Execut i ve Acknowl edgement s

Honorable Rudolph W. Giuliani
Mayor
City of New York
Luis M. Tormenta, P.E.
Commissioner
New York City Department
of Design and Construction
Michael Burton, P.E.
Deputy Commissioner
New York City Department
of Design and Construction
Hillary Brown, AIA
Assistant Commissioner
New York City Department
of Design and Construction
Fredric Bell, AIA
Assistant Commissioner
New York City Department
of Design and Construction
Andrea Woodner
Founding Director
Design Trust for Public Space
Commi ssi oner ’ s For ewor d
To t he Reader:
As w e ent er t he new cent ury, t he Cit y of New York is in a unique posit ion t o improve t he overall qualit y and
perf ormance of public buildings t hat are const ruct ed and renovat ed by t he Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion
(DDC). We can do t hat by increasing our reliance on energy and environment ally ef f icient const ruct ion t echnologies
and pract ices, by t aking advant age of t he st rides t hat have been made over t he past f ew years in t he f ield of
‘ green buildings.‘
Key t o t he success of t hat ef f ort is our abilit y t o make responsible invest ment s t o improve t he environment w it hout
const raining economic act ivit y. We are now in a posit ion t o do t hat , and, under t he leadership of M ayor Rudolph W.
Giuliani, are moving ahead t o make New York Cit y an environment al prot ot ype f or t he 21st Cent ury.
These Guidelines out line st rat egies and t echniques t hat can move us t ow ard t hat goal. They set out a range of ’ best
pract ices‘ f or planning, designing, const ruct ing and operat ing healt hier, more energy – and resource – ef f icient
f acilit ies. Such high perf ormance buildings can ear n long t erm lif e cycle savings f or New York Cit y, and may also help
st imulat e t he market s f or environment ally ef f icient t echnologies. By int egrat ing high perf ormance f eat ures int o it s
capit al project s, DDC adds value t o t he Cit y‘ s capit al asset s w hile helping t o prot ect t he environment and support
local economic act ivit y.
Luis M . Torment a, P.E.
Commissioner
April, 1999
Desi gn Tr ust f or Publ i c Space Pr ef ace
In 1998, t he Design Trust f or Public Space of f ered t o sponsor t he Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion’s product ion
of High Perf ormance Building Guidelines. A privat e, not -f or-prof it organizat ion dedicat ed t o improving t he design and
underst anding of public space in New York Cit y, t he Trust f unds and manages project s t hat deploy creat ive design
resources t o af f ect signif icant issues of urban policy or t he public built environment . This project w as select ed because
it acknow ledges and st rengt hens t he essent ial role of public sect or design in environment al st ew ardship. By educat ing
bot h public sect or capit al designers and planners in t he “ w hy” and “ how ” of sust ainable design, t he research and
result ing guidelines w ill help t ransf orm DDC’s building pract ices. The Trust is pleased t hat t his init iat ive has been able
t o build upon DDC’s previous ef f ort s in creat ing environment ally sound design, and believes t hat t he adopt ion of High
Perf ormance Building Guidelines w ill help sit uat e New York Cit y at t he f oref ront of large municipalit ies commit t ed t o
environment ally responsible building.
We are conf ident t hat t he result s of t his collaborat ive ef f ort w ill bear out t he Design Trust ’s belief t hat New York Cit y’s
public environment is indeed w ell served w hen public and privat e pract it ioners come t oget her t o f ocus on design.
Throughout t he project , DDC and t he Design Trust w orked as part ners, and w ere support ed by an int eragency
St eering Commit t ee, including members f rom t he Of f ice of M anagement and Budget , M ayor’s Of f ice of Const ruct ion,
t he Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion, and t he New York St at e Energy Research and Development Aut horit y. This
collaborat ion joint ly developed t he f ramew ork of t he st udy, st af f ed it w it h appropriat e prof essional expert ise, recruit ed
in-house and int eragency cont ribut ing aut hors, monit ored it s progress, and secured f oundat ion project f unding
t hrough t he Trust .
The Design Trust w ishes t o acknow ledge t he crit ical support of t he New York St at e Energy Research and Development
Aut horit y, w ho underw rot e t he involvement of environment al design expert s St even Wint er Associat es, w ho provided
crit ical t echnical assist ance and inf ormat ion. We are part icularly grat ef ul t o t he M ayor’s Of f ice of Grant s
Administ rat ion f or t heir invaluable guidance w it h respect t o f oundat ion project support . We are deeply grat ef ul t o
t he Robert St erling Clark Foundat ion, t he Energy Foundat ion, and t he New York St at e Council on t he Art s, f or t heir
f inancial support of t his project .
Andrea Woodner
Direct or
April, 1999
Pr ef ace
Background Through a recent series of init iat ives, New York Cit y is laying t he groundw ork t o int roduce signif icant ly
improved energy- and resource-ef f icient pract ices int o it s public f acilit y const ruct ion programs. Policymakers are
seeking t o capit alize on t he economic and environment al benef it s of ‘ green’ buildings. NYC recognizes t hat improving
t he environment al perf ormance of it s f acilit ies w ill add value t o it s large port f olio of capit al asset s, and at t he same
t ime, yield import ant ‘ qualit y of lif e’ benef it s f or New Yorkers.
Init ial plans f or int egrat ing sust ainable pract ices int o municipal design and const ruct ion w ere developed by a core
st eering commit t ee of t he NYC Green Buildings Task Force, an int eragency collaborat ion organized by t he M ayor’s
Of f ice of Const ruct ion, w it h t he Of f ice of M anagement and Budget and t he Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion.
The Task Force recent ly complet ed it s Environment ally Responsible Building Guidelines Project , w hich examines t he
f easibilit y of rolling out energy – and resource – ef f icient pract ices across t he NYC capit al program. The project w as
carried out by an int erdisciplinary academic t eam f rom t he Universit y Consort ium,
1
an associat ion of seven NYC
t echnical universit ies, t oget her w it h consult ing prof essionals and t he Cit y’s Task Force.
2
The ‘Environment ally Responsible’ Building Guidelines Project The project ’s research component invent oried
green building guidelines, design st andards and case st udies of ot her gover nment ent it ies t o det ermine t heir relevancy
t o NYC’s public cont ract ing environment . Dedicat ed w orkshops convened various const ruct ion indust ry represent at ives
t o examine const raint s and opport unit ies present ed by t he use of green pract ices. A f inancial analysis examined t he
cost s and benef it s of applying environment ally sensit ive guidelines across t he Cit y’s capit al const ruct ion program,
looking at f irst cost , operat ional, and lif e cycle cost dif f erent ials. This project ’s recommendat ions have inf ormed t he
development of t hese Guidelines. An execut ive summary of t he project appears in t he Appendix.
Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion and Ot her Agency Init iat ives The recent ly cent ralized const ruct ion
agency handling inf rast ruct ure and building project s, t he Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion (DDC), has
developed a dedicat ed “ High Perf ormance Building” program. Through demonst rat ion project s (including bot h
renovat ion and new const ruct ion), policy development , out reach, and educat ion, DDC has begun t o mainst ream
select ed green building object ives – energy ef f iciency, pollut ion and w ast e abat ement , indoor air qualit y, resource
conservat ion, and ot hers – int o it s client s’ f acilit ies. Through t he part icipat ion of oversight agencies, ot her project
init iat ives have been undert aken by t he School Const ruct ion Aut horit y, Healt h and Hospit als Corporat ion, and
Economic Development Corporat ion.
Part nerships behind t he High Perf ormance Building Guidelines Project This project builds on t he w ork of t he
above-ment ioned Environment ally Responsible Building Guidelines Project , and on recent DDC experience in
undert aking several high perf ormance demonst rat ion project s. Like t he previous st udy, t he High Perf ormance Building
Guidelines are t he product of a collaborat ive process and result ed f rom a w ide range of cont ribut ions.
In t he preparat ion of t hese Guidelines, signif icant input w as sought f rom t he very t echnical and project management
personnel w ho w ill implement t hem on f ut ure project s. Under t he guidance of t he project t eam, more t han t w ent y
st af f members of DDC researched, w rot e and illust rat ed much of t he mat erial. Signif icant aut horship cont ribut ions
w ere also f ort hcoming f rom several int eragency part icipant s represent ing t he Depart ment s of Parks and Recreat ion,
Environment al Prot ect ion, and t he Of f ice of M anagement and Budget . Also part icipat ing w ere represent at ives of t he
M ayor’s Of f ice of Const ruct ion and t he Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion.
A t echnical assist ance grant f rom New York St at e Energy, Research and Development Aut horit y (NYSERDA) support ed
t he part icipat ion of t he f irm St even Wint er Associat es in much of t he t echnical research and f acilit at ion of t he chapt er
w orkshops. In-kind st af f resources w ere also cont ribut ed by t he Nat ural Resources Def ense Council, INFORM , and
M arket s f or Recycled Product s.
Above all, t he Design Trust f or Public Space
3
, a non-prof it organizat ion dedicat ed t o improving t he design, creat ion
and underst anding of public space t hroughout New York Cit y, provided f unding and management support f or t he
project . The Design Trust provided underw rit ing f or t he part icipat ion of t w o Design Trust Fellow s w ho helped DDC
oversee t he Guidelines development ef f ort s and provided administ rat ive support f or t he project .
Hillary Brow n, AIA
Assist ant Commissioner
Of f ice of Sust ainable Design and Const ruct ion
1. Part icipat ing schools included (1) t he Graduat e School of Archit ect ure, Planning, & Preservat ion, and t he Eart h Engineering Cent er at Columbia Universit y,
(2) Cit y Universit y - Hunt er College, Cent er f or Applied St udies of t he Environment , (3) Cit y College of NY School of Archit ect ure, and (4) Polyt echnic Universit y. See
Acknow ledgment s sect ion f or part icipant s.
2. Ot her part icipat ing agencies include t he Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion, Depart ment of Cit yw ide Administ rat ive Services, t he School Const ruct ion Aut horit y, and t he
Board of Educat ion. The project received a grant f rom t he New York St at e Energy, Research and Development Aut horit y (NYSERDA). See Acknow ledgment s sect ion f or part icipant s.
3. The Design Trust : w w w.designt rust .org PAGE 2
Execut i ve Summar y
The cent ral mission of t he New York Cit y Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion (DDC) is t o deliver t he
Cit y’s const ruct ion project s in a saf e, expedit ious, cost -ef f ect ive manner, w hile maint aining t he highest
st andards of archit ect ural, engineering, and const ruct ion qualit y. These Guidelines ident if y opport unit ies
t o improve DDC’s business pract ices w hich w ill in t ur n yield t he highest overall ret ur n f or t he Cit y’s
capit al invest ment s.
High perf ormance buildings maximize operat ional energy savings; improve comf ort , healt h, and saf et y of
occupant s and visit ors; and limit det riment al ef f ect s on t he environment . The Guidelines provide
inst ruct ion in t he new met hodologies t hat f orm t he underpinnings of high perf ormance buildings. They
f urt her indicat e how t hese pract ices may be accommodat ed w it hin exist ing f ramew orks of capit al project
administ rat ion and f acilit y management .
Working w it hin exist ing capit al and operat ional pract ices, t hese Guidelines require caref ul judgment at all
st ages in project development t o ensure t he f iscal int egrit y of t he capit al project . The Guidelines
encourage t he f ormulat ion of responsible budget s at t he planning st age. Furt her, t hey mandat e t hat t he
design t eam ident if ies any high perf ormance cost premiums (t oget her w it h cost savings) and just if ies
t hem t o t he Cit y’s sat isf act ion.
DDC’s Guidelines cont ribut e t o a grow ing body of lit erat ure nat ionw ide t hat seeks t o promot e
environment ally sound building const ruct ion. In preparing t hese Guidelines, DDC sought signif icant input f rom
t he very t echnical personnel w ho w ill implement t hem on f ut ure project s. M ore t han 20 st af f members
researched and w rot e and illust rat ed much of t he mat erial under t he supervising expert ise of out side
consult ant s. The ef f ort also involved signif icant cont ribut ions f rom ot her cit y agencies.
Hi gh Per f or mance Bui l di ng Gui del i nes Goal s
. Raise expect at ions f or t he f acilit y’s perf ormance
among t he various part icipant s.
. Ensure t hat capit al budget ing design and
const ruct ion pract ices result in invest ment s t hat
make economic and environment al sense.
. M ainst ream t hese improved pract ices t hrough
1) comprehensive pilot high perf ormance building
ef f ort s; and 2) increment al use of individual high
perf ormance st rat egies on project s of limit ed scope.
. Creat e part nerships in t he design and const ruct ion
process around environment al and economic
perf ormance goals.
. Save t axpayers money t hrough reduced energy and
mat erial expendit ures, w ast e disposal cost s, and
ut ilit y bills.
. Improve t he comf ort , healt h and w ell-being of
building occupant s and public visit ors.
. Design buildings w it h improved perf ormance w hich
can be operat ed and maint ained w it hin t he limit s of
exist ing resources.
. St imulat e market s f or sust ainable t echnologies
and product s.
PAGE 3
INTRODUCTION
Commissioner’s Forew ard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Design Trust f or Public Space Pref ace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Pref ace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Execut ive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
PART ONE: Overview
How t o Use These Guidelines
Capit al Project Part icipant s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Guidelines Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Use of t he Guidelines w it h Ot her Document s
Relat ionship of t he Guidelines t o ot her
DDC document s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Relat ionship of t he Guidelines t o exist ing
codes and st andards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Relat ionship of t he Guidelines t o ot her
green building rat ing syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Applying t he Guidelines t o NYC capit al project s . . . . 11
Purpose of t hese Guidelines
Why do w e need t hem? Who w ill use t hem? . . . . . . 12
An Overview of High Perf ormance Buildings
What is a ’ high perf ormance building‘ ?. . . . . . . . . . . 13
High perf ormance building f eat ures and benef it s. . . . 15
Reconciling economics and environment al concer ns. . 16
Well-int egrat ed design and const ruct ion . . . . . . . . . . 17
Current barriers t o high perf ormance buildings . . . . . 18
M easurable Cost s and Benef it s of
High Perf ormance Buildings
M easurable Cost s and Benef it s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Facilit y-Specif ic Benef it s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
M unicipal Benef it s and Avoided Cost s. . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Economic Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Ext er nal Environment al Benef it s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
High Perf ormance Building Object ives . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
PART TWO: Process
CITY PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Program Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Sit e Select ion and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Budget Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Capit al Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Perf ormance Goals . . . . .31 Deliverables . . . . . .31
DESIGN PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Client Aw areness and Goal Set t ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Team Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Well-Int egrat ed Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Resource M anagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Perf ormance Goals . . . . .37 Deliverables . . . . . 37
PART THREE: Technical
SITE DESIGN AND PLANNING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Underst anding t he Sit e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Building-Sit e Relat ionship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Sust ainable Landscape Pract ice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Encouraging Alt er nat ive Transport at ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . 51 Deliverables . . . . . . 52
BUILDING ENERGY USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Sit e and M assing Considerat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Int erior Layout /Spat ial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Building Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Daylight ing/Sun Cont rol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Light Pollut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
High Perf ormance Light ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Elect rical Syst ems and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
M echanical Syst ems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Energy Load M anagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . 66 Deliverables . . . 69
INDOOR ENVIRONM ENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Good Indoor Air Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Good Visual Qualit y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Acoust ic Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Noise Cont rol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . 84 Deliverables . . . 87
M ATERIAL AND PRODUCT SELECTION . . . . . . . . . 90
Environment ally Pref erable M at erials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Select ion f or a Healt hy Indoor Environment . . . . . . . . . . 93
Select ion f or Resource Ef f iciency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Select ion f or Ext er nal Environment al Benef it s . . . . . . . . 97
Perf ormance Goals . . . . 99 Deliverables . . . .99
WATER M ANAGEM ENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
M inimize t he Use of Domest ic Wat er . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Wat er Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Wat er Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Perf ormance Goals . . . 106 Deliverables . . . 106
CONSTRUCTION ADM INISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Environment al and Communit y Considerat ions . . . . . . 110
Healt h and Saf et y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Const ruct ion and Demolit ion Wast e M anagement . . . . 112
Perf ormance Goals . . . 113 Deliverables . . . 114
COM M ISSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Fully Int egrat ing Operat ing Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Commissioning Exist ing Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Perf ormance Goals . . . 120 Deliverables . . . 120
OPERATIONS AND M AINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Operat ing and M aint aining Building Syst ems. . . . . . . . 124
Healt hy and Ef f icient Cust odial Operat ions . . . . . . . . . 125
Wast e Prevent ion and Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Perf ormance Goals . . .129 Deliverables . . . 130
PART FOUR: End Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Acknow ledgment s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Appendices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Tabl e of Cont ent s
Ci t y Pr ocess
Desi gn Pr ocess
Si t e Desi gn
and Pl anni ng
Bui l di ng
Ener gy Use
I ndoor
Envi r onment
Mat er i al and
Pr oduct Sel ect i on
Wat er
Management
Const r uct i on
Admi ni st r at i on
Commi ssi oni ng
Oper at i ons
and Mai nt enance
Hi gh
Per f or mance
Bui l di ng
Gui del i nes
Based on a design by Carol Lat man
Par t One:
Over vi ew
On any given capit al project , dozens of players f rom
bot h t he public and privat e sect ors part icipat e in
planning, programming, f unding, design,
const ruct ion, and operat ion of a municipal f acilit y.
The High Perf ormance Building Guidelines help each
part icipant bet t er underst and t heir role in producing
improved, more ef f icient buildings w it h reduced
environment al impact s.
These Guidelines w ill t ake each part icipant t hrough
t he new pract ices t hat must be adopt ed in order t o
realize t hese goals and achieve t he higher degree of
collaborat ion necessary t o reach t he t arget ed
perf ormance object ives. As a t ool, t he Guidelines are
meant t o bot h inst ruct and f acilit at e input f rom
public agency execut ives and line st af f ; oversight
agencies and elect ed of f icials; archit ect s and
engineers; subcont ract ors, jour neymen, and building
cust odians; and t he visit ing public.
Part icipant s should ident if y t he Guidelines sect ion(s)
most applicable t o t heir project roles suggest ed by
t he f ollow ing chart .
All part icipant s are st rongly urged
t o read Part s I and II in t heir ent iret y.
Overview
Bui l di ng Owner s
Sponsoring Agencies
Capit al planning and budget ing, f acilit y
management and operat ion
DDC Program M anagers
Project administ rat ion
DDC Archit ect ure & Engineering
Technical group t hat develops t he Specif ic
Requirement s and review s t he document s
Regul at or y and Ot her Agenci es
Building Depart ment , Cit y Planning,
Depart ment of Environment al Prot ect ion,
Depart ment of Transport at ion
Review and approve plans and specif icat ions
Depart ment of Sanit at ion,
DCAS/ Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion
Perf orm f acilit y-specif ic services during
operat ions; provides energy services
Fundi ng Ent i t i es
OM B Task Force and Capit al
and Expense Budget Review
Approve budget request s; analyze program
requirement s
Elect ed Of f icials, Cit y Council, Privat e
Organizat ions, Ot her Funding Groups
Develops project descript ion
Bui l di ng I ndust r y
Archit ect s
Overall project design and coordinat ion;
product ion of draw ings and specif icat ions
Landscape Archit ect s, Hort icult uralist s,
Civil Engineers
Design of sit e plan, roads, drainage,
plant ings, sit e f ur nishings
M echanical, Elect rical, and
St ruct ural Engineers
HVAC and elect rical syst ems, plumbing,
ut ilit y connect ions, st ruct ural design
Const ruct ion M anagers, Cost Est imat ors,
Commissioning Agent s
Review, est imat e and administ er const ruct ion;
commission t he building
Cont ract ors, Subcont ract ors, Building and
Trade Associat ions, Wast e Handlers, et c.
Bid and const ruct t he project ; commission
t he building
Ot her End- User s
Public Client ele, Cit y Taxpayers
Building users and visit ors
Ot her Reader s
Ot her M unicipalit ies
Progressing ot her sust ainable programs/init iat ives
Int erest ed Real Est at e Prof essionals
Progressing ot her sust ainable programs/init iat ives
Desi gn
Pr ocess
Ci t y
Pr ocess
Si t e Desi gn
and Pl anni ng
Bui l di ng
Ener gy Use
I ndoor
Envi r onment
Mat er i al and
Pr oduct Sel ect i on
Wat er
Management
Const r uct i on
Admi ni st r at i on
Commi ssi oni ng Oper at i ons and
Mai nt enance
Par t i ci pant s
All part icipant s are st rongly urged t o
read Part s I and II in t heir ent iret y.
Key
Chapt er s
PAGE 8
Overview
Gui del i nes For mat
Building indust ry prof essionals w ill not ice t hat t he Guidelines is not organized according t o
t radit ional t echnical areas. To int roduce new pract ices t hat require a higher level of int erdisciplinary
coordinat ion, t his publicat ion has been f ormulat ed around high perf ormance object ives t hat cut
across mult iple disciplines and t echnical areas of expert ise.
Each of t he chapt ers in Part s II and III f ollow a common f ormat designed t o lead t he project t eam
t hrough t he basics of green building design, const ruct ion, and operat ion. Beginning w it h t he
general issues or principles involved and progressing t o specif ic t angible act ivit ies, each chapt er
cont ains a series of high perf ormance Object ives, a summary explanat ion of Benef it s t hat pert ain
t o each object ive, and a series of Technical St rat egies t o be used in achieving t hat object ive.
• Object ives
The object ives are
summary st at ement s of
t he key high
perf ormance principles
or pract ices t hat are
becoming more
w idespread t hroughout
t he indust ry.
Support ing examples
and graphics f urt her
clarif y or expand on
t hese object ives.
• Benef it s
Each object ive has a
number of benef it s or
advant ages t hat may
be capt ured using t he
t echnical st rat egies t hat
f ollow. Benef it s may be
direct or indirect .
• Technical St rat egies
A series of
recommended design
approaches describe
t he means required t o
capt ure t he benef it s.
St rat egies may
include design
met hodologies, use of
new t echnologies, or
administ rat ive pract ices.
• Example
Mi ni mi ze t he Use of Domest i c Wat er
Proper select ion of plumbing f ixt ures, equipment , and f it t ings can minimize end use of domest ic
w at er w hile conserving w at er qualit y and availabilit y.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Fixt ure and f it t ing select ion. Select plumbing f ixt ures and f it t ings t hat evince st at e-of -t he-art
capabilit ies in t erms of w at er conservat ion. Seek improved perf ormance by specif ying low w at er
usage w at er closet s, urinals, show ers, and lavat ories–especially t hose t hat perf orm above t he
st andards already mandat ed by f ederal, st at e and local law s. Consider t he use of :
• Pressure-assist t oilet s
• Compost ing t oilet s
• Wat erless urinals (in high use areas)
• Aut omat ic shut -of f cont rols on sinks, t oilet s, and urinals
O Ozonat ion. Consider ozonat ion in commercial laundering syst ems, condenser w at er syst ems,
and ot her special uses t o reduce w at er usage and secure ot her benef it s.
Wat er Savings – Toilet s and Faucet s
New York’s M arriot M arquis Hot el replaced 1,800 guest room t oilet s (operat ing at
approximat ely f ive gallons per f lush) w it h 1.6-gallon pressurized-t ank t oilet s, result ing in an
18% reduct ion in t ot al w at er use. In addit ion t o t ypical resident ial w at er end uses, t he hot el
also has ext ensive rest aurant , cat ering, and recreat ional f acilit ies, as w ell as some laundry
f acilit iesDuring 1994-1997, t he New York Cit y Depart ment of Environment al Prot ect ion (DEP)
sponsored t he replacement of 1.33 million t oilet s cit yw ide. Some show. erheads w ere replaced
and f aucet aerat ors inst alled as part of t he project . An impact evaluat ion of project result s in
mult i-f amily buildings f ound an average reduct ion in w at er use of 29% , or 69 gallons per
apart ment per day.
Ozone Laundry
Ozone laundry syst ems use ozone (oxygen act ivat ed w it h an elect rical charge) in lukew arm
w at er t o reduce t he need f or det ergent s, bleach, and hot w at er. Ozone is a short -lived,
unst able gas t hat is creat ed on sit e w it h an elect rical generat or, and immediat ely begins t o
convert back t o oxygen. In t he process, it oxidizes f at t y oils and breaks t he bond bet w een dirt
and clot hing. Ozone laundry syst ems complement t radit ional laundry equipment in f acilit ies
handling large quant it ies of t ext iles, such as hospit als, nursing homes, and correct ional
inst it ut ions. Ozone is also an ext remely ef f ect ive biocide. Ot her benef it s include hot w at er
(energy) savings, reduced w at er and sew er cost s, chemical cost reduct ions, improved sew age
qualit y, and reduced t ext ile degradat ion.
Benef it s
$O
M
Reduced use
low ers municipal
cost s f or w at er
t reat ment
$C
M
Widespread
conservat ion
reduces demand
and can avoid
f ut ure w ast e
w at er t reat ment
f acilit ies
const ruct ion,
along w it h
associat ed
capit al cost s.
A
PAGE 104
70. “ Non-ut ilit y” w at er ref ers t o w at er not provided by t he ut ilit y, such as rainw at er and grayw at er.
Wat er
M anagement
Overview
The reader w ill also f ind coverage of Building Int egrat ion issues (impact s on ot her building part s)
and Perf ormance Goals, or t echnical benchmarks f or use in gauging progress on a given project .
Deliverables are t hose separat e submit t als required over and above w hat is called f or in t he
Guide f or Design Consult ant s. Each chapt er also cont ains inf ormat ion on design or const ruct ion
Tools, as w ell as Ref erences t o ot her sources of inf ormat ion, building codes and st andards, and
background research.
• Building Int egrat ion
M ore t han ever, buildings
perf orm as a series of
int erconnect ed syst ems.
This sect ion ref ers readers
t o ot her chapt ers w hen it ’s
necessary t o underst and
relat ed issues.
• Perf ormance Goals
For each chapt er or
subchapt er, perf ormance
goals est ablish building
perf ormance t arget s.
Wherever possible, t hese
are expressed against
current indust ry
benchmarks, t echnical
st andards, or ref erence
st andards. The consult ant
w ill need t o ensure t hat
t hese are st ill current . In
some cases, perf ormance
goals have been of f ered at
t w o levels: Level 1 can be
pract ically achieved t hrough
a f ocused design ef f ort .
Level 2 may involve a
more concert ed ef f ort and
addit ional design or
const ruct ion cost s.
• Deliverables
To improve building
perf ormance or est ablish
t hat t he project meet s a
higher level of
perf ormance, t he
consult ant , cont ract or,
or client may need t o
submit addit ional
document at ion or
draw ings. Some of
t hese deliverables w ill
be in addit ion t o
submit t als out lined in
t he Guide f or Design
Consult ant s or
Client M anual.
PAGE 9
PERFORMANCE GOALS
Wat er
M anagement
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Sit e Design and Planning. There is a relat ionship bet w een sit e harvest ing
of and st orage of rainw at er and minimizing t he f acilit y’s domest ic w at er
use by ut ilizing t his ret ained w at er f or non-pot able uses.
Building Energy Use. Reduced hot w at er usage low ers building
energy consumpt ion.
LEVEL 1
O Use plumbing component s t hat are cert if ied t o meet ANSI/NSF 61
(see Tools).
O Where appropriat e, use harvest ed or ret ained w at er f or seasonal irrigat ion
of all plant mat erials and/or non-pot able w at er uses w it hin t he building.
LEVEL 2
O The f acilit y should maint ain w at er qualit y t hat meet s EPA’s maximum
cont aminant level goals (M CLGs) (see Tools).
O Int egrat e zero w at er use f ixt ures and grayw at er syst ems as appropriat e.
Tool s
> ANSI/NSF St andard 61 – Drinking Wat er Syst em Component s-Healt h Ef f ect s.
Web sit e: w w w.nsf .org
> EPA Code of Federal Regulat ions, Part s 141-149.
> New York St at e Depart ment of Healt h publishes a list ing of cert if ied t est ing labs.
Del i ver abl es
Preliminary Design. Test ing dat a, t o include:
¯ ANSI/ASM E perf ormance t est result s f or plumbing f ixt ures.
¯ NSF cert if icat ion and t est ing dat a f or plumbing component s.
¯ Quant if ied pot ent ial savings f rom w at er management st rat egies.
Const ruct ion.
¯ Lab result s of w at er qualit y t est ing at t he point (s) of incoming service.
Post -Const ruct ion.
¯ Lab result s of w at er qualit y t est ing at t aps.
Regul at or y Const r ai nt s
= The NYC Building Code does not specif ically address approved mat erials and met hods f or
t he use of grayw at er. All innovat ive syst ems (such as t hose st rat egies suggest ed above) may
raise issues of concer n w it h local code aut horit ies. Ef f ect ive implement at ion requires
w orking closely w it h code of f icials t o obt ain a variance f or using non-pot able w at er as
f lushw at er f or w at er closet s and urinals, as w ell as f or ot her grayw at er uses. In addit ion,
regulat ory approvals are required f or t he use of vacuum-assist w at er closet syst ems.
Ref er ences
Calif or nia Depart ment of Wat er Resources. Indust rial/Commercial Drought : Guidebook f or Wat er Ut ilit ies,
St at e of Calif or nia, The Resources Agency, 1991.
Calif or nia Depart ment of Wat er Resources, Wat er Ef f iciency Guide f or Business M anagers and Facilit y
Engineers, St at e of Calif or nia, The Resources Agency, 1994.
Diet mann, A.J. and S.J. Hill, “ Wat er and Energy Ef f icient Clot hes Washers,” in Proceedings of Conser ve ‘ 96,
American Wat er Works Associat ion, 1996.
Wat er
M anagement
PAGE 105
71. NSF Int er nat ional is an independent , not -f or-prof it organizat ion dedicat ed t o public healt h, saf et y, and prot ect ion of t he environment . The organizat ion
develops st andards, provides superior t hird-part y conf ormit y assessment services, and st rives t o represent t he int erest s of all st akeholders.
• Ref erences
Books, manuals, ref erence
st andards, art icles, ot her
sources of inf ormat ion on
t he chapt er t opic.
• Regulat ory Const raint s
• Tools
The indust ry is developing
usef ul design aids, many of
t hem comput er-based, t hat
enable t he t eam t o bet t er
visualize or underst and a
building’s perf ormance.
Overview
PAGE 10
4. The US Green Building Council is t he only nonprof it consensus coalit ion of t he building indust ry w hich promot es t he underst anding, development , and
accelerat ed implement at ion of “ green building” policies, programs, t echnologies, st andards and design pract ices.
5. Building Research Est ablishment Environment al Assessment M et hod, an indust ry st andard f or assessing a building’s environment al qualit y and perf ormance.
Use of t he Gui del i nes wi t h Ot her Document s
The Guidelines have been w rit t en in such a w ay as t o complement a w ide range of exist ing
document s t hat gover n t he design, const ruct ion, and operat ion of t he NYC capit al project s
managed by DDC. These include Cit y procedural manuals and cont ract document s. In addit ion, t he
Guidelines also ref erence t he large volume of available inf ormat ion on green buildings and green
building evaluat ion and rat ing syst ems.
Rel at i onshi p of t he Gui del i nes t o ot her DDC document s
NYC DDC Guide f or Design Consult ant s, t he Agreement , and t he Specif ic Requirement s
The consult ant ’s cont ract consist s of t hree document s: t he Agreement , t he Specif ic Requirement s
(SR), and t he Guide f or Design Consult ant s. Taken t oget her, t he Agreement , w hich t he consult ant
signs, and t he SR def ine t he consult ant ’s cont ract ual obligat ions f or t he project at hand. The Guide
f or Design Consult ant s supplement s t he Agreement and SR.
The High Perf ormance Building Guidelines w ill af f ect t hese document s as f ollow s:
The Guidelines w ill be used by t he client agency and DDC program and t echnical st af f in w rit ing
t he SR. The Guidelines w ill help ident if y and def ine addit ional cont ract deliverables over and
above t hose called f or in t he Guide f or Design Consult ant s. These w ill be called out in t he SR.
NYC DDC Client M anual
The Client M anual document s t he procedures carried out by DDC in administ ering capit al project s on
behalf of it s sponsor agencies. The client agencies’ roles and responsibilit ies are described t herein.
The Guidelines w ill af f ect t his document by f urt her def ining t he client agencies’ responsibilit ies
prior t o project commencement – budget ing, sit e select ion, st rat egic planning, and programming,
as w ell as addit ional responsibilit ies during design procurement , design, and const ruct ion. The
Guidelines describe addit ional responsibilit ies such as commissioning, operat ions and
maint enance procedures.
Rel at i onshi p of t he Gui del i nes t o exi st i ng codes and st andar ds
The est ablishment of st andardized ‘ w hole building’ energy and environment al perf ormance goals
has proven t o be a dif f icult and complex t ask f or t he building indust ry. This is due in part t o t he f act
t hat building energy and environment al perf ormance varies signif icant ly based on climat e, building
t ype, operat ional use prof iles, and ot her variables. In addit ion, t echnology is rapidly t ransf orming
t he conf igurat ion, composit ion and use of mat erials and equipment .
In t erms of building energy use t oday, t he gover ning st andard f or t he perf ormance goals
est ablished in t hese Guidelines is t he New York St at e Energy Conservat ion and Const ruct ion Code
(NYS Energy Code), last amended f or non-resident ial buildings in 1989. It est ablishes t he minimum
building const ruct ion and mechanical syst em ef f iciencies t hat must be achieved in order t o produce
a code-compliant building in New York St at e t oday. At present , t he NYS Energy Code f alls short of
current commercial building pract ice, and is being revised t o ref lect current t echnology and pract ice.
Similarly, indoor air qualit y issues are covered by such st andards as ASHRAE 62-1989, a st andard
long under public review t hat is now under “ cont inuous maint enance.”
Despit e t hese limit at ions, t he perf ormance goals cont ained in t he Guidelines are expressed,
w herever possible, in t erms of meet ing or exceeding current indust ry codes, t echnical st andards,
or ref erence st andards.
Rel at i onshi p of t he Gui del i nes t o gr een bui l di ng r at i ng syst ems
At t his t ime, a number of nat ional and int ernat ional building rat ing and evaluat ion syst ems are being
developed t o bet t er def ine t he at t ribut es of a green building, and provide a def init ive st andard f or
high perf ormance f rom a ‘ w hole building’ perspect ive. The US Green Building Council
4
has developed
t he LEED
TM
Green Building Rat ing syst em. The syst em st rikes a balance bet w een ef f ect ive pract ices
and emerging concept s t hrough it s f eat ure-orient ed use of energy and environment al principles t o
ear n credit s t ow ard cert if icat ion. The syst em merit s comparison w it h ot her emerging int er nat ional
rat ing syst ems, such as BREEAM .
5
The reader is encouraged t o ref erence t he LEED credit s syst em in
relat ion t o t he perf ormance goals and t echnical st rat egies cont ained in t hese Guidelines.
Overview
Appl yi ng t he Gui del i nes t o NYC capi t al pr oj ect s
New const ruct ion vs. renovat ion
The Guidelines def ine object ives, st rat egies, benef it s, perf ormance goals, et c. t hat w ill apply t o
eit her renovat ion or new const ruct ion. In some cases, t he perf ormance goals may dif f er, because in
a renovat ion, t he building’s sit e, orient at ion, massing, st ruct ural syst ems and ot her at t ribut es
already exist . Their perf ormance may be upgraded, but t hey cannot be radically alt ered, and
t heref ore perf ormance expect at ions may be realist ically dow ngraded.
Building renovat ions and syst ems upgrades
Client agencies may dramat ically improve an exist ing building’s perf ormance if t hey f ollow t he
planning principles cont ained in t he Guidelines. One key principle relat es t o building int egrat ion,
w hich recognizes t hat t he various archit ect ural, mechanical, and elect rical syst ems are
int erdependent . Capit al planning, t heref ore, should t ake int o account a long-t erm view of t he
w hole building. Even w it h limit ed capit al f unding, increment ally improving t he building envelope
and various building syst ems in t he right order w ill result in long-t erm operat ing and capit al savings
w hen t he f ollow ing principles of building int egrat ion are applied:
1. M ake comprehensive f acilit y invest ment s and perf orm t hem in t he proper
sequence t o ensure appropriat e load mat ching.
2. Improve t he t hermal perf ormance of t he building envelope f irst , w hile properly
sequencing t he upgrade(s) of mechanical and elect rical syst ems. Replacement of
w hole cent ral syst ems should come last in t he order of priorit y.
For example, building ext erior ‘ w eat herizat ion’ or st abilizat ion, such as w indow replacement or
improved roof ing insulat ion, reduces heat ing and cooling loads. High-ef f iciency light ing upgrades
and replacing f ans and mot ors in air-handling syst ems may f urt her reduce loads. These improvement s
should precede or be perf ormed simult aneously w it h replacement of major HVAC equipment t o
ensure proper load mat ching. This sequence avoids w ast ing money on major HVAC equipment
invest ment s t hat w ould ot herw ise become part ially redundant based on lat er load reduct ions.
New const ruct ion
A new f acilit y t hat ’s planned w it h an eye t ow ard sust ainabilit y f rom day one represent s an
unprecedent ed opport unit y t o show case high perf ormance principles and opt imize building f eat ures
in an int egrat ed manner. High perf ormance principles and pract ices applied t o sit e-select ion issues,
sit e planning, and design can reap signif icant capit al and operat ing savings as w ell as ot her
municipal benef it s.
PAGE 11
Pur pose of t hese Gui del i nes
Why do we need t hem?
Wit h publicat ion of t hese Guidelines, t he New York Cit y Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion is
st epping up it s commit ment t o int egrat ing high perf ormance design principles int o t he f acilit ies it
builds or renovat es t o house crit ical municipal services. Increasingly, green building object ives are
making t heir w ay int o mainst ream pract ice in t his count ry t hrough legislat ive or gover nment agency
act ion, as w ell as t hrough non-prof it , or corporat e leadership. Using t hese Guidelines enables DDC
t o commission high perf ormance public f acilit ies t hat improve t he general st andards f or good
design in t he met ropolit an region. The Guidelines promot e bot h policy and t echnical st rat egies f or
Cit y agencies, designers, and builders. They set out common sense t arget s f or building
perf ormance, t he means t o achieve t hose object ives, and t he necessary t ools and ref erences.
The Guidelines ident if y building act ions t hat are pract ical and cost -
ef f ect ive t oday. They spell out t he benef it s and encourage best
pract ices w hile st riving t o overcome many of t he t radit ional barriers
t o opt imizing building design.
Who wi l l use t hem?
The Guidelines have been designed f or use by all part icipant s in t he
New York Cit y capit al const ruct ion process, so w e should begin by
view ing t his as a t eambuilding process. The init ial chapt ers make t he
t echnical perf ormance goals clear and comprehensible t o f unding
and oversight agencies. They encourage client agencies t o align high
perf ormance building object ives w it h t heir service mission, and t o
select appropriat e, at t ainable goals f rom among alt er nat ive levels of
perf ormance. They encourage ret ooling of convent ional programming
and budget ing processes, and provide roadmaps f or ef f ect ive change.
For elect ed of f icials and agency and oversight budget analyst s, t he
Guidelines ident if y cost s and benef it s, t hus encouraging long-t erm
(lif e-cycle) approaches t o capit al decisions, as opposed t o t hose
driven solely by f irst cost . For t he client end-users, t hese chapt ers
provide operat ing st af f w it h t ools f or a legacy of comf ort and
economy, along w it h t he means t o reduce or eliminat e inef f iciency,
w ast e, and pollut ion t hroughout t he building’s usef ul lif e.
Successf ul high perf ormance project s depend on obt aining t he
appropriat e green building expert ise f rom t he Cit y’s privat e sect or
part ners. These include t he consult ing archit ect ural and engineering
f irms cont ract ed f or design services, as w ell as t he const ruct ion
managers, cont ract ors, and t radespeople w ho accomplish t he w ork.
The Guidelines help t he design and const ruct ion t eam f ost er
mult idisciplinary design t hinking in order t o achieve t he low est end-use cost . At t he
same t ime, t he Guidelines demand new levels of prof iciency f rom consult ant s and
cont ract ors alike in special disciplines such as energy modeling and building
commissioning.
The high visibilit y and symbolic posit ion of a civic f acilit y makes it an excellent f orum
f or educat ing a w ide audience, show casing new t echnologies, and adopt ing
innovat ive business pract ices. Public w orks account f or a large percent age of t he
met ropolit an region’s const ruct ion economy. As a signif icant consumer of t echnical
services, DDC, in commissioning environment ally sound public f acilit ies, w ill help
accelerat e t he int roduct ion of sust ainable building pract ices, w hile grow ing t he
market f or compet it ively-priced green product s. Thus, f rom an economic
development st andpoint , prof iciency w it h sust ainable concept s, t echnologies,
renew ables, and ot her high ef f iciency mat erials and procedures w ill help ensure t he
New York Cit y const ruct ion indust ry’s cont inuing prominence in global market s.
PAGE 12
Nat ural Resources Def ense
Council (NRDC) Nat ional
Headquart ers, New York Cit y
Skylight s above t he cent ral
int erconnect ing st airs illuminat es
shared spaces on all t hree f loors.
The NRDC headquart ers,
complet ed in 1989, w as one of
t he f irst ’ green‘ renovat ion
project s in New York Cit y.
The Croxt on Collaborat ive
phot o: Ot t o Bait z
Overview
Overview
An Over vi ew of Hi gh Per f or mance Bui l di ngs
What i s a ‘ hi gh per f or mance’ bui l di ng?
New achievers
M any successf ul new building project s are t aking shape t hroughout t he count ry t oday, calling int o
quest ion t he perf ormance level of more t ypical const ruct ion endeavors, and prompt ing us t o ask
just how f ar our convent ional buildings are f alling short of t he mark. At t he head of t he class are
a series of energy- and resource-ef f icient project s t hat are reaping meaningf ul energy and cost
savings along w it h import ant associat ed benef it s. Buildings like t he Federal Court house in Denver,
a new U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency f acilit y in Nort h Carolina, t he Gap’s new San Bruno,
Calif or nia, headquart ers, Four Times Square (t he Condé Nast building show n on t his page), and t he
Nat ural Resources Def ense Council
and Audubon House renovat ions here
in New York Cit y (show n on t he
previous page) boast numerous
value-added f eat ures, commonly
know n as ‘ green,’ ‘ sust ainable,’ or
simply ‘ high perf ormance.’
“ The gr eat new s i s t hat
enhanced envi r onment al
r esponsi bi l i t y i n hi gh- r i se
const r uct i on does not
have t o si gni f i cant l y
i ncr ease t he cost of
t he pr oj ect . ”
Dan Tishman,
President , Tishman Const ruct ion,
Lessons Learned, Four Times Square
PAGE 13
The Condé Nast Building
This 48-st ory t ow er at Four Times
Square w ill be t he f irst project of it s
size t o adopt st at e-of -t he-art
st andards f or energy conservat ion,
indoor air qualit y, recycling syst ems,
and t he use of sust ainable
manuf act uring processes.
Fox & Fow le Archit ect s
Overview
PAGE 14
6. Romm, J.J., and Brow ning, W.D., Greening t he Building and t he Bot t om Line: Increasing Product ivit y t hrough Energy-Ef f icient Design, 1994.
Basi c obj ect i ves
Regardless of t erminology, t he object ives are t he same. From project out set , t hese building ow ners,
designers, and cont ract ors act ively commit t ed t o maximizing operat ional energy savings, providing
healt hy int eriors, and limit ing t he det riment al environment al impact s of t he buildings’ const ruct ion
and operat ion. As a consequence, t hey have also leveraged some compelling side benef it s. The
building occupant s enjoy an improved sense of healt h and w ell-being t hat can be at t ribut ed t o
improved daylight ing, qualit y high-ef f iciency light ing, and bet t er indoor air. Some of t hese building
ow ners have report ed t angible increases in w orker
product ivit y. In many cases, t hese product ivit y gains
have dw arf ed t he building’s combined capit al,
operat ions, and maint enance cost savings.
6
These
project s’ collect ive successes allow us t o pinpoint
short comings in convent ional building st andards and
const ruct ion met hods, and t o est ablish realist ic,
at t ainable goals.
DDC hi gh per f or mance bui l di ngs – oppor t uni t i es
DDC’s client agencies deliver vit al municipal services
t hrough such diverse f acilit ies as libraries, cult ural
inst it ut ions, police and f ire st at ions, and healt h and
daycare cent ers. The various value-added f eat ures
of f ered by high perf ormance f acilit ies w ill complement
each agency’s mission and enhance service delivery.
The annual energy cost f or Cit y f acilit ies is approximat ely $400 million. By int egrat ing t hese
Guidelines int o t he f acilit y renovat ion and new const ruct ion process, t he Cit y can capt ure operat ing
savings t hat can t hen be redirect ed t ow ard improving building maint enance or enhancing ot her
municipal services. By incorporat ing environment ally sound mat erials and syst ems, improving indoor
air qualit y and daylight ing, t he Cit y w ill improve t he value of it s int erior public spaces and realize
indirect ret ur ns t hrough improved healt h and w ell-being of Cit y w orkers and ot her building
occupant s or visit ors.
Because t hese ot her
benef it s are more
dif f icult t o quant if y
t han direct energy
savings, t he real value
of high perf ormance
buildings can be easily
be underest imat ed by
t radit ional account ing
met hods t hat do not
recognize ‘ ext er nal’
municipal and regional
cost s and benef it s.
High perf ormance
building cost
evaluat ions should
address, in some
measure, t he
economic, social, and
environment al benef it s
t hat accompany green
buildings.
(See Part I:
M easurable Benef it s, p.20).
Cit y of
San Diego
Ridgehaven
Building
The Cit y of San
Diego, t oget her
w it h San Diego Gas
& Elect ric, creat ed a
show case f or t he
economic and
environment al
benef it s of green
renovat ion in t his
upgrade of a 1980’s
commercial st ruct ure.
Cit y of San Diego
phot o: Adam Saling
New Sout h Jamaica Branch Library
A rendering of t he f irst of several DDC show case high perf ormance project s, now under const ruct ion.
St ein Whit e Archit ect s, LLC
Overview
PAGE 15
Hi gh per f or mance bui l di ng f eat ur es and benef i t s
The f ollow ing design, const ruct ion, and operat ion act ivit ies can result in value-added public
buildings. Direct , indirect , and ‘ ext er nal’ benef it s are also brief ly ident if ied and discussed.
. Energy Ef f iciency/ Clean Energy Resources
Act ions: Reduce energy use and demand t hrough passive solar t echniques and int egrat ed building
design. This process looks at opt imum sit ing/orient at ion and maximizes t he t hermal ef f iciency of
t he building envelope (w indow s, w alls, roof ) w hile considering t he int eract ion of t he HVAC,
light ing, and cont rol syst ems. Int egrat ed design uses daylight t o reduce elect rical demand, and
incorporat es energy ef f icient light ing, mot ors, and equipment . It encourages ‘ right -sizing’ of
mechanical syst ems t o avoid higher f irst cost s. Where f easible, renew able energy sources such as
phot ovolt aic cells, solar hot w at er, and geot hermal exchange are used in t andem w it h ot her low -
emission t echnologies, such as f uel cells.
Benef it s: Direct energy cost savings (f uel and elect ricit y) and ot her lif e cycle savings yield a good
rat e of ret ur n based on t he init ial invest ment . Ot her ext er nal benef it s include improved air qualit y
f rom reduced f uel consumpt ion (limit ing nit rous oxide, sulf ur dioxide, met hane, and ot her gases
t hat cont ribut e t o air pollut ion). Similarly, reducing t he overall aggregat e elect rical load signif icant ly
reduces carbon dioxide emissions, t he primary greenhouse gas implicat ed in global climat e change.
. Improved Indoor Environment
Act ions: Improve indoor air qualit y by eliminat ing unhealt hy emissions – such as volat ile organic
compounds, or VOCs – f rom building mat erials, product s, and f ur nishings, and t hrough out side
f ilt ering and dist ribut ion t echniques t hat cont rol pollut ant s. Improve t he t hermal qualit ies and
comf ort levels of all occupied spaces. M aximize t he use of cont rolled daylight ing w hich can t hen
be augment ed by high qualit y art if icial light ing. Provide good acoust ic cont rol. Wherever possible,
of f er occupant t he abilit y t o regulat e t heir personal comf ort .
Benef it s: High perf ormance f acilit ies can help address a w ide range of human resource concer ns
by improving t he t ot al qualit y of t he int erior environment . In addit ion, at t ent ion t o building
w ellness t oday helps avoid f ut ure cost s f or correct ing sick building syndrome. Such ‘ w ell building’
design emphasis can improve occupant comf ort , healt h, and w ell-being, in t ur n reducing employee
absent eeism and t ur nover. The same benef it s apply t o t he f acilit y’s public users.
. Source Reduct ion, Pollut ion Prevent ion and Recycling
Act ions: Where equivalent in qualit y, cost , and perf ormance, use green building mat erials and
int erior f ur nishings t hat are made f rom recycled or renew able resources, are t hemselves recyclable,
and t hat have been manuf act ured in a manner least damaging t o t he environment . Implement
const ruct ion and demolit ion (C&D) w ast e prevent ion/management st rat egies and select ive sit e-
sort ing of mat erials f or salvage, recycling, or disposal.
Benef it s: These act ions w ill prevent unnecessary deplet ion of nat ural resources and w ill reduce air,
w at er, and soil pollut ion. They w ill also st rengt hen t he market f or recycled mat erials, and t he
manuf act ure of product s w it h post -consumer cont ent . Long-t erm, bet t er C&D w ast e management
can reduce w ast e disposal cost s, ease st ress on landf ills, and minimize t he cost of t ransport ing
w ast e t o disposal f acilit ies out side t he Cit y.
. Building Operat ions Resource M anagement
Act ions: Design in w ays t hat promot e good building operat ions pract ices: conserve w at er using
sit e- and f acilit y-w ide measures, creat e space f or everyday w ast e recycling, and improve
housekeeping pract ices t hrough use of benign cleaning product s and more ef f icient cleaning and
maint enance prot ocols.
Benef it s: Wat er conservat ion measures w ill help maint ain New York Cit y’s w at er qualit y and avoid
pot ent ial f ut ure cost s by reducing overall loads on w at er f ilt rat ion and t reat ment syst ems. M ore
ef f icient cleaning and cust odial prot ocols may increase product ivit y of cust odial st af f , w hile
improved housekeeping measures w ill cont ribut e t o overall occupant healt h and w ell-being.
Overview
Reconci l i ng economi cs and envi r onment al concer ns
“ Then I say t he eart h belongs t o each...generat ion during it s course, f ully and in it s ow n
right , no generat ion can cont ract debt s great er t han may be paid during t he course of it s
ow n exist ence.”
Thomas Jef f erson
DDC’s building project s – our libraries, f irehouses, cult ural inst it ut ions, daycare cent ers, court houses,
and ot her public f acilit ies – bring a w ealt h of social and economic benef it s t o our communit ies. Yet
in w eighing t hese benef it s, w e should also be aw are of how our buildings direct ly and indirect ly
cont ribut e t o environment al and human healt h problems. Few people in t he building t rades, let
alone average cit izens, f ully realize t he ext ent t o w hich building const ruct ion and operat ion
generat es mat erial w ast e and result s in energy inef f iciencies and pollut ion. These so-called
‘ ext er nalized cost s’ do not show up on any balance sheet , meaning t hat t he environment – and
ult imat ely societ y in general – w ill be f orced t o absorb t hem. Every day, buildings squander valuable
capit al by w ast ing energy, w at er, nat ural resources, and human labor. M ost of t his w ast e happens
inadvert ent ly, as a result of f ollow ing accust omed pract ices t hat of t en just meet , but f ail t o exceed,
building codes. Progressive ow ners, manuf act urers, and developers have begun t o convert t hese
liabilit ies int o economic opport unit ies by adopt ing cost -ef f ect ive new t echnologies, processes, and
mat erials t hat dramat ically reduce environment al impact s w hile increasing prof it abilit y.
Hidden cost s of const ruct ion
The hidden cost s of const ruct ion include t he adverse environment al impact s of const ruct ion-relat ed
act ivit ies. Today’s design decisions have local, regional, and global consequences. According t o t he
Worldw at ch Inst it ut e, almost 40% of t he 7.5 billion t ons of raw mat erials annually ext ract ed f rom
t he eart h are t ransf ormed int o t he concret e, st eel, sheet rock, glass, rubber, and ot her element s of
our built environment . In t he process, landscapes and f orest s are dest royed, and pollut ant s are
released int o t he soil, w at er, and air. Tw ent y-f ive percent of our annual w ood harvest is used f or
const ruct ion, w hich cont ribut es t o f looding, def orest at ion, and loss of biodiversit y.
7
Operat ing a building exact s an ongoing t oll on t he environment as w ell. Globally, buildings use
about 16% of our t ot al w at er w it hdraw als; here in t he U.S. t hat amount s t o about 55 gallons per
person each day. Buildings consume about 40% of t he w orld’s energy product ion. As a
consequence, buildings are involved in producing about 40% of t he sulf ur dioxide and nit rogen
oxides t hat cause acid rain and cont ribut e t o smog f ormat ion. Building energy use also produces
33% , or roughly 2.5 billion t ons, of all annual carbon dioxide emissions,
8
signif icant ly cont ribut ing
t o t he climat e changes w rought by t he accumulat ion of t his heat -t rapping gas.
Today, w e are just beginning t o underst and t he high cost of inef f icient pract ices in yet anot her
crit ical realm: our buildings’ int erior environment s. The U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency has
ranked poor indoor air qualit y as among t he t op f ive environment al risks t o public healt h, and
claims t hat unhealt hy indoor air (w hich may be t w o t o eight t imes more cont aminat ed t han out side
air) can be f ound in up t o 30% of new and renovat ed buildings.
9
As a nat ion, t he price w e pay f or
t his sub-par perf ormance ranges f rom $10-60 billion in combined healt h premiums, absent eeism,
and annual product ivit y losses due t o sick building syndrome and building-relat ed illnesses.
10
M unicipalit ies also pay indirect premiums f or less ef f icient , t radit ionally built f acilit ies. These
buildings can impose unnecessary addit ional burdens on municipal services such as w at er supply
and t reat ment and solid w ast e management , indirect ly af f ect ing local t axes and municipal budget s.
A ‘no-regret s’ act ion
Looking across t he f ull spect rum of convent ional building perf ormance, it ’s clear t hat our design
and const ruct ion pract ices are f alling short of w hat could be achieved w it h even a small number of
st rat egic, cost -ef f ect ive correct ions. M any indust ries have a grow ing appreciat ion t hat sound
economic and environment al choices are not mut ually exclusive, but inst ead are compat ible t o t he
point of being int erdependent . This suggest s t hat high perf ormance building pract ices w ill be
increasingly market -driven as t he economic advant ages of environment ally sound design and
const ruct ion cont inue t o gain indust ry recognit ion and support . Theref ore, implement ing t hese
pract ices should be considered a ‘ no-regret s’ policy init iat ive t hat result s in economic gain w hile
producing posit ive environment al result s.
PAGE 16
7. Roodman, D. M ., and Lenssen, N. A Building Revolut ion: How Ecology and Healt h Concerns are Transf orming Const ruct ion, Worldw at ch Paper 124. M arch ‘ 95 p.22-25.
8. Ibid.
9. Lippiat t , B. and Norris, G. “ Select ing Environment ally and Economically Balanced building M at erials: Nat ional Inst it ut e of St andards and Technology Special Publicat ion
888, Second Int er nat ional Green Building Conf erence and Exposit ion – 1995 (Gait hersburg, M D) NIST, 1995, 37.
10. Ibid p. 38
As a nat ion,
t he price w e
pay f or t his
sub-par
perf ormance
ranges f rom
$10-60 billion
in combined
healt h
premiums,
absent eeism,
and annual
product ivit y
losses due t o
sick building
syndrome
and building-
relat ed
illnesses
A
Overview
Wel l - i nt egr at ed desi gn and const r uct i on
A w hole great er t han t he sum of it s part s
An int egrat ed or ‘ w hole building’ design approach requires t hinking about t he building and it s sit e
as a series of int erlinked and int erdependent syst ems, so t hat a single design ref inement might
simult aneously improve several building syst ems’ perf ormance. Like t he domino ef f ect , one
ref inement can t rigger mult iple savings or ot her benef it s. For example, caref ul decisions on building
shape and w indow placement t hat t ake int o account bot h prevailing w ind and sun angles, may not
only enhance a building’s t hermal perf ormance, but can also result in improved daylight ing. These
measures w ill reduce bot h heat ing and cooling loads, and in t urn, could generat e f irst cost savings
achieved t hrough dow nsizing HVAC equipment and reducing mechanical space requirement s.
Using simple, t ime-honored t echniques
High perf ormance designs draw on principles used in much older building pract ices. As such, t hey
rely on t he manipulat ion of land f eat ures, building f orm, and ext erior mat erials t o manage t he
climat e and get t he most out of t he mat erials at hand bef ore invoking elect rical and mechanical
assist ance f rom energy-driven heat ing, cooling, and light ing syst ems. High perf ormance design also
f avors ‘ st at e-of -t he-shelf ’ t echnology over sophist icat ed ‘ st at e-of -t he-art ’ equipment . The
pref erence f or keeping equipment as simple and maint enance-f ree as possible is vit al t o t he
int erest s of client agencies, given t heir limit ed operat ing budget s.
Team design
High perf ormance out comes also demand a much more int egrat ed t eam approach t o t he design
process and mark a depart ure f rom t radit ional pract ices, w here emerging designs are handed
sequent ially f rom archit ect t o engineer t o sub-consult ant . A unif ied, more t eam-driven design and
const ruct ion process brings t oget her various expert s early in t he goal-set t ing process. This helps
high perf ormance buildings achieve signif icant ly higher t arget s f or energy ef f iciency and
environment al perf ormance.
A t eam-driven approach is, in ef f ect , ‘ f ront -loading’ of expert ise. One or more f acilit at ed w orkshops
might involve t he ow ner, design prof essionals, operat ors, and cont ract ors (w here possible) in a
brainst orming session or ‘ part nering’ approach t hat encourages cooperat ion in achieving high
perf ormance goals w hile breaking dow n t radit ional adversarial roles. During design development ,
f requent input f rom users and operat ors can accelerat e progress, eliminat e redundant ef f ort s,
engender commit ment t o decisions, reduce errors, and ident if y synergist ic opport unit ies.
Innovat ive product s and t ools
An int egrat ed building design process reexamines t he use of t radit ional product s or building
assemblies, and ident if ies innovat ive t echnologies or green product and syst em alt er nat ives t hat
of f er signif icant ly improved environment al perf ormance. These progressive design approaches can
be f urt her ref ined t hrough t he use of comput er energy modeling. Energy modeling simulat es t he
proposed design’s response t o climat e and season. Designers can preview and improve t he
perf ormance of int erdependent f eat ures such as orient at ion, daylight ing, alt er nat ive building shell
design, and various mechanical syst ems. Energy modeling quickly evaluat es cost -ef f ect ive design
opt ions f or t he building envelope or mechanical syst ems by simulat ing t he various alt ernat ives in
combinat ion. This process t akes much of t he guessw ork out of green building design and
specif icat ion, and enables a f airly accurat e cost /benef it f orecast ing.
“ Discovering t he DOE-2 model w as invaluable. I can’ t imagine doing t his kind of project w it hout
it ever again...Wit h t his t echnique, w e can act ually prove t o our client s how much money t hey
w ill be saving.”
Robert Fox,
Principal, Fox & Fow le,
archit ect of Four Times Square,
Lessons Learned, Four Times Square
PAGE 17
Cur r ent bar r i er s t o hi gh per f or mance bui l di ngs
The Guidelines t ry t o ant icipat e some of t he dif f icult ies t hat may be encount ered in
mainst reaming high perf ormance design and const ruct ion. The chapt ers and t ools
have been designed t o help mot ivat e all part ies t o a capit al project , building polit ical
w ill and administ rat ive support f or import ant high perf ormance building invest ment s.
Present obst acles include:
· St eep indust ry learning curve
There is a general lack of know ledge about t he economic
and environment al benef it s of high perf ormance buildings,
as w ell as a deart h of f amiliarit y w it h green building concept s
and pract ices.
· Fiscal considerat ions
Current f iscal policies mandat e relat ively rapid paybacks
f or energy ef f iciency improvement s. To f inance ‘ deeper’
ret rof it s (syst em upgrades and improvement s t o building
envelopes), w hich may yield some init ial economic
advant ages, but much great er operat ing savings over t ime,
invest ment s w it h low er rat es of ret ur n and longer payback
cycles should be considered.
· Barriers t o Implement at ion
Depart ment s and f unding ent it ies are less likely t o sponsor
energy- and inf rast ruct ure-relat ed programs over higher-
visibilit y improvement s such as a playground or new w ing.
Addit ionally, t he Cit y’s energy budget is cent ralized, so
agencies have lit t le mot ivat ion t o f und and manage
ef f iciency-orient ed capit al improvement s in t he absence of
specif ic f inancial incent ives, such as shared savings.
· Regulat ory disincent ives
The New York Cit y Building Code and t he New York St at e
Energy Code each def ine code compliance in t erms of
meet ing a minimal st andard f or syst em perf ormance. In
pract ice, t his discourages indust ry perf ormance beyond t he
bare bones of code minimum.
PAGE 18
Overview
Overview
PAGE 19
Measur abl e Cost s and Benef i t s
In order t o ident if y t he various economic, environment al, and social benef it s t hat high perf ormance
buildings w ill accrue f or New York Cit y, a more int egrat ed and consist ent approach t o measuring
t hese benef it s is required. Proposed below is a syst em f or describing project cost s/benef it s t hat goes
beyond w hat t he Cit y convent ionally measures in it s capit al programs. These cost s/benef it s are
sort ed according t o how t hey might impact t he various component s of t he Cit y’s budget :
$O = Operat ing budget
$C = Capit al budget
$P = Personnel budget
A suf f ix f urt her ident if ies t he benef it ’s primary scope of inf luence:
F = Facilit y-specif ic benef it s
M = M unicipal-level benef it s
S = Social benef it s (shared by societ y at large)
Thus, if a measure impact s a f acilit y’s operat ing budget , t he symbol is $O
F
. Ot her benef it s are coded
as f ollow s:
$D
S
= Regional economic development
$A
S
= Benef it s f rom reduced air emissions/emissions credit s
E
S
= Ext er nal environment al benef it s (not quant if iable)
G = General benef it s (not quant if iable)
$O
F
$C
F
$P
F
$O
M
$C
M
$D
S
$A
S
E
S
G
Reduced Operat ing
Energy Expendit ures
Operat ional and
M aint enance Savings
Increment al Const ruct ion
Cost Impact
Personnel Expendit ure
Reduct ions
Reduced M unicipal
Operat ing Expendit ures
Reduced Inf rast ruct ure
Const ruct ion Cost s
Economic Development
Emissions Reduct ion/
Clean Air
Environment al Benef it s
General Benef it s
Ant icipat ed expense budget operat ing savings f rom reduced energy consumpt ion as
measured against convent ional pract ices mandat ed under t he NYS Energy Code.
Ant icipat ed reduct ion in f acilit y operat ing cost s t hrough savings in labor, w ast e
handling, and st reamlining of housekeeping and maint enance procedures.
Line it em and/or overall capit al const ruct ion cost increases/decreases.
Improved w orking environment leading t o reduced absent eeism and increased
employee ret ent ion. Pot ent ial improvement s in perf ormance/product ivit y.
Divert ing of building w ast e f rom landf ills t hrough const ruct ion, operat ional, and
hazardous w ast e reduct ion; w ast e prevent ion, reuse, and recycling. Savings result ing
f rom w at er t reat ment reduct ion.
Avoided capit al cost s f or expanded w at er supply, sew er syst ems and w ast ew at er
t reat ment plant s.
Indirect economic benef it s include reduced expendit ure f or energy relat ed indust ries
out of st at e. Development of t he clean t echnologies indust ry w it hin cit y and st at e,
making t he cit y and t he st at e an at t ract ive place f or clean energy companies t o
reside. Long-t erm compet it iveness of regional const ruct ion indust ry. Development of
local environment ally pref erable product market s.
Cleaner air t hrough reduced consumpt ion of f ossil f uels (reduct ion of carbon dioxide,
oxides of nit rogen, and sulf ur dioxide, as w ell as part iculat es, mercury.) Accumulat ed
' emissions credit s' f rom energy ef f icient public buildings could be t radeable in t he
f ut ure or have monet ary value.
Environment al benef it s include climat e change st abilizat ion; soil, air and w at er
pollut ion prevent ion; preservat ion of f orest s and biodiversit y.

