (x+11)(x+13)
3. x2 - 26x-155= O
x=- (-~6) ± (2:)2 -(-155) x=13±.J324 = 13±18
Xl = 13+ 18= 31 x2=13-18=-5
x2 - 26x-155= (x- 31)(x+5)
4. 2x2+x-6=0
-l±~(l)2 -4(2) (- 6)
x=
2(2)
-l±./49 -1±7
4 4
-1+7 6 3
X =------
1 4 -4-2
-1-7 8
x2=-4-=-4"=-2
2x2 + x- 6= 2( x-%) (x+ 2)
( 2x- 3) (
=2 -2- x+2)
= (2x-3)(x+ 2)
X
5. 12x2+5x-2=0
8. 12x2 - 25x+ 12
-5± ~(5)2 - 4(12) (- 2) - (- 25)± ~(- 25)" - 4(12)(12)
x=-~-----'-- x=
2(12) 2(12)
-5±.Ji21 -5±11 25±./49 25±7
x= -- x=---=--
24 24 24 24
-5+11 6 1 25+7 32 4
Xl =~= 24 =4" Xl =~= 24 =3
-5-11 -16 2 25-7 18 3
x2=~=24=-3 x2=~=24=¡
12x2 + 5x- 2= 12( x-±) (X+~) 12x2 - 25x+ 12= 12( x- ~)( x-¡)
=12( 4X4-1)eX;2) 12(3X-;~(4X-3)
= 12(4x-1)(3x+ 2) = (3x- 4)(4x- 3)
12
= (4x-1)(3x+ 2)
6.5x2+41x+8
9. 8x2 + 50x+ 63
50±~(50)2 -4(8)(63)
x-
2(8)
- 50±.J484 - 50± 22
---
16 16
-50+22 -28 7
Xl = -1-6-= 16= - 4"
-50- 22 72 9
-41-39 -80 x,= --=--
x2 = 10 -10=-8 - 16 (16 7)2( 9)
, 1 8x2+50x+63=8 x+- x+-
5X-+41X+8=5(X+S)(X+8) 4 2
( )( ) = (4x+ 7)(2x+ 9)
= 5x+1 x+8
-4l±~(41)2 -4(5)(8)
x-
2(5)
- 4l±.Jl.ill -4l± 39 X
x= --
lO 10
-41+39 2 1
xl= 10 -1O=-S
7. 6x2+7x-1O
-7±~(7)2-4(6)(-1O) 10. 27x2+30x+~7 _
X 2(6) x= -30±~(30)2-4(27)(7)
-7±.,fi89 -7±17 2(27)
x= 12 -1-2 - - 30±.JiA4 - 30± 12
x=
-7+17 10 5 54 54
Xl =-1-2="12="6 -30+12 18 1
_ 7 - 17 _ 24 Xl 54 54 - 3
x2=-1-2-=12=-2 -30-12 42 7
( 5) x2 =----s4=- 54 =-"9
6x2+7x-1O=6 x-"6 (x+2)
27x2 + 30x+ 7= 27(x+-31) (X+ -97)
= (6x-5)(x+2)
= (3x+ 1)(9x+ 7)
11.30x2-61x+30
- (- 61)± ~(- 61)' - 4(30)(30)
x= 2(30)
61± .Ji21 61± 11
60 60
61+11 72 6 x[=6ü= 60=S
61-11 50 5 x2=6ü= 60="6
30x2 - 61x+ 30= 30( x-~) (X-~)
= (5x- 6)(6x- 5)
x
12. 11x2 -153x-lS0
-(-153)±~(-153)' -4(11)(-IS0)
x= 2(11)
153±.[31329 153± 177
22 22
= 153+ 177 _ 330 = 15
x[ 22 22
153-177 24 12
X2 - 22 - - 22 = -11
11x2 -153x-lS0= 11(X-15)( x+ ~~) = (x-15)(l1x+ 12)
x
13.6-x-X2 x2+x-6
1~1{25 x=-"2±V¡-(-6) =-"2±'f¡-
1 5 4
x =--+-=-=2
[ 222
1 5 6
x =----=--=-3
2 2 2 2
x2 + x- 6= (x- 2)(x+ 3) 6- x-x2 = (2- x)(3+ x)
14. 5- 9x- 2x2
-(-9)±~(-9)' -4(-2)(5) 2(- 2)
9±.Ji21 9±11
x=---=--
-4 -4
9+11_20_ 5
x =------
[ -4 -4
9-11 -2 1 X2 = --=-:¡:-= _ 4 ="2
Continúa
x
14. Continuación
5- 9x- 2x2 = - 2(X+5)( x-~) =-(x+5)(2x-l) = (x+5)(1-2x)
15. 15+4x-4x2
-4±~(4)2-4(15)(-4) -4±.J2S6
x= 2(-4) x=_S
-4+16 12 3
x[=~==S=-"2
-4-16 -20 5 X2=~=--=-S="2
15+4X-4x2=-4( x+%)( x-%)
=-(2x+3)(2x-5) =(3+2x)(5-2x)
16. 4+ 13x-12x2 12x2 -13x-4
_ -(-13)±~(-13)' -4(12)(-4) x= 13±.J361
x- 2(12) 24
13+19 32 4
x[=~=24=3
13-19 - 6 1
x2=~=24 =-¡
12X2-13X-4=12( x-~)( X+±)
=(3x-4)(1+4x) 4+ 13x-12x2 = (4- 3x)(1 +4x)
17. 72x2-55x-7
------
-(-55)±~(-55)' -4(72)(-7) x= 55±FQ4l
x 2(72) 144
55+ 71 126 7
x[=~=144=8
55-71 -16 1
X2=~= 144 =-"9
72x2 -55x-7= 72( X-i)( X+i)
= (Sx-7 )(9x+ 1)
21. 18x2+31x-49
18. 6+ 31x- 30x2
- 31± ~(31)2 -4(18) (-49) 2(18) -31±.J4A89
x-
36
-31+67 36
x =---=-=1
, 36 36
- 31- 67 - 98 49
X2 =-3-6-=""36=-18
18X2+31X-49=18(X-1)( x+ ;~) = (x-1)(18x+49)
- 31± ~(31)2 -4(- 30)(6) 2(- 30) -31±.¡u;sI
x-
-60
-31+41 10 1
X=---=-=--
, -60 -60 6
x
x
-31-41 -72 6 x2 = ----=-6() = - 60 = 5
6+ 31x- 30x2 = - 30( x+~) (X-~)
=-(6x+1)(5x-6) =(1+6x)(6-5x)
22. 6x2 - ax- 2a2
- (- a)± ~~( - -a )'-- 4-( 6-) (_-2a-2) 2(6)
x
a ± ..¡¡;¡;;z 12
a+7a 8a 2a x, = ---u-= 12= 3
a-7a -6a 1
x =--=-=--a
2 12 12 2
19. lOx2+207x-63
- 207± ~(207)2 -4(10)(- 63) 2(10)
- 207 ± .J45369
x=
20
-207+213 6 3
x, = 20 - 20 = 10
-207-213 -420
x - ---=-21
2 20 20
lOx2 + 207x- 63= 1O( x- 1~) (x+ 21) = (lOx- 3)(x+ 21)
6x2 - ax- 2a2 = 6( x-~a) (x+~)
= (3x-2a)(2x+ a) 23. Sx2+22xy-1Sy2
- 22 Y ± ~'-(2-2 y-.y---4 (-S)-( --lS-y-2 ) 2(S)
- 22y±..fi841 - 22± 28y
x- 10 10
-22y+28y 6y 3
x,= 10 -lO="5Y
-22y-28y SOy
x2- 10 --lO=-Sy
( 3Y)
Sx2+22xy-1Sy2=S x-S (x+Sy)
= (Sx- 3y)(x+Sy)
x
x
20. 100-15x- x2 x2 + 15x-100
x=- 15 ± (15)2 -(-100)
2 4
x= -15 ± {625
2 V4 -15 25 10
x =-+-=-=5
, 2 2 2
-15 25 -40
x =---=-=-20
2 2 2 2
x2 + 15x-100= (x-5)(x+ 20) - x2 -15x+ 100= - (x-5)(x+ 20) = (5-x)(20+ x)
24. lSx2 - 32mx-7m2
-(-32m)±~(-32m)' -4(lS)(-7m2)
x= 2(lS)
32m±~ 32m± 38m
x- 30 - 30
32m+ 38m 70m 7m x,- 30 -30=3
32m- 38m - 6m m
xz- 30 --3-0 --"5
lSx2 - 32mx-7m2 = lS( x+ ~) (x- 7:)
= (Sx+ m)(3x-7m)
EJERCICIO 282
1. x4 -1=0
(X2 + 1)(x2 -1)= O
x2+1=0 x2-1=0
x2=-1 x2=1
X=±..p1 x=±Jl
x=±i x=±l
2. x3 +1=0
(x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)= O x+ 1=0
Xl =-1
x2 -x+1=0
x=- (-1) ±~(-1)' -1
2 4
x=.!.± Q =.!.+ .J3F1 2 V-¡ 2 - 2
1 i.J3 l+i.J3 x2="2+2=-2-
1 i.J3 1-i.J3
X -------
3-2 2 - 2
3. x4=81
x4 -81=0
(x2-9)(x2+9)=0
(x- 3)(x+ 3)(x2 + 9)= O
x-3=0 x+3=0
xl=3 x2=-3
x2+9=0
x2 =- 9
x=±.J9..p1 =±.J9i
X3 = 3i X4 = - 3i
4. x4-2S6=0
(x2 -16)(x2 + 16)= O (x+4)(x-4)(x2 + 16)= O
x+4=0 x-4=0
xl=-4 x2=4
x2+16=0
x2 = -16
x= ±.J16..p1 = ± 4i
x3=4i x4=-4i
-(-4)±~(-4)' -4(1)(16)
x=
2(1)
4±~
x=
2
4+-F48
x2 2
4--F48
x3= 2
8. x6-729=0
(x3 - 27)(x3 + 27)= O
(x- 3)(x2 + 3x+ 9 )(x+ 3)(x2 - 3x+ 9)= O
x-3=0 x+3=0
5. (x3+8)=0
(x+ 2)(x2 - 2x+4)= O x+ 2= O
Xl =-2
x2-2x+4=0
x= -(-2)+l-2)'_4 2 - 4
x= 1± ~_ 12 = 1+ 2.J3..p1 4 - 2
