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UOC Degenza di Medicina Riabilitativa TREVISO
Developmental MHC and slow MHC isoforms
Human genome contains at least 10 genes for MHC but only 7 so far identified in mature fibres (more actually expressed?). Two isoforms predominate during development: MHCemb & MHCneo In some muscles two additional slow MHC found: a tonic and an alpha cardiac (MHCIton & MHCEcard)
± MHCIton present in mature extrafusal extraocular muscles & developing intrafusal fibres ± MHCcard found in extrafusal fibres of mature extraocular and masticary muscles and in intrafusal fibres.
Spindle-specific MHC found in intrafusal fibres (MHCif)
Mammalian muscles form by the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes: i) primary myotubes and ii) secondary myotubes
± PRIMARY MYOTUBES: appear between 8-10 wks of gestation (i.e. prior motor innervation), contain: slow MHC, MHCemb, MHCneo ± SECONDARY MYOTUBES: formed around 10-18 wks of gestation, contain: fast MHC, MHCemb, MHCneo
± By 18-20 wks gestation most of fibres from the PRIMARY MYOTUBES recognizable as large dia. type I fibres (slow MHC) ± By 15-18 wks gestation most fibres from SECONDARY MYOTUBES initially express fast MHC, MHCemb, MHCneo. With maturation, MHCemb & MHCneo disappear and fast MHC exclusively expressed ± In the secondary fibres, the ultimate expression of fast or slow MHCs seems determined by extrinsic factors e.g. innervation increases expression of slow MHC in human muscle ± Normal size type I fibre appear at ~30 wks gestation ± Type IIA & IIB fibres are distinguishable at ~32-36 wks gestation
Order of MHC expressions
MHCemb pMHCneo p MHCslow/MHCfast
An increase in the proportion of fibres coexpressing MHCI and -IIa and MHC-IIa and -IIb has been found in the vastus lateralis m. of old subjects (~70 yr-old). Similar findings for the biceps (Klitgaard et. al 1989). In the very old (80+ years) ~ 50% of all fibers examined coexpresses two or three MHC isoforms (Andersen et al.1999). Therefore ageing leads to an increased coexpression of different MHC isoforms. (ongoing fibre equilibrium?) These differences, however, are region specific.
Fibre transformations with strength training in young and old adults
Fibre type transformations
Adaptations to usage Animals
± Buller (1960): µfast p slow¶ muscle transformation by cross-innervation experiments ± Salmons & Vrbová (1969) a µfast p slow¶ transformation brought by low freq. (10Hz) stimulation
MHC expression has evolved according to the functional demand on the muscle (e.g. triceps brachii, vastus lateralis and soleus)
MHC-II composition and contractile properties in arm, thigh and leg muscles
Training-induced fibre transformations
FT and ST fibre hypertrophy
Summary of transformations
Type IIB (FG) fibres seem to be lost both a result of sprint as well as endurance training MHC-IIB is probably the µdefault gene¶ which tranforms into MHC-IIA (FOG) following increased usage Sprint training results also in a decrease in MHCIIB but also of MHC-I, thus two paths for MHCIIA expression may exist:
Spinal cord injury patients display a reduction of MHC-I isoforms and an increase in MHC-IIB. A reduction in proportion of type I fibres observed after cast immobilisation Confounding evidence after bed rest. Therefore SOME evidence for slow p fast transformation exists, though issue not resolved