As not ed, t hese varied benef it s are not measureable, such as t eam building and
educat ion of part icipant s in t he design process.
Faci l i t y- Speci f i c Benef i t s (
F
)
Muni ci pal Avoi ded Cost s (
M
)
Regi onal Economi c Devel opment (
S
)
Ext er nal Envi r onment al Benef i t s (
S
)
Symbol Measur ement Descr i pt i on of Measur abl e Cost s/ Benef i t s
Gener al Benef i t s (
G
)
In each
of t he
f ollow ing
chapt ers in
t he
Guidelines,
t he
relevant
benef it (s)
are called
out using
t hese
symbols.
A
Overview
PAGE 20
Measur abl e Cost s and Benef i t s f r om Hi gh Per f or mance Bui l di ngs
This sect ion describes some of t he measurable benef it s t hat can be achieved by int egrat ing high
perf ormance measures in New York Cit y public buildings. Explanat ion of t he met hods used in quant if ying
benef it s are provided in t he Appendix, along w it h examples of benef it s and act ual savings realized.
In some inst ances, w e have included benef it s of high perf ormance building pract ices t hat do not
accrue t o Cit y agencies. This is due t o t he f act t hat a number of t hese pract ices make good
economic sense, but do not result in any f inancial savings t o t he Cit y agency, eit her because t he
benef it accrues direct ly t o t he Cit y budget or t o societ y in general, or because t here is a benef it t hat
w ould exist if t he Cit y alt ered a part icular policy or budget ing pract ice.
The range of est imat ed savings present ed herein should not be considered as absolut e predict ions of savings,
but rat her as guidelines w hich show t he relat ive w eight of savings pot ent ial in relat ion t o each ot her.
I . Faci l i t y- Speci f i c Benef i t s (
F
)
A. Reduced Operat ional Energy Expendit ures ($O
F
)
High perf ormance buildings w it h improved envelopes and ef f icient light ing, equipment , and HVAC
syst ems use less energy t han convent ional buildings. Pot ent ial savings may be measured by
det ermining an annual energy cost budget f or a building designed in accordance w it h t hese
Guidelines and comparing it t o an energy cost budget f or t he same building designed t o meet
minimum New York St at e Energy Conservat ion and Const ruct ion Code or ot her baseline
requirement s.
11
The annual operat ing budget savings w ill equal t he dif f erence bet w een t he
respect ive energy cost budget s.
12
For a t ypical 100,000 square f oot municipal building, a 35%
savings in energy use w ould result in a reduct ion of up t o $70,000 in energy cost s each year.
13
B. Operat ions and M aint enance Savings ($O
F
)
1. Reduced Wat er Consumpt ion.
Inst alling w at er met ers in resident ial buildings and billing f or service based on consumpt ion has caused
building occupant s t o diminish t heir w at er use by an average of 20% , primarily t hrough conscious
ef f ort s t o reduce w ast e (such as repairing leaks).
15
Occupant s can f urt her reduce w at er consumpt ion by
inst alling ef f icient plumbing f ixt ures. If all municipal buildings used commercially available w at er-saving
t echnologies t o reduce w at er consumpt ion by 20% (compared t o f ixt ures meet ing t he minimum
requirement s of t he 1992 Energy Policy Act [EPACT]), t he Cit y could save over $625,000 a year.
16
Act ual savings are likely t o be even great er, because ret rof it t ing exist ing buildings w ill result in
replacement of plumbing f ixt ures inst alled prior t o 1995, most of w hich use signif icant ly more
w at er t han t hose gover ned by EPACT.
At present , how ever, t he Cit y pays a f lat sum f or w at er use in it s ow n buildings. As a result ,
reducing w at er consumpt ion w ill not result in direct cost savings f or individual f acilit ies, but w ill
inst ead yield f inancial benef it s t o t he Cit y budget .
2.Reduced M unicipal Solid Wast e.
Cit y agencies do not direct ly pay f or collect ion, t ransport , and disposal of t he solid w ast e t hey
generat e, so operat ions and maint enance (O&M ) savings achieved by implement ing t he w ast e
reduct ion and recycling measures recommended herein w ill not direct ly accrue t o t he agency
(except t o t he ext ent t hat t he need t o purchase new mat erials w ill be reduced). Inst ead, t he Cit y
w ill realize t hese savings in it s Depart ment of Sanit at ion budget . When t he Fresh Kills landf ill
closes, t he Cit y w ill be f orced t o pay export f ees f or all municipal solid w ast e. The cost of export ing
t o ot her landf ills is current ly $40-60/t on, including t ranspor t at ion but not collect ion
18
(t his cost w ill
undoubt edly rise). By pursuing recycling and w ast e reduct ion measures recommended in t hese
Guidelines, Cit y t enant s in high perf ormance buildings can reduce landf ill cost s w hile helping t he
Cit y reach it s recycling goals. In addit ion, recycled mat erials f rom municipal buildings can reap
monet ary benef it s. Depending on t he mat erial and current market prices, recyclables can bring
revenues of $30-40/t on.
19
If municipal buildings divert ed an addit ional 10% of t heir solid w ast e
st ream t o recycling, t he Cit y w ould save nearly $3 million per year.
20
Range of
Savings:
$.30–.80
per square
f oot each
year.
14
A
Range of
Savings:
$.0025–
.0050
per square
f oot each
year.
17
Average
Savings:
$.017
per square
f oot each
year.
21
A
A
11. The NYS Energy Conservat ion Const ruct ion Code provides t he most simple and st raight f orw ard baseline but may not alw ays ref lect current indust ry
st andards, w hich of t en exceed minimum code requirement s f or energy perf ormance.
12. The exact savings w ill largely depend on t he f acilit y t ype; i.e., f acilit ies w it h int ensive energy use w ill save more t han t hose w it h light energy use. Act ual cost
savings also w ill f luct uat e f rom year t o year due t o variat ions in w eat her and energy prices.
13. This calculat ion is based on a range of energy cost s of $1.50 - $2.00 per square f oot .
14. This calculat ion is based on a range of energy cost s of $1.50 - $2.00 per square f oot and a range of energy savings bet w een 20% and 40% . In privat e
sect or buildings energy cost s are higher and t heref ore savings f rom reduced consumpt ion w ould be great er.
15. Personal Communicat ion w it h Rick Diamond and Alan M eier, Law rence Berkeley Nat ional Laborat ory 12/8/98.
16. This calculat ion is based on an est imat e of 650 occupant s per 100,000 square f eet , w orking 250 days per year, using 20 gallons of w at er per day. Savings
equals t he value of w at er saved at $0.00189 per gallon, less t he cost of ef f iciency measures at $0.00104 per gallon of w at er saved.
17. This calculat ion is based on an est imat ed usage rage of 32.5 gallons per square f oot per year, w at er cost s of $0.00189 per gallon, conservat ion cost s of
$0.00104 per gallon of w at er saved, and consumpt ion reduct ion of 10% t o 20% .
18. Communicat ion w it h DOS Bureau of Wast e Prevent ion, Reuse and Recycling st af f , 10/14/98.
19. DOS Bureau of Wast e Prevent ion, Reuse and Recycling, 10/14/98.
20. This calculat ion is based on f igures derived f rom Depart ment of Sanit at ion’s current Solid Wast e M anagement Plan (see Appendix B).
21. See Appendix B.
Overview
PAGE 21
3. Improved M aint enance of Buildings.
The Cit y’s O&M budget s t end t o be set independent ly of O&M needs. This can result in a large
backlog of maint enance and reduce t he savings pot ent ial of high ef f iciency syst ems. Conversely,
implement ing high perf ormance housekeeping pract ices and designing buildings f or more ef f icient
maint enance can eliminat e def erred maint enance and improve t he perf ormance and durabilit y of
building syst ems. While not result ing in direct savings t o t he personnel budget , t hese pract ices
may have a posit ive impact on t he qualit y of lif e f or building occupant s and maint enance st af f ,
and result in increased product ivit y. Where no maint enance backlog exist s, real operat ional savings
are much more likely.
C. Const ruct ion Cost Trade-Of f s ($C
F
)
Adherence t o t he Guidelines is likely t o result in some discret e f irst cost savings on cert ain it ems. For
example, specif ying double glazed w indow s w it h high perf ormance select ive coat ings, in conjunct ion
w it h an energy ef f icient light ing design, may reduce heat loss and gain t o such an ext ent t hat it w ill
be possible t o dow nsize t he ent ire HVAC syst em (chillers, boilers, f ans, pumps, duct s, pipes, et c.).
Alt hough savings on specif ic it ems may be signif icant , t he reduct ion t o t he capit al budget is likely t o
be of f set by ot her expendit ures, such as t he increased cost of high perf ormance w indow s or
measures t o assure good indoor air qualit y. In most cases, adherence t o t he Guidelines w ill result in a
marginal increase t o t he capit al budget as a w hole.
23
Follow ing t he int egrat ed design and
development st rat egies recommended herein is t he best w ay t o maximize t he opport unit ies f or cost
t rade-of f s and minimize or eliminat e any capit al cost premiums.
24
D. Reduced Disposal Cost s f or Const ruct ion and Demolit ion Wast e ( $C
F
)
M easures t o reduce const ruct ion and demolit ion (C&D) w ast e include reusing exist ing st ruct ures and
mat erials, avoiding t he purchase of excess mat erials and reducing mat erials packaging. Reducing
w ast e low ers t he cost t o cont ract ors w ho must pay f or C&D w ast e collect ion and disposal (est imat ed
at $75.00 per t on).
25
Reducing C&D w ast e provides a number of addit ional benef it s t o t he Cit y, as
discussed in t he Const ruct ion Administ rat ion chapt er. While savings opport unit ies exist , t here is
current ly not enough consensus on C&D w ast e dat a t o provide a range of savings.
E. Increased Employee Perf ormance ( $P
F
)
1. Increased Product ivit y.
A grow ing body of case st udy evidence support s t he t heory t hat high perf ormance buildings
– t hose w it h bet t er light ing, improved vent ilat ion, and f ew er air cont aminant s – are benef icial
t o employee healt h and product ivit y. Alt hough precise met hods of measuring t hese cost s and
benef it s are st ill in development , t he pot ent ial f or savings is signif icant . In New York Cit y, annual
agency personnel cost s vary f rom $200-300 per square f oot f or administ rat ive agencies, t o over
$500 per square f oot f or unif orm agencies.
26
A 1% increase in product ivit y could be w ort h $2.00
t o $5.00 per square f oot , or up t o $500,000 a year f or a 100,000 square f oot building.
2. Reduced Absent eeism and Employee Turnover.
Invest ing in high perf ormance buildings can also help insure against predict able losses in
product ivit y. The New York Cit y personnel services budget is about $18.4 billion a year.
27
Tot al
equivalent sick leave t aken is about 9 days a year. If a healt hier w ork environment reduced t he
average number of employee sick days t aken each year t o 8 or 7, t he Cit y could realize benef it s of
$55 million t o $110 million each year.
28
Loss of product ivit y and addit ional personnel cost s occasioned by employee t ur nover can also be
signif icant , t hough environment al condit ions are only some of t he many f act ors t hat cont ribut e t o
t he t ur nover problem. If invest ing in a bet t er w ork environment helped t he Cit y increase ret ent ion
by only 1% , t he avoided cost of personnel t ur nover could exceed $120 million per year.
29
F. Reduced Exposure t o Risk of Lit igat ion ($P
F
)
Improving t he qualit y of lif e f or building occupant s can reduce t he Cit y’s risk of exposure t o
lit igat ion relat ed t o t he w ork environment , including sick building syndrome, exposure t o chemicals
and hazardous mat erials, and accident s result ing f rom improper maint enance. The grow ing aw areness
of – and w illingness t o t ake legal act ion over – illnesses pot ent ially associat ed w it h t he building
environment may increase t he Cit y’s vulnerabilit y t o lit igat ion arising t heref rom.
22. This calculat ion is based on housekeeping and maint enance cost s of $2.30 per square f oot and ef f iciency improvement s of 5-35% . Ashkin, St ephen, “ Green and Clean:
The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and M aint enance” Proceedings f rom The 21
st
Cent ur y Out look Conf erence Technical Papers, American Inst it ut e of Archit ect s,
1997, at 186.
23. How ever, in cases w here use of t he guidelines result s in subst ant ial “ recycling” of an exist ing st ruct ure or a decision t o f orego new const ruct ion alt oget her, savings t o
t he capit al budget w ill likely be subst ant ial.
24. See t he Appendix A f or Execut ive Summary f rom t he Environment ally Responsible Building Guidelines Project .
25. Fishbein, Bet t e K., Building f or t he Fut ure: St rat egies t o Reduce Const ruct ion and Demolit ion Wast e in M unicipal Project s, INFORM , June, 1998, page 10.
26. Based on a FY’ 99 sampling of agencies headcount , square f oot age and Cit yw ide personnel services inf ormat ion.
27. New York Of f ice of M anagement and Budget , FY’ 99 New York budget inf ormat ion.
28. This calculat ion is based on a 250-day w ork year and assumes t hat 75% of t he t ot al personnel services budget , or $13.8 million, is allocat ed t o salary, w hich result s in
Cit y payment s of $55 million per day in salary. Reducing absent eeism f or all employees by one day is t hus valued at $55 million.
29. This calculat ion is based on annual salary expendit ures of $13.8 billion, an est imat ed current t ur nover rat e of 14.29% , and a f irst -year product ivit y level of 54.17% , f or a
cit yw ide product ivit y level of 93.45% . Reducing t ur nover t o 13.29% w ould increase cit y-w ide product ivit y t o 93.91% .
Range of
Savings:
$.11–.77
per square
f oot each
year.
22
A
Range of
Savings:
$2.00–$5.00
per square
f oot .
A
Range of
Savings:
$.87–$1.15
per square
f oot .*
* This calculat ion
is based on t he
sum of t he range
of est imat ed
absent eeism
($55 million t o
$110 million)
and increased
employee
ret ent ion ($120
million), divided
by t ot al Cit y
ow ned and
leased square
f oot age.
A
Overview
PAGE 22
Irrespect ive of any judgment s rendered in t hese t ypes of cases, t he Cit y w ould need t o expend
considerable resources t o invest igat e and def end against such act ions. Adhering t o t he Guidelines
can help reduce municipal exposure t o lit igat ion by minimizing t he likelihood t hat poor indoor air
qualit y and ot her environment al problems w ill occur.
I I . Muni ci pal Benef i t s and Avoi ded Cost s (
M
)
A. Reduced Services ( $O
M
)
As not ed in t he previous sect ion, t he Cit y provides w at er t o municipal buildings f or a f ixed sum and
does not charge agencies f or w ast e disposal services. Theref ore, t he f inancial benef it s of reduced
w at er use and w ast e generat ion in Cit y buildings w ill accrue direct ly t o t he Cit y budget .
B. M aint aining and Invest ing in New Inf rast ruct ure ( $C
M
)
In addit ion t o immediat e savings t o t he operat ions budget , t he Cit y w ill realize long-t erm benef it s
arising out of decreased demand f or pot able w at er, w ast ew at er t reat ment , and w ast e collect ion,
t ransf er, and disposal. This is because reduct ions in t he demand f or t hese services allow t he Cit y t o
reduce or delay signif icant invest ment s in t he inf rast ruct ure required f or provision of such services.
Beyond t he obvious f inancial benef it s, decreasing our invest ment in t he inf rast ruct ure has collat eral
polit ical benef it s. If t he Cit y can eliminat e t he need f or a new t reat ment f acilit y, it w ill not have t o
address communit y opposit ion t o t he nuisance engendered by const ruct ion and/or operat ion.
C. Emissions Trading ( $A
S
)
Reducing energy use in exist ing buildings has t he pot ent ial t o ear n income f or t he Cit y in it s capacit y
as a building ow ner. A number of market s exist (or are on t he horizon) f or emission reduct ion credit s
t hat can be ear ned by building ow ners w ho invest in energy ef f iciency. New Jersey and f ive ot her
st at es have developed open market emission t rading programs w hereby building ow ners can
generat e emission credit s by invest ing in energy ef f iciency, measuring t he elect ricit y saved and
det ermining (based on a prescribed f ormula) t he t ons of specif ied air pollut ion emissions t hat w ere
avoided by not generat ing t hat amount of elect ricit y. These credit s current ly sell f or approximat ely
$1,000 per t on f or nit rogen oxides (NO
x
) and $2,700 per t on f or volat ile organic compounds
(VOCs).
30
Though not current ly open t o ent it ies ot her t han ut ilit ies, t he st at e and f ederal cap-and-
t rade programs f or NO
x
and sulf ur dioxide (SO
2
) provide reduct ion allow ances of approximat ely
$3,000 and $140 per t on, respect ively.
31
If New York adopt ed an open market t rading program f or
NO
x
, a 20% cit y-w ide reduct ion of energy use in municipal buildings could be w ort h up t o
$1,950,000 per year.
32
The New York St at e Depart ment of Environment al Conservat ion (DEC) administ ers an Emission
Reduct ion Credit (ERC) program, w herein ERCs can be ear ned f or permanent reduct ions of NO
x
due
t o decreased end use of f uels (ot her t han elect ricit y). These permanent reduct ions may be derived
f rom implement at ion of energy ef f iciency measures or as a result of sw it ching f uels.
33
As of February,
1999, ERCs are w ort h $4,400/t on of NO
x.
34
From M ay 1999 t o Sept ember 2003, t he New York St at e Energy Research and Development
Aut horit y (NYSERDA) w ill pilot an allow ance program f or NO
x
reduct ions t hat are achieved as a result of
decreased on-sit e use of elect ricit y during t he ozone/smog season (M ay t hrough Sept ember). To
qualif y, t hese reduct ions must be direct ly at t ribut able t o implement at ion of energy ef f iciency
measures. Eligibilit y is based on t he ow ner ent ering int o a perf ormance cont ract w it h NYSERDA’s
assist ance.
35
As of February, 1999, allow ances f or emissions t rading are approximat ely $6,000/t on.
36
In addit ion t o exist ing emissions programs, market s are emerging t o encourage reduct ion of carbon
dioxide emissions, t he primary greenhouse gas. As scient if ic consensus on climat e change grow s,
t here is increasing support f or t he use of economic measures t o help count ries achieve t heir emission
t arget s.
I I I . Economi c Devel opment ( $D
S
)
An invest ment in high perf ormance buildings is an invest ment in New York’s f ut ure, and is likely t o
produce indirect economic benef it s t hrough development of t he nascent clean and ef f icient t echnologies
indust ry. This in t ur n makes t he Cit y and t he St at e an at t ract ive place f or t hese t echnology companies t o
reside. St at ew ide, New Yorkers spend approximat ely $34 billion each year on t he energy required t o heat
t heir homes and w orkplaces, t o drive t heir cars and t rucks, and t o run t he pow er plant s t hat provide
elect ricit y. This f igure represent s over 5% of t he gross st at e product (GSP).
37
Elect ricit y alone account s f or
nearly half of t his amount , or $15 billion.
38
30. See w w w.omet .com.
31. See w w w.epa.gov/acidrain/ot c/ot cmain f or inf ormat ion on NO
x
allow ance t rading and w w w.epa.gov/acidrain/at s/prices.ht ml f or inf ormat ion on
SO
2
allow ance t rading.
32. This calculat ion is based on est imat ed current elect ricit y consumpt ion of 3 million M Wh per year f or municipal buildings, at 1.3 lbs (0.00065 t ons) of
NO
x
per M Wh, and $1,000 per t on of NOx reduced.
33. For more inf ormat ion, cont act Radclif f Lee or Burt Breit burg at t he DEC Region 2 Of f ice, (718) 482-4944.
34. Cant or Fit zgerald, Environment al Brokerage Services M arket Price Index, February, 1999.
35. For more inf ormat ion, cont act Karl M ichael at NYSERDA, (518) 862-1090, ext . 3324.
36. Environment al Brokerage Services M arket Price Index, February, 1999.
37. New York St at e Energy Research and Development Aut horit y (NYSERDA), Pat t erns and Trends, New York St at e Energy Prof iles: 1983-1997, pages 33-34.
38. Ibid.
Overview
To t he ext ent t hat t he Cit y can obt ain t he same energy services using less energy (t hrough increased
ef f iciency) or t hrough reduced reliance on import ed f uel (based on int egrat ion of clean t echnologies such
as w ind and solar energy), t he Cit y w ill derive social and economic benef it s. The f irst benef it is obvious –
improving ef f iciency reduces energy bills and provides a direct savings t o t he operat ing budget s of Cit y
agencies each year. The second benef it result s w hen a larger percent age of t hat $34 billion expendit ure
st ays in New York. Rat her t han import ing f uel f rom out side sources, New Yorkers w ill be at t ract ing clean
t echnology businesses t o t he area and securing t he jobs t hey bring w it h t hem. Last ly, all New Yorkers w ill
benef it f rom t he improved air qualit y t hat result s f rom reduced combust ion of f ossil f uels.
Energy and resource ef f icient buildings also reduce t he amount of money t hat ut ilit ies need t o invest in
f uel, operat ions and maint enance, and relat ed cost s at pow er plant s. Over t ime, t he need t o build and
upgrade f acilit ies and t o expand t he t ransmission and dist ribut ion syst em is reduced, and t he result ing
savings can be passed on t o consumers. Alt hough eff iciency services cost money, t hese invest ment s pay
f or t hemselves in energy savings w hile providing addit ional benef it s t hat energy product ion expendit ures
do not . That ’s because much of t he cost of operat ing pow er plant s is channeled int o f uel and equipment
w hich is largely import ed f rom out of st at e. In cont rast , achieving eff iciency is a relat ively labor int ensive
process. Theref ore, invest ment s in ef f iciency result in more jobs and more money ret ained in t he local
economy, w hich in t urn cont ribut es t o t he t ax base.
I V. Ext er nal Envi r onment al Benef i t s ( E
S
)
Reducing energy use low ers t he emission of oxides of nit rogen (NO
x
), sulf ur dioxide (SO
2
), and carbon
dioxide (CO
2
) produced by pow er generat ion at pow er plant s. These air pollut ant s cont ribut e t o ground
level ozone (t he primary component of smog), acid rain, and climat e change, as w ell as t heir relat ed
healt h ef f ect s. For example, ground level ozone can cause respirat ory problems, especially among t he
very young, t he elderly, and t hose w it h respirat ory illnesses. NO
x
cont ribut es t o t he f ormat ion of
part iculat e mat t er w hich is linked t o heart and lung disease.
39
Acid rain causes damage t o lakes and
rivers, as w ell as t o crops and buildings. The appropriat e sit ing of buildings, t oget her w it h
environment ally pref erable building mat erials and product s, reduces t he impact of real est at e
development and building use on land and w at er. By invest ing in high perf ormance buildings t oday, t he
Cit y w ill be doing it s share t o solve t hese problems – a much more cost -ef f ect ive and w ell-reasoned
approach t han paying f or remediat ion ef f ort s lat er on.
PAGE 23
39. Nat ural Resources Def ense Council, Breat ht aking: Premat ure M ort alit y Due t o Part iculat e Air Pollut ion in 239 Cit ies, 1996.
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
CI TY PROCESS
OProgram Planning
During t he capit al planning process, t he
Guidelines est ablish programmat ic goals t hat
are consist ent w it h t he agency’s mission, t he
int ent ion of t he project , and t he available
budget . Planned w ork is review ed against
f u t u re o r p ast w o r k t o en su re t h at
comprehensive w ork it ems are ident if ied and
t hat an int egrat ed design approach w ill not
b e p recl u d ed b y f u n d i n g l i mi t at i o n s o r
phased act ion of t he w ork.
O Sit e Select ion and Planning
High perf ormance at t ribut es are a crit ical
considerat ion in sit e select ion f or a capit al
project or lease. Adapt ive reuse of an exist ing
building may eliminat e t he need f or new
const ruct ion. The communit y cont ext of a
sit e and access t o services and t ransport at ion
are as i mp o r t an t as t h e f u n d amen t al
envi ronment al i ssues, such as access t o
d ayl i g h t i n g , i n t eg r at i o n o f ren ew ab l e
resources, et c.
O Budget Planning
During t he execut ive budget process, high
perf ormance building object ives compat ible
w it h t he agency’s goals and t he project scope
are ident if ied, and appropriat e design and
co n st r u ct i o n b u d g et s are est ab l i sh ed t o
enable t he project t o be f ully implement ed.
O Capit al Planning Process
Th e p ro j ect i n i t i at i o n p ro cess, t h e
procurement process, and t he int eragency
and oversight approval processes may all
require addit ional commit ment f rom DDC
and t he client agency in order t o achieve t he
project ’s high perf ormance goals.
DESI GN PROCESS
O Client Aw areness and Goal Set t ing
High perf ormance object ives are priorit ized
and w eight ed t o best respond t o t he client
agency’s mission and t he building’s f unct ion.
Per f or mance goal s are est abl i shed as a
means of enhancing t he f acilit y’s f unct ion
w hile advancing t he project ’s environment al
and economic object ives.
O Team Development
A t eam approach is vit al t o t he project ’s
success, and w ill be at t ained w hen all sub-
consult ant s are commit t ed t o cont inuous,
act ive part icipat ion w it h t he prime consult ant
f rom t he out set of t he project . This ‘ f ront -
loading’ of design input f rom expert s such as
l an d scap e arch i t ect s, mech an i cal an d
st ruct ural engineers, daylight ing consult ant s,
en er g y ef f i ci en cy an d o t h er ‘ g reen ’
co n su l t an t s i n creases cro ss- d i sci p l i n ar y
creat ivit y and encourages problem solving.
Client agency execut ives and members of t he
maint enance and operat ions st af f w ill also
part icipat e on t his int egrat ed t eam.
O Well-Int egrat ed Design
The building’s spat ial organizat ion should be
inf ormed by, and int egrat ed w it h, it s sit e
f eat u res an d cl i mat i c co n si d er at i o n s.
Co l l ect i vel y, t h e d esi g n o f t h e var i o u s
int erdependent building syst ems and t he
en vel o p e sh o u l d p u r su e o p t i mal
perf ormance at t he low est lif e cycle cost .
New design t ools are available t o support
and reinf orce design int egrat ion.
O Resource M anagement
Resource conservat ion begins at t he w hole
p ro j ect scal e w h ere o p p o r t u n i t i es are
great est . It subsequent ly applies t o individual
building syst ems and mat erials t hat may be
considered f or w hole or part ial reuse, or f or
t heir salvage value. Flexible, adapt able, and
generic spaces w ill increase building ut ilit y
and longevit y as needs change over t ime.
SI TE DESI GN
AND PLANNI NG
O Underst anding t he Sit e
In ven t o r y an d an al yze si t e reso u rces,
rel at i o n sh i p s, an d co n st r ai n t s t o b et t er
enable t he designers t o maximize energy
ef f iciency w hile conserving and rest oring
ecological and cult ural resources.
O Building-Sit e Relat ionship
Taken t oget her, t he si t e desi gn and bui l di ng
desi gn shoul d suppor t t he ecol ogi cal and
cu l t u r al f u n ct i o n s o f t h e en t i r e
devel opment . Wel l - desi gned open space
creat es a sust ai nabl e mi cr ocl i mat e t hat i n
t u r n r ed u ces b u i l d i n g en er g y u se an d
su p p o r t s a h i g h - q u al i t y i n t er i o r
envi ronment . The proj ect as a w hol e shoul d
b e d esi g n ed t o m i n i m i ze n eg at i ve
en vi r o n m en t al i m p act s o n su r r o u n d i n g
areas and t o maxi mi ze oppor t uni t i es t o
rest ore nat ural syst ems.
O Sust ainable Landscape Pract ice
The landscape f eat ures must be select ed and
conf igured t o suit sit e condit ions and rest ore
h ab i t at u si n g sel f - su st ai n i n g l an d scap e
design and sit e maint enance procedures.
Pract ices should promot e t he conservat ion
and rest orat ion of exist ing biological and
w at er resources, including species diversit y,
soil f ert ilit y, and aerat ion.
O Encourage Alt ernat ive
Transport at ion
The sit e should of f er support f acilit ies f or
b i cycl i n g , mass t r an si t , el ect r i c veh i cl es,
carpooling, and ot her less-pollut ing means
of t ransport at ion.
BUI LDI NG ENERGY USE
O Sit e and M assing Considerat ions
Taking advant age of t he physical f eat ures of
t he building sit e and microclimat e w ill reduce
heat ing and cooling loads, t hereby low ering
overall energy consumpt ion.
O Int erior Layout / Spat ial Design
An appropriat e layout of program spaces w ill
help reduce energy consumpt ion and w ill
promot e t he use of passive solar heat ing
and cooling.
O Building Envelope
Ap p ro p r i at e assemb l y o f w al l , ro o f ,
f o u n d at i o n , an d w i n d o w mat er i al s w i l l
provide good t hermal and moist ure cont rol,
w h i l e su p p o r t i n g red u ct i o n s i n b u i l d i n g
energy use. A good envelope har nesses
nat ur al energy t hrough ef f ect i ve use of
passive solar and daylight ing t echniques.
O Daylight ing/ Sun Cont rol
Whenever possible, cont rolled daylight ing
should be incorporat ed int o t he building as
t he pref erred mode of int erior illuminat ion
and t o reduce light ing load and operat ing
cost s. This saves t he most expensive f orm of
energy w e use: elect ricit y, and t he charges
associat ed w it h peak demand.
O Light Pollut ion
Sen si t i ve si t e l i g h t i n g w i l l red u ce l i g h t
pollut ion in t he sky, bet w een buildings, and
i n open spaces, t hus avoi di ng negat i ve
impact s on plant s, animals, and people.
Good light ing design also reduces energy
w ast e w hile improving night view s of t he sky.
O High Perf ormance Light ing
A highly ef f icient light level dist ribut ion t hat
i mproves vi sual qual i t y w hi l e r educi ng
el ect ri cal use may be achi eved t hr ough
ef f icient light ing layout , lamps, luminaires,
and ot her component s, t oget her w i t h
localized light ing cont rols. Use f ixt ures t hat
minimize t he use of hazardous lamp mat erials.
O Elect rical Syst ems and Equipment
Ef f icient design st rat egies, pow er dist ribut ion
syst ems, and elect rical equipment can increase
building’s energy ef f iciency and reduce energy
consumpt ion and associat ed cost s.
O Energy Sources
Various energy sources are available t oday.
Desi gner s shoul d f i r st capi t al i ze on
conser vat i on t echni ques, t hen w or k t o
achieve an appropriat e, int egrat ed balance of
solar heat ing, daylight ing, energy ent rained
w it hin t he eart h (geot hermal energy), air
movement , and ot her renew able resources.
Only t hen should t hey resort t o f ossil f uel
t echnologies, seeking ef f iciencies in t his realm
as w ell. This int egrat ed approach t o w hole
building design reduces t he product ion of
greenhouse gases, smog, and aci d rai n;
preserves nat ural resources; and slow s t he
deplet ion of f ossil f uel reserves.
O M echanical Syst ems
M echanical syst ems must w ork in concert
w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g l ayo u t , o r i en t at i o n ,
en vel o p e, l i g h t i n g st r at eg i es, el ect r i cal
equipment , and sit e charact erist ics t o reduce
reliance on energy derived f rom f ossil f uels,
and t o increase t he use of renew able energy.
PAGE 24
Hi g h Per f or man ce
O Energy Load M anagement
The management , cont inuous calibrat ion,
and maint enance of energy-relat ed syst ems
is of t en neglect ed, yet t hese are t he only
w ays t o opt imize t he lif e and perf ormance of
t h e syst ems an d mi n i mi ze t h e d amag e
caused by f ossil f uel use. Ef f ect ive energy
load management is a t w o-st ep process,
consist ing of load measurement and syst em
response. Cont inuous calibrat ion of sensors
an d i n st r u men t at i o n w i l l yi el d t o p
mechanical syst em perf ormance in t erms of
energy use and comf ort .
I NDOOR ENVI RONMENT
O Good Indoor Air Qualit y (IAQ)
A healt hy and comf ort able level of indoor air
qualit y is t he goal f or all occupied spaces, as
g o o d IAQ su p p o r t s an d en h an ces t h e
act ivit ies and w ell-being of t he occupant s.
O Light Sources
Achieve a qualit y of light t hat is benef icial t o
b u i l d i n g act i vi t i es an d o ccu p an t s b y
combining nat ural light w it h complement ary
elect rical light sources.
O Noise Cont rol
Creat e a sound environment t hat is healt hf ul,
comf ort able, and appropriat e t o int ended
u se b y co n t ro l l i n g n o i se an d caref u l l y
at t ending t o t he acoust ic design of spaces.
O Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems
To ach i eve a h eal t h y an d co mf o r t ab l e
environment , it is crit ical t o ensure t hat user
groups and f acilit y maint enance st af f can
know ledgeably operat e t he building syst ems
and equipment . As much cont rol as possible
should be given t o individual users, w it hout
compromising t he ef f ect iveness and ef f icient
cont rol of t he overall syst em.
MATERI AL AND
PRODUCT SELECTI ON
O Select ion f or a Healt hy
Indoor Environment
Over al l i ndoor ai r qual i t y goal s can be
achieved by specif ying and inst alling benign,
or ‘ healt hy’ building mat erials. These include
mat erials and product s t hat exhibit limit ed or
no ‘ of f -gassing’ t endencies, have minimal or
no t oxic propert ies, do not shed dust and
f iber, and do not absorb pollut ant s t hat are
l at er rel eased , p o t en t i al l y g en er at i n g
complaint s among building users/occupant s.
O Select ion f or Resource Ef f iciency
Resource ef f iciency can be achieved t hrough
co n sci en t i o u s d esi g n st r at eg i es, an d b y
select ing environment ally pref erable building
mat er i al s. These measures can conser ve
n at u r al reso u rces w h i l e mi n i mi zi n g t h e
generat ion of w ast e and pollut ion during
const ruct ion. The hierarchy of ‘ reduce, reuse,
recycle’ can serve as a guideline f or decisions
relat ing t o resource ef f iciency.
O Select ion f or Ext ernal
Environment al Benef it
The select ion and use of environment ally
pref erable mat erials yields benef it s t hat easily
exceed t he scope of t he building it self .
Pro d u ct s p ro d u ced an d d ep l o yed i n an
envi ronment al l y responsi bl e manner hel p
reduce local, regional, and global pollut ion
w hile encouraging sust ainable st ew ardship
of resources. For example, global benef it s
accrue f rom specif ying sust ainably harvest ed,
cert if ied w ood product s, and f rom avoiding
t he use of ozone-deplet ing compounds in
f o am p ro d u ct s, ref r i g er at i o n an d f i re
suppression syst ems.
WATER MANAGEMENT
O M inimize t he Use of Domest ic Wat er
Pro p er sel ect i o n o f p l u mb i n g f i xt u res,
equipment , and f it t ings can minimize end
use of domest ic w at er w hile conserving
w at er qualit y and availabilit y.
O Wat er Qualit y
Al l p ro j ect s mu st en su re o p t i mal w at er
qualit y at t he t ap – pot able w at er t hat is bot h
saf e (non-t oxic) and aest het ically pleasing in
t erms of t ast e, color, and odor.
O Wat er Reuse
To achieve overall w at er conservat ion goals,
it is import ant t o limit t he use of pot able
w at er f or non-pot able purposes. On sit e
w at er recl amat i on and reuse shoul d be
en co u r ag ed an d f aci l i t at ed w h erever
possible.
CONSTRUCTI ON
ADMI NI STRATI ON
O Environment al and Communit y
Considerat ions
Renovat ion and new const ruct ion should be
perf ormed w it h t he least possible disrupt ion
t o bot h t he communit y and t he environment .
Consci ent i ous const r uct i on admi ni st rat i on
can mi n i mi ze h ar m t o t h e si t e an d
su r ro u n d i n g area, i n cl u d i n g so i l , w at er
reso u rces, an d ai r. Co n st r u ct i o n o f t h e
project should f ost er t he percept ion of high
perf ormance buildings as good neighbors.
O Healt h and Saf et y
Co n st r u ct i o n w o r k er s an d b u i l d i n g
occupant s need prot ect ion f rom pollut ant s
p ro d u ced d u r i n g co n st r u ct i o n , su ch as
vo l at i l e o r g an i c co mp o u n d s (VOCs),
p ar t i cu l at es, d u st an d o t h er ai r b o r n e
co n t ami n an t s an d o d o r s. Th ese same
const r uct i on cont ami nant s must al so be
prevent ed f rom accumulat ing in building
HVAC syst ems and in absorbent building
mat erials, such as carpet and f ur nishings.
O Const ruct ion and Demolit ion
Wast e M anagement
Const ruct ion and demolit ion (C&D) w ast e
management t echni ques di vert mat er i al s
f rom t he w ast e st ream, t hus preservi ng
valuable resources and landf ill space. C&D
w ast e t ypically includes building demolit ion
and scrap mat erials, component s such as
d o o r s o r l i g h t i n g f i xt u res, p ack ag i n g
mat er i al s, h azard o u s mat er i al s, an d
miscellaneous const ruct ion w ast e such as
bot t les, cans, or paper.
COMMI SSI ONI NG
O Fully Int egrat ed
Operat ing Syst ems
Co mmi ssi o n i n g act i vi t i es t r an sf o r m t h e
various building syst ems int o an int egrat ed
w hole. During all t est s and perf ormance
prot ocols, a dedicat ed commissioning agent
oversees t he building t eam t o ensure t hat t he
syst ems h ave b een w el l - d esi g n ed ,
ap p ro p r i at el y i n st al l ed , an d f u n ct i o n al l y
t est ed, and t hat t he st af f are t rained t o
o p er at e an d mai n t ai n t h e f aci l i t y i n
conf ormance w it h design int ent .
O Commissioning Exist ing Buildings
For a building renovat ion or inf rast ruct ure
u p g r ad e, co mmi ssi o n i n g sh o u l d b e
perf ormed on t he af f ect ed syst ems or part s
of syst ems in a comprehensive manner.
OPERATI ONS
AND MAI NTENANCE
O Operat ing and M aint aining
Building Syst ems
Op er at i n g an d m ai n t en an ce p r act i ces
en su re t h at al l b u i l d i n g syst ems f u n ct i o n t o
t h e f u l l est ext en t o f t h ei r d esi g n ed
ef f i ci en cy an d meet sp eci f i ed l evel s o f
en er g y an d i n d o o r ai r q u al i t y p er f o r man ce.
Sch ed u l ed mai n t en an ce an d cl ean i n g w i l l
h el p t o yi el d o n g o i n g en er g y savi n g s f o r
t h e b u i l d i n g w h i l e p ro mo t i n g o ccu p an t
h eal t h an d co mf o r t .
O Healt hy and Ef f icient
Cust odial Operat ions
Reduced human exposure t o physical and
chemical hazards and odors associat ed w it h
cleaning product s and pest icides can be
achieved t hrough cust odial operat ions t hat
emp l o y ap p ro p r i at e met h o d s an d l o w -
t oxicit y or non-t oxic cleaning product s.
O Wast e Prevent ion
and Recycling
Red u ci n g , r eu si n g , an d r ecycl i n g so l i d ,
l i qui d, and f ood w ast e f r om day-t o-day
bui l di ng operat i ons and act i vi t i es ar e cri t i cal
hi gh perf or mance operat i ng st rat egi es, i n
t h at t h ey ef f ect i vel y p r o m o t e o n g o i n g
resource conser vat i on. Purchasi ng deci si ons
can al so cont ri but e t o w ast e pr event i on
(e. g. , speci f yi ng mechani cal l y-cont r ol l ed rol l
t ow el s i nst ead of di sposabl e f ol ded t ow el s;
avo i d i n g p r o d u ct s w i t h excessi ve o r
unnecessary packagi ng).
PAGE 25
Bui l di ng Obj ect i ves
Par t Two:
Pr ocess
Ci t y Pr ocess
St rat egi c pl anni ng and budget i ng support s t he
devel opment of hi gh perf ormance bui l di ngs.
At proj ect out set , t he cl i ent agency must embrace a
vi si on of rai sed expect at i ons f or t he bui l di ng’s
perf ormance and a commi t ment t o t he ‘ t ot al qual i t y
management ’ approach t o devel opi ng hi gh
perf ormance bui l di ngs. Duri ng si t e sel ect i on,
programmi ng, and budget i ng, enhanced
deci si onmaki ng w i t h i nput f rom mul t i pl e
st akehol ders i s t he order of t he day. Execut i ves must
ensure act i ve part i ci pat i on on t he part of program
st af f , operat i ons and mai nt enance personnel , and
ot her prospect i ve users. As a t eam, t hey w i l l t ake
i nt o account communi t y and envi ronment al i mpact s
of t hei r proj ect . They w i l l consi der t he proj ect ’s
present and f ut ure ant i ci pat ed capi t al requi rement s.
They must seek t o opt i mi ze t he desi gn process
t hrough const ant part i ci pat i on, exami nat i on, and
ref i nement , and t o pursue a phi l osophy of
met i cul ous cont ract enf orcement . Know l edge and
aw areness of i nt er-agency and oversi ght procedures
can st reaml i ne t he proj ect and enhance i t s
perf ormance goal s. The benef i t s of t hi s approach t o
t he cl i ent agency i ncl ude reduced operat i ng cost s,
avoi ded cost s of f ut ure mai nt enance and repai r, and
hi gher qual i t y program spaces i n w hi ch t he agency
can best carry out i t s mi ssi on.
Ci t y Pr ocess
Program Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Sit e Select ion and Planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Budget Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Capit al Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Deliverables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Pr ogr am Pl anni ng
During t he capit al planning process, t he Guidelines est ablish programmat ic goals t hat are consist ent
w it h t he agency’s mission, t he int ent ion of t he project , and t he available budget . Planned w ork is
review ed against f ut ure or past w ork t o ensure t hat comprehensive w ork it ems are ident if ied and
t hat an int egrat ed design approach w ill not be precluded by f unding limit at ions or phased act ion of
t he w ork.
Techni cal St r at egi es ( f or Cl i ent Agenci es)
O Planning meet ing. Early in t he capit al budget cycle, convene a planning meet ing involving all
capit al st af f , operat ions personnel, and program st af f , et c., t o ident if y and f urt her develop high
perf ormance object ives as draw n f rom t hese Guidelines. (Ref er t o Appendix C, The High Perf ormance
Building Workplan). Wit h t hese object ives in mind, discuss and prepare t he High Perf ormance
Project Init iat ion Form.
40
(Ref er t o Appendix D)
O M ake use of t he Cit y’s Asset Inf ormat ion M anagement Survey (AIM S)
41
dat a.
Evaluat e t he project ’s relat ionship t o ot her current and ant icipat ed capit al improvement s
at t he f acilit y so as t o make inf ormed decisions on relat ed w ork, or on t he phasing of
f ut ure w ork. Examine int errelat ed syst ems t hat may be nearing t he end of t heir usef ul
lif e f or possible inclusion in t he project scope. Where AIM S dat a is out dat ed, request a new
survey f rom OM B.
42
O Properly sequence t he w ork. Sequence renovat ions and upgrades t o obt ain best long-t erm
perf ormance and operat ing economies. Best pract ices mandat e improving t he t hermal
perf ormance of t he building envelope bef ore or concurrent w it h t he upgrade of mechanical
and elect rical syst ems (see renovat ion st rat egies p.11).
O Non-const ruct ion or reduced const ruct ion opt ions. Consider non-const ruct ion or
reduced const ruct ion opt ions t o achieve t he same program ends. These include:
• Examining redesign/reuse of exist ing or alt er nat e cit y-ow ned f acilit ies as a means of
eliminat ing new const ruct ion;
• Dow nsizing t he program by ident if ying economies or redundancies, or alt ering operat ing
schedules t o accommodat e more ef f ect ive uses of t he built spaces; and
• Consolidat ing w it h ot her project s.
• Evaluat e each opt ion in t erms of t ot al lif e cycle cost s, including short and long t erm
capit al cost s, operat ing cost s, and t he avoided cost s of new building sit e acquisit ion,
demolit ion, and inf rast ruct ure. To best address resource ef f iciency concer ns,
ident if y ot her project s t hat could ef f ect ively be combined w it h t his one.
O M ult iple use opport unit ies. Consider addit ional program uses f or t he f acilit y. Explore t he
pot ent ial f or expanded uses (now or in t he f ut ure) t hat might be compat ible w it h t hose of t he
current project , and design w it h f lexibilit y and adapt abilit y in mind.
O Alt ernat ive space st andards. Examine space planning and programming st andards t o
encourage more f lexible solut ions. Consider, f or example, using single spaces f or mult iple
purposes. Consider t he use of st andardized (universal) rooms or spaces t o avoid design
obsolescence as t he organizat ion evolves over t ime, and minimize t he cost of any f ut ure
modif icat ions. Approach t he program as a list of act ivit ies or f unct ions t o be accommodat ed,
rat her t han as an absolut e, predet ermined list of spaces.
O Applicat ion t o leased space. Consider t he use of t he Guidelines in conjunct ion w it h any
leasing of spaces. Whenever possible, request t hat high perf ormance object ives be included
in t he lease negot iat ions.
Benef it s
$C
F
Accurat e
needs
f orecast ing
and
programming
may eliminat e
redundant or
unnecessary
const ruct ion
ef f ort s.
A
PAGE 28
40. See Appendix, it em D
41. Asset Inf ormat ion M anagement Survey, published yearly; includes condit ion and maint enance schedules f or major port ions of t he Cit y’s f ixed
asset s and inf rast ruct ure.
42. Cont act OM B or agency liaison f or a copy of t he report .
Cit y Process
Si t e Sel ect i on and Pl anni ng
High perf ormance at t ribut es are a crit ical considerat ion in sit e select ion f or a capit al project or lease.
Adapt ive reuse of an exist ing building may eliminat e t he need f or new const r uct ion. The communit y
cont ext of a sit e and access t o services and t ransport at ion are as import ant as t he f undament al
environment al issues, such as access t o daylight ing, int egrat ion of renew able resources, et c.
Techni cal St r at egi es
Sit e Select ion
O Evaluat e sit e resources. Evaluat e exist ing building and sit e resources and select a sit e w it h
charact erist ics t hat are conducive t o opt imum perf ormance. Consider:
• Compat ible f acilit ies and sit es current ly under t he Cit y’s auspices or cont rol t hat are
eit her f ully available or are not being used t o t he opt imum ef f ect . Research available
Cit y-ow ned space.
• Avoid select ing ‘ greenf ield’ sit es (desirable open spaces; parklands; places of signif icant
ecological, cult ural, or hist orical value; places w it h unique visual appeal).
• Reuse ‘ brow nf ields.’ Where economically f easible, select sit es t hat provide opport unit ies t o
remediat e or repair exist ing environment al damage (‘ brow nf ield’ condit ions include pollut ed
soil, w at er, and air; degraded veget at ion; et c.). Brow nf ield reuse also helps reduce spraw l.
O Transport at ion/ services. Select sit es t hat are w ell serviced by exist ing public t ransport at ion,
ut ilit ies, and relat ed municipal services. This reduces sit e development cost s and lessens
environment al impact s. Select sit es t hat already have, or have t he pot ent ial f or, amenit ies such
as rest aurant s, shopping areas, pleasant view s, et c.
O Fut ure grow t h. Select sit es t hat allow f or f ut ure grow t h or expansion by t he client agency or
end user.
Sit e Cont ext and Communit y Issues
O Environment al just ice. High perf ormance project s t ake environment al just ice issues int o
account in sit e select ion. These include maximizing economic viabilit y and opport unit ies f or
employment , int roducing or preserving cult ural benef it s f or t he communit y, and minimizing
adverse environment al and inf rast ruct ure impact s on t he neighborhood. Considerat ion should
be given as t o w het her t he communit y already has more
t han, or enough of it s ‘ f air share’ of similar f acilit ies.
O Environment al opport unit ies. In preliminary zoning
review s, ident if y t he sit e’s environment al advant ages,
such as solar access, lot area coverage, and available
modes of t ransport at ion.
O Environment al def iciencies. When review ing a sit e,
evaluat e adverse environment al condit ions, such as air
pollut ion, noise, and barriers t o accessibilit y.
O Green buildings as ‘good neighbors.’ Det ermine t he
appropriat eness and compat ibilit y of t he f acilit y t o t he
surrounding environment in t erms of use, act ivit y level,
and t raf f ic considerat ions. Ident if y negat ive impact s and
f ormulat e pot ent ial mit igat ion st rat egies.
O Shared use. Consider how t he sit e may provide
opport unit ies f or shared use or access needs t o nearby
public programs; e.g. day/night parking and sharing of
assembly spaces.
O Communit y out reach. Develop an act ion plan f or
communit y out reach t o promot e t he high perf ormance
building and t o address communit y and cont ext issues.
Encourage part icipat ion by elect ed and appoint ed
of f icials and ot her communit y st akeholders.
Cit y Process
Benef it s
$C
M
St rat egic
sit ing can
reduce st ress
on, or
eliminat e
unnecessary
expansion of ,
ut ilit ies and
ot her
inf rast ruct ure
component s
(e.g., roads,
parking lot s).
$D
S
Caref ul st udy
of cont ext in
f acilit ies
planning may
help reduce
negat ive
environment al
impact s.
St rat egic
sit ing of t he
f acilit y may
have posit ive
economic
ef f ect s on t he
surrounding
communit y.
A
PAGE 29
Riverbank St at e Park
The Nort h River Sew age Treat ment Plant w as locat ed
adjacent t o a densely populat ed resident ial
neighborhood. Design and inst allat ion of a St at e Park,
w it h a running t rack, skat ing rink, pool and gymnasium,
as w ell as t he inclusion of t aller exhaust st acks, helped
lessen t he impact of t his f acilit y on t he communit y.
phot o: St ephen Campbell
Benef it s
G
Ensuring
adequat e
int eragency
coordinat ion
can
eliminat e
planning
errors and
cost ly
delays.
Washingt on Height s Day Care Cent er – Sit e Select ion Process
The sit e originally select ed f or t his communit y f acilit y w as t oo small f or t he program. It w as
very narrow, and did not have immediat e access t o out door open space. As such, t he sit e
w ould have required t he development of a six-st ory day care cent er, special approvals f rom t he
Depart ment of Transport at ion, and development of a port ion of public park land int o child
care open space. Alt hough t he sit e w as apparent ly t he only one available, caref ul re-
examinat ion of t he cat chment area and alt er nat ive w ays of addressing t he needs of t he
communit y engendered a unique cooperat ion bet w een t he communit y and nearby Columbia-
Presbyt erian Hospit al.
Budget Pl anni ng
During t he execut ive budget process, high perf ormance building object ives compat ible w it h t he
agency’s goals and t he project scope are ident if ied, and appropriat e design and const ruct ion
budget s are est ablished t o enable t he project t o be f ully implement ed.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Design planning. Est ablish a design budget t hat is suf f icient t o achieve t he scope of w ork,
t aking int o account all aspect s t he high perf ormance design process and deliverables as
described in t he Design Process chapt er. The design budget should ref lect t he cost of all
services and deliverables f or: a) development and implement at ion of t he High Perf ormance
Plan; b) implement at ion of energy use modeling and/or daylight ing modeling; c) more ext ensive
lif e cycle cost ing as an aid t o decisionmaking during design; d) more int ensive monit oring by
consult ant s during const ruct ion; and e) development of an Ow ner’s M anual at t he conclusion
of t he project .
O Const ruct ion planning. Allocat e a const ruct ion budget suf f icient t o achieve Level 1 and
select ed Level 2 high perf ormance goals. Addit ional capit al cost s may be of f set by lif e cycle
operat ional savings. Consider including a budget f or commissioning as appropriat e.
43
See t he
Commissioning chapt er f or more inf ormat ion on inclusion of t his import ant process.
O Plan f or operat ional savings. Look ahead t o est ablish an Energy Budget . Coordinat e w it h
DCAS/OEC. Use dat a derived f rom exist ing f acilit ies or comparable building t ypes t o est ablish
t he baseline budget f rom w hich at t ainment of energy perf ormance goals w ill be measured.
Capi t al Pl anni ng Pr ocess
The project init iat ion process, t he procurement process, and t he int eragency and oversight approval
processes may all require addit ional commit ment f rom DDC and t he client agency in order t o
achieve t he project ’s high perf ormance goals.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Project init iat ion. The client agency must complet e t he High Perf ormance Project Init iat ion
Form, w hich highlight s st rat egies and considerat ions f or achieving a bet t er project .
O ULURP/ EIS. During t he Unif orm Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP), make use of regulat ory
procedures such as Environment al Impact St at ement s (EIS), Cit y Planning review and
Communit y Board review as high perf ormance planning resources.
O Int eragency and oversight approvals. When request ing review s or support , t he client
agency must ensure t hat t he Of f ice of M anagement and Budget , t he M ayor’s Of f ice of
Const ruct ion, Compt roller, and ot her oversight ent it ies underst and t hat t he project is a high
perf ormance project .
O Procurement . To obt ain necessary high perf ormance expert ise, DDC and t he client agency
must select consult ant list s and est ablish w eight ed crit eria f or subconsult ant s.
Benef it s
G
Adequat e
budget s w ill
eliminat e
unnecessary
project
delays.
A
PAGE 30
43. Current indust ry cost s f or commissioning services range f rom 0.5% and 3% of t he const ruct ion budget depending on building t ype, size, and ext ent of
services.
Cit y Process
A
O Scoping. Addit ional f ocus on and det ailed at t ent ion t o t he Guidelines should t ake place during
DDC’s development of t he Specif ic Requirement s and t he Request f or Proposal.
O Client agency st af f commit ment . Achieving a high perf ormance building requires addit ional
int ra-agency and int eragency cooperat ion during t he planning and design phases. Appropriat e
st af f must be made available and adequat e st af f t ime must be allocat ed.
Tool s
> Asset Inf ormat ion M anagement Survey (AIM S) is available f rom t he Of f ice of M anagement
and Budget .
> Building M oment um, Energy St ar. The Environment al Prot ect ion Agency’s Energy St ar Building
Program provides managerial and t echnical t ools t o commercial building ow ners t o improve t he
ef f iciency of t heir buildings, f rom appropriat e organizat ional st rat egies, t hrough t he
development of baselines and analyses, t o securing f unding, implement ing upgrades and
celebrat ing success.
Del i ver abl es
¯ High Perf ormance Building Project Init iat ion Form
¯ High Perf ormance
Building Workplan
Cit y Process
PAGE 31
PERFORMANCE GOALS
Cit y Process
O Ut ilize exist ing inf rast ruct ure.
O If an exist ing building is t o be rehabilit at ed, maint ain and reuse
75% t o 100% of t he exist ing building' s st ruct ural shell.
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Desi gn Pr ocess
The del i very of a hi gh perf ormance proj ect cal l s f or
si gni f i cant l y i ncreased col l aborat i on among t he
vari ous desi gn di sci pl i nes. A f ocused goal -set t i ng
sessi on w i l l hel p devel op a w ork pl an f or
i ncorporat i ng hi gh perf ormance obj ect i ves. The
emphasi s on i nt erdi sci pl i nar y desi gn and resource
management , t oget her w i t h use of new desi gn
t ool s, di st i ngui shes hi gh perf ormance f rom
convent i onal processes.
Design t hinking should be inf ormed by t he t radit ional
ef f iciency met hods and t echniques employed by older
or ver nacular buildings, w here f orms, building
mat erials, and means of achieving comf ort respond
t o local climat e and acknow ledge t he locat ion of t he
sun. When t aking advant age of t he increasing
sophist icat ion of t oday’s building syst ems and
mat erial t echnologies, high perf ormance designers
should t emper t heir select ions and specif icat ions t o
minimize dependence on mechanical and
archit ect ural t echnologies t hat are dif f icult t o
manage and maint ain.
Desi gn Pr ocess
Client Aw areness and Goal Set t ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Team Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Well-Int egrat ed Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Resource M anagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Deliverables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Cl i ent Awar eness and Goal Set t i ng
High perf ormance object ives are priorit ized and w eight ed t o best respond t o t he client agency’s
mission and t he building’s f unct ion. Perf ormance goals are est ablished as a means of enhancing t he
f acilit y’s f unct ion w hile advancing t he project ’s environment al and economic object ives.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Guidelines implement at ion. During t he scope development phase, t he Cit y’s project t eam,
t oget her w it h t he client agency, ident if ies w hich general object ives and t echnical st rat egies are
t o be incorporat ed int o t he project ’s Specif ic Requirement s (SR).
Goal Set t ing
In set t ing goals f or a senior cent er, t he sponsor might ident if y daylight ing and opt imal art if icial
light ing as high perf ormance priorit ies. Daycare cent ers might inst ead emphasize indoor air
qualit y, increasing f resh air rat ios in classroom or play spaces, and reducing or eliminat ing
VOCs f rom const ruct ion mat erials.
O Goal set t ing w orkshops. Wit h t he consult ant on board at t he project incept ion, t he f ull client
t eam, t oget her w it h t he consult ing t eam, shall part icipat e in a ‘ charret t e’
44
or goal set t ing
w orkshop t o est ablish and int egrat e high perf ormance goals in relat ion t o ot her project priorit ies.
O High Perf ormance Plan. Based on t hese w orkshops, t he consult ant w ill prepare a deliverable
called t he ‘ High Perf ormance Plan’ w hich set s environment al and energy perf ormance goals f or
t he project . This Plan should be updat ed t o ref lect it erat ive changes during design and enable
measurement of overall project achievement .
O High perf ormance ‘educat ion’. The high visibilit y and symbolic posit ion of a civic f acilit y
make it an import ant public show case f or sust ainable design. Considerat ion should be given
early in t he project as t o how t he building’s design it self can illust rat e t he benef it s of high
perf ormance at t ribut es w hile support ing t he key mission of t he client agency. The high
perf ormance building f eat ures t hemselves can be designed evocat ively t o explain t heir benef it s.
Alt er nat ively, special exhibit s or art w ork commissioned by t he client agency can illust rat e or
complement t hese at t ribut es.
Team Devel opment
“ Because t he st age w as set f or environment al aw areness and innovat ion, ever yone else on
t he t eam got on board, immediat ely t hinking along t he same lines: manuf act urers,
cont ract ors, suppliers, and ut ilit y company.”
Dan Tishman,
President , Tishman Const ruct ion,
Lessons Learned, Four TImes Square
A t eam approach is vit al t o t he project ’s success, and is at t ained w hen all sub-consult ant s are
commit t ed t o cont inuous, act ive part icipat ion w it h t he prime consult ant f rom t he out set of t he
project . This ‘ f ront -loading’ of design input f rom expert s such as landscape archit ect s, mechanical
and st ruct ural engineers, daylight ing consult ant s, energy ef f iciency and ot her ‘ green’ consult ant s
increases cross-disciplinary creat ivit y and encourages problem solving. Client agency execut ives and
members of t he maint enance and operat ions st af f also part icipat e on t his int egrat ed t eam.
Benef it s
G
Helps
est ablish
and build
last ing
commit -
ment t o
high
perf ormanc
e goals.
G
Promot es
t eam’s
commit -
ment t o
design
met hods
and t ools
w hich in
t ur n
promot es
at t ainment
of goals.
A
PAGE 34
Design
Process
Benef it s
G
Raises level of
expert ise w it hin
t he design
communit y on
int erdisciplinary
high perf orm-
ance issues and
st rat egies.
G
Enables
ef f ect ive
decisionmaking
during t he
predesign
phase, when
efficiency
st rat egies can
be implement -
ed at low est
possible cost .
A
Project Team Design Charret t e,
New Children’s Cent er,
NYC Administ rat ion f or Children’s Services
For t he renovat ion of a hist orically designat ed
building int o a st af f t raining cent er and int ake
f acilit y f or children, a design charret t e brought
mechanical engineers, hist oric preservat ionist s, and
energy and green building consult ant s t oget her
early on t o ident if y solut ions and share ideas. This
f acilit at ed improvement of t he building’s cent ral
heat ing and cooling syst em, t hereby achieving
energy savings w it hout any adverse impact on t he
building’s ext erior.
Phot o: Rick Bell, DDC
44. The charret t e process is one or more f acilit at ed w orkshop(s) w hich helps educat e all t he t eam members in t he high perf ormance issues, develop t eam
consensus on t he primary goals, and develop “ buy in” t o t he solut ions recommended.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Specif ic sub-consult ant part icipat ion. The Specif ic Requirement s and RFP should st at e t he
level of part icipat ion expect ed of each sub-consult ant at each phase t o clearly delineat e t heir
cont ribut ions t o achieving an int egrat ed design.
O Consult ant select ion. DDC and t he client agency must review procurement opt ions t o
det ermine appropriat e means of select ing t he best pre-qualif ied consult ant and sub-
consult ant s. They w ill est ablish select ion crit eria, w eight ing, pre-qualif ied list s, or ot her met hods
of incorporat ing green building expert ise in project development . Expert ise in such disciplines as
acoust ics, hort icult ure, indust rial hygiene, et c. may also be required.
O Goal set t ing w orkshops. All t eam members part icipat e in goal set t ing w orkshops
(‘ charret t es’ ) and/or milest one meet ings w it h t he client , w hich w ill est ablish key f eat ures of t he
project and perf ormance t arget s.
Wel l - I nt egr at ed Desi gn
The building’s spat ial organizat ion should be inf ormed by, and int egrat ed w it h, it s sit e f eat ures and
climat ic considerat ions. Collect ively, t he design of t he various int erdependent building syst ems and
t he envelope should pursue opt imal perf ormance at t he low est lif e cycle cost . New design t ools are
available t o support and reinf orce design int egrat ion.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Design int egrat ion. Sub-consult ant part icipat ion in design st rat egy development w ill enable
cross-disciplinary decisionmaking relat ive t o building sit ing, conf igurat ion, building envelope
and HVAC design. Int egrat ion f ost ers a percept ion of t he building as a set of int errelat ed,
int erdependent syst ems w herein a single solut ion can t rigger improvement s in several ot her
building syst ems simult aneously. In t his
w ay, mult iple savings and ot her
benef it s may be at t ained.
O M odeling. Use comput erized or ot her
appropriat ely det ailed spat ial
represent at ions of t he building and sit e
t o provide cont inuous f eedback on t he
int egrat ive f unct ionalit y of all design
component s. Specif ically, use
comput erized energy modeling t o
int egrat e archit ect ure and engineering
decisional processes and t o explore t he
lif e cycle cost advant ages of mult iple
design alt er nat ives f or t he envelope
(insulat ion, glazing, curt ain w alls, roof ,
et c.) and f or t he mechanical and
light ing syst ems.
O Cross-disciplinary design. Ensure
appropriat e cross-disciplinary
t eamw ork in achieving t he necessary
int egrat ion of building sit e, syst ems,
and operat ions.
O Ref erence t o high perf ormance
object ives. Periodically, and not less
t han at each milest one, t he project t eam
should updat e t he init ial High Perf ormance
Plan t o assure t he int egrit y of t he goals
and object ives.
Design
Process
Benef it s
$O
F
M aint enance
and operat ing
savings can be
achieved
t hrough
opt imizat ion of
several building
syst ems at t he
same t ime.
$C
F
Int egrat ed
design can
achieve
reduced
building syst em
f irst cost s by
allow ing f or
dow nsizing of
some building
syst ems (i.e.,
improved
glazing and
insulat ion can
reduce HVAC
demand).
G
Climat e-
responsive,
‘ w hole
building’
design can
of t en enhance
t he visual
int erest of t he
building.
A
PAGE 35
High Perf ormance At t ribut es in Older Buildings
Hist oric buildings of t en exemplif y int egrat ed design by achieving
comf ort w it h an economy of means and w it hout dependence on
sophist icat ed mechanical and elect rical syst ems.
For example, many early 20t h Cent ury New York Cit y schools
w ere const ruct ed w it h C- or H-shaped f loor plans, t hermally
ef f icient masonry w alls, large built -in vent ilat ion shaf t s, and
operable t ransoms in t he corridors. These f eat ures cont rol
t emperat ure sw ings, maximize daylight ing, and encourage
cross-vent ilat ion. Ot her hist orical examples include use of
ext erior court yard spaces or roof t op t erraces f or summert ime
reading or dining, and act ivit y areas in public libraries.
Resour ce Management
Resource conservat ion begins at t he w hole project scale w here opport unit ies are great est . It
subsequent ly applies t o individual building syst ems and mat erials t hat may be considered f or w hole
or part ial reuse, or f or t heir salvage value. Flexible, adapt able, and generic spaces w ill increase
building ut ilit y and longevit y as needs change over t ime.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O “Right -size” t he space program. M ake sure t hat space assignment s are opt imally sized by
considering t he f ollow ing:
• M ult iple uses f or individual spaces; i.e., a single space used f or various f unct ions at
dif f erent t imes.
• Alt ernat ive of f icing, w hereby unassigned, f lexible w orkst at ions are shared by mult iple users.
• Universal sizing (design t hat incorporat es st andardized room or w orkst at ion sizing).
O Wast e prevent ion. Survey t he exist ing f acilit y’s
mat erials and syst ems f or pot ent ial ref urbishment
and/or salvage value.
O M inimize const ruct ion int ervent ions. When
approaching a building renovat ion, consider creat ive
programming changes t hat avoid unnecessary
reconf igurat ion.
O Fut ure adapt abilit y. Use ample f loor-t o-f loor
height s (int erst it ial spaces) t o allow f or f ut ure
modif icat ion of mechanical, elect rical, plumbing,
and communicat ions syst ems. Select building
syst ems t hat allow f or f ut ure adapt abilit y and
expansion, and provide adequat e f loor loading.
O Fut ure w ast e st reams. Design f or building
longevit y and durabilit y, and t o ext end replacement
cycles. Det ailing f or easy disassembly w ill reduce
f ut ure demolit ion w ast e and renovat ion cost s.
Reuse of Building Syst ems
A ‘ w eat herizat ion’ project might consider w indow ref urbishment (caulking, sealing, and use
of insulat ing w indow s), rat her t han inst alling all new w indow s. While more labor int ensive,
t his decision avoids mat erial w ast e and may be f urt her just if ied because w indow replacement
by it self may have a long payback period.
Benef it s
$C
F
First cost
reduct ion
(avoided
demolit ion,
super-
st ruct ure
cost s).
$C
F
Longer
syst em
replacement
cycle.
$O
M
M at erial
conservat ion
reduces
w ast e
management
cost s.
E
S
Building
and building
f abric re-use
reduces
consumpt ion
of new
resources.
G
Preservat ion
of
archit ect ural
and urban
f abric
embodied
in older
buildings.
A
PAGE 36
Design
Process
Building f or Fut ure Flexibilit y
A new building f loorplan should have
unif ormly sized (modular) spaces,
w it h as many as possible of t he same
(universal) size. When t he
organizat ion or use changes, people
may t hen be easily ret rof it t ed int o
t hese generic spaces.
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Surrogat es Court
In adapt ive reuse of older building st ock, high
qualit y int erior mat erials should be salvaged and
ref urbished rat her t han discarded. The int erior of
t his court room in t he Surrogat es Court in low er
M anhat t an exemplif ies an array of mat erials.
Design
Process
PAGE 37
PERFORMANCE GOALS ( NEW CONSTRUCTI ON AND RENOVATI ON)
O Complet e and implement t he High Perf ormance Plan.
Tool s
> US Green Building Council LEED Rat ing Syst em, w w w.usgbc.org
> Green Building Challenge ‘ 98 Rat ing Syst em,
w w w.eren.doe.gov/buildings/gbc98/green_building_challenge.ht m
Del i ver abl es
The Hi gh Per f or mance Pl an – A Key Del i ver abl e i n t he Desi gn Pr ocess
The High Perf ormance Plan (t he Plan) spells out t he means f or int egrat ing high perf ormance
f eat ures int o t he project . The Plan w ill be f ormulat ed by t he consult ant during t he pre-
preliminary phase of t he project . Where t he project does not have a pre-preliminary phase,
t he Plan w ill be delivered during t he schemat ic phase.
The consult ant should also ident if y addit ional deliverables t o be specif ically required in
subsequent project phases. These are described in det ail in ensuing chapt ers. The Ow ner’s
M anual, a deliverable t o be submit t ed by t he consult ant upon f inal complet ion of const ruct ion,
is described on p.40. All deliverables and key submit t als relat ing t o high perf ormance aspect s
of t he project are summarized by project phase and chapt er in t he “ Summary Table of High
Perf ormance Key Submit t als and Deliverables,” w hich is locat ed on p. 42.
The deliverables t o be included in t he High Perf ormance Plan during t he
pre-preliminary/ schemat ic phase of each project are described below.
1. Implement at ion St rat egy. Ut ilize t he High Perf ormance Building Guidelines as a t ool f or
developing an overall st rat egy cust omized t o suit each project . The specif ic perf ormance
object ives and t echnical st rat egies should be ident if ied and def ined during a f acilit at ed
w orkshop w it h t he ent ire project t eam, including t he consult ant s, sub-consult ant s, client
agency represent at ives, building users, and DDC personnel. The Plan w ill include a record of
t his process t hat should be ref erred t o on a regular basis during t he design phases. This
port ion of t he Plan should include but not be limit ed t o t he f ollow ing:
• List ing of select ed high perf ormance object ives t hat are consist ent w it h t he client agency’s
mission and w hich relat e t o opport unit ies present ed by t he project .
• Appropriat e t echnical st rat egies f or achieving t he select ed object ives.
• High perf ormance key submit t als and deliverables select ed f rom Guidelines chapt ers t hat
relat e t o t he object ives, t echnical st rat egies, and perf ormance goals.
• Schedule of milest ones f or high perf ormance deliverables, key submit t als, decisions, and
meet ings. This schedule w ill be int egrat ed w it h t he overall project schedule.
2. Sit e Opport unit ies. As appropriat e, perf orm t he analyses and ident if y sit e-relat ed
opport unit ies described in t he Sit e Design chapt er as f ollow s:
• Analysis of bio-climat e, including solar access diagrams, prevailing w ind analysis, and
ident if icat ion of appropriat e passive solar and nat ural vent ilat ion st rat egies and t heir means
of development .
• Analysis of exist ing and pot ent ial t opographical and landscaping f eat ures t hat w ill help
reduce energy load.
• Analysis of exist ing sit e charact erist ics such as view s, adjacent open spaces and
environment ally sensit ive areas, veget at ion, seasonal f looding, exposure t o seasonal st orms,
high w inds, and w ildlif e habit at , as w ell as ident if icat ion of appropriat e responses t o
ident if ied condit ions.
Design Process
• Analysis of opport unit ies f or mit igat ing t he urban heat island ef f ect
45
and urban light
pollut ion.
• Analyses of urban/hist orical/cult ural cont ext , communit y resources, land use pat t er ns, and
archit ect ural st yles. Ident if icat ion of project at t ribut es t hat should be prot ect ed, conserved,
or rest ored.
• Analysis of subgrade charact erist ics and suit abilit y f or plant lif e. Analysis of suit abilit y f or
geot hermal applicat ions.
• Analysis of mass t ransit /bicycle access t o sit e and opport unit ies t o encourage same.
3. Operat ing Energy Analysis. Prepare a preliminary energy plan t hat includes t he f ollow ing:
• Analysis of energy use in similar building t ypes. Gat her inf ormat ion on t he energy use of
comparable high perf ormance buildings and apply t his in developing t he project ’s
perf ormance goals. St andard indust ry pract ices should also be ident if ied f or use as a
baseline f or measuring t he ef f ect s of proposed improvement s. For renovat ions, analysis
of t he previous t hree years of mont hly energy consumpt ion (including gas, oil, elect ric
usage, and elect ric demand) w ould serve t o est ablish a baseline against w hich
improvement s may be compared.
• Perf ormance goals f or operat ing energy cost s based on t he above analysis.
• Perf ormance goals f or renew able energy use, as w ell as possible f orms of renew able
energy t o be used.
• Proposed met hodology f or simulat ing and analyzing energy perf ormance of t he building
design, including ident if icat ion of appropriat e energy modeling sof t w are.
• Goals f or light ing and pow er densit y f or t he project as a w hole and f or all major spaces.
Light ing and pow er densit y should each be report ed in t w o w ays: f irst as t he amount
available f or use and second as source of pot ent ial heat gain.
4. Environment al Program M at rix. Prepare a mat rix describing pref erred condit ions
f or each major t ype of space in t he project space program. (See sample document included as
Appendix F). These condit ions should include:
• Indoor air t emperat ure, relat ive humidit y, and mean radiant t emperat ure.
• Air changes in cubic f eet per minut e.
• Orient at ion relat ive t o ext erior view s and ot her condit ions.
• Access t o direct /indirect sunlight as w ell as f oot -candle requirement s.
• Acoust ic crit eria in dBA f or HVAC as w ell as f or noise f rom adjacent spaces
and ext erior sources.
• Emissions crit eria f or mat erials select ion.
• Ot her perf ormance goals w hich should apply t o t he project .
5. M at erials Resource Assessment . Prepare a mat erials resource plan t hat includes
t he f ollow ing:
• M at erials ident if ied f or reuse in project , f or removal, and f or recycling t hrough municipal
recycling programs.
• Resource ef f iciency/sust ainabilit y perf ormance goals f or new mat erials in t he project .
6. Scope of Wat er M anagement Opport unit ies. Ident if y and describe in a brief narrat ive
t he overall scope of w at er management issues t o be included in t he project design.
The descript ion should encompass t he f ollow ing:
• Wat er conservat ion st rat egies and equipment .
• St rat egies f or t he use of grayw at er.
• Wat er qualit y t est ing at t he t ap and at point of service.
• Collect ion of rainw at er f or irrigat ion, cleaning, and ot her non-pot able uses.
PAGE 38
Design
Process
45. The addit ional heat ing of t he air over a cit y is t he result of t he replacement of veget at ed surf aces w it h t hose composed of asphalt , concret e, roof t ops
and ot her man-made mat erials. These mat erials st ore much of t he sun’s energy, producing a dome of elevat ed air t emperat ures up t o 10
o
F great er over
a cit y compared t o air t emperat ures over adjacent rural areas. This ef f ect is called t he ‘ urban heat island.’ Light -colored roof t ops and light er colored
pavement can help dissipat e heat by ref lect ing sunlight . Tree plant ing can f urt her help modif y t he cit y’s t emperat ure t hrough shading and
evapot ranspirat ion.
7. Scope of Const ruct ion Opport unit ies. Ident if y and describe in a brief narrat ive t he
overall scope of const ruct ion issues t o be included in t he project ’s f inal design draw ings
and specif icat ions. This descript ion should address t he f ollow ing:
• Sit e Prot ect ion Plan: prot ect ion of project and adjacent propert ies.
• Const ruct ion Healt h and Saf et y Plan: prot ect ion of w orkers and building occupant s’
healt h relat ive t o indoor air qualit y and pest cont rol.
• Wast e M anagement Plan: procedures f or salvaging select ed mat erials, recycling
const ruct ion and demolit ion mat erials, and legally disposing of hazardous mat erials.
8. Scope of Commissioning Opport unit ies. Ident if y and describe in a brief narrat ive t he
scope of commissioning services t o be perf ormed by a separat e Commissioning Agent , as
w ell as t he commissioning-relat ed services t o be perf ormed by t he Consult ant . This scope
descript ion should summarize t he f ollow ing:
• Commissioning Agent (CA) scope of w ork. The CA scope includes but is not limit ed t o
developing a commissioning t est plan; developing a det ailed commissioning schedule;
t raining building operat ors; and implement ing pre-f unct ional, f unct ional and post -
accept ance t est ing. It also includes developing an evaluat ion report , a f inal
commissioning report , and a comprehensive Ow ner’s M anual.
• Consult ant t asks relat ed t o commissioning. These t asks include but are not limit ed t o
developing t he commissioning plan out line as necessary t o inf orm t he project
specif icat ions; part icipat ing in t raining; and cont ribut ing t o t he Ow ner’s M anual. The
specif icat ions should delineat e t he syst ems scheduled f or commissioning, t he nat ure of
t he t est s t o be perf ormed, required at t endance, and required document at ion.
9. Scope of Operat ions and M aint enance Opport unit ies. Ident if y and describe in a
brief narrat ive t he scope of operat ions and maint enance issues t o be included in t he
project . This scope descript ion should ident if y:
• General client concer ns and st af f ing limit at ions.
• Opport unit ies t o support post -occupancy w ast e prevent ion and recycling act ivit ies
t hrough provision of adequat e space and access requirement s in t he design layout .
• Opport unit ies t o develop improved cleaning and maint enance prot ocols.
• Opport unit ies t o int roduce new low t oxicit y housekeeping mat erials.
Cost Est imat e Deliverables
The consult ant must ensure t hat cost consult ant s (or energy consult ant s) perf orm lif e cycle
cost ing of discret e energy ef f iciency st rat egies (EESs). These w ill include alt ernat ive glazing,
insulat ion, mechanical equipment , moist ure barriers, et c. During design development ,
det ailed, accurat e inf ormat ion on building mat erials and syst ems, int ended occupancy and
use, sit ing, square f oot age, and a lot of ot her f act ors w ill serve as t he ‘ raw mat erial’ f or
energy use modeling and analysis. The result s of t his process w ill help t he design t eam
make inf ormed decisions regarding mat erials specif icat ion, space programming, and
select ion of EESs.
Specif icat ion Deliverables
The specif icat ions prepared by t he consult ant are t he key t o a successf ul high perf ormance
project and must be prepared w it h part icular care. They w ill describe any non-st andard
mat erials, const ruct ion procedures, inst allat ion met hods, and ot her act ivit ies t o ensure
t hat t he cont ract ors w ill meet t he overall environment al object ives of t he project . Division 1
should describe any addit ional coordinat ion or management act ivit ies required f or t he
project . It should cont ain inf ormat ion on any unique mat erial submissions and/or t est ing
procedures required, and should provide crit eria f or t heir review. Division 1 should also
cont ain inf ormat ion and resources t o help cont ract ors f ind non-st andard mat erials. The
f lexibilit y of CSI M ast er Format and Sect ion Format syst ems accommodat e easy int egrat ion
of added Division 1 sect ions or any subsequent division art icles t hat may be required.
Design
Process
PAGE 39
Owner ’ s Manual – Out l i ne of Requi r ement s
The Ow ner’s M anual ensures t hat t he project w ill be maint ained in accordance w it h design
int ent . For t he lif e of t he st ruct ure, t he Ow ner’s M anual serves as t he primary t ool f or
t ransmit t ing t he int ended archit ect ural, mechanical, elect rical, and plumbing design as
conceived by t he designers and realized by t he cont ract ors. Toget her w it h represent at ives of
t he client agency, t hese primary t eam members must be in agreement if t he result ing
building is t o be comf ort able and ef f icient ly run – not just at t he out set , but f or t he durat ion.
In compiling t he manual, each member of t he project t eam should be ident if ied by t he
consult ant in t he project specif icat ions. Cont ribut ors may include t he commissioning agent ,
consult ant , const ruct ion manager, and t he t rade cont ract ors. The consult ant and t he Cit y
should ensure collect ion and compilat ion of required mat erial int o an organized document
t hat is t hen made available t o t he building operat ors.
The M anual w ill be organized int o sect ions according t o building syst ems. The consult ant s
should provide a descript ion of t he design int ent , along w it h perf ormance crit eria f or each
building syst em. The f ollow ing inf ormat ion shall be included in t he M anual:
1. Project St at ist ics. The f ollow ing shall be provided:
• A complet e list of t he building’s vit al st at ist ics, including names, addresses, and t elephone
numbers of all f irms t hat have had a role in design and const ruct ion of t he project .
• A copy of t he building’s Cert if icat e of Occupancy.
• A copy of t he f inal High Perf ormance Plan.
2. M echanical/ Elect rical Syst ems Inst ruct ion M anuals. As described by t he Consult ant in
Sect ion 16000 of t he Project Specif icat ions, manuals are t o be provided by t he t rade
cont ract ors f or t he f ollow ing syst ems:
• Heat ing Vent ilat ing and Air Condit ioning (HVAC) syst em.
• Hydronic dist ribut ion syst em.
• Air handling/dist ribut ion syst em.
• Glazing maint enance/cleaning.
• Kit chen HVAC syst em.
• Fire prot ect ion syst em.
• Elect rical syst ems, f ire alarm, securit y and UPS syst ems.
3. Commissioning. The f ollow ing shall be provided by t he commissioning agent if one is
present on t he project :
• A copy of Commissioning Report and a videot ape of t raining program.
4. Operat ions and M aint enance. The f ollow ing it ems shall be provided by t he
appropriat e part y:
• Specif icat ions and maint enance prot ocols of light ing f ixt ures and lamps.
• Schedule of required building syst ems inspect ions, indicat ing t he agency and/or vendor
responsible f or inspect ion.
• Cleaning product specif icat ions and lit erat ure.
5. Record draw ings. As-built record draw ings shall be included as part of t he M anual. These
draw ings are f ur nished in accordance w it h t he Guide f or Design Consult ant s at t he t ime of
Subst ant ial Complet ion by each t rade cont ract or.
PAGE 40
Design
Process
6. General Requirement s. Each building syst em shall be described in t erms of major
component s, int erconnect ions, operat ion and cont rols, unusual f eat ures, and saf et y
precaut ions. The f ollow ing dat a shall be included f or each syst em:
• A det ailed descript ion of each syst em, show ing piping, valves, and cont rols, illust rat ed by
diagrams as appropriat e.
• Wiring and cont rol diagrams.
• Cont rol sequences describing st art -up, all modes of operat ion, and shut dow n procedures.
• Correct ed shop draw ings.
• Approved product dat a, including perf ormance curves and rat ing dat a.
• Copies of cert if icat ions and t est report s.
• Copies of w arrant ies and guarant ees.
The manuf act urer of each component of a building syst em shall be
ident if ied as f ollow s:
• M anuf act urer, model number and serial number.
• M anuf act urer’s lit erat ure, draw ings, illust rat ions, cert if ied perf ormance chart s,
and t echnical dat a.
• Names, addresses and t elephone numbers of local repair and service companies.
• Cust omer service access (phone, e-mail, et c.).
Each component of a building syst em shall have maint enance inst ruct ions
provided as f ollow s:
• Lubricat ion schedule.
• M aint enance and overhaul inst ruct ions.
• Recommended spare part s list , including sources of supply.
• Name, address, and 24-hour t elephone number of each subcont ract or t hat inst alled
t he syst em or equipment .
7. Checklist . The consult ant shall provide a Checklist f or t rade cont ract ors’ use in
compiling t he document at ion required f or each syst em included in t he M anual.
The Checklist w ill include it ems such as operat ing and maint enance manuals, and
any w arrant ies or guarant ees t hat t he Cont ract or is required t o submit .
Design
Process
PAGE 41
PAGE 42
Desi gn
Pr ocess
Si t e Desi gn
and Pl anni ng
Bui l di ng
Ener gy Use
I ndoor
Envi r onment
Mat er i al s
and Pr oduct s
Wat er
Mangement
Const r uct i on
Admi ni st r at i on
Commi ssi oni ng
Oper at i ons
and Mai nt eneance
Pr e- Pr el i mi nar y:
Develop High
Perf ormance
Plan*
Implement at ion
St rat egy
(1)*
Sit e
Opport unit ies
(2)*
Operat ing
Energy
Analysis
(3)*
Environment al
Program
M at rix
(4)*
M at erials
Resource
Assessment
(5)*
Scope
of Wat er
M anagement
(6)*
Const ruct ion
Scope of
Const ruct ion
Opport unit ies
(7)*
Scope of
Commissioning
Opport unit ies
(8)*
Operat ional
Wast e Analysis
(9)*
Schemat i c
Desi gn
Phase
(Comput er)
model t he
envelope, siting,
and HVAC plant
opt ions*
Desi gn
Devel opment
Phase
Specif icat ion
cit ing nat ive
species, opt imal
plant ing schedules
Furt her
modeling
of HVAC/
light ing
opt ions*
Updat e
environment al
programming
mat rix
Environment al
crit eria included
in out line
specif icat ion
Review t est
dat a f or
equipment and
component s
Recommended
w ast e prevent ion
and recycling
measures
Const r uct i on
Document s
Phase
Tree pit size
and mass
t ransit /bicycle
amenit ies
conf irmed
Ref ine
calculat ions
based on
design
development
Conf irm
conf ormance of
design t o mat rix
recommendat ions
Environment al
crit eria included in
f inal specif icat ions
Sit e prot ect ion,
healt h, saf et y
and w ast e
plans*
Commissioning
plan and
specif icat ions*
Design review
of mat erials
and det ails f or
maint enance
Const r uct i on
Phase
Review mat erial
cert if icat ions
and M SDS
sheet s
Lab result s
at w at er
service*
Review
submission
of sit e, healt h
& saf et y and
w ast e plans
Scheduling,
t est ing, and
evaluat ion
report *
Occupancy
Phase:
Ow ner' s
M anual*
Sust ainable
landscaping,
pest
management
plans*
M aint enance
and syst em
descript ions*
M aint enance
and syst em
descript ions*
M at erial
cert if icat ions
and M SDS
sheet s*
Lab result s*
Training t ape,
commissioning
f inal report *
M aint enance
and cleaning
prot ocols*
* It ems in bold indicat e deliverables t o be submit t ed by t he consult ant apart f rom t ypical project deliverables as described in t he Guide f or Design Consult ant s.
Summar y Tabl e of Hi gh Per f or mance Key Submi t t al s and Del i ver abl es
Design
Process
PAGE 43
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Par t Thr ee:
Techni cal
Si t e Desi gn
and Pl anni ng
Preservat ion of sit e resources and conservat ion of
energy and mat erials – bot h during const ruct ion and
in ongoing building operat ions – are import ant and
of t en overlooked benef it s of good sit e design.
Sust ainable sit e planning ident if ies ecological,
inf rast ruct ural, and cult ural charact erist ics of t he sit e
t o assist designers in t heir ef f ort s t o int egrat e t he
building and t he sit e. The int ent is t o encourage
opt imum use of nat ural/exist ing f eat ures in
archit ect ural and sit e design, such t hat building
energy use is diminished and environment al
degradat ion is minimized.
Si t e Desi gn
and Pl anni ng
Underst anding t he Sit e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Building-Sit e Relat ionship . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Sust ainable Landscape Pract ice . . . . . . . . . 49
Encouraging Alt ernat ive
Transport at ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Sit e Design
and Planning
Under st andi ng t he Si t e
Invent ory and analyze sit e resources, relat ionships, and const raint s t o bet t er enable t he designers t o
maximize energy ef f iciency w hile conserving and rest oring ecological and cult ural resources.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Invent ory and analyze t he regional and local ecological cont ext . This w ill allow t he design
t eam t o bet t er underst and and respond t o sit e condit ions, opport unit ies and const raint s.
Invent ory and analysis includes, but is not limit ed t o:
• Relevant climat e-specif ic charact erist ics.
• Exist ing air qualit y and ground
level w ind pat t er ns.
• Soil and ground w at er t est ing
t o det ermine pollut ion levels,
w at er t able, bearing capacit y,
and w hat t ypes of f ert ilizer or
soil amendment s may be
necessary f or plant ing. Det ermine
t he need f or ret aining/st ockpiling
exist ing t opsoil.
• Invent ory of exist ing veget at ion
and ecologically sensit ive areas,
and ident if icat ion of any
t hreat ened species or
signif icant habit at s.
• M apping of nat ural hazard zones,
such as exposure t o high w inds
and st orms, f loods, unst able soils,
st eep slopes, f ault lines, f ormer
(buried) w at er f eat ures, et c.
O Topographical f eat ures. Survey
t opography, exist ing plant s, and w at er
f eat ures t o bet t er underst and grading
and drainage issues.
O Invent ory and analyze
urban/ hist orical cont ext and
communit y resources in order t o
ef f ect ively respond t o cult ural issues.
¯ Invent ory inf rast ruct ure
and ut ilit ies.
¯ Analyze t ransport at ion syst em and exist ing/pot ent ial linkages t o t he sit e.
¯ Ident if y const ruct ion const raint s.
¯ Review land use pat t er ns in t he immediat e area.
¯ Review t he sit e’s cult ural resources f or possible rest orat ion or incorporat ion.
¯ Examine t he archit ect ural st yle(s) present in t he neighborhood and consider t he use of
hist orical st yles or t radit ional mat erials as a means of int egrat ing t he new or renovat ed
building w it h t he surrounding area.
¯ Analyze cult ural f eat ures and act ivit ies in t he neighborhood and ident if y possible
connect ions t o t he project .
O Ident if y and priorit ize t he sit e’s nat ural and cult ural at t ribut es t hat are t o be prot ect ed,
conserved, or rest ored.
A
PAGE 46
Benef it s
$C
F
$C
M
Proper
assessment
of sit e
resources
can
eliminat e
unnecessary
inf ra-
st ruct ure
and f acilit ies
expendit ure.
E
S
Prot ect ion
of local
ecology.
Invent ory of Exist ing Veget at ion and Ecologically Sensit ive
Areas
An invent ory of a sit e’s plant species – and an underst anding of t he
ecological niche int o w hich t hey f it – w ill reveal w hich areas are eit her
sensit ive or t hreat ened, and w hich serve as w ildlif e habit at . The
image above illust rat es some of t he relat ionships bet w een veget at ion
and a sit e w hich eit her est ablish or enhance w ildlif e habit at : 0 surf ace
w at er; O a variet y of t ree canopy height s; O f ruit -bearing “ nat ive”
plant species; and O nat ural leaf mulch.
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Sit e Design
and Planning
A
PAGE 47
Bui l di ng- Si t e Rel at i onshi p
Taken t oget her, t he sit e design and building design should support t he ecological and cult ural
f unct ions of t he ent ire development . Well-designed open space creat es a sust ainable microclimat e
t hat in t ur n reduces building energy use and support s a high-qualit y int erior environment . The
project as a w hole should be designed t o minimize negat ive environment al impact s on surrounding
areas and t o maximize opport unit ies t o rest ore nat ural syst ems.
St einhardt Conservat ory
At t he St einhardt Conservat ory locat ed in Brooklyn Bot anical Gardens, new buildings are
sit uat ed and f ormed t o f it w ell in t he exist ing sloped landscape, creat ing and reinf orcing t he
relat ionship bet w een an out door caf e and w indow s t hat look in on int erior plant ings.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O General Sit e Layout
¯ Organize building mass, orient at ion and out door spaces t o provide ef f icient access t o
services; incorporat e recreat ional areas t hat have mult iple f unct ions in addit ion t o visual
value. For example, roof t ops can be used as gardens and f or w at er collect ion; a w at er
f eat ure in a playground can provide bot h cooling and recreat ion f or children.
¯ Use eart hf orms, plant ings, drainage and w at er det ent ion syst ems, and soils t o support t he
f unct ions of t he building and sit e (e.g., screening, w indbreaks, et c.).
¯ Employ passive solar principles in archit ect ural design, orient at ion, and sit ing; use heat -
ret aining court yard pavement s (w it h proper shading), block w int er w ind and admit summer
breezes.
¯ M ap sun and shade pat t er ns associat ed w it h new const ruct ion. Design landscaping t hat
opt imizes select ion and posit ioning of plant s f or sun and shade.
¯ Incorporat e adequat e space f or operat ional recycling and maint enance, including space f or
collect ion, st orage, and access f or collect ion vehicles.
Benef it s
$O
F
,
C
F
Int egrat ed
sit e/building
design
promot es
operat ing
savings and
can reduce
const ruct ion
cost s.
$P
F
Improved
occupant
sat isf act ion
t hrough
landscaping
and view s.
E
S
Improved
building and
sit e
microclimat e
reduces urban
heat island
ef f ect .
E
S
Green
buildings
are good
neighbors,
reducing
negat ive
climat e
and ot her
environment al
impact s,
and set t ing
t he local
st andard f or
perf ormance.
Remediat e damage t o
exist ing eco-syst em (soil
and plant s) and build an
eco-syst em t hat enhances
t he local ecology and
creat es a f avorable
microclimat e
SOUTH
Use plant ed t erraces t o
connect w it h out doors and
t o shield high summer sun
Locat e air
int akes
Roof plant ing t o
det ain rainw at er,
improve air qualit y
prot ect membrane
and insulat e
Roof mist cooling
and w at ering
syst ems
Set building back
f rom noisy and
pollut ed st reet
cold dow ndraf t s
w int er w inds
summer w inds
M inimize road surf aces,
provide porous paving
Plant deciduous t rees t o t he
sout h. Use w ell adapt ed
indigenous species t hat are
self -sust aining
Dist ribut e t rees so as
t o open building t o
mild summer breezes
Pond t o ret ain
st orm w at er
Plant
erodible
slopes
M ould eart h cont ours t o
connect building w it h
sit e and berm t o insulat e
Shield recycling,
compost ing and
garbage cont ainers
by landscaping
M aint ain view corridors
t o out side
M inimize building f oot print
Solar-pow ered high
cut -of f out door light
f ixt ures t o minimize
light pollut ion
Plant t rees t o prot ect f rom
cold w inds and improve air
qualit y and block noise
Encourage use of public
t ransport at ion and cycling by
providing bike racks and
shelt ered links t o building
Ref lect ed
heat
Building-Sit e Relat ionship
Illust rat ion: Johannes Knesl
NORTH
O Improved Environment al Qualit y
¯ Coordinat e landscape design w it h building envelope design. Orient building, w indow s, and
out door spaces t o w ork t oget her, t aking advant age of light , air f low s, and int erest ing view s.
For example, use plant mat erials t o screen parking and service areas, or orient a conf erence
room w indow t ow ard a pleasant view. Design landscaping t o be seen f rom and complement
int erior spaces. Capit alize on view s int o and out of t he sit e and adjacent areas.
¯ Use deciduous shade t rees and ext erior st ruct ures such as louvers, arbors, and t rellises t o
reduce cooling loads w it hin t he building.
O M it igat ion of Negat ive Impact s
¯ Reduce t he urban heat island
ef f ect t hrough t ree plant ing
and pavement select ion
st rat egies. In parking areas,
use plant ing st rips bet w een
sect ions of pavement t o
screen cars, reduce vast
expanses of asphalt , and
separat e pedest rians f rom
t raf f ic and service areas.
Consider plant ing t rees and
ot her veget at ion along t he
perimet er or, if possible,
w it hin t he parking area it self .
Specif y light colored paving
w it h an albedo ref lect ance of
at least 0.5; consider t he use
of porous pavement .
¯ Design t o reduce pot ent ially
det riment al condit ions, such
as erodible slopes, slippery
soils, high w at er t able, and
undue exposure t o st orms.
¯ Avoid adverse impact s on adjacent propert ies, such as ref lect ed glare and light at night ,
shading of adjacent greenspace, noise, air pollut ion, w ast e heat , or creat ion of gust y w inds
at grade.
¯ Select light f ixt ures t hat reduce or eliminat e t he ef f ect s of light pollut ion on neighboring
sit es and t he sky.
O Sit e Light ing
¯ Use light colored or ref lect ive edges along drivew ays or w alks t o reduce dependence on
high-w at t age elect rical light ing at night . Use high-ef f iciency light s in ext erior cont ext s such
as uplight ing f ount ains or sculpt ures, parking light s, and pedest rian light s.
¯ Use solar pow er f or ext erior light s, t elephones, and f ount ain pumps w henever sit e
condit ions allow.
Prospect Park Sw an Lake and Ravine St ream
In t his innovat ive project , a lake and st ream syst em w as designed t o conduct w at er t hrough
t he sit e, and t o provide w at er st orage and a sediment set t ling basin as a nat ural means of
st orm w at er cont rol.
Beach Channel Drive Child Care Cent er
This child care cent er (current ly under const ruct ion in Queens, New York), f eat ures a roof -t op
playground w it h bot h sunny areas f or play and shaded quiet areas. The roof bulkhead
element s are designed w it h colorf ul met al roof ing. The f acilit y also has plant ings on t he roof
and t rees around t he perimet er.
PAGE 48
Sit e Design
and Planning
M it igat ion of Urban Heat Island Ef f ect
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Sust ai nabl e Landscape Pr act i ce
The landscape f eat ures must be select ed and conf igured t o suit sit e condit ions and rest ore habit at
using self -sust aining landscape design and sit e maint enance procedures. Pract ices should promot e
t he conservat ion and rest orat ion of exist ing biological and w at er resources, including species
diversit y, soil f ert ilit y, and aerat ion.
Hist oric Richmond Tow n
At Hist oric Richmond Tow n, St at en Island, t he cult ural inst it ut ion’s mast er plan f or rest orat ion
and development calls f or t he preservat ion and enrichment of exist ing w et lands and
w at er’s edge plant communit ies, and f or t he remediat ion and rest orat ion of w et lands t hat
have been dist urbed.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Plant ing Pract ices
¯ Reduce reliance on plant species t hat
require f requent irrigat ion and
maint enance. If irrigat ion is necessary,
consider drip irrigat ion and ot her w at er-
ef f icient irrigat ion syst ems. Emphasize
plant diversit y, plant s t hat are nat ive t o
t he region and microclimat e, and t hose
w hich nat urally grow t oget her and are
self -sust aining (i.e. reseed and spread
w it hout much maint enance).
¯ Where plant ing adjacent t o building
openings such as air int akes, ent ries, or
operable w indow s, avoid allergy-
causing plant ings and t hose requiring
chemical t reat ment .
¯ Avoid invasive species (t hose w hich
t hreat en local nat ive ecosyst ems).
46
¯ Reduce dependence on f ert ilizer by
using plant s t hat cont ribut e nit rogen t o
t he soil (clover, honey locust s, black
locust s, and ot her legumes).
¯ Provide good grow ing condit ions, including adequat e root space f or plant s, and especially
f or st reet t rees. Tree pit s should be 3-5 t imes t he size of root ball dimensions. Wherever
possible, locat e t rees so t hat t he root ing zones of more t han one t ree can be combined.
O Wat er Use/ Pollut ion Prevent ion
¯ Prevent non-point source pollut ion by plant ing w at ershed buf f ers, allow ing inf ilt rat ion via
porous surf aces, and minimizing parking. Porous surf aces include mat erials such as gravel,
sand, ‘ grasscret e,’ and ‘ geoblock.’
¯ Remediat e w at er qualit y by f ilt ering st ormw at er t hrough plant ings and soil, prevent ing
erosion, and buf f ering bodies of w at er f rom pollut ion sources. In some areas of t he Cit y,
t his w ill also reduce loads on combined st orm and sew er lines.
¯ Harvest rainw at er and st ormw at er f or irrigat ion and ot her uses on sit e, and t o
recharge t he aquif er.
¯ Reduce w at er pollut ion f rom pest icides, herbicides, and f ert ilizers by using plant
combinat ions and maint enance met hods t hat do not require chemicals.
47
Sit e Design
and Planning
Benef it s
$O
F
Reduced
landscape
and
hardscape
maint enance
cost s.
$O
M
Wat er
harvest ing/
reuse pract ices
reduce burden
on Cit y w at er
management
syst ems.
A
PAGE 49
46. While not an all-inclusive list ing, t he major plant s of concer n are as f ollow s: Norw ay M aple, Sycamore M aple, Japanese Honeysuckle, Russian Olive, Rugosa
Rose, M ult if lora Rose, Orient al Bit t ersw eet , Amur Cork Tree, Ailant hus, Japanese Barberry, Porcelainberry, Privet , and Purple Loosest rif e.
47. Plant s t hat have f ew pest s, or ‘ companion’ plant ing. Use salt f or melt ing ice.
Invasive Species
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
O Soil Qualit y
¯ Analyze plant ing soil and implement on-sit e soil remediat ion measures such as int roducing
eart hw orms if t hey are sparse, adding organic mat t er and microorganisms t o break dow n
pollut ant s, and removing t oxic mat erials.
¯ Use mulch t o conserve soil moist ure, rest ore soil f ert ilit y, and reduce t he need f or
f ert ilizers. Leave grass clippings, small plant debris, and f allen leaves t o decompose
on t he ground. Use compost f or soil amendment in lieu of peat moss
(a non-renew able resource).
¯ Provide space and bins f or compost ing of landscape mat erials.
O Resource Use
¯ Use recycled, renew able, and locally available mat erials w hen const ruct ing landscape
f eat ures (e.g., recycled t imber, plast ic, rubber t ires).
¯ When available, obt ain compost f rom New York Cit y f acilit ies.
48
Encour agi ng Al t er nat i ve Tr anspor t at i on
The sit e should of f er support f acilit ies f or bicycling, mass t ransit , elect ric vehicles, carpooling,
and ot her less-pollut ing means of t ransport at ion.
Queens At rium Corporat e Cent er
The Queens At rium Corporat e Cent er (f ormerly t he Int er nat ional Design Cent er of New York,
Cent er # 2), Long Island Cit y, provides a shut t le bus t o and f rom mass t ransit and a covered
shelt er. The sit e also has a bicycle rack. This building is now t he home of t he Depart ment of
Design and Const ruct ion.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Provide adequat e bicycle amenit ies. Include f eat ures such as secure int erior and/or
ext erior st orage, lockers, and show er f acilit ies.
O Bus st op seat ing areas. Provide covered, w ind-shelt ered bus st op seat ing areas or w ait ing
areas w it hin enclosed building lobby, as applicable.
O Provide alt ernat ive f ueling f acilit ies. Consider et hanol, a nat ural gas pumping st at ion,
and an elect ric car bat t ery charging sit e.
O Carpool incent ives. Provide a pref erred carpool parking area.
Benef it s
E
S
Reduced
vehicular
pollut ion.
A
PAGE 50
48. Call t he Sanit at ion Act ion Cent er at 212-219-8090 f or inf ormat ion on compost availabilit y.
Sit e Design
and Planning
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Building Energy Use. Ext erior light ing design and t he various
t ypes of light sources (i.e. mercury vapor vs. sodium vapor) w ill
have an impact on t he healt h and grow t h of plant lif e. Tree
plant ing schemes w ill have a grow ing impact on daylight ing,
shading, and ot her passive solar opport unit ies.
Wat er M anagement . Plumbing design should incorporat e sit e
design element s t hat support st ormw at er and grayw at er
management .
Operat ing and M aint enance Considerat ions. Sit e design
must incorporat e adequat e space f or operat ional recycling and
maint enance.
Sit e Design
and Planning
PAGE 51
PERFORMANCE GOALS: NEW CONSTRUCTI ON AND RENOVATI ON
Sit e Design
and Planning
O Ident if y and mit igat e all exist ing sit e problems including
cont aminat ion of soil, w at er, and air, as w ell as any negat ive
impact s caused by noise, eyesores, or lack of veget at ion.
O Every out door space shall have t w o or t hree f unct ional uses.
O Demonst rat e t hat t he new building w ill minimize negat ive
impact s on neighboring propert ies and st ruct ures; avoid or
mit igat e excessive noise, light pollut ion, shading on green
spaces, addit ional t raf f ic, obscuring signif icant view s, et c.
O Plant ings shall be comprised of : least 50% species nat ive t o t he
New York Cit y area; and 75% low -maint enance (i.e., requiring
minimal mow ing, w eeding, and t rimming). The plant ing scheme
shall incorporat e biodiversit y.
O For buildings exceeding a 10-minut e w alk f rom mass t ransit ,
provide secure bicycle parking spaces f or 5% of building
occupant s, and an appropriat e number of show ers. For a
building locat ed closer t o mass t ransit , provide secure bicycle
parking spaces and show ers f or a minimum of 2% occupancy.
O Design and const ruct a development (including building, ut ilit ies,
access, and parking) t hat exceeds by 25% t he open space
requirement f or t he sit e based on local zoning.
O Specif y high-albedo (light colored) mat erials f or 80% of
paved surf aces.
O Plant at least one t ree on t he sit e f or every 1,000 square f eet of
impermeable surf ace. Tree pit s dug in pavement should be a
minimum of f ive f eet by f ive f eet .
O When compat ible w it h local zoning, consult ant shall
demonst rat e t hat t he development :
(1) permit s t he highest possible square f oot age of green open
space in relat ion t o t he building’s f oot print ; and
(2) permit s t he highest possible square f oot age of t he building’s
surf aces t o be dedicat ed t o green space.
Del i ver abl es:
Pre-Preliminary. The Sit e Opport unit ies sect ion of t he High Perf ormance Plan shall include:
¯ Analysis of bio-climat e, including solar access diagrams, prevailing w ind analysis, and
ident if icat ion of appropriat e means f or deploying passive solar and nat ural vent ilat ion
st rat egies.
¯ Analysis of exist ing and pot ent ial t opographical and landscaping f eat ures t hat can
cont ribut e t o reduct ions in energy use.
¯ Analysis of exist ing sit e charact erist ics such as view s, adjacent open spaces and
environment ally sensit ive areas, veget at ion, seasonal f looding, exposure t o seasonal st orms
and high w inds, and w ildlif e habit at . Ident if icat ion of appropriat e responses t o ident if ied
condit ions.
¯ Analysis of opport unit ies t o mit igat e urban heat island ef f ect and urban light pollut ion.
¯ Analyses of urban/hist orical/cult ural cont ext , communit y resources, land use pat t er ns, and
archit ect ural st yles. Ident if icat ion of project at t ribut es t hat should be prot ect ed, conserved,
or rest ored.
¯ Analysis of subgrade charact erist ics and suit abilit y f or plant lif e. Analysis of suit abilit y f or
geot hermal applicat ions.
¯ Analysis of mass t ransit /bicycle sit e access and opport unit ies t o encourage same.
Design Development . Sit e Report shall include:
¯ Plant list .
¯ Specif icat ion language indicat ing t hat rest orat ion of t he nat ural syst ems subsequent t o
const ruct ion dist urbance has been maximized by scheduling plant ing in lat e spring or early
w int er, opt imum seasons f or most species. (On sensit ive sit es, if w ildlif e habit at s are
present , schedule const ruct ion so as t o not int errupt nest ing.)
Const ruct ion Document s. The Builder’s Pavement Plan and/or sit e plan shall indicat e:
¯ Locat ion and size of opt imized t ree pit s.
¯ Bicycle access, parking, and st orage.
¯ M ass t ransit -relat ed amenit ies (shelt ered/covered bus st ops, seat ing, w ait ing areas).
Operat ions. The Ow ner’s M anual shall include:
¯ Descript ions of sust ainable landscape maint enance pract ices.
¯ An int egrat ed pest management plan f or t he sit e.
Regul at or y I ssues
= Care must be t aken in sit e det ailing t o coordinat e w it h t he New York Cit y Landmarks
Preservat ion Commission/Hist oric Dist rict rest rict ions.
= Review t he healt h regulat ions relat ed t o w at er reuse rest rict ions.
= Coordinat e w it h t he Depart ment of Transport at ion (DOT) and Depart ment of Parks and
Recreat ion (DPR) f or st reet t rees: regulat ions relat ed t o species, locat ion(s), and t ree pit
design/plant ing.
PAGE 52
Sit e Design
and Planning
Ref er ences
Andropogan Associat es, Lt d., Sust ainable Sit e Design Philosophy, w w w.nps.gov/dsc/dsgncnst r/gpsd/ch5.ht ml
Harris, Charles and N. Dines (eds); Timesaver St andards f or Landscape Archit ect ure, New York,
M cGraw -Hill Book Co, 1988.
Hellmut h, Obat a and Kassabaum, Inc.; Sust ainable Design Guide, (Self –Published), Washingt on, DC, 1998.
Hendler, Bruce; Caring f or t he Land, American Planning Associat ion (PAS Report 328), Chicago, 1977.
Lut t enberg, Danielle, D. Lev and M . Feller; Nat ive Species Plant ing Guide f or NYC and Vicinit y, New York,
NYC Parks and Recreat ion Nat ural Resources Group, 1993. Available f rom NYC Parks Depart ment .
Lynch, Kevin; Sit e Planning, Cambridge, M IT Press, 1984.
M cHarg, Ian; Design w it h Nat ure (2nd Ed.), Nat ural Hist ory Press; New York, 1979.
New York Cit y Bicycle M ast er Plan, NYC DOT and Depart ment of Cit y Planning, M ay, 1997.
Olgyay, Vict or, Design Wit h Climat e
Public Technology Inc., US Green Building Council, US Depart ment of Energy. Sust ainable Building Technical
M anual: Green Building Design, Const ruct ion, and Operat ions. Available f rom w w w.usgbc.org.
Raymond J. Cole, Nils Larsson; GBC ’ 98 Building Assessment M anual – Volume Tw o: Of f ice Buildings, 1998.
US Dept . of t he Int erior, Nat ional Park Service, Guiding Principles of Sust ainable Design, GPO, Denver, 1993
US Navy; Navy Whole Building Design Guide, ht t p://w w w.psic.org/navy-w bdg/index.ht m
Sit e Design
and Planning
PAGE 53
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Bui l di ng
Ener gy Use
Today’s w orld view of energy ef f iciency is very
dif f erent f rom t he energy conservat ion ment alit y of
t he 1970s, w hich is recalled by t hose of us w ho w ere
around t hen as a t ime of long lines at t he gas pumps
and diminished comf ort in our homes and places of
w ork. The energy ef f iciency model of t oday involves
benef it s, not sacrif ices. In high perf ormance
buildings, energy ef f icient design begins w it h a
met hodical reduct ion of t he building’s heat ing and
cooling loads – t hose imposed by climat e and t hose
generat ed by people and equipment . Wit h all loads
minimized, mechanical syst ems are t hen select ed
based on highest out put f or low est f uel consumpt ion.
The new ef f iciency means opt imizing t he
perf ormance of each of t he building’s component s
and syst ems bot h individually and in int eract ion w it h
ot her energy-consuming syst ems – air condit ioning,
light ing, domest ic hot w at er, et c. This is know n as
t he pract ice of ‘ design int egrat ion.’ In t andem w it h
ot her energy ef f icient pract ices, building syst ems
int egrat ion can provide excellent ret ur ns on t he init ial
invest ment . Current pract ice also embraces t he use of
renew able energy t echnologies t hat reduce our
reliance on f ossil f uels and help alleviat e carbon
dioxide and ot her greenhouse gas emissions.
Comput er sof t w are w it h proven reliabilit y is now
available t hat w ill predict energy cost s f or a proposed
building design. This energy sof t w are, w hich is
essent ial in t he analysis of energy ef f iciency measures,
f acilit at es inf ormed decision making t hrough t he
course of t he design process. M ore specialized
sof t w are, w hich describes specif ic environment al
f eat ures such as daylight dist ribut ion and air f low
pat t er ns, is also usef ul f or t he successf ul int egrat ion
of design qualit y w it h energy reduct ion.
Bui l di ng
Ener gy Use
Sit e and M assing Considerat ions . . . . . . . 56
Int erior Layout / Spat ial Design . . . . . . . . . 56
Building Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Daylight ing/ Sun Cont rol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Light Pollut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
High Perf ormance Light ing . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Elect rical Syst ems and Equipment . . . . . . . 60
Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
M echanical Syst ems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Energy Load M anagement . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Si t e and Massi ng Consi der at i ons
Taking advant age of t he physical f eat ures of t he building sit e and microclimat e w ill reduce heat ing
and cooling loads, t hereby low ering overall energy consumpt ion.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Solar access. Orient t he building t o maximize solar opport unit ies.
O Prevailing w inds. Orient t he building t o minimize t hermal loss due t o inf ilt rat ion f rom
prevailing w inds w hile t aking advant age of nat ural vent ilat ion.
O Tree locat ion. Caref ully consider t he placement of exist ing and proposed deciduous
and evergreen t rees on sit e. When pract icable, locat e so t hat deciduous t rees block summer
sun t o t he sout h and w est of t he building and evergreens block w int er w ind on t he nort h
f ace of t he building.
O Topographic modif icat ions. Ut ilize or modif y exist ing t opography t o opt imize
t hermal mass and/or insulat ion. Consider eart h f orms, berming, and ot her manipulat ions
of t he sit e sect ion.
I nt er i or Layout / Spat i al Desi gn
An appropriat e layout of program spaces w ill help reduce energy consumpt ion and w ill promot e
t he use of passive solar heat ing and cooling.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Program zoning. Group similar program f unct ions in order t o concent rat e similar
heat ing/cooling demands and simplif y HVAC zoning loads. Det ermine opt imum locat ions w it hin
t he building so as t o t ake advant age of microclimat e condit ions and building orient at ion.
O Non-w indow ed spaces as buf f ers. When using passive solar design f or heat ing, non-
w indow ed spaces should be locat ed on t he nort h side against t he ext erior w all t o creat e a
t hermal buf f er f or t he main f unct ions on sout h side.
O Circulat ion zones as buf f ers. Design public areas and circulat ion zones t o serve as t hermal
collect ors and buf f ers. These spaces can accept a w ider range of t emperat ure sw ings, based on
limit ed durat ion of occupancy.
O Layout f or nat ural syst ems. Whenever possible, conf igure occupied spaces t o opt imize
nat ural vent ilat ion and daylight ing. In general, locat e open occupied spaces adjacent t o ext erior
w indow s and use borrow ed light f or int erior of f ices. Specif y low part it ions in of f ice areas
adjacent t o w indow w alls t o enhance penet rat ion of daylight t o int erior.
O Exist ing nat ural syst ems. In an exist ing building, reuse and enhance exist ing built -in passive
solar and energy ef f iciency st rat egies (EESs) such as nat ural convect ion, air circulat ion, building
mass as a t hermal f lyw heel, nat ural daylight ing t echniques, and ot her means.
O St airs. Provide invit ing, pleasant st aircases t o encourage t he use of st airs rat her t han elevat ors
in low -rise buildings.
Passive Solar Design St rat egies
The Knapp St reet Laborat ory and Visit or’s Cent er is a 31,000 sq. f t . low -occupancy building
t hat w as designed t o ut ilize w int er solar gain t o reduce demand on heat ing and light ing
syst ems. To achieve t his, support spaces, including mechanical, st orage, and lavat ories, w ere
locat ed on t he nort h side of t he building w it h minimal f enest rat ion. Occupant spaces w ere
concent rat ed on t he sout h side, accompanied by large amount s of f enest rat ion. Because of
t he seasonal variat ion in sun elevat ion, t his approach provides deep solar penet rat ion in w int er
and a minimal amount of solar penet rat ion in summer.
Benef it s
$O
F
Diminished
heat ing and
cooling loads
reduce operat ing
energy cost s.
$C
F
Toget her w it h
ot her passive solar
and int egrat ed
design st rat egies,
sit e select ion,
conf igurat ion, and
building
orient at ion can
signif icant ly
reduce t he size
and cost of
mechanical
syst ems.
A
Benef it s
$O
F
Diminished
heat ing and
cooling loads
reduce operat ing
energy cost s.
$C
F
A w ell-designed
layout can
cont ribut e t o
reduct ions in t he
size and cost of
mechanical
syst ems.
A
PAGE 56
Building
Energy Use
Bui l di ng Envel ope
Appropriat e assembly of w all, roof , f oundat ion, and w indow mat erials w ill provide good t hermal
and moist ure cont rol, w hile support ing reduct ions in building energy use. A good envelope
har nesses nat ural energy t hrough ef f ect ive use of passive solar and daylight ing t echniques.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Passive solar (w hole building) design st rat egies. Use passive solar, ‘ w hole building’ design
t echniques and simple, ef f ect ive t echnologies t o achieve low - or no-cost heat ing, cooling and
daylight ing. St rat egies and t echniques may include:
• Regulat ion of solar impact t hrough appropriat e f enest rat ion and shading devices. A
common and highly ef f ect ive approach is t o specif y glazing w it h low emissivit y (low -e)
coat ings and high R-values t o reduce solar heat gain/loss. Shading st rat egies, such as ver t ical
f ins on east and w est f enest rat ions, overhangs on t he sout h side, arcades, t rees, brise-soleils,
and deep w indow inset s, are also ef f ect ive component s of passive solar design.
• M oderat ion of int erior t emperat ure ext remes t hrough t he use of t hermal mass w here
appropriat e. A building’s t hermal mass resides in mat erials such as masonry and concret e
t hat have t he capacit y t o st ore and release heat as int erior and ext erior t emperat ures
f luct uat e. Building mass can
f unct ion as a kind of t hermal
f lyw heel, in t hat it moderat es
t he ext remes of t hermal loading
w it hin a building.
• Enhanced insulat ion in t he
building shell t o reduce
energy loads.
49
• ‘ Air-lock’ ent rances t o reduce
heat loss or gain.
• Light -colored, ref lect ive roof
surf aces t o reduce cooling loads
and diminish t he urban heat
island ef f ect . (See page 48)
O Nat ural vent ilat ion. Consider
int egrat ing nat ural vent ilat ion
st rat egies in t he design of HVAC and
ext erior w all openings t o reduce
reliance on mechanical vent ilat ion
during sw ing seasons.
Building
Energy Use
Benef it s
$O
F
Diminished
heat ing, cooling,
and light ing
loads reduce
operat ing
energy cost s.
$C
F
A w ell-designed
envelope can
subst ant ially
reduce t he size
and cost of
mechanical
syst ems.
A
PAGE 57
49. Typical payback analyses based on current f uel prices may not just if y expense. How ever, as f uel prices w ill be rising, t he cost of f ut ure ret rof it f or insulat ion
may cost many t imes t he minimal expense of init ial high R-value inst allat ion.
The New Children’s Cent er
The f ost er care int ake/t raining f acilit y
f or t he Administ rat ion f or Children’s
Servi ces i s bei ng ret rof i t t ed i nt o a
hist orically signif icant st r uct ure t hat
w as built in 1912. For comf ort as w ell
as energy savings, t he envelope is
b ei n g u p g r ad ed w i t h ad d i t i o n al
insulat ion (cellulose) and det ailed t o
p reven t t h er mal b r i d g i n g . It al so
u t i l i zes n ew h i g h er p erf o r man ce
w indow s.
Richard Dat t ner Archit ect , P.C.
New Sout h Jamaica Branch Library
Given t he sit ing const raint s of t his new branch library, t he roof is t he primary
envelope element available as an int erf ace w it h t he nat ural environment . The
sout h-f acing monit ors int roduce sunlight f or direct heat gain during t he w int er
and light ing year-round. During t he cooling seasons, aut omat ed shades limit t he
light t o just t he levels needed f or library f unct ions. The peaks in t he roof collect
t he hot t er air, w hich during t he w int er is circulat ed t hrough t he building by t he
HVAC syst em. During t he cooling seasons, t his hot air is exhaust ed. Curved
dif f using baf f les and ref lect ive light shelves prevent direct sunlight f rom reaching
t he occupied areas of t he building. The light f ixt ures are cont rolled by phot o-
sensors, f illing in w hat ever port ion of t he required levels are unmet by daylight .
St ein Whit e Archit ect s, LLC
O Envelope det ailing. To prevent moist ure build-up w it hin t he w alls, det ail t he mat erial assembly
of t he envelope in accordance w it h best vapor barrier pract ices. Use monolit hic building
syst ems and assemblies as opposed t o smaller assembly part s. This w ill minimize t he need f or
caulking and w eat her-st ripping and w ill signif icant ly reduce inf ilt rat ion. Avoid t hermal bridging
t hrough t he ext erior w alls, roof , and f loor det ails and component s.
O Reduct ion of convect ive heat losses f rom unplanned air f low s. To reduce st ack ef f ect , seal
bet w een f loors, st airw ells, corridors, and elevat or shaf t s. Be sure t o seal dist ribut ion plenums
and duct w ork. Plan air pressure relat ionships bet w een rooms as necessary.
O Radiant cooling. Radiant cooling t echniques may be w ort h invest igat ing f or int er nally load-
dominat ed buildings. This t echnique ut ilizes t he building envelope as a heat sink f or t he int erior.
Dayl i ght i ng/ Sun Cont r ol
Whenever possible, cont rolled daylight ing should be incorporat ed int o t he building as t he
pref erred mode of int erior illuminat ion and t o reduce light ing load and operat ing cost s.
This saves t he most expensive f orm of energy w e use: elect ricit y, and t he charges associat ed
w it h peak demand.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Glazing. Specif y glazing w it h high visible t ransmit t ance and int egrat e placement in
building envelope t o cont rol glare. Consider t he use of glass w it h higher daylight
t ransmit t ance and low er shading coef f icient s on nort h w alls w here glare is much less of a
problem. Consider f rit t ed, t ranslucent , and spect rally select ive glazing t uned t o end use
and orient at ion.
O M onit ors and clerest ories. Consider t he use of roof monit ors and high clerest ory w indow s
in addit ion t o or in place of skylight s. If using skylight s, consider models t hat respond t o
dif f erences in seasonal sun alt it udes.
O Dimmers. Specif y and coordinat e placement of phot ocell-dimming sensors t hat adjust elect ric
light ing in response t o t he amount of available nat ural light .
O Light shelves. Consider t he use of int erior and/or ext erior light shelves on sout h-, east -
and w est -f acing f acades t o ref lect nat ural light deeper int o int erior spaces. Provide shading
devices, such as overhangs or vert ical f ins, t o let in qualit y nat ural light but exclude undesired
glare w hile cont rolling cont rast rat ios.
O Court yards and at riums. Incorporat e court yard, at rium, or ot her daylight -enhancing
t echniques t o bring light int o t he int erior.
O Fiber-opt ics. For special applicat ions, consider f iber-opt ic t echnologies or light pipes t hat
t ransmit nat ural light deep int o int erior spaces.
Li ght Pol l ut i on
Sensit ive sit e light ing w ill reduce light pollut ion
50
in t he sky, bet w een buildings, and in open spaces,
t hus avoiding negat ive impact s on plant s, animals, and people. Good light ing design also reduces
energy w ast e w hile improving night view s of t he sky.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Reduced night light ing needs. Reduce securit y light ing required f or open spaces by securing
of f -limit s areas and/or inst alling mot ion sensors. Limit light ing t o zones w here it is necessary f or
saf e passage t o ent ry and exit areas; cont rol by t imers. In ot her areas, provide securit y light ing
cont rolled by mot ion sensors.
O Proper cut -of f angles. Use out door light ing f ixt ures w it h cut -of f angles t hat prevent light f rom
going upw ard or t oo f ar beyond t he int ended area of illuminat ion.
O Light ing f ixt ure height . Reduce t he height of luminaires relat ive t o propert y boundaries. This
w ill prevent light f rom st raying ont o adjoining propert ies.
Benef it s
$O
F
Diminished
heat ing and
cooling loads
reduce operat ing
energy cost s.
$C
F
A w ell-designed
envelope
provides sun
cont rol and
reduces t he size
and cost of
mechanical
syst ems.
$D
S
Improves market
f or high
perf ormance
glazing and
ot her sust ainable
building
envelope
mat erials.
$A
S
Signif icant ly
low ers elect rical
use, reducing
pollut ion
emissions at
pow er plant s.
A
PAGE 58
50. Light pollut ion – excess bright ness in t he sky result ing f rom direct and indirect light ing above urban areas – has had a negat ive impact on t he urban
ecology, disrupt ing biological cycles in plant s and animals. It has also been hypot hesized t hat human healt h requires a cert ain amount of exposure t o
darkness. The amount of energy w ast ed in light ing t he sky or out door and indoor spaces t hat do not need it , has been est imat ed conservat ively at
approximat ely $2 billion per year in t he US. (Environment al Building New s, Vol. 7, No. 8, P.11).
Building
Energy Use
Benef it s
$O
F
Reduces
energy
demand f or
night light ing.
E
S
Reduces
negat ive
impact on
urban ecology.
A
Hi gh Per f or mance Li ght i ng
“ Because light ing syst ems are major energy users, t hey can yield high ret urns t hrough
improvement s in ef f iciency.”
Adrian Tuluca,
St even Wint er Associat es
A highly ef f icient light level dist ribut ion t hat improves visual qualit y w hile reducing elect rical use may
be achieved t hrough ef f icient light ing layout , lamps, luminaires, and ot her component s, t oget her
w it h localized light ing cont rols. Use f ixt ures t hat minimize t he use of hazardous lamp mat erials.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Light ing pow er densit y. M inimize light ing pow er densit y t o meet project requirement s by
designing a light ing syst em w it h charact erist ics such as:
¯ Ef f icient light source dist ribut ion. M ake t he most of illuminat ion source out put by designing
f or appropriat e room geomet ry, room surf aces (high surf ace ref lect ance), mount ing height s,
and use of parabolic specular ref lect ors and deep parabolic louvers.
¯ Low ambient light ing levels w it h t ask light ing, w here appropriat e. Consider light ing f ixt ures
t hat provide signif icant illuminat ion of ceilings and w alls. These include pendant f luorescent
light ing f ixt ures t hat direct light up and dow n.
¯ High ef f iciency lamps and luminaires w it h elect ronic ballast s. These have a low propensit y
t o at t ract dirt deposit s, incorporat e a minimum of hazardous subst ances, and are w ell
cooled f or opt imum perf ormance.
¯ Ef f iciency-based cont rols, such as dimmers, occupancy sensors, phot o cells, and t ime clocks.
¯ Lumen maint enance cont rols. Since lamp ef f iciency degrades over t ime, t he designer of t en
compensat es by ‘ overdesigning’ t he light ing syst em t o account f or reduced lumen out put
lat er on. Where appropriat e, inst all lumen maint enance cont rols t o ensure t hat no more
t han t he required f oot candle levels are delivered t o t he space. This w ill save energy in t he
early st ages of t he lamp’s lif e.
O Fixt ure unif ormit y. Achieve and maint ain unif orm lumen levels t hrough group relamping. This
also allow s f or designing t o a low er inst alled w at t age.
Building
Energy Use
Benef it s
$O
F
Diminished
cooling loads
help reduce
operat ing
energy cost s.
$C
F
Reduced heat
energy f rom
light ing low ers
t he size and
cost of t he
building’s
cooling syst em.
$C
F
Increased f irst -
cost f or high
ef f iciency
light ing
syst ems and
addit ional t ask
light ing is
of t en of f set by
operat ing
energy cost
savings.
$A
S
Signif icant ly
reduced
elect rical use
limit s
greenhouse
gases and
ot her emissions
at pow er
plant s.
A
PAGE 59
High Perf ormance Light ing
Illust rat ion: Johannes Knesl
Fiber-opt ic syst em
providing daylight
M irror-based
light ing syst em
w it h single
light source
Aut omat ic
dimmers,
occupancy
sensors
Ef f icient dist ribut ion of light sources; relat ively low level of
ambient light w it h a signif icant port ion ref lect ed f rom ceiling
and w alls and t ask light ing w here needed
Select ive use of high-ref lect ance surf aces
High ef f iciency f luorescent lamps w it h high ef f iciency
pow er f act or, elect ronic ballast s, parabolic specular
ref lect ors, parabolic louvres
High Perf ormance Light ing
A t ypical high perf ormance of f ice environment may of f er an ambient light level of 30 f oot
candles, supplement ed by t ask light ing. High ef f iciency f luorescent lamps w it h parabolic
ref lect ors and deep louvers could be used t o achieve t his level of illuminat ion, providing a
dist ribut ion of approximat ely 80% dow n and 20% up t o t he ceiling. High ef f iciency t ri-
phospher lamps w ould be select ed f or t heir capacit y t o provide as near a f ull daylight
spect rum as possible; dimmer sw it ches and occupancy sensors w ould t hen be used w it h
aut omat ic cont rols t o adjust light ing levels as needed.
Blue Cross/ Blue Shield Building
At t his new building in Rochest er, New York, a combinat ion of indirect f luorescent light ing
(w it h dimmable elect ronic ballast s), t ask light ing, and light shelves f or daylight ing w as used.
Here, an already w ell-designed light ing scheme w as improved t o reduce light ing usage by an
addit ional 13% , reduce t he perimet er light ing use by 35% , and result ed in a net savings of
$11,400 per year. The light shelves helped convey ambient daylight deep int o t he w orkspace.
El ect r i cal Syst ems and Equi pment
Ef f icient design st rat egies, pow er dist ribut ion syst ems, and elect rical equipment can increase
building’s energy ef f iciency and reduce energy consumpt ion and associat ed cost s.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Cost comparison. In large buildings, analyze and compare t he cost s of dist ribut ing pow er at
208/120 volt s and 480/277 volt s, if services are available.
O Equipment specif icat ion. Specif y energy ef f icient of f ice equipment , including comput ers,
print ers, and copy machines. Select equipment w it h t he Energy St ar label. For comput ers,
consider liquid cryst al display screens in lieu of convent ional monit ors.
O Dist ort ion minimizat ion. M inimize t he dist ort ion ef f ect s of non-linear loads (personal
comput ers, et c.) on t he pow er dist ribut ion syst em by using harmonic f ilt ers.
O Pow er f act or. Improve t he pow er f act or by specif ying appropriat e equipment as required.
O Transf ormers. Use K-Rat ed t ransf ormers t o serve non-linear equipment .
O Ef f icient mot ors. To reduce energy use, consider premium ef f iciency mot ors, cont rols, and
variable f requency drives f or mot ors great er t han one horsepow er.
O Direct current ut ilizat ion. Ut ilize direct current (DC) f rom t he phot ovolt aic syst em, f uel cell, or
ot her source in lieu of conversion t o alt er nat ing current (AC). DC may be appropriat e f or
cert ain applicat ions such as discret e light ing circuit s or comput er equipment .
O Avoid elect romagnet ic pollut ion/ exposure. Locat e high concent rat ions of elect ricit y (such as
panelboards, t ransf ormers, or mot ors) aw ay f rom building occupant s/personnel. If necessary,
inst all elect romagnet ic f ield (EM F) shielding.
O Videoconf erencing. Consider applicat ion of videoconf erencing bet w een agencies t o eliminat e
energy/emission cost s and product ivit y losses caused by t ransport at ion t o and f rom meet ings.
Benef it s
$O
F
Ef f icient
elect ro-
t echnologies
help low er
operat ing
energy cost s
(mot ors, f ans,
ot her
equipment ).
$C
F
Reduced heat
energy f rom
elect rical
equipment can
low er cooling
syst em cost s.
$A
S
Ef f icient
elect ro-
t echnologies
and equipment
low ers
elect rical use,
w hich in t ur n
reduces pow er
plant
emissions.
A
PAGE 60
Building
Energy Use
Ener gy Sour ces
Various energy sources are available t oday. Designers should f irst capit alize on conservat ion
t echniques, t hen w ork t o achieve an appropriat e, int egrat ed balance of solar heat ing, daylight ing,
energy ent rained w it hin t he eart h (geot hermal energy), air movement , and ot her renew able
resources. Only t hen should t hey resort t o f ossil f uel t echnologies, seeking ef f iciencies in t his realm
as w ell. This int egrat ed approach t o w hole building design reduces t he product ion of greenhouse
gases, smog, and acid rain; preserves nat ural resources; and slow s t he deplet ion of f ossil f uel
reserves. Energy sources are list ed in t he pref erred order of deployment , based on t heir capacit y t o
reduce environment al impact f rom emissions.
Techni cal St r at egi es
The syst ems described below should alw ays be select ed w it h an aw areness of t he t raining and
resource needs of on-sit e operat ing engineers in order t o ensure t hat t hese syst ems are properly
operat ed and maint ained. Consider t he f ollow ing t echnologies:
O Renew able Energy Resources.
¯ Phot ovolt aic (PV) panels in place of
ext erior w all and roof panels (building-
int egrat ed PV) t o generat e elect ric
pow er f or t he building.
51
¯ Daylight ing t echniques t hat supplement
or replace elect ric light ing.
¯ Solar energy t echnologies f or heat ing.
Passive solar heat ing can w ork in
port ions of buildings such as lobbies,
corridors, and at riums of large
inst it ut ional buildings.
¯ Solar hot w at er t echnologies can
supplement domest ic hot w at er heat er
reservoirs, especially in circumst ances
w here large amount s of hot w at er are
required (such as f or laundry f acilit ies).
O Super-Ef f icient and Hybrid Technologies.
¯ Geot hermal heat pump t echnologies should be considered w hen subsurf ace condit ions
allow. Of available geot hermal t echnologies, a vert ical st anding column w ell is generally
most applicable t o t he urban cont ext .
¯ Fuel cells t o provide elect ricit y f or of f -t he-grid sit es and t o support cont inuous base loads.
¯ Heat recovery f rom mechanical syst ems and elect ric generat ion, including process heat ,
st eam condensat e, f uel cell w ast e heat , and exhaust air.
O Convent ional Fuel Source Opt ions.
Building
Energy Use
Benef it s
$O
F
Reduces
operat ing
energy
expendit ures.
$D
S
Helps
promot e
expanded
market f or
renew able
t echnologies.
$A
S
Reduces
dependence
on f ossil f uel
generat ion,
w it h com-
mensurat e
reduct ion
in air
pollut ant s.
E
S
Avoids
environ-
ment al
damage
result ing
f rom f ossil
f uel
ext ract ion/
shipment .
A
PAGE 61
Phot ovolt aic Cells-Rikers Island
These phot ovolt aic cells are int egrat ed int o t he roof of t he
compost ing f acilit y on Rikers Island in New York Cit y. The
pow er generat ed is used t o of f set t he pow er requirement s
of t he f acilit y.
Phot o: Joyce Lee
Geot hermal Heat Exchange Technology
The st anding column w ell illust rat ed here is a
geot hermal heat exchange t echnology t hat is w ell-
suit ed f or use in developed urban areas since it
draw s heat f rom t he eart h in t he w int er mont hs
and deposit s excess heat int o t he eart h in t he
summer t hrough vert ical w ells t hat can be locat ed
direct ly under or adjacent t o a building.
0 Heat pump
O 6” diamet er “ st anding column”
O Ground level (surf ace)
O Soil (dept h varies)
O Wat er t able (dept h and ext ent vary)
O Bedrock (dept h varies).
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
51. Not e t hat w it h t he except ion of ‘ pilot demonst rat ions’ of emerging t echnologies, t he Cit y’s current agreement w it h t he New York Pow er Aut horit y (NYPA),
t he main supplier of elect ricit y t o NYC municipal buildings, prohibit s t he Cit y f rom generat ing pow er independent ly of NYPA. How ever, NYPA is open t o
ow ning, operat ing, and met ering pow er generat ion f acilit ies, such as PV f ields and f uel cells, on Cit y propert y.
¯ When available, elect ric ut ilit y company st eam (generally a by-product of elect ric pow er
generat ion), should be used f or heat ing, cooling, hot w at er heat ing, st eam driven pumps,
and ot her applicat ions as w arrant ed.
¯ Dual f uel boilers can primarily be operat ed on nat ural gas t o reduce air pollut ion, and can
be sw it ched t o oil only w hen required.
¯ During periods of high demand f or elect ric pow er, gas pow ered equipment w ill provide an
economical alt er nat ive t o elect ric equipment . In specif ying and locat ing t hese syst ems,
designer should be aw are of equipment noise levels.
¯ Light er grades of oil f or oil bur ning equipment bur n cleaner and produce less air pollut ion.
O Demand Reduct ion St rat egies.
¯ Thermal st orage syst ems w ork w ell in conjunct ion w it h convent ional chiller syst ems t o shif t
elect ric pow er consumpt ion f rom periods w here pow er is very expensive t o periods w here
cost is low er.
¯ Peak-shaving st rat egies rely on energy management syst ems, such as t hose t hat cont rol
vent ilat ion f ans by using CO
2
sensors. These sensors help ensure adequat e vent ilat ion and
good indoor air qualit y w hile reducing peak loads.
O Developing Technologies.
¯ Developing t echnologies include alt er nat e energy sources such as met hane f rom
biological processes, micro-generat ors f or on-sit e t ri-generat ion, hydrogen and so on.
These should be invest igat ed based on building locat ion and t he availabilit y of t he f uel
source and t echnology.
PAGE 62
Building
Energy Use
0
1000
1500
2000
2500
Light ing Equipment Heat ing
and
Cooling
Ot her
Loads
Convent ional Design
High Perf ormance
Exist ing Building
500
0
1000
1500
2000
2500
500
M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