x2 = 1 + i.J3 x3 = 1- i .J3
6. x4-62S=0
(x2 - 2S)(x2 + 2S)= O (x+S)(x-S)(x2 + 2S)= O
x+S=O X-S=O
Xl =-S X2 =S
x2+2S=0
X2 =-2S
x=±.J25F1=±Si
X3 = Si x4 = - Si
7. x3+64=0
(x+ 4)(x2 - 4x+ 16)= O x+4=0
Xl =-4 x2-4x+16=0
4+4.J3F1 2 4-4.J3F1 2
Xl =3 x2 =-3
x2+3x+9=0
Continúa
8. Continuación
x= -23 ±~(~2 -9
-3 ..m F1 -3 3.J3i
x=T±.J4 2 ±-2-
_ - 3- 3.J3 i - 3+ 3.J3i
x3- 2 x4= 2
x2 -3x+9= O
l+i.J3
(x- 2)(x2 + 2x+4)= O x-2=0
Xl =2
x2+2x+4=0
x= -22 ±~(~2 -4 x=-l±.J3F1 x= -1±.J3 i
x2 =-1 +.J3i
x3 =-l-.J3i
2+2.J3i
10. x4=64 x4-64=0
(x2 - 8)(x2 + 8)= O
x2 =8 x2 =-8
2- 2.J3i
X=~22'2 x=.J8F1 x=±2..{i x=±2{2i Xl =2..{i x3=2..{ii x2=-2..{i x4=-2..{ii
EJERCICIO 283
1. x4 -lOx2 + 9= O
(x2-9)(x2-1)=0
(x+ 3 )(x- 3 )(x+ 1)(x-1)= O
x+3=0 x-3=0
xl=-3 x2=3
x+1=0 x-1=0
x3 = -1 x4 = 1
2. x4 -13x2 + 36= O
(x2-4)(x2-9)=0
x2-4=0 x2-9=0
x2 =4 x2 = 9
x=±.J4 x=±.J9
xl=2 x3=3
X2 = - 2 x4 = - 3
3. x4 - 29x' + 100= O
(x'-25)(x'-4)=0
(x+ 5)(x- 5)(x+ 2)(x- 2)= O
x+5=0 x-5=0
Xl =-5 x,=5
x+2=0 x-2=0
x3=- 2 x4 =2
4. x4 - 61x' + 900= O (x' - 36)(x' - 25)= O
x'-36=0 x'-25=0
x'=36 x'=25
x= ±.J36 x= ±..fi5
Xl =6 x3=5
x,=-6 x4=-5
5. x4+3x2-4=0 (x2+4)(x2-1)=0
(x2 + 4)(x+ 1)(x-1)= O
x+1=0 x-1=0
Xl =-1 ~= 1
x2+4=0
x2=-4
x=.J4F1 =±2i
x3=2i x4=-2i
6. x4 + 16x2 - 225= O (x2 + 25)(x2 - 9)= O
(x2 + 25)(x+ 3)(x- 3)= O
x+3=0 x-3=0
x¡ =-3 x2 =3
x2+25=0
X = ± ..fi5 ..F1
x3=5i x4=-5i
7. x4 -45x2-196=0 (x2 - 49 )(x2 + 4)= O
(x+ 7)(x-7)(x2 + 4)= O
x+7=0 x-7=0
xl=-7 x2=7
x2+4=0
x2=-4
x=.J4F1=±2i
x3= 2i x4 = -2i
8. x'-6x2+5=0
(x2-5)(x2-1)=0
(x2 - 5)(x+ 1)(x-1)= O
x+1=0 x-1=0
x¡=-l x2=1
x2-5=0
x2=5
x= ±.J5
x3 = .J5 x, = - .J5
9.4x'-37x2+9=0
(4x2)' - 37 (4x2)+ 36= O (4x2 - 36)(4x2 -1)= O (x2 - 9 )(4x2 -1)= O
x2-9=0 4x2-1=0
x2=9 x=±~
x=±.J9
x¡ =3
x2 = - 3
10. 9x4 -40x2+16=0
(9X2)2 -40(9x2)+144=0 (9x2 - 36)(9x2 - 4)= O (x2-4)(9x2-4)=0 (x+ 2)(x- 2)(9x2 -
4)= O
x+2=0 x-2=0
x¡ =-2 x2 =2
9x2-4=0
x=±~
2 2
x3=j x4=-j
11. 25x4 +9x2-16=0 25(x2)' +9x2-16=0
x2= -9±~(9)2-4(25)(-16) 2(25)
x2 = - 9±..j1J581 - 9+41
50 50
2 -9+41 32 16
X =--=---
50 50-25
x=+ {l6 _ 4 4
-V25 x¡ -"5 x2 =-"5
2 -9-41 -50
X =50=50=-1
x=± Cl X =i X -_.
"'-l- 3 4- l
12. 4x' +l1x2-3=0
(4x2)' +11(4x2)-12=0 (4x2 + 12) (4x2 -1)= O (x2 + 3) (4x2 -1)= O
x2+3=0 x2=-3
x=±~=±~..F1=±~i
x¡=~i x2=-~i
4x2-1=0
(2x+ 1)(2x-1)= O
2x+1=0 2x-1=0
1 1
x3=-Z x,=Z
13. (2x2+1)" -(x2-3)" =80
4 x 4 + 4 x2 + 1- x 4 + 6x2 - 9 = 80 3x4 + 10x2 - 88= O
(3x2)" +10(3x2)-264=0 (3x2 + 22) (3x2 -12)= O (3x2 + 22)(x2 - 4)= O
(3x2 + 22)(x+ 2)(x- 2)= O
x+2=0 x-2=0
x¡=-2 x2=2
3x2+22=0
x2 = - 22
3
Ji2F1
x=±~
. Ji2 -/3 i.J66 X3=1 -/3 . -/3=-3-
Ji2 -/3 - i.J66
x--i-·----
4 - -/3 -/3- 3
EJERCICIO 284
(x' - 8)(x3 + 1)= O
x3-8=0 x3+1=0
x3=8
x3=-1
x=V8 X=J.Fl
Xl =2 x2 =-1
(x'-8)=0
(x- 2)(x2 + 2x+4)= O x2+2x+4=0
(ver ejerc. 282 prob.9) x3=-1+..J3i
x4 = -1-..J3 i
(x'+1)=0
(x+ 1)(x2 - x+ 1)
(ver ejerc. 282 prob.2)
l+..J3i l-..J3i
x'=-2- x6=-2-
2. x6+30xJ+81=0 (xJ+27)(xJ+3)=0
xJ+27=0 xJ+3=0
xJ = - 27 xJ = - 3
x= V-27 x=\F3
x=-3 x=-lJ3
3. 8x6+15x3-2=0
(8x3)' + 15(8x3)-16= O (8x3 + 16)(8x3 -1)= O (x3+2)(8x3-1)=0
x3+2=0
8x3 -1=0
x3=-2
x=Ji
1
X=-
2
x=~
x=-ifi
14. x2 (3x2 + 2)=4(x2 - 3)+ 13 3x4 + 2x2 =4x2 -12+ 13 3x 4 - 2x2 - 1 = O
(3x2)" -2(3x2)-3=0 (3x2 - 3)(3x2 + 1)= O (x2 -1)(3x2 + 1)= O
(x+ 1)(x-1)(3x2 + 1)= O
x+1=0 x-1=0
x¡ = -1 x2 = 1
3x2 + 1= O
-Fli x= ..J3 = ± ..J3
i ..J3 i..J3
x3 = ..J3'..J3 = -3-
i..J3 i..J3 x4 = - ..J3'..J3 = - -3-
4. x8-41x4+400=0
(x4 - 25)(x4 -16)= O
(x2 + 5)(x2 - 5)(x2 + 4 )(x2 - 4)= O
x2 - 5= O
x2-4=0
x= ±..J5
x=±-J4 x=±2
5. xlO - 33x5 + 32= O
(x5 - 32)(x5 -1)= O
x5 - 32= O
x5 -1= O
x=V32 x=V1
x=2 x=l
6. x-4 -13x-' + 36= O
(x-'-9)(x-'-4)=0
x-'-9=0 x-'-4=0
x-'=9 x-'=4
7. x-'+35x-3=-216 x-o + 35x-3 + 216= O
(x-3 + 27)(x-3 + 8)= O
x-3 + 27= O x-3 + 8= O
x-3=-27
3fI=X
V =27
1
x=--
3
1
10. x+x2 =6
1
x+x2 -6=0
1 1
x2+3=0 x2-2=0
.[;=-3 .[;=2 x= (- 3)' x= (2)'
x=9 x=4
EJERCICIO 285
1. ~5+f24 m=~(5)2 -24 m=.J1
m=l
=p;l +p;l
=.J3+.fi
2. ~8-J60 m=~(8)2 -60 m=.J4
m=2
=l;2 -l;2
=../5-.J3
8. x-IO=242x-s+243
X-lO _ 242x -s - 243= O
(X-S - 243)(x-s + 1)= O
x-s-243=0 x-s+1=0
x-s=243 x-s=-l
1 7=243
~=x
1
x=-
3
11.3x=16.[;-5
JI=x V=S
1
x=--
2
1 7=-1
)I=x V=1
x=-l
1 3x-16x2+5=0
9X-16( 3))+ 15=0
1 1
3x2-15=0 3x2-1=0
15
.[;=-
3
3. ~8+.fi8 m=~(8)2_28 m=.J36
m=6
=l;6 +l;6
=.fi+1
4. ~32-.fiOO
m= ~(32? -700 m=.J324=18
_ ~32+ 18 _ ~32-18
2 2
=.fi5-.fi
=5-.fi
x=25
1
X=-
9
5. ~14+-Jill
m= ~(14)2 -132 m=.J64=8
=p4;8 +P4;8
=.J1i+.J3
6. ~13+.J88
m= ~(13)2 - 88 m=.J8i = 9
=~13;9 +~13;9
=.J1i+.fi
3
9. x3-9x2+8=0
(XL8)( xL1)=0
3 3
X2 -8=0 x2 -1=0
N =8 N=l
x3=64 x3=1
x=V64 x=l
x=4
1 1
12·2x2-5x'¡+2=0
4XL5( 2))+4=0
(2XL4)( 2XL1)=0 ( ) - 2)( 2xL 1) = O
1 1
x"-2=0 2x"-1=0
1
x" =2
2;[; = 1
1
X=-
16
x= 16
7. ~11+2.J30 ~l1+.J12O
m= ~(1l)2 -120 = 1
=~11;1 +~11;1
=../6+../5
8. ~84-18.J3 ~84-.¡m
m= ~(84)2 - 972 m=~6.084=78
~84+ 78 ~84-78
- -----
2 2
=.J8i-.J3 =9-.J3
9. ~21 + 6M ~21+.J360
m= ~(2I)2 - 360 m=.J81=9
~21+9 ~21-9
= -2-+ -2-=J15+.J6
10. ~28+ 14Jj ~28+v's88