B
t
u
s

p
e
r

y
e
a
r
G
i
g
a
j
o
u
l
e
s

p
e
r

y
e
a
r
The Ridgehaven Building, San Diego
Breakdow n of calculat ed energy loads f or t he Ridgehaven Building, show ing
1) exist ing building, 2) convent ional design, and 3) as built w it h high
perf ormance f eat ures, such as solar cont rol f ilms on glazing, energy ef f icient
light ing, and high ef f iciency w at er-source heat pumps.
Source: Cit y of San Diego
Mechani cal Syst ems
M echanical syst ems must w ork in concert w it h t he building layout , orient at ion, envelope, light ing
st rat egies, elect rical equipment , and sit e charact erist ics t o reduce reliance on energy derived f rom
f ossil f uels, and t o increase t he use of renew able energy.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Perf ormance improvement . In all design and const ruct ion ef f ort s, st rive t o improve energy
perf ormance w ell beyond t he basic requirement s of t he NYS Energy Code, applicable
regulat ions, and consensus st andards. Det ermine t he overall environment al impact of building
energy consumpt ion. Energy perf ormance analysis shall account f or energy losses incurred
during delivery f rom t he point of generat ion t o t he point of use, as w ell as f or t he emissions
generat ed by energy product ion (on and of f -sit e).
O Syst ems int egrat ion. Consider t he archit ect ural f eat ures (orient at ion, exposure, height ,
neighboring st ruct ures, present and f ut ure landscaping, various opt ions f or t he new building
envelope, f ut ure int erior light ing, and t he occupancy of t he building) w hen select ing HVAC
alt er nat ives and sizing t he syst ems.
O Zoning. Use separat e HVAC syst ems t o serve areas w it h dif f erent hours of occupancy, perimet er
versus int erior spaces, special occupancies such as comput er rooms requiring 24-hour
operat ion, spaces w it h dif f erent exposures, et c.
O Nat ural vent ilat ion. Det ermine if t he building might benef it f rom t he use of nat ural
vent ilat ion. For buildings in quiet zones and w it h clean out side air, consider nat ural (in lieu of
mechanical) vent ilat ion during t he sw ing seasons.
O Dist ribut ion syst ems. Analyze t he benef it s of variable air volume syst ems vs. const ant air
syst ems; seek reduct ions in syst em load during periods of reduced demand.
O Gas heat er/ chiller. Consider t he use of a combinat ion gas heat er/chiller t o reduce energy cost s
(and possibly) t o reduce t he equipment room size.
O Dist ribut ed mechanical rooms. Consider independent mechanical rooms on each f loor t o
reduce duct w ork and enhance t he balance of delivered air.
O Heat recovery syst ems. Evaluat e opport unit ies f or heat recovery syst ems (sensible and lat ent ).
O Part ial load condit ions. Select high ef f iciency equipment t hat operat es at high ef f iciencies
under bot h f ull and part ial load condit ions.
O M odular boilers. Consider inst allat ion of mult iple modular boilers t hat allow more ef f icient
part ial-load syst em operat ion.
O Do not use CFC/ HCFC ref rigerant s.
O Condensing boilers. Consider t he use of high ef f iciency condensing boilers.
O Chiller sizing. Evaluat e various sizes and models of chillers t o ident if y unit (s) t hat w ill most
ef f icient ly meet demand requirement s.
O Ice st orage. Consider t he applicat ion of an ice or w at er st orage syst em as a means of avoiding
peak loads f or cooling.
Building
Energy Use
Benef it s
$O
F
Diminished
heat ing and
cooling loads
reduce
operat ing
energy cost s.
$O
F
Right -sizing
of equipment
result s in
increased
operat ing
ef f iciencies.
$C
F
First -cost
savings can be
achieved by
specif ying
appropriat ely-
sized
mechanical
syst ems.
$A
S
Limit ing
elect rical and
f ossil f uel use
reduces air
emissions,
bot h f rom
pow er plant s
and at t he
building sit e.
A
PAGE 63
New Children’s Cent er,
NYC Administ rat ion f or
Children’s Services,
Annual Energy Cost
by End Use
At t his new f ost er care/t raining
f acilit y, energy ef f iciency
measures incorporat ed during
design are est imat ed t o achieve
roughly 30% reduct ion in energy
usage above NYS Code and
20% savings above a base case
of good current prof essional
pract ice.
Source: St even Wint er Associat es
$50,000
$100,000
$150,000
$200,000
$250,000
$300,000
0
NY St at e
Energy Code
HVAC
Light ing and Pow er
Envelope
Basecase
Wit h Energy
Ef f icient M easures
O Emission cont rols. Emission cont rols must comply w it h t he lat est f ederal regulat ions.
O Dessicant dehumidif icat ion. Consider dessicant dehumidif icat ion as an alt er nat ive t o t he
convent ional pract ice of overcooling out side air t o remove lat ent heat (moist ure) prior t o
removal of sensible heat .
New Bronx Criminal Court Complex
In t he design of t he new 750,000 s.f . Bronx Criminal Court Complex, comput er modeling of
building energy use led t o t he select ion of a 1,000 t on engine-driven gas chiller in combinat ion w it h
t w o 1,000 t on elect ric cent rif ugal chillers. The comput er model show ed t hat t his chiller conf igur-
at ion has t he great est 25-year lif e cycle cost savings ($1,117,000), w hen compared t o ot her chiller
equipment opt ions. Though it has a higher f irst cost , t he gas chiller signif icant ly reduces t he cost
of operat ion by avoiding t he peak elect rical demand charges ($30/kW) billed during t he summer.
Ener gy Load Management
The management , cont inuous calibrat ion, and maint enance of energy-relat ed syst ems is of t en
neglect ed, yet t hese are t he only w ays t o opt imize t he lif e and perf ormance of t he syst ems and
minimize t he damage caused by f ossil f uel use. Ef f ect ive energy load management is a t w o-st ep
process, consist ing of load measurement and syst em response. Cont inuous calibrat ion of sensors and
inst rument at ion w ill yield t op mechanical syst em perf ormance in t erms of energy use and comf ort .
Techni cal St r at egi es
Load Calibrat ion
O Energy management syst em (large buildings). An energy management syst em encompassing
all building cont rols should be considered f or all new buildings exceeding 40,000 sq. f t . For
exist ing buildings of t his size, an energy management syst em encompassing all building
cont rols shall be provided w hen undert aking a complet e renovat ion of t he mechanical syst ems.
O Energy management syst em (small buildings). An independent advanced cont rol syst em or
energy management syst em (as det ermined by economic analysis) should be considered f or
smaller buildings.
O M onit oring and cont rols. Energy monit oring and cont rol syst ems should provide:
¯ Energy consumpt ion monit oring using hourly graphs t o illust rat e t he ef f ect s of small
operat ional changes and mont hly graphs t hat depict hist orical t rends and operat ing
inf ormat ion over t ime.
¯ Cont rols (including load t racking and load ant icipat ion capabilit y) t hat opt imize syst em
response t o building pickup and dow nload.
¯ Load shedding and peak elect ric demand reduct ion t hrough scheduled equipment cycling
or t hrough use of non-elect ric pow ered equipment . (For example, use of gas chillers).
¯ Local cont rollers capable of independent ly managing equipment operat ion and gat hering
dat a f or report ing. Caref ully select t he component s of t he mechanical/elect rical syst ems
being cont rolled f or sof t w are compat ibilit y. Ensure t hat all sof t w are required t o operat e t he
syst em is provided; ensure t hat sof t w are upgrades are received and loaded in a t imely
manner. Provide t raining mat erials and manuf act urer maint enance cont ract s f or all inst alled
syst ems t o operat ing personnel.
O Select ion of cont rol met hod component s. The cont rol met hods used t o improve t he
ef f iciency of HVAC syst ems should include a building aut omat ion syst em, as appropriat e. These
syst ems are usually compat ible w it h Window s
®
-based w orkst at ions. Subsyst em int egrat ion
should be accomplished using a BACnet open prot ocol t o ensure compat ibilit y w it h dif f erent
component s and subsyst ems.
O Syst ems int egrat ion. Assess t he int eract ions bet w een t he HVAC equipment and ot her relat ed
syst ems, such as light ing, of f ice equipment , f ire prot ect ion, securit y, et c. Det ermine opt imum
operat ing modes f or each syst em.
O Comput erized cont rol syst em. Use a comput erized cont rol syst em t o est ablish, maint ain, and
document building climat e condit ions. Accept only cont rol syst ems w it h t he capabilit y t o adjust
set point s, w it hout t he need f or complet e reprogramming. Cont rol syst ems should be designed or
specif ied t o a level of complexit y t hat ’s appropriat e f or t he st af f w ho w ill be support ing it s use.
A
PAGE 64
Building
Energy Use
Benef it s
$O
F
Operat ing cost
reduct ions are
achieved t hrough
improved mat ch-
ing of heat ing and
cooling loads w it h
cent ral equipment .
$C
F
Higher f irst cost s
f or inst allat ion of
cont rols can be
of f set by oper-
at ing savings.
How ever,
advanced cont rol
syst ems eliminat e
oversizing of
mechanical
syst ems, t hus
low ering f irst cost s
f or cent ral syst ems.
Equipment lif e can
be ext ended by
reducing t he hours
of operat ion and
eliminat ing
unnecessary
cycling.
$P
F
Improved occup-
ant comf ort .
$A
S
Limit ing elect rical
and f ossil f uel use
reduces air emis-
sions bot h f rom
power plant s and at
t he building sit e.
$D
S
Load management
enhances t he
market f or high
perf ormance
cont rol syst ems.
O Cont rol back-up syst ems. Provide simple back-up cont rols so t hat equipment can f unct ion if
t he energy management syst em goes dow n. Depending on t he complexit y of t he building and
t he equipment t o be cont rolled, include t he f ollow ing cont rol st rat egies in t he energy
management syst em as a means of ensuring ef f icient operat ion:
Syst em Response
O Heat ing equipment . When review ing opt ions f or boilers, consider t he f ollow ing:
¯ For larger boilers, oxygen t rim cont rols t o improve combust ion ef f iciency.
¯ Draf t cont rol inducers w hich reduce of f -cycle losses.
¯ Demand cont rol f or larger boilers, based on variat ions in heat ing demand.
¯ Wat er reset cont rol keyed t o out side air t emperat ure.
¯ Bur ner f lame cont rol.
¯ For small renovat ion project s, provide a t ime clock f or night and w eekend set backs.
O Air condit ioners, chillers and vent ilat ion cont rols. The f ollow ing st rat egies w ill help
get t he most out of t hese key syst ems:
¯ Generat e energy consumpt ion prof iles t hat ident if y occurrences of peak loads and develop
responsive management st rat egies f or reducing ut ilit y bills.
¯ Set up t he HVAC building cont rol syst em t o operat e based on need. If mult iple sources are
available, minimize simult aneous heat ing and cooling, and supply t hermal condit ioning
f rom t he most appropriat e/ef f icient sources.
¯ Limit elect rical demand during peak hours by t urning of f non-essent ial equipment .
¯ Est ablish t emperat ure and humidit y set point s based on occupancy pat t erns, scheduling,
and out side climat e and seasonal condit ions.
¯ Consider CO
2
/VOC (carbon dioxide/volat ile organic compound) sensors t o reduce out side
air vent ilat ion in large spaces w it h variable occupancy. Verif y t hat specif ied set t ings are
consist ent w it h local and nat ional code requirement s.
¯ Provide sensors t hat are capable of adjust ing t he vent ilat ion rat e based on t he number of
people present in a room. Locat e sensors accordingly.
¯ Provide adapt ive, programmable t hermost at s capable of aut omat ically adjust ing set t ings
based on recorded demand pat t er ns. This prevent s ‘ overshoot ing’ or ‘ undershoot ing,’ and
can result in energy savings of 10-20% .
¯ Set supply air-t emperat ure reset cont rols f or variable air volume (VAV) syst ems based on
space occupancy.
¯ Cont rol st rat egies f or chilled w at er plant operat ion include:
• Chiller speed cont rol t hrough variable speed drive cont rollers, select ion of modular
chillers or chillers w it h mult iple compressors, and chilled w at er reset .
• Condenser w at er reset .
• Chiller sequencing.
• Sof t -st art ing of chiller mot or.
• Demand cont rol.
• Use of t w o-speed mot ors or mult iple unit s f or pumps/f ans.
• Use of variable speed cont rollers f or f ans and pump mot ors.
¯ For small buildings, use t ime clocks w it h night and w eekend set -backs f or
HVAC equipment .
Building
Energy Use
PAGE 65
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Sit e Design and Planning. Landscape design can eit her enhance
or undermine t he climat e-relat ed heat ing and cooling of t he
building.
Indoor Environment . Orient at ion, massing, and sit ing
signif icant ly impact access t o daylight and t he success of
daylight ing st rat egies.
Indoor Environment . Consider daylight t ransmit t ance as w ell as
t hermal charact erist ics w hen select ing spect rally-select ive (low -e)
glazing.
M at erial and Product Select ion. When specif ying mat erials
f or t heir t hermal and w at er-resist ant propert ies, also consider
t heir ef f ect s on indoor air qualit y, resource-ef f iciency, and
occupant healt h.
Operat ions and M aint enance. Encourage f ut ure building users
(or present users f or renovat ion project s) t o t ake part in decisions
relat ing t o building occupancy, hours of operat ion, operat ing
personnel, and maint enance considerat ions.
Per f or mance Goal s
New York St at e regulat ions st ipulat e t he perf ormance benchmark f or new and renovat ed
commercial buildings: t he New York St at e Energy Conservat ion Const ruct ion Code. Frequent ly
ref erred t o as t he NYS Energy Code, t hese energy perf ormance crit eria became law in 1979 and
w ere last amended in 1989. The NYS Energy Code est ablishes t he minimum building const ruct ion
and mechanical syst em ef f iciencies t hat can legally be used in New York St at e. These minimum
st andards f all short of much of w hat ’s current ly t aking place in commercial building pract ice. As a
result , t he NYS Energy Code is now under review, and should soon be updat ed t o ref lect current
t echnology and pract ice – part icularly in t he area of light ing.
Despit e t hese limit at ions, t he Code can st ill serve as a usef ul benchmark f or gauging progress.
Thus, t he f ollow ing w hole building perf ormance goals have been cast in relat ion t o t his benchmark,
but leave ample room f or improvement . To det ermine t he quant it y of source Bt us consumed, t he
conversion f act or of 1 kilow at t hour being equal t o 10,000 Bt us should be used (as st ipulat ed by
t he NYS Energy Code).
PAGE 66
Building
Energy Use
Building
Energy Use
PAGE 67
52. Daylight f act or: The percent of light available inside a building at a given point , as compared t o t he illuminat ion level available out doors at t hat t ime on a
horizont al surf ace under overcast sky condit ions.
PERFORMANCE GOALS
Building
Energy Use
LEVEL 1
O New Buildings. High perf ormance new buildings shall annually consume a
minimum of 30% less energy on a Bt u-per-gross-square-f oot basis in comparison t o
w hat w ould be consumed if t he building w ere designed f or minimum compliance
w it h t he NYS Energy Code. Operat ional cost comparisons should be prepared t o
ensure t hat t he high perf ormance building w ill save at least t he same percent age in
energy cost s as it achieves in combined act ual energy use reduct ions.
In addit ion, it shall be a goal of Level 1 high perf ormance buildings t hat , at
minimum, 10 percent of t he t ot al annual energy use, or one-t hird of t ot al annual
energy savings, should be provided by renew able energy sources. In perf orming
t his calculat ion, no credit shall be t aken f or design f eat ures t hat are required by
t he NYS Energy Code, such as t he use of an economizer cycle t o provide cooling
w it h out side air w hen f avorable out door condit ions exist .
For all applicable perimet er spaces, produce a design t hat yields a minimum
daylight f act or
52
of 1.5% on t he w ork plane at a dept h of 15 f eet f rom t he building
ext erior. Cont rol qualit y issues such as glare, veiling ref lect ions, and cont rast so t hat
daylight does not hinder act ivit ies scheduled f or t he space. Achieve Illuminat ing
Engineering Societ y of Nort h America (IESNA) f oot candle requirement s f or
scheduled use t hrough int egrat ion of daylight int o light ing design.
O Fully Renovat ed Buildings. Fully renovat ed Level 1 high perf ormance buildings,
w herein t he ent ire envelope (e.g., w indow s, w alls, roof , et c.), HVAC, and light ing
syst ems are f ully upgraded or replaced, should have t he same perf ormance goals
as new buildings.
O Part ially Renovat ed Syst ems. In buildings w here a major subsyst em (such as
light ing or w indow s) are replaced, t he goal is t o use syst ems t hat w ill consume
signif icant ly less energy t han t hose t hat merely comply w it h t he NYS Energy Code.
LEVEL 2
O New Buildings. New buildings shall annually consume a minimum of 40% less
energy on a Bt u-per-gross-square-f oot basis t han w hat w ould be consumed if t he
building w ere designed t o achieve compliance w it h t he NYS Energy Code.
Operat ional cost comparisons should be perf ormed, and t he high perf ormance
building should save at least t he same percent age in energy cost s as it does in
combined energy source reduct ions.
In addit ion, a minimum of 20 percent of t he overall annual energy use, or one-
half of t he annual energy savings should be provided by renew able energy
sources. In perf orming t his calculat ion, no credit shall be t aken f or design f eat ures
t hat are required by t he NYS Energy Code, such as t he use of an economizer cycle
t o provide cooling w it h out side air w hen f avorable out door condit ions exist .
Produce a design t hat yields availabilit y of daylight t o a dept h of 30 f t . (w it h a
minimum daylight f act or of 3.0% on t he w ork plane at a dept h of 15 f eet f rom
t he building ext erior) t hrough use of redirect ing devices such as light shelves.
Cont rol qualit y issues such as glare, veiling ref lect ions, and cont rast so t hat daylight
does not hinder act ivit ies scheduled f or t he space. Achieve IESNA f oot candle
requirement s f or scheduled use t hrough int egrat ion of daylight int o light ing design.
O Fully Renovat ed Buildings. Fully renovat ed buildings, w herein t he ent ire
envelope (e.g., w indow s, w alls, roof s, et c.), HVAC, and light ing syst ems are f ully
upgraded or replaced, should have t he same perf ormance goals as new buildings.
O Part ially Renovat ed Syst ems. In buildings w here a major subsyst em (such as
light ing or w indow s) is replaced, t he goal is t o use syst ems t hat result in
signif icant ly reduced energy use in comparison t o t hose t hat merely comply w it h
t he NYS Energy Code. Best engineering judgment should est ablish appropriat e
t arget s f or a part icular project . In t he case of Level 2 perf ormance, aggressive
t arget s shall be est ablished.
Tool s
Economi c Feasi bi l i t y Eval uat i on
Analysis f or archit ect ural, mechanical, and elect rical syst ems:
> Cost analysis begins by perf orming a ‘ simple payback analysis’ of specif ic design
st rat egies on an individual basis. Promising candidat es should t hen be evaluat ed in
int eract ive combinat ions. It is import ant t o not e t hat , w hile t he resources available t o
cover t he f irst cost of energy ef f iciency measures w ill vary by project , a ‘ simple payback’
of f irst cost s by project ing savings in operat ing cost s over a period of seven (7) years may
serve as a rule of t humb w hen evaluat ing w het her a given combinat ion of energy
ef f iciency measures are economically viable. For example, a building envelope
improvement w it h a 12-year payback may be f act ored t oget her w it h a light ing
improvement w it h a 4-year payback t o yield a combined payback of under 7 years. It is
also import ant t o not e t hat t he ant icipat ed lif e of t he measure should be considered
w hen evaluat ing economic viabilit y. For inst ance, a longer payback period may be
appropriat e in a new building f or an envelope component such as insulat ion, w hich may
last over 50 years, as opposed t o light ing cont rols w it h a lif e expect ancy of only 25
years. M aint enance cost s, if considered unusual f or a proposed measure, may also be
f act ored int o t he analysis at t his st age.
> In some inst ances, cost credit may be given f or reduct ions in HVAC equipment sizes,
based on comparisons t o indust ry st andards. Use an ‘ adjust ed simple payback analysis’
t hat considers t he reduced equipment and syst em size cost benef it s, as w ell as
increment al f irst cost s and reduced operat ing cost s result ing f rom given energy ef f iciency
measure(s).
Analysis f or mechanical and elect rical equipment :
> Lif e cycle cost analysis should be used t o ident if y mechanical and elect rical equipment
alt er nat ives. This analysis should be based on f irst cost of equipment and project ed energy
cost s over t he equipment ’s ant icipat ed lif e cycle.
> The lif e cycle cost calculat ions shall be perf ormed f or as many archit ect ural and
mechanical/elect rical alt er nat ives as required in t he Consult ant Cont ract (include t he
requirement f or lif e cycle analysis in t he Specif ic Requirement s) and as request ed during
Design Development by DDC/Sponsor t o t heir complet e sat isf act ion.
The current inf lat ion rat e and ant icipat ed f uel price changes shall be obt ained f rom t he
DCAS Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion (OEC).
Ener gy Model i ng Tool s
> Trace 600 – Developed by Trane Corp. t o support HVAC design crit eria, space heat ing and
cooling load calculat ions, f ree cooling and heat recovery, t hermal st orage, chilled w at er piping
arrangement s, et c.
> DOE-2.1E – Det ailed, hourly, w hole building energy analysis of mult iple zones and mult iple
light ing/HVAC syst ems f or complex new buildings. This program also f eat ures an ext ensive
library of glazings. It is current ly t he most accurat e program available f or perf orming energy
analyses on ent ire buildings.
> HAP v4.0 – Hourly Analysis Program developed by Carrier Corp, an energy simulat ion module
t hat perf orms an 8760-hour energy simulat ion of building heat f low and equipment
perf ormance.
> BLAST – Building Loads and Syst em Thermodynamics perf orms hourly simulat ions of buildings
and cent ral plant equipment , and zone analysis based on t he f undament al heat balance
met hod. Analysis of t hermal comf ort , passive solar st ruct ures, high- and low -int ensit y radiant
heat , moist ure, and variable heat t ransf ers coef f icient s is also w it hin t he program’s f unct ionalit y.
PAGE 68
Building
Energy Use
> TRNSYS – The Transient Syst em Simulat ion program is used f or HVAC analysis and sizing,
solar design, daylight ing, building t hermal perf ormance, PV, w ind, analysis of cont rol
schemes, et c.
> Designing Low -Energy Buildings w it h ENERGY-10 – A w hole building design t ool t hat is
ideal f or use during t he pre-design phases of moderat e (up t o roughly 50,000 sq. f t .)
project s. Includes a set of w hole building design guidelines and sof t w are f or perf orming
energy and cost calculat ions based on local climat e, building orient at ion, mat erials,
syst ems, and t he int eract ions among t hem. Program upgrades are expect ed t o address
larger st ruct ures.
> ADELINE and RADIANCE – These specialized design t ools are also available t o evaluat e
daylight , air f low s (CFD), t hree-dimensional heat f low s, and ot her design considerat ions.
> HEATING-7 and ALGOR – These programs quant if y and illust rat e airf low s (comput at ional
f luid dynamics, or CFD) and t hree-dimensional heat f low s, et c.
> ASEAM – A Simplif ied Energy Analysis M et hod t hat can also creat e DOE-2 input f iles.
This is easier t o use but less accurat e t han DOE-2.
> FRESA – Federal Renew able Energy Screening Assist ant assesses t he f easibilit y of
various renew able energy applicat ions, including act ive solar heat ing, act ive solar
cooling, daylight ing w it h w indow s, skylight s, phot ovolt aics, solar t hermal elect ric,
w ind elect ricit y, small hydropow er, biomass elect ricit y, cooling load avoidance,
inf ilt rat ion cont rol, and so on.
Del i ver abl es
Pre-Preliminary. When preparing t he Operat ing Energy Analysis sect ion of t he
High Perf ormance Plan (see page 37-39), be sure t o include t he f ollow ing element s:
¯ Analysis of energy use in similar building t ypes. The energy use of comparable high
perf ormance buildings should inf orm t he project ’s perf ormance goals. St andard indust ry
pract ice should also be est ablished by t he Consult ant f or use as a baseline against w hich
t he ef f ect of proposed improvement s may be measured. For renovat ions, an analysis of
t he previous t hree years of mont hly energy consumpt ion (including gas, oil, elect ric usage,
and elect ric demand) w ould serve as a viable baseline f or gauging improvement .
¯ Perf ormance goals f or operat ing energy cost s should also be est ablished, based on t he
above analysis.
¯ Est ablish perf ormance goals f or renew able energy use, and ident if y renew able opt ions
based on availabilit y and adapt abilit y t o t he project at hand.
¯ Det ermine t he proposed met hodology f or improving and analyzing t he building design’s
energy perf ormance, including appropriat e energy modeling sof t w are.
¯ Est ablish goals f or light ing and pow er densit y f or t he project as a w hole and f or all t ypical
major spaces. Light ing and pow er densit y should each be report ed in t w o w ays: f irst as t he
amount available f or use, and second as a pot ent ial source of heat gain.
Schemat ic Design Phase. Prepare an analysis t hat includes t he f ollow ing:
¯ An evaluat ion of alt er nat ive massing, orient at ion, layout , and envelope alt ernat ives f or t he
project based on t he met hodology proposed f or use in t he pre-preliminary phase. Using
pre-preliminary dat a on light ing and pow er and assuming a likely HVAC opt ion, perf orm
heat ing and cooling load calculat ions at a level of det ail appropriat e t o each design
alt er nat ive. Conf irm t hat each scheme can f it w it hin t he proposed energy budget . Propose
alt er nat e t ypes of HVAC syst ems and discuss how each w ill pot ent ially int eract w it h
f eat ures of t he archit ect ural design. At t his st age, calculat ions f or various HVAC alt er nat ives
w ill likely be approximat e in nat ure, and are int ended only t o assess w het her syst ems under
considerat ion w ill w arrant f urt her examinat ion during Design Development .
Building
Energy Use
PAGE 69
Design Development . Prepare an analysis t hat addresses t he f ollow ing:
¯ Based on t he accept ed archit ect ural scheme and t he t arget s f or light ing and pow er,
examine t he various cent ral plant design alt er nat ives and propose f easible, ef f ect ive means
of int egrat ing renew able energy sources int o t heir operat ion. Provide lif e cycle cost and
emissions analyses f or each alt er nat ive.
¯ Based on cent ral plant select ion, examine energy ef f icient st rat egies f or cont rolling
t emperat ure and vent ilat ion air, f or light ing and light ing cont rols, and f or envelope
improvement . A separat e lif e cycle cost analysis shall be prepared f or each of t he
alt er nat ives. Recommended component s shall be t hose w it h a reasonable payback relat ive
t o t he ant icipat ed lif e of t he it em proposed. A f inal lif e cycle cost analysis of recommended
design element s analyzed in combinat ion w it h one anot her shall be prepared t o conf irm
and f urt her elucidat e result s.
¯ Document assumpt ions and calculat ions leading t o size recommendat ions f or chillers and
ot her equipment . Document at ion should include an analysis of plug load and should specif y
elect rical equipment t ype relat ive t o nameplat e rat ing, pow er consumpt ion in act ive and
st andby modes, t ime in act ive mode, number of devices, et c. It should also include all ot her
assumpt ions t hat inf luence chiller sizing, such as occupancy schedule and envelope loads.
Const ruct ion Document s
¯ Based on ref inement of t he building envelope and addit ional dat a developed during t he
Design Development Phase, revise t he heat ing and cooling load calculat ions and updat e
your analyses of t he select ed ef f iciency measures.
¯ Regulat ory Const raint s
¯ For vent ilat ion, high perf ormance recommendat ions may require conf irmat ion of
compliance w it h NYC Building Code.
(See Appendix G, Required M inimum Out door Air Supply and Exhaust ).
Ref er ences
Building Int erf ace w it h t he Environment
Passive Solar Indust ries Council, Nat ional Renew able Energy Laborat ory, Law rence Berkeley
Nat ional Laborat ory, Berkeley Solar Group, Designing Low -Energy Buildings w it h ENERGY-10,
Passive Solar Indust ries Council, Washingt on, DC 1997 (w w w.PSIC.org).
Donald Wat son, Edit or, The Energy Design Handbook, The American Inst it ut e of Archit ect s Press,
Washingt on, DC, 1993.
Givoni, Baruch, Climat e Considerat ions in Building and Urban Design,
John Wiley & Sons, Incorporat ed, New York, 1997.
Energy Syst ems
E-SOURCE TECHNOLOGY ATLAS SERIES
Volume 2: Commercial Space Cooling and Air Handling
Volume 3: Space Heat ing
Volume 4: Drive Pow er
E-Source, Inc., 1033 Walnut St reet , Boulder, CO 80302-5114, TEL: 303-440-8500
St even Wint er Associat es, Inc., Tuluca, Adrian (lead aut hor), Energy Ef f icient Design and Const ruct ion f or
Commercial Buildings, 1997, M cGraw -Hill, New York, ISBN 0-07-071159-3.
Environment al Prot ect ion Agency (EPA) Energy St ar Program
(ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/energyst ar/) U.S. EPA At mospheric Pollut ion Prevent ion Division, 401 M St reet SW, (6202J)
Washingt on, DC 20460, t el: 888-STAR-YES, TDD: 888-588-9920, f ax:202-564-9569.
Lif e Cycle Cost ing
Kirk, St ephen J. and Dell’ Isola, Alphonse, Lif e-Cycle Cost ing f or Design Prof essionals, 2nd Edit ion,
M cGraw -Hill Companies, New York, 1995.
PAGE 70
Building
Energy Use
Daylight ing
Ander, G.D., Daylight ing Perf ormance and Design, Van Nost rand and Reinhold, New York 1995.
American Inst it ut e of Archit ect s, Archit ect ’s Handbook of Energy Pract ice: Daylight ing,
Washingt on, DC, 1992.
High Ef f iciency Light ing
Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y of Nort h America, Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y of Nort h America (IESNA)
Light ing Handbook, 8t h Edit ion, 1993, 120 Wall St reet , New York, NY 10005-4001, ISBN: 0-87995-102-8.
E-SOURCE TECHNOLOGY ATLAS SERIES
E-Source, Inc., E-Source Technology At las Series, Volume 1: Light ing,
E-Source, Inc., 1033 Walnut St reet , Boulder, CO 80302-5114, TEL: 303-440-8500.
Renew able Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies
Nat ional Renew able Energy Laborat ory, Phot ovolt aics in t he Built Environment : A Design Guide f or Archit ect s
and Engineers, DOE/GO publicat ion #10097-436, Sept ember 1997.
Nat ional Renew able Energy Laborat ory, Solar Elect ric Buildings: An Over view of Today’s Applicat ions, DOE/GO
publicat ion #10097-357, February 1997.
Greene, N., Gupt a, A., Bryan, J., Choosing Clean Pow er: Bringing t he Promise of Fuel Cells t o New York,
Nat ural Resources Def ense Council, M arch 1997 (w w w.nrdc.org).
Building
Energy Use
PAGE 71
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
I ndoor Envi r onment
High perf ormance buildings ref lect a concer n f or t he t ot al qualit y of t he
int erior environment . By def init ion, t hey provide support ive ambient
condit ions, including t hermal comf ort and accept able indoor air qualit y,
visual comf ort , and appropriat e acoust ical qualit y.
Air t emperat ure, mean radiant t emperat ure, air speed, and humidit y are
all f act ors t hat af f ect t hermal comf ort . Dissat isf act ion w it h t hermal
condit ions is t he most common source of complaint s in of f ice buildings.
Small changes (on t he order of 1-2
O
F) in air t emperat ure may
signif icant ly af f ect t hermal comf ort . The American Societ y of Heat ing,
Ref rigerat ing, and Air Condit ioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in it s St andard
f or Accept able Comf ort , 55-1992, and it s addendum, ASHRAE 55a-1995
Thermal Environment al Condit ions f or Human Occupancy, describes
comf ort able t emperat ure and humidit y ranges f or most people engaged
in largely sedent ary act ivit ies. For t he purposes of t his chapt er, t hermal
comf ort is included in t he sect ion on Indoor Air Qualit y.
Accept able indoor air qualit y w as def ined in t he draf t revision t o
ASHRAE 62-1989 as “ air in an occupied space t ow ard w hich a
subst ant ial majorit y of occupant s express no dissat isf act ion and in
w hich t here are not likely t o be know n cont aminant s at concent rat ions
leading t o exposures t hat pose a signif icant healt h risk.”
Visual comf ort is a f unct ion of many variables, including light ing qualit y
(e.g., illuminance or int ensit y of light t hat impinges on a surf ace, t he
amount of glare, and t he spect rum of t he light ), visual cont act w it h t he
ext erior, and availabilit y of nat ural light ing.
Acoust ical qualit y is obt ained t hrough appropriat e noise at t enuat ion
t hrough t he building envelope, cont rol of equipment noise, and ef f ort s
t o block f lanking sound pat hs t hrough f ixed w alls and f loors, and t o
isolat e plumbing noise.
Increased at t ent ion t o t hese environment al f eat ures can boost qualit y of
lif e in t he w orkplace by improving overall physiological and
psychological w ell-being. By making t he project t eam account able f or
improving building int eriors, t he Cit y can achieve bet t er human resource
out comes: avoidance of sick building syndrome, reduced occupant
complaint s, low er rat es of absent eeism, improved occupant healt h, and
pot ent ially improved occupant perf ormance.
I ndoor
Envi r onment
Good Indoor Air Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Good Visual Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Acoust ic Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Noise Cont rol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
I NDOOR AI R QUALI TY
Good indoor air qualit y encompasses such f act ors as maint enance of accept able t emperat ure and
relat ive humidit y, cont rol of airbor ne cont aminant s, and dist ribut ion of adequat e vent ilat ion air. It
requires deliberat e care on t he part of t he ent ire project t eam. Achieving t hermal comf ort begins
w it h good design and cont inues w it h proper building management , and seeks t o avoid uneven
t emperat ures, radiant heat gains or losses (e.g., f rom w indow areas), draf t iness, st uf f iness, excessive
dryness, or high relat ive humidit y (t hat can promot e grow t h of mold and mildew ). Through caref ul
select ion of mat erials, designers w ill avoid int roducing pot ent ial pollut ant sources. M echanical
engineers and allied t radespeople must select and inst all reliable vent ilat ion syst ems t hat dilut e t he
by-product s of occupant act ivit ies and, t o t he great est ext ent possible, supply f resh air on demand
in t he right quant it ies, in t he right locat ions. During const ruct ion, air passagew ays need t o be
prot ect ed and mechanical syst ems must be balanced and commissioned t o achieve opt imal
operat ion. Facilit y managers and maint enance st af f also play a role in keeping areas clean w hile
minimizing t he use of irrit at ing cleaning and maint enance supplies.
Even if all object ives are met , at t aining an indoor air qualit y t hat ’s accept able t o all may be dif f icult
t o achieve, ow ing t o t he diversit y of sources and cont aminant s in indoor air, as w ell as occupant
percept ions and individual suscept ibilit y.
Good I ndoor Ai r Qual i t y ( I AQ)
A healt hy and comf ort able level of indoor air qualit y is t he goal f or all occupied spaces, as good
IAQ support s and enhances t he act ivit ies and w ell-being of t he occupant s.
Benef it s
$P
F
Improved
indoor air
qualit y increases
occupant
comf ort ,
alert ness, and
sense of w ell-
being. It also
reduces
absent eeism
and low ers
healt h care
cost s linked t o
upper
respirat ory
discomf ort and
illness. There
may be
addit ional links
t o w orker
perf ormance
result ing in
improved
product ivit y.
A
PAGE 74
Indoor
Environment
At t ribut es of Good Indoor Air Qualit y
Illust rat ion: Johannes Knesl
Air Handler:
f ilt ering
dehumidif ying,
mixing Cooling Tow er
Independent
Fan
Coil Unit s
(t o reduce
duct runs)
Ret ur n air qualit y
sensors, t ypical
Sensors f or:
air t emperat ure,
CO
2
, humidit y
Consider use of
nat ural vent ilat ion
Zone
humidif ier
Cont rol f or
humidit y,
met hane,
radon
Hot /Chilled w at er
t o f an coil unit s
Chiller
Air Handler,
addit ional
f ilt ering and
dehumidif ying
Filt er
and f an
Boiler
Cont rol f or
humidit y,
met hane,
radon
Flush building
periodically w it h
out side air
Fresh air inlet
w it h damper
Air/Ret ur n
Supply AIr
Hot /Chilled Air
Exhaust Air
Air
Qualit y
M anager
Perimet er supply
grilles; keep
underf loor
cavit y clean
Posit ion and size
supply grilles t o
avoid draf t s
Fan coil unit
Carbon Dioxide Sensors
In t he design of t he New Bronx Criminal Court Complex, a 750,000 s.f . f acilit y, t he amount of
carbon dioxide (CO
2
) released by occupant s in t he court rooms and jury deliberat ion rooms w ill
be measured by CO
2
sensors. The CO
2
measurement s, w hich ref lect t he number of occupant s
in t he space, w ill adjust t he volume of t empered out side air int roduced t o t he space. Thus,
w hen many occupant s are present , more t empered (heat ed or cooled) out side air w ill be
int roduced t o t he space. Conversely, t empered air volume w ill be reduced w hen t he space has
only a f ew occupant s. The amount of t empered out side air is t hus supplied in direct proport ion
t o t he number of occupant s present , rat her t han at rat es unrelat ed t o occupancy. In t his project ,
CO
2
sensors w ere conf igured t o meet a 15 c.f .m.per occupant out side air requirement , w hich
ensures t hat indoor air qualit y is achieved w it hout sacrif icing ener gy ef f iciency.
Techni cal St r at egi es
Dealing w it h air qualit y as an add-on issue during design or const ruct ion is dif f icult , expensive, and
less ef f ect ive t han including good indoor air qualit y st rat egies at t he out set . These f all int o several
cat egories and are priorit ized as f ollow s:
O Source Cont rol (a primar y st rat egy).
¯ Eval uat e sources of cont ami nat i on f rom nei ghbor i ng bui l di ngs and soi l cont ami nat i on,
such as r adon, met hane, and excessi ve dampness. Incor por at e measures t o prevent
soi l gas f rom bei ng dr aw n i nt o t he bui l di ng. Wat er proof t he sl ab- on- gr ade t o l i mi t
moi st ure t r anspor t .
¯ Locat e and design air int akes t o opt imize air supply source(s) f or t he vent ilat ion syst em.
Isolat e building air int akes f rom building exhaust air, vehicular exhaust , cooling t ow er spray,
combust ion gases, sanit ary vent s, t rash st orage, and ot her hazardous air cont aminant s.
¯ Reduce pot ent ial pollut ion sources t hrough ef f ect ive moist ure cont rol.
(See page 58 in t he Building Energy Use chapt er).
¯ Specif y mat erials w it h low volat ile organic compounds (VOCs) and low odor emissions.
(See pages 93-94 in t he M at erials and Product s chapt er f or det ailed inf ormat ion.)
¯ To avoid occupant exposure t o airbor ne pollut ant s, perf orm cleaning and pest cont rol
act ivit ies w hen t he building is largely unoccupied.
O Vent ilat ion (a secondar y st r at egy).
¯ Devel op vent i l at i on st rat egi es t hat support operabl e w i ndow s, w here appropri at e t o t he
si t e and f unct i on.
¯ To avoi d st agnant ai r i n occupi ed spaces, desi gn f or at l east 0. 8–1. 0 c. f . m. / f t
2
ai r
movement .
¯ Isol at e pot ent i al pol l ut i on sources t hrough separat e zoni ng of areas w here cont ami nant s
are generat ed.
¯ Desi gn mechani cal syst ems t hat can provi de and mai nt ai n t he requi red vent i l at i on rat e.
Desi gn vent i l at i on syst em f or hi gh ai r change ef f ect i veness; avoi d short -ci rcui t i ng suppl y
ai r t o ret ur n regi st ers.
¯ Speci f y vent i l at i on syst ems t hat f eat ure an economi zer cycl e. Thi s w i l l al l ow 100% of
out door ai r i nt o t he suppl y ai rst ream and enabl es peri odi c bui l di ng f l ushi ng, as w el l as
cool i ng duri ng mi l d w eat her. Desi gn and cont rol HVAC economi zers so as t o prevent
moi st ure probl ems.
¯ Consi der suppl yi ng vent i l at i on ai r pri mari l y t o occupi ed zones usi ng di st ri but i on syst ems
such as underf l oor ai r duct i ng. The resul t i ng f l oor-t o-cei l i ng i ndoor ai rf l ow pat t er n (al so
know n as di spl acement vent i l at i on) can be used t o reduce pol l ut ant concent rat i ons i n
occupi ed spaces.
¯ For spaces desi gnat ed i n t he Envi ronment al Program M at ri x, l ocat e CO
2
or ot her IAQ
sensors t o accurat el y ref l ect condi t i ons and cont rol out si de ai r quant i t i es.
¯ Avoi d roof t op uni t s because of i naccessi bi l i t y f or mai nt enance. (Such pl acement may
precl ude use of roof t op space f or ot her purposes. ) Wherever possi bl e, i nst al l ai r handl i ng
uni t s i n accessi bl e l ocat i ons.
¯ Use rai nproof l ouvers and l i mi t i nt ake ai r vel oci t i es t o di scourage w at er i nt rusi on.
¯ To prevent w et t i ng dow nst ream surf aces, sel ect proper ai r vel oci t i es t hrough cool i ng coi l s
and humi di f i ers.
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 75
¯ Pro vi d e f i l t r at i o n cap ab l e o f 6 0 % (o r g reat er ) d u st sp o t ef f i ci en cy,
5 3
i n st al l ed t o
i n t ercep t al l mak e- u p an d ret u r n ai r. If t h e o u t d o o r ai r h as h i g h d u st l evel s, u se
h i g h er ef f i ci en cy ai r f i l t er s (8 0 - 8 5 % ASHRAE st an d ard ef f i ci en cy w i t h 3 0 % ef f i ci en cy
p re- f i l t er s).
¯ Consi der use of l ow pressure drop, hi gh ef f i ci ency ai r f i l t ers.
54
¯ Avoi d t he use of f i brous duct l i ners and l oose mi neral f i ber f or i nt er nal duct w ork
i nsul at i on. These product s have a hi gh pot ent i al f or di rt accumul at i on and dampness
l eadi ng t o mol d grow t h, and may be prone t o f i ber rel ease i nt o condi t i oned spaces.
Use non-porous duct l i ners, ext er nal t hermal i nsul at i on, or acoust i cal baf f l es i n l i eu of
l i ni ngs i n st rat egi c l ocat i ons.
¯ Prevent condensat i on of w at er vapor i nsi de t he bui l di ng envel ope by proper use of
moi st ure barri ers, appropri at e l ocat i ons and amount s of t hermal i nsul at i on, cont rol of
i ndoor-t o-out door pressure di f f erences, and cont rol of i ndoor humi di t y.
¯ Commi ssi on t he vent i l at i on syst em t o assure t hat desi gn condi t i ons are met , proper ai r
del i very occurs i n each zone, and opt i mum perf ormance i s achi eved under f ul l and part i al
l oad condi t i ons. (See Commi ssi oni ng Chapt er. )
¯ Isol at e pot ent i al pol l ut ant sources t hrough use of appropri at e f i l t rat i on syst ems and
separat e zoni ng of areas generat i ng cont ami nant s.
¯ Vent ki t chens, t oi l et rooms, smoki ng l ounges, cust odi al cl oset s, cl eani ng chemi cal
st orage and mi xi ng areas, and dedi cat ed copyi ng areas t o t he out doors, w i t h no
reci rcul at i on t hrough t he HVAC syst em.
¯ Avoi d use of ozone-generat i ng devi ces t o cl ean or puri f y i ndoor ai r.
55
O Cont rol Syst ems.
¯ Sensors f or relat ive humidit y, t emperat ure, and carbon dioxide should be inst alled as close
as possible t o w here occupant s are locat ed.
¯ Locat e sensors t o cover areas of similar load condit ions (similar occupancy and similar solar
exposures).
¯ When demand cont rol vent ilat ion (DCV) syst ems are used, ensure t hat carbon dioxide
sensors are operat ing in a reliable manner. This is achieved t hrough rout ine calibrat ion.
¯ Periodically audit all comput er-cont rolled HVAC syst ems (e.g., direct digit al cont rol syst ems
w it h graphic int erf aces) t o verif y perf ormance and calibrat ion.
¯ Consider personal w orkst at ion cont rol of HVAC syst ems. How ever, personal cont rols may
result in great er maint enance requirement s f or dispersed HVAC equipment and cont rols;
such equipment should t hus be designed t o be accessible f or prevent at ive maint enance.
¯ Specif y cont rols on variable air volume (VAV) syst ems t o ensure t hat t he amount of out door
air delivered t o t he occupant s is maint ained, even w hen t he t ot al air supply is decreased.
¯ In VAV syst ems, special cont rols may be needed t o ensure t hat minimum out side air int ake
int o t he air handling unit is achieved during all operat ing condit ions.
¯ In VAV syst ems, at minimum, inst all t emperat ure sensors in ret ur n air sect ions of air
handling unit s t o maint ain air t emperat ure at accept able levels.
O Const ruct ion M et hods/ Precaut ions.
¯ Prevent st orage of sof t product s on sit e during w et processes, unless separat ed and sealed;
e.g., ‘ shrink-w rapped.’
¯ Schedule inst allat ion of w et mat erials (sealant s, caulking, adhesives) and allow t hem t o dry
or cure bef ore inst alling dry mat erials t hat could serve as ‘ sinks,’
56
and absorbent s of VOCs.
¯ Ensure t hat const ruct ion mat erials such as concret e are dry bef ore t hey are covered
(e.g., w it h f loor t ile or carpet ing) or enclosed in w all cavit ies.
¯ Ensure t hat t he cont ract or uses met al duct w ork inst ead of subst it ut ing f iberglass.
¯ Cont rol f iber or part icle release during inst allat ion of insulat ion and require general area
cleanup prior t o building occupancy.
PAGE 76
53. The dust spot ef f iciency t est is a semiquant it at ive measure of a f ilt er’s collect ion ef f iciency f or f ine part icles – t hose associat ed w it h smudging of t he int erior
surf aces of buildings. Upst ream and dow nst ream paper t arget f ilt ers collect part icles and t he opacit y (light t ransmission) is t hen measured.
54. Ext ended surf ace pleat ed air f ilt ers t hat allow great er air f ilt rat ion w it hout a signif icant increase in f an horsepow er requirement s.
55. EPA has a guidance document on t his subject , Ozone Generat ors t hat are Sold as Air Cleaners: An Assessment of Ef f ect iveness and Healt h Consequences,
available at ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/iedw eb00/pubs/ozonegen.ht ml
56. Gases and vapors of t en adsorb, and part icles deposit , on surf aces such as carpet , dryw all, et c. These surf aces are know n as ‘ sinks,’ and cont aminant s can
be re-emit t ed f rom t hese reposit ories at a lat er t ime.
Indoor
Environment
¯ Flush t he building w it h 100% out side air f or a period of not less t han 30 days beginning as
soon as syst ems are operable and cont inuing t hroughout inst allat ion of f ur nit ure, f it t ings,
and equipment . A delay in building occupancy can signif icant ly reduce odor and irrit ancy
complaint s.
O Occupant Act ivit y Cont rol.
¯ M aint ain a ‘ no smoking’ policy.
¯ Designat e an Indoor Air Qualit y manager w ho receives ongoing IAQ t raining.
57
O Building M aint enance and Operat ion
¯ (See page 124 in t he Operat ions and M aint enance Chapt er).
O Emerging Technologies.
¯ The t echnology surrounding ion generat ors
58
may be of int erest t o t he building ow ner in
specif ic sit uat ions; how ever, t he evidence is not suf f icient ly conclusive t o support a
recommendat ion f or use of t hese devices at t his t ime. Any such device should not generat e
ozone above t he FDA limit of 50 ppb in any occupied space.
59
GOOD VI SUAL QUALI TY
The daily rhyt hm of nat ural light set s our biological clock. It s seasonal rhyt hm inf luences our mood,
and it s presence is necessary f or a number of healt h-sust aining biological processes. Since most of
us spend more t han ninet y percent of our t ime indoors, buildings should provide as much
daylight ing t o as many occupant s as possible. Daylight ing, cont rolled by building openings, glazing
t ypes, and t he conf igurat ion of ref lect ing surf aces, of f ers a rich spect rum t hat improves visual
acuit y. It s dynamic changes over t he day provide visual st imulat ion, and keep us connect ed w it h t he
out side w orld. Elect rical light ing syst ems should complement nat ural light .
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 77
57. For specif ics, see t he Operat ions and M aint enance chapt er, w hich ref erences an IAQ Act ion Plan and t he publicat ion Building Air Qualit y: A Guide f or
Building Ow ners and Facilit y M anagers developed by EPA t o help prevent IAQ problems in buildings. The publicat ion may be dow nloaded f rom
w w w.epa.gov/iedw eb00/base/baqt oc.ht ml.
58. Ionizers or ion generat ors charge t he part icles in a room so t hat t hey are at t ract ed t o w alls, f loors, t ablet ops, draperies, occupant s, et c. Abrasion can result
in t hese part icles being resuspended int o t he air. In some cases, t hese devices cont ain a collect or t o at t ract t he charged part icles back t o t he unit . While
ion generat ors may remove small part icles (e.g., t hose in t obacco smoke) f rom indoor air, t hey do not remove gases or odors, and may be relat ively
inef f ect ive at removing large part icles such as pollen and dust allergens.
59. American Lung Associat ion, U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Consumer Product Saf et y Commission, and t he American M edical Associat ion, 1994.
Element s of Good Visual Qualit y
Illust rat ion: Johannes Knesl
Indirect /direct light ing f or
even luminance using lamps
w it h high color rendit ion
index and neut ral color
t emperat ure
Int er nal w indow s
and doors admit
daylight and
provide view s
Sloping ceiling
ref lect s daylight
int o int erior
Inner light shelf
ref lect s daylight
int o int erior
Out er light
shelf provides
shade and
prevent s glare
Deep reveals
reduce glare
Accent
light ing
Consider
t int ed
glass
Ref lect ive surf aces
Transparent
part it ions
SOUTH·
Clear glass
Task Light ing
Li ght Sour ces
“ If one w ord could summarize t he approach used on Audubon House, it w ould be
opt imizat ion. If one w ord could summarize t he lost opport unit ies in how w e t ypically
build, it w ould be compliance.”
Randolph R. Croxt on,
FAIA, Audubon House
Achieve a qualit y of light t hat is benef icial t o building act ivit ies and occupant s by combining nat ural
light w it h complement ary elect rical light sources.
Audubon House
In t he Audubon House building in New York Cit y, daylight ing has been incorporat ed t hrough
skylight s and borrow ed light accessed t hrough openings in t he w alls of perimet er of f ices. In
addit ion, t he f loor layout enables daylight ing and view s t hrough w indow s at t he ends of
corridors and at st rat egic locat ions in t he circulat ion syst em. The sout h-f acing open w ork areas
are equipped w it h aut omat ic dimmer cont rols t hat regulat e elect rical light ing in response t o
available daylight . Room surf aces have been chosen f or ref lect ance of indirect light sources t o
maximize t he ef f iciency of t he daylight ing and elect rical light balance.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Daylight ing apert ures. M aximize daylight ing t hrough appropriat e locat ion and sizing of
w indow s, roof monit ors, and skylight s, and t hrough use of glazing syst ems and shading devices
appropriat e t o orient at ion and space use.
O Light shelves, surf ace ref lect ance. Ext end w indow light t hrow t hrough t he use of light
shelves, prismat ic glazing, or louvers, and t hrough appropriat e room surf ace ref lect ance and
colors. (See p. 58, Building Energy Use).
O Light dist ribut ion. Where appropriat e, encourage use of relat ively low general light ing levels
and of predominant ly ref lect ed light , mainly f rom t he ceiling. This w ill bring about a light
dist ribut ion closer in charact er t o daylight and make f or a sof t er visual environment w it h less
pot ent ial glare. These condit ions are conducive t o w orking on comput er screens and allow t he
individual charact erist ics of f ur nishings t o come t o t he f ore.
O Avoiding glare. Avoid arrangement s of light sources and ref lect ing surf aces t hat cause direct
or indirect glare (excessive bright ness cont rast s) and veiling ref lect ions of light sources in visual
t ask areas. M eans include use of indirect luminaires or cut -of f f ixt ures; t he designer w ill also
w ant t o avoid overlight ing of spaces. Use of deep w indow recesses, low part it ions, and
st rat egically locat ed high-ref lect ance surf aces w ill also help avoid excessive cont rast s and overly
dark zones.
O Light levels. Achieve a good balance bet w een unif orm light levels and localized variat ions t o
creat e a dynamic and comf ort able visual environment . Consider:
• Low -level ambient light ing augment ed by high qualit y, f lexible t ask light ing.
• Varied light ing schemes t hat respond t o general building organizat ion and special f eat ures.
• Allow ing t he light ing pat t er ns t o ref lect changing act ivit y scenarios during t he w orking day.
PAGE 78
Indoor
Environment
New Children’s Cent er NYC
Administ rat ion f or
Children’s Services
In t he layout f or t he New
Children’s Cent er, t he open
of f ice plan promot ed access t o
t he ext erior f or daylight f or t he
majorit y of occupant s.
M anagers have privat e but
int erior of f ices. Light shelves
w ere added on t he sout h side of
t he building t o reduce glare and
t o increase penet rat ion of
daylight int o t he int erior.
Richard Dat t ner Archit ect , P.C.
Benef it s
$P
F
Daylight and
high qualit y
illuminat ion, in
t andem w it h
increased
visual cont act
w it h t he
out doors,
cont ribut es t o
occupant
comf ort and
sense of w ell-
being. There
may be
addit ional
links t o
w orker
perf ormance
result ing in
improved
product ivit y.
A
O Luminaire arrangement s. Arrange luminaires in t ypes and pat t er ns t hat clearly respond t o t he
f undament al building organizat ion, f loor layout , and ent ry pat hs of daylight w hile allow ing f or
f lexibilit y of space usage. Wherever pract icable, w ire luminaires in parallel t o t he w alls w it h
w indow s, so t hey can be dimmed or t ur ned of f row by row.
O Dif f users. Select dif f users t hat reduce glare and suf f icient ly illuminat e ceilings and w alls t o
creat e a visual f ield similar t o prevailing daylight condit ions.
O Color. Provide lamps w it h high color rendering index, such as t ri-phosphor f luorescent lamps.
Lamps in t he w arm-w hit e t o neut ral-w hit e color (2500
O
t o 3700
O
) t emperat ure range ef f ect ively
complement skin t ones.
O Ballast s. Use high f requency elect ronic ballast s t o minimize f licker as lamps and ballast s w ear.
O View s. Design a building organizat ion and f loor layout t hat gives each occupant adequat e
visual access t o t he out doors and t o t he general organizat ion of t he building.
O Window cleaning. Schedule regular w indow cleaning t o maximize t he amount of daylight
ent ering, part icularly w here w indow s are close t o sources of air-bor ne dust , f umes, or gases
t hat reduce t he t ransmission of light .
Light ing M odeling Tools
For t he new Blue Cross/Blue Shield building in Rochest er, New York, light ing/daylight ing
analyses w ere complet ed using RADIANCE (a comput er-based light ing modeling t ool),
combined w it h energy analyses perf ormed using DOE-2.1E (an energy modeling t ool – see
Building Energy Use, p.68). The object ive w as t o develop an energy ef f icient building
envelope, w hile promot ing good visual and t hermal comf ort . Since t he building is dedicat ed
mainly t o comput er processing, design issues relat ing t o glare and high cont rast f rom
ext ensive east and w est exposures are of signif icant concer n. RADIANCE-generat ed renderings
and numerical dat a can be ext remely helpf ul in select ing t he glazings, light shelves, and
int erior shading devices (as needed), and in ident if ying viable light ing and daylight ing
st rat egies. RADIANCE st udies also help def ine int erior layout , and aid in t he select ion of
mat erials and colors.
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 79
New Bronx Criminal Court Complex
Daylight is ref lect ed deep int o t he court rooms in t his court house
t hrough t he use of high w indow s, highly ref lect ive surf aces, and high
ceilings. The t op surf ace of t he jury deliberat ion rooms f unct ions as a
light shelf t o ref lect light int o t he court room int eriors.
Raf ael Viñoly Archit ect s
Tall and cont inuous borrow ed
light s t ransmit daylight t o
t he court room
High ref lect ance f inishes t o
bounce daylight deeper int o
court room
Ceilings kept higher in order t o
bounce daylight int o t he space
High visible light t ransmit t ance glass
t o maximize t he daylight penet rat ion
Sidew all “ f in” t o prot ect against glare
Curt ainw all
SOUTH
NORTH
Light shelves t o
redirect daylight t o
t he ceiling
Wit h bot h t he public and
privat e circulat ion adjacent
t o t he curt ainw all, 100%
daylight ing is expect ed
Skylight t o direct
daylight t o t he
collaborat ion t able Window t o direct
daylight t o t he w ork
surf ace
Nort h daylight ing st rat egy is
similar t o t he sout h but because
t he daylight comes indirect ly f rom
t he nort h sky, it s cont ribut ion w ill
be w eaker.
Curt ainw all
Public
Circulat ion
Wit ness Room Court room Court room Bench Jury
Deliberat ion
Room
Privat e
Court room
Sloped ceiling t o redirect daylight t o Bench
ACOUSTI C QUALI TY
A good acoust ic environment keeps noise at levels t hat do not int erf ere w it h act ivit ies w it hin
programmed space. The primary acoust ical and speech privacy requirement s in of f ices include t he
abilit y t o speak w it hout having conversat ions overheard by co-w orkers, and f reedom f rom
dist ract ions caused by nearby conversat ions or ot her int ruding noises. Archit ect urally, t here are
t hree aspect s t o consider: sound isolat ion, building services noise and vibrat ion cont rol, and room
acoust ics. Sound and vibrat ion isolat ion requirement s f or a given space w ill depend on desired
ambient noise levels, t he ext ent t hat ext er nal sources (e.g., normal t raf f ic, f ire/ambulance/police,
car alarms, air t raf f ic) impinge upon t he space, and t he level of noise and vibrat ion f rom nearby
sources and act ivit ies. Building services t hat may cont ribut e excessive noise and vibrat ion include
HVAC syst ems (air handling unit s, variable air volume and f an-pow ered t erminal unit s, duct w ork,
dif f users, regist ers, and grilles), plumbing (chillers, cooling t ow ers, boilers, pumps, pipes, valves,
rest rooms, laundries, and ot her uses) and elect rical syst ems (dimmers, light ing f ixt ures,
t ransf ormers, and generat ors).
Noise abat ement begins w it h avoiding noise-generat ing f act ors, cont aining inevit able noise at t he
source, and locat ing sensit ive spaces aw ay f rom know n noise sources. Sound-at t enuat ing barriers
and absorpt ive room surf aces must cont rol noise t ransmission t hrough t he building st ruct ure and
w it hin rooms. To achieve posit ive acoust ic qualit y in a room, spat ial conf igurat ion and mat erials
must be designed f or appropriat e resonance pat t er ns. In overly quiet rooms, w hit e noise can be
used t o mask privat e conversat ion.
PAGE 80
Indoor
Environment
At t ribut es of Good Acoust ic Qualit y
Illust rat ion: Johannes Knesl
Sound rat ed
part it ion up
t o ceiling
Sealed w all
penet rat ions
and acoust ic
baf f le duct
sect ions
Sound
absorbent
dropped
ceiling
Junct ions
vibrat ion
dampened
Sound
absorbent
insulat ion
Sound rat ed
glazing
Sound
absorbent
part it ions and
f ur nishings
Sound
absorbent
f looring
Floor slab
f loat ing on
insulat ion
Sound rat ed
part it ions placed
on st ruct ural f loor
Sound
ref lect ing,
t ransparent
part it ions t o
cont ain noise
w here f easible
Noi se Cont r ol
Creat e a sound environment t hat is healt hf ul, comf ort able, and appropriat e t o int ended use by
cont rolling noise and caref ully at t ending t o t he acoust ic design of spaces.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Cont rol Noise at t he Source.
¯ Sit e, orient , and lay out t he building such t hat ext ernal noise sources can be at t enuat ed by
dist ance or by t opographic f eat ures or w alls.
¯ Select mechanical and plumbing devices, duct w ork, and piping t hat generat es less noise
and dampens t he noise generat ed.
¯ Locat e noisy mechanical equipment , of f ice equipment , and f unct ions aw ay f rom noise-sensit ive
uses. Avoid locat ing mechanical equipment above or adjacent t o noise-sensit ive spaces.
¯ Prevent noise t ransmission by absorbing noise and vibrat ions at t he source. Consider
placing vibrat ing equipment on isolat ion pads, and enclosing equipment in sound-
absorbing w alls, f loors, and ceilings.
O At t enuat e Noise Along t he Pat h of Transmission.
¯ Place acoust ic buf f ers, such as corridors, lobbies, st airw ells, elect rical/janit orial closet s, and
st orage rooms, bet w een noise-producing and noise-sensit ive spaces. This w ill alleviat e t he
need f or more complex acoust ic separat ion solut ions.
¯ Prevent t ransmission of sound t hrough t he building st ruct ure t hrough use of f loat ing f loor
slabs and sound-insulat ed penet rat ions of w alls, f loors, and ceilings.
¯ Prevent t ransmission bet w een ext erior and int erior by ensuring appropriat e f abricat ion and
assembly of w alls, w indow s, roof s, ground f loor, and f oundat ions.
¯ Prevent t ransmission bet w een rooms by w all, f loor, and ceiling assemblies by specif ying
mat erials w it h appropriat e sound t ransmission class rat ings. Consider using set -of f st uds w it h
sound-at t enuat ing insulat ion, f loat ing f loor slabs, and sound-absorbent ceiling syst ems.
¯ Sit uat e mechanical room doors across f rom non-crit ical building areas. Consider t he use of
sound-rat ed acoust ic doors and acoust ic seals around t hese doors.
¯ Avoid locat ing out side air int ake or exhaust air discharge openings near w indow s, doors, or
vent s w here noise can re-ent er t he building.
¯ Consider w rapping or enclosing rect angular duct s w it h sound isolat ion mat erials.
¯ Consider t he use of sound at t enuat ors (‘ duct silencers’ or ‘ sound t raps’ ) and acoust ic
plenums t o reduce noise in duct w ork.
O Noise Cont rol in t he Space It self .
¯ Absorb or block excessive background noise or int erf ering single-source sounds in open
of f ice environment s t hrough use of resilient f looring (carpet ing and t iles), ceiling
(suspended ceiling t iles, absorbent ceiling geomet ry); and sound absorbing or ref lect ing
part it ions and f ur nit ure (chairs, desks, and shelves).
¯ If appropriat e conversat ional privacy cannot be achieved, consider using w hit e noise.
¯ In an open plan of f ice space, of f set w orkst at ions so t hat co-w orkers are not in direct line of
sight or sound. M aximize dist ances bet w een w orkst at ions and general of f ice equipment . To
promot e sound isolat ion and reduce sound ref lect ion, inst all part ial-height f reest anding
w alls bet w een w orkst at ions or w ork groups. The w alls should f eat ure solid core
const ruct ion and sound absorbing panels on bot h sides.
¯ Achieve f avorable room acoust ics by conf iguring room geomet ry, posit ioning f ur nishings
and f ur nit ure, and specif ying appropriat e surf aces. Wit h t hese t ools, achieve a level of
room resonance qualit y t hat support s t he programmed uses, such as f ace-t o-f ace
communicat ion, conf erence, or audio-visual present at ions.
Queens Criminal Court Complex
In t he DDC-administ ered design of t he Queens Criminal Court Complex, t he layout arranged
exist ing and planned buildings t o creat e int erior court yards. The design provided secure open
spaces f or light , air, and view s w hile shielding t he program spaces f rom noise generat ed by
t he Van Wyck Expressw ay and Queens Boulevard, w hich border t he sit e. Int erior acoust ic
requirement s w ere programmed f or each space, w it h values set f or such charact erist ics as
noise crit eria, resonance propert ies, and part it ion and door t ypes.
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 81
Benef it s
$P
F
Acoust ic
comf ort can
cont ribut e t o
occupant
comf ort and
sense of w ell-
being. It can
reduce
dist ract ion
and t hus may
be linked t o
improved
w orker
perf ormance.
A
Cont r ol l abi l i t y of Syst ems
To achieve a healt hy and comf ort able environment , it is crit ical t o ensure t hat user groups and
f acilit y maint enance st af f can know ledgeably operat e t he building syst ems and equipment . As
much cont rol as possible should be given t o individual users, w it hout compromising t he
ef f ect iveness and ef f icient cont rol of t he overall syst em.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Simplif icat ion. Provide building users and maint enance st af f w it h a level of cont rol over
aut omat ed building syst ems t hat is appropriat e t o t heir level of t echnical expert ise.
O Personal cont rol. Build in a capacit y f or personal cont rol over t he immediat e indoor
environment . Assure t hat t he global indoor environment is w it hin accept able limit s by bringing
air supply point s and cont rols f or air qualit y as close t o individual w orkst at ions as possible.
Balance cont rol syst em advant ages against energy use and maint ainabilit y. The object ive is t o
enable users t o cont rol t he light ing level and dist ribut ion in t heir area using t ask and accent
light ing, dimmer sw it ches, and daylight ing cont rols such as individually operable blinds.
PAGE 82
Indoor
Environment
Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems
Illust rat ion: Johannes Knesl
Work area-w ide cont rols f or set t ing ranges
f or air t emperat ure, air humidit y, and f or
general light ing levels, sensors f or air
t emperat ure, humidit y, CO
2
Addit ional noise
barrier f or
individual
st at ion
Allow f or w ork st at ion
based cont rol of part it ion
height and mat erials w hile
saf eguarding air qualit y
Individual cont rols f or w orkst at ion:
t ask light ing, dimming of overhead
f ixt ures, air t emperat ure, air f low,
and humidit y
Operable
w indow
Underf loor air
delivery can permit
more individual
cont rol of air
qualit y at w ork
st at ion
Benef it s
$P
F
Some measure
of personal
cont rol over
one’s
immediat e
surroundings
creat es a more
posit ive
out look
t ow ard t he
w ork
environment
and may
cont ribut e t o
individual
comf ort and
healt h. There
may be
addit ional links
t o improved
w orker
product ivit y.
A
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Sit e Design. Appropriat e sit ing and use of solid landscape
element s helps cont rol noise.
Building Energy Use. Thermal comf ort is improved by reducing
draf t s and radiant heat loss/gain w it h energy improvement s such
as t hermally-ef f icient w indow s, increased t hermal insulat ion, and
measures t o cont rol inf ilt rat ion losses/gains.
Building Energy Use. Building energy use may increase as air
qualit y measures are implement ed. Thermal comf ort of occupant s
depends on air speed, delivery met hod, t emperat ure and humidit y
– all of w hich are cont rolled by t he building’s mechanical syst em.
Building Energy Use. To minimize heat ing and cooling loads,
daylight ing must be cont rolled by select ing t he size, locat ion and
orient at ion of building openings, and specif ying appropriat e
glazing mat erials and shading devices. A properly designed
daylight ing syst em reduces energy cost s.
Building Energy Use. Light ing syst ems w it h light sources and
dist ribut ions capable of generat ing high visual qualit y may require
more energy t han low er qualit y syst ems.
M at erial and Product Select ion. Indoor air qualit y benef it s f rom
chemically benign or inert const ruct ion and f inish mat erials,
product s, and equipment .
M at erial and Product Select ion. M at erials and assemblies
select ed f or t heir acoust ic propert ies also need t o perf orm w ell by
meet ing high perf ormance crit eria f or indoor air qualit y.
Commissioning. Commissioning HVAC syst ems support s good
indoor air qualit y.
Operat ions and M aint enance. Caref ul select ion and use of non-
t oxic and non-irrit at ing chemicals in housekeeping and pest cont rol
is crucial t o achieving f avorable, long t erm indoor air qualit y.
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 83
PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR I NDOOR AI R QUALI TY
LEVEL 1
O Conf orm w it h ASHRAE 62-1989 f or vent ilat ion-relat ed indoor air
qualit y issues. Be sure t o compare NYC Building Code vent ilat ion index
requirement s (or ot her gover ning code regulat ions) w it h provisions
cont ained in t he consensus st andards of ASHRAE 62-1989. Follow t he
more st ringent requirement s in crit ical spaces as ident if ied in t he
Environment al Programming M at rix.
O Conf orm w it h ASHRAE St andard 55-1992 f or t hermal comf ort and
compare w it h gover ning client agency requirement s and applicable
st at e codes.
O Specif y t hat t he building be smoke-f ree, w it h no t obacco smoking
permit t ed indoors, or rest rict smoking t o enclosed and depressurized
smoking rooms f rom w hich air is exhaust ed separat ely t o t he out doors.
O For renovat ion, comply w it h SM ACNA’s IAQ Guidelines f or Occupied
Buildings Under Const ruct ion and ot her applicable Cit y guidelines such
as t hose developed f or school f acilit ies (ref er t o Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion sect ion). M easures should include: (1) prot ect ion of
HVAC equipment f rom dust and odors (w here possible, t he ent ire
syst ems should be t aken dow n during heavy const ruct ion or
demolit ion; f ilt ers w it h 60 t o 80% dust spot ef f iciency should be used;
and supply side dif f users, VAV boxes, and duct s should be shut dow n
and sealed); (2) source cont rol (subst it ut ing low VOC-emit t ing product s,
modif ying equipment operat ion, changing w ork pract ices, providing
local exhaust and/or air cleaning and covering, or sealing know n
sources); (3) pat hw ay int errupt ion (e.g., de-pressurize w ork area or
pressurize t he occupied space, erect barriers t o cont ain t he const ruct ion
area, relocat e pollut ant sources, or t emporarily seal t he building); (4)
housekeeping (dust suppression, covering cont ent s in w ork area,
prot ect ing porous mat erials f rom moist ure); and (5) scheduling t o avoid
occupied periods, providing 48 hours of cont inuous vent ilat ion af t er
f inal inst allat ion and cleaning, and using ‘ buf f er zone’ t o prot ect
building occupant s).
O Implement a “ Building Air Qualit y Act ion Plan” as def ined
by t he U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency
(ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/iaq/base/act ionpl.ht ml).
LEVEL 2
O M eet Level 1 requirement s and implement t he “ Best Pract ices f or
M aint aining IEQ” measures list ed in t he Indoor Environment al Qualit y
appendix t o t he 1999 Version of t he Int er nat ional Perf ormance
M easurement and Verif icat ion Prot ocol (dow nload at no cost f rom
w w w.ipmvp.org – select ‘ dow nload,’ ent er cont act inf ormat ion
(opt ional), and dow nload IEQ Appendix as a .pdf f ile).
PAGE 84
Indoor
Environment
Indoor
Environment :
Indoor Air
Qualit y
Indoor
Environment :
Visual
Qualit y
PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR VI SUAL QUALI TY
LEVEL 1
O Comply w it h IESNA st andards in consult at ion w it h client -specif ied
light ing levels. Energy ef f icient light ing syst ems set f or appropriat e
luminance rat ios (as est ablished by IESNA), achieve a balance of
vert ical t o horizont al illuminance, and are ef f ect ive in cont rolling
glare and rendering color. Flicker and int erf erence are also kept t o
a minimum. Light ing cont rols shall meet or exceed t he cont rol
requirement s of t he New York St at e Energy Conservat ion
Const ruct ion Code. They shall provide proper cont rol t hrough use
of manual or aut omat ic sw it ching, t imers, occupancy sensors,
dimmers or phot oelect ric cont rols. They should also achieve a
maint enance of high color rendering index, and use elect ronic
ballast s, compact f luorescent s, parabolic f luorescent s, and
halogens insof ar as is pract icable.
O Ensure t hat t he int erior layout provides adequat e visual access t o
ext erior view s.
O Specif y visible light t ransmission f or glazing at 50% or higher f or
most spaces. Low er visible light t ransmission could be appropriat e
f or specif ic uses (such as int ensive comput er w ork), or f or
part icular orient at ions – part icularly w est .
60
O Provide a design t hat yields a minimum daylight f act or
61
of 1.5%
on t he w ork plane at a dept h of 15 f t . f rom t he building ext erior
f or all applicable perimet er spaces. Cont rol qualit y issues such as
glare, veiling ref lect ions, and cont rast so t hat daylight does not
hinder act ivit ies scheduled f or t he space. Achieve IESNA f oot candle
requirement s f or scheduled use t hrough ef f ect ive int egrat ion of
daylight int o t he light ing design.
LEVEL 2
O Provide a design t hat yields daylight ing availabilit y t o a dept h of
30 f t . (w it h a minimum daylight f act or of 3.0% on t he w ork plane
at a dept h of 15 f t .) t hrough use of redirect ing devices such as
light shelves. Cont rol qualit y issues such as glare, veiling
ref lect ions, and cont rast so t hat daylight does not hinder act ivit ies
scheduled f or t he space. Achieve IESNA f oot candle requirement s
f or scheduled use t hrough int egrat ion of daylight ing int o t he
overall light ing design.
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 85
60. The 50% t ransmission crit erion includes all clear glass, most low emissivit y (low -e) coat ed glass in single, double or t riple glazed unit s, and many light ly
t int ed glass unit s.
61. The daylight f act or is t he percent age of light available inside a building at a given point , as compared t o t he illuminat ion level available at t hat t ime
out doors on a horizont al surf ace under overcast sky condit ions.
Indoor
Environment :
Acoust ic
Environment
PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR ACOUSTI C ENVI RONMENT
PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR CONTROLLABI LI TY OF SYSTEMS
Indoor
Environment :
Cont rollabilit y
of Syst ems
PAGE 86
62. ‘ Sound-crit ical’ spaces have programmed usage t hat requires specif ic at t ent ion t o sound isolat ion, building syst ems noise cont rol, or room acoust ic design.
63. The noise crit eria (NC) is a rat ing of t he noise level of an int erior space. In new const ruct ion, an NC level is set based on t he room t ype and int ended f unct ion. The NC
level serves as a goal in t he design of sound isolat ion const ruct ion and at t enuat ion of mechanical syst em noise. In renovat ion project s, t he NC rat ing can be est ablished
by t aking oct ave-band noise level measurement s and plot t ing t hem against a series of NC curve spect ra (sound level energy versus f requency curves). The NC value is
det ermined by t he low est curve t hat lies complet ely above t he measured spect rum values.
64. The sound t ransmission class (STC) is a rat ing of t he sound isolat ion perf ormance of a part it ion, door or w indow. A rat ing of STC 40 can t ypically be met by double
glazing (ref er t o manuf act urer’s dat a).
Indoor
Environment
LEVEL 1
O In t he Environment al Programming M at rix, ident if y sound-crit ical
spaces
62
and consult w it h an aut horit y in acoust ic layout t o det ermine
t he appropriat e response.
O Int er nally generat ed noise f rom mechanical syst ems, plumbing,
light ing, and int erior act ivit ies are t o be reduced t o a maximum noise
crit eria (NC) of 35. Ext er nally generat ed noise is t o be isolat ed f rom
occupied zones t o ensure t hat int er nal NC levels do not exceed 35
(i.e., f rom building-relat ed act ivit ies such as t rash collect ion/
compact ion, ext erior maint enance, t raf f ic, and const ruct ion).
63
O In areas of high ambient noise (t raf f ic, aircraf t , indust ry), w indow s are
t o be rat ed at an STC
64
of 40 or bet t er. In ot her areas, w indow s
should achieve an STC of 35 or bet t er.
LEVEL 1
O Sensors and cont rols are t o achieve ASHRAE 55a-1995 requirement s
f or comf ort .
O Proper f unct ion of cont rol syst ems is t o be verif ied t hrough
commissioning per ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996, Guideline f or
Commissioning of HVAC Syst ems, and prevent ive maint enance t o be
perf ormed in accordance w it h ASHRAE Guideline 4-1993,
Preparat ion of Operat ing and M aint enance Document at ion f or
Building Syst ems.
Tool s f or I ndoor Ai r Qual i t y
> Engineering calculat ions should be perf ormed based on ASHRAE Handbook of
Fundament als and St andards (see Ref erences).
> Air inf ilt rat ion rat es, airf low s bet w een zones, and indoor pollut ant concent rat ions
can be evaluat ed using direct invest igat ion, t est ing equipment , measurement of
carbon dioxide concent rat ions, and t racer gas t est ing.
Tool s f or Vi sual Qual i t y
> Use physi cal model s w i t h adequat e si mul at i on of si t e condi t i ons and i nt eri or
surf aces t o assess dayl i ght qual i t y t hroughout t he desi gn process. Be sure t o
perf orm comput er-based model i ng (such as RADIANCE or Li ght scape) of t he
l i ght i ng envi ronment at di f f erent t i mes of t he day t o cal cul at e i l l umi nance and
si mul at e t he resul t i ng vi sual qual i t y. Where use of dayl i ght i ng f eat ures such as
l i ght shel ves and ot her ref l ect i ve syst ems has been deemed ef f ect i ve,
i ncorporat e t hem i nt o t he desi gn.
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 87
Del i ver abl es
Pre-Preliminary and Schemat ic Design.
¯ Indoor Air Qualit y. The Environment al Programming M at rix w ill designat e IAQ
perf ormance goals in general, and specif ically, f or higher perf ormance in st rat egic spaces,
e.g. out side air quant it ies based on occupancy and use of t he space.
¯ Visual Qualit y. The Environment al Programming M at rix w ill designat e light ing st andards
and crit eria t hat are t o be included in t he High Perf ormance Report . Include expect ed
light ing st andards in draw ings and just if y any occupied w orkspaces w it hout adequat e
access t o daylight . Where advisable due t o sensit ive uses or unusual building
conf igurat ions, produce a 3-D w orking model t o simulat e daylight ing condit ions. The
model should adequat ely represent sit e condit ions and int erior surf aces. Incorporat e t he
result s int o t he High Perf ormance Report .
¯ Acoust ic Qualit y. The Environment al Programming M at rix w ill designat e acoust ic design
crit eria f or each space. Indicat e locat ion of sensit ive uses and noise sources t herein.
¯ Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems. The Environment al M at rix w ill out line a st rat egy f or t he nat ure
and ext ent of user cont rol over t he syst ems responsible f or indoor environment al qualit y.
Design Development .
¯ Indoor Air Qualit y. Verif icat ion of t he goals est ablished in t he previous design phase as t o
it ems such as amount of cubic f eet per minut e and out side air percent ages, f ilt ers, ant icipat ed
perf ormance in t erms of comf ort , and ant icipat ed levels of carbon dioxide and pollut ion.
¯ Visual Qualit y. Verif y t hat previously est ablished crit eria are being met . Updat e 3-D model
of light ing qualit y. Where advisable due t o sensit ive uses or building conf igurat ion, provide
comput er-based light ing calculat ions and simulat ed view s of t he indoor environment at
t ypical and crit ical locat ions t o demonst rat e illuminances and t heir dist ribut ion. Incorporat e
t he result s int o t he High Perf ormance Report . Verif y daylight ing condit ions and
ef f ect iveness of combined use of daylight ing and elect rical light ing by calculat ion.
¯ Acoust ic Qualit y. Document sound t ransmission charact erist ics of w alls, glazing, f loors,
ceilings, mechanical, and plumbing syst ems t o demonst rat e at t ainment of t he acoust ic
design crit eria. For spaces such as audit oriums, t hat are especially sensit ive, provide a
det ailed acoust ic perf ormance st udy.
¯ Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems. Verif y at t ainment of t he user cont rollabilit y goals and updat e
t he High Perf ormance Report accordingly.
Final Design.
¯ Indoor Air Qualit y. Updat e inf ormat ion supplied during Design Development and
document at t ainment of required design charact erist ics by show ing equipment
specif icat ions and appropriat e det ailing of mat erials assemblies.
¯ Visual Qualit y. Document at t ainment of required visual environment charact erist ics
t hrough appropriat e det ailing of mat erials assemblies, specif ied mat erial ref lect ances, et c.
¯ Acoust ic Qualit y. Document at t ainment of required acoust ic design charact erist ics by
appropriat e det ailing of mat erials assemblies, const ruct ion rat ings, and f ur nishings.
Const ruct ion.
¯ Indoor Air Qualit y. See Commissioning chapt er f or guidance in developing an IAQ plan
during const ruct ion, and f or f unct ional t est ing procedures(s).
¯ Acoust ic Qualit y. Verif y at t ainment of acoust ic design crit eria as part of Commissioning of
t he building syst ems.
Occupancy Phase.
M echanical/ Elect rical Syst ems Inst ruct ion M anuals as described in Sect ion 16000 of t he Project
Specif icat ions are t o be provided by t he t rade cont ract ors f or t he f ollow ing syst ems:
• Heat ing, vent ilat ing and air condit ioning (HVAC) syst em
• Hydronic dist ribut ion syst em
• Air handling/dist ribut ion syst em
• Glazing maint enance/cleaning
• Kit chen HVAC syst em
• Fire prot ect ion syst em
• Elect rical syst ems, f ire alarm, securit y and unint errupt ed pow er supply syst ems
PAGE 88
Indoor
Environment
Ref er ences
Ref erences f or Indoor Air Qualit y
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers, ASHRAE St andard 62-1989,
Vent ilat ion f or Accept able Indoor Air Qualit y, At lant a, GA: ASHRAE, 1989.
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers,
ASHRAE St andard 55-1992, Thermal Environment al Condit ions f or Human Occupancy. At lant a, GA:
ASHRAE, 1992 w it h 55a-1995 Addendum.
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers, ASHRAE Handbook
of Fundament als.
Chapt er 8, “ Thermal Comf ort ” ,
Chapt er 9, “ Indoor Environment al Healt h” ,
Chapt er 12, “ Air Cont aminant s” ,
Chapt er 13, “ Odors” , and
Chapt er 15, “ Airf low Around Buildings” , At lant a, GA: ASHRAE, 1997.
Benjamin Evans, “ Nat ural Vent ilat ion” in Time-Saver St andards f or Archit ect ural Design Dat a:
The Ref erence of Archit ect ural Fundament als, edit ed by Donald Wat son, M ichael J. Crosbie,
John Hancock Callender, 7t h edit ion. New York: M cGraw -Hill, Inc., 1997, pp. 75 - 84.
Hal Levin, “ Indoor Air Qualit y” in Time-Saver St andards f or Archit ect ural Design Dat a:
The Ref erence of Archit ect ural Fundament als, edit ed by Donald Wat son, M ichael J. Crosbie,
John Hancock Callender, 7t h edit ion. New York: M cGraw -Hill, Inc., 1997, pp. 85 - 100.
Sheet M et al and Air Condit ioning Cont ract ors’ Nat ional Associat ion (SM ACNA).
IAQ Guidelines f or Occupied Buildings under Const ruct ion, Chant illy, VA; SM ACNA, 1995.
U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency. Building Air Qualit y Act ion Plan,
EPA Publicat ion no. 402-K-98-001. NIOSH DHHS Publicat ion No. 98-123.
Individual PDF f iles may be dow nloaded f rom w w w.epa.gov/iaq/base/baqt oc.ht ml.
U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency. An Of f ice Building Occupant ’s Guide t o Indoor Air Qualit y,
EPA Publicat ion No. 402-K-97-003. Document s may be dow nloaded f rom
w w w.epa.gov/iedw eb00/pubs/occupgd.ht ml
Ref erences f or Visual Qualit y
Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y of Nort h America, Light ing Handbook:
Ref erence & Applicat ion, edit ed by M ark S. Rea, 8t h edit ion. New York: IESNA, 1993.
Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y of Nort h America, Recommended Pract ice, RP-1.
New York: IESNA, 1993.
Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y of Nort h America, VDT Light ing - RP-24, IES
Recommended Pract ice f or Light ing Of f ices Cont aining Comput er Visual Display Terminals,
New York: IESNA, 1993.
Benjamin Evans, “ Daylight ing Design” in Time-Saver St andards f or Archit ect ural Design Dat a:
The Ref erence of Archit ect ural Fundament als, edit ed by Donald Wat son, M ichael J. Crosbie,
John Hancock Callender, 7t h edit ion. New York: M cGraw -Hill, Inc., 1997, pp. 65-74.
St ef f y, G.R. Light ing t he Elect ronic Of f ice, Van Nost rand Reinhold. N.Y. 1995.
Ref erences f or Acoust ic Qualit y
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers,
ASHRAE Handbook of Fundament als, Chapt er 7, “ Sound and Vibrat ion” , At lant a, GA: ASHRAE, 1997.
M . David Eagan, St even Haas and Christ opher Jaf f e, “ Acoust ics: Theory and Applicat ions” in
Time-Saver St andards f or Archit ect ural Design Dat a: The Ref erence of Archit ect ural Fundament als,
edit ed by Donald Wat son, M ichael J. Crosbie, John Hancock Callender, 7t h edit ion. New York:
M cGraw -Hill, Inc., 1997, pp. 101–116.
C.M . Harris, Noise Cont rol in Buildings: A Guide f or Archit ect s and Engineers,
New York: M cGraw -Hill, Inc., 1994.
Ref erences f or Cont rollabilit y of Syst ems
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers,
ASHRAE St andard 55-1992, Thermal Environment al Condit ions f or Human Occupancy, At lant a, GA:
ASHRAE, 1992 w it h 55a-1995 Addendum.
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers, ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996,
Guideline f or Commissioning of HVAC Syst ems, At lant a, GA: ASHRAE, 1996.
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air Condit ioning Engineers, ASHRAE Guideline 4-1993:
Preparat ion of Operat ing and M aint enance Document at ion of Building Syst ems, At lant a, GA, ASHRAE, 1993.
Cent er f or Building Perf ormance and Diagnost ics, Depart ment of Archit ect ure, Car negie M ellon Universit y.
Various art icles on case st udies and t echnology available at ht t p://w w w.arc.cmu.edu/cbpd/
Indoor
Environment
PAGE 89
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Mat er i al
and
Pr oduct
Sel ect i on
Select ing mat erials and product s f or high
perf ormance buildings involves considerat ion of
environment al and healt h issues in addit ion t o more
t radit ional crit eria such as cost , durabilit y,
perf ormance, and aest het ics. While met hods f or
evaluat ing product s based on t hese crit eria are st ill
evolving, t he number of available building product s
w it h improved environment al and healt h
charact erist ics has been st eadily increasing. M arket s
are responding t o meet t he demands of gover nment ,
businesses, and consumers w ho are increasingly
aw are of healt h and environment al concer ns.
Because of t he complexit ies surrounding evaluat ion
of appropriat e mat erials, consult ant s should have a
w orking f amiliarit y w it h t he key healt h and
environment al issues associat ed w it h specif ic mat erial
t ypes. This dynamic and grow ing f ield includes new
concept s in mat erials assessment such as embodied
energy and product lif e cycle assessment .
Mat er i al
and Pr oduct
Sel ect i on
Environment ally Pref erable M at erials. . . . 92
Select ion f or a Healt hy
Indoor Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Select ion f or Resource Ef f iciency. . . . . . . . 95
Select ion f or Ext ernal
Environment al Benef it s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
PAGE 92
65. Environment ally pref erable: product s or services t hat have a lesser or reduced ef f ect on human healt h and t he environment w hen compared w it h
compet ing product s or services t hat serve t he same purpose. This comparison may consider raw mat erials acquisit ion, product ion, manuf act uring,
packaging, dist ribut ion, reuse, operat ion, maint enance, or disposal of t he product or service. Execut ive Order 13101 Sept ember 14, 1998.
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
ENVI RONMENTALLY PREFERABLE MATERI ALS
M ost environment ally pref erable
65
mat erials include one or more of t he f ollow ing charact erist ics:
1. They benef it t he building occupant s and management immediat ely and over t he lif e of t he
building. Examples include mat erials t hat :
• Have low or no chemical emissions t hat can lead t o poor indoor air qualit y;
• do not cont ain highly t oxic compounds; and
• are durable and have low maint enance requirement s.
2. They are resource ef f icient . Examples include mat erials t hat :
• Have recycled cont ent (post -consumer and pre-consumer);
• are easily reused (w hole or t hrough disassembly); and
• are easily recycled (pref erably in closed-loop recycling syst ems).
3. They have f ar-reaching, global impact s. Examples include mat erials t hat :
• Cont ain no CFCs, HCFCs, or ot her ozone deplet ing subst ances;
• are obt ained f rom sust ainable harvest ing pract ices (such as cert if ied w ood product s);
• are obt ained f rom local resources and manuf act urers;
• have low embodied energy;
• are derived f rom renew able resources; and
• are biodegradable w hen disposed.
High Perf ormance M at erial and Product Select ion
Illust rat ion: Johnannes Knesl
Recyclable plast ic roof
membrane w it h insulat ion of
recycled cont ent w it hout
cyanat es and HCFCs or CFCs
Concret e slab made
w it h recycled and
local aggregat e
Insulat ion w it h high
recycled cont ent
Recycled aluminum cladding
Low VOC paint
M odular light w eight
concret e panels w it h
recycled cont ent
Part it ions w it h recycled
st eel st uds and recycled
synt het ic gypsum board
Nat ural cork f looring
w it h low emission
binders and adhesives
Duct s of recycled met als
Ref rigerant s w it hout HCFCs, CFCs in
chillers, cooling unit s, and ref rigerat ors
Concret e slab w it h
recycled cont ent
Recyclable carpet
w it h recycled
cont ent and low
VOC adhesives
Of f ice equipment
w it h recycled
cont ent and
w it hout emissions
Low
emission,
low -VOC
caulking and
sealant s
Recycled st eel
st ruct ure
Recycled st eel f raming
syst em w it h recycled
gypsum board
Fur nit ure in f abrics w it h
recycled cont ent and low
VOC emissions
Cert if ied w ood
f looring on
recycled w ood
base w it h
f ormaldehyde-
f ree binder
Salvaged
met al
doors and
f rames
Low emissions f lame
spread ret ardant s
Fire suppression syst em
w it hout HCFC, CFC, BrFCm,
CaaCE, M et hyl chlorof orm
Cert if ied w ood veneer
panels w it h low -VOC
st ain and f inish
Recycled
sheet met al
sloping roof
Engineered
lumber w it h
low emission
glues and
f inishes
Recycled
aluminum
w indow
f rames
Ceiling t iles w it h
recycled cont ent
Fur nit ure made of composit ion board
w it h recycled cont ent , f ormaldehyde-f ree
binder and low -emission f inishes
Recycled copper f lashings
Sel ect i on f or a Heal t hy I ndoor Envi r onment
Overall indoor air qualit y goals can be achieved by specif ying and inst alling benign, or ‘ healt hy’
building mat erials. These include mat erials and product s t hat exhibit limit ed or no ‘ of f -gassing’
t endencies, have minimal or no t oxic propert ies, do not shed dust and f iber, and do not absorb
pollut ant s t hat are lat er released, pot ent ially generat ing complaint s among building
users/occupant s.
66
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Priorit ize sensit ive program areas. Ident if y and priorit ize spaces w here mat erial select ion
issues are of part icular concer n based on int ended occupancy. Since children and t he elderly are
especially suscept ible t o indoor air pollut ant s, spaces requiring added diligence may include
client and visit or-occupied areas of healt h care f acilit ies, day care cent ers, senior cit izen cent ers,
schools, libraries, and ot her communit y buildings.
O Product consensus st andards. Select product s based on available consensus st andards
(developed by gover nment agencies, environment al cert if icat ion services, or t rade
organizat ions) t hat def ine emission limit s, or address ot her healt h/t oxicit y issues relat ing t o
specif ic mat erial t ypes. (See page 94).
O Specif icat ion crit eria. Provide specif icat ion crit eria f or ‘ healt hy’ mat erials and f or appropriat e
inst allat ion met hods. Crit eria can be developed f rom t he product consensus st andards list ed
here, and f rom addit ional mat erial guidelines (see Tools and Ref erences).
O M SDS/ manuf act urer cert if icat ions. For mat erials t hat are deemed crit ical t o t he project and
f or w hich st andards or ot her ref erences do not exist , obt ain and review mat erial saf et y dat a
sheet s (M SDSs) and/or manuf act urers’ cert if icat ions or t est dat a. Cont act manuf act urers f or
clarif icat ion as needed. Review by experienced indoor air qualit y prof essionals may be just if ied
f or part icularly crit ical mat erials or sensit ive spaces.
O Field approval. Review and approve cont ract or request s f or product subst it ut ions t o ensure
t hat t he indoor air qualit y crit eria def ined in t he specif icat ions have not been compromised.
Require M SDSs and ot her cert if icat ions f or any product subst it ut ions af f ect ing crit ical it ems.
Require just if icat ion f rom cont ract or f or subst it ut ions t hat do not meet environment al
perf ormance crit eria.
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
PAGE 93
Sources of of f gassing in building mat erials t ypically include:
0 paint s, O ceiling t iles, O carpet ing,O VCT f loor t iles, and O manuf act ured w ood product s.
Benef it s
$P
F
An indoor
environment t hat
cont ribut es t o
t he healt h and
w ell-being of
users/occupant s
can help reduce
absent eeism.
The pot ent ial
also exist s f or
increased
perf ormance and
product ivit y.
$P
F
Healt hier
w orking
condit ions f or
builders,
inst allers, and
cust odians.
$D
S
Expansion of
market s f or
environment ally
pref erable
product s.
E
S
Select ion of
healt hy mat erials
may also provide
ext er nal
environment al
benef it s, such as
reduced smog
f ormat ion (VOCs
combine w it h
oxides of
nit rogen t o f orm
ozone, t he
principal
component of
smog) or
reduced
product ion and
release of t oxic
compounds.
A
66. Some building mat erials and assembled product s release pollut ant s, including volat ile organic compounds (VOCs), commonly f ound in paint s, st ains,
cleaning product s, adhesives, manuf act ured w ood product s, carpet s, and acoust ical ceiling t iles. Formaldehyde is one of t he best know n VOCs, and is
f ound in many building product s, including manuf act ured w ood product s made w it h urea-f ormaldehyde binders. Addit ionally, f ibers and part icles f ound in
insulat ion, in ret ur n air plenums above acoust ical ceilings (e.g., f rom ceiling t iles or f ire proof ing in t he plenum) and in f iberglass duct board can pot ent ially
be shed int o t he building’s air. Wit hout caref ul select ion, inst allat ion, and maint enance, such mat erials can cont ribut e t o poor indoor air qualit y
(see Indoor Environment chapt er).
Pr oduct Consensus St andar ds f or Emi ssi on Li mi t s
Readily available st andards and crit eria t hat are current at t he t ime of t his print ing are list ed below.
Consult ant s should ensure t hey have t he most current st andard as w ell as any ot hers t hat may
become available.
Engineered Wood Product s
Ref erenced St andards: ANSI A208.1-1993 (part icleboard); ANSI “ PBU,” “ D2” or“ D3”
(part icleboard f looring); ANSI A208.2-1994 (medium densit y f iberboard);
ANSI/HPVA HP-1-1994 (hardw ood plyw ood)
Agency: American Nat ional St andards Inst it ut e
Not es: Def ines maximum allow able f ormaldehyde emissions based on ASTM t est procedures.
Availabilit y: ht t p://w eb.ansi.org/def ault _js.ht m, document s can be ordered.
Paint s
Ref erenced St andard: Green Seal Paint s (GS-11)
Agency: Green Seal, Inc. (Third-Part y Cert if icat ion Service)
Not es: Def ines VOC limit s and chemical component limit at ions f or int erior and ext erior
t opcoat paint s.
Availabilit y: ht t p://w w w.greenseal.org
Const ruct ion Adhesives
Ref erenced St andard: Sout h Coast Rule #1168 (Adhesive Applicat ions)
Agency: Sout h Coast Air Qualit y M anagement Dist rict (Calif ornia)
Not es: Def ines VOC limit s f or adhesives and primers. Ref erenced in t he US Green Building
Council’s LEED Building

Rat ing Syst em.
Availabilit y: Int er net Address: ht t p://w w w.aqmd.gov/rules/ht ml/r1168.ht ml
Archit ect ural Sealant s
Ref erenced St andard: Regulat ion 8, Rule 51 (Adhesive and Sealant Product s)
Agency: Bay Area Air Qualit y M anagement Dist rict (Calif or nia)
Not es: Def ines VOC limit s f or sealant s and sealant primers. Ref erenced in t he US Green
Building Council’s LEED Building

Rat ing Syst em
Availabilit y: Int er net Address: ht t p://w w w.baaqmd.gov/regs/rulereg.ht m
Carpet s
Ref erenced St andard: Carpet and Rug Inst it ut e (CRI) Indoor Air Qualit y Carpet Test ing
Program
Agency: Carpet and Rug Inst it ut e, Dalt on, GA (t rade organizat ion)
Not es: Def ines maximum allow able emissions of t ot al VOCs, f ormaldehyde, and ot her
specif ic compounds f or carpet s, carpet adhesives, and carpet cushions.
Availabilit y: Int er net Address: ht t p://w w w.carpet -rug.com/
Syst ems Furnit ure
Ref erenced St andard: St at e of Washingt on Depart ment of General Administ rat ion, East
Campus Plus Program – Indoor Air Qualit y Compliance Tables
Agency: St at e of Washingt on Depart ment of General Administ rat ion
Not es: Def ines maximum allow able emissions of t ot al VOCs, f ormaldehyde, and t ot al
part iculat es f or syst ems f ur nit ure.
Availabilit y: Limit ed availabilit y of t ables on request f rom: St at e of Washingt on Depart ment
of General Administ rat ion; Division of Engineering and Archit ect ural Services;
General Administ rat ion Building, P.O.Box 41012, Olympia, WA 98504-1012
The New Children’s Cent er
In t he design of t he New Children’s Cent er f or t he Administ rat ion f or Children’s Services, t he
t eam w as part icularly concer ned about providing an improved indoor environment f or t he
Cent er’s young client ele and f or it s st af f . Wit h t his in mind, t he project t eam select ed
mat erials w it h benign propert ies t o minimize any negat ive impact on indoor air qualit y. As a
result , t he project is using rubber f looring and cork f looring w it h low -emission adhesives, and
paint s and sealant s w it h low -VOC cont ent in lieu of convent ional product s. Because of it s
t endency t o act as a ‘ sink’ f or possible cont aminant s and aller gens, carpet ing w ill not be used
at all in t his applicat ion.
PAGE 94
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
New York St at e Depart ment of Environment al Conservat ion
M at er i al reco mmen d at i o n s f o r t h e New Yo r k St at e Dep ar t men t o f En vi ro n men t al
Conservat ion headquart ers in Albany, New York included carpet t iles w it h low VOC backings
and adhesives, st one f looring f rom local quarries, low -emission w all coverings made f rom
spun glass or paper/cot t on, low -VOC or no-VOC paint s, and millw ork const ruct ed using
w heat -st raw part icle board, or non-f ormaldehyde M DF board (medium densit y f iberboard).
Sel ect i on f or Resour ce Ef f i ci ency
Resource ef f iciency can be achieved t hrough conscient ious design st rat egies, and by select ing
environment ally pref erable building mat erials. These measures can conserve nat ural resources w hile
minimizing t he generat ion of w ast e and pollut ion during const ruct ion. The hierarchy of ‘ reduce,
reuse, recycle’ can serve as a guideline f or decisions relat ing t o resource ef f iciency.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Set resource ef f iciency goals. Ident if y t he major product s and mat erials t hat w ill be used
t hroughout t he building, and priorit ize opport unit ies f or applying resource ef f iciency st rat egies.
O Reduce (w ast e prevent ion).
• Ef f icient design and det ailing helps reduce mat erial usage and w ast e generat ion.
Eliminat e unnecessary f inishes and ot her product s in areas w here t hey are not required.
• To t he ext ent possible, use modular mat erials and base designs on modular sizing as
appropriat e.
• Select product s f or durabilit y. This reduces replacement cost s, occupant disrupt ion, and
w ast e disposal.
O Reuse.
• Incorporat e salvaged or ref urbished mat erials w henever possible. Early in t he process,
ident if y mat erials f rom exist ing buildings (e.g., doors, brick) t hat can be re-used and
st ockpiled in archit ect ural salvage. Ident if y local suppliers of addit ional reusable mat erial
(see Ref erences f or inf ormat ion on t he New York Cit y-run salvage program).
• Encourage on-sit e reuse of scrap mat erial.
• Consider const ruct ion assemblies t hat allow f or disassembly of mat erials at t he end of t heir
usef ul lif e. This encourages t he reuse of valuable mat erials and may simplif y renovat ions
and repairs.
O Recycle (product s w it h recycled cont ent ).
67
• Conf orm t o exist ing product consensus st andards f or resource ef f icient mat erials. These
st andards have been developed by gover nment agencies, environment al cert if icat ion
services, or t rade organizat ions t o support select ion of environment ally pref erable mat erials.
The crit eria are current at t he t ime of t his w rit ing, but are subject t o change over t ime.
Consult ant s should use t he most current st andards as t hey become available.
Product s Cont aining Recycled Cont ent
Ref erenced St andards: The U.S. EPA has ident if ied (and cont inually updat es) a list ing of
product s w it h recycled cont ent in it s Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPGs). The
recommended recycled cont ent levels f or each t ype of product are list ed in t he relat ed
Recycled M at erials Advisory Not ices (RM ANs). Suit able product s f or const ruct ion and
renovat ion project s can be f ound under t he f ollow ing EPA cat egories: Const ruct ion, Parks
and Recreat ion, Landscaping, Transport at ion, and M iscellaneous. Product s designat ed prior
t o Oct ober 1998 include: St ruct ural Fiberboard, Laminat ed Paperboard, Rock Wool
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
PAGE 95
67.‘ Recycled cont ent ’ of t en includes various combinat ions of pre-consumer and post -consumer mat erial. Post -consumer mat erial is a
mat erial or f inished product t hat has served it s int ended use and has been discarded f or disposal or recovery, having complet ed it s lif e as
a consumer it em. Pre-consumer mat erial is mat erial divert ed f rom t he w ast e st ream f ollow ing an indust rial process, excluding
reut ilizat ion of mat erials such as rew ork, regrind, or scrap generat ed during a given process and capable of being reclaimed w it hin t he
same process. Synonyms include post -indust rial and secondary mat erial.
Benef it s
$O
F
Facilit y
operat ional
savings are
achieved
t hrough use
of more
durable
mat erials t hat
need t o be
replaced
less of t en.
$O
M
M unicipal
operat ional
savings are
achieved by
generat ing less
w ast e, reusing
mat erials, and
avoiding
hazardous
mat erials –
all of w hich
reduces
disposal cost s.
$D
S
Expands
market s f or
environ-
ment ally
pref erable
product s.
E
S
Environment al
benef it s
at t ained
t hrough
reduced
consumpt ion
and w ast e;
conservat ion
of nat ural
resources;
avoided t oxic
subst ances.
A
Insulat ion, Fiberglass Insulat ion, Cellulose Insulat ion, Perlit e Composit e Board Insulat ion,
Plast ic Rigid Foam Insulat ion, Foam-in-Place Insulat ion, Glass-Fiber Reinf orced Insulat ion,
Phenolic Rigid Foam Insulat ion, Floor Tiles, Pat io Blocks, Polyest er Carpet Fiber Face,
Lat ex Paint , Show er and Rest room Dividers, Parking St ops, Plast ic Fencing, Playground
Surf aces, Running Tracks, Garden and Soaker Hoses, Law n and Garden Edging, and
Yard Trimming Compost .
EPA periodically revises it s mat erial designat ions and recycled cont ent levels. Thus, t he
design t eam (and mat erials specif iers) should ref er t o t he most recent st andards.
CPG/RM AN I and II w ere current as of December, 1998. EPA proposed 19 addit ional
product s in CPG/RM AN III in August , 1998 and is current ly w orking on CPG/RM AN IV.
Agency: U.S. EPA Buy Recycled Series, U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency.
Not es: Def ines recommended percent ages of recycled cont ent in various product s.
Availabilit y: U.S. EPA Buy Recycled Series is published annually.
Int er net Address: ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/cpg
Concret e w it h Flyash
Ref erenced St andards: ASTM St andard C-618
Agency: American Societ y f or Test ing and M at erials
Not es: Def ines t echnical st andards f or t he use of f lyash in concret e, including maximum
carbon cont ent .
Availabilit y: Int er net Address: ht t p://w w w.ast m.org/, document s can be ordered.
O M anuf act urer or t hird-part y cert if icat ion. Check f or t hird-part y cert if icat ion of manuf act urer
claims and det ermine w het her self -cert if icat ion is required f or specif ic it ems.
O Specif icat ion crit eria. Provide specif icat ion crit eria f or resource ef f icient mat erials select ion and
procedures f or appropriat e inst allat ion. Crit eria can be developed using product consensus
st andards and ot her mat erial guidelines (see Tools and Ref erences).
O Field approvals. Review and approve cont ract or request s f or product subst it ut ions t o ensure
t hat t he resource ef f iciency crit eria def ined in t he specif icat ions have not been compromised.
Require M SDSs and ot her cert if icat ions f or any product subst it ut ions af f ect ing crit ical it ems.
Flue-Gas Desulf urizat ion Gypsum
Flue-gas desulf urizat ion (FGD) gypsum is a recycled mat erial t hat ’s w idely used in t he Unit ed
St at es t oday. FGD gypsum is creat ed as a by-product of air pollut ion cont rol processes at
pow er plant s designed t o help remove sulf ur oxides (SO
x
), produced by t he bur ning of f ossil
f uels. M ore and more pow er plant s are being required t o cont rol SO
x
emissions, based on t heir
role in acid rain f ormat ion. The chemicals used in t he desulf urizat ion process are combined
w it h subst ances in t he f lue gases t o produce a high qualit y synt het ic gypsum t hat can t hen be
used in const ruct ion. The Gypsum Associat ion report s t hat FGD gypsum is a cost -ef f ect ive
f eedst ock f or gypsum board, and t hat over one million t ons w ere used in 1996. How ever,
supplies are est imat ed t o increase t o 11 million t ons per year as Phase II of t he Clean Air Act
is implement ed. Compet it ively priced gypsum board cont aining 10% t o 100% of t his pre-
consumer recycled mat erial is already on t he market . As no EPA st andard current ly exist s,
manuf act urers must provide cert if icat ions of recycled cont ent t o specif iers and cont ract ors.
Alt hough manuf act urers may include recycled f acing paper in t heir percent ages of recycled
cont ent , no specif icat ion is necessary as all such f acing paper cont ains 100% recycled f iber.
PAGE 96
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
PAGE 97
68. ‘ Lif e cycle cost ’ means t he amort ized annual cost of a product , including capit al cost s, inst allat ion cost s, operat ing cost s, maint enance cost s, and disposal
cost s discount ed over t he lif et ime of t he product .
69. ‘ Lif e cycle assessment ’ means t he comprehensive examinat ion of a product ’s environment al and economic aspect s and pot ent ial impact s t hroughout it s
lif et ime, including raw mat erial ext ract ion, t ransport at ion, manuf act uring, use, and disposal. Execut ive Order 13101 Sept ember 14, 1998.
Sel ect i on f or Ext er nal Envi r onment al Benef i t
The select ion and use of environment ally pref erable mat erials yields benef it s t hat exceed t he scope
of t he building it self . Product s produced and deployed in an environment ally responsible manner
help reduce local, regional, and global pollut ion w hile encouraging sust ainable st ew ardship of
resources. For example, global benef it s accrue f rom specif ying sust ainably harvest ed, cert if ied w ood
product s, and f rom avoiding t he use of ozone-deplet ing compounds in f oam product s, ref rigerat ion
and f ire suppression syst ems.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Sust ainable or renew able resources. Conf orm t o exist ing product consensus st andards w hen
select ing independent ly cert if ied mat erials derived f rom renew able resources (such as w ood
product s). The crit eria in t he f ollow ing st andard w ere current at t he t ime of t his w rit ing but
subject t o change over t ime. Use t he most current st andard as w ell as any ot hers t hat may
become available.
Cert if ied Wood f rom Well-M anaged Forest s
Ref erenced St andards: Principles and Crit eria f or Forest St ew ardship
Agency: Forest St ew ardship Council, A.C., (t hird part y cert if icat ion service).
Not es: Def ines st andards f or w ell-managed f orest ry operat ions and accredit s ot her
cert if icat ion bodies (in t he U.S. t hese include Smart Wood and t he Scient if ic Cert if icat ion Syst ems Forest
Conser vat ion Program—see Tools).
Availabilit y: Int er net Address: ht t p://w w w.f scoax.org/
O Ozone deplet ing subst ances. Select f oam product s (such as insulat ion), ref rigerat ion and f ire
suppression syst ems t hat do not cont ain CFCs, HCFCs, bromof luorocarbons (halons), met hyl
chlorof orm, or carbon t et rachloride.
O Locally obt ained product s and mat erials. Wherever possible, obt ain mat erials and product s
f rom local resources and manuf act urers, t hereby minimizing energy use and pollut ion
associat ed w it h t ransport at ion.
O Product lif e cycle cost . Consider lif e cycle cost
68
w hen select ing product s. It is of t en t he case
t hat durable, low -maint enance product s are less expensive over t ime t han product s w it h an
at t ract ive f irst cost t hat t hen require f requent maint enance and replacement .
O Product lif e cycle assessment . When available, use lif e cycle assessment s
69
f or high priorit y
mat erials ident if ied during t he development of resource ef f iciency goals. These ‘ cradle-t o-grave’
assessment s are cont inually being developed f or building mat erials, and can prove ext remely
Benef it s
$D
S
Expands
market s f or
environ-
ment ally
pref erable
product s.
E
S
Conserves
nat ural
resources;
prot ect s
biodiversit y;
reduces soil,
w at er, and air
pollut ion.
A
Product Lif e Cycle Assessment
The cost of a building mat erial must be view ed t hrough a t imes lens, f rom ext ract ion of t he raw mat erial f rom t he eart h t hrough
t he various st ages of product ion, inst allat ion, and demolit ion, t o it s f inal rest ing place in a landf ill. Each st age in t he process of
product ion and removal consumes energy and adds pollut ant s t o t he air and w at er. Each st age also requires t ransport at ion, w hich
f urt her cont ribut es t o pollut ion and t he consumpt ion of f ossil f uels. When raw mat erials are ext ract ed, t he eart h is deplet ed, and
w hen t hey are disposed of in landf ills t he process also negat ively impact s t he eart h. Recycling avoids t hese adverse consequences
by put t ing mat erials back int o product ion and use.
Illust rat ion: Carol Lat man
M anuf act uring Dist ribut ion
Inst allat ion
Disposal
Demolit ion
Usef ul Lif e
of Building
Recycling
Energy Use
Air Pollut ion
Wat er Pollut ion
Ext ract ion
helpf ul w hen specif ying sust ainable, resource ef f icient product s and syst ems. Specif iers must
consider t he environment al impact s associat ed w it h all st ages of product development , use,
and disposal (see diagram), as w ell as ‘ embodied energy’ (t he energy used f or product ion and
t ransport at ion) as import ant crit eria in product select ion (see diagram).
O Specif icat ion crit eria. Provide specif icat ion crit eria f or environment ally pref erable mat erials
select ion and f or appropriat e met hods of inst allat ion. Crit eria can be developed using product
consensus st andards and ot her mat erial guidelines (see Tools and Ref erences).
O Field approvals. Review and approve cont ract or request s f or product subst it ut ions t o ensure
t hat environment al crit eria def ined in t he specif icat ions have not been compromised. Require
M SDSs and ot her cert if icat ions f or any product subst it ut ions af f ect ing crit ical it ems.
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Building Energy Use. Consider t he perf ormance of mat erials f rom t he
perspect ive of how t hey w ill impact t he building’s energy use (e.g.,
insulat ion, w indow s, and doors).
Const ruct ion Administ rat ion. Whenever possible, reuse mat erials f rom
t he sit e.
Operat ions and M aint enance. Select mat erials based on t he ext ent t o
w hich t hey w ill cont ribut e t o ef f icient maint enance prot ocols. The
juxt aposit ion of many dif f erent mat erials can result in inef f icient
maint enance pract ices and addit ional cost s (more t ime and/or cleaning
product s required).
PAGE 98
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
0
50
100
150
200
C
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n
c
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e
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e
G
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a
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Embodied Energy of Building M at erials
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e
s