m= ~(28? - 588 m=.Ji%=14
=p8; 14 +P8; 14 =..fii +.fi
11. ~14-4.J6 ~14-.J% m=~(I4)2 -96 m=~=lO
=~14;1O _P4;1O ={l2-../2
= ..j223 - ../2 = 2 Jj - ../2
12. ~55+ 30../2 ~ 55 + ..¡u;oo
m= ~(55? -1.800 m= ~1.225 = 35
=l5;35 +l5;35 =.J45 +.JW = 3.JS +.JW
13. ~73-12.J35 ~73-F040
m= ~(73)2 -5.040 m=.J2i9 = 17
=~73; 17 -t3; 17 =.J45 -.J28 = 3.JS - 2.fi
14. ~253- 60.fi ~253-%200
m= ~(253)2 - 25.200 m=~38.809=197 =p53;197 _~253;197
=5-.J28=15-2.fi
15. ~293- 30m ~293- .Jl9mr
m= ~(293)2 -19.800 m= ~66.049 = 257
= ~293; 257 _ p93; 257
=.fii5-.J18 =5m-3../2
16. ~~+~
m=m1
17. ~¡-H
m=En
18. ~:6+~
m=ffi1
19. ~6+4../2 ~6+.J32 m=~(6)2_32 m=.J4=2
=l;2 +l;2
=.J4 +../2 = 2+../2
21. ~8+2.fi ~8+ .J28 m=~(8)2 -28 m=.J36= 6
_~8+6 N-6
- +-
2 2
=.fi+1
22. ~1O+ 2m ~1O+.J84
m= ~(1O)2 - 84 m= .J16=4
=pO;4 +~1O;4
=.fi+../3
23. ~18 + 6$ ~18+.J18O
m=~(18)2 -180 m=.Ji44=12
=p8;12 +P8;12 =.J15+../3
EJERCICIO 286
24. ~24-2.J143 ~24-.j572 m=~(24)2 -572 m=.J4=2
~24+2 ~24-2 = -2-- -2-
=..m-..m
25. ~30-20.J2 ~30-J800
m= ~(30)2 - 800 m=.JiOO=lO
~30+ 10 ~30-1O
- -----
2 2
=.J20-M=2$-M
26. ~9+ 6.J2 ~9+ ..fi2
m=~(9)2-72 m=.J9=3
=~9;3 +~9;3
=-/6+../3
27. ~98- 24$ ~98-F880
m= ~(98)2 - 2.880 m=~6.724=82
~98+82 ~98-82
- --- --
2 2
=~-~=3M-2.J2
Los problemas de este ejercicio se resuelven aplicando la siguiente formula:
u = a + (n - 1) r donde:
u es el término enésimo ; a es el primer termino de la progresión ; n es la cantidad d
e términos; r es la razón de cambio.
1. a=7 n=9 r=1O-7= 3 u=7+8(3) =7+24=31
2. a=5 n=12 r=10-5=5 u=5+11(5) =5+55=60
3. a=9 n=48 r=15-12=3 u=9+47(3) =9 +141 =150
4. a=3 n=63 r=17-1O=7 u=3+62(7) =3+434 =437
5. a=l1 n=12 r=6-11=-5
U= 11+ 11(-5) =11-55 =-44
6. a=19 n=28 r=5-12=-7
u=19+27(-7) =19-189 =-170
7. a=3 n=13 r=-5-(-1)=-4 u=3+12(-4) =3-48 =-45
8. a=8 n=54 r=0-8=-8
u= 8+ 53(- 8)= 8- 424= - 416
9. a=-7 n=31 r=1-(-3)=4 u=-7+30(4)=-7+120 =113
10. a=-8 n=17 r=12-2=1O u= - 8+ 16(10)= - 8+ 160= 152
1 3 1 1 7 21 7 7
11. a=- n=12 r=---=- 15. a=- n=27 r=---=-
2 424 2 424
u=2.+11(2.) =2.+.!:..!:. =~=3-l u=2.+26(2.)=2.+2..!. = 98 =49 24244424222
2 521 7 174
12. a=- n=17 r=---=- 16. a=- n=36 r=---=--
3 636 9 399
U=~+16(~) U=i+35( -~)
2 8 10 [ 7 140 133 7
u="3+"3 =3=3, u="9--9- =--9-= -149
3 1131 2 129
13. a=- n=25 r=---=- 17. a=- n=15 r=---=--
8 24 8 12 7 8 7 56
U=~+24(~) U=~+14(-~)
8 12 7 56
3 19 3 2 126 110 '7
u=g+2 =8=28 u=:¡--5-6 =--5-6 = -lis
1 7 1 13 3 14 3 1
14. a=- n=19 r=---=- 18. a=-- n=21 r=--+-=--
3 8 3 24 5 15 5 3
U=±+18(~~) U=-~+20( -±)
1 39 121 [ 3 20 109 4
U="3+4=-1-2 =1012 u=-S-3=-15= -715
9 1
19. a=-¡ n=13 r=-¡+¡=-2
1 1 97 1
U= --+ 12(- 2)= - -- 24 = --= - 244
4 4 4
5 1 5 1
20. a=-"6 n=19 r=-"3+"6="2
U=-~+18(~) =-~+ 9 = ~ = 8i
11 35 11 3
21. a= 3 n=33 r= 12-3=-¡
u= 131 +32( -¡) = 131_24 =- 631 =-20+
EJERCICIO 287
14 27 14 1
22. a= - n=41 r= ---=--
5 10 5 10
u= 1; +40( -1~)
14 6 1
u= --4 =--=-1,
5 5
24. a=-4 n=19
2 10
r=--+4=-
3 3
u= -4+18e~)
u= -4+60 = 56
3 23. a=-- n=26 5
u= -~+25(~)
5 10
3 45 219 9
u= --+- = -= 21-
5 2 10 10
3 3 9 25 a = 3 n = 39
r=-+-=- .
10510 517
r=---3=--
4 4
u= 3+38( _ 1:)
323 317 1
u= 3-2=-2=-158,
a= u- (n-l)r
Para resolver los problemas de este ejercicio se utilizan las siguientes formula
s:
u-a r=--
n-l
u-a+r n=r
Donde u es el término enésimo; r es la razón de cambio ; n es la cantidad de términos; a
es el primer término de la progresión.
2
1. u=20 r=- n=15 7
a=20-(14)(*)
a=20-4=16
2. u=-18 n=32 r=3 a= -18- (31)(3)
a= -18- 93= -111
3 1
3. u=l n=9 r=l--=-
4 4
a=1-(8{~}1-2=-1
U=25 n=7
4. 3
Se plantea la ecuación para encontrar la razón
25 -2r=7
3
-2r=7 _ 25 3
-2r=-~
3
Continúa
4. Continuación 4 2
r=-=-
6 3
a= 2: -(6)(~)
25 12 13 1
a=3-3=3=43
5. a=3 n=6 u=8 r= 8-3 =~=1 6-1 5
6. a=-l n=10 u=-4
-4-(-1) 3 1
r= ---=--
10-1 9 3
7. a=..!. n=17 u=-~
2 8
3 1 7 -8-2 -8 7
r=---=-=--
17 -1 16 128
8. a=5 n=18 u=-80 -80-5 -85
r=---=--=-5
18-1 17
9. a=-42 n=92 1.050-(-42)
r=
92-1
u= 1.050 1.092 --=12 91
10. a=4 u=30 r=6-4=2
n- 30-4+2 _ 28 =14
2 2
11. a=5 u=18 r=~-5=..!. 3 3 18-5+..!. 3
n-
1
3 13+..!. 40
n=-_3_=--ª-=40
1 1
- -
3 3
12. a= 26 u=18 5
r=6- 26 =~ 5 5
18- 26 +i 5 5 4
5
18- 22 68
n= __ 5_=2= 68 =17
4 4 4
- -
5 5
n-
EJERCICIO 288
1. r=19-15=4 a=15 n=8 u= 15+ (7)4 u=15+28=43
(15+ 43)8
s=
2
s= (58) (4) = 232
2. a=31 n=19 r=7
u=31+(18)7 u=31+126=157
(31+ 157)(19)
s=
2
3.572 s=-2-=1.786
3. a=42 n=24 r=-lO u=42+(23)(-1O) u=-188 (42-188)(24)
s-
2
s= (-146)(12)= -1.752
4. a=-lO n=80 r=4
u= -10+ (79) (4) u= -10+ 316= 306
(-10+ 306)(80)
s=
2
s= (296) (40) = 11.840
5. a=11 n=60 r=-lO u=11+(59)(-1O)
u= 11-590= -579 (11- 579 )(60)
s-
2
s= (- 568)(30) = -17 .040
6. a=-5 n=50 r=-8 u=-5+(49)(-8)
u= - 5- 392= - 397 (- 5- 397 )(50)
s=
2
s= (- 402)(25)= -10.050
3 1
8. a=- n=14 r=-
10 10
u= 1~ +(13)C~)
3 13 8
u=-+-=-
10105
(~+~)(14)
10 5
s=
2
133 3 s=-=13¡¡¡
10
3 3
9. a=- n=19 r=-
4 4
U=¡+18(¡)
3 27 57
u=-+-=-
4 2 4
19(¡+~)
s=
2
19(15) 285 1
S=-2-=2=1422
2 3
10. a=S n=34 r=-U
U=3.+33(-~)
5 11
2 43
u=--9=--
5 5
34(~-~)
s=
2
1.394 ?
s=-1O=-139s
7 4
11. a="3 n=l1 r=S
47 7 47-35 4
r=---=--=-
15 3 15 5
u=~+ 1O(~)
7 31
u=-+8=-
3 3
11G+~)
s=
2
418 ? s=-=69, 6
13
12. a=4 n=46
73 13 8 2
r=---=-=-
204205
u= ~ +45(~)
13 85
u=-+18=-
4 4
46(~+~)
s=
2
4.508 1
s=--=563,
8 -
1 9
13. a=-2 n=17 r=¡+2=¡
u= -2+ 16( ¡)= -2+ 36= 34 17(-2+34)
s= -~-~- 17 (16) = 272 2
14. a=-5 n=12
37 3
r=--+5=-
8 8
EJERCICIO 289
1. u=11 a=3 n=5 (= 11-3 =~=2
5-1 4
=}3+2=5
5+2=7
7+2=9 Luego-;-3. 5. 7. 9. 11.
2. u=-5 a=19 m=7 -5-19 -24
(=---=--=-3
7+1 8
=}19-3=16 16-3=13 13-3=10 10-3=7 7-3=4
4-3=1 1-3=-2
Luego -;- 19. 16. 13. 10. 7. 4. 1. - 2. - 5.
3. u=-73 a=-13 n=7 -73+13 -60
(- - --10
7-1 6
=}-13-10=-23 -23-10=-33
-33-10=-43
-43-10=-53
-53-10=-63
Luego-;- -13. - 23. - 33. - 43. - 53. - 63. - 73.
4. u=53 a=-42 m=4 (= 53+42 = 95 =19
4+1 5
=}-42+19=-23 -23+19=-4
-4+19=15
15+ 19=34
Luego -;- - 42. - 23. - 4. 15. 34. 53.
5. u=-9 a=-81 n=7 (= -9+81 = 72 =12
7-1 6
=}-81+12=-69 -69+12=-57
-57+12=-45
-45+12=-33
-33+12=-21
Luego -;--81. -69. -57. -45. -33. -21. -9.
6. u=3 a=1 m=3 3-1 2 1
(=-=-=-
3+1 4 2
=} 1+.2.=~
2 2
~+.2.=2 2 2
2+.2.=~
2 2
3 5 Luego -;-1. "2. 2. "2. 3.
-;-1. 1+. 2. 2+. 3.
7. u=12 a=5 n=6 12-5 7
(=--=-
6-1 5
=}5+2.= 32 5 5 32 7 39
-+-=-
555
39 7 46
-+-=-
555
46 7 53
-+-=-
555
32 39 46 53 Luego -;-5. S· S· S· S· 12.
-;-5.6+. 7t. 9+. 10%. 12.
8. u=3 a= -4 m=5 3+4 7
(=--=-
5+1 6
=}-4+2.=_E 6 6
17 7 5
--+-=--
6 6 3
5 7 1
--+-=--
3 6 2
172
--+-=-
263
2 7 11
-+-=-
3 6 6
17 5 1 2 11 Luego -;--4. --o --o --o -. -. 3.
6 3 2 3 6
-;--4. -2+.-11-. -~.~. -1+. 3.
9. u=2 a=~ n=7
8 4
1 3 5
8-¡ -8 5
(=--=-=--
7-1 6 48
3 5 31
=}---=-
4 48 48
31 5 13
---=-
48 48 24
13 5 7
---=-
24 48 16
7 5 1
---=-
16 48 3
1 5 11
---=-
3 48 48
3 31 13 7 1 11 1 Luego 7-. -. -. -. -. -.-. 4 48 24 16 3 48 8
10. u=3 a=-1 m=6 3+1 4
(=-=-
6+1 7
=}-1+~=-~ 7 7
341
--+-=-
777
145
-+-=-
777
549
-+-=-
777
9 4 13
-+-=-
7 7 7
13 4 17
-+-=-
7 7 7
3 1 5 9 13 17 Luego 7-1. --o -. -. -. -. -. 3. 777777
7-1. -%.~.~. 1t. 1-}. 21-. 3.
11. u=_2 a=~ n=7
8 3
1 2 19
-8-"3 - 24 19
(=--=--=--
7-1 6 144
2 19 77
=}---=-
3 144 144
77 19 29
---=-
144 144 72
29 19 13
---=-
72 144 48
Continúa
11. Continuación 13 19 5
---=-
48 144 36
5 19 1
---=-
36 144 144
2 77 29 13 5 1 1
Luego 7"3. 144· 72· 48· 36·144·-8·
12. u=-5 a=-2 m=7
-5+2 3
(=--=--
7+1 8
3 19
=}-2--=--
8 8
19 3 11
----=--
884
11 3 25
----=--
4 8 8
25 3 7
----=--
8 8 2
7 3 31
----=--
2 8 8
31 3 17
----=--
8 8 4
17 3 37
----=--
4 8 8
Luego 7 -2. -2%. -21-. -3t· -3t· -3t· -4t. -4%. -5.
13. u=-..!...- a=2 n=10 10 2 716
(_ -10-2 _ -5 __ ~
10-1 9 15
1 2 11
=}---=-
2 15 30
11 2 7
---=-
30 15 30
7 2 1
---=-
30 15 10
1 2 1
---=--
10 15 30
1 2 1
----=--
30 15 6
1 2 3
----=--
6 15 10
3 2 13
----=--
10 15 30
13 2 17
----=--
30 15 30
Luego
1 11 7 1 1 1 3 13 17 7
72. 30· 30 ·10· - 30· -"6. -10· - 30· - 30· -10
EJERCICIO 290
1. a=7 n=20 r=7 u=7+(19)(7) u=7+133=140
(7 + 140)(20) 2
s= 147 ·10= 1.470
s
2. a = 5 n = 80 r = 5 u= 5+ (79)(5)
u= 5+ 395= 400 (5+400)(80)
s=
2
s= 405·40= 16.200
3. a=9 n=43 r=10 u= 9+ (42)(10) u=9+420=429
(9+429)(43)
s=
2
s= 219·43= 9.417
4. a=2 n=100 r=2 u= 2+ (99)(2)
u= 2+ 198= 200
(2+ 200)(100)
s=
2
s= 202·50= 10.100
5. a=9 n=100 r=2 u= 9+ (99)(2)
u= 9+ 198= 207
(9+ 207 )(100)
s=
2
s= 216·50= 10.800
6. a=8 n=50 r=3 u=8+(49)(3) u=8+147=155 (8+ 155)(50)
s-
2
s= 163·25 s=4.075-;-100 s=$40,75
7. 32 ---> N° normal de dientes en la boca de un adulto
a=lO n=32 r=2 u= 10+ (31)(2)= 72
(10+ 72)(32)
s=
2
s= 1.312-;-10
s=$131,20
8. a=77 n=72 r=l1
u= 77 + (71)(11)= 858
(77 + 858)(72)
s=
2
s=935·36=33.660
9. n=5·12=60
a=2 r=3
u=2+(59)(3) u=2+177=179
(2+ 179)(60)
s=
2
s= 181·30=5.430 bs.
10. a=600 r=25 Si n=8
u= 600+ (7)(25) u=775-;-100
Avanzó 7, 75m en el 8° segundo
s ---> Dis tan cia recorrida en 8 seg.
(600+ 775)(8)