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e
r

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e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
)
Embodied Energy
The ‘ embodied energy’ of a mat erial represent s
t he energy expended in it s product ion, such as
t he energy f or ext ract ion of t he raw mat erial,
and energy used in t ransport at ion and
manuf act uring. This chart compares embodied
energy of virgin mat erials versus recycled
mat erials. When a mat erial is recycled
embodied energy is low er, because t he energy
necessary f or ext ract ion is eliminat ed, and
energy consumed f or manuf act uring is
somew hat reduced (depending on t he
mat erial). For example, t his chart show s t hat
t he embodied energy f or virgin concret e and
recycled concret e is virt ually t he same, w hereas
t he product ion of aluminum is highly energy
int ensive, t hough t he embodied energy of
recycled aluminum is much low er.
Source: Pent t ala, Vesa.
“ Concret e and Sust ainable Development ,”
ACI M at erials Journal, Sept -Oct , 1997, page 415.
PERFORMANCE GOALS
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
LEVEL 1
O Implement and enf orce compliance w it h product consensus
st andards as st at ed in “ Technical St rat egies.”
O Key mat erials ident if ied in t he Environment al Programming
M at rix, t hat are not covered in consensus st andards, are t o be
select ed based on t he resources and crit eria list ed in Tools and
Ref erences, or predicat ed on addit ional consult ant research.
LEVEL 2
O For insulat ion and carpet pads (and any ot her pot ent ial CFC or
HCFC source mat erial), t he product s shall not use any halons,
CFCs, or HCFCs as f oaming agent s or in ot her st ages of t he
manuf act uring process.
O Based on t ot al mat erials cost , bet w een 20-50% of t he mat erials
(excluding cost s f or mechanical and elect rical syst ems, plumbing
syst ems, labor, overhead f ees et c.) shall cont ain at least 20%
post -consumer recycled cont ent OR a minimum of 40% pre-
consumer recycled cont ent . Document t he mat erials and
corresponding percent ages accordingly.
O Also document t hat a minimum of 20% of t he mat erials used in
t he project are composed of mat erials manuf act ured (not just
dist ribut ed) w it hin 300 miles of t he building sit e, based on cost
of mat erials. Again, calculat ions should exclude plumbing
syst ems, mechanical and elect rical syst ems, labor, overhead
f ees, et c.
O Document t hat 5-10% of t he t ot al mat erials cost has been
direct ed t ow ards salvaged or ref urbished mat erials (t ot al mat erial
cost s excluding plumbing syst ems, mechanical and elect rical
syst ems, labor, overhead f ees, et c.
Tool s
The f ollow ing t ools can assist consult ant s in developing specif icat ion crit eria f or environment ally
pref erable mat erials:
> Air Force Green Facilit ies Guide, ht t p://w w w.af cee.brooks.af .mil/green/f acilit iesguide/erf guide.pdf
> Green Specif icat ions Research, Final Report , US Depart ment of St at e, Of f ice of Foreign
Buildings Operat ions, PB98-149776 Order #1030-612623. Prepared by Hellmut h, Obat a +
Kassabaum, P.C., Washingt on, DC. Available f rom Nat ional Technical Inf ormat ion Ser vice:
ht t p://t radecent er.nt is.gov/
> Forest St ew ardship Council, ht t p://w w w.f scoax.org/ The FSC promot es responsible f orest
management by evaluat ing and accredit ing cert if iers, encouraging t he development of nat ional
and regional f orest management st andards, and st rengt hening nat ional cert if icat ion capacit ies
t hrough t he development of cert if icat ion init iat ives w orldw ide.
> Smart Wood, ht t p://w w w.smart w ood.org Smart Wood is an independent cert if icat ion operat ion
t hat evaluat es and cert if ies f orest ry operat ions t hat meet t he int ernat ional environment al
st andards of t he Forest St ew ardship Council. Forest ry operat ions are cert if ied based upon
environment al, social, and sust ainable f orest management st andards. Smart Wood can also source
cert if ied w ood product s.
> Scient if ic Cert if icat ion Syst ems, ht t p://w w w.scs1.com/index.ht ml An independent cert if icat ion
program used t o verif y environment al claims made by manuf act urers of product s and
packaging mat erials. Wood product s are evaluat ed and cert if ied t hrough SCS’s Forest
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
PAGE 99
Conser vat ion Program.
> Green Seal, ht t p://w w w.greenseal.org/index.ht m A non-prof it organizat ion “ dedicat ed t o
prot ect ing t he environment by promot ing t he manuf act ure and sale of environment ally
responsible consumer product s.”
> EPA Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG), ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/cpg Def ines
recommended percent ages of t ot al recovered mat erials and post -consumer mat erials in
building product s.
> HOK Healt hy & Sust ainable Building M at erials Dat abase, ht t p://w w w.HOK.com/sust ainabledesign
This w eb sit e cont ains recommendat ions f or sust ainable mat erial select ion and specif icat ion
pract ices. Recommendat ions t ake int o account environment al, lif e cycle, and sust ainabilit y issues.
Del i ver abl es
Pre-Preliminary.
¯ Environment al Programming M at rix. In t he Environment al Programming M at rix, ident if y and
def ine part icularly sensit ive spaces based on client agency pref erences.
Design Development .
¯ Out line Specif icat ions. Include a mat erials and product s report on healt h and resource
ef f iciency measures. Provide a rat ionale t he each of t he measures ident if ied, along w it h
specif ic mat erials proposed. Ident if y measures and mat erials in t he out line specif icat ions.
Const ruct ion Document s.
¯ Develop specif icat ion language f or environment ally pref erable mat erials and syst ems.
Be sure t o include:
• Environment al crit eria f or specif ic mat erial t ypes
• M et hods of inst allat ion (as required)
• Addit ional cont ract language t hat highlight s and clarif ies environment al goals and int ent ,
as needed.
Const ruct ion Phase.
¯ Ensure submission of M SDSs and product cert if icat ions by cont ract ors and subcont ract ors
t hroughout const ruct ion phase. Ensure t hat all product subst it ut ions meet environment al
specif icat ion crit eria.
End of Const ruct ion.
¯ Ow ner’s M anual. The Ow ner’s M anual is t o include a compilat ion of product cert if icat ions,
including VOC cont ent , recycled cont ent , M SDSs, and any ot her cert if icat ions or product
inf ormat ion required in t he specif icat ions.
Regul at or y Const r ai nt s
= Propriet ary It ems. Cont ract document s may not cont ain propriet ary or sole source it ems.
Some environment ally pref erable product s may be so new t hat t here are only one or t w o
manuf act urers.
= M at erials and Equipment Approval (M EA). All product s used in New York Cit y buildings
must have a M at erials and Equipment Approval (M EA) number issued by t he Board of
St andards and Approvals. New er product s may not have obt ained an M EA number.
Ref er ences
The f ollow ing ref erences cont ain lif e cycle assessment inf ormat ion, environment ally pref erable product list ings,
and case st udy dat a on various building mat erials and syst ems.
The Environment al Resource Guide, The American Inst it ut e of Archit ect s (AIA). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
1 Wiley Drive, Somerset , NJ 08875. (800) 225-5945, The AIA Environment al Resource Guide provides det ailed
lif e cycle assessment s of a number of const ruct ion mat erials. Addit ional mat erial report s, including updat es and
revisions, are published on a biannual basis.
Nat ional Park Service Sust ainable Design and Const ruct ion Dat abase. A dat abase of over 1,300 product list ings
f rom over 550 manuf act urers. A brief review is provided f or each product delineat ing environment al at t ribut es
and concer ns. The dat abase is f ree, and must be dow nloaded f rom t he w eb sit e:
ht t p://w w w.nps.gov/dsc/dsgncnst r/
PAGE 100
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
Sust ainable Building Sourcebook. This sit e cont ains t he ent ire cont ent s of t he Sust ainable Building Sourcebook
produced by t he cit y of Aust in, Texas as part of t heir Green Builder program. The Sourcebook provides concise,
pract ical review s of mat erials and pert inent lif e cycle issues, mat erial at t ribut es, and concerns. List s of product
manuf act urers and t rade organizat ions are also provided, along w it h numerous links t o ot her green building
w eb sit es. ht t p://w w w.greenbuilder.com/sourcebook
BEES (Building f or Environment al and Economic Sust ainabilit y). Creat ed by t he Nat ional Inst it ut e f or St andards
and Technology (NIST), BEES sof t w are analyzes lif e cycle-based environment al and economic impact s f or a
limit ed group of building mat erials. This t ool is current ly under development , w it h version 1.0 current ly
available f or evaluat ion. ht t p://w w w.nist .gov/public_af f airs/updat e/upd980427.ht m
Resources f or Environment al Design Index (REDI). A dat abase of over 1,800 companies t hat sell green building
product s. The companies are organized in accordance w it h t he 16-division M ast erf ormat TM syst em, and can
be searched using key w ords. Alt hough product descript ions are not provided, environment al at t ribut es are
ident if ied using keyed-in symbols. Some direct links t o manuf act urers’ w eb sit es are also included.
ht t p://w w w.oikos.com/redi/index.ht ml
Environment al Building New s (EBN), 28 Birge St reet , Brat t leboro, VT 05301. (802) 257-7300
A leading periodical report ing on environment ally pref erable product s and syst ems, EBN review s various
const ruct ion mat erials based on lif e cycle perf ormance crit eria. Art icles are geared t ow ard building
prof essionals. EBN also publishes t he EBN Product s Cat alog, w hich cont ains ext ensive product inf ormat ion,
including manuf act urers’ lit erat ure. ht t p://w w w.ebuild.com
The Green Building Resource Guide, John Hermannsson, AIA, The Taunt on Press, 63 Sout h M ain St reet , P.O.
Box 5506, New t ow n, CT 06470. (203) 426-8171, Ext ensive list ings of environment ally pref erable product s
and manuf act urers. w w w.greenguide.com
Landmarks Preservat ion Commission (New York Cit y-run salvage program) Archit ect ural Salvage Warehouse,
337 Berry St reet , Brooklyn, NY 11211. Appoint ment s can be made by calling (212) 487-6782.
M at erial and
Product
Select ion
PAGE 101
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Wat er
Management
Pl umbi ng syst ems have evol ved f rom bei ng a si mpl e
means of di st ri but i ng w at er and col l ect i ng w ast es
i nt o i ncreasi ngl y sophi st i cat ed syst ems t hat must
al so address envi ronment al concer ns. The desi gn of
a pl umbi ng syst em must i ncorporat e not onl y
t radi t i onal i ssues of sani t at i on, f l ow, and pressure,
but al so envi ronment al l y based pref erences f or
recycl i ng w ast ew at er, use of non-ut i l i t y w at er
, 70
and di f f erent t reat ment s f or pot abl e and non-
pot abl e w at er. New t echnol ogi es, responses t o
w at er ef f i ci ency concer ns, and communi t y-based
w at er qual i t y goal s pose numerous chal l enges f or
21
st
Cent ury pl umbi ng desi gn. These chal l enges are
of t en exacerbat ed by st resses i nduced by rapi d
devel opment . NYC has been bl essed w i t h one of
t he f i nest w at er suppl y syst ems avai l abl e anyw here.
Hi gh perf ormance w at er management pract i ces w i l l
hel p ensure t he cont i nued avai l abi l i t y of t hi s hi gh
qual i t y resource.
70. “ Non-ut ilit y” w at er ref ers t o w at er not provided by t he ut ilit y, such as rainw at er
and grayw at er.
Wat er
Management
M inimize t he Use of Domest ic Wat er . . . . 104
Wat er Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Wat er Reuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Mi ni mi ze t he Use of Domest i c Wat er
Proper select ion of plumbing f ixt ures, equipment , and f it t ings can minimize end use of domest ic
w at er w hile conserving w at er qualit y and availabilit y.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Fixt ure and f it t ing select ion. Select plumbing f ixt ures and f it t ings t hat evince st at e-of -t he-art
capabilit ies in t erms of w at er conservat ion. Seek improved perf ormance by specif ying low w at er
usage w at er closet s, urinals, show ers, and lavat ories–especially t hose t hat perf orm above t he
st andards already mandat ed by f ederal, st at e and local law s. Consider t he use of :
• Pressure-assist t oilet s
• Compost ing t oilet s
• Wat erless urinals (in high use areas)
• Aut omat ic shut -of f cont rols on sinks, t oilet s, and urinals
O Ozonat ion. Consider ozonat ion in commercial laundering syst ems, condenser w at er syst ems,
and ot her special uses t o reduce w at er usage and secure ot her benef it s.
Wat er Savings – Toilet s and Faucet s
New York’s M arriot M arquis Hot el replaced 1,800 guest room t oilet s (operat ing at
approximat ely f ive gallons per f lush) w it h 1.6-gallon pressurized-t ank t oilet s, result ing in an
18% reduct ion in t ot al w at er use. In addit ion t o t ypical resident ial w at er end uses, t he hot el
also has ext ensive rest aurant , cat ering, and recreat ional f acilit ies, as w ell as some laundry
f acilit ies. During 1994-1997, t he New York Cit y Depart ment of Environment al Prot ect ion (DEP)
sponsored t he replacement of 1.33 million t oilet s cit yw ide. Some show erheads w ere replaced
and f aucet aerat ors inst alled as part of t he project . An impact evaluat ion of project result s in
mult i-f amily buildings f ound an average reduct ion in w at er use of 29% , or 69 gallons per
apart ment per day.
Ozone Laundry
Ozone laundry syst ems use ozone (oxygen act ivat ed w it h an elect rical charge) in lukew arm
w at er t o reduce t he need f or det ergent s, bleach, and hot w at er. Ozone is a short -lived,
unst able gas t hat is creat ed on sit e w it h an elect rical generat or, and immediat ely begins t o
convert back t o oxygen. In t he process, it oxidizes f at t y oils and breaks t he bond bet w een dirt
and clot hing. Ozone laundry syst ems complement t radit ional laundry equipment in f acilit ies
handling large quant it ies of t ext iles, such as hospit als, nursing homes, and correct ional
inst it ut ions. Ozone is also an ext remely ef f ect ive biocide. Ot her benef it s include hot w at er
(energy) savings, reduced w at er and sew er cost s, chemical cost reduct ions, improved sew age
qualit y, and reduced t ext ile degradat ion.
Benef it s
$O
M
Reduced use
low ers municipal
cost s f or w at er
t reat ment .
$C
M
Widespread
conservat ion
reduces demand
and can avoid
f ut ure w ast e
w at er t reat ment
f acilit ies
const ruct ion,
along w it h
associat ed
capit al cost s.
A
PAGE 104
Wat er
M anagement
Wat er Qual i t y
All project s must ensure opt imal w at er qualit y at t he t ap – pot able w at er t hat is bot h saf e
(non-t oxic) and aest het ically pleasing in t erms of t ast e, color, and odor.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O St andards. Specif y plumbing component s t hat are cert if ied meet ing ANSI/NSF St andard 61
– Drinking Wat er Syst em Component s – Healt h Ef f ect s.
O NSF cert if icat ion. Obt ain proof of NSF cert if icat ion
71
f or each plumbing component . NSF
t est ing dat a pert aining t o a part icular component should be issued.
O Wat er sampling. To ensure adequat e w at er qualit y, upon complet ion of t he plumbing syst em,
f lush t he syst em and conduct w at er sampling at t aps and service line(s) ent ering f acilit y. At a
minimum, t est f or lead, copper, pH, and t urbidit y. Wat er qualit y result s should be w it hin EPA
maximum cont aminant levels and act ion levels (EPA 40 Code of Federal Regulat ions Part s 141-149).
O Filt rat ion devices at point of ent ry and/ or use. To achieve t he highest qualit y w at er f or
cooking and drinking, consider inst allat ion of f ilt ers at t aps and/or at t he service line(s) or house main.
O Drinking w at er. Use f ilt ered t ap w at er f or drinking inst ead of bot t led w at er, as t his w ill avoid
t he addit ional cost and pollut ion result ing f rom bot t ling and dist ribut ion.
Clean Facilit y Wat er
A f acilit y t hat employs w at er t est ing prior t o occupancy and ongoing f ilt ering can avoid loss
of use and w hile ensuring t hat t he occupant s have access t o high qualit y pot able w at er upon
occupancy and t hereaf t er.
Wat er Reuse
To achieve overall w at er conservat ion goals, it is import ant t o limit t he use of pot able w at er f or
non-pot able purposes. On-sit e w at er reclamat ion and reuse should be encouraged and f acilit at ed
w herever possible.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Rainw at er use. Collect and use rainw at er f or landscape irrigat ion, urban gardening,
t oilet /urinal f lushing, roof cooling (f or uninsulat ed roof s), and f or ot her purposes as
appropriat e.
O Green roof s. Plant roof areas t o reduce t he discharge
of st ormw at er and t o reap t he benef it s of increased
green space (recreat ion, bird habit at , roof shading,
et c.).
O Grayw at er use. Collect and use grayw at er f or w at er
closet s and urinal f lushing, as w ell as f or w ashdow n
of f loor drains.
O Excess groundw at er. Recover excess
groundw at er f rom sump pumps f or use as a source of
recycled w at er.
O St eam condensat e. Collect and use ut ilit y dist rict
st eam syst em condensat e f or t oilet /urinal f lushing,
cooling t ow er make-up, and ot her non-pot able uses
(applies t o M anhat t an project s only).
O ‘Vacuum-assist ’ syst ems. Consider a ‘ vacuum-assist ’
syst em (in lieu of a st andard syst em) f or f lushing of
w at er closet s and urinals.
O Sit e ret ainage of rainw at er. Reduce rainw at er runof f
f rom t he sit e, roof s, and building surf aces t o minimize
st ress on NYC combined sew er syst em and t o divert and
reduce w at er pollut ion.
Wat er
M anagement
Benef it s
$P
F
M inimizes
t he chance
of elevat ed
lead blood
levels in users.
G
Achieves
savings in
healt h care
cost s.
A
Benef it s
$O
M
Reduces
municipal cost s
f or w at er
t reat ment .
$C
M
Divert ing
st ormw at er can
reduce f ut ure
capit al cost s f or
w at er t reat ment
and delivery.
A
PAGE 105
Wat er Harvest ing
In t his illust rat ion, rainw at er 0 is collect ed in a
cist er n O, f or cont rolled release over t ime O.
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
71. NSF Int er nat ional is an independent , not -f or-prof it organizat ion dedicat ed t o public healt h, saf et y, and prot ect ion of t he environment . The organizat ion
develops st andards, provides superior t hird-part y conf ormit y assessment services, and st rives t o represent t he int erest s of all st akeholders.
PAGE 106
Wat er
M anagement
PERFORMANCE GOALS
Wat er
M anagement
Grayw at er
The Headquart ers Park of f ice complex in Princet on, New Jersey is composed of f our buildings
t ot aling 366,500 square f eet . The original est imat e of w ast ew at er f low w as 27,450 gallons
per day (gpd). The designers considered a w ast ew at er recycling syst em t hat w ould ef f ect ively
avoid t he cost s of advanced t reat ment (including denit rif icat ion) w hich is required in f acilit ies
w it h f low s in excess of 2,000 gpd. The w ast ew at er recycling syst em, w hich provides on sit e
t reat ment and recycling of bot h ‘ gray’ and ‘ black’ w at er, reduced f low s t o 1,600 gpd, or
approximat ely 6% of t he original est imat e. This syst em has been in service since 1987 and w as
t he f irst such syst em approved by code aut horit ies and inst alled in New Jersey. The w at er
recycling syst em cost $250,000 less t han t he originally cont emplat ed t reat ment syst em, low ers
operat ing cost s, and provides $15,000 per year in w at er bill savings (based on 1987 rat es).
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Sit e Design and Planning. There is a relat ionship bet w een sit e harvest ing
of and st orage of rainw at er and minimizing t he f acilit y’s domest ic w at er
use by ut ilizing t his ret ained w at er f or non-pot able uses.
Building Energy Use. Reduced hot w at er usage low ers building
energy consumpt ion.
LEVEL 1
O Use plumbing component s t hat are cert if ied t o meet ANSI/NSF 61
(see Tools).
O Where appropriat e, use harvest ed or ret ained w at er f or seasonal irrigat ion
of all plant mat erials and/or non-pot able w at er uses w it hin t he building.
LEVEL 2
O The f acilit y should maint ain w at er qualit y t hat meet s EPA’s maximum
cont aminant level goals (M CLGs) (see Tools).
O Int egrat e zero w at er use f ixt ures and grayw at er syst ems as appropriat e.
Tool s
> ANSI/NSF St andard 61 – Drinking Wat er Syst em Component s-Healt h Ef f ect s.w w w.nsf .org
> EPA Code of Federal Regulat ions, Part s 141-149.
> New York St at e Depart ment of Healt h publishes a list ing of cert if ied t est ing labs.
Del i ver abl es
Preliminary Design. Test ing dat a, t o include:
¯ ANSI/ASM E perf ormance t est result s f or plumbing f ixt ures.
¯ NSF cert if icat ion and t est ing dat a f or plumbing component s.
¯ Quant if ied pot ent ial savings f rom w at er management st rat egies.
Const ruct ion.
¯ Lab result s of w at er qualit y t est ing at t he point (s) of incoming service.
Post -Const ruct ion.
¯ Lab result s of w at er qualit y t est ing at t aps.
Regul at or y Const r ai nt s
= The NYC Building Code does not specif ically address approved mat erials and met hods f or
t he use of grayw at er. All innovat ive syst ems (such as t hose st rat egies suggest ed above) may
raise issues of concer n w it h local code aut horit ies. Ef f ect ive implement at ion requires
w orking closely w it h code of f icials t o obt ain a variance f or using non-pot able w at er as
f lushw at er f or w at er closet s and urinals, as w ell as f or ot her grayw at er uses. In addit ion,
regulat ory approvals are required f or t he use of vacuum-assist w at er closet syst ems.
Ref er ences
Calif or nia Depart ment of Wat er Resources. Indust rial/Commercial Drought : Guidebook f or Wat er Ut ilit ies,
St at e of Calif or nia, The Resources Agency, 1991.
Calif or nia Depart ment of Wat er Resources, Wat er Ef f iciency Guide f or Business M anagers and Facilit y
Engineers, St at e of Calif or nia, The Resources Agency, 1994.
Diet mann, A.J. and S.J. Hill, “ Wat er and Energy Ef f icient Clot hes Washers,” in Proceedings of Conser ve ‘ 96,
American Wat er Works Associat ion, 1996.
Goldman Copeland Associat es and Wirt hshaf t er Associat es. “ Assessment of t he Pot ent ial f or Cust omer
Recovery/Reuse of St eam Condensat e,” prepared f or t he Consolidat ed Edison Company of New York, 1995.
Group Raindrops 1995, Rainw at er and You: 100 Ways t o Use Rainw at er, Organizing Commit t ee f or t he Tokyo
Int er nat ional Rainw at er Ut ilizat ion Conf erence (Sumida Cit y Of f ice Building, 1-23-20 Asumabashi, Sumida Cit y
Tokyo 130, Japan, 1995.
Lehr, Valent ine A., Grey Wat er Syst ems, Heat ing/Piping/Air Condit ioning. January 1987, 103–113, 1987.
NSF, Int er nat ional St andard 41: Wast ew at er Recycle/Reuse and Wat er Conser vat ion Devices. w w w.nsf .org
Ploesner, Jane H., Charles W. Pike and J. D. Kobrick, 1992. Nonresident ial Wat er Conser vat ion: A Good
Invest ment , Jour nal of t he American Wat er Works Associat ion, 84(10); 65-73, Oct ober 1992.
Public Technology, Inc., US Green Building Council, US Depart ment of Energy, Sust ainable Building Technical
M anual, Part III, Chapt er 6.
Rocky M ount ain Inst it ut e, Wat er Ef f iciency; A Resource Guide f or Ut ilit y M anagers, Communit y Planners, and
Ot her Decisionmakers, US EPA Of f ice of Wat er/Of f ice of Wast ew at er, 1991.
US Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, 1998. Wat er Conservat ion Plan Guidelines, Of f ice of Wat er, EPA-832-D-98-001
US Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, 1992, M anual: Guidelines f or Wat er Reuse, Of f ice of Wat er,
EPA/625/R-92/004.
US Depart ment of Energy, Of f ice of Energy Ef f iciency and Renew able Energy, Federal Energy M anagement
Program, Greening Federal Facilit ies: An Energy, Environment al and Economic Resource Guide f or Federal
Facilit ies M anagers, Chapt er 4, 1997, Greening America.
US Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Lead in Drinking Wat er in Schools and Non-Resident ial Buildings,
Of f ice of Wat er, EPA-812-B-94-002, 1994.
Vickers, Amy, Handbook of w at er use and conser vat ion, Lew is publishers/CRC Press (in press), 1999.
Wat erWiser Inf ormat ion Clearinghouse. ht t p:/w w w.w at erw iser.com
Wat er
M anagement
PAGE 107
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Const r uct i on
Admi ni st r at i on
Bui l di ng const ruct i on and renovat i on act i vi t i es al t er
t he urban envi ronment , generat i ng noi se, w ast e,
and ai r pol l ut i on t hat can st ress t he bui l di ng’s
occupant s and nei ghbors. Hi gh perf ormance
const ruct i on pract i ces can hel p reduce adverse
ef f ect s duri ng const ruct i on w hi l e i mprovi ng t he
bui l di ng’s l ong-t erm envi ronment al perf ormance. In
part i cul ar, const ruct i on and demol i t i on (C&D)
w ast e
72
has become an i ncreasi ng envi ronment al
and muni ci pal burden, equal i ng up t o 30% of t he
muni ci pal sol i d w ast e st ream. At present , t he
maj ori t y of t hi s w ast e i s di sposed of by pri vat e
haul ers engaged by demol i t i on subcont ract ors and
l andf i l l ed out of st at e, at i ncreasi ng cost t o New
York Ci t y t axpayers. The st rat egi es t hat f ol l ow can
reduce t he amount of C&D w ast e generat ed at t he
st art , and encourage bet t er w ast e management
met hods t hrough sal vage and recycl i ng.
72. Const ruct ion and demolit ion debris is t he w ast e st ream generat ed by new
const ruct ion, by renovat ion, and by t he demolit ion of exist ing buildings.
Const r uct i on
Admi ni st r at i on
Environment al and
Communit y Considerat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Healt h and Saf et y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Const ruct ion and Demolit ion
Wast e M anagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Envi r onment al and Communi t y Consi der at i ons
Renovat ion and new const ruct ion should be perf ormed w it h t he least possible disrupt ion t o bot h
t he communit y and t he environment . Conscient ious const ruct ion administ rat ion can minimize harm
t o t he sit e and surrounding area, including soil, w at er resources, and air. Const ruct ion of t he project
should f ost er t he percept ion of high perf ormance buildings as good neighbors.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Sit e Prot ect ion Plan. Develop cont ract document s t o require t he provision of a Sit e Prot ect ion
Plan by t he cont ract ors. The Plan’s basic element s include:
• A prot ect ion plan f or veget at ion/t rees.
• A ‘ t ree rescue’ plan f or t hose t rees and plant ings t hat must be removed (a park, communit y
garden, nursery, or some ot her ent it y may w ant t hem).
• A sit e access plan, including a designat ed st aging or ‘ lay dow n’ area designed t o minimize
damage t o t he environment . Indicat e st orage areas f or salvaged mat erials, and access and
collect ion areas f or recyclable mat erials, including day-t o-day const ruct ion w ast e
(packaging, bot t les, et c.). Designat e sit e-sensit ive areas w here st aging, st ockpiling, and soil
compact ion are prohibit ed.
• Wast e w at er runof f and erosion cont rol measures.
• M easures t o salvage exist ing clean t opsoil on sit e f or reuse.
• Plans t o mit igat e dust , smoke, odors, et c.
• Noise cont rol measures, including schedules f or part icularly disrupt ive, high decibel
operat ions, and procedures f or compliance w it h t he Depart ment of Environment al
Prot ect ion’s noise regulat ions.
Benef it s
E
S
Prot ect ion of
t he sit e’s
ecological
resources.
G
Improved
f acilit y and
communit y
relat ions
t hrough
reduced
environment al
degradat ion.
A
PAGE 110
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
Tree Prot ect ion During Const ruct ion
To help ensure t hat t rees are not lost during const ruct ion, consider t he f ollow ing:
A. during const ruct ion, t he largest single killer of t ree root s - and t hus of t rees - is soil compact ion by heavy machinery;
B. t he root s of most species of large, w oody t rees grow primarily horizont ally;
C. t hese root s are predominant ly locat ed in t he t op 12” (30cm) of soil, and do not normally ext end t o dept hs great er t han
3’ t o 7’ (1 t o 2 met ers), yet ext end out w ard t o an average diamet er of 1 t o 2 t imes t he height of t hat t ree.
As such, t ree guards should be erect ed t o prot ect t rees during const ruct ion, but since it w ould be impract ical in most cases t o
est ablish a complet e prot ect ion zone, t ree guards 0 should reach at least t o t he “ drip line” O of t he t ree’s crow n. This act ion
w ill minimize root deat h and t he corresponding dieback of t he t ree’s crow n.
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Trees and Const ruct ion
New York Cit y’s sidew alk t rees have a 36% mort alit y rat e.
73
This means t hat 1 out of 3 t rees
plant ed at curbside are dead w it hin f ive years. There are several reasons f or t ree loss in urban
areas, including w at er sat urat ion, damage f rom aut os (t he w ounds w here cars hit t rees allow
f ungus t o ent er, w hich kills t he t ree), salt , t ree st akes, and t o a lesser ext ent , vandalism and
pollut ion. Const ruct ion is also a leading cause of t ree mort alit y. While causal dat a is lacking in
New York Cit y, a st udy in Bost on concluded t hat more st reet t rees w ere killed by const ruct ion
or t he af t er-ef f ect s of const ruct ion t han any ot her cause.
74
Heal t h and Saf et y
Const ruct i on w orkers and bui l di ng occupant s need prot ect i on f rom pol l ut ant s produced duri ng
const ruct i on, such as vol at i l e organi c compounds (VOCs), part i cul at es, dust and ot her ai rbor ne
cont ami nant s and odors. These same const ruct i on cont ami nant s must al so be prevent ed f rom
accumul at i ng i n bui l di ng HVAC syst ems and i n absorbent bui l di ng mat eri al s, such as carpet
and f ur ni shi ngs.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Healt h and Saf et y Plan. Develop cont ract document s requiring t he cont ract or t o produce a
Healt h and Saf et y Plan.
75
The Plan should complement t he building’s air qualit y design and
provide f or:
• Adequat e separat ion and prot ect ion of occupied areas f rom const ruct ion areas.
• Prot ect ion of duct s and airw ays f rom accumulat ing dust , moist ure, part iculat es, VOCs and
microbials result ing f rom const ruct ion/demolit ion act ivit ies.
• Increased vent ilat ion/exhaust air at t he const ruct ion sit e.
• Scheduling of const ruct ion procedures
t o minimize exposure of absorbent
building mat erials t o VOC emissions.
For example, complet e ‘ w et ’
const ruct ion procedures such as
paint ing and sealing bef ore st oring or
inst alling ‘ dry,’ absorbent mat erials
such as carpet s and ceiling t iles. These
porous component s act as a ‘ sink,’
ret aining cont aminant s and releasing
t hem over t ime.
• Post ing of mat erial saf et y dat a sheet s
in high t raf f ic, accessible locat ions.
• A f lush-out period, beginning as soon
as syst ems are operable and bef ore or
during t he f ur nit ure, f it t ings, and
equipment inst allat ion phase. The
process involves f lushing t he building
w it h 100% out side air f or a period of
not less t han 20 days.
• Appropriat e st eps t o cont rol vermin
(see Appendix H).
• Prevent ion of pest inf est at ion once t he
building or renovat ed port ion is
occupied using int egrat ed pest
management (IPM )
(see Appendix I).
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
Benef it s
$C
F
Avoids
remediat ion
cost s associat ed
w it h post -
occupancy
indoor air
qualit y problems.
$P
F
Improves w orker
and occupant
comf ort and
saf et y during
const ruct ion.
A
PAGE 111
73. Environment al Act ion Coalit ion assessment , 1998.
74. Fost er, Rut h S. and Blaine, Joan. “ Urban Tree Survival: Trees in t he Sidew alk,” Journal of Arboricult ure 4(1): January 1978.
75. Ref erence Indoor Air Qualit y Guidelines f or Occupied Buildings Under Const ruct ion, Sheet M et al Air Condit ioning and Cont ract ors’ Nat ional Associat ion.
The plan should also ref erence Depart ment of Buildings Tenant Saf et y Plan (Direct ive of January 6, 1984) and Sit e Saf et y Plan
(NYC Building Code, Art icle 26-01).
Plast ics
1%
Wood
27%
Asphalt /
Concret e/
Brick
23% Dryw all
13%
Roof ing
12%
M isc.
M ixed
12%
M et al
9%
OCC/
Paper
3%
Const ruct ion and Demolit ion Wast e
(average composit ion, as disposed)
Source: US Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, w w w.epa.gov
Const r uct i on and Demol i t i on Wast e Management
Const ruct ion and demolit ion (C&D) w ast e management t echniques divert mat erials f rom t he w ast e
st ream, t hus preserving valuable resources and landf ill space. C&D w ast e t ypically includes building
demolit ion and scrap mat erials, component s such as doors or light ing f ixt ures, packaging mat erials,
hazardous mat erials, and miscellaneous const ruct ion w ast e such as bot t les, cans, or paper.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Wast e M anagement Plan. St ipulat e
a requirement in t he cont ract
document s requiring a Wast e
M anagement Plan by t he cont ract ors.
The plan w ill include t he measures
list ed below. Where ref erenced,
exist ing guidelines or st andards should
be used t o def ine t he scope of a
specif ic measure.
¯ Salvaged M at erials.
• List mat erials t o be salvaged f or
reuse in t he project in t he
cont ract document s.
• Ident if y local haulers f or salvaged
mat erials and product s t hat w ill
not be reused in t he project . List
addit ional mat erials t hat are
economically f easible f or salvaging
in t he project .
¯ Recycling.
• Ident if y licensed haulers of
recyclables and document cost s
f or recycling and f requency of
pick-ups. Conf irm w it h haulers
w hat mat erials w ill and w ill not
be accept ed. List t hose mat erials
t hat are economically f easible f or
recycling in t he project .
• Ident if y manuf act urers and reclaimers w ho recover const ruct ion/demolit ion scrap of t heir
product s f or recycling. List mat erials t hat are economically f easible f or reclamat ion and any
special handling requirement s f or each mat erial. Examples include carpet s, ceiling t iles, and
gypsum w allboard.
• List procedures t o be t aken t o comply w it h New York Cit y recycling law. Recyclable
mat erials include bulk met als, corrugat ed cardboard, bot t les, and cans.
¯ Packaging.
• Ident if y manuf act urers w ho reclaim t heir packaging f or reuse or recycling. Ident if y
manuf act urer and dist ribut or opt ions f or reduced packaging, w here available.
¯ Hazardous M at erials.
• Develop procedures f or separat ing hazardous w ast e by-product s of const ruct ion (examples
include paint s, solvent s, oils and lubricant s) and f or disposing of t hese w ast es according t o
appropriat e f ederal, st at e, or local regulat ions.
¯ Ot her Wast e Prevent ion M easures. The f ollow ing are applicable t o any project :
• Educat e w orkers on w ast e prevent ion goals and t he proper handling and st orage of mat erials.
• Where applicable, re-use salvaged mat erial at t he sit e.
• Coordinat e ordering and delivery of mat erials among all cont ract ors and suppliers t o ensure
t hat t he correct amount of each mat erial is delivered and st ored at t he opt imum t ime and
place. This can help prevent mat erial loss, t hef t , and damage.
PAGE 112
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
C&D Wast e Sort ing
M at erials rout inely separat ed on Sellen Const ruct ion’s jobsit es include
w oodw ast e, gypsum w allboard and concret e (show n here) as w ell as
cardboard, met als, and of f ice recyclables.
Court esy of Sellen Const ruct ion Co., Inc.
Benef it s
$O
M
Divert ed C&D
w ast e preserves
landf ill space.
$D
S
Encourages
producer
reclamat ion and
w ast e-handling
market s f or
recycled
product s.
E
S
M at erials
salvaging and
reuse preserves
nat ural resources
and reduces soil,
w at er, and air
pollut ion.
A
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
PAGE 113
PERFORMANCE GOALS
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
The Rose Garden, Port land, Oregon
The Rose Garden, a new arena f or t he Oregon Trail Blazers basket ball t eam, w as complet ed
in 1995. The project involved demolit ion of a car w ash manuf act uring f acilit y and a parking
lot , as w ell as a port ion of t he Port land Coliseum exhibit ion hall. Ninet y-t w o percent of t he
w ast e generat ed w as reused or recycled, f or a savings of about $200,000. A C&D consult ing
f irm ident if ied mat erials f or reuse and recycling, and w orked closely w it h subcont ract ors t o
ensure proper implement at ion. Due t o space limit at ions, 24-hour hauling services w ere
enlist ed t o t ransport source-separat ed mat erials. Almost 4,000 t ons of mat erials w ere
salvaged f or reuse in t his project .
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Cit y Process. Communit y Boards should be made aw are of t he
Const ruct ion Sit e Prot ect ion Plan.
Sit e Design and Planning. Coordinat e sit e prot ect ion issues w it h sit e
invent ory and analysis act ions, including ident if icat ion of sensit ive
environment al areas, w ildlif e habit at s, et c.
Indoor Environment . Thought f ul st aging of const ruct ion procedures can
prevent or reduce problems w it h indoor air qualit y w hen t he building is
occupied.
M at erial and Product Select ion. Salvaged mat erials at t he sit e
can be reused.
Commissioning. In keeping w it h t he Healt h and Saf et y Plan, prot ect ion
and cleaning of t he HVAC syst em is an int egral aspect of a successf ul
commissioning process.
LEVEL 1
O Implement Const ruct ion Sit e Prot ect ion Plan.
O Implement Healt h and Saf et y Plan f or const ruct ion.
O Implement Wast e M anagement Plan.
LEVEL 2
O Prepare and implement a comprehensive C&D Wast e M anagement Plan
consist ent w it h Triangle J Wast e Spec: Wast e Specif icat ions f or
Const ruct ion Wast e Reduct ion, Reuse and Recycling. Client agency and
consult ant s t o set w ast e recovery goals based on mat erial t ypes and/or
t ot al t arget ed percent age of mat erial t o be recovered.
Tool s
> Triangle J Council of Gover nment s, Wast eSpec: M odel Specif icat ions f or Const ruct ion Wast e
Reduct ion, Reuse, and Recycling, Nort h Carolina, M ay 1995.
w w w.st at e.nc.us/TJCOG/cdw ast e.ht m
> Proposed revisions t o t he current ASHRAE St andard 62-1989, Vent ilat ion f or Accept able Indoor
Air Qualit y – Sect ion 7.1, Const ruct ion Phase. American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ion and
Air Condit ioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), 1989.
> IAQ Guidelines f or Occupied Buildings Under Const ruct ion, Sheet M et al and Air Condit ioning
Cont ract ors’ Nat ional Associat ion (SM ACNA), Chant illy, VA, November, 1995.
Del i ver abl es
Pre-Preliminary Phase.
As part of t he High Perf ormance Plan, t he consult ant should, in a brief narrat ive, out line t he
scope of const ruct ion issues t o be included in t he f inal design draw ings and specif icat ions. The
descript ion of scope shall address t he f ollow ing:
¯ Sit e Prot ect ion Plan as out lined in “ Technical St rat egies.”
¯ Const ruct ion Healt h and Saf et y Plan w hich provides f or t he prot ect ion of w orker and
building occupant healt h relat ive t o indoor air qualit y and pest cont rol.
¯ Wast e M anagement Plan w it h procedures f or salvaging select ed mat erials, recycling of
const ruct ion and demolit ion mat erial, and legally disposing of hazardous mat erials.
Final Design Phase.
¯ Specif icat ion language in t he Special Condit ions or Specif ic Requirement s sect ion of t he
Specif icat ions (as prepared by t he consult ant ) shall def ine t he f ollow ing deliverables t o be
provided by t he const ruct ion cont ract or(s):
• Sit e Prot ect ion Plan, as out lined under “ Technical St rat egies.”
• Const ruct ion Healt h and Saf et y Plan, w hich provides f or t he prot ect ion of w orker and
building occupant healt h relat ive t o indoor air qualit y and pest cont rol.
• Wast e M anagement Plan, w it h procedures f or salvaging select ed mat erials, recycling of
const ruct ion and demolit ion mat erial, and legally disposing of hazardous mat erials.
Const ruct ion Phase.
¯ The Cit y w ill monit or implement at ion of t he Sit e Prot ect ion Plan, Const ruct ion Healt h and
Saf et y Plan, and Wast e M anagement Plan. Const ruct ion cont ract ors are t o document t he
t ypes and quant it ies of mat erials salvaged or recycled f or t he project , and submit
salvage/recycling records t o t he consult ant and client agency.
Regul at or y Const r ai nt s
= Wicks’ Law. Special coordinat ion ef f ort s must be undert aken w hen implement ing high
perf ormance const ruct ion administ rat ion st rat egies in a mult i-cont ract or environment . The
implement at ion responsibilit ies of each of t he requisit e f our prime cont ract ors should be
clearly delineat ed.
PAGE 114
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
Ref er ences
Const ruct ion Wast e and Demolit ion Debris Recycling-A Primer, Solid Wast e Associat ion
of Nort h America, 1993, Silver Spring, M aryland
(301) 585-2898
Fishbein, Bet t e K., Building f or t he Fut ure: St rat egies t o Reduce Const ruct ion and
Demolit ion Wast e in M unicipal Project s, INFORM , Inc., June 1998.
The Guide t o M andat or y Recycling in t he Workplace, New York Cit y Depart ment of Sanit at ion.
Perry, Thomas O., Tree Root s – Where They Grow : Implicat ions & Pract ical Signif icance,
Nort h Carolina St at e Universit y, School of Forest Resources, Raleigh, NC 27650, 1987.
Public Technology, Inc./US Green Building Council/US DOE/US EPA,
Sust ainable Building Technical M anual, Part V, Chapt ers 19 and 20
U.S. Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Of f ice of Solid Wast e,
Charact erizat ion of Building-Relat ed Const ruct ion and Demolit ion Debris in t he Unit ed St at es,
Prepared by Franklin Associat es, EPA Report No. EPA530-R-98-010, June 1998.
Const ruct ion
Administ rat ion
PAGE 115
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Commi ssi oni ng
The commissioning process assures t he building
ow ner t hat t he equipment , syst ems, and cont rols
providing light , heat , cooling, and vent ilat ion are
ef f ect ively w orking t oget her in conf ormance w it h
design int ent . Commissioning det ermines w het her
t he syst ems need t o be adjust ed t o improve
ef f iciency, indoor air qualit y, and acoust ic
perf ormances. The commissioning process
encompasses–but also surpasses–t he normal t est ing,
adjust ing, and balancing (TAB) act ivit ies commonly
perf ormed in inspect ions. Commissioning also
involves comprehensive f unct ional t est ing t o
det ermine how w ell mechanical and elect rical syst ems
w ork t oget her. Because so many building syst ems are
now int egrat ed, a def iciency in one component can
result in subst andard operat ion and perf ormance
among ot her component s.
In general pract ice, a commissioning agent assist s t he
const ruct ion t eam in subst ant ively reducing and
eliminat ing def ect s bef ore t he building is t ur ned over
t o it s occupant s. Commissioning may also occur
based on a part ial syst em upgrade.
Commi ssi oni ng
Fully Int egrat ing
Operat ing Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Commissioning Exist ing
Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Ful l y I nt egr at ed Oper at i ng Syst ems
“ Commissioning is a syst emat ic process, beginning in t he design phase, last ing at least one
year af t er const ruct ion, and including t he preparat ion of operat ing st af f , of ensuring,
t hrough document ed verif icat ion, t hat all building syst ems perf orm int eract ively according t o
t he document ed design int ent and t he ow ner’s operat ional needs.”
Part icipant s in t he f irst Nat ional Conf erence on Building Commissioning
Commissioning act ivit ies t ransf orm t he various building syst ems int o an int egrat ed w hole. During all
t est s and perf ormance prot ocols, a dedicat ed commissioning agent oversees t he building t eam t o
ensure t hat t he syst ems have been w ell-designed, appropriat ely inst alled, and f unct ionally t est ed,
and t hat t he st af f are t rained t o operat e and maint ain t he f acilit y in conf ormance w it h design int ent .
Techni cal St r at egi es
The project t eam should det ermine t he need f or commissioning procedures, including t he phases
during w hich commissioning is needed. The t eam should t hen ident if y t he individual(s) responsible
f or administ ering t he act ivit ies described below. (For a det ailed explanat ion of commissioning act ivit ies ref er t o
ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996.)
O Programming and Budget Phase.
¯ Det ermine t he budget f or appropriat e levels of commissioning act ivit ies. Levels of
commissioning can range f rom a single-source t est ing and verif icat ion cont ract t o
f ull-scale involvement of a dedicat ed commissioning t eam, including design int egrat ion
and review, const ruct ion process review, int eract ive syst ems t est ing, and operat ions and
maint enance st af f t raining.
¯ Ident if y t he syst ems t hat require commissioning (see Syst ems or Component s t o be Included in t he
Commissioning Process, below.)
¯ Ident if y t he person or persons responsible f or developing and overseeing project
commissioning (independent cont ract or, const ruct ion manager, or Cit y represent at ive)
and det ermine t he responsibilit ies of individual t eam members.
O Design Phase.
¯ Review all milest one design document s f or compliance w it h init ial design int ent .
¯ Develop t he Commissioning Plan.
¯ Develop t he commissioning specif icat ions t o be produced by consult ant or
commissioning agent .
¯ Review cont ract document s t o assure complet e coordinat ion among t he various t rades,
paying caref ul at t ent ion t o const ruct ion sequences, mat erials st orage, and sit e access.
O Const ruct ion Phase.
¯ Finalize det ails of t he commissioning procedures.
¯ Review shop draw ings and equipment submit t als.
¯ Conduct periodic commissioning t eam meet ings.
¯ Observe const ruct ion, inst allat ion, st art -up, operat ion, t est ing, and balancing.
Benef it s
$O
F
Proper and
ef f icient
operat ion of
mechanical and
elect rical syst ems
minimizes
operat ional
cost s, ext ends
equipment lif e,
minimizes
dow nt ime due
t o component
f ailures, and
reduces
cont ract or
callbacks.
$P
F
Opt imized
perf ormance of
syst ems support s
t hermal comf ort
and indoor air
qualit y, w hich
are essent ial t o
t he healt h and
perf ormance of
occupant s.
A
PAGE 118
Commissioning
Ensuring syst em perf ormance
Pot ent ial energy savings
Improve client sat isf act ion
Ut ilit y f unding
Research
Improve comf ort
Why Ow ners Commission Their Buildings
81%
80%
53%
41%
37%
25%
Benef it s of Commissioning
According t o a survey of ow ners
involved in 175 project s (w it h a
median f acilit y size of 66,000 s.f .)
t hat have been commissioned since
1994, t he primary reasons t o
commission buildings is t o ensure
syst em perf ormance and t o reduce
energy cost s.
Source: Port land Energy Conservat ion, Inc.
O Accept ance Phase.
¯ Verif y conf ormance of building syst em perf ormance w it h design int ent .
¯ Ident if y def iciencies discovered during t he commissioning process and make correct ive
recommendat ions.
¯ Assemble complet ed as-built records, including inst ruct ion manuals prepared by equipment
manuf act urers, f abricat ors, or inst allers f or inclusion in t he Ow ner’s M anual.
¯ Verif y t he accuracy and complet eness of f inal t est ing, adjust ing, and balancing report s.
¯ Conduct operat ions and maint enance st af f t raining.
O Post -Accept ance Commissioning.
¯ Administ er cont inuing adjust ment , opt imizat ion, and modif icat ion of syst ems t o meet
specif ied operat ing requirement s.
Commi ssi oni ng Exi st i ng Bui l di ngs
For a building renovat ion or inf rast ruct ure upgrade, commissioning should be perf ormed on t he
af f ect ed syst ems or part s of syst ems in a comprehensive manner.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Exist ing syst ems evaluat ion. Evaluat e exist ing syst ems not previously commissioned, and
adjust syst ems as required t o achieve opt imal perf ormance f or present and f ut ure ant icipat ed
perf ormance levels.
O Building t une-ups. Consider ext ending t he benef it s of commissioning t o ot her (or all) building
syst ems t o ext end t he lif e of t hese syst ems and t o improve overall building perf ormance.
Syst ems or Component s t o be Included in Commissioning Process:
O Building Envelope.
• Ext erior w all syst em, including f enest rat ion.
• Roof ing membrane.
O HVAC.
• Air-handling, dist ribut ion, and vent ilat ion syst ems.
• Hydronic dist ribut ion syst ems.
• Heat ing plant and associat ed syst ems.
• Cooling plant and associat ed syst ems.
• Building aut omat ion syst ems and cont rols; direct digit al cont rols/energy management
cont rol syst ems.
O Elect rical.
• Fire det ect ion and alarm syst ems.
• Fire prot ect ion/suppression syst ems.
• Elect rical main sw it chgear and pow er syst ems.
• M ot or cont rol cent ers.
• Light ing syst ems and cont rols.
• St and-by pow er syst ems, unint errupt ed pow er supply syst ems.
• Variable f requency drives.
O Plumbing Syst ems.
• Domest ic hot w at er syst ems.
• Wat er pressure boost er syst ems.
• Gas pressure boost er syst ems.
O Ot her Specialt y Equipment and Syst ems.
Commissioning
PAGE 119
PERFORMANCE GOALS: NEW CONSTRUCTI ON AND RENOVATI ON
Commissioning
DDC Pilot Program
DDC i s p ro ceed i n g w i t h a p i l o t co mmi ssi o n i n g p ro g r am f o r i t s h i g h p er f o r man ce b u i l d i n g
f o r t h e A d mi n i st r at i o n f o r Ch i l d ren ’s Ser vi ces i n t ak e an d t r ai n i n g cen t er. DDC w i l l u se i t s
co n su l t an t t eam , t o g et h er w i t h a co m m i ssi o n i n g ag en t r et ai n ed t h r o u g h t h e
co n st r u ct i o n man ag er, t o co mmi ssi o n t h e b u i l d i n g u p o n co mp l et i o n o f co n st r u ct i o n an d
p r i o r t o o ccu p an cy.
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Operat ions and M aint enance. The bridge bet w een commissioning and
operat ions and maint enance is f ormed by t raining and sust ained t hrough
development of a comprehensive Ow ner’s M anual, w hich should be updat ed
on a regular basis.
O Commission t he building in accordance w it h ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996.
Tool s
> ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996 (w it h sample cont ract language and specif icat ions).
> Building Commissioning Guidelines, 2nd Edit ion, Bonneville Pow er Administ rat ion, prepared by
Port land Energy Conservat ion, Inc., November 1992.
> General Services Administ rat ion (GSA) M odel Commissioning Plan and Guide Specif icat ions,
U.S. General Services Administ rat ion Public Building Service and U.S. Depart ment of Energy
> Int ernat ional Perf ormance M easurement and Verif icat ion Prot ocol, U.S. Depart ment of Energy,
December, 1997.
Del i ver abl es
Pre-Preliminary Phase. Develop t he Commissioning Opport unit ies Scope segment of t he High
Perf ormance Plan. This ent ails t he ident if icat ion and descript ion of t he scope of commissioning
act ivit ies t o be perf ormed bef ore and af t er const ruct ion complet ion. The scope descript ion
should include t he f ollow ing t asks:
¯ Produce a commissioning out line plan, describing t he syst ems scheduled f or
commissioning, nat ure of t est ing t o be perf ormed, at t endance, and required
document at ion.
¯ Produce a commissioning t est plan, including schedule development and implement at ion
f or pre-f unct ional t est ing and f unct ional t est ing.
¯ Issue a f inal commissioning report .
¯ Develop a t raining program f or building operat ors.
Design Development Phase.
¯ Review and comment on design development document s.
Const ruct ion Document s.
¯ Consult ant or commissioning agent t o develop commissioning specif icat ions f or
incorporat ion int o t he cont ract document s.
Const ruct ion.
¯ Commissioning agent t o develop det ailed commissioning t est plan ident if ying t est s t o be
perf ormed, schedules, and at t endance required f or pre-f unct ional t est ing and f unct ional
t est ing.
¯ Commissioning agent t o produce progress report s delineat ing t est result s and making
recommendat ions f or rect if ying def iciencies.
PAGE 120
Commissioning
¯ Commissioning agent t o submit Final Evaluat ion Report , w hich summarizes t he result s of
f unct ional t est ing and makes recommendat ions f or rect if ying def iciencies.
Occupancy.
¯ Produce a t raining videot ape t hat records all sessions covered in t he t raining of operat ions
and maint enance personnel.
¯ Issue a f inal report compiling all result s, f indings, and document at ion produced in support
of t he commissioning process.
Ref er ences
ASHRAE, ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989, Guideline f or Commissioning of HVAC Syst ems,
American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ing and Air-Condit ioning Engineers, Inc., At lant a, GA, 1989,
w w w.ashrae.org
Bearg, David W., The Use of M ult ipoint M onit oring as a Tool f or Commissioning Buildings f or IAQ,
ASHRAE Transact ions, 1999, (105): 1.
Ber nheim, Ant hony, et al., Building Commissioning, present ed at t he AIA 1998 Nat ional Convent ion,
San Francisco, CA, 15 M ay 1998.
Ellis, Rebecca, Commissioning: Get t ing It Right : Building Syst ems Commissioning,
Engineered Syst ems M agazine, Jan. 1998, (15): 1, pp. 108-116 (cont inuing series t hrough M ay).
King, M ichael J., Commissioning Specif icat ions, The Const ruct ion Specif ier,
Aug. 1998 (51): 8, pp. 49-53.
Port land Energy Conservat ion, Inc., Commissioning f or Bet t er Buildings in Oregon,
Oregon Of f ice of Energy, M ar.1997, w w w.cbs.st at e.or.us/ext er nal/ooe
Port land Energy Conservat ion, Inc., Commissioning Resources: Web Sit es w it h Commissioning
Inf ormat ion and Document s, w w w.peci.org, as of 2/12/99.
Post , Nadine M ., Commissioning: Agent s Claim Their Ser vice Can Prevent Building
M alf unct ions, Engineering New s Record, June 1,1998, (240): 22, pp.13-14.
Schiess, Klaus, Commissioning: Brit ain vs. U.S., Engineered Syst ems M agazine,
M ay 1998, (15): 5, pp. 86-89.
Tseng, Paul C., Building Commissioning: Benef it s and Cost s, HPAC M agazine,
Apr. 1998, (70): 4, pp.51-59.
Commissioning
PAGE 121
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Oper at i ons and
Mai nt enance
Adequat e planning f or t he ef f icient operat ion and
maint enance of a building and it s syst ems is a crit ical
component of high perf ormance design and const ruct ion.
Design st rat egies t hat address operat ions and maint enance
(O&M ) issues can result in reduced cust odial cost s and
low er energy consumpt ion. Exposure t o physical and
chemical hazards, t oxins, odors, and pot ent ial ast hma
‘ t riggers’ can be reduced or eliminat ed. Ef f icient operat ion
and maint enance also enhances t he indoor environment
and may cont ribut e posit ively t o user/occupant w ell-being
and product ivit y. To achieve successf ul operat ions and
maint enance, it is import ant t o ensure t hat planned
syst ems and st rat egies are consist ent w it h t he resources
available t o t he client agency.
Oper at i ons and
Mai nt enance
Operat ing and M aint aining
Building Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Healt hy and Ef f icient
Cust odial Operat ions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Wast e Prevent ion and Recycling . . . . . . . . 127
Perf ormance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Oper at i ng and Mai nt ai ni ng Bui l di ng Syst ems
Operat ing and maint enance pract ices ensure t hat all building syst ems
76
f unct ion t o t he f ullest ext ent
of t heir designed ef f iciency and meet specif ied levels of energy and indoor air qualit y perf ormance.
Scheduled maint enance and cleaning w ill help t o yield ongoing energy savings f or t he building
w hile promot ing occupant healt h and comf ort .
Techni cal St r at egi es
O St af f part icipat ion. Act ively engage client agency’s O&M st af f f rom t he point of subst ant ial
const ruct ion complet ion t hrough commissioning and building occupancy.
O Simplif icat ion. Simplif y building syst ems design t o promot e ease of maint enance. For example,
employ light ing design solut ions t hat minimize t he number of dif f erent t ypes of lamps, so t hat
t hey may be easily changed and maint ained.
O Access t o syst ems. Design f or adequat e access t o building syst ems. Equipment manuf act urers
and operat ions st af f should be consult ed on access point s and needed clearances early in t he
design process.
O M aint aining envelope perf ormance. Ensure w eat hert ight ness t hrough a building envelope
maint enance program t hat minimizes t hermal bridging. This can be achieved t hrough act ivit ies
such as immediat e replacement of damaged glazing, t imely repoint ing of masonry, resealing of
roof cracks, and maint aining proper w eat herst ripping and vapor barriers.
O Window cleaning. Schedule regular w indow cleaning t o maximize t he benef it s of daylight ing,
part icularly w here w indow s are close t o sources of air-bor ne dust , f umes, or gases t hat reduce
t he t ransmission of light .
O Relamping. Perf orm relamping using t he most energy ef f icient lamps (and ballast s, if
applicable). In a f acilit y t hat has many older lamps, group relamping can be very cost ef f ect ive.
If group relamping proves impract ical, replace lamps as t hey burn out w it h more ef f icient
lamps, rat her t han simply replacing t he old ones w it h lamps of t he same t ype.
O Training. To assure opt imum perf ormance, provide O&M st af f w it h adequat e t raining in
syst ems operat ions and maint enance.
O Operat ions and M aint enance M anual. Ref er t o t he Operat ions and M aint enance M anual
(w rit t en in accordance w it h ASHRAE Guideline 4-1993, “ Preparat ion of Operat ing and
M aint enance Document at ion f or Building Syst ems” ) provided t o t he client agency’s O&M st af f .
O Saf et y and Healt h Coordinat or. An agency-appoint ed Saf et y and Healt h Coordinat or
77
should develop procedures f or report ing and document ing IAQ complaint s and subsequent
act ions t aken.
78
O M orning purge. When t he energy penalt y is not t oo severe or w here heat recovery vent ilat ors
are in place, run a syst em purge during mor ning st art -up and/or during maint enance and
cleaning. This should be perf ormed f rom t ime t o t ime, mainly during spring and f all w hen
energy penalt ies are slight . Avoid st art -up cont rol sequences w here dampers are closed;
maint ain proper pressures at all t imes.
O Ongoing syst em maint enance. Perf orm adequat e syst em maint enance, including periodic
cleaning, oiling, and minor repairs, as w ell as scheduled major syst em overhaul.
O Energy perf ormance review. Review energy consumpt ion on a quart erly basis.
Considerat ion should be given t o hours of operat ion, peak usage pat t erns, f ixt ure ef f iciency,
and maint enance pract ices. Report irregularit ies t o t he NYC Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion and
agency budget analyst s.
Benef it s
$O
F
Operat ional
savings are
achieved
t hrough ef f icient
management of
syst ems and
ext ended lif e of
equipment and
mat erials,
reduced damage
and repairs t o
equipment and
syst ems, and
energy savings
t hat accrue
based on proper
syst ems
maint enance.
A
PAGE 124
76. For t he purposes of t he Guidelines, ‘ building syst ems’ include all mechanical, elect rical, plumbing, building envelope, f ire det ect ion and suppression,
t elecommunicat ions, and f ood service syst ems.
77. M ayor’s Execut ive Order No. 38 Relat ing t o t he Cit yw ide Occupat ional Saf et y and Healt h Program: General Provisions (supersedes Personnel Policy and
Procedure No. 740-77b), Oct ober 1, 1997.
78. See: Building Air Qualit y Act ion Plan, EPA 402-K-98-001, Unit ed St at es Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Nat ional Inst it ut e of Occupat ional Saf et y and
Healt h, June 1998. Document may be dow nloaded at w w w.epa.gov/iedw eb600/base/baqact .ht ml
Operat ions and
M aint enance
Cent ralized Building M anagement Syst em
New York Public Libraries has inst it ut ed a cent ralized building management syst em (BM S),
w hich enables monit oring and cont rol of all branches’ HVAC syst ems f rom t he M ain Branch
at 42nd St reet . The BM S calls up each library on a comput er and checks st at us remot ely.
Because maint enance problems (such as dirt y f ilt ers) are checked elect ronically, many syst ems
can be repaired or maint ained bef ore a more serious breakdow n occurs.
Heal t hy and Ef f i ci ent Cust odi al Oper at i ons
Reduced human exposure t o physical and chemical hazards and odors associat ed w it h cleaning
product s and pest icides can be achieved t hrough cust odial operat ions t hat employ appropriat e
met hods and low -t oxicit y or non-t oxic cleaning product s.
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Prevent at ive St rat egies.
¯ Select t ext ured paving (rat her t han smoot h surf aces) f or out side approaches, so t hat soils
are scraped of f shoes prior t o building ent ry. Plant ings bordering w alkw ays should not be
of t he t ype t hat drop f low ers or berries t hat can be t racked int o t he building.
¯ M inimize int roduct ion of dirt w it h appropriat ely sized, recessed met al grat ing w it hin
vest ibules. Consider inst alling addit ional ‘ w alk-of f ’ mat s in ent ryw ays t o f urt her prevent dirt
f rom ent ering t he building.
¯ Design kit chen areas and rest rooms f or ease of maint enance. Specif ically, rest room st all
part it ions should be suspended f rom t he ceiling or ext ended f rom w alls t o expedit e f loor
cleaning and eliminat e soil build-up on legs and support s. Sinks should be recessed int o
count er t ops or molded as a single unit w it h a f ront lip t hat keeps w at er f rom spilling ont o
t he f loor.
79
¯ Design janit or’s closet s or cent ral st orage f acilit ies w it h adequat e space f or cleaning product
st orage and t he mixing of concent rat ed cleaning solut ions. Provide separat e out side
vent ing operat ed under negat ive pressure.
O Ongoing M aint enance St rat egies.
¯ Select healt hy and environment ally pref erable cleaning product s (see Appendix J). Obt ain
mat erial saf et y dat a sheet s (M SDSs) and post in prominent , accessible locat ions.
¯ Consider t he use of port ion cont rol devices such as mechanical dispensers, w hich help
ensure saf e mixing of cleaning solut ions, save packaging, and reduce chemical
consumpt ion.
¯ Coordinat e housekeeping and cust odial operat ions w it h building vent ilat ion schedules t o
ensure t hat adequat e vent ilat ion is provided, bot h during and af t er t hese act ivit ies.
¯ Since carpet s t end t o act as ‘ sinks’ f or dirt and dust , a vacuum w it h high-ef f iciency vacuum
bags or high ef f iciency part icle air (HEPA) f ilt ers should be used. When shampooing carpet s,
avoid overw et t ing and allow suf f icient t ime f or t horough drying. Wat er-damaged carpet s
can harbor mold and bact eria.
¯ Develop an Int egrat ed Pest M anagement Plan (see Appendix I). This is especially import ant in
f acilit ies w here children are housed or spend signif icant amount s of t ime.
80
¯ Ensure t hat cust odial st af f are adequat ely t rained and educat ed in t he use of cleaning
product s and procedures. Fost er a sense of pride, and provide perf ormance incent ives f or
cust odial st af f .
Operat ions and
M aint enance
Benef it s
$O
F
Operat ional
savings (labor
and mat erials)
f rom ef f icient
cleaning
prot ocols and
reduced use
of chemical
product s.
$P
F
The pot ent ial
exist s f or
improved
w orker/
occupant
product ivit y,
as w ell as
pot ent ial
reduct ions in
absent eeism.
E
S
Negat ive
impact s
on t he
environment
are reduced
or eliminat ed
by using low -
t oxicit y or
non-t oxic
cleaning
product s; t his
also helps
develop
market s f or
environ-
ment ally-
f riendly
product s and
pract ices.
A
PAGE 125
79. Ashkin, St ephen P. Green & Clean: The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and M aint enance, Rochest er M idland Corporat ion, present ed at The 21st Cent ury Out look
Conf erence, sponsored by American Inst it ut e of Archit ect s, US Green Building Council, and US Depart ment of Energy, November 6-9, 1997, M iami, Florida.
80. According t o t he American Lung Associat ion, ast hma is t he leading serious chronic illness in children, and t he est imat ed annual cost of t reat ing ast hma in t hose under 18
years of age is $1.9 billion. Numerous scient if ic st udies have show n a st rong link bet w een ast hmat ic at t acks and t he presence of cockroaches.
¯ Inst it ut e procedures t o prevent occasional or chronic w at er damage. Where damage has
occurred, ensure t hat maint enance st af f t akes immediat e act ion t o repair t he w at er source;
remove and replace any damaged porous mat erials. Immediat ely eliminat e st anding w at er
and condensat e.
¯ Follow t he Sheet M et al and Air Condit ioning Cont ract ors’ Nat ional Associat ion (SM ACNA)
IAQ Guidelines f or Occupied Buildings Under Const ruct ion in planning f or const ruct ion
act ivit ies w here mat erial removal, paint ing, sanding, and ot her disrupt ive act ivit ies are
ant icipat ed.
¯ Ensure t hat cust odial st af f is adequat ely t rained in t he management and handling of
hazardous mat erials, part icularly lead and asbest os.
• To promot e asbest os aw areness, see M anaging Asbest os in Place: A Building Ow ner’s
Guide t o Operat ions and M aint enance Programs f or Asbest os-Cont aining M at erials, US
EPA, Pest icides and Toxic Subst ances (TS-799), 20T-2003, July 1990.
• For lead aw areness, t raining should include:
– Lead physical propert ies and charact erist ics
– Healt h ef f ect s and medical surveillance requirement s
– Federal regulat ions
– St at e and healt h depart ment regulat ions
– Lead-based paint ident if icat ion t echniques
– Worker prot ect ion equipment
Result s of ‘Green Housekeeping’ Program at Brooklyn Public Library
Reduct ion of Toxins
Over 16 hazardous subst ances have been eliminat ed f rom BPL’s
cleaning operat ions.
82
Reduct ion of Cleaning Product Usage
Facilit y st af f est imat es a reduct ion of approximat ely 50% in t he amount of cleaning product
used. This is primarily t he result of using a proport ioning chemical dispenser, w hich pre-
mixes cleaners and disinf ect ant s f or accurat e dilut ion.
Packaging Wast e Reduct ion
The need f or 55-gallon st orage drums has been eliminat ed. In addit ion t o being bulky
and w ast ef ul, t hese drums w ere dif f icult and dangerous t o handle.
Improved Ef f iciency
The proport ioning dispenser has been show n t o save t ime because t he need f or mixing of
product s and w alking back and f ort h f or w at er has been eliminat ed. In addit ion, BPL st af f
believe t hat t his init iat ive has boost ed t he morale of t he cust odial st af f , and as a result ,
product ivit y has increased.
Public Educat ion and Format ion
of t he ‘Green Team’
Comprised of a represent at ive cross-sect ion
of depart ment s as w ell as cust odial st af f ,
t he Green Team has given library st af f t he
opport unit y t o part icipat e in posit ive
change. In addit ion t o overseeing t he green
housekeeping program, t he Green Team has
improved t he library’s purchasing and
discard procedures. The Green Team also
has educat ed t he ent ire BPL syst em
(approximat ely 1,400 people) on t hese
import ant environment al init iat ives.
PAGE 126
Operat ions and
M aint enance
81. The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) and Rochest er M idland Corporat ion, t oget her w it h DDC’s Of f ice of Sust ainable Design and Const ruct ion, init iat ed a
‘ green housekeeping’ program at BPL’s cent ral branch, Grand Army Plaza. The program aimed t o improve t he qualit y of t he indoor environment by
reducing t oxins in cleaning product s and increasing t he ef f iciency of cleaning operat ions. Af t er an init ial t rial period, w hich included est ablishing a
baseline, st af f t raining, inst allat ion of a proport ioning product dispenser, and t est ing t he program on one f loor, t he program w as expanded t o t he
ent ire library.
82. These include but oxyet hanol, diacet one alcohol, dipropylene glycol, pet roleum dist illat es, et hanolamine, et hyl et her, isobut ane, isopropanol, met hyl
et her, napt ha, nonyl phenolet hoxylat e.
Brooklyn Public Library Green Team
Phot o: Harry Yarw ood, BPL
Wast e Pr event i on and Recycl i ng
Reducing, reusing, and recycling solid, liquid, and f ood w ast e f rom day-t o-day
building operat ions and act ivit ies are crit ical high perf ormance operat ing st rat egies,
in t hat t hey ef f ect ively promot e ongoing resource conservat ion. Purchasing
decisions can also cont ribut e t o w ast e prevent ion (e.g., specif ying mechanically-
cont rolled roll t ow els inst ead of disposable f olded t ow els; avoiding product s w it h
excessive or unnecessary packaging).
Techni cal St r at egi es
O Educat ion. Educat e client agency (users/occupant s) on recycling and w ast e
reduct ion measures. Publicize and rew ard successf ul employee ef f ort s.
O Wast e prevent ion compliance. Follow t he M ayoral Direct ive on Wast e
Prevent ion and Ef f icient M at erials M anagement Policies of 1996, w hich
requires agencies t o inst it ut e various w ast e prevent ion pract ices, such as
double-sided copying and use of
e-mail rat her t han paper f or of f ice
communicat ions.
83
O Recycling areas. Provide dedicat ed
areas f or recycling bins, recycling
chut es, and ot her accommodat ions
t o promot e ease of w ast e
management . Ensure t hat t here is
adequat e st orage space f or–and
access f or removal of –recyclables.
Operat ions and
M aint enance
PAGE 127
83. For a copy of t he Direct ive, cont act t he M ayor’s Of f ice of Operat ions at 212-788-1400.
Benef it s
$O
M
M unicipal
operat ional
savings are
achieved by
divert ing w ast e
f rom landf ills.
E
S
Environment al
benef it s accrue
based on
reduced mat erial
w ast e and
consumpt ion;
conservat ion of
nat ural
resources.
A
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
O Depart ment of Sanit at ion requirement s. Comply w it h current Depart ment of Sanit at ion
requirement s f or recycling.
84
O Compost ing. Consider compost ing if t here is subst ant ial f ood or yard w ast e.
85
O Wat er management t raining. Provide maint enance st af f w it h any necessary t raining t o
support rainw at er/grayw at er management .
Bui l di ng I nt egr at i on
Sit e Design and Planning. Building sit e design must incorporat e f acilit ies
and space f or recycling. This includes space f or collect ion and st orage, as
w ell as access f or collect ion vehicles. Communicat e w it h t he client agency
on plans f or recycling and/or compost ing.
Sit e Design and Planning. Adhere t o sust ainable landscape pract ices
as described in Sit e Design and Planning.
Indoor Environment . Properly cleaned and maint ained HVAC syst ems
support healt hf ul indoor air qualit y.
M at erial and Product Select ion. Select mat erials and product s f or ease
of maint enance; e.g., mat erials t hat do not require unusual or pot ent ially
t oxic cleaners, or combinat ions of cleaners in t he same space.
Commissioning. Commissioning w ill inf orm and enhance t he
ef f ect iveness of t he building’s operat ions and maint enance.
PAGE 128
Operat ions and
M aint enance
Compost ing Facilit y at Rikers Island
Phot o: Joyce Lee
84. For most current recycling rules, client agencies should cont act t he Sanit at ion Act ion Cent er at (212) 219-8090.
85. For guidance on compost ing st rat egies, client agencies can cont act t he Sanit at ion Act ion Cent er, (212) 219-8090.
PERFORMANCE GOALS ( FOR CLI ENT AGENCI ES)
Operat ions and
M aint enance
LEVEL 1
O M aint ain building syst ems t o level of designed ef f iciency, according t o
equipment ’s lif e expect ancy.
O Complet e t he Operat ions and M aint enance M anual as described in
ASHRAE Guidelines 4-1993, Preparat ion of Operat ing and M aint enance
Document at ion f or Building Syst ems. Ensure t hat t he manual est ablishes
crit eria f or evaluat ing t he building’s O&M program and commit s t he
maint enance st af f t o basic st andards of perf ormance, such as prompt
response t o mechanical f ailure, ongoing maint enance, and at t ent ion t o
planned f unct ions t hat prot ect t he capit al invest ment . Also seek t o
minimize dow nt ime and expedit e f ailure response t ime.
O Commit t o HVAC syst em inspect ions as f ollow s: (1) semi-annual inspect ion
of HVAC syst em operat ion by designat ed and t rained IAQ manager,
including at minimum, int ake point s, f ilt ers, heat exchange unit s and coils,
f ans, main duct s, equipment rooms, damper linkages, condensat e
collect ion point s, humidif iers and ceiling t iles in ceiling plenum spaces; (2)
annual inspect ion t o verif y t hat dampers, valves, f ans, VAV devices, and
ot her act ive component s respond t o cont rols in accordance w it h design
int ent .
O Commit t o est ablishing prevent ive maint enance procedures and
perf orming t hese act ivit ies based on recommended scheduling as
est ablished in t he O&M manual, so as not t o def er scheduled and
unscheduled maint enance.
O Follow SM ACNA’s IAQ Guidelines f or Occupied Buildings Under
Const ruct ion in planning f or const ruct ion act ivit ies w here mat erial
removal, paint ing, sanding, and ot her disrupt ive act ivit ies are ant icipat ed.
O Inst it ut e a policy of ‘ light s out ’ in rooms lef t unoccupied f or more
t han 15 minut es.
O Comply w it h current DOS recycling rules f or cit y agencies and inst it ut ions.
O Cleaning product s shall comply w it h t he environment al and packaging
requirement s of t he Green Seal St andard f or Household Cleaners, GS-08,
First Edit ion, November 2, 1993, Numbers 2 (Product Specif ic
Environment al Requirement s) and 3 (Packaging Requirement s).
w w w.greenseal.org/st andard/h-cleanr.ht m
O Examine f easibilit y of a green housekeeping program, including use of a
proport ioning dispenser and low -t oxicit y or non-t oxic cleaning product s.
LEVEL 2
O Format ion of a ‘ Green Team’ similar t o t hat est ablished by Brooklyn Public
Library’s main branch (See Example on page 126).
O Commit t o document ing w ast e and st rive t o recycle 75% of t ot al
recyclable mat erial. Not e t hat t ot al recyclable mat erials f or a given agency
may decrease once w ast e prevent ion measures are implement ed.
O Where f acilit ies exist , separat e organic w ast e f or compost ing.
O Commit t o document ing t he f acilit y’s overall annual building energy use
and energy cost s so as t o est ablish a benchmark perf ormance level. The
benchmark energy use level shall be compared t o energy use predict ions
est ablished by t he building design t eam, and/or shall be at or below t he
energy use (kbt u/sf /yr or equivalent $/sf /yr) st andards developed in t he
EPA Energy St ar Buildings program.
O As appropriat e, inst it ut e energy ef f icient measures such as replacing f ailed
st andard elect ric mot ors w it h high ef f iciency mot ors; replacing
incandescent lamps w it h compact f luorescent lamps and ballast s;
calibrat ing equipment and cont rols t o meet act ual load condit ions.
Operat ions and
M aint enance
PAGE 129
PAGE 130
Operat ions and
M aint enance
Tool s
> M ayoral Direct ive on Wast e Prevent ion and Ef f icient M at erials M anagement Policies of 1996.
> Unit ed St at es Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Int egrat ed Pest M anagement f or Schools: A
How -t o M anual, EPA 909-B-97-001, M arch, 1997.
> US Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Indoor Air Qualit y: Tools f or Schools Act ion Kit , Of f ice of
Radiat ion and Indoor Air, Indoor Environment s Division (6607J), EPA 402-K-95-001, 1995.
Available f rom ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/iaq/schools/t ools4s2.ht ml. Addit ionally, t w o videos are
available f ree of charge, “ IAQ Tools f or Schools–Taking Act ion” and “ Vent ilat ion Basics”
available f rom IAQ Inf o Clearinghouse, (800) 438-4318.
> Unit ed St at es Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, M anaging Asbest os in Place: A Building
Ow ner’s Guide t o Operat ions and M aint enance Programs f or Asbest os-Cont aining M at erials,
US EPA, Pest icides and Toxic Subst ances (TS-799), 20T-2003, July 1990.
> EPA Cleaning Product s Pilot Project : ht t p://w w w.epa.gov/oppt int r/epp/cleaners/select /
> Green Seal Web Sit e: ht t p://w w w.greenseal.org See: Green Seal, Inc. St andard f or Household
Cleaners (GS 08), First Edit ion, November 2, 1993 (While t hese st andards are geared t ow ard
resident ial cleaners, t hey provide product -specif ic environment al requirement s).
Del i ver abl es
Pre-Preliminary Phase. High Perf ormance Plan: Operat ional Wast e Analysis.
¯ Ident if y and describe t he scope of operat ions and maint enance issues t o be implement ed in
t he project , including t he f ollow ing:
• M aint enance implicat ions of design alt er nat ives and f eat ures.
• Wast e prevent ion and recycling during building operat ions.
• Development of cleaning and maint enance schedules and prot ocols f or syst ems and f inishes.
• Ident if icat ion of low -t oxicit y or non-t oxic housekeeping mat erials.
• Space and access requirement s t o support recycling.
Design Development Phase.
¯ Recommend w ast e prevent ion and recycling measures.
Const ruct ion Document s.
¯ Perf orm a design review of mat erials and det ails f rom t he st andpoint of cleaning prot ocols
and cost s.
Post Occupancy.
¯ Development of low t oxicit y maint enance and cleaning prot ocols f or t he f ull spect rum of
inst alled mat erials. Incorporat e t hese prot ocols int o t he Ow ner’s M anual.
Ref er ences
American Societ y f or Test ing and M at erials (ASTM ). ASTM St andard E1971, St andard Guide f or t he Cleaning of
Commercial and Inst it ut ional Buildings, ASTM : West Conshohock PA.
Ashkin, St ephen P. Green & Clean: The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and M aint enance, Rochest er
M idland Corporat ion, present ed at t he 21st Cent ury Out look Conf erence, sponsored by American Inst it ut e of
Archit ect s, US Green Building Council, and US Depart ment of Energy, November 6-9, 1997, M iami, Florida.
ASHRAE Guidelines 4-1993, Preparat ion of Operat ing and M aint enance Document at ion
f or Building Syst ems.
Frant z, St ephen C., “ Archit ect ure and Commensal Vert ebrat e Pest M anagement ,” Archit ect ural Design and
Indoor M icrobial Pollut ion, pages 228-295, R.B. Kundsin, Ed., Oxf ord Universit y Press, New York, 1988.
Green Seal, Choose Green Report : General Purpose Cleaners, M arch, 1998.
Public Technology, Inc., US Green Building Council, US Depart ment of Energy, Sust ainable Building Technical
M anual, Part VI. For ordering inf ormat ion: ht t p://w w w.usgbc.org/resource/index.ht m
Unit ed St at es Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Of f ice of Air and Radiat ion, Indoor Environment s Division,
An Of f ice Building Occupant ’s Guide t o Indoor Air Qualit y, EPA-402-K-97-003, Oct ober 1997.
Document may be dow nloaded f rom w w w.epa.gov/iedw eb600/pubs/occupgd.ht ml
Unit ed St at es Environment al Prot ect ion Agency, Nat ional Inst it ut e of Occupat ional Saf et y and Healt h,
Building Air Qualit y Act ion Plan, EPA 402-K-98-001, June, 1998.
Document may be dow nloaded at w w w.epa.gov/iedw eb600/base/baqact .ht ml
Operat ions and
M aint enance
PAGE 131
Illust rat ion: Bruce Hendler
Par t Four :
End Pages
End Pages
Acknow ledgment s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Par t I
I nt r oduct i on, How t o Use
and Pur pose of t hese
Gui del i nes, Over vi ew of Hi gh
Per f or mance Bui l di ngs
Hillary Brow n
Measur abl e Cost s
and Benef i t s
Robert Wat son and Dat e Bryk,
NRDC; Joyce Lee, Vincent Yuen,
Simon Kong, OM B; Jennif er St enzel;
Louise Woehrle, M ayor’s Of f ice of
Const ruct ion (ODC);
Craig Kneeland, NYSERDA,
Richard Appelbaum, Of f ice of
Energy Conservat ion (OEC);
St ephen Campbell, Design
Trust Fellow ; Hillary Brow n
Par t I I
Ci t y Pr ocess
St ephen Campbell, Design Trust
Fellow, Roger Cumming; Diane
Smit h; Richard Brot hert on; Joyce
Lee, OM B; Louise Woehrle, ODC
Desi gn Pr ocess
John Krieble, Roger Cumming,
Fredric Bell, Johannes Knesl,
M isia Leonard, Richard Brot hert on,
Carol Lat man, Hillary Brow n
Par t I I I
Si t e Desi gn and Pl anni ng
M archa Johnson, Depart ment
of Parks and Recreat ion;
M aria Put er nicki, Bruce Hendler,
John Harringt on
Bui l di ng Ener gy Use
M aria Voit iuc, John Krieble,
Carol Lat man, Kung Ko,
Cal Goldst ein, Charles M orrissey,
Christ opher Gallo, M aria Kolesnick,
Thomas Robert s;
Richard Appelbaum, OEC
I ndoor Envi r onment
Johannes Knesl, Carol Lat man,
John Harringt on, Cal Goldst ein,
Charles M orrissey, Christ opher Gallo
Mat er i al and Pr oduct Sel ect i on
Jennif er St enzel, Carol Lat man,
Ellery Pichardo, Dan Eschenasy,
Richard Brot hert on
Wat er Management
Warren Liebold, Depart ment of
Environment al Prot ect ion; Frant z
Woolley, Angelo Elmi, Aydin Kurun
Const r uct i on Admi ni st r at i on
Jennif er St enzel, Roger Cumming,
John Krieble, M ichael Cet era;
Louise Woehrle, ODC
Commi ssi oni ng
Christ opher Gallo, John Krieble;
Joyce Lee, OM B
Oper at i ons and Mai nt enance
Jennif er St enzel, M ichael Cet era,
Angelo Elmi; Joyce Lee, OM B
PAGE 134
Acknowl edgment s
The success of t he High Perf ormance Building Guidelines project is in no small measure due t o t he highly
collaborat ive nat ure of it s development , benef it t ing f rom t he vision and sust ained cont ribut ions of many individuals.
The Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion w ould especially like t o acknow ledge: Craig Kneeland of t he New York
St at e Energy Research and Development Aut horit y (NYSERDA); Adrian Tuluca, William Bobenhausen, Cat herine
Coombs, and John Amat ruda, all of St even Wint er Associat es; Robert Wat son and Dale Bryk of t he Nat ural
Resources Def ense Council (NRDC); Joyce Lee, Of f ice of M anagement and Budget (OM B); and Nancy VandenBerg,
M arket s f or Recycled Product s, as w ell as all t he Guidelines aut hors and cont ribut ors list ed below.
The Design Trust w ould like t o acknow ledge t he leadership and commit ment of DDC' s Assist ant Commissioner
Hillary Brow n, w ho envisioned t he project and guided it daily, and t he dedicat ion and managerial expert ise of lead
Design Trust Fellow St ephen Campbell, as w ell as t he t ireless energies of Deput y Project Direct or Jennif er St enzel and
t he guiding know ledge and commit ment of project consult ant William Reed.
Aut hor s
The aut hors of t he Guidelines w ere recruit ed f rom DDC' s ow n archit ect ural and engineering, t echnical support , and
project management st af f , as w ell as members of ot her Cit y agencies. Writ t en chapt er mat erial result ed f rom a series
of w orkshops t hat w ere f acilit at ed by t he consult ant s. Unless ot herw ise not ed by Cit y agency or ot her af f iliat ion, all
list ed below are DDC st af f .
End Pages
DDC Archit ect ure
& Engineering Coordinat ors:
Johannes Knesl, Carol Lat man
Ot her DDC Advisors
and Part icipant s
Jessica Williamson,
Anne Papageorge, M at t M onahan,
Ellen Reiser, Louie Rueda, Robin
Bur ns, Erica Port er, Susan Scot t i
Graphics
Graphic Designer:Krist in Bar nes
Graphics Cont ribut ors:
Bruce Hendler, Johannes Knesl,
Carol Lat man,Kennet h Damally,
Raisa Sarat ovsky
Edit ing
Senior Edit or: Will Zachmann,
St even Wint er Associat es
Edit ing Cont ribut or:
M ary Jean Frank, NYSERDA
Funding
New York St at e Energy Research
and Development Aut horit y
The Energy Foundat ion
Robert St erling Clark Foundat ion
This publicat ion is made possible
w it h public f unds f rom t he
New York St at e Council on t he Art s,
a St at e Agency.
M anagement
Hillary Brow n, M anaging Edit or
St ephen Campbell, Project Execut ive
Jennif er St enzel, Deput y Project
Direct or
St eering Commit t ee
Depart ment of Design
and Const ruct ion:
Fredric Bell, Hillary Brow n,
Design Trust f or Public Space:
Andrea Woodner, Claire Weisz
Of f ice of M anagement
and Budget : Joyce Lee
M ayor' s Of f ice of Const ruct ion:
Louise Woehrle
New York St at e Energy Research
and Development Aut horit y:
Craig Kneeland
Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion of
Depart ment of Cit yw ide
Administ rat ive Services:
Chet Advani, Richard Appelbaum
Design Trust Fellow s
St ephen A. Campbell,
Phoenix Design
William G. Reed,
Global Environment al Opt ions
Design Trust St af f
Simon Bert rang
Tobie Cor nejo
Consult ant s
St even Wint er Associat es (SWA):
William Bobenhausen,
Cat herine Coombs, John Amat ruda,
Adrian Tuluca, Christ ine Bruncat i,
Carl Brow n
Nat ural Resources Def ense Council:
Robert Wat son, Dale Bryk
INFORM : John Wint er
M arket s f or Recycled Product s:
Nancy VandenBerg
INDUSTRY CONTRIBUTORS
Workshop Facilit at ors:
Alan Traugot t , Flack + Kurt z
Consult ing Engineers
Asher Derman, Green Oct ober
Foundat ion
Workshop Part icipant s and
Peer Review ers:
M ichael Ambrosino, Ambrosino
DePint o Schmeider; Lou Arzano,
Ove Arup & Part ners; St ephen
Ashkin, Rochest er M idland
Corporat ion; Walt er Bishop, Wank
Adams Slavin Associat es; Terry
Brennan, Camroden Associat es;
Rachel Chaput , EPA Indoor Air
Branch; Bradley Cohen, Empire St at e
Development ; Barry Donaldson,
Barry Donaldson & Associat es;
Susan Drew, Gruzen Samt on
Archit ect s; William Esposit o,
Ambient Labs; Jordan Fox,
Syska & Hennessey; St ephen Frant z,
New York St at e Depart ment of
Healt h; M ark Harari, Lehrer
M cGover n Bovis; Anne Haynes,
Cesar Pelli & Associat es; Jay Jacoby,
Ogee Archit ect s; Everado Jef f erson,
Caples Jef f erson; Carl Kaiserman,
Rot hzeid Kaiserman Thomson & Bee
Archit ect s; Anne Kale, Anne Kale
Associat es; Daniel J. Kaplan,
Fox & Fow le; Susan Kaplan,
HLW Int er nat ional; Beyhan Karahan,
Beyhan Karahan and Associat es;
David Kleckner, Depart ment of
Sanit at ion; David Kluge, Vollmer
Associat es; Harshad Lakani,
Lakani & Jordan; Valent ine Lehr,
Lehr Associat es; Gail Lindsey,
Design Harmony; Richard M eilin,
Kallen & Lemelson; Quent in M unier,
Ehrenkrant z Eckst ut & Kuhn; Dan
Nall, Flack + Kurt z; Signe Nielsen,
Signe Nielsen Associat es; David
Norris, Carpent er/Norris Consult ing;
Aaron Pines, Const ruct ion
Specif icat ions; Jamie Purint on,
Purint on & Wisniew ski; M art y
Salzberg, Cline Bet t ridge &
Associat es; M aiya Shaw, Sierra Club;
Ravi Shenoy, M ariano D. M olina;
Robert Silman, Silman Associat es;
Carl St ein, St ein Whit e Archit ect s;
St ephen Thomson, Thomson
Archit ect s; John Tif f any,
Tif f any Bader Environment al;
Kennet h Tolbert , O' Brien
Kreit zberg & Associat es.
Client Cont ribut ors:
Brooklyn Public Library:
Elisabet h M art in,
Harry Yarw ood,
St ephen LaSpina,
Ant on Wolf shor ndl
Depart ment of Cult ural Af f airs:
Susan Chin
Depart ment of Cit yw ide
Administ rat ive Services:
Elizabet h Theof an
Administ rat ion f or
Children' s Services:
Elizabet h Cucchiaro
Depart ment of Healt h:
Sally Yap
‘Environment ally Responsible’
Building Guidelines Project
Bud Grif f is, Robert Silman,
Danielle Smoller,
Columbia Universit y;
Vict or Goldsmit h,
Cit y Universit y of New York;
M ark Hast ak, Polyt echnic Universit y;
Asher Derman,
Green Oct ober Foundat ion;
Alan Traugot t , Flack + Kurt z,
Consult ing Engineers;
William Bobenhausen,
St even Wint er Associat es;
Craig Kneeland, NYSERDA;
Bet t e Fishbein, INFORM ;
Louise Woehrle, ODC;
Joyce Lee, OM B;
Hillary Brow n, DDC
End Pages
PAGE 135
GLOSSARY
Accept able indoor air qualit y: Air in an occupied space t ow ard w hich a subst ant ial majorit y of
occupant s express no dissat isf act ion and in w hich t here are not likely t o be know n cont aminant s at
concent rat ions leading t o exposures t hat pose a signif icant healt h risk (ASHRAE 62-1989 draf t
revision).
Acid rain: Acid rain is f ormed w hen sulf ur dioxide and nit rogen oxides – pollut ant s result ing
primarily f rom bur ning coal, oil, and ot her f ossil f uels – mix w it h w at er vapor in t he at mosphere t o
creat e acidic compounds. Acid rain impact s aquat ic ecosyst ems, high alt it ude f orest s, creat es haze,
and cont ribut es t o t he det eriorat ion of buildings and hist orical monument s.
“Air-lock” ent rances: A passive device t hat act s as a buf f er t o prevent condit ioned air f rom
escaping a building. Usually a set of double doors or a revolving door.
Albedo: The rat io of ref lect ed light t o t he t ot al amount f alling on a surf ace. A high albedo
indicat es high ref lect ance propert ies.
Biodiversit y: The t endency in ecosyst ems, w hen undist urbed, t o have a large number and w ide
range of species of animals, plant s, f ungi, and microorganisms. Human populat ion pressure and
resource consumpt ion t end t o reduce biodiversit y.
Biosw ale: St rat egically placed eart hen depression t hat capt ure st ormw at er and f ilt er it using nat ive
w et land plant s.
Brise-soleil: An ext erior archit ect ural element designed t o cont rol t he penet rat ion of direct
sunlight int o a building.
Brow nf ields: Abandoned, idled, or under-used indust rial and commercial f acilit ies w here
expansion or redevelopment is complicat ed by real or perceived environment al cont aminat ion.
Buf f er: A ‘ buf f er’ is a st rip of heavily veget at ed land t hat absorbs and f ilt ers runof f w at er.
Building commissioning: A syst emat ic process beginning in t he design phase, last ing at least one
year af t er const ruct ion, and including t he preparat ion of operat ing st af f of ensuring, t hrough
document ed verif icat ion, t hat all building syst ems perf orm int eract ively according t o t he
document ed design int ent and t he ow ner’s operat ional needs.
Building relat ed illness: The t erm " building relat ed illness" (BRI) is used w hen sympt oms of
diagnosable illness are ident if ied and can be at t ribut ed direct ly t o airbor ne building cont aminant s.
See also “ sick building syndrome.”
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
): A nat urally occurring greenhouse gas in t he at mosphere, concent rat ions
of w hich have increased (f rom 280 part s per million in preindust rial t imes t o over 350 part s per
million t oday) as a result of humans' bur ning of coal, oil, nat ural gas and organic mat t er (e.g.,
w ood and crop w ast es).
Chlorof luorocarbons (CFCs): A f amily of chemicals used in ref rigerat ion, air condit ioning,
packaging, insulat ion, or as solvent s and aerosol propellant s. Because CFCs are not dest royed in
t he low er at mosphere t hey drif t int o t he upper at mosphere w here t heir chlorine component s
dest roy t he eart h’s prot ect ive ozone layer.
Clerest ory: Clerest ories have many of t he at t ribut es of skylight s except t hat t hey occur in t he
vert ical rat her t han t he horizont al plane.
Climat e change: A regional change in t emperat ure and w eat her pat t er ns. Current science
indicat es a discer nible link bet w een climat e change over t he last cent ury and human act ivit y,
specif ically t he bur ning of f ossil f uels.
Compost ing: A process w hereby organic w ast es, including f ood w ast es, paper, and yard w ast es,
decompose nat urally, result ing in a product rich in minerals and ideal f or gardening and f arming as
a soil condit ioner, mulch, resurf acing mat erial, or landf ill cover.
Daylight ing: The met hod of illuminat ed building int eriors w it h nat ural light .
Demand cont rol vent ilat ion: Vent ilat ion provided in response t o act ual number of occupant s
and occupant act ivit y.
Design charret t e: The charret t e process is a f ocused w orkshop(s) w hich t akes place in t he early
phase of t he design process. All project t eam members meet t oget her t o exchange ideas,
encouraging generat ion of int egrat ed design solut ions.
PAGE 136
End Pages
Dust spot ef f iciency: The dust spot ef f iciency t est is a semi-quant it at ive measure of a f ilt er’s
collect ion ef f iciency f or f ine part icles – t hose associat ed w it h smudging of t he int erior surf aces of
buildings. Upst ream and dow nst ream paper t arget f ilt ers collect part icles and t he opacit y (light
t ransmission) is measured.
Embodied energy: Embodied energy account s f or all energy expended f or product ion and
t ransport at ion plus inherent energy at a specif ic point in t he lif e cycle of a product .
Energy modeling: A comput er model t hat analyzes t he building’s energy-relat ed f eat ures in order
t o project energy consumpt ion of a given design.
Environment ally pref erable: Product s or services t hat have a lesser or reduced ef f ect on human
healt h and t he environment w hen compared w it h compet ing product s or services t hat serve t he
same purpose. This comparison may consider raw mat erials acquisit ion, product ion,
manuf act uring, packaging, dist ribut ion, reuse, operat ion, maint enance, or disposal of t he product
or service.
Fossil f uel: A f uel, such as coal, oil, and nat ural gas, produced by t he decomposit ion of ancient
(f ossilized) plant s and animals.
Fuel cell: A t echnology t hat uses an elect rochemical process t o convert energy int o elect rical
pow er. Of t en pow ered by nat ural gas, f uel cell pow er is cleaner t han grid-connect ed pow er
sources. In addit ion, hot w at er is produced as a by-product t hat can be ut ilized as a t hermal
resource f or t he building.
Geot hermal heat exchange t echnology: In w int er, geot hermal heat exchange t echnology ut ilizes
heat f rom subsurf ace w at er t o heat buildings; in summer, t his t echnology ext ract s heat f rom t he
building int o subsurf ace w at er f or cooling.
Global w arming: Increase in t he average t emperat ure of t he eart h' s surf ace.
(See ‘ greenhouse ef f ect ’ ).
Grayw at er: Wast ew at er t hat does not cont ain sew age or f ecal cont aminat ion and can be reused
f or irrigat ion af t er simple f ilt rat ion.
Greenhouse ef f ect : The process t hat raises t he t emperat ure of air in t he low er at mosphere due t o
heat t rapped by greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, met hane, nit rous oxide, chlorof luoro-
carbons, and t ropospheric (ground level) ozone.
Heat recovery syst ems (sensible and lat ent ): Building mechanical syst ems t hat capt ure w ast e
heat f rom anot her syst em and use it t o replace heat t hat w ould ot herw ise come f rom a primary
energy source.
Hydrochlorof luorocarbon (HCFC): HCFCs are generally less det riment al t o deplet ion of
st rat ospheric ozone t han relat ed chlorof luorocarbons. HCFCs are generally used t o replace CFCs
w here mandat es require CFCs t o be eliminat ed. A t ot al ban on all CFCs and HCFCs is scheduled
ef f ect ive 2030.
Int egrat ed pest management : A coordinat ed approach t o pest cont rol t hat is int ended t o
prevent unaccept able levels of pest s by t he most cost -ef f ect ive means w it h t he least possible hazard
t o building occupant s, w orkers, and t he environment .
Ion generat ors: Ionizers or ion generat ors act by charging t he part icles in a room so t hat t hey are
at t ract ed t o w alls, f loors, t ablet ops, draperies, occupant s, et c. Abrasion can result in t hese part icles
being re-suspended int o t he air. In some cases, t hese devices cont ain a collect or t o at t ract t he
charged part icles back t o t he unit . While ion generat ors may remove small part icles (e.g., t hose in
t obacco smoke) f rom t he indoor air, t hey do not remove gases or odors, and may be relat ively
inef f ect ive in removing large part icles such as pollen and dust allergens.
K-Rat ed t ransf ormer: A t ransf ormer used t o supply pow er t o non-linear loads such as comput ers.
It is a specially designed t ransf ormer w it h an oversized neut ral t o accommodat e t he high neut ral
current caused by t he harmonics generat ed by t he equipment served.
Lif e cycle assessment : The comprehensive examinat ion of a product ’s environment al and
economic aspect s and pot ent ial impact s t hroughout it s lif et ime, including raw mat erial ext ract ion,
t ransport at ion, manuf act uring, use and disposal.
Lif e cycle cost : The amort ized annual cost of a product , including capit al cost s, inst allat ion cost s,
operat ing cost s, maint enance cost s, and disposal cost s discount ed over t he lif et ime of a product .
End Pages
PAGE 137
Light pollut ion: Light pollut ion – excess bright ness in t he sky result ing f rom direct and indirect
light ing above urban areas – has had a negat ive impact on t he urban ecology, disrupt ing biological
cycles in plant s and animals. It has also been hypot hesized t hat human healt h requires a cert ain
amount of exposure t o darkness. The amount of energy w ast ed in light ing t he sky or out door and
indoor spaces, w hich do not need it , has been est imat ed conservat ively t o reach approximat ely
$2 billion per year in t he US.
Light shelf : A light shelf is a horizont ally-placed light ref lect or.
Low -e w indow s: “ Low -E" (low -emissivit y) w indow s ref lect heat , not light , and t heref ore keep
spaces w armer in w int er and cooler in summer.
Low pressure drop high ef f iciency air f ilt ers: Ext ended surf ace pleat ed air f ilt ers t hat allow
great er air f ilt rat ion w it hout a signif icant increase in f an horsepow er requirement s.
M at erial saf et y dat a sheet (M SDS): Forms t hat cont ain brief inf ormat ion regarding chemical and
physical hazards, healt h ef f ect s, proper handling, st orage, and personal prot ect ion appropriat e f or
use of a part icular chemical in an occupat ional environment .
M onolit hic building syst ems: A charact erist ic of archit ect ural building syst ems t hat are
comprised of a f ew larger element s w it h f ew if any joint s bet w een t hem.
Nit rogen oxide (NO
x
): A product of combust ion f rom t ransport at ion and st at ionary sources such
as pow er plant s. NO
x
is a major cont ribut or t o acid rain and t o ground level ozone (t he primary
component of smog).
Operat ions & M aint enance: Operat ions ref ers t o how equipment or syst ems are run, e.g., w hen
a syst em should be t ur ned on, t emperat ure ranges, set point s f or boiler pressures and
t emperat ures, t hermost at set point s, et c. M aint enance ref ers t o servicing or repair of equipment
and syst ems. “ Prevent ive maint enance” perf ormed on a periodic or schedule basis t o ensure
opt imum lif e and perf ormance is designed t o prevent breakdow n and unant icipat ed loss of
product ion or perf ormance. “ Correct ive” or “ unscheduled” maint enance ref ers t o repairs on a
syst em t o bring it back “ on-line.” “ Predict ive” maint enance is perf ormed on equipment monit ored
f or signs of w ear or degradat ion, e.g., t hrough t hermography, oil analysis, vibrat ion analysis,
maint enance hist ory evaluat ion.
Ozone: 1. St rat ospheric ozone: In t he st rat osphere (t he at mosphere layer beginning 7 t o 10 miles
above t he eart h), ozone is a f orm of oxygen f ound nat urally w hich provides a prot ect ive layer
shielding t he eart h f rom ult raviolet radiat ion’s harmf ul ef f ect s on humans and t he environment .
2. Ground level ozone. Ozone produced near t he eart h’s surf ace t hrough complex chemical
react ions of nit rogen oxides, volat ile organic compounds, and sunlight . Ground level ozone is t he
primary component of smog and is harmf ul t o humans and t he environment .
Phot ovolt aic panels (PVs): Phot ovolt aic devices use semiconduct or mat erial t o direct ly convert
sunlight int o elect ricit y. Pow er is produced w hen sunlight st rikes t he semiconduct or mat erial and
creat es an elect ric current .
Post -consumer recycled cont ent : Post -consumer mat erial is a mat erial or f inished product t hat
has served it s int ended use and has been discarded f or disposal or recovery, having complet ed it s
lif e as a consumer it em.
Pre-consumer recycled cont ent : Pre-consumer mat erial is mat erial divert ed f rom t he w ast e st ream
f ollow ing an indust rial process, excluding reut ilizat ion of mat erials such as rew ork, regrind or scrap
generat ed in a process and capable of being reclaimed w it hin t he same process. Synonyms include
post -indust rial and secondary mat erial.
R-value: A measure of t he t hermal resist ance of mat erial.
Radiant cooling: A cooling syst em in w hich t emperat ures of room surf aces are adjust ed t o
maint ain comf ort by absorbing t he heat radiat ed f rom occupant s.
Recycling: The series of act ivit ies, including collect ion, separat ion, and processing, by w hich
product s or ot her mat erials are recovered f rom t he solid w ast e st ream f or use in t he f orm of raw
mat erials in t he manuf act ure of new product s ot her t han f uel f or producing heat or pow er by
combust ion.
Renew able energy: Energy resources such as w ind pow er or solar energy t hat can keep
producing indef init ely w it hout being deplet ed.
PAGE 138
End Pages
Sick Building Syndrome: The t erm " sick building syndrome" (SBS) is used t o describe sit uat ions in
w hich building occupant s experience acut e healt h and comf ort ef f ect s t hat appear t o be linked t o
t ime spent in a building, but no specif ic illness or cause can be ident if ied. The complaint s may be
localized in a part icular room or zone, or may be w idespread t hroughout t he building. Also See:
“ building relat ed illness.”
“Sink”: Gases and vapors of t en adsorb, and part icles deposit , on surf aces such as carpet , dryw all,
et c. These surf aces are know n as “ sinks” – cont aminant s can be re-emit t ed f rom t he sinks at a
lat er t ime.
St ack - ef f ect : The phenomenon in a building or building component caused by w ind pressure and
t emperat ure dif f erent ials w hich result s in air being draw n t hrough some component s of a building
and out ot hers creat ing a cont inuous pat t er n of air f low.
Superheat ing: Process of adding heat t o t he ref rigerant beyond it s sat urat ion point .
Sulf ur dioxide (SO
2
): An air pollut ant f ormed primarily by coal and oil bur ning pow er plant s.
SO
2
combines w it h ot her pollut ant s t o f orm acid rain.
Thermal bridge: A highly conduct ive element such as a met al channel in t he building envelope
t hat penet rat es or bypasses t he less conduct ive element such as insulat ion, and act s as a t hermal
short circuit t hrough t he insulat ion syst em.
Thermal buf f er: A space or ot her element t hat reduces t he heat ing and cooling load on anot her
space locat ed bet w een t he space and t he ext erior.
Thermal f lyw heel: A building element such as a solid masonry w all t hat collect s heat during one
period and releases it during anot her in a repet it ive pat t er n.
Urban heat island ef f ect : The addit ional heat ing of t he air over a cit y as t he result of t he
replacement of veget at ed surf aces w it h t hose composed of asphalt , concret e, roof t ops and ot her
man-made mat erials. These mat erials st ore much of t he sun’s energy, producing a dome of
elevat ed air t emperat ures up t o 10
O
F great er over a cit y compared t o air t emperat ures over adjacent
rural areas. Light colored roof t ops and light er colored pavement can help t o dissipat e heat by
ref lect ing sunlight , and t ree plant ing can f urt her help modif y t he cit y’s t emperat ure t hrough
shading and evapot ranspirat ion.
Variable air volume (VAV): Use of varying air f low t o cont rol t he condit ion of air, in cont rast t o
t he use of const ant f low (of t en) w it h varying t emperat ure.
Veiling ref lect ions: Veiling ref lect ions can be creat ed by light sources in specif ic locat ions w hen a
t ask cont ains primarily specular (shiny) surf aces, such as a video display t erminal or glossy magazine;
a luminous veil is apparent .
Volat ile organic compounds: Volat ile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals t hat cont ain
carbon molecules and are volat ile enough t o evaporat e f rom mat erial surf aces int o indoor air at
normal room t emperat ures (ref erred t o as of f -gassing). Examples of building mat erials t hat may
cont ain VOCs include, but are not limit ed t o: solvent s, paint s adhesives, carpet ing and
part icleboard. Signs and sympt oms of VOC exposure may include eye and upper respirat ory
irrit at ion, nasal congest ion, headache and dizziness.
End Pages
PAGE 139
ACRONYMS
ACEEE American Council f or an Energy Ef f icient Economy
ACS New York Cit y Administ rat ion f or Children’s Services
AIA American Inst it ut e of Archit ect s
AIM S Asset Inf ormat ion M anagement Survey
ANSI American Nat ional St andards Inst it ut e
ASEAM A Simplif ied Energy Analysis M et hod
ASHRAE American Societ y of Heat ing, Ref rigerat ion and Air Condit ioning Engineers
ASM E American Societ y of M echanical Engineers
ASTM American Societ y f or Test ing and M at erials
BLAST Building Loads and Syst em Thermodynamics
BM S Building M anagement Syst em
BPL Brooklyn Public Library
BTU Brit ish t hermal unit
C&D Const ruct ion and demolit ion (w ast e)
CFCs Chlorof luorocarbons
CFD Comput at ional f luid dynamics
CO
2
Carbon dioxide
CPG Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines
DCAS New York Cit y Depart ment of Cit yw ide Administ rat ive Services
DCV Demand Cont rol Vent ilat ion
DDC New York Cit y Depart ment of Design and Const ruct ion
DOE Unit ed St at es Depart ment of Energy
DOE-2.1E Unit ed St at es Depart ment of Energy comput er modeling
DOS New York Cit y Depart ment of Sanit at ion
DOT New York Cit y Depart ment of Transport at ion
DPR New York Depart ment of Parks and Recreat ion
EIS Environment al Impact St at ement
EPA Unit ed St at es Environment al Prot ect ion Agency
EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992
FGD Flue-gas desulf urizat ion (gypsum)
FRESA Federal Renew able Energy Screening Assist ant
FSC Forest St ew ardship Council
GSA Unit ed St at es General Services Administ rat ion
HAP v4.0 Hourly Analysis Program
HCFCs Hydrochlorof luorocarbons
HVAC Heat ing, vent ilat ing, air condit ioning
IAQ Indoor air qualit y
PAGE 140
End Pages
IESNA Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y of Nort h America
IPM Int egrat ed pest management
LEED Leadership in Energy and Environment al Design
M CLGs M aximum Cont aminant Level Goals
M EA M at erials and Equipment Approval
M SDS M at erial Saf et y Dat a Sheet
M SW M unicipal solid w ast e
NC Noise Crit eria
NIST Nat ional Inst it ut e f or St andards and Technology
NO
x
Nit rogen oxides
NRDC Nat ural Resources Def ense Council
NYPA New York Pow er Aut horit y
NYSERDA New York St at e Energy and Research Development Aut horit y
O&M Operat ions and maint enance
OEC New York Cit y Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion
OM B New York Cit y Of f ice of M anagement and Budget
OSDC DDC Of f ice of Sust ainable Design and Const ruct ion
PV Phot ovolt aic
RFP Request f or Proposals
RM ANs Recycled M at erials Advisory Not ices
SCS Scient if ic Cert if icat ion Syst ems
SM ACNA Sheet M et al and Air Condit ioning Cont ract ors’ Nat ional Associat ion
SO
2
Sulf ur dioxide
SO
x
Sulf ur oxides
SR Specif ic Requirement s
STC Sound Transmission Class
TAB Test ing, adjust ing and balancing
TRNSYS Transient syst em simulat ion program
ULURP Unif orm Land Use Review Process
UPS Unint errupt ed pow er supply
USGBC Unit ed St at es Green Building Council
VAV Variable air volume (syst ems)
VOCs Volat ile organic compounds
End Pages
PAGE 141
A
acid rain ................. 16, 23, 24, 61, 96, 136, 138, 139
acoust ic qualit y ........................... 5, 73, 79, 80, 87, 89
adhesives ................................ 76, 92, 93, 94, 95, 139
air condit ioning ................ 40, 54, 72, 87, 88, 89, 107
.......................................................111, 114, 126, 136
albedo ...................................................... 48, 51, 136
American Societ y of Heat ing,
Ref rigerat ion and Air Condit ioning
(ASHRAE) ............................ 10, 72, 76, 84, 86, 88, 89
......................114, 118, 120, 121, 124, 129, 131, 136
archit ect ural sealant s ............................................... 94
asbest os ........................................................ 126, 130
Audubon House ................................................ 13, 78
B
bicycle st orage/amenit ies ................ 38, 50, 51, 52, 53
biodiversit y ......................................... 16, 51, 97, 136
biosw ale ................................................................ 136
boilers ............................................. 21, 62, 63, 65, 80
condensing boilers ................................................ 63
modular boilers ..................................................... 63
brise-soleil ....................................................... 57, 136
brow nf ields ..................................................... 29, 136
budget planning ..................................... 5, 24, 27, 30
buf f er ................................... 49, 56, 81, 84, 136, 139
building envelope ................. 5, 11, 15, 17, 18, 24, 28
......................................35, 48, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63, 68
.......................................70, 72, 76, 79, 119, 124, 139
building relat ed illness ................................... 136, 139
building-sit e relat ionship ......................... 5, 24, 45, 47
C
capit al planning process .................... 5, 24, 27, 28, 30
carbon dioxide (CO
2
) .......... 15, 16, 22, 23, 54, 62, 65
..................................74, 75, 76, 82, 86, 87, 136, 137
carbon dioxide (CO
2
) sensors ............................ 62, 75
carpet ing ...................................... 76, 81, 93, 94, 139
cert if ied w ood product s ........................ 25, 92, 97, 99
chlorof luorocarbons (CFCs) ......... 92, 97, 99, 136, 137
charret t e ................................................... 34, 35, 136
chillers ................................ 21, 63, 64, 65, 70, 80, 92
clerest ories ...................................................... 58, 136
climat e change ............................. 15, 16, 22, 23, 136
commissioning ........................... 5, 10, 12, 25, 30, 39,
..........................................40, 76, 83, 86, 87, 89, 113,
......................................116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121,
.......................................................124, 128, 134, 136
compost ing ................ 47, 50, 61, 104, 128, 129, 136
concret e ............. 16, 38, 57, 76, 92, 96, 98, 112, 139
Condé Nast Building ............................................... 13
const ruct ion and demolit ion
(C&D) w ast e ............ 5,15, 21, 25, 108, 109, 112, 113
D
daylight ing .......................... 5, 14, 15, 17, 24, 29, 30,
.....................................34, 35, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60,
............................................61, 66, 69, 70, 71, 77, 78,
............................79, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 124, 136
daylight ing/sun cont rol ........................... 5, 24, 55, 58
New York St at e Depart ment of
Environment al Conservat ion .............................. 22, 95
Depart ment of Cit yw ide
Administ rat ive Services ...................................... 2, 135
E
elect rical syst ems and equipment ............ 5, 24, 55, 60
elect romagnet ic f ield/pollut ion ................................ 60
embodied energy ................................ 90, 92, 98, 137
emissions t rading .................................................... 22
encouraging alt er nat ive t ransport at ion ................ 5, 50
energy load management ....................... 5, 25, 55, 64
energy modeling ........ 12, 17, 35, 38, 68, 69, 79, 137
energy sources ......... 5, 15, 24, 55, 60, 61, 62, 67, 70
Energy St ar ......................................... 31, 60, 70, 129
engineered w ood .................................................... 94
environment al just ice .............................................. 29
Environment al Program M at rix .......................... 38, 75
F
Four Times Square ...................................... 13, 17, 34
f uel cell ......................................... 15, 60, 61, 71, 137
G
geot hermal energy ............................................ 24, 61
geot hermal heat exchange t echnology ............ 61, 137
glazing .................................... 35, 39, 40, 57, 58, 62,
..................................................66, 68, 77, 78, 79, 80,
.......................................................83, 85, 86, 87, 124
global w arming ..................................................... 137
grayw at er ................. 38, 51, 102, 105, 106, 128, 137
greenhouse ef f ect ...... 15, 22, 24, 54, 59, 61, 136, 137
greenhouse gases ............................... 15, 22, 54, 136
ground level ozone ......................................... 23, 138
Guide f or Design Consult ant s ....................... 9, 10, 40
gypsum ..................................................... 92, 96, 112
H
heat recovery .............................. 61, 63, 68, 124, 137
heat ing .................. 11, 17, 24, 34, 38, 40, 54, 56, 57,
...............................58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69,
..................70, 72, 83, 87, 88, 89, 107, 114, 119, 121
High Perf ormance Plan .............................. 37, 52, 69
HVAC .......................... 11, 15, 17, 20, 21, 25, 35, 38,
...............................40, 56, 57, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69,
.............................75, 76, 80, 83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 111,
.......................................113, 119, 121, 125, 128, 129
hydrochlorof luorocarbons
(HCFCs) .........................................63, 92, 97, 99, 137
PAGE 142
End Pages
Al phabet i cal I ndex
I
Illuminat ing Engineering Societ y
of Nort h America (IESNA) ......................67, 71, 85, 88
int egrat ed pest
management .......................... 52, 111, 125, 130, 137
ion generat ors ................................................. 77, 137
K
K-rat ed t ransf ormer ........................................ 60, 137
L
Leadership in Energy and
Environment al Design (LEED) ............................. 37, 94
lif e cycle assessment ......................... 90, 97, 100, 137
lif e cycle cost .......... 2, 24, 28, 35, 64, 68, 70, 97, 137
light pollut ion ............................ 5, 24, 38, 47, 48, 51,
.....................................................52, 55, 58, 137, 138
light shelf .................................................. 77, 79, 138
light ing modeling t ools ........................................... 79
low pressure drop high ef f iciency air f ilt ers ............ 138
low -E w indow s ..................................................... 138
M
mass t ransit .................................... 24, 38, 50, 51, 52
M at erial Saf et y Dat a Sheet s
(M SDS) .......................................... 93, 111, 125, 138
monolit hic building syst ems ............................ 58, 138
municipal solid w ast e ...................................... 20, 108
N
Nat ural Resources Def ense Council
(NRDC) ............................. 2, 12, 13, 23, 71, 134, 135
nat ural vent ilat ion .............. 37, 52, 56, 57, 63, 74, 88
New York Cit y Depart ment of Sanit at ion ............... 115
New York Cit y Of f ice of Energy Conservat ion
(OEC) ...................................................30, 68, 134,141
New York St at e Depart ment of
Environment al Conservat ion (DEC) ..................... 22, 95
New York St at e Energy Conservat ion
Const ruct ion Code ............................................ 66, 85
New York St at e Energy Research and
Development Aut horit y
(NYSERDA) ...................................... 1, 2, 22, 134, 135
nit rogen oxide (NO
x
) ......................... 22, 23, 136, 138
noise ............................. 5, 25, 29, 38, 47, 48, 51, 62,
................................................. 72, 73, 80, 81, 82, 83,
.................................................... 86, 87, 89, 108, 110
noise cont rol ................ 5, 25, 73, 80, 81, 86, 89, 110
O
OEC (New York Cit y Of f ice
of Energy Conservat ion) ............................ 30, 68, 134
ozone ................................ 22, 23, 25, 76, 77, 92, 93,
.................................................97, 104, 136, 137, 138
P
paint s ......................................... 93, 94, 95, 112, 139
passive solar ............................ 15, 24, 37, 47, 51, 52,
.........................................................56, 57, 61, 68, 70
phot ovolt aic panels (PVs) ....................................... 138
plant s ............................. 24, 46, 47, 49, 58, 138, 139
plumbing f ixt ures .............................. 20, 25, 104, 106
porous paving ......................................................... 47
pre-consumer recycled cont ent ....................... 99, 138
product ivit y .............................. 14, 15, 16, 21, 60, 74,
.............................................78, 82, 93, 122, 125, 126
R
R-value ............................................................ 57, 138
radiant cooling ................................................ 58, 138
rainw at er ............ 38, 47, 49, 102, 105, 106, 107, 128
recycled cont ent ................... 92, 95, 96, 99, 100, 138
renew able energy .................... 15, 24, 38, 54, 61, 63,
...............................................67, 69, 70, 71, 107, 138
S
sick building
syndrome .............................. 15, 16, 21, 72, 136, 139
SM ACNA .................................. 84, 88, 114, 126, 129
smog ................................ 16, 22, 23, 24, 61, 93, 138
sulf ur dioxide
(SO
2
) ..................................... 15, 16, 22, 23, 136, 139
syst ems f ur nit ure ..................................................... 94
T
t hermal bridge ...................................................... 139
t hermal buf f er ................................................. 56, 139
t hermal f lyw heel ....................................... 56, 57, 139
t rees ......................... 47, 48, 49, 52, 56, 57, 110, 111
U
U.S. Environment al
Prot ect ion Agency .......................... 13, 16, 77, 84, 88,
.........................................................96, 107, 115, 130
U.S. Green Building Council ................. 10, 37, 53, 94,
.......................................................107, 115, 125, 131
urban heat island ef f ect ................ 47, 48, 52, 57, 139
V
variable air volume
(VAV) ............................... 63, 65, 76, 80, 84, 129, 139
videoconf erencing ................................................... 60
volat ile organic compounds ................. 15, 22, 25, 75,
.........................................................93, 111, 138, 139
End Pages
PAGE 143
APPENDI CES
A. Environment ally Responsible Guidelines f or
New York Cit y Buildings - Execut ive Summary
B. M easurable Benef it s -- Calculat ions
C. High Perf ormance Building Workplan
D. Project Init iat ion Form
E. High Perf ormance Plan Sample
(Kensingt on Library)
F. Environment al M at rix Sample
(Kensingt on Library)
G. Required M inimum Out door Air Supply and
Exhaust , Comparison of M et hods:
Building Code of t he Cit y of New York Index
f or Vent ilat ion versus ASHRAE St andard 62-1989
H. Basic Sanit at ion Guidelines f or Const ruct ion Sit es
Regarding Pest / Vect or M anagement
I. Int egrat ed Pest M anagement St rat egies
J. Healt hy and Environment ally Pref erable
Cleaning Product s
End Pages
PAGE 144