s=
2
s= 1.375·4
s= 5.500-;-100= 55m
11. s=2.400 n=3
X ---> Ahorro e12º año
!.. ---> Ahorro e11º año 2
X X r=x--=-
2 2
Luego el 3º año Ahorro: x 3x
x+-=-
2 2
Continúa
11. Continuación.
x 3x
=> -+x+-=2.400
2 2
x+ 2x+ 3x= 4.800 6x=4.800 x=800
x 800
Ello año ahorro --->"2=2=400sucres
Para el 2° año
x 800 a=400 n=2 r="2=2=400
u=400+(1)(400)=800 sucres
Para el 3° año
a=400 n=3 r=400
u=400+ (2)(400)= 1.200 sucres
12. 2º y4º =22 3º y7º =34
El términ O medio entre
el 2º y el 4º es el 3º por tan to es una progresión impar. Luego el duplo
del 3º términ o es 22
x ---> 3er términ o
2x=22
x=11
Luego 11 ---> 3er términ o Como 3º+ 7º=34
11+ 7º=34
7º=23
23 ---> es e17º términ o lnterpolación para conocer el 4º términ o
-;-11 ... 23
Donde n=5 a=11 u=23
r=23-11=~=3
5-1 4
4º término--->3º+r=11+3=14 2º término --->22-4º =22-14=8
13. n=32 a=5 r=3
u=5+ (31)(3) u=5+93=98
(5+ 98)32
s-
2
s= 103·16= $1.648
14. a=50 r=-5+ n=8
U=50+(7)( - 121)
100-77 23 [
u=---=-=ll,Km
2 2 -
(50+ 2:)8
s -246Km
2
15. 3º y10º términos son
equidistan tes a los extremos 1º y 12º , Luego
la suma de estos extremos es igual a las suma de
los términ os equidistan tes 3º+10º=1º+12º
como 1º+ 12º=53+ =}3º+10º=53+
16. n=l1 a=-2 u=-52
-52-(-2) 50
r- ---=-5
11-1 10
2° térm. --7 - 2- 5=-7 3° térm. --7-7-5=-12 4° térm.--7 -12-5=-17 5° térm. --7 -17-5=-22 6°
-22-5=-27
EJERCICIO 291
1. a=3 n=7 r=6-;-3=2
u= 3(27-[)
u= 3(26) u=3·64=192
1
2. a=- n=8 3
r=3-;-1=3
u="!'(38-[) 3
u=36=729
3. a=8 n=9 1 r=4-;-8=2
17. a=500 u=1.900 r=200 1.900-500+200
200
n=8 años
n
18. n=11 a=1.180 u=6.180 6.180 -1.180
11-1
r= 5.000 =$500 10
r
19. n= 5 u= 3.000 r= - 300 a = 3.000- (4) (- 300)
a = 3.000+ 1.200= 4.200 soles
20. a=161 r=322 n=5
u= 161 + (4)(322)= 1.449
(1.449+ 161)(5)
s=
2
(1.610)(5)
s=
2
8.050 s=--=4.025 2
= 4 .025-;-10= 402,5 pies
1 6.a=- n=6 2
1 2
r=-·2=-
5 5
u=M(~r[]
4. a=l n=6 4 5 2 r= 25'2=5
5. a=3 n=7 2
r=2-'-3=-
. 3
811 u=ZS=ZS= 32
25 32
u-----
- 55 - 3.125
24 16
u- 55 - 3.125
9
7. a=- n=8
4
4 4
r=3·-=-
9 3
u=~H(~r]
26 64 u- 35 - 243
46 4.096 208
u=]5= 243 =16243
21. a=51 r=2 u=813 813-51+2 764
n= --=382
2 2
(813+ 51)(382) 2
s= (864) (191)= 165.024
s
22. 5º --731 9º --759 i nt erpolando
n=5 a=31 u=59
r= 59-31 = 28 =7
5-1 4
10º térm.--759+ 7 =66 11º térm.--7 66+ 7 = 73 12º térm.--7 73+ 7=80
23. n=3 a=12.500 u=20.500 a + u= 12.500+ 20.500 a+u=33.000
Luego 2 (2° term.) = 33.000
2° term.= 16.500 colones
8. a=-3 n=6 r=6-;-(-3)=-2
u=-3[(-2)']
u=-3(-32)=96
9. a=3 n=9
1 r=-1-;-3= -"3
1 1
u=?f= 2.187
5
10. a=- n=5 6
1 6 3
r=-·-=-
2 5 5
u=~[(~r]
33 27
u= 2.53 = 250
11. a=16 n=8
1 r=1-;-(-4)=-¡
U=16[( -¡r]
3
12. a=- n=8 4
r="!'(-2)=-3.
3 3
U=¡[( -~r]
1 1
u-------
- 45 - 1.024
3
13. a=-- n=5 5
r=%( -%)=-%
U=-~[( -%rJ
25 32 u=-?f=-729
3.53 375 7
U=--=--=-23-
24 16 16
EJERCICIO 292
1 1
1. r=- U=- n=7
2 64
1 1
64 2! 26 a--------1
- Gr - ;6 - 26-
2 64
2. r=- U=-- n=9
3 2.187
64 26
2.187 37 26.38 3 3
a---a---------
-(~)8 -28-28.37-22-4
3 38
3. r=~.125=3. 625 16 5 32
U=- n=6
625
32 25
625 54 25.55
a = (~r = ~: = 25.54 = 5
EJERCICIO 293
1. a=6 n=5 1 r=32
4. a=2 u=64 n=6
r=~=4f=W=2
1
5. a="3 u=243 n=7
r=~213=V729=V36=±3
6. a=-5 u=640 n=8 r=v640
-5
r=7J-128 =V-27 =-2
7. a= 729 u=~ n=6
2 2
J% I11
r=5 7~9 =V243="3
3
14. a=-- n=lO 4
r=-¡( -~)=~
1 1
u--------
- 4.38 - 26.244
8. a=8 u=_1_ n=7 512
,~~ + ~V4~6 ~f¡;~±¡
625
9 a=- u=1 n=5
. 16
,~ ~ ~5 ~~ 6~5 ~~ ~±~
16
10. a= 27 U=-.3- n=8
64 81
'{~1
r=v- ~·.~3 =V- ~: =-~
3. a=12 n=7 1 r=43
U=12[(H]=12( 7~9)= 2~3
(~)G)-12
s= 1
--1 3
s=- 8~~:( _~)
26.232 1.'146 241
s= 1.458 =171.458=17""
2. a=4 n=6 r=-8-;-4=-2
U= 4[(- 2)']
u=4(- 32) = -128 -128(-2)-4 s= -2-1
252 s=-=-84
-3
1
4. a=- n=10 4
1
r=--4=2
2
u='!'[29]= 128 4
128(2)-±
s=
2-1
1.023 3
s=--=255. 4
9
5. a=- n=8
4
342
r=-·-=-
293
U=~HGr]= ~;
f(~)-¡
s= 2
--1 3
28 38
s= 36~22 (-3)
s= -6.305(_3) 2.916
18.915 1.419 473
S= --= 629i6= 6 972
2.916 .
1
6 a=-- n=7
. 10
1
r= -(-10)= - 2 5
1 [ 6] 64 32
u=-1O (-2) =-1O=-S
32 1
--(-2)+-
5 10
s=
-2-1
129
10 129 3
S=-=--=-4w
-3 30
EJERCICIO 294
1. a=5 u=3.125 n=5 ~3.125
r=4 --=../25+5
5 -
5(±5)=±25
± 25(± 5)= 125 125(±5)=±625
77 5:± 25:125:± 625:3.125
2. a=-7 u=-224 m=4 V-224 ,~
(=5 --=\132 =2
-7
-7·2=-14
-14·2=-28
-28·2=-56
-56·2=-112
77- 7:-14:-28:-56 :-112:-224
7. a=-6 n=lO
r=-37(-6)=.!. 2
U=-6[Gr]=- ;8 -~(.!.)+6
28 2 s= 1 --1 2
3.069
512 6.138 253
S--------l1-
- 1 - -512 - 256
2
8. a=2 n=8
1 r=2
U=2[( -±r]=- ;6 =- 6~
-~( -±)-2
s= 1
---1 2
255
128 510 [26 2[
s= -=-=1384=164
3 384
2
3. a=128 u=2 n=7
r=fh=~=±±
128 ( ±±)=±64
±64( ±±)=32 32(±±)=±16 ±16( ±±)=8
8( ±±)=±4
77128: ± 64:32:± 16:8:±4:2
3
9. a=- n=6 2
3 2
r=17-=-
2 3
U=%(~r=~:=~~ 16(~)_~
81 3 2
s= 2
--1 3
-1¡;~ 17
s=-I-=4162
3
10. a=9 n=6
1 r=17(-3)=-3
U=9(-~)5=-3\=-2~ -~(-~)-9
s= 1
---1 3
728
s=~
3
2.184 240 20
s= 324 = 6 324 = 627
2.187
5. a=2 U=-- m=6 64
-~ r=V+=~=%
4 27
6. a=9 u= 256 n=6
'~fi6~~~¡
i(¡)=~ ~(¡)=¡ ¡(¡)=136 136(¡)= :4
4 1 1 3 9 27 -'- -'- 9: "i 4":U¡: 64 : 256
2(%)=3 3G)=~
~(%)= ~ 27(~)=~
4 2 8
~(~)= 243
8 2 16
243(~)= 729 16 2 32
772: 3: 41-: 6t: lO+: 15ft: 22-tt: 34i\-
EJERCICIO 295
1 1 1
1. a=2 r=-·-=-
2 2 4
s=_2_=~=~=2"<' 1-2 ~ 3 3 4 4
2. a=2 r=2.2=2
2 6 3
1 1
"2 "2 3
s=--=-=-
1-2 ~ 4 3 3
EJERCICIO 296
-2 2
3 a=-5 r=-=-
. -5 5
-5 -5 25
s=--=-=--
1-~ ~ 3
5 5
=-8+
4. a=-4 r=-~( -¡)=~
-4 -4 s=--2 =-1-=-12 1-- -
3 3
1
7. a=8 U=- m=7 32
r=fi=~=±± 8( ±±)=±4
±4( ±±)=2 2(±±)=±1 ±1(±±)=±
±( ±±)= ±¡ ±¡( ±±)=i H±±)=±l~
1 1 1 1 1
778:±4:2:±1:-:±-:-: ±-:-
2 4 8 16 32
5. a=¡ r=¡(~)=~
3 3
4" 4" 9 1
S=--l ="2="8=18 1-- -
3 3
6. a=2 r=2"6=~ 6 7 7
1 1
s= "6 ="6 =2.=1.111-~ 2 6 6 7 7
12 12 12
2. 100+ 10.000 + 1.000.000'"
12 12 (100) 1
a= 100 r= 10.000 12 = 100
12 12
100 100 12 4
s= --1-="99= 99 = 33 1-- -
100 100
7. a=2 r=-~.2=_2 5 2 5
s=_2_=~=~=1"<'
1+2 ~ 6 3
5 5
-6 3 8 a=-14 r=-=-
. -14 7
-14 -14 98
s=--=-=--
1-~'± 4
7 7
=-24-!-
159 159
3.1. 000 1. 000.000
159 159 ( 103 ) 1
a=1Q3 r=J:06 159 =1Q3
159 159
1Q3 1Q3 159 53 s=--l-= 999 = 999 = 333 1- -10-3 -10-3
32 32 32
4. 100 + 10.000 + 1.000.000'"
32 32 (100) 1
a=100 r=1O.000 32 =100
32 32
100 100 32
s= --1-= 99= 99
1-100 100
EJERCICIO 297
1. a=2 r=2
Para saber cuanto gano el sábado ---'t n= 6
u=2(25) =64 Lempiras Para saber cuanto gané de lunes a sábado utilizo S para los 6 p
rimeros tér min os de la progresión.