Executive Acknowledgements
Honorable Rudolph W. Giuliani Mayor City of New York Luis M. Tormenta, P.E. Commissioner New York City Department of Design and Construction Michael Burton, P.E. Deputy Commissioner New York City Department of Design and Construction Hillary Brown, AIA Assistant Commissioner New York City Department of Design and Construction Fredric Bell, AIA Assistant Commissioner New York City Department of Design and Construction Andrea Woodner Founding Director Design Trust for Public Space

Commissioner’s Foreword
To the Reader: As we enter the new century, the City of New York is in a unique position to improve the overall quality and performance of public buildings that are constructed and renovated by the Department of Design and Construction (DDC). We can do that by increasing our reliance on energy and environmentally efficient construction technologies and practices, by taking advantage of the strides that have been made over the past few years in the field of ‘green buildings.‘ Key to the success of that effort is our ability to make responsible investments to improve the environment without constraining economic activity. We are now in a position to do that, and, under the leadership of Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani, are moving ahead to make New York City an environmental prototype for the 21st Century. These Guidelines outline strategies and techniques that can move us toward that goal. They set out a range of ’best practices‘ for planning, designing, constructing and operating healthier, more energy – and resource – efficient facilities. Such high performance buildings can earn long term life cycle savings for New York City, and may also help stimulate the markets for environmentally efficient technologies. By integrating high performance features into its capital projects, DDC adds value to the City‘s capital assets while helping to protect the environment and support local economic activity.

Luis M. Tormenta, P.E. Commissioner April, 1999

Design Trust for Public Space Preface
In 1998, the Design Trust for Public Space offered to sponsor the Department of Design and Construction’s production of High Performance Building Guidelines. A private, not-for-profit organization dedicated to improving the design and understanding of public space in New York City, the Trust funds and manages projects that deploy creative design resources to affect significant issues of urban policy or the public built environment. This project was selected because it acknowledges and strengthens the essential role of public sector design in environmental stewardship. By educating both public sector capital designers and planners in the “why” and “how” of sustainable design, the research and resulting guidelines will help transform DDC’s building practices. The Trust is pleased that this initiative has been able to build upon DDC’s previous efforts in creating environmentally sound design, and believes that the adoption of High Performance Building Guidelines will help situate New York City at the forefront of large municipalities committed to environmentally responsible building. We are confident that the results of this collaborative effort will bear out the Design Trust’s belief that New York City’s public environment is indeed well served when public and private practitioners come together to focus on design. Throughout the project, DDC and the Design Trust worked as partners, and were supported by an interagency Steering Committee, including members from the Office of Management and Budget, Mayor’s Office of Construction, the Office of Energy Conservation, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. This collaboration jointly developed the framework of the study, staffed it with appropriate professional expertise, recruited in-house and interagency contributing authors, monitored its progress, and secured foundation project funding through the Trust. The Design Trust wishes to acknowledge the critical support of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, who underwrote the involvement of environmental design experts Steven Winter Associates, who provided critical technical assistance and information. We are particularly grateful to the Mayor’s Office of Grants Administration for their invaluable guidance with respect to foundation project support. We are deeply grateful to the Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, the Energy Foundation, and the New York State Council on the Arts, for their financial support of this project.

Andrea Woodner Director April, 1999

which examines the feasibility of rolling out energy – and resource – efficient practices across the NYC capital program. (3) City College of NY School of Architecture. and the Office of Management and Budget.and resource-efficient practices into its public facility construction programs. Under the guidance of the project team. yield important ‘quality of life’ benefits for New Yorkers. and the Board of Education. 2. outreach. The project received a grant from the New York State Energy. In-kind staff resources were also contributed by the Natural Resources Defense Council. Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) supported the participation of the firm Steven Winter Associates in much of the technical research and facilitation of the chapter workshops. Significant authorship contributions were also forthcoming from several interagency participants representing the Departments of Parks and Recreation. Policymakers are seeking to capitalize on the economic and environmental benefits of ‘green’ buildings. Partnerships behind the High Performance Building Guidelines Project This project builds on the work of the above-mentioned Environmentally Responsible Building Guidelines Project. resource conservation.1 an association of seven NYC technical universities. Department of Citywide Administrative Services. and others – into its clients’ facilities. (2) City University . and Markets for Recycled Products. the School Construction Authority. This project’s recommendations have informed the development of these Guidelines. more than twenty staff members of DDC researched. and at the same time. creation and understanding of public space throughout New York City. The project was carried out by an interdisciplinary academic team from the University Consortium. a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the design.designtrust. Through the participation of oversight agencies. Planning. Also participating were representatives of the Mayor’s Office of Construction and the Office of Energy Conservation. and education. 3. Above all. An executive summary of the project appears in the Appendix. and (4) Polytechnic University. and on recent DDC experience in undertaking several high performance demonstration projects. pollution and waste abatement. has developed a dedicated “High Performance Building” program. an interagency collaboration organized by the Mayor’s Office of Construction. A technical assistance grant from New York State Energy. INFORM. and life cycle cost differentials. looking at first cost. the Design Trust for Public Space3.Hunter College. The Task Force recently completed its Environmentally Responsible Building Guidelines Project. and the Earth Engineering Center at Columbia University. Participating schools included (1) the Graduate School of Architecture. Center for Applied Studies of the Environment. design standards and case studies of other government entities to determine their relevancy to NYC’s public contracting environment. In the preparation of these Guidelines. & Preservation. the Department of Design and Construction (DDC). and Economic Development Corporation. See Acknowledgments section for participants. Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). A financial analysis examined the costs and benefits of applying environmentally sensitive guidelines across the City’s capital construction program. the High Performance Building Guidelines are the product of a collaborative process and resulted from a wide range of contributions. Department of Design and Construction and Other Agency Initiatives The recently centralized construction agency handling infrastructure and building projects. Through demonstration projects (including both renovation and new construction). Like the previous study. other project initiatives have been undertaken by the School Construction Authority. NYC recognizes that improving the environmental performance of its facilities will add value to its large portfolio of capital assets. together with consulting professionals and the City’s Task Force. DDC has begun to mainstream selected green building objectives – energy efficiency.org PAGE 2 . AIA Assistant Commissioner Office of Sustainable Design and Construction 1. New York City is laying the groundwork to introduce significantly improved energy. with the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of Design and Construction.Preface Background Through a recent series of initiatives. Health and Hospitals Corporation. Initial plans for integrating sustainable practices into municipal design and construction were developed by a core steering committee of the NYC Green Buildings Task Force. The Design Trust provided underwriting for the participation of two Design Trust Fellows who helped DDC oversee the Guidelines development efforts and provided administrative support for the project. policy development. Other participating agencies include the Office of Energy Conservation. See Acknowledgments section for participants.2 The ‘Environmentally Responsible’ Building Guidelines Project The project’s research component inventoried green building guidelines. The Design Trust: www. provided funding and management support for the project. significant input was sought from the very technical and project management personnel who will implement them on future projects. operational. indoor air quality. wrote and illustrated much of the material. Environmental Protection. Dedicated workshops convened various construction industry representatives to examine constraints and opportunities presented by the use of green practices. Hillary Brown.

High Performance Building Guidelines Goals C Raise expectations for the facility’s performance among the various participants. engineering. expeditious. DDC sought significant input from the very technical personnel who will implement them on future projects. Stimulate markets for sustainable technologies and products. and limit detrimental effects on the environment. and utility bills. Save taxpayers money through reduced energy and material expenditures. Improve the comfort. They further indicate how these practices may be accommodated within existing frameworks of capital project administration and facility management. More than 20 staff members researched and wrote and illustrated much of the material under the supervising expertise of outside consultants. Working within existing capital and operational practices. and construction quality. The Guidelines provide instruction in the new methodologies that form the underpinnings of high performance buildings. The Guidelines encourage the formulation of responsible budgets at the planning stage.Executive Summary The central mission of the New York City Department of Design and Construction (DDC) is to deliver the City’s construction projects in a safe. DDC’s Guidelines contribute to a growing body of literature nationwide that seeks to promote environmentally sound building construction. improve comfort. Further. and 2) incremental use of individual high performance strategies on projects of limited scope. These Guidelines identify opportunities to improve DDC’s business practices which will in turn yield the highest overall return for the City’s capital investments. Design buildings with improved performance which can be operated and maintained within the limits of existing resources. Mainstream these improved practices through 1) comprehensive pilot high performance building efforts. health and well-being of building occupants and public visitors. and safety of occupants and visitors. C C C C C PAGE 3 . they mandate that the design team identifies any high performance cost premiums (together with cost savings) and justifies them to the City’s satisfaction. High performance buildings maximize operational energy savings. health. The effort also involved significant contributions from other city agencies. waste disposal costs. these Guidelines require careful judgment at all stages in project development to ensure the fiscal integrity of the capital project. C C Ensure that capital budgeting design and construction practices result in investments that make economic and environmental sense. while maintaining the highest standards of architectural. Create partnerships in the design and construction process around environmental and economic performance goals. In preparing these Guidelines. cost-effective manner.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Healthy and Efficient Custodial Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Mechanical Systems. . . . . . 84 . . . . . . . . . 18 Measurable Costs and Benefits of High Performance Buildings Measurable Costs and Benefits . . . . . 112 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Deliverables . . 60 Energy Sources . 34 Well-Integrated Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Applying the Guidelines to NYC capital projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 High Performance Building Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Construction and Demolition Waste Management. . . . . . . . . 56 Interior Layout/Spatial Design . . Glossary . . . . . 8 Use of the Guidelines with Other Documents Relationship of the Guidelines to other DDC documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budget Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 PART TWO: Process CITY PROCESS . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . . Light Sources . . . . . 44 Understanding the Site . . . . .Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Commissioner’s Foreward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Relationship of the Guidelines to existing codes and standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Light Pollution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Current barriers to high performance buildings . . . . . 82 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Water Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 High Performance Lighting. . . . . . . . . . 105 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 . . . 104 Water Quality . 37 PART THREE: Technical SITE DESIGN AND PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Selection for a Healthy Indoor Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 BUILDING ENERGY USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 WATER MANAGEMENT . 106 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Deliverables . . . . . 134 . . . . 99 Deliverables . . . . . . . 57 Daylighting/Sun Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 MATERIAL AND PRODUCT SELECTION . . . . 10 Relationship of the Guidelines to other green building rating systems . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Control . . . . . . . . . . . 136 . . 113 Deliverables . . . 72 Good Indoor Air Quality . . . . . . . . . . . 120 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 PART ONE: Overview How to Use These Guidelines Capital Project Participants. . . . . . . . . . . 20 Municipal Benefits and Avoided Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Good Visual Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 External Environmental Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . 114 COMMISSIONING . . . 34 Team Development . . . 120 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Performance Goals . . 77 . 32 Client Awareness and Goal Setting. . . . . 93 Selection for Resource Efficiency. . . . . . . 132 Acknowledgments. . . . . Site Selection and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 . . . . . . . . 12 An Overview of High Performance Buildings What is a ’high performance building‘?. . . . . 59 Electrical Systems and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Building Envelope . . . . 1 Design Trust for Public Space Preface . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acronyms . . . . . . Capital Planning Process .129 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . 80 . . . . Performance Goals . . . . . . . 95 Selection for External Environmental Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Encouraging Alternative Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Deliverables . . . . . . . 125 Waste Prevention and Recycling . . Program Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Reconciling economics and environmental concerns. . . . . . . . . 110 Health and Safety . . 6 Guidelines Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Environmental and Community Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Minimize the Use of Domestic Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 . . 13 High performance building features and benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Facility-Specific Benefits . 118 Commissioning Existing Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Energy Load Management . . . . . . . . 35 Resource Management . . . . . . . . 30 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Environmentally Preferable Materials. . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Performance Goals . 64 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Operating and Maintaining Building Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 . Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Fully Integrating Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Well-integrated design and construction . . . . . . 11 Purpose of these Guidelines Why do we need them? Who will use them? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 DESIGN PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Economic Development . 2 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Building-Site Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Site and Massing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Controllability of Systems. . . . 29 . . . . . . Acoustic Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 PART FOUR: End Pages . . . . . . . . . . 47 Sustainable Landscape Practice. . . . . . . . .

City Process Operations and Maintenance Design Process Commissioning High Performance Building Guidelines Site Design and Planning Construction Administration Building Energy Use Water Management Material and Product Selection Indoor Environment Based on a design by Carol Latman .

Part One: Overview On any given capital project. As a tool. and operation of a municipal facility. programming. journeymen. dozens of players from both the public and private sectors participate in planning. funding. more efficient buildings with reduced environmental impacts. design. the Guidelines are meant to both instruct and facilitate input from public agency executives and line staff. and the visiting public. architects and engineers. These Guidelines will take each participant through the new practices that must be adopted in order to realize these goals and achieve the higher degree of collaboration necessary to reach the targeted performance objectives. subcontractors. construction. Overview . Participants should identify the Guidelines section(s) most applicable to their project roles suggested by the following chart. oversight agencies and elected officials. All participants are strongly urged to read Parts I and II in their entirety. The High Performance Building Guidelines help each participant better understand their role in producing improved. and building custodians.

City Taxpayers Building users and visitors Other Readers Other Municipalities Progressing other sustainable programs/initiatives Interested Real Estate Professionals Progressing other sustainable programs/initiatives . Cost Estimators. plumbing. Department of Environmental Protection. roads. drainage. Private Organizations. City Planning. Commissioning Agents Review. Civil Engineers Design of site plan. Key Chapters City Process Design Process Site Design and Planning Building Energy Use Indoor Material and Water Construction Commissioning Operations and Environment Product Selection Management Administration Maintenance Building Owners Sponsoring Agencies Capital planning and budgeting. Building and Trade Associations. Electrical. structural design Construction Managers. provides energy services Funding Entities OMB Task Force and Capital and Expense Budget Review Approve budget requests. site furnishings Mechanical. plantings. commission the building Contractors. Waste Handlers. production of drawings and specifications Landscape Architects. commission the building Other End-Users Public Clientele. Bid and construct the project. etc. City Council. Other Funding Groups Develops project description Building Industry Architects Overall project design and coordination.Participants All participants are strongly urged to read Parts I and II in their entirety. DCAS/Office of Energy Conservation Perform facility-specific services during operations. facility management and operation DDC Program Managers Project administration DDC Architecture & Engineering Technical group that develops the Specific Requirements and reviews the documents Regulatory and Other Agencies Building Department. and Structural Engineers HVAC and electrical systems. Department of Transportation Review and approve plans and specifications Department of Sanitation. estimate and administer construction. Subcontractors. utility connections. analyze program requirements Elected Officials. Horticulturalists.

Ozone is a short-lived. and a series of Technical Strategies to be used in achieving that objective. Strategies may include design methodologies. Ozone Laundry Ozone laundry systems use ozone (oxygen activated with an electrical charge) in lukewarm water to reduce the need for detergents. • Benefits Each objective has a number of benefits or advantages that may be captured using the technical strategies that follow. and immediately begins to convert back to oxygen. the hotel also has extensive restaurant. bleach. Supporting examples and graphics further clarify or expand on these objectives. condenser water systems.800 guest room toilets (operating at approximately five gallons per flush) with 1. Seek improved performance by specifying low water usage water closets. improved sewage quality. urinals. chemical cost reductions. such as rainwater and graywater.6-gallon pressurized-tank toilets. To introduce new practices that require a higher level of interdisciplinary coordination. it oxidizes fatty oils and breaks the bond between dirt and clothing. and other special uses to reduce water usage and secure other benefits. nursing homes. and recreational facilities. catering. equipment. PAGE 8 . Benefits may be direct or indirect. or 69 gallons per apartment per day. toilets. a summary explanation of Benefits that pertain to each objective. In the process. and reduced textile degradation. and operation. unstable gas that is created on site with an electrical generator. Other benefits include hot water (energy) savings. erheads were replaced and faucet aerators installed as part of the project. along with associated capital costs. use of new technologies. Ozone is also an extremely effective biocide. Ozone laundry systems complement traditional laundry equipment in facilities handling large quantities of textiles. Consider ozonation in commercial laundering systems. Beginning with the general issues or principles involved and progressing to specific tangible activities. • Objectives The objectives are summary statements of the key high performance principles or practices that are becoming more widespread throughout the industry.33 million toilets citywide. reduced water and sewer costs. or administrative practices. such as hospitals. showers. as well as some laundry facilitiesDuring 1994-1997. $CM u Ozonation. resulting in an 18% reduction in total water use. Select plumbing fixtures and fittings that evince state-of-the-art capabilities in terms of water conservation. Consider the use of: • Pressure-assist toilets • Composting toilets • Waterless urinals (in high use areas) • Automatic shut-off controls on sinks. In addition to typical residential water end uses. An impact evaluation of project results in multi-family buildings found an average reduction in water use of 29%.Guidelines Format Building industry professionals will notice that the Guidelines is not organized according to traditional technical areas. and fittings can minimize end use of domestic water while conserving water quality and availability. “Non-utility” water refers to water not provided by the utility. Each of the chapters in Parts II and III follow a common format designed to lead the project team through the basics of green building design. • Example Minimize the Use of Domestic Water Reduced use lowers municipal costs for water treatment Benefits $OM Proper selection of plumbing fixtures. each chapter contains a series of high performance Objectives. • Technical Strategies A series of recommended design approaches describe the means required to capture the benefits. and urinals Widespread conservation reduces demand and can avoid future waste water treatment facilities construction. this publication has been formulated around high performance objectives that cut across multiple disciplines and technical areas of expertise. the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) sponsored the replacement of 1. Water Savings – Toilets and Faucets New York’s Marriot Marquis Hotel replaced 1. and correctional institutions. state and local laws. v Technical Strategies u Fixture and fitting selection. construction. Some show. and lavatories–especially those that perform above the standards already mandated by federal. Water Management Overview PAGE 104 70. and hot water.

Post-Construction. Web site: www. as well as for other graywater uses. “Water and Energy Efficient Clothes Washers. many of them computer-based. 1996. u Integrate zero water use fixtures and graywater systems as appropriate. Industrial/Commercial Drought: Guidebook for Water Utilities.nsf. American Water Works Association. r Quantified potential savings from water management strategies. technical standards. ® New York State Department of Health publishes a listing of certified testing labs. Construction. or reference standards. Level 2 may involve a more concerted effort and additional design or construction costs. NSF International is an independent. regulatory approvals are required for the use of vacuum-assist water closet systems. Hill. A. 1991. Deliverables Preliminary Design. Some of these deliverables will be in addition to submittals outlined in the Guide for Design Consultants or Client Manual. In addition. provides superior third-party conformity assessment services. State of California. In some cases. Testing data. Deliverables are those separate submittals required over and above what is called for in the Guide for Design Consultants. r NSF certification and testing data for plumbing components. The organization develops standards. manuals. or client may need to submit additional documentation or drawings. the consultant. Building Energy Use.” in Proceedings of Conserve ‘96. r Lab results of water quality testing at the point(s) of incoming service. Water Efficiency Guide for Business Managers and Facility Engineers. Effective implementation requires working closely with code officials to obtain a variance for using non-potable water as flushwater for water closets and urinals. that enable the team to better visualize or understand a building’s performance. performance goals have been offered at two levels: Level 1 can be practically achieved through a focused design effort. PERFORMANCE GOALS LEVEL 1 u Use plumbing components that are certified to meet ANSI/NSF 61 (see Tools). Wherever possible. buildings perform as a series of interconnected systems. The Resources Agency. use harvested or retained water for seasonal irrigation Water Management of all plant materials and/or non-potable water uses within the building. • Performance Goals For each chapter or subchapter. LEVEL 2 u The facility should maintain water quality that meets EPA’s maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) (see Tools). There is a relationship between site harvesting of and storage of rainwater and minimizing the facility’s domestic water use by utilizing this retained water for non-potable uses. 1994. contractor.org ® EPA Code of Federal Regulations. reference standards. State of California. The consultant will need to ensure that these are still current. Regulatory Constraints « The NYC Building Code does not specifically address approved materials and methods for the use of graywater.J. • Deliverables To improve building performance or establish that the project meets a higher level of performance. performance goals establish building performance targets. and background research. Overview PAGE 9 . References California Department of Water Resources. PAGE 105 • Tools The industry is developing useful design aids. these are expressed against current industry benchmarks. Dietmann. • Building Integration More than ever.The reader will also find coverage of Building Integration issues (impacts on other building parts) and Performance Goals.J. or technical benchmarks for use in gauging progress on a given project. not-for-profit organization dedicated to public health. Tools ® ANSI/NSF Standard 61 – Drinking Water System Components-Health Effects. Water Management 71. This section refers readers to other chapters when it’s necessary to understand related issues. Building Integration Site Design and Planning. California Department of Water Resources. to include: r ANSI/ASME performance test results for plumbing fixtures. • Regulatory Constraints • References Books. other sources of information on the chapter topic. Reduced hot water usage lowers building energy consumption. and protection of the environment. articles. and strives to represent the interests of all stakeholders. Each chapter also contains information on design or construction Tools. All innovative systems (such as those strategies suggested above) may raise issues of concern with local code authorities. r Lab results of water quality testing at taps. safety. The Resources Agency. u Where appropriate. as well as References to other sources of information. and S. Parts 141-149. building codes and standards.

site selection. the performance goals contained in the Guidelines are expressed. The Guidelines will affect this document by further defining the client agencies’ responsibilities prior to project commencement – budgeting. operational use profiles. or reference standards. which the consultant signs. In addition.Use of the Guidelines with Other Documents The Guidelines have been written in such a way as to complement a wide range of existing documents that govern the design. The Guide for Design Consultants supplements the Agreement and SR. building type. The system strikes a balance between effective practices and emerging concepts through its feature-oriented use of energy and environmental principles to earn credits toward certification. development. in terms of meeting or exceeding current industry codes. technical standards. technologies. strategic planning. an industry standard for assessing a building’s environmental quality and performance. and construction. 5. technology is rapidly transforming the configuration. and the Specific Requirements The consultant’s contract consists of three documents: the Agreement. The system merits comparison with other emerging international rating systems. The Guidelines describe additional responsibilities such as commissioning. It establishes the minimum building construction and mechanical system efficiencies that must be achieved in order to produce a code-compliant building in New York State today. and operation of the NYC capital projects managed by DDC. and the Guide for Design Consultants. 4. wherever possible. The Guidelines will help identify and define additional contract deliverables over and above those called for in the Guide for Design Consultants. last amended for non-residential buildings in 1989.5 The reader is encouraged to reference the LEED credits system in relation to the performance goals and technical strategies contained in these Guidelines. programs. These will be called out in the SR. and other variables. Similarly. a number of national and international building rating and evaluation systems are being developed to better define the attributes of a green building. and the SR define the consultant’s contractual obligations for the project at hand. such as BREEAM.” Despite these limitations. and accelerated implementation of “green building” policies. Relationship of the Guidelines to green building rating systems At this time. In addition. Relationship of the Guidelines to existing codes and standards The establishment of standardized ‘whole building’ energy and environmental performance goals has proven to be a difficult and complex task for the building industry. design. This is due in part to the fact that building energy and environmental performance varies significantly based on climate. a standard long under public review that is now under “continuous maintenance. indoor air quality issues are covered by such standards as ASHRAE 62-1989. The High Performance Building Guidelines will affect these documents as follows: The Guidelines will be used by the client agency and DDC program and technical staff in writing the SR. These include City procedural manuals and contract documents. the NYS Energy Code falls short of current commercial building practice. as well as additional responsibilities during design procurement. The US Green Building Council4 has developed the LEEDTM Green Building Rating system. The US Green Building Council is the only nonprofit consensus coalition of the building industry which promotes the understanding. the Agreement. The client agencies’ roles and responsibilities are described therein. the governing standard for the performance goals established in these Guidelines is the New York State Energy Conservation and Construction Code (NYS Energy Code). composition and use of materials and equipment. operations and maintenance procedures. At present. and provide a definitive standard for high performance from a ‘whole building’ perspective. Overview PAGE 10 . and is being revised to reflect current technology and practice. In terms of building energy use today. and programming. Taken together. Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method. Relationship of the Guidelines to other DDC documents NYC DDC Guide for Design Consultants. construction. the Specific Requirements (SR). NYC DDC Client Manual The Client Manual documents the procedures carried out by DDC in administering capital projects on behalf of its sponsor agencies. the Guidelines also reference the large volume of available information on green buildings and green building evaluation and rating systems. the Agreement. standards and design practices.

incrementally improving the building envelope and various building systems in the right order will result in long-term operating and capital savings when the following principles of building integration are applied: 1. These improvements should precede or be performed simultaneously with replacement of major HVAC equipment to ensure proper load matching. Building renovations and systems upgrades Client agencies may dramatically improve an existing building’s performance if they follow the planning principles contained in the Guidelines. because in a renovation. High performance principles and practices applied to site-selection issues. In some cases. orientation. One key principle relates to building integration. the building’s site.Applying the Guidelines to NYC capital projects New construction vs. and therefore performance expectations may be realistically downgraded. 2. such as window replacement or improved roofing insulation. and electrical systems are interdependent. therefore. which recognizes that the various architectural. For example. strategies. while properly sequencing the upgrade(s) of mechanical and electrical systems. High-efficiency lighting upgrades and replacing fans and motors in air-handling systems may further reduce loads. massing. renovation The Guidelines define objectives. Make comprehensive facility investments and perform them in the proper sequence to ensure appropriate load matching. performance goals. but they cannot be radically altered. that will apply to either renovation or new construction. Capital planning. structural systems and other attributes already exist. and design can reap significant capital and operating savings as well as other municipal benefits. the performance goals may differ. Overview PAGE 11 . building exterior ‘weatherization’ or stabilization. etc. reduces heating and cooling loads. Improve the thermal performance of the building envelope first. mechanical. benefits. New construction A new facility that’s planned with an eye toward sustainability from day one represents an unprecedented opportunity to showcase high performance principles and optimize building features in an integrated manner. Their performance may be upgraded. Replacement of whole central systems should come last in the order of priority. site planning. Even with limited capital funding. This sequence avoids wasting money on major HVAC equipment investments that would otherwise become partially redundant based on later load reductions. should take into account a long-term view of the whole building.

The Croxton Collaborative photo: Otto Baitz Overview PAGE 12 . showcasing new technologies. so we should begin by viewing this as a teambuilding process. For the client end-users. as well as through non-profit. and provide roadmaps for effective change. and builders. These include the consulting architectural and engineering firms contracted for design services. As a significant consumer of technical services. completed in 1989. Successful high performance projects depend on obtaining the appropriate green building expertise from the City’s private sector partners. these chapters provide operating staff with tools for a legacy of comfort and economy. Who will use them? The Guidelines have been designed for use by all participants in the New York City capital construction process. They set out common sense targets for building performance. The Guidelines identify building actions that are practical and costeffective today. designers. from an economic development standpoint. the Guidelines demand new levels of proficiency from consultants and contractors alike in special disciplines such as energy modeling and building commissioning. or corporate leadership. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) National Headquarters. as opposed to those driven solely by first cost. The Guidelines help the design and construction team foster multidisciplinary design thinking in order to achieve the lowest end-use cost. DDC. Public works account for a large percentage of the metropolitan region’s construction economy. and pollution throughout the building’s useful life. The Guidelines promote both policy and technical strategies for City agencies. proficiency with sustainable concepts. New York City Skylights above the central interconnecting stairs illuminates shared spaces on all three floors. Thus. The NRDC headquarters. will help accelerate the introduction of sustainable building practices.Purpose of these Guidelines Why do we need them? With publication of these Guidelines. Increasingly. the means to achieve those objectives. along with the means to reduce or eliminate inefficiency. and to select appropriate. as well as the construction managers. and tradespeople who accomplish the work. was one of the first ’green‘ renovation projects in New York City. contractors. Using these Guidelines enables DDC to commission high performance public facilities that improve the general standards for good design in the metropolitan region. technologies. while growing the market for competitively-priced green products. and the necessary tools and references. At the same time. For elected officials and agency and oversight budget analysts. and other high efficiency materials and procedures will help ensure the New York City construction industry’s continuing prominence in global markets. The high visibility and symbolic position of a civic facility makes it an excellent forum for educating a wide audience. and adopting innovative business practices. green building objectives are making their way into mainstream practice in this country through legislative or government agency action. thus encouraging long-term (life-cycle) approaches to capital decisions. They encourage client agencies to align high performance building objectives with their service mission. They encourage retooling of conventional programming and budgeting processes. the Guidelines identify costs and benefits. in commissioning environmentally sound public facilities. The initial chapters make the technical performance goals clear and comprehensible to funding and oversight agencies. renewables. waste. the New York City Department of Design and Construction is stepping up its commitment to integrating high performance design principles into the facilities it builds or renovates to house critical municipal services. They spell out the benefits and encourage best practices while striving to overcome many of the traditional barriers to optimizing building design. attainable goals from among alternative levels of performance.

’ or simply ‘high performance. At the head of the class are a series of energy. headquarters. calling into question the performance level of more typical construction endeavors. Lessons Learned. recycling systems. Fox & Fowle Architects Overview PAGE 13 . the Gap’s new San Bruno.’ ‘sustainable. a new U. and the use of sustainable manufacturing processes. Four Times Square The Condé Nast Building This 48-story tower at Four Times Square will be the first project of its size to adopt state-of-the-art standards for energy conservation.’ “The great news is that enhanced environmental responsibility in high-rise construction does not have to significantly increase the cost of the project. Environmental Protection Agency facility in North Carolina.” Dan Tishman.An Overview of High Performance Buildings What is a ‘high performance’ building? New achievers Many successful new building projects are taking shape throughout the country today. Tishman Construction. Buildings like the Federal Courthouse in Denver. California. and prompting us to ask just how far our conventional buildings are falling short of the mark. commonly known as ‘green. Four Times Square (the Condé Nast building shown on this page).S. indoor air quality. and the Natural Resources Defense Council and Audubon House renovations here in New York City (shown on the previous page) boast numerous value-added features.and resource-efficient projects that are reaping meaningful energy and cost savings along with important associated benefits. President.

DDC high performance buildings – opportunities DDC’s client agencies deliver vital municipal services through such diverse facilities as libraries. J. and maintenance cost savings. and New South Jamaica Branch Library environmental benefits A rendering of the first of several DDC showcase high performance projects. operations. and health and daycare centers. Because these other benefits are more difficult to quantify than direct energy savings.D. Romm. these building owners. in some measure.Basic objectives Regardless of terminology. designers. (See Part I: Measurable Benefits. police and fire stations. these productivity gains have dwarfed the building’s combined capital. As a consequence.J. cultural institutions. LLC buildings. the City can capture operating savings that can then be redirected toward improving building maintenance or enhancing other municipal services. and contractors actively committed to maximizing operational energy savings. together with San Diego Gas & Electric. and to establish realistic.6 These projects’ collective successes allow us to pinpoint shortcomings in conventional building standards and construction methods. and Browning.20). that accompany green Stein White Architects. the real value of high performance buildings can be easily be underestimated by traditional accounting methods that do not recognize ‘external’ municipal and regional costs and benefits. By incorporating environmentally sound materials and systems. City of San Diego photo: Adam Saling Overview PAGE 14 6. City of San Diego Ridgehaven Building The City of San Diego. W. created a showcase for the economic and environmental benefits of green renovation in this upgrade of a 1980’s commercial structure. the objectives are the same. attainable goals. and better indoor air. The various value-added features offered by high performance facilities will complement each agency’s mission and enhance service delivery. and limiting the detrimental environmental impacts of the buildings’ construction and operation. In many cases. quality high-efficiency lighting. . High performance building cost evaluations should address. now under construction. the economic. social. The building occupants enjoy an improved sense of health and well-being that can be attributed to improved daylighting. 1994. the City will improve the value of its interior public spaces and realize indirect returns through improved health and well-being of City workers and other building occupants or visitors. The annual energy cost for City facilities is approximately $400 million. Greening the Building and the Bottom Line: Increasing Productivity through Energy-Efficient Design. p. improving indoor air quality and daylighting. they have also leveraged some compelling side benefits. By integrating these Guidelines into the facility renovation and new construction process. From project outset.. providing healthy interiors.. Some of these building owners have reported tangible increases in worker productivity.

Such ‘well building’ design emphasis can improve occupant comfort. and well-being. C Energy Efficiency/Clean Energy Resources Actions: Reduce energy use and demand through passive solar techniques and integrated building design. Integrated design uses daylight to reduce electrical demand. walls. Building Operations Resource Management Actions: Design in ways that promote good building operations practices: conserve water using site. In addition. Maximize the use of controlled daylighting which can then be augmented by high quality artificial lighting. and equipment. Direct. Long-term. Benefits: High performance facilities can help address a wide range of human resource concerns by improving the total quality of the interior environment. and incorporates energy efficient lighting. Pollution Prevention and Recycling Actions: Where equivalent in quality. motors. and minimize the cost of transporting waste to disposal facilities outside the City. Implement construction and demolition (C&D) waste prevention/management strategies and selective sitesorting of materials for salvage. such as fuel cells. Provide good acoustic control. Similarly. health. and geothermal exchange are used in tandem with other lowemission technologies. offer occupant the ability to regulate their personal comfort. and through outside filtering and distribution techniques that control pollutants.and facility-wide measures. recycling. Benefits: Water conservation measures will help maintain New York City’s water quality and avoid potential future costs by reducing overall loads on water filtration and treatment systems. cost. It encourages ‘right-sizing’ of mechanical systems to avoid higher first costs. use green building materials and interior furnishings that are made from recycled or renewable resources. and furnishings. Benefits: These actions will prevent unnecessary depletion of natural resources and will reduce air. create space for everyday waste recycling. More efficient cleaning and custodial protocols may increase productivity of custodial staff. Improved Indoor Environment Actions: Improve indoor air quality by eliminating unhealthy emissions – such as volatile organic compounds. and performance.High performance building features and benefits The following design. while improved housekeeping measures will contribute to overall occupant health and well-being. indirect. This process looks at optimum siting/orientation and maximizes the thermal efficiency of the building envelope (windows. and operation activities can result in value-added public buildings. construction. or disposal. in turn reducing employee absenteeism and turnover. Improve the thermal qualities and comfort levels of all occupied spaces. and other gases that contribute to air pollution). and soil pollution. ease stress on landfills. the primary greenhouse gas implicated in global climate change. sulfur dioxide. roof) while considering the interaction of the HVAC. Source Reduction. renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic cells. C C C Overview PAGE 15 . Benefits: Direct energy cost savings (fuel and electricity) and other life cycle savings yield a good rate of return based on the initial investment. Wherever possible. better C&D waste management can reduce waste disposal costs. and the manufacture of products with post-consumer content. products. and improve housekeeping practices through use of benign cleaning products and more efficient cleaning and maintenance protocols. solar hot water. and control systems. and ‘external’ benefits are also briefly identified and discussed. attention to building wellness today helps avoid future costs for correcting sick building syndrome. The same benefits apply to the facility’s public users. They will also strengthen the market for recycled materials. lighting. methane. Other external benefits include improved air quality from reduced fuel consumption (limiting nitrous oxide. are themselves recyclable. and that have been manufactured in a manner least damaging to the environment. or VOCs – from building materials. reducing the overall aggregate electrical load significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Where feasible. water.

Therefore. it’s clear that our design and construction practices are falling short of what could be achieved with even a small number of strategic. These so-called ‘externalized costs’ do not show up on any balance sheet. Second International Green Building Conference and Exposition – 1995 (Gaithersburg. B. or roughly 2.5 billion tons of raw materials annually extracted from the earth are transformed into the concrete. landscapes and forests are destroyed. Globally. MD) NIST. and pollutants are released into the soil. and other public facilities – bring a wealth of social and economic benefits to our communities.22-25. March ‘95 p. natural resources.. fully and in its own right. no generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence.7 Operating a building exacts an ongoing toll on the environment as well. 1995. water. Buildings consume about 40% of the world’s energy production. indirectly affecting local taxes and municipal budgets. Building energy use also produces 33%. buildings use about 16% of our total water withdrawals. In the process. M.. These buildings can impose unnecessary additional burdens on municipal services such as water supply and treatment and solid waste management. which contributes to flooding. courthouses. we should also be aware of how our buildings directly and indirectly contribute to environmental and human health problems.5 billion tons. implementing these practices should be considered a ‘no-regrets’ policy initiative that results in economic gain while producing positive environmental results. processes. we are just beginning to understand the high cost of inefficient practices in yet another critical realm: our buildings’ interior environments. and loss of biodiversity. here in the U.. buildings squander valuable capital by wasting energy. buildings are involved in producing about 40% of the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain and contribute to smog formation. and annual productivity losses due to sick building syndrome and building-related illnesses. A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns are Transforming Construction. Every day. steel. Few people in the building trades. and other elements of our built environment. Today’s design decisions have local. Most of this waste happens inadvertently. and developers have begun to convert these liabilities into economic opportunities by adopting cost-effective new technologies. N. almost 40% of the 7. D. Lippiatt. Twenty-five percent of our annual wood harvest is used for construction. but fail to exceed. As a consequence. and Norris. Many industries have a growing appreciation that sound economic and environmental choices are not mutually exclusive. fully realize the extent to which building construction and operation generates material waste and results in energy inefficiencies and pollution. as a result of following accustomed practices that often just meet. firehouses. meaning that the environment – and ultimately society in general – will be forced to absorb them. and materials that dramatically reduce environmental impacts while increasing profitability. that amounts to about 55 gallons per person each day. daycare centers.S.generation during its course. building codes. A ‘no-regrets’ action Looking across the full spectrum of conventional building performance. Environmental Protection Agency has ranked poor indoor air quality as among the top five environmental risks to public health. cost-effective corrections. regional. manufacturers. Today. but instead are compatible to the point of being interdependent. According to the Worldwatch Institute. Ibid p. “Selecting Environmentally and Economically Balanced building Materials: National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 888.” Thomas Jefferson DDC’s building projects – our libraries. and claims that unhealthy indoor air (which may be two to eight times more contaminated than outside air) can be found in up to 30% of new and renovated buildings. glass. G. and Lenssen. and global consequences. Progressive owners.Reconciling economics and environmental concerns “Then I say the earth belongs to each. water. As a nation. 8. sheetrock. Roodman. This suggests that high performance building practices will be increasingly market-driven as the economic advantages of environmentally sound design and construction continue to gain industry recognition and support. rubber. Overview PAGE 16 7. Ibid. let alone average citizens. and human labor. absenteeism. the price we pay for this sub-par performance ranges from $10-60 billion in combined health premiums. 10. traditionally built facilities. 38 . The U. absenteeism.S. the price we pay for this sub-par performance ranges from $10-60 billion in combined health premiums. 9. of all annual carbon dioxide emissions. Worldwatch Paper 124. and air. 37. Yet in weighing these benefits.9 As a nation. and annual productivity losses due to sick building syndrome and buildingrelated illnesses v Hidden costs of construction The hidden costs of construction include the adverse environmental impacts of construction-related activities. cultural institutions.10 Municipalities also pay indirect premiums for less efficient.8 significantly contributing to the climate changes wrought by the accumulation of this heat-trapping gas. deforestation.

Team design High performance outcomes also demand a much more integrated team approach to the design process and mark a departure from traditional practices. One or more facilitated workshops might involve the owner. and identify synergistic opportunities. design professionals. During design development. frequent input from users and operators can accelerate progress. A team-driven approach is. operators. A unified. careful decisions on building shape and window placement that take into account both prevailing wind and sun angles. alternative building shell design. Four Times Square Overview PAGE 17 . For example.” Robert Fox.. they rely on the manipulation of land features.Well-integrated design and construction A whole greater than the sum of its parts An integrated or ‘whole building’ design approach requires thinking about the building and its site as a series of interlinked and interdependent systems. “Discovering the DOE-2 model was invaluable. one refinement can trigger multiple savings or other benefits. and contractors (where possible) in a brainstorming session or ‘partnering’ approach that encourages cooperation in achieving high performance goals while breaking down traditional adversarial roles. This process takes much of the guesswork out of green building design and specification. Energy modeling quickly evaluates cost-effective design options for the building envelope or mechanical systems by simulating the various alternatives in combination. more team-driven design and construction process brings together various experts early in the goal-setting process. reduce errors. building form. and exterior materials to manage the climate and get the most out of the materials at hand before invoking electrical and mechanical assistance from energy-driven heating. Designers can preview and improve the performance of interdependent features such as orientation. Lessons Learned. engender commitment to decisions. we can actually prove to our clients how much money they will be saving. Principal. Fox & Fowle. so that a single design refinement might simultaneously improve several building systems’ performance. Using simple. and various mechanical systems. and lighting systems. These progressive design approaches can be further refined through the use of computer energy modeling. time-honored techniques High performance designs draw on principles used in much older building practices. and enables a fairly accurate cost/benefit forecasting. This helps high performance buildings achieve significantly higher targets for energy efficiency and environmental performance. As such.. and identifies innovative technologies or green product and system alternatives that offer significantly improved environmental performance. Energy modeling simulates the proposed design’s response to climate and season. could generate first cost savings achieved through downsizing HVAC equipment and reducing mechanical space requirements. daylighting. may not only enhance a building’s thermal performance. These measures will reduce both heating and cooling loads.With this technique. and in turn. where emerging designs are handed sequentially from architect to engineer to sub-consultant. The preference for keeping equipment as simple and maintenance-free as possible is vital to the interests of client agencies. I can’t imagine doing this kind of project without it ever again. Innovative products and tools An integrated building design process reexamines the use of traditional products or building assemblies. but can also result in improved daylighting. Like the domino effect. architect of Four Times Square. eliminate redundant efforts. High performance design also favors ‘state-of-the-shelf’ technology over sophisticated ‘state-of-the-art’ equipment. cooling. ‘front-loading’ of expertise. given their limited operating budgets. in effect.

To finance ‘deeper’ retrofits (system upgrades and improvements to building envelopes). Regulatory disincentives The New York City Building Code and the New York State Energy Code each define code compliance in terms of meeting a minimal standard for system performance. so agencies have little motivation to fund and manage efficiency-oriented capital improvements in the absence of specific financial incentives.Current barriers to high performance buildings The Guidelines try to anticipate some of the difficulties that may be encountered in mainstreaming high performance design and construction. Additionally. investments with lower rates of return and longer payback cycles should be considered. which may yield some initial economic advantages. this discourages industry performance beyond the bare bones of code minimum. Barriers to Implementation Departments and funding entities are less likely to sponsor energy. Fiscal considerations Current fiscal policies mandate relatively rapid paybacks for energy efficiency improvements. In practice. The chapters and tools have been designed to help motivate all parties to a capital project. Present obstacles include: Á Steep industry learning curve There is a general lack of knowledge about the economic and environmental benefits of high performance buildings.and infrastructure-related programs over highervisibility improvements such as a playground or new wing. but much greater operating savings over time. building political will and administrative support for important high performance building investments. such as shared savings. the City’s energy budget is centralized. Á Á Á Overview PAGE 18 . as well as a dearth of familiarity with green building concepts and practices.

Line item and/or overall capital construction cost increases/decreases. Potential improvements in performance/productivity. Reduced Infrastructure Construction Costs Regional Economic Development ( S ) Economic Development Indirect economic benefits include reduced expenditure for energy related industries out of state. the symbol is $OF. reuse. These costs/benefits are sorted according to how they might impact the various components of the City’s budget: $O = Operating budget $C = Capital budget $P = Personnel budget A suffix further identifies the benefit’s primary scope of influence: F = Facility-specific benefits M = Municipal-level benefits S = Social benefits (shared by society at large) Thus.Measurable Costs and Benefits In order to identify the various economic. the relevant benefit(s) are called out using these symbols. Proposed below is a system for describing project costs/benefits that goes beyond what the City conventionally measures in its capital programs. these varied benefits are not measureable. Development of the clean technologies industry within city and state. as well as particulates. environmental. Avoided capital costs for expanded water supply. Long-term competitiveness of regional construction industry. $OF Reduced Operating Energy Expenditures Operational and Maintenance Savings $CF $PF $OM $CM $DS Incremental Construction Cost Impact Personnel Expenditure Reductions Improved working environment leading to reduced absenteeism and increased employee retention. Environmental benefits include climate change stabilization. ES G Environmental Benefits General Benefits (G) General Benefits As noted. waste handling. Municipal Avoided Costs ( M ) Reduced Municipal Operating Expenditures Diverting of building waste from landfills through construction. soil. External Environmental Benefits ( S ) $AS Emissions Reduction/ Clean Air Cleaner air through reduced consumption of fossil fuels (reduction of carbon dioxide. and hazardous waste reduction. if a measure impacts a as follows: $DS $AS ES G facility’s operating budget. operational. Overview PAGE 19 . Other benefits are coded In each of the following chapters in the Guidelines. v = = = = Regional economic development Benefits from reduced air emissions/emissions credits External environmental benefits (not quantifiable) General benefits (not quantifiable) Symbol Measurement Description of Measurable Costs/Benefits Facility-Specific Benefits ( F ) Anticipated expense budget operating savings from reduced energy consumption as measured against conventional practices mandated under the NYS Energy Code. waste prevention. oxides of nitrogen.) Accumulated 'emissions credits' from energy efficient public buildings could be tradeable in the future or have monetary value. making the city and the state an attractive place for clean energy companies to reside. Savings resulting from water treatment reduction. Development of local environmentally preferable product markets. and social benefits that high performance buildings will accrue for New York City. a more integrated and consistent approach to measuring these benefits is required. air and water pollution prevention. Anticipated reduction in facility operating costs through savings in labor. sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants. and streamlining of housekeeping and maintenance procedures. and sulfur dioxide. mercury. preservation of forests and biodiversity. and recycling. such as team building and education of participants in the design process.

transport. equipment. reducing water consumption will not result in direct cost savings for individual facilities.13 B. however. the City will be forced to pay export fees for all municipal solid waste. 17.e. Depending on the material and current market prices. .00189 per gallon. Facility-Specific Benefits (F) Range of Savings: $.50 .20 v v Overview PAGE 20 11. 19. a 35% savings in energy use would result in a reduction of up to $70.000 in energy costs each year. DOS Bureau of Waste Prevention. City tenants in high performance buildings can reduce landfill costs while helping the City reach its recycling goals. Instead. Reduced Operational Energy Expenditures ($OF) High performance buildings with improved envelopes and efficient lighting.00 per square foot. and HVAC systems use less energy than conventional buildings.19 If municipal buildings diverted an additional 10% of their solid waste stream to recycling. including transportation but not collection18 (this cost will undoubtedly rise). recycled materials from municipal buildings can reap monetary benefits. By pursuing recycling and waste reduction measures recommended in these Guidelines.00104 per gallon of water saved. the City will realize these savings in its Department of Sanitation budget. which often exceed minimum code requirements for energy performance.$2. In private sector buildings energy costs are higher and therefore savings from reduced consumption would be greater. and disposal of the solid waste they generate. the City pays a flat sum for water use in its own buildings.15 Occupants can further reduce water consumption by installing efficient plumbing fixtures. 14.17 Average Savings: $. or because there is a benefit that would exist if the City altered a particular policy or budgeting practice.00104 per gallon of water saved. Potential savings may be measured by determining an annual energy cost budget for a building designed in accordance with these Guidelines and comparing it to an energy cost budget for the same building designed to meet minimum New York State Energy Conservation and Construction Code or other baseline requirements. Reduced Water Consumption. i.Reduced Municipal Solid Waste.000 square foot municipal building. The range of estimated savings presented herein should not be considered as absolute predictions of savings. conservation costs of $0. This calculation is based on figures derived from Department of Sanitation’s current Solid Waste Management Plan (see Appendix B). 21. less the cost of efficiency measures at $0.21 A.000 square feet.. This calculation is based on an estimated usage rage of 32. See Appendix B. City agencies do not directly pay for collection. The cost of exporting to other landfills is currently $40-60/ton. 14 v Range of Savings: $. 2.0050 per square foot each year.$2. 12. This calculation is based on a range of energy costs of $1. If all municipal buildings used commercially available water-saving technologies to reduce water consumption by 20% (compared to fixtures meeting the minimum requirements of the 1992 Energy Policy Act [EPACT]). This is due to the fact that a number of these practices make good economic sense.0025– .00189 per gallon. 16. The NYS Energy Conservation Construction Code provides the most simple and straightforward baseline but may not always reflect current industry standards. The exact savings will largely depend on the facility type. Savings equals the value of water saved at $0. we have included benefits of high performance building practices that do not accrue to City agencies. Reuse and Recycling.017 per square foot each year. primarily through conscious efforts to reduce waste (such as repairing leaks).11 The annual operating budget savings will equal the difference between the respective energy cost budgets.30–.000 a year.5 gallons per square foot per year. This calculation is based on a range of energy costs of $1. the City could save over $625. Explanation of the methods used in quantifying benefits are provided in the Appendix. 18. either because the benefit accrues directly to the City budget or to society in general. Communication with DOS Bureau of Waste Prevention. In addition. 10/14/98. When the Fresh Kills landfill closes. This calculation is based on an estimate of 650 occupants per 100. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 12/8/98. Actual cost savings also will fluctuate from year to year due to variations in weather and energy prices. Personal Communication with Rick Diamond and Alan Meier. working 250 days per year. At present.Measurable Costs and Benefits from High Performance Buildings This section describes some of the measurable benefits that can be achieved by integrating high performance measures in New York City public buildings. but will instead yield financial benefits to the City budget. 10/14/98.00 per square foot and a range of energy savings between 20% and 40%.12 For a typical 100.16 Actual savings are likely to be even greater. 13. As a result. water costs of $0. 20. along with examples of benefits and actual savings realized. but rather as guidelines which show the relative weight of savings potential in relation to each other. 15. so operations and maintenance (O&M) savings achieved by implementing the waste reduction and recycling measures recommended herein will not directly accrue to the agency (except to the extent that the need to purchase new materials will be reduced). because retrofitting existing buildings will result in replacement of plumbing fixtures installed prior to 1995. but do not result in any financial savings to the City agency. most of which use significantly more water than those governed by EPACT. and consumption reduction of 10% to 20%.80 per square foot each year. recyclables can bring revenues of $30-40/ton. Reuse and Recycling staff. using 20 gallons of water per day. the City would save nearly $3 million per year. facilities with intensive energy use will save more than those with light energy use. I. In some instances. Operations and Maintenance Savings ($OF) 1. Installing water meters in residential buildings and billing for service based on consumption has caused building occupants to diminish their water use by an average of 20%.50 .

8 billion.3. pipes. In most cases.77 per square foot each year. Increased Productivity. 1997. June.23 Following the integrated design and development strategies recommended herein is the best way to maximize the opportunities for cost trade-offs and minimize or eliminate any capital cost premiums. implementing high performance housekeeping practices and designing buildings for more efficient maintenance can eliminate deferred maintenance and improve the performance and durability of building systems.. Although savings on specific items may be significant. improved ventilation. fans. boilers. specifying double glazed windows with high performance selective coatings. in conjunction with an energy efficient lighting design. Range of Savings: $. as discussed in the Construction Administration chapter. INFORM.00 per square foot. Conversely. Fishbein. Overview PAGE 21 . Ashkin. Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition Waste in Municipal Projects.45%. 22. Improved Maintenance of Buildings.29%. the avoided cost of personnel turnover could exceed $120 million per year.).11–. and accidents resulting from improper maintenance.000 a year for a 100. savings to the capital budget will likely be substantial. 26. If a healthier work environment reduced the average number of employee sick days taken each year to 8 or 7. 29. which results in City payments of $55 million per day in salary. square footage and Citywide personnel services information. and a first-year productivity level of 54. ducts. the potential for savings is significant.00–$5. Reducing absenteeism for all employees by one day is thus valued at $55 million.29% would increase city-wide productivity to 93. and result in increased productivity.27 Total equivalent sick leave taken is about 9 days a year.25 Reducing C&D waste provides a number of additional benefits to the City. may reduce heat loss and gain to such an extent that it will be possible to downsize the entire HVAC system (chillers. the reduction to the capital budget is likely to be offset by other expenditures. and fewer air contaminants – are beneficial to employee health and productivity. In New York City. Construction Cost Trade-Offs ($CF) Adherence to the Guidelines is likely to result in some discrete first cost savings on certain items. This calculation is based on housekeeping and maintenance costs of $2. annual agency personnel costs vary from $200-300 per square foot for administrative agencies. A growing body of case study evidence supports the theory that high performance buildings – those with better lighting. 23. such as the increased cost of high performance windows or measures to assure good indoor air quality.28 Loss of productivity and additional personnel costs occasioned by employee turnover can also be significant. for a citywide productivity level of 93. While not resulting in direct savings to the personnel budget. “Green and Clean: The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and Maintenance” Proceedings from The 21st Century Outlook Conference Technical Papers. is allocated to salary. Reduced Absenteeism and Employee Turnover.8 million. The New York City personnel services budget is about $18. See the Appendix A for Executive Summary from the Environmentally Responsible Building Guidelines Project. including sick building syndrome. The growing awareness of – and willingness to take legal action over – illnesses potentially associated with the building environment may increase the City’s vulnerability to litigation arising therefrom. Increased Employee Performance ($PF) 1.22 v v v Range of Savings: $2. However. 2. pumps.4 billion a year.00 per ton). While savings opportunities exist.24 D. 24. adherence to the Guidelines will result in a marginal increase to the capital budget as a whole. Stephen. Reduced Disposal Costs for Construction and Demolition Waste ($CF) Measures to reduce construction and demolition (C&D) waste include reusing existing structures and materials. Based on a FY’99 sampling of agencies headcount. Range of Savings: $. these practices may have a positive impact on the quality of life for building occupants and maintenance staff.15 per square foot. 1998. or up to $500. 27.17%. Where no maintenance backlog exists. Although precise methods of measuring these costs and benefits are still in development. American Institute of Architects. there is currently not enough consensus on C&D waste data to provide a range of savings. This can result in a large backlog of maintenance and reduce the savings potential of high efficiency systems. 25. Reducing turnover to 13. For example. 28.26 A 1% increase in productivity could be worth $2. though environmental conditions are only some of the many factors that contribute to the turnover problem. the City could realize benefits of $55 million to $110 million each year. at 186.000 square foot building.00 to $5. This calculation is based on a 250-day work year and assumes that 75% of the total personnel services budget. Investing in high performance buildings can also help insure against predictable losses in productivity.* *This calculation is based on the sum of the range of estimated absenteeism ($55 million to $110 million) and increased employee retention ($120 million). Reducing waste lowers the cost to contractors who must pay for C&D waste collection and disposal (estimated at $75. to over $500 per square foot for uniform agencies.30 per square foot and efficiency improvements of 5-35%. or $13. C. exposure to chemicals and hazardous materials.00 per square foot. Bette K. This calculation is based on annual salary expenditures of $13. The City’s O&M budgets tend to be set independently of O&M needs. E. real operational savings are much more likely.29 F.87–$1. an estimated current turnover rate of 14. New York Office of Management and Budget. page 10. If investing in a better work environment helped the City increase retention by only 1%. FY’99 New York budget information. in cases where use of the guidelines results in substantial “recycling” of an existing structure or a decision to forego new construction altogether.91%. divided by total City owned and leased square footage. etc. avoiding the purchase of excess materials and reducing materials packaging. Reduced Exposure to Risk of Litigation ($PF) Improving the quality of life for building occupants can reduce the City’s risk of exposure to litigation related to the work environment.

III. and is likely to produce indirect economic benefits through development of the nascent clean and efficient technologies industry. Therefore.epa. (518) 862-1090. B. contact Radcliff Lee or Burt Breitburg at the DEC Region 2 Office. the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) will pilot an allowance program for NOx reductions that are achieved as a result of decreased on-site use of electricity during the ozone/smog season (May through September). 32. the City would need to expend considerable resources to investigate and defend against such actions. Emissions Trading ($AS) Reducing energy use in existing buildings has the potential to earn income for the City in its capacity as a building owner. to drive their cars and trucks.38 30. the City will realize long-term benefits arising out of decreased demand for potable water.34 From May 1999 to September 2003. II. Environmental Brokerage Services Market Price Index. it will not have to address community opposition to the nuisance engendered by construction and/or operation.400/ton of NOx. 3324. the state and federal cap-andtrade programs for NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2) provide reduction allowances of approximately $3. the primary greenhouse gas. 1999. If the City can eliminate the need for a new treatment facility.35 As of February. Reduced Services ($OM) As noted in the previous section.32 The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) administers an Emission Reduction Credit (ERC) program. contact Karl Michael at NYSERDA. To qualify. Adhering to the Guidelines can help reduce municipal exposure to litigation by minimizing the likelihood that poor indoor air quality and other environmental problems will occur.000 per ton for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and $2. wastewater treatment. February. See www. 35. Municipal Benefits and Avoided Costs (M) A.omet. respectively.gov/acidrain/otc/otcmain for information on NOx allowance trading and www. 37. 38. Beyond the obvious financial benefits. This figure represents over 5% of the gross state product (GSP). This in turn makes the City and the State an attractive place for these technology companies to reside. These permanent reductions may be derived from implementation of energy efficiency measures or as a result of switching fuels. New Jersey and five other states have developed open market emission trading programs whereby building owners can generate emission credits by investing in energy efficiency. decreasing our investment in the infrastructure has collateral political benefits. These credits currently sell for approximately $1. there is increasing support for the use of economic measures to help countries achieve their emission targets. or $15 billion. allowances for emissions trading are approximately $6.00065 tons) of NOx per MWh.36 In addition to existing emissions programs.950.gov/acidrain/ats/prices. See www. Eligibility is based on the owner entering into a performance contract with NYSERDA’s assistance. and to run the power plants that provide electricity. markets are emerging to encourage reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. For more information. the financial benefits of reduced water use and waste generation in City buildings will accrue directly to the City budget. and disposal. a 20% city-wide reduction of energy use in municipal buildings could be worth up to $1. pages 33-34. and waste collection. 33. wherein ERCs can be earned for permanent reductions of NOx due to decreased end use of fuels (other than electricity). This is because reductions in the demand for these services allow the City to reduce or delay significant investments in the infrastructure required for provision of such services.000 per year.700 per ton for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).000/ton. Statewide. For more information. This calculation is based on estimated current electricity consumption of 3 million MWh per year for municipal buildings.31 If New York adopted an open market trading program for NOx. Overview PAGE 22 . measuring the electricity saved and determining (based on a prescribed formula) the tons of specified air pollution emissions that were avoided by not generating that amount of electricity.epa.3 lbs (0. A number of markets exist (or are on the horizon) for emission reduction credits that can be earned by building owners who invest in energy efficiency. As scientific consensus on climate change grows.33 As of February. (718) 482-4944.html for information on SO2 allowance trading. February.37 Electricity alone accounts for nearly half of this amount. 1999. New Yorkers spend approximately $34 billion each year on the energy required to heat their homes and workplaces. 1999. at 1.Irrespective of any judgments rendered in these types of cases. Maintaining and Investing in New Infrastructure ($CM) In addition to immediate savings to the operations budget. C. Ibid. 31. Environmental Brokerage Services Market Price Index. 36.com. Patterns and Trends. and $1. Cantor Fitzgerald. 34.000 per ton of NOx reduced. transfer. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA).000 and $140 per ton. these reductions must be directly attributable to implementation of energy efficiency measures. Economic Development ($DS) An investment in high performance buildings is an investment in New York’s future. New York State Energy Profiles: 1983-1997. ERCs are worth $4. ext. the City provides water to municipal buildings for a fixed sum and does not charge agencies for waste disposal services. 1999.30 Though not currently open to entities other than utilities.

especially among the very young. and related costs at power plants. and those with respiratory illnesses. Breathtaking: Premature Mortality Due to Particulate Air Pollution in 239 Cities. Rather than importing fuel from outside sources. and the resulting savings can be passed on to consumers. Energy and resource efficient buildings also reduce the amount of money that utilities need to invest in fuel. For example. all New Yorkers will benefit from the improved air quality that results from reduced combustion of fossil fuels. PAGE 23 . New Yorkers will be attracting clean technology businesses to the area and securing the jobs they bring with them. the need to build and upgrade facilities and to expand the transmission and distribution system is reduced. Natural Resources Defense Council. as well as to crops and buildings.To the extent that the City can obtain the same energy services using less energy (through increased efficiency) or through reduced reliance on imported fuel (based on integration of clean technologies such as wind and solar energy). These air pollutants contribute to ground level ozone (the primary component of smog). Over time. Illustration: Bruce Hendler Overview 39. External Environmental Benefits (ES) Reducing energy use lowers the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). By investing in high performance buildings today. sulfur dioxide (SO2). together with environmentally preferable building materials and products. operations and maintenance. 1996. Although efficiency services cost money. the elderly. Therefore. the City will derive social and economic benefits.39 Acid rain causes damage to lakes and rivers. investments in efficiency result in more jobs and more money retained in the local economy. The first benefit is obvious – improving efficiency reduces energy bills and provides a direct savings to the operating budgets of City agencies each year. In contrast. Lastly. as well as their related health effects. NOx contributes to the formation of particulate matter which is linked to heart and lung disease. achieving efficiency is a relatively labor intensive process. and carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by power generation at power plants. the City will be doing its share to solve these problems – a much more cost-effective and well-reasoned approach than paying for remediation efforts later on. IV. The appropriate siting of buildings. The second benefit results when a larger percentage of that $34 billion expenditure stays in New York. these investments pay for themselves in energy savings while providing additional benefits that energy production expenditures do not. acid rain. That’s because much of the cost of operating power plants is channeled into fuel and equipment which is largely imported from out of state. ground level ozone can cause respiratory problems. and climate change. reduces the impact of real estate development and building use on land and water. which in turn contributes to the tax base.

This ‘frontloading’ of design input from experts such as landscape architects. soil fertility. Use fixtures that minimize the use of hazardous lamp materials. foundation. its site features and climatic considerations. electric vehicles. and site characteristics to reduce reliance on energy derived from fossil fuels. u Sustainable Landscape Practice The landscape features must be selected and configured to suit site conditions and restore habitat using self-sustaining landscape design and site maintenance procedures. and the charges associated with peak demand. power distribution systems. the design of the various interdependent building systems and the envelope should pursue optimal performance at the lowest life cycle cost. and the available budget. u Site Selection and Planning High performance attributes are a critical consideration in site selection for a capital project or lease. animals. u Well-Integrated Design The building’s spatial organization should be informed by. u Daylighting/Sun Control Whenever possible. between buildings. integration of renewable resources. Planned work is reviewed against future or past work to ensure that comprehensive work items are identified and that an integrated design approach will not be precluded by funding limitations or phased action of the work. while supporting reductions in building energy use. This saves the most expensive form of energy we use: electricity. Collectively. daylighting consultants. mechanical and structural engineers. and window materials will provide good thermal and moisture control. and integrated with. thereby lowering overall energy consumption. preserves natural resources. active participation with the prime consultant from the outset of the project. lamps. and will be attained when all subconsultants are committed to continuous. Flexible. The community context of a site and access to services and transportation are as important as the fundamental environmental issues. and other renewable resources. . u Team Development A team approach is vital to the project’s success. and in open spaces. New design tools are available to support and reinforce design integration. and slows the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. then work to achieve an appropriate. air movement. energy efficiency and other ‘green’ consultants increases cross-disciplinary creativity and encourages problem solving. Client agency executives and members of the maintenance and operations staff will also participate on this integrated team. and acid rain. The project as a whole should be designed to minimize negative environmental impacts on surrounding areas and to maximize opportunities to restore natural systems. u Building Envelope Appropriate assembly of wall. Practices should promote the conservation and restoration of existing biological and water resources. u Electrical Systems and Equipment Efficient design strategies. Only then should they resort to fossil fuel technologies. or for their salvage value. and people. the procurement process. u High Performance Lighting A highly efficient light level distribution that improves visual quality while reducing electrical use may be achieved through efficient lighting layout. Designers should first capitalize on conservation techniques. the intention of the project. controlled daylighting should be incorporated into the building as the preferred mode of interior illumination and to reduce lighting load and operating costs. u Budget Planning During the executive budget process. seeking efficiencies in this realm as well. and other components. It subsequently applies to individual building systems and materials that may be considered for whole or partial reuse. DESIGN PROCESS u Client Awareness and Goal Setting High performance objectives are prioritized and weighted to best respond to the client agency’s mission and the building’s function. Performance goals are established as a means of enhancing the facility’s function while advancing the project’s environmental and economic objectives. and appropriate design and construction budgets are established to enable the project to be fully implemented. mass transit. lighting strategies. SITE DESIGN AND PLANNING u Understanding the Site Inventory and analyze site resources. Well-designed open space creates a sustainable microclimate that in turn reduces building energy use and supports a high-quality interior environment. thus avoiding negative impacts on plants. u Building-Site Relationship Taken together. integrated balance of solar heating. u Energy Sources Various energy sources are available today. daylighting. and electrical equipment can increase building’s energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption and associated costs. u Resource Management Resource conservation begins at the whole project scale where opportunities are greatest. the site design and building design should support the ecological and cultural functions of the entire development. and constraints to better enable the designers to maximize energy efficiency while conserving and restoring ecological and cultural resources. the Guidelines establish programmatic goals that are consistent with the agency’s mission. such as access to daylighting. u Light Pollution Sensitive site lighting will reduce light pollution in the sky. etc. and aeration. including species diversity. electrical equipment.High Performance CITY PROCESS u Program Planning During the capital planning process. u Encourage Alternative Transportation The site should offer support facilities for bicycling. energy entrained within the earth (geothermal energy). envelope. A good envelope harnesses natural energy through effective use of passive solar and daylighting techniques. u Capital Planning Process The project initiation process. together with localized lighting controls. and other less-polluting means of transportation. relationships. luminaires. Good lighting design also reduces energy waste while improving night views of the sky. and the interagency and oversight approval processes may all require additional commitment from DDC and the client agency in order to achieve the project’s high performance goals. This integrated approach to whole building design reduces the production of greenhouse gases. orientation. and generic spaces will increase building utility and longevity as needs change over time. carpooling. and to increase the use of renewable energy. PAGE 24 BUILDING ENERGY USE u Site and Massing Considerations Taking advantage of the physical features of the building site and microclimate will reduce heating and cooling loads. smog. high performance building objectives compatible with the agency’s goals and the project scope are identified. u Mechanical Systems Mechanical systems must work in concert with the building layout. Adaptive reuse of an existing building may eliminate the need for new construction. adaptable. roof. u Interior Layout/Spatial Design An appropriate layout of program spaces will help reduce energy consumption and will promote the use of passive solar heating and cooling.

certified wood products. color. commissioning should be performed on the affected systems or parts of systems in a comprehensive manner. and functionally tested. hazardous materials. and miscellaneous construction waste such as bottles. such as carpet and furnishings. continuous calibration. u Selection for External Environmental Benefit The selection and use of environmentally preferable materials yields benefits that easily exceed the scope of the building itself. During all tests and performance protocols. The hierarchy of ‘reduce. regional. On site water reclamation and reuse should be encouraged and facilitated wherever possible. and air. and appropriate to intended use by controlling noise and carefully attending to the acoustic design of spaces. u Construction and Demolition Waste Management Construction and demolition (C&D) waste management techniques divert materials MATERIAL AND PRODUCT SELECTION u Selection for a Healthy Indoor Environment Overall indoor air quality goals can be achieved by specifying and installing benign. These measures can conserve natural resources while minimizing the generation of waste and pollution during construction. Continuous calibration of sensors and instrumentation will yield top mechanical system performance in terms of energy use and comfort. u Waste Prevention and Recycling Reducing. Products produced and deployed in an environmentally responsible manner help reduce local. without compromising the effectiveness and efficient control of the overall system. For example. comfortable. reusing. including soil. Purchasing decisions can also contribute to waste prevention (e. and by selecting environmentally preferable building materials. u Light Sources Achieve a quality of light that is beneficial to building activities and occupants by combining natural light with complementary electrical light sources. refrigeration and fire suppression systems. and maintenance of energy-related systems is often neglected. and global pollution while encouraging sustainable stewardship of resources. C&D waste typically includes building demolition and scrap materials. do not shed dust and fiber. u Water Quality All projects must ensure optimal water quality at the tap – potable water that is both safe (non-toxic) and aesthetically pleasing in terms of taste. Scheduled maintenance and cleaning will help to yield ongoing energy savings for the building while promoting occupant health and comfort. as good IAQ supports and enhances the activities and well-being of the occupants. Construction of the project should foster the perception of high performance buildings as good neighbors. or paper.Building Objectives u Energy Load Management The management. yet these are the only ways to optimize the life and performance of the systems and minimize the damage caused by fossil fuel use. and recycling solid. have minimal or no toxic properties. thus preserving valuable resources and landfill space. it is important to limit the use of potable water for non-potable purposes. from the waste stream. such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). consisting of load measurement and system response. and odor. and fittings can minimize end use of domestic water while conserving water quality and availability. . These include materials and products that exhibit limited or no ‘off-gassing’ tendencies. As much control as possible should be given to individual users. u Commissioning Existing Buildings For a building renovation or infrastructure upgrade. and food waste from day-to-day building operations and activities are critical high performance operating strategies. Effective energy load management is a two-step process. and do not absorb pollutants that are later released. global benefits accrue from specifying sustainably harvested. and from avoiding the use of ozone-depleting compounds in foam products. Conscientious construction administration can minimize harm to the site and surrounding area. These same construction contaminants must also be prevented from accumulating in building HVAC systems and in absorbent building materials. liquid. appropriately installed. COMMISSIONING u Fully Integrated Operating Systems Commissioning activities transform the various building systems into an integrated whole. dust and other airborne contaminants and odors. u Healthy and Efficient Custodial Operations Reduced human exposure to physical and chemical hazards and odors associated with cleaning products and pesticides can be achieved through custodial operations that employ appropriate methods and lowtoxicity or non-toxic cleaning products.. components such as doors or lighting fixtures. cans. avoiding products with excessive or unnecessary packaging). u Selection for Resource Efficiency Resource efficiency can be achieved through conscientious design strategies. u Noise Control Create a sound environment that is healthful. or ‘healthy’ building materials.g. and that the staff are trained to operate and maintain the facility in conformance with design intent. reuse. a dedicated commissioning agent oversees the building team to ensure that the systems have been well-designed. particulates. water resources. recycle’ can serve as a guideline for decisions relating to resource efficiency. WATER MANAGEMENT u Minimize the Use of Domestic Water Proper selection of plumbing fixtures. in that they effectively promote ongoing resource conservation. equipment. u Health and Safety Construction workers and building occupants need protection from pollutants produced during construction. potentially generating complaints among building users/occupants. it is critical to ensure that user groups and facility maintenance staff can knowledgeably operate the building systems and equipment. PAGE 25 CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION u Environmental and Community Considerations Renovation and new construction should be performed with the least possible disruption to both the community and the environment. specifying mechanically-controlled roll towels instead of disposable folded towels. OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE u Operating and Maintaining Building Systems Operating and maintenance practices ensure that all building systems function to the fullest extent of their designed efficiency and meet specified levels of energy and indoor air quality performance. u Controllability of Systems To achieve a healthy and comfortable environment. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT u Good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) A healthy and comfortable level of indoor air quality is the goal for all occupied spaces. u Water Reuse To achieve overall water conservation goals. packaging materials.

the client agency must embrace a vision of raised expectations for the building’s performance and a commitment to the ‘total quality management’ approach to developing high performance buildings. and higher quality program spaces in which the agency can best carry out its mission. enhanced decisionmaking with input from multiple stakeholders is the order of the day. They will consider the project’s present and future anticipated capital requirements. and refinement.Part Two: Process City Process Strategic planning and budgeting supports the development of high performance buildings. At project outset. and to pursue a philosophy of meticulous contract enforcement. operations and maintenance personnel. The benefits of this approach to the client agency include reduced operating costs. they will take into account community and environmental impacts of their project. As a team. Executives must ensure active participation on the part of program staff. examination. They must seek to optimize the design process through constant participation. During site selection. Knowledge and awareness of inter-agency and oversight procedures can streamline the project and enhance its performance goals. avoided costs of future maintenance and repair. . and other prospective users. programming. and budgeting.