772:4:8 ...
Donde a=2 r=2 u=64
64(2)-2
s- -126 Lempiras
2-1
2. n=20 r=2 a=l u= 1(219)=524.288 524.288(2)-1
s=
2-1
s= 1.048.5757100 s= $ 10.485,75
1
3. n=8 r="3 u=l
1 1
a=(~)7= 1 =2.187balboas
3 2.187
3 5 5 3 18 18
6.10+100+1.000'" 8. 10+103+105'"
5 5 (100) 1 18 18 (103) 1
a= 100 r= 1.000 5 =10 a= 103 r= 105 18 = 100
5 5 18 18
100 100 5 1 103 103 1
s=--l-=T= 90 =18 s=--l-=GG= 55
1-10 10 1-100 100
3 1 64 16 3 1 175 7
s=1O+18= 180= 45 s= 10 + 55= 550= 22
18 1 1 18 18 18
7. 100 +"1"Q3+W'" 9.2+ 100 + "j'()4+"j'()6'"
1 1 3 1 18 18 (100) 1
a="1"Q3 r=W·10 =10 a= 100 r="j'()4 18 = 100
1 1 18 18
_ 103 _ 103 __ 1_ 100 100 2
s-1 1 - 9 - 900 s=--l-=99= 1i
-10 10 1- 100 100
18 1 163 2 24
s=1OO+900=900 s=2+li=11
4. n=9 ---'t Impar
Como es una sucesión impar los términ os equidistan, luego la multiplicación del prime
r
y último términ o es igual
al producto entre e13º y el
7º término.
Entonces la respuesta es: 1
216
8
5. n=5 u=-
81
er . {4 2
3 termln o=V81 =9
Se encuentra la razón para n=3, entre e13º y 5º términ o.
'~[f~J*~~
~.~=..!. ---'t 2º términ o 9 2 3
..!..~=..!. ---'t 1º términ o 3 2 2
1 1
6. a=¡ u= 32 n=4
'~frvH
"'!'-.2="'!"- ---'t 6º términ o 32 16
2
7. r=- u=160 n=5 3
160 160
a= (~r = ~~ =810
160(~)-81O
s- 2
--1
3
2.110
s=--i-=$2.110 3
8. a=59.049 u=100.000 n=6
r=5 100.000 =V105 =~
59.049 95 9
1
9. r=- a=24.300 n=6 3
(1)5 24.300 u=24300 - =---=100
. 3 243
(1) 72.800
100 3 -24.300 --3- 72.800
s= 1 - 2 ---2-=36.400 bs.
3-1 3
10. n=15 a=l r=3 u=(3t =4.782.969
s= 4.782.969(3)-1 = 14.348.906 -$7.174.453
3-1 2
9. LogO,72183-LogO,0095 =LogO,72183+Colog 0,0095
= 1,858434+2,022276
=1,88071 ~101,88071 =75,981873=75,982
10. Log9,114-LogO,02 =Log9,114+Colog 0,02 = 3 ,959709 + 1,698970
=5,658679 ~ Antilog5,658679=455,699,97=455,700 11. Log21O=1O(log2)
= 10(0,301029) =3,010299 Antilog 3,010299=1.024
12. LogO, 153 = 3(log0, 15) = 3(1,176091)
= 3(-1)+ 3(0, 176091) =-2,471727
10-2,471727 =0,00337499=0,003375 13. Lag18,654=4(log18,65) =4(1,270678)
= 5,082715
Antilog 5,082715= 120.980,4916 =120.980,5
14. Log(2.0,084)' = log (O, 168)'
= 2(log0, 168)
= 2( 1,225309) =2(-1)+2(0,225309)
= -1,549382= 2,450618 10-[,549382 = 0,028223963= 0,028224
Anti10g 2,450618= 0,028224
15. Lag 7 ,26=6(log7 ,2) =6(0,857332) =5,143994 Antilog5,143994= 139.313,75
EJERCICIO 298
1. Log(532,0,184)
= Log 532 + Log 0,184 = 2,72591 + 1,26482
= 1,99073
=? 10 [,99073 = 97,888
2. Log191, 7 + Log432 =2,28262+2,63548 =4,9181
~Antilog 4,9181=82,814,4
3. LogO,7+LogO,013+LogO,9
= 1,84510+2,11394+ 1,95424 =-2,08672
~ 10-2,08672 =0,00819
4. Log7 ,5+Log8,16+LogO,35+Log1 0,037 =0,875061+0,911690+ 1,544068+4,001603 =4-1
+2,332422
=5,332422
~ 105,332422 =214,991,85 =214,992
5. Log3,2+Log4,3+Log7 ,8+Log1 03,4+LogO,019 =0,505149+0,633468+0,892094+2,014520
+ 2,278753 =2,323988 ~ Antilog 2,323988=210,857
6. Log95,18-Log7,23 =1,978317 -0,859138
=1, 119179 ~Antilog 1,119179 =13,15767031=13,1577
7. Log8,125-LogO,9324 =Log8,125+Colog 0,9324 = 0,909823 + 0,030397
=0 ,940220~ 10°,940220 =8,714063=8,7141
8. Log7,653,95-Log12,354 =log7,653,95+Colog 12,354
= 3,883885 + 2,908192
= 2,792077~Antilog2,792077=619,55
16 Log.J3 _log3 - 0,477121_0 238560
. 2 2 '
Antilog 0,238560 = 1 ,7320483 = 1 ,73205
17. Log~ = log2 - 0,301029 -O 100343
3 3 '
10°,100343 =1,259921
18. Log~ = 10¡5 _ 0,69:970 -0,174742 Ant/logO, 174742 =1 ,495348= 1 ,49535
19. Log~ = 10~63 _ 1,79:340 -0,359868 10°,359868 =2,290172
20. Log7JB15 = log815 = 2,911157 -O 415879
'1/010 7 7 '
Antilog 0,41 5879 = 2,605431
EJERCICIO 299
1. Log515+log78,19+ colog6,13 =2,711807 + 1,893151+ 1,212539
=3,817497 ~ Antilog 3,817497=6,568,96=6,569
2. Log23,054+log934,5+colog8,164 =1,36275 +2 ,97058+ 4,0881
=0,42143 ~ Antilog 0,42143=2,63894
3. Log8,14+log9,73+ cologO,6+ colog7,8 =0,91062+0,98811+0,22185+ 1 ,10791
=1,22849 ~ Antilog 1,22849=16,923461=16,9235
4. Log 513,4+log9,132+colog85,3+ colog10, 764
- -
=2,71046+0,96057+ 2,06905+2,96802
=0,7081 ~ Antilog 0,7081=5,10622
5. Log53 ,245 +log4, 325 ,6+ colog32,815 + colog91, 79
- -
=1,72628+3,63605+ 2 ,48392+ 2 ,03721
=1,88346 ~ Antilog 1,88346 =76,4645
6. Log32,6+log841,9+ cologO,017 + colog732,14 =1,51322+2,92526+ 1,76955+ 3 ,1354
06 =3,343436 ~ Antilog 3,343436 =2,205,139151 Como existe un signo negativo en l
a operación entonces este afecta el resultado total,luego
la respuesta final es = - 2,205,14
7. Log95 ,36 +logO, 14+ colog83, 7 + colog2, 936
- - -
=1,97937 + 1,14613+2,07727 + 1 ,53224
=-1,26499 ~ Antilog -1,26499=0,054326 El signo negativo se anula puesto que se e
ncuentra en el numerador y en el denomin ador luego la respuesta es positiva
8. Log7 ,2+log8,135+ cologO,003+ colog9, 134,7 =0,85733+0,91036+2,52288+ 4 ,0393
0
=0,32987 ~Antilog 0,32987=-2,137333=-2,13734
9.35.O,24=5Iog3+4Iog0,2
= 5(0,47712)+ 4(1,30103) = 2,38561- 2, 79588
= - 0,41027 ~ 10-0,41027 = 0,3888 * En la tabla se busca 1,58973
~ Antilog 0,58973 = 0,3888
1 2
10. '2log5+"3log3
1 2
= '2(0,69897 )+"3(0,47712)
=0,349485+0,31808 =0,66757
---7 Antilog 0,66757=4,651199=4,6512
113
11. Slog2+"21og3+¡log5
1 1 3
= S(0,30103)+"2(0,47712)+ ¡(0,69897)
= 0,060206+ 0,23856+ 0,5242275
= 0,82299
---7 Antilog 0,82299= 6,65257 = 6,6526
12.8Iog3+5colog5,6
= 8(0,47712)+5(1,25181) = 3,81696- 3,74095
= 0,07601
---7 Antilog 0,07601= 1,19127= 1,1913
13.7Iog0,53+3colog2,5
= 7(1,72428)+ 3(1,60206) = -1,93004-1,19382
=-3,12386 ~ 10-3,12386=0,000751865 * En la tabla se busca4,87614
2 5
14. Slog3+"3colog2
= ~(0,47712)+ %("1,69897) = 0,190848- 0,501717
=-0,310869 --7 10-0,3[0869=0,488799 =,0,4888 * En la tabla se busca 1,68914
Log7 , 86 + Log8 ,14
15. 2
0,89542+0,91062 2
1,80604
2
=0,90302 --7 Antilog 0,90302=7,9987
16. Log932,5+Log813,6+LogO,005 2 2,96965+2,91041+3,69897
2
3,57903 2
=1,78952 Antilog 1,78952=61,59138
17. Log93,7 + Log1 04,2+ colog8,35+ colog7 ,3 2
1,97174+2,01787+ 1 ,07831+ 1 ,13668
2
22046 ,
=-' --=1,1023 --7 Antllog 1,1023=12,656174 2
Log23 ,725 + Log9, 182 + Log7 , 184
18. 3
1,37521+0,96294+0,85637 3
_3,19452_106484 Antilog106484=-11610207
3' , ,
19. Log12,316+LogO,25+ colog931,8+ cologO,07 4
- -
4,09047+ 1 ,39794+3,03068+1,15490
4
= 1,67399 =041849 --7 AntilogO 41849=2 621125
4' "
20. Log56,813+colog22,117 5 4,75446+5,65527
5
- 0,40973 -O 081946 --7 Antilog O 081946=1 20766
5' "
3 3
21. '2logO,0316+ '2cologO,1615
= %(2 ,49969+ 0,79183)
= %(- 0,70848)= -1,06272= 2" ,93728 10-[,06272 = 0,086552
Antilog 2",93728 = 0,08655625
3 2
22. ¡log3+"3colog5
= ¡(0,47712)+ %(1,30103) = 0,35784- 0,46598
= - 0,10814= 1,89186 Antilog 1,89186=0,77958
Log15+ Colog4
23. 7
1,17609+ 1 ,39794 7
- 0,57403 -O 082
7 '
Antilog 0,082=1,20782
24. Log5+ Colog3 5
_ 0,69897 + 1,52288 -O 04437
5 '
Antilog 0,04437=-1,10756
25. ~(Log5+Colog8)
=~(0,69897+ 1,09691) =~(-0,20412)=-0,24494= 1,75506 Antilog 1,75506 = 0,568926 =
' 0,56893
Log3+ Colog5 Log5+ Colog7
26. 2 + 3
3(0,47712+ 1,30103)+2(0,69897+ 1,15490) 6
3(- 0,22185)+ 2(- 0,14613) 6
- 0,6655- 0,29226 6
-o 95781 _
, 6 -0,159635= 1,840364
10 -0,159635 = O , 6924126
Antilog 1,840364=0,69241
27. Lag 2 + Lag 3 + LagO,2 753
= 15(0,30103)+21(0,47712)+35(1,30103) 29. 105
4,51545+ 10,01952- 24 ,46395
105
- 9 ,92898 -
105 --0,094562= 1,905438
Antilog 1,905438 = 0,8043369 = 0,80434 Lag32,14 Lag59,3 Ca1og317 6
28. ---+---+ '
2 3 4
= 6(1,50705)+ 4(1,77305)+ 3("3,49812) 12
9,0423+ 7 ,0922-7 ,50564
12
8,62886
= -1-2-= 0,71907
Antilog 0,71907= 5,2368483=5,23685
EJERCICIO 300
1.36=22.32
Lag 36= 21og2+ 21og3
= 2(0,301030)+ 2(0,477121) = 0,60206+ 0,954242
Lag 36= 1,556302
2. 75= 3.52
Lag 75= log3+ 21og5
= 0,477121 + 2(0,698970) = 0,477121 + 1,39794
Lag 75= 1,875061
3. 30=2·3·5
Log30=log2+log3+log5 =0,301030+0,477121+0,698970 Log30=1,477121
4.48=24.3
Lag48= 41og2+ log3
= 4(0,301030)+ 0,477121 = 1,20412+ 0,477121 Lag48= 1,681241 5.120=23.3.5
Lag 120= 31og2+ log3+ log5
= 3(0,30103)+ 0,477121 + 0,69897 = 0,90309+ 1, 176091
Lag 120= 2,079181
21og0, 75+ log39,162+ ea1og0,07 + ea1og3,89 2
2(1,87506)+ 1,59286+ 1,15490+ 1 ,41005 2
1,90793
= -2-=0 ,953965= 8,99425= 8,9943
30. 31og0,2+ 21og0,3+4ea1og0,05+ ea log3,25 2
= 3(1,30103)+2(1,47712)+4(1,30103)+ 1,48812 2
= - 3+ 0,90309- 2+ 0,95424+5,20412-1 + 0,48812 2
1,54957 =--2-=0,774785
Antilog 0,774785=5,95366
6.98=72'2
Lag 98= 21og7 + log2
= 2(0,845098)+ 0,30103 = 1,690196+ 0,30103 Lag98= 1,991226
7. 343=73
Lag 343= 31og7
=3(0,845098) Lag 343= 2,535294 Lag 0,343= 1,535294
8.225=52'32
Log225= 21og5+ 21og3
= 2(0,69897)+ 2(0,477121) = 1,39794+ 0,954242 =2,352182
Log22,5= 1,352182
9.196=22.72
Lag 196= 2(log2+ log7)
= 2(0,30103+ 0,845098) =2(1,146128) =2,292256
Lag 1, 96= 0,292256
10.875=53.7
Log 875= 31og5+ log7
= 3(0,69897)+ 0,845098 = 2,09691 + 0,845098 =2,942008
LogO,875= 1,942008
11. 2.025= 34 .52
Log2.025= 41og3+ 21og5
= 4(0,477121)+ 2(0,69897) = 1,908484+ 1,39794 =3,306424
Log202,5= 2,306424 12.448=26.7
Log448= 61og2+ log7
= 6(0,30103)+ 0,845098
= 1,80618+ 0,845098 =2,651278
Log44,8= 1,651278
EJERCICIO 301
1. Y=3
LogY =log3 xlog5=log3
x(0,69897)= 0,477121
0,477121 _ O 6826 x 0,69897 - ,
2. 7x=512
Log7X =log512 xlog7=log512
x 2,70927 =3,205864 0,845098
x=3,2059
3. 0,2x = 0,0016 LogO,2X = log0,0016 xlog 0,2=log0,0016
x(1 ,30103)= 3,20412
3,20412 x= 1,30103
-3 0,20412
x- +
- - 0,69897 - 0,69897
x=4,29203-0,29203
x=4
5
2.1--=25
2- 2 '
25=52
Log25= 2(0,69897) = 1,39794 Log2-r= 0,397940
14. 1..L=~=1,5
2 2
15=3·5 Log15=log3+log5 =0,477121+0,698970 =1,176091 Log1-t=0,176091
1 .. . =2:.=1,4 5 5
14=7·2
Log14=log7 +log2 =0,845098+0,30103 =1,146128 Log1f=0,146128
13.
15.
4. 9x =0,576
Log 9x = log 0,576 xlog9= 1,76042 x(0,95424)= 1,76042 1,76042 x 0,95424
-0,23958
x 0,95424 x= - 0,2510689 x=-0,25107
5. 3x+1 =729
Log 3x+1 = 729
(x+ 1)log3= log729 (x+ 1)(0,477121)= 2,86273 x+ 1= 6,00944
x= 6,00944-1 x=5,00944=} x=5
6. y-2 =625
LogY-2 = log625 (x- 2)log5= 2, 79588 2,79588 x- 2= 0,69897
x-2=4=} x=6
16.
2..L=2:. 3 3
7
Log2t=log3"
=log7+colog3 =0,845098+ 1,522879 =0,367977
143
13=-
11
143 Log13=log--:¡-:¡-
=log143+colog11
= 2,155336 + '2 , 958607 Log13=1,113943
225
25=-
9
225 Log25=log-
9
=log225+colog9
=2,352183+ 1,045757 Log25 = 1,397940
17.
18.
7. 23x+1 = 128
Log23X+I = log128
(3x+ 1)log2= 2,10721 (3x+ 1)(0,30103)= 2,10721 3x+ 1=7
3x=6
x=2
8. 32x-1 = 2.187
Log32X-1 = log2.187
(2x-l)log3= 3,33985 (2x-l)(0,477121)= 3,33985 2x-l=7 2x=8=} x=4
9. 11"x=915
Log1 1"x =log915 2xlog11=2,96142 2,96142 2x 1,04139
2x=2,84372 x=1,42186
EJERCICIO 302
1. a=3 u=48 f=673=2 n- Log48 + Colog3 + 1 Log2
n- 1,68124+ 1 ,522879 + 1 0,30103
n- 1,204119 +1 =4+1 =5 0,30103
243 3
2. a=2 u=- f=-
16 2
Log 243 + Colog2
n= 16 +1
3
Log2
n= Log243+ eolog16+ eolog2 + 1 Log1,5
- -
n= 2,38461+2,79588+ 1 ,69897 +1
0,176091
087946
n=' +1 =4,994+1 n=5,994 n=6
0,176091
3. a=4 u=512 f=874=2 n_Log512+Colog4 +1 Log2
n- 2,70927 + 1 ,39794 + 1 0,30103
n- 2,10721 +1 =7+1 =8 0,30103
EJERCICIO 303
1. c=500 r=0,06 t=3
C=500(1+0,06)' C=500(1,06)'
Log C= Log 500(1,06)' LogC= Log500+31og1,06 Log C= 2,69897 + 3(0,02531) LogC=2,7
749 Antilog2,7749=$595,51
4. a=6 u= 2.048 f=~=~
81 6 3
2.048 Log--+Colog6
n- 81
4 Log3
n- Log2.048+ Colog81+ Colog6 Log4+Colog3
- -
n= 3,31133+2,09151+ 1 ,22184 +1
0,60206+ 1,522879
n- 0,62468 + 1
0,124939
n=4,999879+ 1 n=5,999879 n=6
625 5
5 a=2 u=- f=-=2 5
. 8 2'
625
Log-+Colog2
n- 8 +1
Log2,5
n- Log625 + Colog8+ Colog2 +1 Log2,5
- -
n_2,79588+1,09691+1,69897 +1
0,39794
n- 1,59176 + 1 =4+1 =5
0,39794
2. c=3.500 r=0,07 t=5
C= 3.500(1 + 0,07)'
Log C=Log3.500(1,07)' LogC= Log3.500+5Log 1,07
= 3,54407 +5(0,02938) = 3,54407 + 0,1469 Log C= 3,69097
Anti log 3,69097 = 4.908,94 soles
3. c=8.132 r=0,09 t=lO C= 8.132(1 + 0,09r" LogC= Log8.132(1,09r"
= Log8.132+ lOLog 1,09
= 3,91020+ 10(0,03743) = 3,91020+ 0,3743
LogC=4,2845
Antilog 4,2845= 19.253,070 bs.