. . . . . 29 Budget Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .City Process Program Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Deliverables. . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Site Selection and Planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Capital Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and the avoided costs of new building site acquisition. Consider the use of standardized (universal) rooms or spaces to avoid design obsolescence as the organization evolves over time. u u u u u u City Process PAGE 28 40. Examine interrelated systems that may be nearing the end of their useful life for possible inclusion in the project scope. predetermined list of spaces. published yearly. using single spaces for multiple purposes. and the available budget. The High Performance Building Workplan). for example. Sequence renovations and upgrades to obtain best long-term performance and operating economies. 42. and program staff. operating costs. Examine space planning and programming standards to encourage more flexible solutions. including short and long term capital costs.11). the Guidelines establish programmatic goals that are consistent with the agency’s mission. or on the phasing of future work. or altering operating schedules to accommodate more effective uses of the built spaces. to identify and further develop high performance objectives as drawn from these Guidelines. Alternative space standards. Asset Information Management Survey. Planned work is reviewed against future or past work to ensure that comprehensive work items are identified and that an integrated design approach will not be precluded by funding limitations or phased action of the work. Non-construction or reduced construction options. Consider additional program uses for the facility. . Contact OMB or agency liaison for a copy of the report. Consider non-construction or reduced construction options to achieve the same program ends. Best practices mandate improving the thermal performance of the building envelope before or concurrent with the upgrade of mechanical and electrical systems (see renovation strategies p. and design with flexibility and adaptability in mind. These include: • Examining redesign/reuse of existing or alternate city-owned facilities as a means of eliminating new construction. Technical Strategies (for Client Agencies) u Planning meeting. request a new survey from OMB.Program Planning Benefits $CF During the capital planning process. includes condition and maintenance schedules for major portions of the City’s fixed assets and infrastructure. See Appendix. Approach the program as a list of activities or functions to be accommodated. etc. • Evaluate each option in terms of total life cycle costs. v Accurate needs forecasting and programming may eliminate redundant or unnecessary construction efforts. Multiple use opportunities. convene a planning meeting involving all capital staff. demolition. Consider. Where AIMS data is outdated. item D 41. identify other projects that could effectively be combined with this one. Consider the use of the Guidelines in conjunction with any leasing of spaces. (Refer to Appendix C. rather than as an absolute. and minimize the cost of any future modifications. Early in the capital budget cycle. and infrastructure. Evaluate the project’s relationship to other current and anticipated capital improvements at the facility so as to make informed decisions on related work. operations personnel. discuss and prepare the High Performance Project Initiation Form. Application to leased space. Whenever possible. With these objectives in mind. request that high performance objectives be included in the lease negotiations.40 (Refer to Appendix D) Make use of the City’s Asset Information Management Survey (AIMS)41 data. • Downsizing the program by identifying economies or redundancies. To best address resource efficiency concerns. the intention of the project. and • Consolidating with other projects..42 Properly sequence the work. Explore the potential for expanded uses (now or in the future) that might be compatible with those of the current project.

• Avoid selecting ‘greenfield’ sites (desirable open spaces. and barriers to accessibility. or enough of its ‘fair share’ of similar facilities. etc. u Transportation/services. e. Consider: • Compatible facilities and sites currently under the City’s auspices or control that are either fully available or are not being used to the optimum effect. such as solar access. building and to address community and context issues.’ Where economically feasible. such as access to daylighting. High performance projects take environmental justice issues into account in site selection. utilities and other infrastructure components (e. The community context of a site and access to services and transportation are as important as the fundamental environmental issues. Identify negative impacts and formulate potential mitigation strategies. Strategic siting can reduce stress on. • Reuse ‘brownfields. evaluate adverse environmental conditions. select sites that provide opportunities to remediate or repair existing environmental damage (‘brownfield’ conditions include polluted soil. shopping areas. Design and installation of a State Park. The North River Sewage Treatment Plant was located Community outreach. Green buildings as ‘good neighbors. places with unique visual appeal). parklands. helped Encourage participation by elected and appointed lessen the impact of this facility on the community. These include maximizing economic viability and opportunities for employment. etc. identify the site’s environmental advantages. etc. cultural. Consideration should be given as to whether the community already has more than. noise. degraded vegetation. amenities such as restaurants. Site Context and Community Issues $DS Careful study of context in facilities planning may help reduce negative environmental impacts. and traffic considerations. u Future growth. Select sites that allow for future growth or expansion by the client agency or end user. such as air pollution. photo: Stephen Campbell officials and other community stakeholders. In preliminary zoning reviews. Shared use. and related municipal services.g. pleasant views. or eliminate unnecessary expansion of. utilities. Environmental opportunities. Research available City-owned space. u Environmental justice. introducing or preserving cultural benefits for the community.Site Selection and Planning High performance attributes are a critical consideration in site selection for a capital project or lease. integration of renewable resources. Environmental deficiencies.). and minimizing adverse environmental and infrastructure impacts on the neighborhood. activity level. Select sites that already have. community outreach to promote the high performance with a running track. or have the potential for. water. Select sites that are well serviced by existing public transportation. When reviewing a site. City Process u u u u u PAGE 29 . Benefits $CM v Technical Strategies Site Selection u Evaluate site resources. lot area coverage. roads. skating rink. places of significant ecological. pool and gymnasium.’ Determine the appropriateness and compatibility of the facility to the surrounding environment in terms of use. Develop an action plan for adjacent to a densely populated residential neighborhood. Strategic siting of the facility may have positive economic effects on the surrounding community. as well as the inclusion of taller exhaust stacks. and available modes of transportation. Consider how the site may provide opportunities for shared use or access needs to nearby public programs. and air. parking lots). Brownfield reuse also helps reduce sprawl. This reduces site development costs and lessens environmental impacts. or historical value. Evaluate existing building and site resources and select a site with characteristics that are conducive to optimum performance. day/night parking and sharing of Riverbank State Park assembly spaces.g.. Adaptive reuse of an existing building may eliminate the need for new construction.

Washington Heights Day Care Center – Site Selection Process The site originally selected for this community facility was too small for the program. It was very narrow, and did not have immediate access to outdoor open space. As such, the site would have required the development of a six-story day care center, special approvals from the Department of Transportation, and development of a portion of public park land into child care open space. Although the site was apparently the only one available, careful reexamination of the catchment area and alternative ways of addressing the needs of the community engendered a unique cooperation between the community and nearby ColumbiaPresbyterian Hospital.

Budget Planning
Benefits G
Adequate budgets will eliminate unnecessary project delays.

During the executive budget process, high performance building objectives compatible with the agency’s goals and the project scope are identified, and appropriate design and construction budgets are established to enable the project to be fully implemented.

v

Technical Strategies
u Design planning. Establish a design budget that is sufficient to achieve the scope of work,
taking into account all aspects the high performance design process and deliverables as described in the Design Process chapter. The design budget should reflect the cost of all services and deliverables for: a) development and implementation of the High Performance Plan; b) implementation of energy use modeling and/or daylighting modeling; c) more extensive life cycle costing as an aid to decisionmaking during design; d) more intensive monitoring by consultants during construction; and e) development of an Owner’s Manual at the conclusion of the project. u Construction planning. Allocate a construction budget sufficient to achieve Level 1 and selected Level 2 high performance goals. Additional capital costs may be offset by life cycle operational savings. Consider including a budget for commissioning as appropriate.43 See the Commissioning chapter for more information on inclusion of this important process. u Plan for operational savings. Look ahead to establish an Energy Budget. Coordinate with DCAS/OEC. Use data derived from existing facilities or comparable building types to establish the baseline budget from which attainment of energy performance goals will be measured.

Capital Planning Process
Benefits G
Ensuring adequate interagency coordination can eliminate planning errors and costly delays.

The project initiation process, the procurement process, and the interagency and oversight approval processes may all require additional commitment from DDC and the client agency in order to achieve the project’s high performance goals.

v

Technical Strategies
u Project initiation. The client agency must complete the High Performance Project Initiation
Form, which highlights strategies and considerations for achieving a better project.

u ULURP/EIS. During the Uniform Land Use Review Procedure (ULURP), make use of regulatory
procedures such as Environmental Impact Statements (EIS), City Planning review and Community Board review as high performance planning resources. u Interagency and oversight approvals. When requesting reviews or support, the client agency must ensure that the Office of Management and Budget, the Mayor’s Office of Construction, Comptroller, and other oversight entities understand that the project is a high performance project. u Procurement. To obtain necessary high performance expertise, DDC and the client agency must select consultant lists and establish weighted criteria for subconsultants.

City Process
43. Current industry costs for commissioning services range from 0.5% and 3% of the construction budget depending on building type, size, and extent of services.

PAGE 30

u Scoping. Additional focus on and detailed attention to the Guidelines should take place during
DDC’s development of the Specific Requirements and the Request for Proposal.

u Client agency staff commitment. Achieving a high performance building requires additional
intra-agency and interagency cooperation during the planning and design phases. Appropriate staff must be made available and adequate staff time must be allocated.

PERFORMANCE GOALS
u Utilize existing infrastructure. u If an existing building is to be rehabilitated, maintain and reuse
75% to 100% of the existing building's structural shell.
City Process

Tools
Asset Information Management Survey (AIMS) is available from the Office of Management and Budget. ® Building Momentum, Energy Star. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star Building Program provides managerial and technical tools to commercial building owners to improve the efficiency of their buildings, from appropriate organizational strategies, through the development of baselines and analyses, to securing funding, implementing upgrades and celebrating success.
®

Deliverables
r r

High Performance Building Project Initiation Form High Performance Building Workplan

Illustration: Bruce Hendler

City Process

PAGE 31

Design Process
The delivery of a high performance project calls for significantly increased collaboration among the various design disciplines. A focused goal-setting session will help develop a work plan for incorporating high performance objectives. The emphasis on interdisciplinary design and resource management, together with use of new design tools, distinguishes high performance from conventional processes. Design thinking should be informed by the traditional efficiency methods and techniques employed by older or vernacular buildings, where forms, building materials, and means of achieving comfort respond to local climate and acknowledge the location of the sun. When taking advantage of the increasing sophistication of today’s building systems and material technologies, high performance designers should temper their selections and specifications to minimize dependence on mechanical and architectural technologies that are difficult to manage and maintain.

. . . . . . . 36 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design Process Client Awareness and Goal Setting . . . . 35 Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . 34 Team Development . . . . . . 37 Deliverables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Well-Integrated Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Project Team Design Charrette. a design charrette brought mechanical engineers. This Plan should be updated to reflect iterative changes during design and enable measurement of overall project achievement. High performance objectives are prioritized and weighted to best respond to the client agency’s mission and the building’s function. This ‘front-loading’ of design input from experts such as landscape architects. Four TImes Square v G Enables effective decisionmaking during the predesign phase. special exhibits or artwork commissioned by the client agency can illustrate or complement these attributes. mechanical and structural engineers. immediately thinking along the same lines: manufacturers. President. v Technical Strategies u Guidelines implementation. The charrette process is one or more facilitated workshop(s) which helps educate all the team members in the high performance issues. A team approach is vital to the project’s success. and develop “buy in” to the solutions recommended. Based on these workshops. and reducing or eliminating VOCs from construction materials. thereby achieving energy savings without any adverse impact on the building’s exterior. identifies which general objectives and technical strategies are to be incorporated into the project’s Specific Requirements (SR). suppliers. Client agency executives and members of the maintenance and operations staff also participate on this integrated team. Alternatively. During the scope development phase. Lessons Learned. Goal Setting In setting goals for a senior center. when efficiency strategies can be implemented at lowest possible cost. Consideration should be given early in the project as to how the building’s design itself can illustrate the benefits of high performance attributes while supporting the key mission of the client agency. DDC Design Process PAGE 34 44. and utility company. Team Development Benefits G Raises level of expertise within the design community on interdisciplinary high performance issues and strategies. Daycare centers might instead emphasize indoor air quality. contractors. the City’s project team. the sponsor might identify daylighting and optimal artificial lighting as high performance priorities. With the consultant on board at the project inception. everyone else on the team got on board.” Dan Tishman. u High Performance Plan. develop team consensus on the primary goals. New Children’s Center. shall participate in a ‘charrette’44 or goal setting workshop to establish and integrate high performance goals in relation to other project priorities. NYC Administration for Children’s Services For the renovation of a historically designated building into a staff training center and intake facility for children. the full client team. The high performance building features themselves can be designed evocatively to explain their benefits. The high visibility and symbolic position of a civic facility make it an important public showcase for sustainable design. Photo: Rick Bell. increasing fresh air ratios in classroom or play spaces. . energy efficiency and other ‘green’ consultants increases cross-disciplinary creativity and encourages problem solving. u High performance ‘education’. “Because the stage was set for environmental awareness and innovation. the consultant will prepare a deliverable called the ‘High Performance Plan’ which sets environmental and energy performance goals for the project. u Goal setting workshops.Client Awareness and Goal Setting Benefits G Helps establish and build lasting commitment to high performanc e goals. daylighting consultants. active participation with the prime consultant from the outset of the project. and is attained when all sub-consultants are committed to continuous. Tishman Construction. together with the client agency. historic preservationists. and energy and green building consultants together early on to identify solutions and share ideas. together with the consulting team. This facilitated improvement of the building’s central heating and cooling system. G Promotes team’s commitment to design methods and tools which in turn promotes attainment of goals. Performance goals are established as a means of enhancing the facility’s function while advancing the project’s environmental and economic objectives.

Other historical examples include use of exterior courtyard spaces or rooftop terraces for summertime reading or dining. Sub-consultant participation in design strategy development will enable cross-disciplinary decisionmaking relative to building siting. The Specific Requirements and RFP should state the level of participation expected of each sub-consultant at each phase to clearly delineate their contributions to achieving an integrated design. u Consultant selection. large built-in ventilation shafts. ‘whole building’ design can often enhance the visual interest of the building. improved glazing and insulation can reduce HVAC demand). u Cross-disciplinary design. the design of the various interdependent building systems and the envelope should pursue optimal performance at the lowest life cycle cost. They will establish selection criteria.e. use computerized energy modeling to integrate architecture and engineering decisional processes and to explore the life cycle cost advantages of multiple design alternatives for the envelope (insulation.. roof. Maintenance and operating savings can be achieved through optimization of several building systems at the same time. These features control temperature swings. systems. etc. $CF Integrated design can achieve reduced building system first costs by allowing for downsizing of some building systems (i. configuration. many early 20th Century New York City schools should update the initial High Performance were constructed with C. New design tools are available to support and reinforce design integration. building envelope and HVAC design. and operations. u Goal setting workshops. horticulture.Technical Strategies u Specific sub-consultant participation. glazing. Integration fosters a perception of the building as a set of interrelated. pre-qualified lists. or other methods of incorporating green building expertise in project development. and activity areas in public libraries. Periodically. which will establish key features of the project and performance targets. Expertise in such disciplines as acoustics. curtain walls. thermally Plan to assure the integrity of the goals efficient masonry walls. maximize daylighting. and and objectives. Ensure appropriate cross-disciplinary teamwork in achieving the necessary integration of building site. multiple savings and other benefits may be attained. the project team For example. Specifically. High Performance Attributes in Older Buildings Historic buildings often exemplify integrated design by achieving u Reference to high performance comfort with an economy of means and without dependence on objectives. DDC and the client agency must review procurement options to determine appropriate means of selecting the best pre-qualified consultant and subconsultants.or H-shaped floor plans. weighting. interdependent systems wherein a single solution can trigger improvements in several other building systems simultaneously. In this way. and not less sophisticated mechanical and electrical systems. u Modeling. and integrated with. Collectively.) and for the mechanical and lighting systems. industrial hygiene. Use computerized or other appropriately detailed spatial representations of the building and site to provide continuous feedback on the integrative functionality of all design components. may also be required. etc. operable transoms in the corridors. Well-Integrated Design The building’s spatial organization should be informed by. G Climateresponsive. its site features and climatic considerations. All team members participate in goal setting workshops (‘charrettes’) and/or milestone meetings with the client. Benefits $OF v Technical Strategies u Design integration. than at each milestone. Design Process PAGE 35 . and encourage cross-ventilation.

u Future waste streams. Use ample floor-to-floor heights (interstitial spaces) to allow for future modification of mechanical. rather than installing all new windows. v Technical Strategies u “Right-size” the space program. $CF $OM Material conservation reduces waste management costs. Make sure that space assignments are optimally sized by considering the following: • Multiple uses for individual spaces. i. superstructure costs). u Future adaptability. While more labor intensive. When the organization or use changes. Resource conservation begins at the whole project scale where opportunities are greatest. Building for Future Flexibility A new building floorplan should have uniformly sized (modular) spaces. G Preservation of architectural and urban fabric embodied in older buildings. and provide adequate floor loading. consider creative programming changes that avoid unnecessary reconfiguration. with as many as possible of the same (universal) size. this decision avoids material waste and may be further justified because window replacement by itself may have a long payback period. The interior of this courtroom in the Surrogates Court in lower Manhattan exemplifies an array of materials. and to extend replacement cycles.. plumbing. Longer system replacement cycle. u Minimize construction interventions. Detailing for easy disassembly will reduce future demolition waste and renovation costs. It subsequently applies to individual building systems and materials that may be considered for whole or partial reuse. Survey the existing facility’s materials and systems for potential refurbishment and/or salvage value. .Resource Management Benefits $CF First cost reduction (avoided demolition. whereby unassigned. Select building systems that allow for future adaptability and expansion. or for their salvage value. adaptable. high quality interior materials should be salvaged and refurbished rather than discarded. and communications systems. a single space used for various functions at different times. and use of insulating windows). Flexible. Surrogates Court In adaptive reuse of older building stock. When approaching a building renovation. ES Building and building fabric re-use reduces consumption of new resources. and generic spaces will increase building utility and longevity as needs change over time. people may then be easily retrofitted into these generic spaces. sealing. • Alternative officing. Design Process PAGE 36 Reuse of Building Systems A ‘weatherization’ project might consider window refurbishment (caulking. Design for building longevity and durability. flexible workstations are shared by multiple users. electrical.e. • Universal sizing (design that incorporates standardized room or workstation sizing). Illustration: Bruce Hendler u Waste prevention.

Design Process Tools ® ® US Green Building Council LEED Rating System. and identification of appropriate passive solar and natural ventilation strategies and their means of development. Design Process PAGE 37 . seasonal flooding. • Schedule of milestones for high performance deliverables. sub-consultants. decisions. 1. including the consultants. building users. prevailing wind analysis.40. As appropriate. high winds. including solar access diagrams. Site Opportunities. • Analysis of existing site characteristics such as views. The consultant should also identify additional deliverables to be specifically required in subsequent project phases. These are described in detail in ensuing chapters. and DDC personnel. 2. All deliverables and key submittals relating to high performance aspects of the project are summarized by project phase and chapter in the “Summary Table of High Performance Key Submittals and Deliverables. • Analysis of existing and potential topographical and landscaping features that will help reduce energy load.” which is located on p. • Appropriate technical strategies for achieving the selected objectives. is described on p. This schedule will be integrated with the overall project schedule. client agency representatives. exposure to seasonal storms.PERFORMANCE GOALS (NEW CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATION) u Complete and implement the High Performance Plan. www. • High performance key submittals and deliverables selected from Guidelines chapters that relate to the objectives. Where the project does not have a pre-preliminary phase.doe. key submittals. 42. The deliverables to be included in the High Performance Plan during the pre-preliminary/ schematic phase of each project are described below. and meetings. Implementation Strategy. The specific performance objectives and technical strategies should be identified and defined during a facilitated workshop with the entire project team. The Plan will include a record of this process that should be referred to on a regular basis during the design phases. vegetation. as well as identification of appropriate responses to identified conditions.htm Deliverables The High Performance Plan – A Key Deliverable in the Design Process The High Performance Plan (the Plan) spells out the means for integrating high performance features into the project. The Owner’s Manual.usgbc. www. a deliverable to be submitted by the consultant upon final completion of construction. and wildlife habitat. technical strategies. adjacent open spaces and environmentally sensitive areas. perform the analyses and identify site-related opportunities described in the Site Design chapter as follows: • Analysis of bio-climate. the Plan will be delivered during the schematic phase.gov/buildings/gbc98/green_building_challenge.org Green Building Challenge ‘98 Rating System. This portion of the Plan should include but not be limited to the following: • Listing of selected high performance objectives that are consistent with the client agency’s mission and which relate to opportunities presented by the project. The Plan will be formulated by the consultant during the prepreliminary phase of the project. and performance goals. Utilize the High Performance Building Guidelines as a tool for developing an overall strategy customized to suit each project.eren.

Prepare a materials resource plan that includes the following: • Materials identified for reuse in project. • Strategies for the use of graywater. concrete. • Access to direct/indirect sunlight as well as foot-candle requirements. • Emissions criteria for materials selection. analysis of the previous three years of monthly energy consumption (including gas. as well as possible forms of renewable energy to be used. Design Process PAGE 38 45. • Analyses of urban/historical/cultural context. electric usage. These conditions should include: • Indoor air temperature. Operating Energy Analysis. • Other performance goals which should apply to the project. and mean radiant temperature. • Water quality testing at the tap and at point of service. Scope of Water Management Opportunities. Identify and describe in a brief narrative the overall scope of water management issues to be included in the project design. Gather information on the energy use of comparable high performance buildings and apply this in developing the project’s performance goals. • Performance goals for operating energy costs based on the above analysis. cleaning. 4. These materials store much of the sun’s energy. Prepare a matrix describing preferred conditions for each major type of space in the project space program. • Acoustic criteria in dBA for HVAC as well as for noise from adjacent spaces and exterior sources. Prepare a preliminary energy plan that includes the following: • Analysis of energy use in similar building types. Analysis of suitability for geothermal applications. • Performance goals for renewable energy use. Lighting and power density should each be reported in two ways: first as the amount available for use and second as source of potential heat gain. and electric demand) would serve to establish a baseline against which improvements may be compared. This effect is called the ‘urban heat island. .• Analysis of opportunities for mitigating the urban heat island effect45 and urban light pollution. 6. • Proposed methodology for simulating and analyzing energy performance of the building design. producing a dome of elevated air temperatures up to 10o F greater over a city compared to air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. or restored. For renovations. Environmental Program Matrix. • Analysis of mass transit/bicycle access to site and opportunities to encourage same. land use patterns. 3. Materials Resource Assessment. oil. rooftops and other man-made materials. The additional heating of the air over a city is the result of the replacement of vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt. (See sample document included as Appendix F). 5. • Collection of rainwater for irrigation. Tree planting can further help modify the city’s temperature through shading and evapotranspiration. and architectural styles. conserved. for removal. Identification of project attributes that should be protected.’ Light-colored rooftops and lighter colored pavement can help dissipate heat by reflecting sunlight. • Analysis of subgrade characteristics and suitability for plant life. • Air changes in cubic feet per minute. relative humidity. and for recycling through municipal recycling programs. • Resource efficiency/sustainability performance goals for new materials in the project. • Orientation relative to exterior views and other conditions. community resources. including identification of appropriate energy modeling software. Standard industry practices should also be identified for use as a baseline for measuring the effects of proposed improvements. and other non-potable uses. • Goals for lighting and power density for the project as a whole and for all major spaces. The description should encompass the following: • Water conservation strategies and equipment.

insulation. • Construction Health and Safety Plan: protection of workers and building occupants’ health relative to indoor air quality and pest control. • Waste Management Plan: procedures for salvaging selected materials. Identify and describe in a brief narrative the scope of operations and maintenance issues to be included in the project. and required documentation. intended occupancy and use. • Opportunities to introduce new low toxicity housekeeping materials. developing a detailed commissioning schedule. and legally disposing of hazardous materials. installation methods. They will describe any non-standard materials. Division 1 should also contain information and resources to help contractors find non-standard materials. • Consultant tasks related to commissioning. the nature of the tests to be performed. Identify and describe in a brief narrative the overall scope of construction issues to be included in the project’s final design drawings and specifications. The results of this process will help the design team make informed decisions regarding materials specification. Scope of Commissioning Opportunities. and should provide criteria for their review. Design Process PAGE 39 . Scope of Construction Opportunities. and a lot of other factors will serve as the ‘raw material’ for energy use modeling and analysis. space programming. and a comprehensive Owner’s Manual. accurate information on building materials and systems. Division 1 should describe any additional coordination or management activities required for the project. These will include alternative glazing. The flexibility of CSI Master Format and Section Format systems accommodate easy integration of added Division 1 sections or any subsequent division articles that may be required. Specification Deliverables The specifications prepared by the consultant are the key to a successful high performance project and must be prepared with particular care. It should contain information on any unique material submissions and/or testing procedures required.7. Scope of Operations and Maintenance Opportunities. functional and postacceptance testing. 9. required attendance. siting. as well as the commissioning-related services to be performed by the Consultant. During design development. Identify and describe in a brief narrative the scope of commissioning services to be performed by a separate Commissioning Agent. recycling construction and demolition materials. training building operators. and contributing to the Owner’s Manual. These tasks include but are not limited to developing the commissioning plan outline as necessary to inform the project specifications. This scope description should identify: • General client concerns and staffing limitations. and implementing pre-functional. The specifications should delineate the systems scheduled for commissioning. • Opportunities to develop improved cleaning and maintenance protocols. It also includes developing an evaluation report. construction procedures. square footage. a final commissioning report. • Opportunities to support post-occupancy waste prevention and recycling activities through provision of adequate space and access requirements in the design layout. etc. 8. This description should address the following: • Site Protection Plan: protection of project and adjacent properties. The CA scope includes but is not limited to developing a commissioning test plan. and selection of EESs. moisture barriers. mechanical equipment. detailed. Cost Estimate Deliverables The consultant must ensure that cost consultants (or energy consultants) perform life cycle costing of discrete energy efficiency strategies (EESs). This scope description should summarize the following: • Commissioning Agent (CA) scope of work. and other activities to ensure that the contractors will meet the overall environmental objectives of the project. participating in training.

The following information shall be included in the Manual: 1. 5. mechanical. • A copy of the final High Performance Plan. These drawings are furnished in accordance with the Guide for Design Consultants at the time of Substantial Completion by each trade contractor. Design Process PAGE 40 . manuals are to be provided by the trade contractors for the following systems: • Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. • Electrical systems. and telephone numbers of all firms that have had a role in design and construction of the project. indicating the agency and/or vendor responsible for inspection. • Cleaning product specifications and literature. 3. 2. along with performance criteria for each building system. Contributors may include the commissioning agent. fire alarm. The following items shall be provided by the appropriate party: • Specifications and maintenance protocols of lighting fixtures and lamps. • Fire protection system. consultant. • A copy of the building’s Certificate of Occupancy. each member of the project team should be identified by the consultant in the project specifications. For the life of the structure. The consultants should provide a description of the design intent. these primary team members must be in agreement if the resulting building is to be comfortable and efficiently run – not just at the outset. and the trade contractors. and plumbing design as conceived by the designers and realized by the contractors. The Manual will be organized into sections according to building systems. As described by the Consultant in Section 16000 of the Project Specifications. • Schedule of required building systems inspections. • Glazing maintenance/cleaning. • Air handling/distribution system. electrical.Owner’s Manual – Outline of Requirements The Owner’s Manual ensures that the project will be maintained in accordance with design intent. Record drawings. Commissioning. In compiling the manual. 4. The following shall be provided by the commissioning agent if one is present on the project: • A copy of Commissioning Report and a videotape of training program. Project Statistics. • Kitchen HVAC system. Operations and Maintenance. addresses. Mechanical/Electrical Systems Instruction Manuals. including names. construction manager. • Hydronic distribution system. As-built record drawings shall be included as part of the Manual. the Owner’s Manual serves as the primary tool for transmitting the intended architectural. The following shall be provided: • A complete list of the building’s vital statistics. security and UPS systems. but for the duration. Together with representatives of the client agency. The consultant and the City should ensure collection and compilation of required material into an organized document that is then made available to the building operators.

The manufacturer of each component of a building system shall be identified as follows: • Manufacturer. • Name.6. and shut down procedures. including sources of supply. General Requirements. Design Process PAGE 41 . drawings. valves. addresses and telephone numbers of local repair and service companies. Checklist. 7.). etc. illustrated by diagrams as appropriate. unusual features. and controls. The following data shall be included for each system: • A detailed description of each system. and 24-hour telephone number of each subcontractor that installed the system or equipment. operation and controls. all modes of operation. certified performance charts. including performance curves and rating data. • Control sequences describing start-up. address. • Wiring and control diagrams. • Recommended spare parts list. • Copies of certifications and test reports. • Manufacturer’s literature. illustrations. • Maintenance and overhaul instructions. e-mail. • Copies of warranties and guarantees. Each building system shall be described in terms of major components. The Checklist will include items such as operating and maintenance manuals. • Approved product data. and safety precautions. The consultant shall provide a Checklist for trade contractors’ use in compiling the documentation required for each system included in the Manual. model number and serial number. interconnections. and technical data. • Corrected shop drawings. • Names. showing piping. and any warranties or guarantees that the Contractor is required to submit. Each component of a building system shall have maintenance instructions provided as follows: • Lubrication schedule. • Customer service access (phone.

Summary Table of High Performance Key Submittals and Deliverables Pre-Preliminary: Develop High Performance Plan* Schematic Design Phase Design Development Phase Construction Documents Phase Construction Phase Occupancy Phase: Owner's Manual* Design Process Implementation Strategy (1)* Site Design and Planning Site Opportunities (2)* Specification citing native species. commissioning final report* Commissioning Scope of Commissioning Opportunities (8)* Recommended waste prevention and recycling measures Commissioning plan and specifications* Operational Waste Analysis (9)* Operations and Mainteneance Design review of materials and details for maintenance Maintenance and cleaning protocols* * Items in bold indicate deliverables to be submitted by the consultant apart from typical project deliverables as described in the Guide for Design Consultants. safety and waste plans* Review submission of site. optimal planting schedules Tree pit size and mass transit/bicycle amenities confirmed Refine calculations based on design development Confirm conformance of design to matrix recommendations Sustainable landscaping. and HVAC plant options* Further modeling of HVAC/ lighting options* Update environmental programming matrix Indoor Environment Environmental Program Matrix (4)* Maintenance and system descriptions* Materials and Products Materials Resource Assessment (5)* Environmental criteria included in outline specification Environmental criteria included in final specifications Review material certifications and MSDS sheets Material certifications and MSDS sheets* Water Mangement Scope of Water Management (6)* Review test data for equipment and components Lab results at water service* Lab results* Construction Administration Construction Scope of Construction Opportunities (7)* Site protection. siting. health & safety and waste plans Scheduling. testing. and evaluation report* Training tape. PAGE 42 . health. pest management plans* Maintenance and system descriptions* Building Energy Use Operating Energy Analysis (3)* (Computer) model the envelope.

Illustration: Bruce Hendler Design Process PAGE 43 .

The intent is to encourage optimum use of natural/existing features in architectural and site design. infrastructural. Sustainable site planning identifies ecological. . such that building energy use is diminished and environmental degradation is minimized.Part Three: Technical Site Design and Planning Preservation of site resources and conservation of energy and materials – both during construction and in ongoing building operations – are important and often overlooked benefits of good site design. and cultural characteristics of the site to assist designers in their efforts to integrate the building and the site.

. . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Site Design and Planning Understanding the Site . . 47 Sustainable Landscape Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Encouraging Alternative Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Deliverables . . . . 50 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Building-Site Relationship . . . . . . . . . .

conserved. ecological niche into which they fit – will reveal which areas are either sensitive or threatened. opportunities and constraints. fault lines. r Analyze cultural features and activities in the neighborhood and identify possible connections to the project. v Proper assessment of site resources can eliminate unnecessary infrastructure and facilities expenditure. plant species. r Identify construction constraints. Determine the need for retaining/stockpiling existing topsoil. or restored. unstable soils. • Existing air quality and ground level wind patterns. Site Design and Planning PAGE 46 . former (buried) water features. • Mapping of natural hazard zones. This will allow the design team to better understand and respond to site conditions. Technical Strategies u Inventory and analyze the regional and local ecological context. existing plants. Illustration: Bruce Hendler r Inventory infrastructure and utilities.Understanding the Site Benefits $CF $CM Inventory and analyze site resources. Survey topography. relationships. u Topographical features. and which serve as wildlife habitat. etc. and constraints to better enable the designers to maximize energy efficiency while conserving and restoring ecological and cultural resources. The u Inventory and analyze image above illustrates some of the relationships between vegetation urban/historical context and and a site which either establish or enhance wildlife habitat: ‚ surface community resources in order to water. water table. r Analyze transportation system and existing/potential linkages to the site. and what types of fertilizer or soil amendments may be necessary for planting. • Inventory of existing vegetation and ecologically sensitive areas. „ fruit-bearing “native” effectively respond to cultural issues. and … natural leaf mulch. ES Protection of local ecology. floods. u Identify and prioritize the site’s natural and cultural attributes that are to be protected. steep slopes. and identification of any threatened species or significant habitats. and water Inventory of Existing Vegetation and Ecologically Sensitive Areas features to better understand grading An inventory of a site’s plant species – and an understanding of the and drainage issues. Inventory and analysis includes. • Soil and ground water testing to determine pollution levels. but is not limited to: • Relevant climate-specific characteristics. r Review the site’s cultural resources for possible restoration or incorporation. ƒ a variety of tree canopy heights. r Examine the architectural style(s) present in the neighborhood and consider the use of historical styles or traditional materials as a means of integrating the new or renovated building with the surrounding area. such as exposure to high winds and storms. bearing capacity. r Review land use patterns in the immediate area.

etc. r Use earthforms. the site design and building design should support the ecological and cultural functions of the entire development. drainage and water detention systems. incorporate recreational areas that have multiple functions in addition to visual value. a water feature in a playground can provide both cooling and recreation for children.g. For example. Remediate damage to existing eco-system (soil and plants) and build an eco-system that enhances the local ecology and creates a favorable microclimate SOUTH summer winds Plant deciduous trees to the south. creating and reinforcing the relationship between an outdoor cafe and windows that look in on interior plantings.. and siting. r Map sun and shade patterns associated with new construction. storage. new buildings are situated and formed to fit well in the existing sloped landscape. screening. Well-designed open space creates a sustainable microclimate that in turn reduces building energy use and supports a high-quality interior environment. orientation and outdoor spaces to provide efficient access to services. Green buildings are good neighbors. The project as a whole should be designed to minimize negative environmental impacts on surrounding areas and to maximize opportunities to restore natural systems. $PF winter winds cold downdrafts Improved occupant satisfaction through landscaping and views. Design landscaping that optimizes selection and positioning of plants for sun and shade. orientation. improve air quality protect membrane and insulate Benefits $OF.Building-Site Relationship Taken together. Pond to retain storm water Plant trees to protect from cold winds and improve air quality and block noise Shield recycling. r Site Design and Planning PAGE 47 . Technical Strategies u General Site Layout Organize building mass. provide porous paving Maintain view corridors to outside Reflected heat Minimize building footprint Distribute trees so as to open building to mild summer breezes Improved building and site microclimate reduces urban heat island effect. and access for collection vehicles. Use well adapted indigenous species that are self-sustaining Roof planting to detain rainwater. use heatretaining courtyard pavements (with proper shading). reducing negative climate and other environmental impacts. including space for collection. block winter wind and admit summer breezes. CF v Use planted terraces to connect with outdoors and to shield high summer sun Locate air intakes Roof mist cooling and watering systems Set building back from noisy and polluted street NORTH Integrated site/building design promotes operating savings and can reduce construction costs. ES Plant erodible slopes Minimize road surfaces. r Employ passive solar principles in architectural design. and setting the local standard for performance. plantings. windbreaks. r Incorporate adequate space for operational recycling and maintenance. composting and garbage containers by landscaping Mould earth contours to connect building with site and berm to insulate Solar-powered high cut-off outdoor light fixtures to minimize light pollution Encourage use of public transportation and cycling by providing bike racks and sheltered links to building ES Building-Site Relationship Illustration: Johannes Knesl Steinhardt Conservatory At the Steinhardt Conservatory located in Brooklyn Botanical Gardens. rooftops can be used as gardens and for water collection.). and soils to support the functions of the building and site (e.

use plant materials to screen parking and service areas. In parking areas. arbors. and Illustration: Bruce Hendler undue exposure to storms. reduce vast expanses of asphalt. Specify light colored paving with an albedo reflectance of at least 0. New York). Design landscaping to be seen from and complement interior spaces. such as reflected glare and light at night. r Use solar power for exterior lights. and outdoor spaces to work together. such as erodible slopes. and separate pedestrians from traffic and service areas. Use high-efficiency lights in exterior contexts such as uplighting fountains or sculptures. The facility also has plantings on the roof and trees around the perimeter. consider the use of porous pavement. r Prospect Park Swan Lake and Ravine Stream In this innovative project.u Improved Environmental Quality Coordinate landscape design with building envelope design. shading of adjacent greenspace. windows. if possible. and to provide water storage and a sediment settling basin as a natural means of storm water control. taking advantage of light. waste heat. features a roof-top playground with both sunny areas for play and shaded quiet areas. Consider planting trees and other vegetation along the perimeter or. and pedestrian lights. within the parking area itself. u Site Lighting r Use light colored or reflective edges along driveways or walks to reduce dependence on high-wattage electrical lighting at night. slippery Mitigation of Urban Heat Island Effect soils. r Avoid adverse impacts on adjacent properties. or creation of gusty winds at grade. telephones.5. Capitalize on views into and out of the site and adjacent areas. use planting strips between sections of pavement to screen cars. Orient building. or orient a conference room window toward a pleasant view. high water table. and fountain pumps whenever site conditions allow. air pollution. Beach Channel Drive Child Care Center This child care center (currently under construction in Queens. r Design to reduce potentially detrimental conditions. For example. r Select light fixtures that reduce or eliminate the effects of light pollution on neighboring sites and the sky. The roof bulkhead elements are designed with colorful metal roofing. and interesting views. Site Design and Planning PAGE 48 . air flows. u Mitigation of Negative Impacts r Reduce the urban heat island effect through tree planting and pavement selection strategies. parking lights. noise. r Use deciduous shade trees and exterior structures such as louvers. a lake and stream system was designed to conduct water through the site. and trellises to reduce cooling loads within the building.

e. and minimizing parking. reseed and spread without much maintenance). including species diversity. sand. allowing infiltration via porous surfaces. Japanese Barberry. Porcelainberry. Wherever possible. Illustration: Bruce Hendler r Provide good growing conditions. black Invasive Species locusts. Ailanthus. If irrigation is necessary. and to recharge the aquifer. and especially for street trees. plants that are native to the region and microclimate. including adequate root space for plants. and buffering bodies of water from pollution sources. Historic Richmond Town At Historic Richmond Town. r Harvest rainwater and stormwater for irrigation and other uses on site. $OM 46. Privet. and for the remediation and restoration of wetlands that have been disturbed. Emphasize plant diversity. avoid allergycausing plantings and those requiring chemical treatment. and fertilizers by using plant combinations and maintenance methods that do not require chemicals. While not an all-inclusive listing. Practices should promote the conservation and restoration of existing biological and water resources. r Reduce water pollution from pesticides.’ and ‘geoblock. consider drip irrigation and other waterefficient irrigation systems. or ‘companion’ planting. Site Design and Planning PAGE 49 . the cultural institution’s master plan for restoration and development calls for the preservation and enrichment of existing wetlands and water’s edge plant communities. v Technical Strategies u Planting Practices Reduce reliance on plant species that require frequent irrigation and maintenance. Staten Island. In some areas of the City. Tree pits should be 3-5 times the size of root ball dimensions. Multiflora Rose. the major plants of concern are as follows: Norway Maple. Rugosa Rose. 47. preventing erosion. Plants that have few pests. Japanese Honeysuckle. or operable windows.47 r Water harvesting/ reuse practices reduce burden on City water management systems. and Purple Loosestrife. Porous surfaces include materials such as gravel. Amur Cork Tree. ‘grasscrete. and other legumes). and aeration. entries. Oriental Bittersweet. Russian Olive. honey locusts. and those which naturally grow together and are self-sustaining (i.’ r Remediate water quality by filtering stormwater through plantings and soil. r Where planting adjacent to building openings such as air intakes. Benefits $OF Reduced landscape and hardscape maintenance costs. r Avoid invasive species (those which threaten local native ecosystems). Use salt for melting ice. herbicides.Sustainable Landscape Practice The landscape features must be selected and configured to suit site conditions and restore habitat using self-sustaining landscape design and site maintenance procedures. locate trees so that the rooting zones of more than one tree can be combined. u Water Use/Pollution Prevention r Prevent non-point source pollution by planting watershed buffers. this will also reduce loads on combined storm and sewer lines. Sycamore Maple. soil fertility.46 r Reduce dependence on fertilizer by using plants that contribute nitrogen to the soil (clover.

u Provide alternative fueling facilities. plastic. mass transit. Provide covered. Center # 2). obtain compost from New York City facilities. Technical Strategies u Provide adequate bicycle amenities.u Soil Quality Analyze planting soil and implement on-site soil remediation measures such as introducing earthworms if they are sparse. . small plant debris. carpooling.. Include features such as secure interior and/or exterior storage. provides a shuttle bus to and from mass transit and a covered shelter. and other less-polluting means of transportation. r Provide space and bins for composting of landscape materials. adding organic matter and microorganisms to break down pollutants. This building is now the home of the Department of Design and Construction. r When available. electric vehicles. The site also has a bicycle rack. and an electric car battery charging site. Long Island City. v Encouraging Alternative Transportation The site should offer support facilities for bicycling. and shower facilities. Call the Sanitation Action Center at 212-219-8090 for information on compost availability. u Resource Use r Use recycled. Provide a preferred carpool parking area. u Bus stop seating areas. and removing toxic materials. and locally available materials when constructing landscape features (e. as applicable. Queens Atrium Corporate Center The Queens Atrium Corporate Center (formerly the International Design Center of New York. recycled timber. lockers.48 r Benefits ES Reduced vehicular pollution. u Carpool incentives. Use compost for soil amendment in lieu of peat moss (a non-renewable resource). renewable. a natural gas pumping station.g. r Use mulch to conserve soil moisture. Consider ethanol. wind-sheltered bus stop seating areas or waiting areas within enclosed building lobby. Leave grass clippings. Site Design and Planning PAGE 50 48. rubber tires). and reduce the need for fertilizers. restore soil fertility. and fallen leaves to decompose on the ground.

Building Integration Building Energy Use. requiring minimal mowing.. or lack of vegetation. Operating and Maintenance Considerations. additional traffic. weeding. and trimming). Every outdoor space shall have two or three functional uses. Plumbing design should incorporate site design elements that support stormwater and graywater management.000 square feet of impermeable surface. Plant at least one tree on the site for every 1. provide secure bicycle parking spaces for 5% of building occupants.e. PERFORMANCE GOALS: NEW CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATION u Identify and mitigate all existing site problems including Site Design and Planning u u u u u u u u contamination of soil. light pollution. obscuring significant views. and air. and an appropriate number of showers. water. Plantings shall be comprised of: least 50% species native to the New York City area. Site Design and Planning PAGE 51 . Specify high-albedo (light colored) materials for 80% of paved surfaces.e. access. and other passive solar opportunities. utilities. as well as any negative impacts caused by noise. shading. sodium vapor) will have an impact on the health and growth of plant life. Water Management. etc. Exterior lighting design and the various types of light sources (i. and 75% low-maintenance (i. Tree pits dug in pavement should be a minimum of five feet by five feet. and (2) permits the highest possible square footage of the building’s surfaces to be dedicated to green space. shading on green spaces. mercury vapor vs. Tree planting schemes will have a growing impact on daylighting. For buildings exceeding a 10-minute walk from mass transit. and parking) that exceeds by 25% the open space requirement for the site based on local zoning. Site design must incorporate adequate space for operational recycling and maintenance. The planting scheme shall incorporate biodiversity. When compatible with local zoning. eyesores. Design and construct a development (including building. Demonstrate that the new building will minimize negative impacts on neighboring properties and structures. avoid or mitigate excessive noise. provide secure bicycle parking spaces and showers for a minimum of 2% occupancy. For a building located closer to mass transit. consultant shall demonstrate that the development: (1) permits the highest possible square footage of green open space in relation to the building’s footprint.

r Analysis of existing site characteristics such as views. optimum seasons for most species. location(s).Deliverables: Pre-Preliminary. Regulatory Issues « Care must be taken in site detailing to coordinate with the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission/Historic District restrictions. « Review the health regulations related to water reuse restrictions. The Site Opportunities section of the High Performance Plan shall include: r Analysis of bio-climate. Analysis of suitability for geothermal applications. seasonal flooding. parking. and architectural styles. seating. r Mass transit-related amenities (sheltered/covered bus stops. Site Design and Planning PAGE 52 . including solar access diagrams. Site Report shall include: r Plant list. Identification of project attributes that should be protected. vegetation. The Owner’s Manual shall include: r Descriptions of sustainable landscape maintenance practices. r Specification language indicating that restoration of the natural systems subsequent to construction disturbance has been maximized by scheduling planting in late spring or early winter. r Analysis of existing and potential topographical and landscaping features that can contribute to reductions in energy use. and tree pit design/planting. r Analyses of urban/historical/cultural context. conserved. « Coordinate with the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) for street trees: regulations related to species. Operations. r Analysis of mass transit/bicycle site access and opportunities to encourage same. adjacent open spaces and environmentally sensitive areas.) Construction Documents. r Analysis of subgrade characteristics and suitability for plant life. prevailing wind analysis. land use patterns. Identification of appropriate responses to identified conditions. schedule construction so as to not interrupt nesting. or restored. waiting areas). if wildlife habitats are present. exposure to seasonal storms and high winds. r Bicycle access. The Builder’s Pavement Plan and/or site plan shall indicate: r Location and size of optimized tree pits. and storage. Design Development. and wildlife habitat. community resources. and identification of appropriate means for deploying passive solar and natural ventilation strategies. r Analysis of opportunities to mitigate urban heat island effect and urban light pollution. r An integrated pest management plan for the site. (On sensitive sites.

1979.. Sustainable Site Design Philosophy. NYC DOT and Department of City Planning. GBC ’98 Building Assessment Manual – Volume Two: Office Buildings. 1998. Lev and M. Obata and Kassabaum. Lynch. Sustainable Building Technical Manual: Green Building Design. DC. GPO. Caring for the Land. Cambridge. Natural History Press. Design with Nature (2nd Ed. Charles and N. of the Interior. 1988. Denver. MIT Press.References Andropogan Associates.html Harris. Site Planning. Nils Larsson.org. http://www. McGraw-Hill Book Co. US Dept. Timesaver Standards for Landscape Architecture. Victor. Feller. Available from www. Chicago. Native Species Planting Guide for NYC and Vicinity. Guiding Principles of Sustainable Design. McHarg. Hendler. 1977. Cole. US Department of Energy. Ian. 1997.. Navy Whole Building Design Guide.org/navy-wbdg/index. Kevin.). 1998. New York. Dines (eds). Ltd. Olgyay. Inc. NYC Parks and Recreation Natural Resources Group. Hellmuth.nps. 1993. New York City Bicycle Master Plan. US Green Building Council. New York. American Planning Association (PAS Report 328).. (Self–Published). Luttenberg. D. www.htm Illustration: Bruce Hendler Site Design and Planning PAGE 53 . Raymond J. May. 1993 US Navy.usgbc. 1984. Construction. Danielle. and Operations. Bruce.psic. Sustainable Design Guide. National Park Service. Washington. New York. Design With Climate Public Technology Inc. Available from NYC Parks Department.gov/dsc/dsgncnstr/gpsd/ch5.

More specialized software. Current practice also embraces the use of renewable energy technologies that reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and help alleviate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. This energy software.’ In tandem with other energy efficient practices. building systems integration can provide excellent returns on the initial investment. energy efficient design begins with a methodical reduction of the building’s heating and cooling loads – those imposed by climate and those generated by people and equipment. lighting. The energy efficiency model of today involves benefits. etc. With all loads minimized. facilitates informed decision making through the course of the design process. which describes specific environmental features such as daylight distribution and air flow patterns. The new efficiency means optimizing the performance of each of the building’s components and systems both individually and in interaction with other energy-consuming systems – air conditioning. This is known as the practice of ‘design integration. which is essential in the analysis of energy efficiency measures. mechanical systems are then selected based on highest output for lowest fuel consumption. Computer software with proven reliability is now available that will predict energy costs for a proposed building design. .Building Energy Use Today’s world view of energy efficiency is very different from the energy conservation mentality of the 1970s. domestic hot water. which is recalled by those of us who were around then as a time of long lines at the gas pumps and diminished comfort in our homes and places of work. In high performance buildings. not sacrifices. is also useful for the successful integration of design quality with energy reduction.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Light Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . 58 High Performance Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Daylighting/Sun Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Mechanical Systems. . . . . . . . . . . 64 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Electrical Systems and Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Building Energy Use Site and Massing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Deliverables . . . . . . . 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Building Envelope . . . 56 Interior Layout/Spatial Design . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Energy Load Management . . . . . . . .

configure occupied spaces to optimize natural ventilation and daylighting. nonwindowed spaces should be located on the north side against the exterior wall to create a thermal buffer for the main functions on south side. were located on the north side of the building with minimal fenestration. u Prevailing winds. Provide inviting. Stairs. $CF A well-designed layout can contribute to reductions in the size and cost of mechanical systems. v Diminished heating and cooling loads reduce operating energy costs. Orient the building to minimize thermal loss due to infiltration from prevailing winds while taking advantage of natural ventilation. Specify low partitions in office areas adjacent to window walls to enhance penetration of daylight to interior. air circulation. When practicable. Non-windowed spaces as buffers. Determine optimum locations within the building so as to take advantage of microclimate conditions and building orientation. These spaces can accept a wider range of temperature swings. Benefits $OF v Interior Layout/Spatial Design An appropriate layout of program spaces will help reduce energy consumption and will promote the use of passive solar heating and cooling. natural daylighting techniques. and other manipulations of the site section. When using passive solar design for heating. locate so that deciduous trees block summer sun to the south and west of the building and evergreens block winter wind on the north face of the building. Diminished heating and cooling loads reduce operating energy costs. Layout for natural systems. thereby lowering overall energy consumption. In an existing building. Group similar program functions in order to concentrate similar u u u heating/cooling demands and simplify HVAC zoning loads. building mass as a thermal flywheel.000 sq. Carefully consider the placement of existing and proposed deciduous and evergreen trees on site. this approach provides deep solar penetration in winter and a minimal amount of solar penetration in summer. $CF Together with other passive solar and integrated design strategies. pleasant staircases to encourage the use of stairs rather than elevators in low-rise buildings. Existing natural systems. storage. Circulation zones as buffers. locate open occupied spaces adjacent to exterior windows and use borrowed light for interior offices. support spaces. berming. and building orientation can significantly reduce the size and cost of mechanical systems. based on limited duration of occupancy. accompanied by large amounts of fenestration. ft.Site and Massing Considerations Benefits $OF Taking advantage of the physical features of the building site and microclimate will reduce heating and cooling loads. Technical Strategies u Program zoning. u Tree location. Occupant spaces were concentrated on the south side. u Topographic modifications. and lavatories. and other means. u u Building Energy Use PAGE 56 . Consider earth forms. In general. Whenever possible. Because of the seasonal variation in sun elevation. low-occupancy building that was designed to utilize winter solar gain to reduce demand on heating and lighting systems. To achieve this. Orient the building to maximize solar opportunities. Technical Strategies u Solar access. configuration. Design public areas and circulation zones to serve as thermal collectors and buffers. reuse and enhance existing built-in passive solar and energy efficiency strategies (EESs) such as natural convection. Passive Solar Design Strategies The Knapp Street Laboratory and Visitor’s Center is a 31. including mechanical. Utilize or modify existing topography to optimize thermal mass and/or insulation. site selection.

(See page 48) and lighting year-round. Technical Strategies u Passive solar (whole building) design strategies. cooling. the cost of future retrofit for insulation may cost many times the minimal expense of initial high R-value installation. ‘whole building’ design techniques and simple. while supporting reductions in building energy use. brise-soleils. $CF A well-designed envelope can substantially reduce the size and cost of mechanical systems. trees.49 • ‘Air-lock’ entrances to reduce heat loss or gain. as fuel prices will be rising. • Enhanced insulation in the building shell to reduce energy loads. Consider light to just the levels needed for library functions. overhangs on the south side. arcades. reflective roof New South Jamaica Branch Library surfaces to reduce cooling loads Given the siting constraints of this new branch library. and lighting loads reduce operating energy costs. v The New Children’s Center The foster care intake/training facility for the Administration for Children’s Services is being retrofitted into a historically significant structure that was built in 1912. the envelope is being upgraded with additional insulation (cellulose) and detailed to prevent thermal bridging. Building mass can function as a kind of thermal flywheel. roof. this hot air is exhausted. effective technologies to achieve low. Curved strategies in the design of HVAC and diffusing baffles and reflective light shelves prevent direct sunlight from reaching exterior wall openings to reduce the occupied areas of the building. A common and highly effective approach is to specify glazing with low emissivity (low-e) coatings and high R-values to reduce solar heat gain/loss. and deep window insets. During the cooling seasons. such as vertical fins on east and west fenestrations. Strategies and techniques may include: • Regulation of solar impact through appropriate fenestration and shading devices. A good envelope harnesses natural energy through effective use of passive solar and daylighting techniques. are also effective components of passive solar design. Building Energy Use PAGE 57 . and window materials will provide good thermal and moisture control. Typical payback analyses based on current fuel prices may not justify expense.Building Envelope Appropriate assembly of wall. cooling and daylighting. Use passive solar. The peaks in the roof collect the hotter air. However. P. automated shades limit the u Natural ventilation. reliance on mechanical ventilation Stein White Architects. • Light-colored. the roof is the primary and diminish the urban heat envelope element available as an interface with the natural environment. LLC during swing seasons. foundation. It also utilizes new higher performance windows. in that it moderates the extremes of thermal loading within a building. which during the winter is circulated through the building by the integrating natural ventilation HVAC system. Benefits $OF Diminished heating. For comfort as well as energy savings.C. A building’s thermal mass resides in materials such as masonry and concrete that have the capacity to store and release heat as interior and exterior temperatures fluctuate. The light fixtures are controlled by photosensors. During the cooling seasons. • Moderation of interior temperature extremes through the use of thermal mass where appropriate. filling in whatever portion of the required levels are unmet by daylight. The south-facing monitors introduce sunlight for direct heat gain during the winter island effect. Shading strategies.or no-cost heating. Richard Dattner Architect. 49.

If using skylights. Daylighting/Sun Control Benefits $OF Whenever possible. Light pollution – excess brightness in the sky resulting from direct and indirect lighting above urban areas – has had a negative impact on the urban ecology. between buildings. P. This will minimize the need for caulking and weather-stripping and will significantly reduce infiltration. u Proper cut-off angles. Specify and coordinate placement of photocell-dimming sensors that adjust electric lighting in response to the amount of available natural light. and the charges associated with peak demand. 7. This saves the most expensive form of energy we use: electricity. Good lighting design also reduces energy waste while improving night views of the sky. v Diminished heating and cooling loads reduce operating energy costs. eastand west-facing facades to reflect natural light deeper into interior spaces. and elevator shafts. Specify glazing with high visible transmittance and integrate placement in building envelope to control glare. Avoid thermal bridging through the exterior walls. Provide shading devices. animals. u Reduction of convective heat losses from unplanned air flows. provide security lighting controlled by motion sensors.u Envelope detailing. thus avoiding negative impacts on plants. To reduce stack effect. such as overhangs or vertical fins. Limit lighting to zones where it is necessary for safe passage to entry and exit areas. consider models that respond to differences in seasonal sun altitudes. and in open spaces. To prevent moisture build-up within the walls. Consider the use of roof monitors and high clerestory windows in addition to or in place of skylights. Reduces energy demand for night lighting. and people. controlled daylighting should be incorporated into the building as the preferred mode of interior illumination and to reduce lighting load and operating costs. disrupting biological cycles in plants and animals. (Environmental Building News. It has also been hypothesized that human health requires a certain amount of exposure to darkness. Building Energy Use PAGE 58 50. has been estimated conservatively at approximately $2 billion per year in the US. Consider the use of glass with higher daylight transmittance and lower shading coefficients on north walls where glare is much less of a problem. Use monolithic building systems and assemblies as opposed to smaller assembly parts. The amount of energy wasted in lighting the sky or outdoor and indoor spaces that do not need it. For special applications. Consider the use of interior and/or exterior light shelves on south-. seal between floors. corridors. Technical Strategies u Reduced night lighting needs. Monitors and clerestories. Benefits $OF v u u u u u Light Pollution Sensitive site lighting will reduce light pollution50 in the sky. This technique utilizes the building envelope as a heat sink for the interior. Reduce the height of luminaires relative to property boundaries.11). and floor details and components. detail the material assembly of the envelope in accordance with best vapor barrier practices. Technical Strategies u Glazing. Consider fritted. Vol. to let in quality natural light but exclude undesired glare while controlling contrast ratios. Reduce security lighting required for open spaces by securing off-limits areas and/or installing motion sensors. 8. Light shelves. $DS Improves market for high performance glazing and other sustainable building envelope materials. stairwells. Radiant cooling techniques may be worth investigating for internally loaddominated buildings. and spectrally selective glazing tuned to end use and orientation. reducing pollution emissions at power plants. Be sure to seal distribution plenums and ductwork. Fiber-optics. Dimmers. u Radiant cooling. ES Reduces negative impact on urban ecology. u Lighting fixture height. $CF A well-designed envelope provides sun control and reduces the size and cost of mechanical systems. Incorporate courtyard. $AS Significantly lowers electrical use. consider fiber-optic technologies or light pipes that transmit natural light deep into interior spaces. No. atrium. or other daylight-enhancing techniques to bring light into the interior. In other areas. Plan air pressure relationships between rooms as necessary. translucent. . roof. Courtyards and atriums. control by timers. Use outdoor lighting fixtures with cut-off angles that prevent light from going upward or too far beyond the intended area of illumination. This will prevent light from straying onto adjoining properties.

Minimize lighting power density to meet project requirements by designing a lighting system with characteristics such as: r Efficient light source distribution. they can yield high returns through improvements in efficiency. r Low ambient lighting levels with task lighting. where appropriate. Consider lighting fixtures that provide significant illumination of ceilings and walls. r Lumen maintenance controls. lamps. such as dimmers. occupancy sensors. Steven Winter Associates A highly efficient light level distribution that improves visual quality while reducing electrical use may be achieved through efficient lighting layout. $CF Increased firstcost for high efficiency lighting systems and additional task lighting is often offset by operating energy cost savings. incorporate a minimum of hazardous substances. mounting heights. and time clocks. Where appropriate. and other components. together with localized lighting controls. r High efficiency lamps and luminaires with electronic ballasts. This also allows for designing to a lower installed wattage. photo cells. and use of parabolic specular reflectors and deep parabolic louvers. Use fixtures that minimize the use of hazardous lamp materials. parabolic specular reflectors. room surfaces (high surface reflectance). Significantly reduced electrical use limits greenhouse gases and other emissions at power plants. Achieve and maintain uniform lumen levels through group relamping. These include pendant fluorescent lighting fixtures that direct light up and down. u Fixture uniformity. relatively low level of ambient light with a significant portion reflected from ceiling and walls and task lighting where needed Benefits $OF Diminished cooling loads help reduce operating energy costs. v $CF Automatic dimmers. Make the most of illumination source output by designing for appropriate room geometry. parabolic louvres Efficient distribution of light sources. Fiber-optic system providing daylight Mirror-based lighting system with single light source High efficiency fluorescent lamps with high efficiency power factor. occupancy sensors Reduced heat energy from lighting lowers the size and cost of the building’s cooling system. Since lamp efficiency degrades over time. luminaires. Building Energy Use PAGE 59 . $AS Selective use of high-reflectance surfaces High Performance Lighting Illustration: Johannes Knesl Technical Strategies u Lighting power density. install lumen maintenance controls to ensure that no more than the required footcandle levels are delivered to the space.High Performance Lighting “Because lighting systems are major energy users. r Efficiency-based controls. the designer often compensates by ‘overdesigning’ the lighting system to account for reduced lumen output later on. This will save energy in the early stages of the lamp’s life. and are well cooled for optimum performance. These have a low propensity to attract dirt deposits.” Adrian Tuluca. electronic ballasts.

an already well-designed lighting scheme was improved to reduce lighting usage by an additional 13%. Efficient motors. Locate high concentrations of electricity (such as panelboards. Building Energy Use PAGE 60 . dimmer switches and occupancy sensors would then be used with automatic controls to adjust lighting levels as needed. Minimize the distortion effects of non-linear loads (personal computers. In large buildings.400 per year. reduce the perimeter lighting use by 35%. a combination of indirect fluorescent lighting (with dimmable electronic ballasts). consider liquid crystal display screens in lieu of conventional monitors. The lightshelves helped convey ambient daylight deep into the workspace. Avoid electromagnetic pollution/exposure. providing a distribution of approximately 80% down and 20% up to the ceiling. u Equipment specification. and variable frequency drives for motors greater than one horsepower. controls. Consider application of videoconferencing between agencies to eliminate energy/emission costs and productivity losses caused by transportation to and from meetings. fans. Use K-Rated transformers to serve non-linear equipment. $CF Reduced heat energy from electrical equipment can lower cooling system costs. High efficiency triphospher lamps would be selected for their capacity to provide as near a full daylight spectrum as possible. Select equipment with the Energy Star label.High Performance Lighting A typical high performance office environment may offer an ambient light level of 30 foot candles. or other source in lieu of conversion to alternating current (AC). Specify energy efficient office equipment. New York. power distribution systems. Utilize direct current (DC) from the photovoltaic system. $AS Efficient electrotechnologies and equipment lowers electrical use. or motors) away from building occupants/personnel. u u u u u u u printers. supplemented by task lighting. Videoconferencing. If necessary. To reduce energy use. analyze and compare the costs of distributing power at 208/120 volts and 480/277 volts. and resulted in a net savings of $11. install electromagnetic field (EMF) shielding.) on the power distribution system by using harmonic filters. Electrical Systems and Equipment Benefits $OF Efficient design strategies. fuel cell. transformers. Improve the power factor by specifying appropriate equipment as required. including computers. and electrical equipment can increase building’s energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption and associated costs. For computers. v Efficient electrotechnologies help lower operating energy costs (motors. and lightshelves for daylighting was used. Direct current utilization. consider premium efficiency motors. if services are available. Power factor. and copy machines. other equipment). Transformers. Distortion minimization. which in turn reduces power plant emissions. Here. High efficiency fluorescent lamps with parabolic reflectors and deep louvers could be used to achieve this level of illumination. Technical Strategies u Cost comparison. task lighting. DC may be appropriate for certain applications such as discrete lighting circuits or computer equipment. etc. Blue Cross/Blue Shield Building At this new building in Rochester.

r Solar energy technologies for heating. the main supplier of electricity to NYC municipal buildings. The reservoirs. and metering power generation facilities. Photo: Joyce Lee u Super-Efficient and Hybrid Technologies. u Conventional Fuel Source Options. ‚ Heat pump ƒ 6” diameter “standing column” „ Ground level (surface) … Soil (depth varies) † Water table (depth and extent vary) ‡ Bedrock (depth varies). based on their capacity to reduce environmental impact from emissions. Geothermal Heat Exchange Technology The standing column well illustrated here is a geothermal heat exchange technology that is wellsuited for use in developed urban areas since it draws heat from the earth in the winter months and deposits excess heat into the earth in the summer through vertical wells that can be located directly under or adjacent to a building. Benefits $OF v Reduces operating energy expenditures.51 r Daylighting techniques that supplement or replace electric lighting. required (such as for laundry facilities). and exhaust air. r Geothermal heat pump technologies should be considered when subsurface conditions allow. especially in circumstances power generated is used to offset the power requirements where large amounts of hot water are of the facility. preserves natural resources. steam condensate. Energy sources are listed in the preferred order of deployment. including process heat. such as PV fields and fuel cells. $AS Reduces dependence on fossil fuel generation. NYPA is open to owning. However. air movement. the City’s current agreement with the New York Power Authority (NYPA). and acid rain. PAGE 61 . $DS Technical Strategies The systems described below should always be selected with an awareness of the training and resource needs of on-site operating engineers in order to ensure that these systems are properly operated and maintained. Helps promote expanded market for renewable technologies. This integrated approach to whole building design reduces the production of greenhouse gases. Of available geothermal technologies. a vertical standing column well is generally most applicable to the urban context. r Photovoltaic (PV) panels in place of exterior wall and roof panels (buildingintegrated PV) to generate electric power for the building. operating. prohibits the City from generating power independently of NYPA. corridors. seeking efficiencies in this realm as well. and slows the depletion of fossil fuel reserves.Energy Sources Various energy sources are available today. on City property. and other renewable resources. Passive solar heating can work in portions of buildings such as lobbies. Designers should first capitalize on conservation techniques. Illustration: Bruce Hendler Building Energy Use 51. r Fuel cells to provide electricity for off-the-grid sites and to support continuous base loads. Consider the following technologies: u Renewable Energy Resources. integrated balance of solar heating. fuel cell waste heat. Only then should they resort to fossil fuel technologies. r Solar hot water technologies can Photovoltaic Cells-Rikers Island supplement domestic hot water heater These photovoltaic cells are integrated into the roof of the composting facility on Rikers Island in New York City. ES Avoids environmental damage resulting from fossil fuel extraction/ shipment. daylighting. Note that with the exception of ‘pilot demonstrations’ of emerging technologies. and atriums of large institutional buildings. then work to achieve an appropriate. smog. r Heat recovery from mechanical systems and electric generation. energy entrained within the earth (geothermal energy). with commensurate reduction in air pollutants.

When available. r During periods of high demand for electric power. should be used for heating. steam driven pumps. such as those that control ventilation fans by using CO2 sensors. showing 1) existing building. gas powered equipment will provide an economical alternative to electric equipment. r Peak-shaving strategies rely on energy management systems. designer should be aware of equipment noise levels. and 3) as built with high performance features. r Developing technologies include alternate energy sources such as methane from biological processes. and other applications as warranted. hot water heating. cooling. r 2500 2500 Existing Building Conventional Design High Performance 2000 2000 Millions Btus per year Gigajoules per year 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 Lighting Equipment Heating and Cooling Other Loads The Ridgehaven Building. energy efficient lighting. such as solar control films on glazing. hydrogen and so on. r Dual fuel boilers can primarily be operated on natural gas to reduce air pollution. r Thermal storage systems work well in conjunction with conventional chiller systems to shift electric power consumption from periods where power is very expensive to periods where cost is lower. San Diego Breakdown of calculated energy loads for the Ridgehaven Building. These should be investigated based on building location and the availability of the fuel source and technology. electric utility company steam (generally a by-product of electric power generation). Source: City of San Diego Building Energy Use PAGE 62 . u Developing Technologies. and can be switched to oil only when required. In specifying and locating these systems. r Lighter grades of oil for oil burning equipment burn cleaner and produce less air pollution. micro-generators for on-site tri-generation. u Demand Reduction Strategies. 2) conventional design. These sensors help ensure adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality while reducing peak loads. and high efficiency water-source heat pumps.

present and future landscaping. strive to improve energy performance well beyond the basic requirements of the NYS Energy Code. Select high efficiency equipment that operates at high efficiencies under both full and partial load conditions. perimeter versus interior spaces. seek reductions in system load during periods of reduced demand. u u u u u u u u u u u u u Building Energy Use PAGE 63 . height. NYC Administration for Children’s Services. orientation. special occupancies such as computer rooms requiring 24-hour operation. $250. both from power plants and at the building site. Consider installation of multiple modular boilers that allow more efficient partial-load system operation. HVAC Lighting and Power Envelope Benefits $OF v $300. For buildings in quiet zones and with clean outside air. and the occupancy of the building) when selecting HVAC alternatives and sizing the systems. consider natural (in lieu of mechanical) ventilation during the swing seasons. Chiller sizing. Consider independent mechanical rooms on each floor to reduce ductwork and enhance the balance of delivered air. constant air systems. envelope. Use separate HVAC systems to serve areas with different hours of occupancy.Mechanical Systems Mechanical systems must work in concert with the building layout. Gas heater/chiller. spaces with different exposures. Distributed mechanical rooms. Do not use CFC/HCFC refrigerants. Determine the overall environmental impact of building energy consumption. energy efficiency measures incorporated during design are estimated to achieve roughly 30% reduction in energy usage above NYS Code and 20% savings above a base case of good current professional practice. Distribution systems. Consider the application of an ice or water storage system as a means of avoiding peak loads for cooling. Determine if the building might benefit from the use of natural ventilation. In all design and construction efforts. Source: Steven Winter Associates 0 $OF $150. Evaluate opportunities for heat recovery systems (sensible and latent). Heat recovery systems.000 $CF $50. $100. etc. Analyze the benefits of variable air volume systems vs. Consider the use of high efficiency condensing boilers.000 $200. exposure. applicable regulations. $AS Technical Strategies u Performance improvement. Consider the use of a combination gas heater/chiller to reduce energy costs (and possibly) to reduce the equipment room size. and consensus standards. Consider the architectural features (orientation. Natural ventilation. future interior lighting. Energy performance analysis shall account for energy losses incurred during delivery from the point of generation to the point of use. neighboring structures. Ice storage. and site characteristics to reduce reliance on energy derived from fossil fuels. Modular boilers.000 Diminished heating and cooling loads reduce operating energy costs. Evaluate various sizes and models of chillers to identify unit(s) that will most efficiently meet demand requirements. Systems integration. and to increase the use of renewable energy.000 New Children’s Center. Condensing boilers. as well as for the emissions generated by energy production (on and off-site).000 Right-sizing of equipment results in increased operating efficiencies. Limiting electrical and fossil fuel use reduces air emissions. Zoning. Partial load conditions. lighting strategies. various options for the new building envelope.000 NY State Energy Code Basecase With Energy Efficient Measures First-cost savings can be achieved by specifying appropriatelysized mechanical systems. electrical equipment. Annual Energy Cost by End Use At this new foster care/training facility.

Monitoring and controls. An energy management system encompassing all building controls should be considered for all new buildings exceeding 40. Technical Strategies Load Calibration $CF Higher first costs for installation of controls can be offset by operating savings. For existing buildings of this size. An independent advanced control system or energy management system (as determined by economic analysis) should be considered for smaller buildings. Accept only control systems with the capability to adjust set points. However.000 s. Systems integration. Effective energy load management is a two-step process. Energy monitoring and control systems should provide: r Energy consumption monitoring using hourly graphs to illustrate the effects of small operational changes and monthly graphs that depict historical trends and operating information over time. Bronx Criminal Court Complex. office equipment. The control methods used to improve the efficiency of HVAC systems should include a building automation system. Though it has a higher first cost. etc. (For example. Assess the interactions between the HVAC equipment and other related systems.000 ton electric centrifugal chillers. computer modeling of building energy use led to the selection of a 1. security. Computerized control system.000). These systems are usually compatible with Windows®-based workstations. Energy Load Management Benefits $OF The management. Carefully select the components of the mechanical/electrical systems being controlled for software compatibility. Use a computerized control system to establish. Determine optimum operating modes for each system. Control systems should be designed or specified to a level of complexity that’s appropriate for the staff who will be supporting its use. New Bronx Criminal Court Complex In the design of the new 750. $DS Load management enhances the market for high performance control systems. The computer model showed that this chiller configuration has the greatest 25-year life cycle cost savings ($1. the gas chiller significantly reduces the cost of operation by avoiding the peak electrical demand charges ($30/kW) billed during the summer.f. Emission controls must comply with the latest federal regulations. an energy management system encompassing all building controls shall be provided when undertaking a complete renovation of the mechanical systems. v Operating cost reductions are achieved through improved matching of heating and cooling loads with central equipment. and document building climate conditions. $AS Limiting electrical and fossil fuel use reduces air emissions both from power plants and at the building site. consisting of load measurement and system response. Consider dessicant dehumidification as an alternative to the conventional practice of overcooling outside air to remove latent heat (moisture) prior to removal of sensible heat.117. ft. and maintenance of energy-related systems is often neglected. continuous calibration. u Dessicant dehumidification. Energy management system (small buildings). r Local controllers capable of independently managing equipment operation and gathering data for reporting. yet these are the only ways to optimize the life and performance of the systems and minimize the damage caused by fossil fuel use. Subsystem integration should be accomplished using a BACnet open protocol to ensure compatibility with different components and subsystems.u Emission controls.000 ton engine-driven gas chiller in combination with two 1. advanced control systems eliminate oversizing of mechanical systems. without the need for complete reprogramming. ensure that software upgrades are received and loaded in a timely manner. use of gas chillers).000 sq. u Energy management system (large buildings). Equipment life can be extended by reducing the hours of operation and eliminating unnecessary cycling. r Controls (including load tracking and load anticipation capability) that optimize system response to building pickup and download. maintain. Provide training materials and manufacturer maintenance contracts for all installed systems to operating personnel. fire protection. as appropriate. thus lowering first costs for central systems. Ensure that all software required to operate the system is provided. $PF Improved occupant comfort. when compared to other chiller equipment options. r Load shedding and peak electric demand reduction through scheduled equipment cycling or through use of non-electric powered equipment. Continuous calibration of sensors and instrumentation will yield top mechanical system performance in terms of energy use and comfort. such as lighting. Selection of control method components. u u u u u Building Energy Use PAGE 64 .

r Water reset control keyed to outside air temperature. u Air conditioners. Depending on the complexity of the building and the equipment to be controlled. The following strategies will help get the most out of these key systems: r Generate energy consumption profiles that identify occurrences of peak loads and develop responsive management strategies for reducing utility bills. r Demand control for larger boilers. r For small buildings. If multiple sources are available. When reviewing options for boilers. and supply thermal conditioning from the most appropriate/efficient sources. Draft control inducers which reduce off-cycle losses. scheduling. r Burner flame control. • Soft-starting of chiller motor. provide a time clock for night and weekend set backs. r Set supply air-temperature reset controls for variable air volume (VAV) systems based on space occupancy. oxygen trim controls to improve combustion efficiency. • Chiller sequencing. • Condenser water reset. This prevents ‘overshooting’ or ‘undershooting.’ and can result in energy savings of 10-20%. and outside climate and seasonal conditions. r Provide adaptive. r r Building Energy Use PAGE 65 . and chilled water reset. based on variations in heating demand. selection of modular chillers or chillers with multiple compressors. include the following control strategies in the energy management system as a means of ensuring efficient operation: System Response u Heating equipment.u Control back-up systems. r Consider CO2/VOC (carbon dioxide/volatile organic compound) sensors to reduce outside air ventilation in large spaces with variable occupancy. • Use of variable speed controllers for fans and pump motors. Provide simple back-up controls so that equipment can function if the energy management system goes down. r Limit electrical demand during peak hours by turning off non-essential equipment. r For small renovation projects. r Establish temperature and humidity setpoints based on occupancy patterns. • Demand control. Verify that specified settings are consistent with local and national code requirements. consider the following: For larger boilers. r Provide sensors that are capable of adjusting the ventilation rate based on the number of people present in a room. use time clocks with night and weekend set-backs for HVAC equipment. Locate sensors accordingly. minimize simultaneous heating and cooling. chillers and ventilation controls. r Control strategies for chilled water plant operation include: • Chiller speed control through variable speed drive controllers. r Set up the HVAC building control system to operate based on need. programmable thermostats capable of automatically adjusting settings based on recorded demand patterns. • Use of two-speed motors or multiple units for pumps/fans.

Building Energy Use PAGE 66 . the NYS Energy Code is now under review. massing. These minimum standards fall short of much of what’s currently taking place in commercial building practice. As a result. also consider their effects on indoor air quality. the Code can still serve as a useful benchmark for gauging progress. Encourage future building users (or present users for renovation projects) to take part in decisions relating to building occupancy. the conversion factor of 1 kilowatt hour being equal to 10. Consider daylight transmittance as well as thermal characteristics when selecting spectrally-selective (low-e) glazing. Indoor Environment. and maintenance considerations. Material and Product Selection. Orientation. Indoor Environment. To determine the quantity of source Btus consumed. and occupant health. Operations and Maintenance. Despite these limitations. Frequently referred to as the NYS Energy Code. hours of operation. Performance Goals New York State regulations stipulate the performance benchmark for new and renovated commercial buildings: the New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code. Landscape design can either enhance or undermine the climate-related heating and cooling of the building. resource-efficiency. Thus.000 Btus should be used (as stipulated by the NYS Energy Code). When specifying materials for their thermal and water-resistant properties. but leave ample room for improvement.Building Integration Site Design and Planning. operating personnel. and should soon be updated to reflect current technology and practice – particularly in the area of lighting. the following whole building performance goals have been cast in relation to this benchmark. these energy performance criteria became law in 1979 and were last amended in 1989. The NYS Energy Code establishes the minimum building construction and mechanical system efficiencies that can legally be used in New York State. and siting significantly impact access to daylight and the success of daylighting strategies.

such as the use of an economizer cycle to provide cooling with outside air when favorable outdoor conditions exist. u Partially Renovated Systems. veiling reflections.. roofs. etc.). Achieve IESNA footcandle requirements for scheduled use through integration of daylight into lighting design. In addition. New buildings shall annually consume a minimum of 40% less energy on a Btu-per-gross-square-foot basis than what would be consumed if the building were designed to achieve compliance with the NYS Energy Code. at minimum. 10 percent of the total annual energy use. or one-third of total annual energy savings. Achieve Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) footcandle requirements for scheduled use through integration of daylight into lighting design. u Partially Renovated Systems. and lighting systems are fully upgraded or replaced. as compared to the illumination level available outdoors at that time on a horizontal surface under overcast sky conditions.g. veiling reflections. etc. produce a design that yields a minimum daylight factor52 of 1. u Fully Renovated Buildings.. In buildings where a major subsystem (such as lighting or windows) is replaced.g. High performance new buildings shall annually consume a minimum of 30% less energy on a Btu-per-gross-square-foot basis in comparison to what would be consumed if the building were designed for minimum compliance with the NYS Energy Code. u Fully Renovated Buildings. should be provided by renewable energy sources. and the high performance building should save at least the same percentage in energy costs as it does in combined energy source reductions. In performing this calculation. should have the same performance goals as new buildings. and contrast so that daylight does not hinder activities scheduled for the space.). roof. HVAC. Building Energy Use 52. the goal is to use systems that will consume significantly less energy than those that merely comply with the NYS Energy Code. aggressive targets shall be established.5% on the work plane at a depth of 15 feet from the building exterior. Best engineering judgment should establish appropriate targets for a particular project. and contrast so that daylight does not hinder activities scheduled for the space. no credit shall be taken for design features that are required by the NYS Energy Code. or onehalf of the annual energy savings should be provided by renewable energy sources. For all applicable perimeter spaces. it shall be a goal of Level 1 high performance buildings that. should have the same performance goals as new buildings. In addition. Operational cost comparisons should be prepared to ensure that the high performance building will save at least the same percentage in energy costs as it achieves in combined actual energy use reductions. wherein the entire envelope (e. the goal is to use systems that result in significantly reduced energy use in comparison to those that merely comply with the NYS Energy Code. In buildings where a major subsystem (such as lighting or windows) are replaced. Operational cost comparisons should be performed. walls. wherein the entire envelope (e. Building Energy Use PAGE 67 .PERFORMANCE GOALS LEVEL 1 u New Buildings. In performing this calculation. windows. LEVEL 2 u New Buildings. Fully renovated Level 1 high performance buildings. walls. windows. such as the use of an economizer cycle to provide cooling with outside air when favorable outdoor conditions exist. a minimum of 20 percent of the overall annual energy use. Daylight factor: The percent of light available inside a building at a given point. Produce a design that yields availability of daylight to a depth of 30 ft. Control quality issues such as glare. and lighting systems are fully upgraded or replaced. no credit shall be taken for design features that are required by the NYS Energy Code. Control quality issues such as glare. Fully renovated buildings. HVAC. In the case of Level 2 performance.0% on the work plane at a depth of 15 feet from the building exterior) through use of redirecting devices such as light shelves. (with a minimum daylight factor of 3.

a building envelope improvement with a 12-year payback may be factored together with a lighting improvement with a 4-year payback to yield a combined payback of under 7 years. as well as incremental first costs and reduced operating costs resulting from given energy efficiency measure(s). ® In some instances. For instance. Use an ‘adjusted simple payback analysis’ that considers the reduced equipment and system size cost benefits. and zone analysis based on the fundamental heat balance method. passive solar structures. Energy Modeling Tools Trace 600 – Developed by Trane Corp. if considered unusual for a proposed measure. cost credit may be given for reductions in HVAC equipment sizes. and electrical systems: ® Cost analysis begins by performing a ‘simple payback analysis’ of specific design strategies on an individual basis. It is important to note that. high. mechanical. This analysis should be based on first cost of equipment and projected energy costs over the equipment’s anticipated life cycle. It is also important to note that the anticipated life of the measure should be considered when evaluating economic viability. an energy simulation module that performs an 8760-hour energy simulation of building heat flow and equipment performance. The current inflation rate and anticipated fuel price changes shall be obtained from the DCAS Office of Energy Conservation (OEC). space heating and cooling load calculations. ® Building Energy Use PAGE 68 . and variable heat transfers coefficients is also within the program’s functionality. may also be factored into the analysis at this stage. to support HVAC design criteria. This program also features an extensive library of glazings. hourly.Tools Economic Feasibility Evaluation Analysis for architectural. For example. Promising candidates should then be evaluated in interactive combinations. Analysis for mechanical and electrical equipment: ® Life cycle cost analysis should be used to identify mechanical and electrical equipment alternatives. ® DOE-2. as opposed to lighting controls with a life expectancy of only 25 years. It is currently the most accurate program available for performing energy analyses on entire buildings. thermal storage. chilled water piping arrangements. free cooling and heat recovery. while the resources available to cover the first cost of energy efficiency measures will vary by project. ® BLAST – Building Loads and System Thermodynamics performs hourly simulations of buildings and central plant equipment. ® The life cycle cost calculations shall be performed for as many architectural and mechanical/electrical alternatives as required in the Consultant Contract (include the requirement for life cycle analysis in the Specific Requirements) and as requested during Design Development by DDC/Sponsor to their complete satisfaction. etc. Maintenance costs.and low-intensity radiant heat. which may last over 50 years.0 – Hourly Analysis Program developed by Carrier Corp. moisture. Analysis of thermal comfort. ® HAP v4. based on comparisons to industry standards. a ‘simple payback’ of first costs by projecting savings in operating costs over a period of seven (7) years may serve as a rule of thumb when evaluating whether a given combination of energy efficiency measures are economically viable. a longer payback period may be appropriate in a new building for an envelope component such as insulation. whole building energy analysis of multiple zones and multiple lighting/HVAC systems for complex new buildings.1E – Detailed.

ft. Propose alternate types of HVAC systems and discuss how each will potentially interact with features of the architectural design. electric usage. At this stage. and electric demand) would serve as a viable baseline for gauging improvement. daylighting with windows. oil. PV. and the interactions among them. systems. based on the above analysis. Designing Low-Energy Buildings with ENERGY-10 – A whole building design tool that is ideal for use during the pre-design phases of moderate (up to roughly 50. including active solar heating. FRESA – Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant assesses the feasibility of various renewable energy applications. small hydropower. biomass electricity. an analysis of the previous three years of monthly energy consumption (including gas. r Determine the proposed methodology for improving and analyzing the building design’s energy performance. Lighting and power density should each be reported in two ways: first as the amount available for use. layout. For renovations. wind electricity. Prepare an analysis that includes the following: r An evaluation of alternative massing. The energy use of comparable high performance buildings should inform the project’s performance goals. calculations for various HVAC alternatives will likely be approximate in nature. including appropriate energy modeling software. analysis of control schemes. Deliverables Pre-Preliminary. ADELINE and RADIANCE – These specialized design tools are also available to evaluate daylight. active solar cooling. Using pre-preliminary data on lighting and power and assuming a likely HVAC option. and second as a potential source of heat gain. solar design. ASEAM – A Simplified Energy Analysis Method that can also create DOE-2 input files. skylights.000 sq. r Establish goals for lighting and power density for the project as a whole and for all typical major spaces. Program upgrades are expected to address larger structures. perform heating and cooling load calculations at a level of detail appropriate to each design alternative.® ® ® ® ® ® TRNSYS – The Transient System Simulation program is used for HVAC analysis and sizing. Schematic Design Phase. and so on. materials. solar thermal electric. building thermal performance. and other design considerations. When preparing the Operating Energy Analysis section of the High Performance Plan (see page 37-39). etc. infiltration control. Confirm that each scheme can fit within the proposed energy budget. r Performance goals for operating energy costs should also be established. be sure to include the following elements: r Analysis of energy use in similar building types.) projects. photovoltaics. Building Energy Use PAGE 69 . and identify renewable options based on availability and adaptability to the project at hand. air flows (CFD). three-dimensional heat flows. wind. Includes a set of whole building design guidelines and software for performing energy and cost calculations based on local climate. daylighting. Standard industry practice should also be established by the Consultant for use as a baseline against which the effect of proposed improvements may be measured. This is easier to use but less accurate than DOE-2. r Establish performance goals for renewable energy use. or CFD) and three-dimensional heat flows. orientation. HEATING-7 and ALGOR – These programs quantify and illustrate airflows (computational fluid dynamics. cooling load avoidance. etc. building orientation. and are intended only to assess whether systems under consideration will warrant further examination during Design Development. and envelope alternatives for the project based on the methodology proposed for use in the pre-preliminary phase.

such as occupancy schedule and envelope loads. r Document assumptions and calculations leading to size recommendations for chillers and other equipment. 401 M Street SW. r Regulatory Constraints r For ventilation. Washington. 1997. high performance recommendations may require confirmation of compliance with NYC Building Code.org). tel: 888-STAR-YES. Energy Systems E-SOURCE TECHNOLOGY ATLAS SERIES Volume 2: Commercial Space Cooling and Air Handling Volume 3: Space Heating Volume 4: Drive Power E-Source. A final life cycle cost analysis of recommended design elements analyzed in combination with one another shall be prepared to confirm and further elucidate results. TEL: 303-440-8500 Steven Winter Associates. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. examine the various central plant design alternatives and propose feasible. Recommended components shall be those with a reasonable payback relative to the anticipated life of the item proposed. Donald Watson. DC. 1033 Walnut Street. Provide life cycle cost and emissions analyses for each alternative. DC 20460. number of devices. fax:202-564-9569. Inc. New York. 2nd Edition. New York. ISBN 0-07-071159-3. 1997. Life-Cycle Costing for Design Professionals. Energy Efficient Design and Construction for Commercial Buildings. Editor. time in active mode. Tuluca. Required Minimum Outdoor Air Supply and Exhaust).epa. and for envelope improvement. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star Program (http://www. Prepare an analysis that addresses the following: r Based on the accepted architectural scheme and the targets for lighting and power. A separate life cycle cost analysis shall be prepared for each of the alternatives.. r Based on central plant selection. and Dell’Isola. Building Energy Use PAGE 70 . Inc. Berkeley Solar Group. The Energy Design Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. The American Institute of Architects Press. 1993. etc. McGraw-Hill Companies. Adrian (lead author). Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design.S. (6202J) Washington. Construction Documents r Based on refinement of the building envelope and additional data developed during the Design Development Phase. power consumption in active and standby modes. Givoni. examine energy efficient strategies for controlling temperature and ventilation air. EPA Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division. References Building Interface with the Environment Passive Solar Industries Council. (See Appendix G.Design Development. Life Cycle Costing Kirk. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Baruch. Designing Low-Energy Buildings with ENERGY-10. McGraw-Hill. CO 80302-5114.gov/energystar/) U. revise the heating and cooling load calculations and update your analyses of the selected efficiency measures.. for lighting and lighting controls. Washington. Documentation should include an analysis of plug load and should specify electrical equipment type relative to nameplate rating. Incorporated. Alphonse. It should also include all other assumptions that influence chiller sizing. TDD: 888-588-9920. 1995.PSIC. Passive Solar Industries Council. New York. Boulder. DC 1997 (www. Stephen J. effective means of integrating renewable energy sources into their operation.