4. c=930 r=0,035 t=7 C=930 (1+0,035)" LagC= Lag 930(1, 035)"
= Lag 930+ 7 Lag 1,035
= 2, 9684829+ 7(0,0149403) = 2, 9684829+ 0,01045821
Lag C= 3,073065 Antilog3,073065= $1.183,2186
5. C= 12.318 t= 6
1 17 4,25
r=4;¡=4=4,25 =} 100 =0,0425
C= 12.318(1 + 0,0425)"
LagC= Lag 12.318(1,0425)"
= Lag 12.318+ 6 Lag 1,0425 = 4,0905402+ 6(0,018076) = 4,0905402 + 0,108456
Lag C= 4 ,1989962
Anti log4, 1989962= $15.812 ,34204
6. C= 24.186 t= 7
1 11 5,5
r=5T="2=5,5=} 100=0,055
C= 24.186(1 + 0,055)"
Lag C= Lag 24.186(1,055)"
= Lag 24.186+ 71og1,055
= 4 ,383564+ 7(0,0232524) = 4 ,383564+ 0,1627668
Lag C= 4 ,5463308
Antilog 4,5463308= 35.182 ,83244 sucres
7. C=54.293 t=5
3 15 3,75
r=3;¡=4=3,75 =} 100 =0,0375
Lag C= Lag54.293(1,0375)'
= Log54.293+51og1,0375 = 4,734743+ 5(0,015988) =4,734743+ 0,07994 =4,814683
Antilog 4,814683=$65.265,399
8. c=800 t=4 r= 0,03 =0015 2 '
C= 800(1 + 0,015)"
LagC= Log800(1 + 0,015)"
= Log800+4Iog1,015
= 2,90309+ 4(0,00647)
= 2,90309+ 0,02588 LagC=2,92897 AntilogC=$849,09
9. c=900 t=g=4 r= 0,04 =001
34'
C= 900(1 + 0,01)"
LagC= Lag900+4Iogl,01
= 2,954242+ 4(0,004321) = 2,954242+ 0,017284 =2,971526
Anti log2, 971526= $936 ,54 10. r=0,05 C=972,60 t=4 972,60
c= 4
(1 + 0,05)
Lag c= log972,6+ 4calogl,05 = 2,987934+4(1,978811) = 2,987934- 0,084756 Lag c= 2
,903178 Antilog2,903178=$800,16
11. C=1.893,5 t=6
1 9 4,5
r=4T="2=4,5 =} 100 =0,045
1.893,5
c= (1 + 0,045)"
Logc= logI.893,5+ 6cologl,045 = 3,277265+ 6(1,980883) = 3,277265- 0,1l4702 =3,16
2563
Anti log3, 162563= $1.454 ,02
12. C=54.198,16 r=0,08 t=7 54.198,16
e 7
(1 + 0,08)
Logc= log54.198,16+ 7 calogl,08 = 4,733984 + 7 (1,966576)
= 4, 733984- 0,233968 Logc=4,500016
Antilog4,500016= 31.623,9= 31.624Q.
13. c=600 r=0,03 C=695,56 t- Log695,56-Log600 Log1,03
t- 2,842334-2,778151 0,012837
t- 0,064183 -49998= 5 años 0,012837 '
14. c=1.215 C=1.709,61 r=0,05 t- Log1.709,61-log1.215
- Log(I+0,05)
3,232897 - 3,084576
t=
0,021189
0,148321
t= -7 años
0,021189
15. c=800 t=4 C=1.048,63
( ) log1.048,63-log800
Lag 1+ r = 4
( ) 3,020622 - 2,903089
Lag 1+ r = 4
( ) 0,1l7533
Lag 1+ r = 4 0,029384
Antilog 0,029384=1,07 l+r=I,07
r=0,07 =;7%
EJERCICIO 304
16. c=6.354 t=4 C=7.151,46
( ) Log7.151,46- Log6.354
Log l+r = 4
3,854394-3,803047
4 Log(1 + r)= 0,012836 Anti logO,012836= 1,03 l+r=I,03 r=0,03=;3%
1
17. c=900 r=0,05 t=2+3=2,33333
( )233333
C=900 1+0,05 '
LogC= Log900+2,33333Iog1,05
= 2,954242+ 2,33333(0,0211892) = 2,954242+ 0,049441 =3,003683
Antilog3,003683= 1.008,52
Los intereses producidos represen tan la diferencia entre la suma inicial y lo q
ue se ha convertido
=; Intereses producidos= 1.008,52- 900 =$108,52
1. c=40.000 r=0,05 t=lO
40.000(0,05)(1,05YO
a= 10
(1,05) -1
Lag (1,05YO = 10 Lag 1,05
= 1O(0,0211892) =0,211892 AntilogO,211892= 1,62889
Lag a = log40.000+ logO,05+ log 1 ,62889 + co logO,62889 =4,602059+ '2 ,69897 +0
,211892+ 0,2014253 =3,7143463
Antilog 3,7143463=$5.180,21
2. c=85.000 r=0,03 t=12 85.000(0,03)(1 + 0,D3)'"
a= (1+0,03)'"-1
Log(I,03)'" = 12log 1,03
= 12 (O, O 12837) =0,154044 Antilog 0,154044=1,425761
Log a = log85.000+ logO,03+ log 1,425761 + cologO,425761 =4,929418+ 2 ,477121 +
0,154044+ 0,370834 =3,931417
Antilog 3,931417=8.539,2 soles
3. c=600.000 r=0,05 t=20 600.000(0,05)(1 + 0,05)""
a= 70
(1+0,05t -1
Log(I,05)"" =20Iog1,05 =20(0,0211892) =0,423784
Anti logO,423784= 2 ,65328
Log a = log600.000+ logO,05+ log2,65328+ colog 1,65328 =5,778151 +2,69897+0,4237
84+ 1,781653 =4,682558
Antilog 4,682558=$48.145,75
4. c= 5'000.000 r= 0,06 t= 30
5'000.000(0,06)(1 + 0,06)'° a= (1+0,06)'°-1
Log(I,06)'" =30Iog1,06
= 30(0,025306) = 0,75918 AntilogO, 75918= 5,7435
log a= log5'000.000+ logO,06+ log5, 7435+ colog4, 7435 = 6,69897 + 2,778151 + 0,
75918+ 1 ,323901
=5,5602
Antilog 5,5602= 363.245,2 bs.
5. c=3.000 r=0,06 t=5 a = 3.000·0,237396 a=712,188=712,19 bs.
3.000(0,06)(1,06)'
a= (1,06)'-1
180(1,338226)
a=
0,338226
240,88068
a=
0,338226
a=712,1885367 =712,19 bs. NOTA:
0,237396 ~ Vr. que aparece
en la tabla de int erés compuesto decreciente para el 6% en 5 años. 1, 338226 ~ Vr.
que aparece
en la tabla de int erés compuesto para el 6% a 5 años.
6. c=12.000 r=0,07 t=12 a=12.000·0,125902 a=1.510,824 bs.
7. c=350.000 r=4+% t=3 a=350.000·0,363773 a=127.320,55 sucres
8. c=425.000 r=6% t=10 a=425.000·0,135868 a=57.743,9 soles
9. c=90.750 r=5% t=25 a=90.750·0,070952 a=6.438,894 bs.
10. c=73.550 r=5+% t=30 a=73.550·0,068805 a=5.060,60775 =5.060,61 bs.
11. c=473.000 r=3+% t=9 a=473.000·0,131446 a=62.173,958 =62.173,96 sucres
12. e=45.800 r=4% t=30
a =45.800·0,057830 a=2.648,614 soles
45.800(0,04 )(1,04)'"
a ( 30
1,04) -1
Log(I,04)'" =30Iog1,04 =30(0,017033) =0,51099 Antilog 0,51099=3,243321
Loga = Log45.800+ logO,04+ log3,243321 + eo log2,243321 =4,660865+ 2 ,60206+0,51
0989+ 1 ,649108 =3,423022
Antilog3,423022=2.648,61 soles
EJERCICIO 305
1. e=30.000 r=0,06 t=9
. 30.000(0,06)
1= (1+0,06YO -(1+0,06)
Log(I,06YO = 101ogl,06
= 10(0,02531) = 0,2531 Antilog 0,2531= 1,791018
Log i= Log 30.000+ logO,06+ eolog0,731018 = 4,477121 + 2,778151 + 0,136072
= 3,391344
Antilog 3,391344=$2.462,38
2. e=90.000 r=O,04 t=20 . 90.000(0,04)
1 ( )21
1,04 -1,04
En la tabla de int erés eompuesto(I,04)21 = 2,278768
Log i= Log90.000+ logO,04+ eologl,238768 = 4,95424+ 2 ,60206+ 1 ,90701
=3,4633
Anti log3,4633= 2.906,03 sueres
3. e=200.000 r=0,05 t=40 . 200.000(0,05)
1= (1,05t -1,05
Log(I,05t =41log1,05
=41(0,0211892) =0,868757
Anti logO,868757 =7 ,391915
Log i= Log 200.000+ logO,05+eo log6,341915 =5,30103+2,69897+ 1,19777
=3,19777
Anti log3 ,19777 = $1.576,79
4. e=40.000 r=0,06 t=25 . 40.000(0,06)
1- (1,06)'" -1,06
(1,06)'" ---> 4,549383
Log i = log40.000+ logO,06+eolog3,489383 =4,60206+ 2, 778151 + 1 ,457251 =2,8374
62
Antilog 2,337462=$687,79