March 1997 (www.. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. CO 80302-5114. J. Boulder. 1993. High Efficiency Lighting Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. DC. Inc. Greene. 120 Wall Street. Washington.. Daylighting Performance and Design. A.org). Illustration: Bruce Hendler Building Energy Use PAGE 71 . 1992. DOE/GO publication #10097-357. Volume 1: Lighting. Renewable Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies National Renewable Energy Laboratory..nrdc. DOE/GO publication #10097-436. Natural Resources Defense Council.. Gupta.. September 1997. Choosing Clean Power: Bringing the Promise of Fuel Cells to New York. NY 10005-4001. Solar Electric Buildings: An Overview of Today’s Applications. TEL: 303-440-8500. New York.. 1033 Walnut Street. ISBN: 0-87995-102-8. 8th Edition. New York 1995. Photovoltaics in the Built Environment: A Design Guide for Architects and Engineers. N. Bryan.Daylighting Ander. Inc. E-SOURCE TECHNOLOGY ATLAS SERIES E-Source. E-Source. E-Source Technology Atlas Series. American Institute of Architects. February 1997. G. Architect’s Handbook of Energy Practice: Daylighting.D. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Lighting Handbook.

and potentially improved occupant performance. Acoustical quality is obtained through appropriate noise attenuation through the building envelope. including thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. improved occupant health. describes comfortable temperature and humidity ranges for most people engaged in largely sedentary activities. ASHRAE 55a-1995 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.. the City can achieve better human resource outcomes: avoidance of sick building syndrome. reduced occupant complaints. and humidity are all factors that affect thermal comfort. and its addendum. illuminance or intensity of light that impinges on a surface. control of equipment noise. Increased attention to these environmental features can boost quality of life in the workplace by improving overall physiological and psychological well-being. By making the project team accountable for improving building interiors.Indoor Environment High performance buildings reflect a concern for the total quality of the interior environment. Small changes (on the order of 1-2O F) in air temperature may significantly affect thermal comfort. including lighting quality (e. . For the purposes of this chapter. Dissatisfaction with thermal conditions is the most common source of complaints in office buildings. Air temperature. Refrigerating. By definition. and efforts to block flanking sound paths through fixed walls and floors. The American Society of Heating. thermal comfort is included in the section on Indoor Air Quality. lower rates of absenteeism. the amount of glare. and availability of natural lighting. visual contact with the exterior. and the spectrum of the light). and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in its Standard for Acceptable Comfort. they provide supportive ambient conditions.” Visual comfort is a function of many variables. mean radiant temperature. visual comfort. Acceptable indoor air quality was defined in the draft revision to ASHRAE 62-1989 as “air in an occupied space toward which a substantial majority of occupants express no dissatisfaction and in which there are not likely to be known contaminants at concentrations leading to exposures that pose a significant health risk. and appropriate acoustical quality.g. 55-1992. and to isolate plumbing noise. air speed.

. . . . . . . 82 Performance Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Acoustic Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Controllability of Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Noise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Deliverables .Indoor Environment Good Indoor Air Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Good Visual Quality . . . . .

keep underfloor cavity clean Fan coil unit Zone humidifier Position and size supply grilles to avoid drafts Air/Return Flush building periodically with outside air Air Quality Manager Control for humidity. to the greatest extent possible. draftiness. Even if all objectives are met. Through careful selection of materials. and seeks to avoid uneven temperatures. During construction. designers will avoid introducing potential pollutant sources. stuffiness. v Improved indoor air quality increases occupant comfort. CO2.g. typical Fresh air inlet with damper Sensors for: air temperature.INDOOR AIR QUALITY Good indoor air quality encompasses such factors as maintenance of acceptable temperature and relative humidity. radiant heat gains or losses (e. as good IAQ supports and enhances the activities and well-being of the occupants. mixing Independent Fan Coil Units (to reduce duct runs) Cooling Tower Return air quality sensors. There may be additional links to worker performance resulting in improved productivity. or high relative humidity (that can promote growth of mold and mildew). methane. owing to the diversity of sources and contaminants in indoor air. attaining an indoor air quality that’s acceptable to all may be difficult to achieve. It also reduces absenteeism and lowers health care costs linked to upper respiratory discomfort and illness. humidity Consider use of natural ventilation Perimeter supply grilles. Good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Benefits $PF A healthy and comfortable level of indoor air quality is the goal for all occupied spaces. supply fresh air on demand in the right quantities. It requires deliberate care on the part of the entire project team. excessive dryness. radon Boiler Supply AIr Hot/Chilled Air Exhaust Air Indoor Environment PAGE 74 Illustration: Johannes Knesl Control for humidity. Achieving thermal comfort begins with good design and continues with proper building management. Facility managers and maintenance staff also play a role in keeping areas clean while minimizing the use of irritating cleaning and maintenance supplies.. control of airborne contaminants. radon Filter and fan Air Handler. alertness. in the right locations. air passageways need to be protected and mechanical systems must be balanced and commissioned to achieve optimal operation. methane. and sense of wellbeing. as well as occupant perceptions and individual susceptibility. from window areas). and distribution of adequate ventilation air. Air Handler: filtering dehumidifying. additional filtering and dehumidifying Hot/Chilled water to fan coil units Chiller Attributes of Good Indoor Air Quality . Mechanical engineers and allied tradespeople must select and install reliable ventilation systems that dilute the by-products of occupant activities and.

Technical Strategies Dealing with air quality as an add-on issue during design or construction is difficult. Waterproof the slab-on-grade to limit moisture transport. r To avoid stagnant air in occupied spaces. Incorporate measures to prevent soil gas from being drawn into the building. CO2 sensors were configured to meet a 15 c.8–1. and other hazardous air contaminants. The CO2 measurements. r Locate and design air intakes to optimize air supply source(s) for the ventilation system. expensive. These fall into several categories and are prioritized as follows: u Source Control (a primary strategy). This will allow 100% of outdoor air into the supply airstream and enables periodic building flushing. as well as cooling during mild weather. Design and control HVAC economizers so as to prevent moisture problems.) To avoid occupant exposure to airborne pollutants. avoid short-circuiting supply air to return registers.Carbon Dioxide Sensors In the design of the New Bronx Criminal Court Complex. rather than at rates unrelated to occupancy. r For spaces designated in the Environmental Program Matrix. when many occupants are present. r To prevent wetting downstream surfaces.f. methane. Thus.f. select proper air velocities through cooling coils and humidifiers. r Avoid rooftop units because of inaccessibility for maintenance. r Develop ventilation strategies that support operable windows.per occupant outside air requirement.) Wherever possible. the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released by occupants in the courtrooms and jury deliberation rooms will be measured by CO2 sensors.m. r Reduce potential pollution sources through effective moisture control. which ensures that indoor air quality is achieved without sacrificing energy efficiency. r Consider supplying ventilation air primarily to occupied zones using distribution systems such as underfloor air ducting.0 c.000 s. tempered air volume will be reduced when the space has only a few occupants. facility. Design ventilation system for high air change effectiveness. Conversely. a 750. install air handling units in accessible locations. trash storage. where appropriate to the site and function. combustion gases. will adjust the volume of tempered outside air introduced to the space. cooling tower spray. The resulting floor-to-ceiling indoor airflow pattern (also known as displacement ventilation) can be used to reduce pollutant concentrations in occupied spaces. design for at least 0. r Isolate potential pollution sources through separate zoning of areas where contaminants are generated. r Specify ventilation systems that feature an economizer cycle. The amount of tempered outside air is thus supplied in direct proportion to the number of occupants present. perform cleaning and pest control activities when the building is largely unoccupied. r Design mechanical systems that can provide and maintain the required ventilation rate. Indoor Environment PAGE 75 . (See pages 93-94 in the Materials and Products chapter for detailed information. and less effective than including good indoor air quality strategies at the outset. (See page 58 in the Building Energy Use chapter). u Ventilation (a secondary strategy). and excessive dampness. r r Specify materials with low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and low odor emissions. r Use rainproof louvers and limit intake air velocities to discourage water intrusion. (Such placement may preclude use of rooftop space for other purposes. such as radon. In this project. r Evaluate sources of contamination from neighboring buildings and soil contamination./ft2 air movement. Isolate building air intakes from building exhaust air. more tempered (heated or cooled) outside air will be introduced to the space.f. locate CO2 or other IAQ sensors to accurately reflect conditions and control outside air quantities. sanitary vents. which reflect the number of occupants in the space.m. vehicular exhaust.

on surfaces such as carpet. e. such equipment should thus be designed to be accessible for preventative maintenance. r Consider personal workstation control of HVAC systems. use higher efficiency air filters (80-85% ASHRAE standard efficiency with 30% efficiency pre-filters). r Ensure that the contractor uses metal ductwork instead of substituting fiberglass. unless separated and sealed. r Locate sensors to cover areas of similar load conditions (similar occupancy and similar solar exposures). u Construction Methods/Precautions. r Ensure that construction materials such as concrete are dry before they are covered (e. direct digital control systems with graphic interfaces) to verify performance and calibration. Use non-porous duct liners.html 56. If the outdoor air has high dust levels..g. r Commission the ventilation system to assure that design conditions are met. r Indoor Environment PAGE 76 53. and may be prone to fiber release into conditioned spaces. These surfaces are known as ‘sinks. and optimum performance is achieved under full and partial load conditions. cleaning chemical storage and mixing areas. r Periodically audit all computer-controlled HVAC systems (e. 54.gov/iedweb00/pubs/ozonegen.. drywall.53 installed to intercept all make-up and return air. EPA has a guidance document on this subject. even when the total air supply is decreased.’ r Schedule installation of wet materials (sealants. with no recirculation through the HVAC system. ensure that carbon dioxide sensors are operating in a reliable manner. r Consider use of low pressure drop.Provide filtration capable of 60% (or greater) dust spot efficiency.epa. Upstream and downstream paper target filters collect particles and the opacity (light transmission) is then measured. Extended surface pleated air filters that allow greater air filtration without a significant increase in fan horsepower requirements. Gases and vapors often adsorb. r In VAV systems. and carbon dioxide should be installed as close as possible to where occupants are located. etc. at minimum. . available at http://www. external thermal insulation. or acoustical baffles in lieu of linings in strategic locations.. temperature. appropriate locations and amounts of thermal insulation. special controls may be needed to ensure that minimum outside air intake into the air handling unit is achieved during all operating conditions. (See Commissioning Chapter. This is achieved through routine calibration. adhesives) and allow them to dry or cure before installing dry materials that could serve as ‘sinks. r Specify controls on variable air volume (VAV) systems to ensure that the amount of outdoor air delivered to the occupants is maintained. with floor tile or carpeting) or enclosed in wall cavities. 55. r Prevent storage of soft products on site during wet processes. proper air delivery occurs in each zone.’ and contaminants can be re-emitted from these repositories at a later time.’56 and absorbents of VOCs. r Prevent condensation of water vapor inside the building envelope by proper use of moisture barriers. r In VAV systems.) r Isolate potential pollutant sources through use of appropriate filtration systems and separate zoning of areas generating contaminants.55 u Control Systems. toilet rooms. smoking lounges. The dust spot efficiency test is a semiquantitative measure of a filter’s collection efficiency for fine particles – those associated with smudging of the interior surfaces of buildings. high efficiency air filters. and particles deposit. r Control fiber or particle release during installation of insulation and require general area cleanup prior to building occupancy. r Avoid use of ozone-generating devices to clean or purify indoor air. install temperature sensors in return air sections of air handling units to maintain air temperature at acceptable levels. custodial closets. ‘shrink-wrapped. and dedicated copying areas to the outdoors. and control of indoor humidity. These products have a high potential for dirt accumulation and dampness leading to mold growth. Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners: An Assessment of Effectiveness and Health Consequences. caulking. r Sensors for relative humidity.g. r Vent kitchens. r When demand control ventilation (DCV) systems are used. control of indoor-to-outdoor pressure differences.54 r Avoid the use of fibrous duct liners and loose mineral fiber for internal ductwork insulation. personal controls may result in greater maintenance requirements for dispersed HVAC equipment and controls. However.g.

and its presence is necessary for a number of health-sustaining biological processes. the evidence is not sufficiently conclusive to support a recommendation for use of these devices at this time.epa. r The technology surrounding ion generators58 may be of interest to the building owner in specific situations.gov/iedweb00/base/baqtoc. Indirect/direct lighting for even luminance using lamps with high color rendition index and neutral color temperature Clear glass Sloping ceiling reflects daylight into interior Inner lightshelf reflects daylight into interior Internal windows and doors admit daylight and provide views Accent lighting Outer light shelf provides shade and prevents glare Deep reveals reduce glare Reflective surfaces Consider tinted glass SOUTHÁ Transparent partitions Task Lighting Elements of Good Visual Quality Illustration: Johannes Knesl 57. u Occupant Activity Control. Its seasonal rhythm influences our mood. U. and may be relatively ineffective at removing large particles such as pollen and dust allergens. u Emerging Technologies. In some cases. draperies. controlled by building openings.Flush the building with 100% outside air for a period of not less than 30 days beginning as soon as systems are operable and continuing throughout installation of furniture. see the Operations and Maintenance chapter. they do not remove gases or odors. American Lung Association. and the configuration of reflecting surfaces.59 r GOOD VISUAL QUALITY The daily rhythm of natural light sets our biological clock. Abrasion can result in these particles being resuspended into the air. 1994. For specifics. occupants. 58. Any such device should not generate ozone above the FDA limit of 50 ppb in any occupied space. tabletops. Daylighting. Indoor Environment PAGE 77 . floors. r Maintain a ‘no smoking’ policy.g. Ionizers or ion generators charge the particles in a room so that they are attracted to walls. r Designate an Indoor Air Quality manager who receives ongoing IAQ training. Its dynamic changes over the day provide visual stimulation. these devices contain a collector to attract the charged particles back to the unit. The publication may be downloaded from www. and equipment. A delay in building occupancy can significantly reduce odor and irritancy complaints. buildings should provide as much daylighting to as many occupants as possible. which references an IAQ Action Plan and the publication Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers developed by EPA to help prevent IAQ problems in buildings.S. glazing types.. and the American Medical Association. and keep us connected with the outside world. however. Since most of us spend more than ninety percent of our time indoors. Electrical lighting systems should complement natural light.57 u Building Maintenance and Operation r (See page 124 in the Operations and Maintenance Chapter). Environmental Protection Agency. Consumer Product Safety Commission. fittings. While ion generators may remove small particles (e. those in tobacco smoke) from indoor air. 59.html. offers a rich spectrum that improves visual acuity. etc.

u u Indoor Environment PAGE 78 . Use of deep window recesses. • Varied lighting schemes that respond to general building organization and special features. 58. Maximize daylighting through appropriate location and sizing of u u windows. In addition. the open office plan promoted access to the exterior for daylight for the majority of occupants. Room surfaces have been chosen for reflectance of indirect light sources to maximize the efficiency of the daylighting and electrical light balance. • Allowing the lighting patterns to reflect changing activity scenarios during the working day. and strategically located high-reflectance surfaces will also help avoid excessive contrasts and overly dark zones. Where appropriate. mainly from the ceiling. and through appropriate room surface reflectance and colors. Means include use of indirect luminaires or cut-off fixtures. These conditions are conducive to working on computer screens and allow the individual characteristics of furnishings to come to the fore. Managers have private but interior offices.Light Sources Benefits $PF “If one word could summarize the approach used on Audubon House. Avoid arrangements of light sources and reflecting surfaces that cause direct or indirect glare (excessive brightness contrasts) and veiling reflections of light sources in visual task areas. daylighting has been incorporated through skylights and borrowed light accessed through openings in the walls of perimeter offices. and skylights. This will bring about a light distribution closer in character to daylight and make for a softer visual environment with less potential glare. the designer will also want to avoid overlighting of spaces. it would be compliance. v Achieve a quality of light that is beneficial to building activities and occupants by combining natural light with complementary electrical light sources. Light levels.C. P. and through use of glazing systems and shading devices appropriate to orientation and space use. contributes to occupant comfort and sense of wellbeing. Technical Strategies u Daylighting apertures. roof monitors. in tandem with increased visual contact with the outdoors. flexible task lighting. Consider: • Low-level ambient lighting augmented by high quality. Croxton. New Children’s Center NYC Administration for Children’s Services In the layout for the New Children’s Center. Audubon House Daylight and high quality illumination. Audubon House In the Audubon House building in New York City. There may be additional links to worker performance resulting in improved productivity. encourage use of relatively low general lighting levels and of predominantly reflected light. low partitions. Light distribution. it would be optimization. prismatic glazing. Avoiding glare. If one word could summarize the lost opportunities in how we typically build. The south-facing open work areas are equipped with automatic dimmer controls that regulate electrical lighting in response to available daylight. the floor layout enables daylighting and views through windows at the ends of corridors and at strategic locations in the circulation system. Light shelves were added on the south side of the building to reduce glare and to increase penetration of daylight into the interior. (See p.” Randolph R. Extend window light throw through the use of light shelves. Richard Dattner Architect. Building Energy Use). or louvers. Achieve a good balance between uniform light levels and localized variations to create a dynamic and comfortable visual environment. FAIA. surface reflectance. Light shelves.

High visible light transmittance glass to maximize the daylight penetration Ceilings kept higher in order to bounce daylight into the space Sidewall “fin” to protect against glare Sloped ceiling to redirect daylight to Bench u u u u u Tall and continuous borrowed lights transmit daylight to the courtroom High reflectance finishes to bounce daylight deeper into courtroom Curtainwall Curtainwall NORTH SOUTH North daylighting strategy is similar to the south but because the daylight comes indirectly from the north sky.1E (an energy modeling tool – see Building Energy Use. its contribution will be weaker. RADIANCE studies also help define interior layout. Wherever practicable. Design a building organization and floor layout that gives each occupant adequate visual access to the outdoors and to the general organization of the building. The objective was to develop an energy efficient building envelope. light shelves. fumes. combined with energy analyses performed using DOE-2. Select diffusers that reduce glare and sufficiently illuminate ceilings and walls to create a visual field similar to prevailing daylight conditions. Window cleaning. particularly where windows are close to sources of air-borne dust. p. or gases that reduce the transmission of light. Schedule regular window cleaning to maximize the amount of daylight entering. Light shelves to redirect daylight to the ceiling Public Circulation Witness Room Courtroom Courtroom Bench Skylight to direct daylight to the collaboration table Jury Deliberation Room Private Courtroom Window to direct daylight to the work surface With both the public and private circulation adjacent to the curtainwall. and interior shading devices (as needed).68). The top surface of the jury deliberation rooms functions as a light shelf to reflect light into the courtroom interiors. and aid in the selection of materials and colors. RADIANCE-generated renderings and numerical data can be extremely helpful in selecting the glazings. so they can be dimmed or turned off row by row. Provide lamps with high color rendering index. highly reflective surfaces. and entry paths of daylight while allowing for flexibility of space usage. lighting/daylighting analyses were completed using RADIANCE (a computer-based lighting modeling tool). and high ceilings. Ballasts. Rafael Viñoly Architects Indoor Environment PAGE 79 . 100% daylighting is expected New Bronx Criminal Court Complex Daylight is reflected deep into the courtrooms in this courthouse through the use of high windows. and in identifying viable lighting and daylighting strategies. Use high frequency electronic ballasts to minimize flicker as lamps and ballasts wear. such as tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps. Since the building is dedicated mainly to computer processing. wire luminaires in parallel to the walls with windows. while promoting good visual and thermal comfort. Lighting Modeling Tools For the new Blue Cross/Blue Shield building in Rochester.u Luminaire arrangements. Views. Arrange luminaires in types and patterns that clearly respond to the fundamental building organization. Lamps in the warm-white to neutral-white color (2500O to 3700O) temperature range effectively complement skin tones. design issues relating to glare and high contrast from extensive east and west exposures are of significant concern. floor layout. Color. New York. Diffusers.

plumbing (chillers. and room acoustics. spatial configuration and materials must be designed for appropriate resonance patterns. normal traffic. and generators). and grilles). there are three aspects to consider: sound isolation. the extent that external sources (e.ACOUSTIC QUALITY A good acoustic environment keeps noise at levels that do not interfere with activities within programmed space. transparent partitions to contain noise where feasible Sound rated partitions placed on structural floor Sound absorbent partitions and furnishings Floor slab floating on insulation Attributes of Good Acoustic Quality Illustration: Johannes Knesl Indoor Environment PAGE 80 . valves. Building services that may contribute excessive noise and vibration include HVAC systems (air handling units. Architecturally. boilers. pipes. Sound and vibration isolation requirements for a given space will depend on desired ambient noise levels. registers. Sound rated partition up to ceiling Sealed wall penetrations and acoustic baffle duct sections Sound absorbent dropped ceiling Junctions vibration dampened Sound absorbent insulation Sound rated glazing Sound absorbent flooring Sound reflecting. lighting fixtures. diffusers. and other uses) and electrical systems (dimmers. white noise can be used to mask private conversation. laundries. and the level of noise and vibration from nearby sources and activities.. Noise abatement begins with avoiding noise-generating factors. air traffic) impinge upon the space. transformers. cooling towers. The primary acoustical and speech privacy requirements in offices include the ability to speak without having conversations overheard by co-workers. building services noise and vibration control. and locating sensitive spaces away from known noise sources. variable air volume and fan-powered terminal units. ductwork. car alarms. Sound-attenuating barriers and absorptive room surfaces must control noise transmission through the building structure and within rooms.g. fire/ambulance/police. restrooms. and freedom from distractions caused by nearby conversations or other intruding noises. To achieve positive acoustic quality in a room. containing inevitable noise at the source. In overly quiet rooms. pumps.

and foundations. and enclosing equipment in soundabsorbing walls. u Attenuate Noise Along the Path of Transmission. r Consider the use of sound attenuators (‘duct silencers’ or ‘sound traps’) and acoustic plenums to reduce noise in ductwork. Maximize distances between workstations and general office equipment. r Prevent transmission between exterior and interior by ensuring appropriate fabrication and assembly of walls. u Noise Control in the Space Itself. Avoid locating mechanical equipment above or adjacent to noise-sensitive spaces. r In an open plan office space. floating floor slabs. Benefits $PF v Technical Strategies u Control Noise at the Source.Noise Control Create a sound environment that is healthful. office equipment. offset workstations so that co-workers are not in direct line of sight or sound. r Acoustic comfort can contribute to occupant comfort and sense of wellbeing. and sound-absorbent ceiling systems. r Absorb or block excessive background noise or interfering single-source sounds in open office environments through use of resilient flooring (carpeting and tiles). absorbent ceiling geometry). and shelves). and views while shielding the program spaces from noise generated by the Van Wyck Expressway and Queens Boulevard. electrical/janitorial closets. roofs. or vents where noise can re-enter the building. With these tools. lobbies. stairwells. and storage rooms. Interior acoustic requirements were programmed for each space. conference. windows. install partial-height freestanding walls between workstations or work groups. The design provided secure open spaces for light. the layout arranged existing and planned buildings to create interior courtyards. with values set for such characteristics as noise criteria. To promote sound isolation and reduce sound reflection. consider using white noise. comfortable. and piping that generates less noise and dampens the noise generated. desks. r Locate noisy mechanical equipment. resonance properties. such as face-to-face communication. r Prevent transmission between rooms by wall. Queens Criminal Court Complex In the DDC-administered design of the Queens Criminal Court Complex. achieve a level of room resonance quality that supports the programmed uses. and ceilings. r Achieve favorable room acoustics by configuring room geometry. r If appropriate conversational privacy cannot be achieved. floor. positioning furnishings and furniture. ductwork. and ceilings. r Consider wrapping or enclosing rectangular ducts with sound isolation materials. It can reduce distraction and thus may be linked to improved worker performance. ceiling (suspended ceiling tiles. and sound absorbing or reflecting partitions and furniture (chairs. Site. Indoor Environment PAGE 81 . r Place acoustic buffers. doors. Consider placing vibrating equipment on isolation pads. orient. This will alleviate the need for more complex acoustic separation solutions. and functions away from noise-sensitive uses. or audio-visual presentations. such as corridors. and appropriate to intended use by controlling noise and carefully attending to the acoustic design of spaces. r Prevent transmission of sound through the building structure through use of floating floor slabs and sound-insulated penetrations of walls. floors. ground floor. and partition and door types. The walls should feature solid core construction and sound absorbing panels on both sides. floors. and ceiling assemblies by specifying materials with appropriate sound transmission class ratings. Consider the use of sound-rated acoustic doors and acoustic seals around these doors. air. r Select mechanical and plumbing devices. r Prevent noise transmission by absorbing noise and vibrations at the source. r Situate mechanical room doors across from non-critical building areas. between noise-producing and noise-sensitive spaces. r Avoid locating outside air intake or exhaust air discharge openings near windows. which border the site. Consider using set-off studs with sound-attenuating insulation. and lay out the building such that external noise sources can be attenuated by distance or by topographic features or walls. and specifying appropriate surfaces.

As much control as possible should be given to individual users. There may be additional links to improved worker productivity.Controllability of Systems v Some measure of personal control over one’s immediate surroundings creates a more positive outlook toward the work environment and may contribute to individual comfort and health. Balance control system advantages against energy use and maintainability. humidity. Build in a capacity for personal control over the immediate indoor environment. and daylighting controls such as individually operable blinds. sensors for air temperature. Assure that the global indoor environment is within acceptable limits by bringing air supply points and controls for air quality as close to individual workstations as possible. dimmer switches. air temperature. The objective is to enable users to control the lighting level and distribution in their area using task and accent lighting. it is critical to ensure that user groups and facility maintenance staff can knowledgeably operate the building systems and equipment. without compromising the effectiveness and efficient control of the overall system. and humidity Controllability of Systems Illustration: Johannes Knesl Indoor Environment PAGE 82 . Technical Strategies u Simplification. Provide building users and maintenance staff with a level of control over automated building systems that is appropriate to their level of technical expertise. air humidity. and for general lighting levels. Work area-wide controls for setting ranges for air temperature. u Personal control. CO2 Allow for work station based control of partition height and materials while safeguarding air quality Additional noise barrier for individual station Operable window Underfloor air delivery can permit more individual control of air quality at work station Individual controls for workstation: task lighting. dimming of overhead fixtures. air flow. Benefits $PF To achieve a healthy and comfortable environment.

daylighting must be controlled by selecting the size. Indoor air quality benefits from chemically benign or inert construction and finish materials. location and orientation of building openings. Thermal comfort is improved by reducing drafts and radiant heat loss/gain with energy improvements such as thermally-efficient windows. Building Energy Use. Thermal comfort of occupants depends on air speed. delivery method.Building Integration Site Design. Building Energy Use. A properly designed daylighting system reduces energy costs. Material and Product Selection. Building Energy Use. increased thermal insulation. long term indoor air quality. Appropriate siting and use of solid landscape elements helps control noise. products. temperature and humidity – all of which are controlled by the building’s mechanical system. and specifying appropriate glazing materials and shading devices. Material and Product Selection. Careful selection and use of nontoxic and non-irritating chemicals in housekeeping and pest control is crucial to achieving favorable. Operations and Maintenance. Indoor Environment PAGE 83 . Commissioning. Materials and assemblies selected for their acoustic properties also need to perform well by meeting high performance criteria for indoor air quality. To minimize heating and cooling loads. Lighting systems with light sources and distributions capable of generating high visual quality may require more energy than lower quality systems. and equipment. Commissioning HVAC systems supports good indoor air quality. Building energy use may increase as air quality measures are implemented. and measures to control infiltration losses/gains. Building Energy Use.

html). changing work practices. de-pressurize work area or pressurize the occupied space. u For renovation. providing 48 hours of continuous ventilation after final installation and cleaning.PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR INDOOR AIR QUALITY Indoor Environment: Indoor Air Quality LEVEL 1 u Conform with ASHRAE 62-1989 for ventilation-related indoor air quality issues. VAV boxes. Indoor Environment PAGE 84 . relocate pollutant sources. and ducts should be shut down and sealed).epa. covering contents in work area. u Specify that the building be smoke-free. filters with 60 to 80% dust spot efficiency should be used. Measures should include: (1) protection of HVAC equipment from dust and odors (where possible. Follow the more stringent requirements in critical spaces as identified in the Environmental Programming Matrix.ipmvp. or temporarily seal the building). and (5) scheduling to avoid occupied periods. protecting porous materials from moisture). u Implement a “Building Air Quality Action Plan” as defined by the U. erect barriers to contain the construction area. (3) pathway interruption (e.. Be sure to compare NYC Building Code ventilation index requirements (or other governing code regulations) with provisions contained in the consensus standards of ASHRAE 62-1989. and supply side diffusers. (4) housekeeping (dust suppression. and using ‘buffer zone’ to protect building occupants). modifying equipment operation. u Conform with ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 for thermal comfort and compare with governing client agency requirements and applicable state codes.org – select ‘download. or restrict smoking to enclosed and depressurized smoking rooms from which air is exhausted separately to the outdoors. LEVEL 2 u Meet Level 1 requirements and implement the “Best Practices for Maintaining IEQ” measures listed in the Indoor Environmental Quality appendix to the 1999 Version of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (download at no cost from www.g.S. or sealing known sources). comply with SMACNA’s IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction and other applicable City guidelines such as those developed for school facilities (refer to Construction Administration section). Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.pdf file). and download IEQ Appendix as a .’ enter contact information (optional).gov/iaq/base/actionpl. (2) source control (substituting low VOC-emitting products. providing local exhaust and/or air cleaning and covering. the entire systems should be taken down during heavy construction or demolition. with no tobacco smoking permitted indoors.

timers. u Ensure that the interior layout provides adequate visual access to exterior views. achieve a balance of vertical to horizontal illuminance. most low emissivity (low-e) coated glass in single. veiling reflections. Indoor Environment PAGE 85 . Lower visible light transmission could be appropriate for specific uses (such as intensive computer work). LEVEL 2 u Provide a design that yields daylighting availability to a depth of 30 ft. The daylight factor is the percentage of light available inside a building at a given point. Energy efficient lighting systems set for appropriate luminance ratios (as established by IESNA). dimmers or photoelectric controls. (with a minimum daylight factor of 3. Achieve IESNA footcandle requirements for scheduled use through integration of daylighting into the overall lighting design. Control quality issues such as glare. as compared to the illumination level available at that time outdoors on a horizontal surface under overcast sky conditions. and use electronic ballasts. Flicker and interference are also kept to a minimum.60 u Provide a design that yields a minimum daylight factor61 of 1. or for particular orientations – particularly west. They shall provide proper control through use of manual or automatic switching. They should also achieve a maintenance of high color rendering index. and contrast so that daylight does not hinder activities scheduled for the space. Control quality issues such as glare. and halogens insofar as is practicable. and contrast so that daylight does not hinder activities scheduled for the space.5% on the work plane at a depth of 15 ft.PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR VISUAL QUALITY Indoor Environment: Visual Quality LEVEL 1 u Comply with IESNA standards in consultation with client-specified lighting levels. Achieve IESNA footcandle requirements for scheduled use through effective integration of daylight into the lighting design. compact fluorescents.) through use of redirecting devices such as light shelves.0% on the work plane at a depth of 15 ft. and many lightly tinted glass units. 60. from the building exterior for all applicable perimeter spaces. u Specify visible light transmission for glazing at 50% or higher for most spaces. 61. parabolic fluorescents. double or triple glazed units. The 50% transmission criterion includes all clear glass. occupancy sensors. Lighting controls shall meet or exceed the control requirements of the New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code. and are effective in controlling glare and rendering color. veiling reflections.

In other areas. and preventive maintenance to be performed in accordance with ASHRAE Guideline 4-1993. The noise criteria (NC) is a rating of the noise level of an interior space. 63. The NC value is determined by the lowest curve that lies completely above the measured spectrum values. PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR CONTROLLABILITY OF SYSTEMS LEVEL 1 u Sensors and controls are to achieve ASHRAE 55a-1995 requirements for comfort. Indoor Environment: Controllability of Systems Tools for Indoor Air Quality Engineering calculations should be performed based on ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals and Standards (see References). incorporate them into the design. door or window. ® Tools for Visual Quality ® Use physical models with adequate simulation of site conditions and interior surfaces to assess daylight quality throughout the design process. The sound transmission class (STC) is a rating of the sound isolation performance of a partition. . aircraft. Where use of daylighting features such as light shelves and other reflective systems has been deemed effective. plumbing. lighting. Be sure to perform computer-based modeling (such as RADIANCE or Lightscape) of the lighting environment at different times of the day to calculate illuminance and simulate the resulting visual quality. an NC level is set based on the room type and intended function. 64. Guideline for Commissioning of HVAC Systems. and construction). In renovation projects. or room acoustic design. ® Air infiltration rates.e. industry). Indoor Environment PAGE 86 62. measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations. Externally generated noise is to be isolated from occupied zones to ensure that internal NC levels do not exceed 35 (i. A rating of STC 40 can typically be met by double glazing (refer to manufacturer’s data). identify sound-critical spaces62 and consult with an authority in acoustic layout to determine the appropriate response. u Proper function of control systems is to be verified through commissioning per ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996..63 u In areas of high ambient noise (traffic. airflows between zones. the NC rating can be established by taking octave-band noise level measurements and plotting them against a series of NC curve spectra (sound level energy versus frequency curves). ‘Sound-critical’ spaces have programmed usage that requires specific attention to sound isolation. and interior activities are to be reduced to a maximum noise criteria (NC) of 35. from building-related activities such as trash collection/ compaction. windows should achieve an STC of 35 or better.PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT Indoor Environment: Acoustic Environment LEVEL 1 u In the Environmental Programming Matrix. Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Documentation for Building Systems. traffic. The NC level serves as a goal in the design of sound isolation construction and attenuation of mechanical system noise. windows are to be rated at an STC64 of 40 or better. exterior maintenance. In new construction. testing equipment. building systems noise control. and tracer gas testing. u Internally generated noise from mechanical systems. and indoor pollutant concentrations can be evaluated using direct investigation.

r Indoor Air Quality. r Acoustic Quality. and furnishings. The model should adequately represent site conditions and interior surfaces. Verify daylighting conditions and effectiveness of combined use of daylighting and electrical lighting by calculation. etc. r Visual Quality. fire alarm. provide computer-based lighting calculations and simulated views of the indoor environment at typical and critical locations to demonstrate illuminances and their distribution. specified material reflectances. e. r Controllability of Systems. ceilings. r Indoor Air Quality. Mechanical/ Electrical Systems Instruction Manuals as described in Section 16000 of the Project Specifications are to be provided by the trade contractors for the following systems: • Heating. Indicate location of sensitive uses and noise sources therein. Design Development. anticipated performance in terms of comfort. See Commissioning chapter for guidance in developing an IAQ plan during construction. construction ratings. glazing. r Acoustic Quality. For spaces such as auditoriums. Verify attainment of acoustic design criteria as part of Commissioning of the building systems. r Acoustic Quality. filters. Incorporate the results into the High Performance Report. for higher performance in strategic spaces. r Visual Quality. Include expected lighting standards in drawings and justify any occupied workspaces without adequate access to daylight. that are especially sensitive. and specifically. r Indoor Air Quality. Update 3-D model of lighting quality. r Controllability of Systems. Verify that previously established criteria are being met. Final Design. r Indoor Air Quality. Occupancy Phase. r Acoustic Quality. Document attainment of required visual environment characteristics through appropriate detailing of materials assemblies. and for functional testing procedures(s). floors. Verify attainment of the user controllability goals and update the High Performance Report accordingly.g. Where advisable due to sensitive uses or unusual building configurations. The Environmental Programming Matrix will designate acoustic design criteria for each space. Construction. Verification of the goals established in the previous design phase as to items such as amount of cubic feet per minute and outside air percentages. The Environmental Programming Matrix will designate lighting standards and criteria that are to be included in the High Performance Report. security and uninterrupted power supply systems Indoor Environment PAGE 87 . Where advisable due to sensitive uses or building configuration. provide a detailed acoustic performance study. produce a 3-D working model to simulate daylighting conditions. Incorporate the results into the High Performance Report. ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system • Hydronic distribution system • Air handling/distribution system • Glazing maintenance/cleaning • Kitchen HVAC system • Fire protection system • Electrical systems. outside air quantities based on occupancy and use of the space. and plumbing systems to demonstrate attainment of the acoustic design criteria.Deliverables Pre-Preliminary and Schematic Design. Update information supplied during Design Development and document attainment of required design characteristics by showing equipment specifications and appropriate detailing of materials assemblies. mechanical. Document attainment of required acoustic design characteristics by appropriate detailing of materials assemblies. Document sound transmission characteristics of walls. The Environmental Matrix will outline a strategy for the nature and extent of user control over the systems responsible for indoor environmental quality. and anticipated levels of carbon dioxide and pollution. r Visual Quality. The Environmental Programming Matrix will designate IAQ performance goals in general.

“Daylighting Design” in Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data: The Reference of Architectural Fundamentals. edited by Donald Watson. Hal Levin. Michael J. VDT Lighting . 1993. New York: McGraw-Hill.epa. pp. “Airflow Around Buildings”. IES Recommended Practice for Lighting Offices Containing Computer Visual Display Terminals. VA. Inc.84. Lighting the Electronic Office. 1995.. 7th edition. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. pp.html References for Visual Quality Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. 7th edition.gov/iedweb00/pubs/occupgd. Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. Michael J. Recommended Practice.RP-24. Building Air Quality Action Plan.R. Steffy. Inc. edited by Mark S. New York: IESNA. 1992 with 55a-1995 Addendum. Benjamin Evans. Atlanta. ASHRAE Standard 55-1992. U. “Air Contaminants”. 402-K-98-001. An Office Building Occupant’s Guide to Indoor Air Quality. IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings under Construction. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. 1993. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Atlanta. 1997. 1997. edited by Donald Watson. Individual PDF files may be downloaded from www. “Indoor Air Quality” in Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data: The Reference of Architectural Fundamentals. 7th edition. 1989. GA: ASHRAE. Inc. Chantilly. GA: ASHRAE. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. RP-1. Lighting Handbook: Reference & Application. N.Y. “Natural Ventilation” in Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data: The Reference of Architectural Fundamentals. New York: IESNA.100. NIOSH DHHS Publication No. “Indoor Environmental Health”. Atlanta. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1997. Environmental Protection Agency. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. John Hancock Callender. 85 . Benjamin Evans. SMACNA. Environmental Protection Agency. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. 1995. 98-123. edited by Donald Watson.. Documents may be downloaded from www. New York: IESNA. U. Rea. 402-K-97-003.gov/iaq/base/baqtoc. EPA Publication No. Chapter 13. “Odors”. Crosbie. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. Chapter 8. Crosbie. American Society of Heating. G. GA: ASHRAE. Crosbie. and Chapter 15. 1993. “Thermal Comfort”.S. Chapter 12. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. 1997. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill.epa.. EPA Publication no. Indoor Environment PAGE 88 . 75 .html. American Society of Heating. Chapter 9. John Hancock Callender. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA). Michael J. John Hancock Callender. 8th edition.S. 65-74.References References for Indoor Air Quality American Society of Heating.

101–116. Carnegie Mellon University. Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics.M. Department of Architecture. ASHRAE Standard 55-1992. Steven Haas and Christopher Jaffe.arc.References for Acoustic Quality American Society of Heating. 1997. Atlanta. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers.. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. C. 1994. Harris. ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996. Atlanta. GA. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. Atlanta. ASHRAE. pp.cmu. GA: ASHRAE. American Society of Heating. David Eagan.edu/cbpd/ Illustration: Bruce Hendler Indoor Environment PAGE 89 . “Acoustics: Theory and Applications” in Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data: The Reference of Architectural Fundamentals. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. American Society of Heating. New York: McGraw-Hill. GA: ASHRAE. Chapter 7. edited by Donald Watson. Various articles on case studies and technology available at http://www. Michael J. “Sound and Vibration”. Inc. 7th edition. John Hancock Callender. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1993. Crosbie. Noise Control in Buildings: A Guide for Architects and Engineers. Inc. M. Guideline for Commissioning of HVAC Systems. GA: ASHRAE.. 1997. ASHRAE Guideline 4-1993: Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Documentation of Building Systems. 1996. 1992 with 55a-1995 Addendum. Atlanta. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. References for Controllability of Systems American Society of Heating.

Markets are responding to meet the demands of government. performance. While methods for evaluating products based on these criteria are still evolving. . and consumers who are increasingly aware of health and environmental concerns. and aesthetics. This dynamic and growing field includes new concepts in materials assessment such as embodied energy and product life cycle assessment. consultants should have a working familiarity with the key health and environmental issues associated with specific material types. the number of available building products with improved environmental and health characteristics has been steadily increasing.Material and Product Selection Selecting materials and products for high performance buildings involves consideration of environmental and health issues in addition to more traditional criteria such as cost. businesses. durability. Because of the complexities surrounding evaluation of appropriate materials.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Performance Goals . . .Material and Product Selection Environmentally Preferable Materials. . . . . . . . 95 Selection for External Environmental Benefits . . . . . . . . 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Deliverables . . . . . . . 93 Selection for Resource Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Selection for a Healthy Indoor Environment . .

Material and Product Selection PAGE 92 65. maintenance. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition. CFC. Methyl chloroform Certified wood veneer panels with low-VOC stain and finish Low emissions flame spread retardants Furniture in fabrics with recycled content and low VOC emissions Certified wood flooring on recycled wood base with formaldehydefree binder Salvaged metal doors and frames Recycled steel structure Low emission. Examples include materials that: • Have low or no chemical emissions that can lead to poor indoor air quality. CaaCE. low-VOC caulking and sealants Recycled steel framing system with recycled gypsum board Recyclable carpet with recycled content and low VOC adhesives Office equipment with recycled content and without emissions Concrete slab with recycled content High Performance Material and Product Selection Illustration: Johnannes Knesl Most environmentally preferable65 materials include one or more of the following characteristics: 1. and • are durable and have low maintenance requirements. . global impacts. and • are biodegradable when disposed. or other ozone depleting substances. Examples include materials that: • Contain no CFCs. cooling units. They have far-reaching. distribution. packaging. • are easily reused (whole or through disassembly). • do not contain highly toxic compounds. Examples include materials that: • Have recycled content (post-consumer and pre-consumer). and refrigerators Engineered lumber with low emission glues and finishes Recycled sheet metal sloping roof Recycled aluminum window frames Fire suppression system without HCFC. operation. They benefit the building occupants and management immediately and over the life of the building. 1998. BrFCm. and • are easily recycled (preferably in closed-loop recycling systems). Executive Order 13101 September 14. production. 3. • have low embodied energy. or disposal of the product or service. manufacturing.ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE MATERIALS Ceiling tiles with recycled content Furniture made of composition board with recycled content. formaldehyde-free binder and low-emission finishes Recycled copper flashings Recyclable plastic roof membrane with insulation of recycled content without cyanates and HCFCs or CFCs Concrete slab made with recycled and local aggregate Insulation with high recycled content Recycled aluminum cladding Low VOC paint Modular lightweight concrete panels with recycled content Partitions with recycled steel studs and recycled synthetic gypsum board Natural cork flooring with low emission binders and adhesives Ducts of recycled metals Refrigerants without HCFCs. • are obtained from sustainable harvesting practices (such as certified wood products). reuse. • are derived from renewable resources. 2. • are obtained from local resources and manufacturers. CFCs in chillers. HCFCs. Environmentally preferable: products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. They are resource efficient.

Product consensus standards. Specification criteria. For materials that are deemed critical to the project and for which standards or other references do not exist. Sources of offgassing in building materials typically include: ‚ paints. Without careful selection. and is found in many building products. or trade organizations) that define emission limits. potentially generating complaints among building users/occupants. adhesives. These include materials and products that exhibit limited or no ‘off-gassing’ tendencies. obtain and review material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and/or manufacturers’ certifications or test data. Provide specification criteria for ‘healthy’ materials and for appropriate installation methods. schools. installers. and do not absorb pollutants that are later released. The potential also exists for increased performance and productivity. Some building materials and assembled products release pollutants. day care centers. do not shed dust and fiber.Selection for a Healthy Indoor Environment Overall indoor air quality goals can be achieved by specifying and installing benign. Additionally.. have minimal or no toxic properties. Require MSDSs and other certifications for any product substitutions affecting critical items. installation. and maintenance. Since children and the elderly are especially susceptible to indoor air pollutants. Require justification from contractor for substitutions that do not meet environmental performance criteria. carpets. such as reduced smog formation (VOCs combine with oxides of nitrogen to form ozone. spaces requiring added diligence may include client and visitor-occupied areas of health care facilities. including manufactured wood products made with urea-formaldehyde binders. Review and approve contractor requests for product substitutions to ensure that the indoor air quality criteria defined in the specifications have not been compromised. and acoustical ceiling tiles. and † manufactured wood products. „ carpeting. Identify and prioritize spaces where material selection issues are of particular concern based on intended occupancy. and other community buildings. libraries. Contact manufacturers for clarification as needed. u u u Selection of healthy materials may also provide external environmental benefits. and from additional material guidelines (see Tools and References). commonly found in paints. cleaning products. Material and Product Selection PAGE 93 . or ‘healthy’ building materials. fibers and particles found in insulation. ƒ ceiling tiles. u 66.66 Benefits $PF v An indoor environment that contributes to the health and well-being of users/occupants can help reduce absenteeism. Formaldehyde is one of the best known VOCs. from ceiling tiles or fire proofing in the plenum) and in fiberglass duct board can potentially be shed into the building’s air. or address other health/toxicity issues relating to specific material types. ES Technical Strategies u Prioritize sensitive program areas.g. Select products based on available consensus standards (developed by government agencies. Criteria can be developed from the product consensus standards listed here. stains. Review by experienced indoor air quality professionals may be justified for particularly critical materials or sensitive spaces. MSDS/manufacturer certifications. senior citizen centers. and custodians. $DS Expansion of markets for environmentally preferable products. manufactured wood products. environmental certification services. including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Field approval. the principal component of smog) or reduced production and release of toxic compounds. (See page 94). $PF Healthier working conditions for builders.… VCT floor tiles. such materials can contribute to poor indoor air quality (see Indoor Environment chapter). in return air plenums above acoustical ceilings (e.

Consultants should ensure they have the most current standard as well as any others that may become available. (Third-Party Certification Service) Notes: Defines VOC limits and chemical component limitations for interior and exterior topcoat paints.htm Carpets Referenced Standard: Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) Indoor Air Quality Carpet Testing Program Agency: Carpet and Rug Institute.1-1993 (particleboard). Inc. Dalton.aqmd. carpet adhesives. formaldehyde.2-1994 (medium density fiberboard). Division of Engineering and Architectural Services. and paints and sealants with low-VOC content in lieu of conventional products.gov/rules/html/r1168. Availability: Internet Address: http://www. and other specific compounds for carpets.org Construction Adhesives Referenced Standard: South Coast Rule #1168 (Adhesive Applications) Agency: South Coast Air Quality Management District (California) Notes: Defines VOC limits for adhesives and primers.com/ Systems Furniture Referenced Standard: State of Washington Department of General Administration.baaqmd.greenseal. East Campus Plus Program – Indoor Air Quality Compliance Tables Agency: State of Washington Department of General Administration Notes: Defines maximum allowable emissions of total VOCs. ANSI “PBU. General Administration Building. Referenced in the US Green Building Council’s LEED Building™ Rating System. Rule 51 (Adhesive and Sealant Products) Agency: Bay Area Air Quality Management District (California) Notes: Defines VOC limits for sealants and sealant primers. With this in mind. ANSI/HPVA HP-1-1994 (hardwood plywood) Agency: American National Standards Institute Notes: Defines maximum allowable formaldehyde emissions based on ASTM test procedures. and total particulates for systems furniture.carpet-rug.htm. the project is using rubber flooring and cork flooring with low-emission adhesives. the team was particularly concerned about providing an improved indoor environment for the Center’s young clientele and for its staff. Referenced in the US Green Building Council’s LEED Building™ Rating System Availability: Internet Address: http://www. documents can be ordered.Box 41012. Material and Product Selection PAGE 94 . Paints Referenced Standard: Green Seal Paints (GS-11) Agency: Green Seal. Because of its tendency to act as a ‘sink’ for possible contaminants and allergens. Olympia. the project team selected materials with benign properties to minimize any negative impact on indoor air quality.html Architectural Sealants Referenced Standard: Regulation 8. P. As a result. Availability: http://web.org/default_js. Availability: Internet Address: http://www. Engineered Wood Products Referenced Standards: ANSI A208. WA 98504-1012 The New Children’s Center In the design of the New Children’s Center for the Administration for Children’s Services.ansi.gov/regs/rulereg.Product Consensus Standards for Emission Limits Readily available standards and criteria that are current at the time of this printing are listed below. and carpet cushions. formaldehyde. Availability: http://www.O. carpeting will not be used at all in this application. Availability: Limited availability of tables on request from: State of Washington Department of General Administration. ANSI A208.”“D2”or“D3” (particleboard flooring). GA (trade organization) Notes: Defines maximum allowable emissions of total VOCs.

This reduces replacement costs. conservation of natural resources. and Miscellaneous. The hierarchy of ‘reduce. use modular materials and base designs on modular sizing as appropriate. Pre-consumer material is material diverted from the waste stream following an industrial process. brick) that can be re-used and stockpiled in architectural salvage. This encourages the reuse of valuable materials and may simplify renovations and repairs. Selection for Resource Efficiency Resource efficiency can be achieved through conscientious design strategies. and avoiding hazardous materials – all of which reduces disposal costs. • Efficient design and detailing helps reduce material usage and waste generation. environmental certification services. Laminated Paperboard.. Early in the process. Suitable products for construction and renovation projects can be found under the following EPA categories: Construction. reusing materials. • Encourage on-site reuse of scrap material. u Reuse.67 • Conform to existing product consensus standards for resource efficient materials. These standards have been developed by government agencies. These measures can conserve natural resources while minimizing the generation of waste and pollution during construction. Benefits $OF v Facility operational savings are achieved through use of more durable materials that need to be replaced less often. Identify the major products and materials that will be used throughout the building. • Select products for durability. doors. avoided toxic substances. 67. u Reduce (waste prevention).‘Recycled content’ often includes various combinations of pre-consumer and post-consumer material. Material and Product Selection PAGE 95 . Transportation. occupant disruption. recycle’ can serve as a guideline for decisions relating to resource efficiency. low-VOC or no-VOC paints. The recommended recycled content levels for each type of product are listed in the related Recycled Materials Advisory Notices (RMANs). and millwork constructed using wheat-straw particle board. • To the extent possible. Parks and Recreation. Identify local suppliers of additional reusable material (see References for information on the New York City-run salvage program). stone flooring from local quarries.New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Material recommendations for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation headquarters in Albany. and prioritize opportunities for applying resource efficiency strategies. identify materials from existing buildings (e. Landscaping. Eliminate unnecessary finishes and other products in areas where they are not required. Technical Strategies u Set resource efficiency goals. • Incorporate salvaged or refurbished materials whenever possible. Products designated prior to October 1998 include: Structural Fiberboard. Synonyms include post-industrial and secondary material. or scrap generated during a given process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process. but are subject to change over time. New York included carpet tiles with low VOC backings and adhesives. EPA has identified (and continually updates) a listing of products with recycled content in its Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPGs). The criteria are current at the time of this writing. $DS useful life.g. reuse. low-emission wall coverings made from spun glass or paper/cotton. Products Containing Recycled Content Referenced Standards: The U. Post-consumer material is a material or finished product that has served its intended use and has been discarded for disposal or recovery. regrind. and waste disposal. u Recycle (products with recycled content). and by selecting environmentally preferable building materials. Rock Wool Expands markets for environmentally preferable products. or trade organizations to support selection of environmentally preferable materials. • Consider construction assemblies that allow for disassembly of materials at the end of their $OM Municipal operational savings are achieved by generating less waste. Consultants should use the most current standards as they become available. excluding reutilization of materials such as rework. ES Environmental benefits attained through reduced consumption and waste. having completed its life as a consumer item.S. or non-formaldehyde MDF board (medium density fiberboard).

Floor Tiles. EPA Buy Recycled Series is published annually. EPA proposed 19 additional products in CPG/RMAN III in August. Require MSDSs and other certifications for any product substitutions affecting critical items.Insulation. Glass-Fiber Reinforced Insulation. Parking Stops. More and more power plants are being required to control SOx emissions. Internet Address: http://www. Running Tracks.gov/cpg Concrete with Flyash Referenced Standards: ASTM Standard C-618 Agency: American Society for Testing and Materials Notes: Defines technical standards for the use of flyash in concrete. u Specification criteria. including maximum carbon content. Competitively priced gypsum board containing 10% to 100% of this preconsumer recycled material is already on the market. Perlite Composite Board Insulation.astm. Cellulose Insulation.org/.epa. FGD gypsum is created as a by-product of air pollution control processes at power plants designed to help remove sulfur oxides (SOx). based on their role in acid rain formation. Availability: U. As no EPA standard currently exists. Foam-in-Place Insulation. CPG/RMAN I and II were current as of December. Environmental Protection Agency.S. Provide specification criteria for resource efficient materials selection and procedures for appropriate installation. However.S. U. Review and approve contractor requests for product substitutions to ensure that the resource efficiency criteria defined in the specifications have not been compromised. u Manufacturer or third-party certification. supplies are estimated to increase to 11 million tons per year as Phase II of the Clean Air Act is implemented. Garden and Soaker Hoses. 1998. and that over one million tons were used in 1996. Patio Blocks. no specification is necessary as all such facing paper contains 100% recycled fiber. Shower and Restroom Dividers.S. Lawn and Garden Edging. Polyester Carpet Fiber Face. Playground Surfaces. Plastic Fencing. manufacturers must provide certifications of recycled content to specifiers and contractors. Phenolic Rigid Foam Insulation. u Field approvals. 1998 and is currently working on CPG/RMAN IV. The Gypsum Association reports that FGD gypsum is a cost-effective feedstock for gypsum board. the design team (and materials specifiers) should refer to the most recent standards. Availability: Internet Address: http://www. Check for third-party certification of manufacturer claims and determine whether self-certification is required for specific items. Fiberglass Insulation. produced by the burning of fossil fuels. Agency: U. documents can be ordered. The chemicals used in the desulfurization process are combined with substances in the flue gases to produce a high quality synthetic gypsum that can then be used in construction. Notes: Defines recommended percentages of recycled content in various products. EPA Buy Recycled Series. Plastic Rigid Foam Insulation. EPA periodically revises its material designations and recycled content levels. and Yard Trimming Compost. Criteria can be developed using product consensus standards and other material guidelines (see Tools and References). Although manufacturers may include recycled facing paper in their percentages of recycled content. Flue-Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a recycled material that’s widely used in the United States today. Latex Paint. Material and Product Selection PAGE 96 . Thus.

installation. manufacturing. reduces soil.org/ Ozone depleting substances. including capital costs. installation costs. obtain materials and products from local resources and manufacturers. and global pollution while encouraging sustainable stewardship of resources. The criteria in the following standard were current at the time of this writing but subject to change over time. and from avoiding the use of ozone-depleting compounds in foam products. global benefits accrue from specifying sustainably harvested.S. When raw materials are extracted. transportation. Each stage also requires transportation. 1998. and air pollution. Consider life cycle cost68 when selecting products. or carbon tetrachloride. Certified Wood from Well-Managed Forests Referenced Standards: Principles and Criteria for Forest Stewardship Agency: Forest Stewardship Council. bromofluorocarbons (halons). These ‘cradle-to-grave’ assessments are continually being developed for building materials. HCFCs..C. 69. Recycling avoids these adverse consequences by putting materials back into production and use. protects biodiversity. Material and Product Selection PAGE 97 . Each stage in the process of production and removal consumes energy and adds pollutants to the air and water. u u u u Availability: Internet Address: http://www. ‘Life cycle cost’ means the amortized annual cost of a product. A. Technical Strategies u Sustainable or renewable resources. and demolition. Notes: Defines standards for well-managed forestry operations and accredits other certification bodies (in the U. Illustration: Carol Latman 68. regional. and when they are disposed of in landfills the process also negatively impacts the earth. operating costs. methyl chloroform. certified wood products. low-maintenance products are less expensive over time than products with an attractive first cost that then require frequent maintenance and replacement.fscoax. Locally obtained products and materials. Executive Order 13101 September 14. Conform to existing product consensus standards when selecting independently certified materials derived from renewable resources (such as wood products). water. For example. refrigeration and fire suppression systems. the earth is depleted. Product life cycle cost. and disposal. use. Product life cycle assessment. and disposal costs discounted over the lifetime of the product. When available. Products produced and deployed in an environmentally responsible manner help reduce local. to its final resting place in a landfill. and can prove extremely Energy Use Air Pollution Water Pollution Recycling Useful Life of Building Disposal Extraction Manufacturing Distribution Installation Demolition Product Life Cycle Assessment The cost of a building material must be viewed through a times lens.Selection for External Environmental Benefit The selection and use of environmentally preferable materials yields benefits that exceed the scope of the building itself. Wherever possible. refrigeration and fire suppression systems that do not contain CFCs. Benefits $DS v Expands markets for environmentally preferable products. use life cycle assessments69 for high priority materials identified during the development of resource efficiency goals. ‘Life cycle assessment’ means the comprehensive examination of a product’s environmental and economic aspects and potential impacts throughout its lifetime. from extraction of the raw material from the earth through the various stages of production. (third party certification service). these include SmartWood and the Scientific Certification Systems Forest Conservation Program—see Tools). ES Conserves natural resources. It is often the case that durable. including raw material extraction. Use the most current standard as well as any others that may become available. Select foam products (such as insulation). which further contributes to pollution and the consumption of fossil fuels. thereby minimizing energy use and pollution associated with transportation. maintenance costs.

helpful when specifying sustainable, resource efficient products and systems. Specifiers must consider the environmental impacts associated with all stages of product development, use, and disposal (see diagram), as well as ‘embodied energy’ (the energy used for production and transportation) as important criteria in product selection (see diagram). u Specification criteria. Provide specification criteria for environmentally preferable materials selection and for appropriate methods of installation. Criteria can be developed using product consensus standards and other material guidelines (see Tools and References). u Field approvals. Review and approve contractor requests for product substitutions to ensure that environmental criteria defined in the specifications have not been compromised. Require MSDSs and other certifications for any product substitutions affecting critical items.

Embodied Energy of Building Materials
200

Embodied Energy
Virgin Product Recycled Product

GJ/t (giga joules per metric ton)

150

100

50

The ‘embodied energy’ of a material represents the energy expended in its production, such as the energy for extraction of the raw material, and energy used in transportation and manufacturing. This chart compares embodied energy of virgin materials versus recycled materials. When a material is recycled embodied energy is lower, because the energy necessary for extraction is eliminated, and energy consumed for manufacturing is somewhat reduced (depending on the material). For example, this chart shows that the embodied energy for virgin concrete and recycled concrete is virtually the same, whereas the production of aluminum is highly energy intensive, though the embodied energy of recycled aluminum is much lower.
Source: Penttala, Vesa. “Concrete and Sustainable Development,” ACI Materials Journal, Sept-Oct, 1997, page 415.

0

Building Integration
Building Energy Use. Consider the performance of materials from the perspective of how they will impact the building’s energy use (e.g., insulation, windows, and doors). Construction Administration. Whenever possible, reuse materials from the site. Operations and Maintenance. Select materials based on the extent to which they will contribute to efficient maintenance protocols. The juxtaposition of many different materials can result in inefficient maintenance practices and additional costs (more time and/or cleaning products required).

Material and Product Selection
PAGE 98

Aluminum

Concrete

Copper

Glass

Plastic

Steel

PERFORMANCE GOALS

Material and Product Selection

LEVEL 1 u Implement and enforce compliance with product consensus standards as stated in “Technical Strategies.” u Key materials identified in the Environmental Programming Matrix, that are not covered in consensus standards, are to be selected based on the resources and criteria listed in Tools and References, or predicated on additional consultant research. LEVEL 2

u For insulation and carpet pads (and any other potential CFC or
HCFC source material), the products shall not use any halons, CFCs, or HCFCs as foaming agents or in other stages of the manufacturing process. u Based on total materials cost, between 20-50% of the materials (excluding costs for mechanical and electrical systems, plumbing systems, labor, overhead fees etc.) shall contain at least 20% post-consumer recycled content OR a minimum of 40% preconsumer recycled content. Document the materials and corresponding percentages accordingly. u Also document that a minimum of 20% of the materials used in the project are composed of materials manufactured (not just distributed) within 300 miles of the building site, based on cost of materials. Again, calculations should exclude plumbing systems, mechanical and electrical systems, labor, overhead fees, etc. u Document that 5-10% of the total materials cost has been directed towards salvaged or refurbished materials (total material costs excluding plumbing systems, mechanical and electrical systems, labor, overhead fees, etc.

Tools
The following tools can assist consultants in developing specification criteria for environmentally preferable materials: ® Air Force Green Facilities Guide, http://www.afcee.brooks.af.mil/green/facilitiesguide/erfguide.pdf ® Green Specifications Research, Final Report , US Department of State, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations, PB98-149776 Order #1030-612623. Prepared by Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, P.C., Washington, DC. Available from National Technical Information Service: http://tradecenter.ntis.gov/ ® Forest Stewardship Council, http://www.fscoax.org/ The FSC promotes responsible forest management by evaluating and accrediting certifiers, encouraging the development of national and regional forest management standards, and strengthening national certification capacities through the development of certification initiatives worldwide. ® SmartWood, http://www.smartwood.org SmartWood is an independent certification operation that evaluates and certifies forestry operations that meet the international environmental standards of the Forest Stewardship Council. Forestry operations are certified based upon environmental, social, and sustainable forest management standards. SmartWood can also source certified wood products. ® Scientific Certification Systems, http://www.scs1.com/index.html An independent certification program used to verify environmental claims made by manufacturers of products and packaging materials. Wood products are evaluated and certified through SCS’s Forest
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Conservation Program. Green Seal, http://www.greenseal.org/index.htm A non-profit organization “dedicated to protecting the environment by promoting the manufacture and sale of environmentally responsible consumer products.” ® EPA Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG), http://www.epa.gov/cpg Defines recommended percentages of total recovered materials and post-consumer materials in building products. ® HOK Healthy & Sustainable Building Materials Database, http://www.HOK.com/sustainabledesign This web site contains recommendations for sustainable material selection and specification practices. Recommendations take into account environmental, life cycle, and sustainability issues.
®

Deliverables
Pre-Preliminary. r Environmental Programming Matrix. In the Environmental Programming Matrix, identify and define particularly sensitive spaces based on client agency preferences. Design Development. r Outline Specifications. Include a materials and products report on health and resource efficiency measures. Provide a rationale the each of the measures identified, along with specific materials proposed. Identify measures and materials in the outline specifications. Construction Documents. r Develop specification language for environmentally preferable materials and systems. Be sure to include: • Environmental criteria for specific material types • Methods of installation (as required) • Additional contract language that highlights and clarifies environmental goals and intent, as needed. Construction Phase. r Ensure submission of MSDSs and product certifications by contractors and subcontractors throughout construction phase. Ensure that all product substitutions meet environmental specification criteria. End of Construction. r Owner’s Manual. The Owner’s Manual is to include a compilation of product certifications, including VOC content, recycled content, MSDSs, and any other certifications or product information required in the specifications.

Regulatory Constraints
« Proprietary Items. Contract documents may not contain proprietary or sole source items.
Some environmentally preferable products may be so new that there are only one or two manufacturers. « Materials and Equipment Approval (MEA). All products used in New York City buildings must have a Materials and Equipment Approval (MEA) number issued by the Board of Standards and Approvals. Newer products may not have obtained an MEA number.

References
The following references contain life cycle assessment information, environmentally preferable product listings, and case study data on various building materials and systems. The Environmental Resource Guide, The American Institute of Architects (AIA). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1 Wiley Drive, Somerset, NJ 08875. (800) 225-5945, The AIA Environmental Resource Guide provides detailed life cycle assessments of a number of construction materials. Additional material reports, including updates and revisions, are published on a biannual basis. National Park Service Sustainable Design and Construction Database. A database of over 1,300 product listings from over 550 manufacturers. A brief review is provided for each product delineating environmental attributes and concerns. The database is free, and must be downloaded from the web site: http://www.nps.gov/dsc/dsgncnstr/

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Sustainable Building Sourcebook. This site contains the entire contents of the Sustainable Building Sourcebook produced by the city of Austin, Texas as part of their Green Builder program. The Sourcebook provides concise, practical reviews of materials and pertinent life cycle issues, material attributes, and concerns. Lists of product manufacturers and trade organizations are also provided, along with numerous links to other green building web sites. http://www.greenbuilder.com/sourcebook BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability). Created by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), BEES software analyzes life cycle-based environmental and economic impacts for a limited group of building materials. This tool is currently under development, with version 1.0 currently available for evaluation. http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/update/upd980427.htm Resources for Environmental Design Index (REDI). A database of over 1,800 companies that sell green building products. The companies are organized in accordance with the 16-division MasterformatTM system, and can be searched using key words. Although product descriptions are not provided, environmental attributes are identified using keyed-in symbols. Some direct links to manufacturers’ web sites are also included. http://www.oikos.com/redi/index.html Environmental Building News (EBN), 28 Birge Street, Brattleboro, VT 05301. (802) 257-7300 A leading periodical reporting on environmentally preferable products and systems, EBN reviews various construction materials based on life cycle performance criteria. Articles are geared toward building professionals. EBN also publishes the EBN Products Catalog, which contains extensive product information, including manufacturers’ literature. http://www.ebuild.com The Green Building Resource Guide, John Hermannsson, AIA, The Taunton Press, 63 South Main Street, P.O. Box 5506, Newtown, CT 06470. (203) 426-8171, Extensive listings of environmentally preferable products and manufacturers. www.greenguide.com Landmarks Preservation Commission (New York City-run salvage program) Architectural Salvage Warehouse, 337 Berry Street, Brooklyn, NY 11211. Appointments can be made by calling (212) 487-6782.

Illustration: Bruce Hendler

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Water Management
Plumbing systems have evolved from being a simple means of distributing water and collecting wastes into increasingly sophisticated systems that must also address environmental concerns. The design of a plumbing system must incorporate not only traditional issues of sanitation, flow, and pressure, but also environmentally based preferences for recycling wastewater, use of non-utility water,70 and different treatments for potable and nonpotable water. New technologies, responses to water efficiency concerns, and community-based water quality goals pose numerous challenges for 21st Century plumbing design. These challenges are often exacerbated by stresses induced by rapid development. NYC has been blessed with one of the finest water supply systems available anywhere. High performance water management practices will help ensure the continued availability of this high quality resource.
70. “Non-utility” water refers to water not provided by the utility, such as rainwater and graywater.

. . . . . . . . . . . 106 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . .Water Management Minimize the Use of Domestic Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Water Reuse. . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Performance Goals . . 106 . .

$CM u Ozonation. it oxidizes fatty oils and breaks the bond between dirt and clothing. and other special uses to reduce water usage and secure other benefits. Ozone is also an extremely effective biocide. state and local laws. Consider ozonation in commercial laundering systems. bleach. In addition to typical residential water end uses. urinals.800 guest room toilets (operating at approximately five gallons per flush) with 1. toilets. Consider the use of: • Pressure-assist toilets • Composting toilets • Waterless urinals (in high use areas) • Automatic shut-off controls on sinks. such as hospitals. Benefits $OM Proper selection of plumbing fixtures. and correctional institutions. and urinals Widespread conservation reduces demand and can avoid future waste water treatment facilities construction. showers. During 1994-1997. and recreational facilities. An impact evaluation of project results in multi-family buildings found an average reduction in water use of 29%. and hot water. and immediately begins to convert back to oxygen. or 69 gallons per apartment per day. improved sewage quality. In the process. unstable gas that is created on site with an electrical generator. chemical cost reductions. Water Management PAGE 104 . Ozone laundry systems complement traditional laundry equipment in facilities handling large quantities of textiles. and lavatories–especially those that perform above the standards already mandated by federal. Seek improved performance by specifying low water usage water closets.33 million toilets citywide. Some showerheads were replaced and faucet aerators installed as part of the project. equipment. nursing homes. the hotel also has extensive restaurant.Minimize the Use of Domestic Water Reduced use lowers municipal costs for water treatment. and reduced textile degradation. Water Savings – Toilets and Faucets New York’s Marriot Marquis Hotel replaced 1.6-gallon pressurized-tank toilets. condenser water systems. along with associated capital costs. Ozone Laundry Ozone laundry systems use ozone (oxygen activated with an electrical charge) in lukewarm water to reduce the need for detergents. Other benefits include hot water (energy) savings. resulting in an 18% reduction in total water use. Ozone is a short-lived. as well as some laundry facilities. and fittings can minimize end use of domestic water while conserving water quality and availability. reduced water and sewer costs. catering. Select plumbing fixtures and fittings that evince state-of-the-art capabilities in terms of water conservation. the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) sponsored the replacement of 1. v Technical Strategies u Fixture and fitting selection.

and protection of the environment. flush the system and conduct water sampling at taps and service line(s) entering facility. Recover excess groundwater from sump pumps for use as a source of recycled water. Excess groundwater. u Water sampling. for controlled release over time „. roof shading. and for other purposes as appropriate. Plant roof areas to reduce the discharge of stormwater and to reap the benefits of increased green space (recreation. To ensure adequate water quality. Graywater use. roofs. Consider a ‘vacuum-assist’ system (in lieu of a standard system) for flushing of Water Harvesting water closets and urinals. as this will avoid the additional cost and pollution resulting from bottling and distribution. NSF testing data pertaining to a particular component should be issued. Steam condensate. Collect and use graywater for water closets and urinal flushing. and odor. Water quality results should be within EPA maximum contaminant levels and action levels (EPA 40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 141-149). Green roofs. In this illustration. copper. urban gardening. Specify plumbing components that are certified meeting ANSI/NSF Standard 61 – Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects. test for lead. color. G Achieves savings in health care costs. rainwater ‚ is collected in a Site retainage of rainwater. upon completion of the plumbing system. The organization develops standards. u Filtration devices at point of entry and/or use. Benefits $PF v Minimizes the chance of elevated lead blood levels in users. it is important to limit the use of potable water for non-potable purposes. u toilet/urinal flushing. u Drinking water. cooling tower make-up.). PAGE 105 . At a minimum. Water Reuse To achieve overall water conservation goals. Collect and use utility district steam system condensate for toilet/urinal flushing. Use filtered tap water for drinking instead of bottled water. and strives to represent the interests of all stakeholders. etc. NSF International is an independent. On-site water reclamation and reuse should be encouraged and facilitated wherever possible. To achieve the highest quality water for cooking and drinking. consider installation of filters at taps and/or at the service line(s) or house main. Benefits $OM v Reduces municipal costs for water treatment. u NSF certification.Water Quality All projects must ensure optimal water quality at the tap – potable water that is both safe (non-toxic) and aesthetically pleasing in terms of taste. and other non-potable uses (applies to Manhattan projects only). Collect and use rainwater for landscape irrigation. as well as for washdown of floor drains. roof cooling (for uninsulated roofs). Technical Strategies u Rainwater use. ‘Vacuum-assist’ systems. u u u u u Water Management 71. Technical Strategies u Standards. safety. provides superior third-party conformity assessment services. not-for-profit organization dedicated to public health. bird habitat. Obtain proof of NSF certification71 for each plumbing component. Reduce rainwater runoff cistern ƒ. and turbidity. and building surfaces to minimize Illustration: Bruce Hendler stress on NYC combined sewer system and to divert and reduce water pollution. $CM Diverting stormwater can reduce future capital costs for water treatment and delivery. from the site. pH. Clean Facility Water A facility that employs water testing prior to occupancy and ongoing filtering can avoid loss of use and while ensuring that the occupants have access to high quality potable water upon occupancy and thereafter.

® New York State Department of Health publishes a listing of certified testing labs. Water Management PAGE 106 . The water recycling system cost $250. Building Energy Use. The designers considered a wastewater recycling system that would effectively avoid the costs of advanced treatment (including denitrification) which is required in facilities with flows in excess of 2. r NSF certification and testing data for plumbing components. There is a relationship between site harvesting of and storage of rainwater and minimizing the facility’s domestic water use by utilizing this retained water for non-potable uses. and provides $15.www. Testing data. Effective implementation requires working closely with code officials to obtain a variance for using non-potable water as flushwater for water closets and urinals. All innovative systems (such as those strategies suggested above) may raise issues of concern with local code authorities. which provides on site treatment and recycling of both ‘gray’ and ‘black’ water. Parts 141-149. use harvested or retained water for seasonal irrigation Water Management of all plant materials and/or non-potable water uses within the building. Construction. lowers operating costs.000 per year in water bill savings (based on 1987 rates). or approximately 6% of the original estimate. as well as for other graywater uses. LEVEL 2 u The facility should maintain water quality that meets EPA’s maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) (see Tools).000 less than the originally contemplated treatment system. Tools ® ANSI/NSF Standard 61 – Drinking Water System Components-Health Effects. In addition. The original estimate of wastewater flow was 27. Regulatory Constraints « The NYC Building Code does not specifically address approved materials and methods for the use of graywater.500 square feet.org ® EPA Code of Federal Regulations.nsf. Post-Construction. This system has been in service since 1987 and was the first such system approved by code authorities and installed in New Jersey. to include: r ANSI/ASME performance test results for plumbing fixtures. reduced flows to 1.600 gpd. r Lab results of water quality testing at taps. The wastewater recycling system. u Integrate zero water use fixtures and graywater systems as appropriate. r Quantified potential savings from water management strategies. Deliverables Preliminary Design.000 gpd. New Jersey is composed of four buildings totaling 366. PERFORMANCE GOALS LEVEL 1 u Use plumbing components that are certified to meet ANSI/NSF 61 (see Tools). r Lab results of water quality testing at the point(s) of incoming service. Building Integration Site Design and Planning. u Where appropriate. regulatory approvals are required for the use of vacuum-assist water closet systems. Reduced hot water usage lowers building energy consumption.Graywater The Headquarters Park office complex in Princeton.450 gallons per day (gpd).

Chapter 6.. Jane H. US Green Building Council. 1987. US Environmental Protection Agency. Industrial/Commercial Drought: Guidebook for Water Utilities. October 1992.” in Proceedings of Conserve ‘96. Greening America. Handbook of water use and conservation. Sumida City Tokyo 130. 1-23-20 Asumabashi. Group Raindrops 1995. http:/www. EPA/625/R-92/004. Office of Water. US Environmental Protection Agency. Water Conservation Plan Guidelines. 1992. Grey Water Systems. “Assessment of the Potential for Customer Recovery/Reuse of Steam Condensate. January 1987. Community Planners. 84(10). Sustainable Building Technical Manual. A. Journal of the American Water Works Association. The Resources Agency. Inc. WaterWiser Information Clearinghouse. Charles W. Goldman Copeland Associates and Wirthshafter Associates. A Resource Guide for Utility Managers. 1995. Water Efficiency. Lehr. 103–113.References California Department of Water Resources. 1994. US Department of Energy. Dietmann. Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy. Office of Water.. State of California. 1997.J. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. EPA-812-B-94-002. 1999. Manual: Guidelines for Water Reuse. Rocky Mountain Institute. “Water and Energy Efficient Clothes Washers.org Ploesner. Chapter 4. 1992. Office of Water. Water Efficiency Guide for Business Managers and Facility Engineers.nsf. Federal Energy Management Program. 1998. Amy. 65-73. American Water Works Association. and S. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning. 1996. Valentine A. EPA-832-D-98-001 US Environmental Protection Agency. The Resources Agency. Nonresidential Water Conservation: A Good Investment. State of California. www.J. Pike and J. Hill. and Other Decisionmakers. Vickers. Public Technology. 1995. D. Part III. International Standard 41: Wastewater Recycle/Reuse and Water Conservation Devices. Kobrick. California Department of Water Resources. 1991. Lewis publishers/CRC Press (in press). Rainwater and You: 100 Ways to Use Rainwater. US EPA Office of Water/Office of Wastewater. NSF. 1994.” prepared for the Consolidated Edison Company of New York. US Department of Energy.com Illustration: Bruce Hendler Water Management PAGE 107 .waterwiser. Organizing Committee for the Tokyo International Rainwater Utilization Conference (Sumida City Office Building. 1991. Japan. Environmental and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facilities Managers.. Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings.

the majority of this waste is disposed of by private haulers engaged by demolition subcontractors and landfilled out of state.Construction Administration Building construction and renovation activities alter the urban environment. waste. 72. and encourage better waste management methods through salvage and recycling. at increasing cost to New York City taxpayers. High performance construction practices can help reduce adverse effects during construction while improving the building’s long-term environmental performance. At present. The strategies that follow can reduce the amount of C&D waste generated at the start. generating noise. equaling up to 30% of the municipal solid waste stream. . Construction and demolition debris is the waste stream generated by new construction. In particular. by renovation. and air pollution that can stress the building’s occupants and neighbors. construction and demolition (C&D) waste72 has become an increasing environmental and municipal burden. and by the demolition of existing buildings.

. . . . . . .Construction Administration Environmental and Community Considerations . . . . . . 113 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Construction and Demolition Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Health and Safety . 114 . . 112 Performance Goals . . . . . . .

etc. including schedules for particularly disruptive. yet extend outward to an average diameter of 1 to 2 times the height of that tree. Tree Protection During Construction To help ensure that trees are not lost during construction. B. and procedures for compliance with the Department of Environmental Protection’s noise regulations. odors. during construction. and access and collection areas for recyclable materials. and air. Designate site-sensitive areas where staging.and thus of trees . tree guards should be erected to protect trees during construction. etc. • Measures to salvage existing clean topsoil on site for reuse. This action will minimize root death and the corresponding dieback of the tree’s crown. tree guards ‚ should reach at least to the “drip line” ƒ of the tree’s crown. Conscientious construction administration can minimize harm to the site and surrounding area. Indicate storage areas for salvaged materials. nursery. woody trees grow primarily horizontally. bottles. Benefits ES Renovation and new construction should be performed with the least possible disruption to both the community and the environment. Construction of the project should foster the perception of high performance buildings as good neighbors.Environmental and Community Considerations v Protection of the site’s ecological resources. • A ‘tree rescue’ plan for those trees and plantings that must be removed (a park. the largest single killer of tree roots . community garden. • Waste water runoff and erosion control measures. As such. • Plans to mitigate dust. but since it would be impractical in most cases to establish a complete protection zone. and do not normally extend to depths greater than 3’ to 7’ (1 to 2 meters). G Improved facility and community relations through reduced environmental degradation. including day-to-day construction waste (packaging. including a designated staging or ‘lay down’ area designed to minimize damage to the environment. including soil. smoke. the roots of most species of large. these roots are predominantly located in the top 12” (30cm) of soil. Technical Strategies u Site Protection Plan. stockpiling. • A site access plan. or some other entity may want them). high decibel operations. C.). water resources. The Plan’s basic elements include: • A protection plan for vegetation/trees. • Noise control measures. and soil compaction are prohibited. Illustration: Bruce Hendler Construction Administration PAGE 110 . consider the following: A. Develop contract documents to require the provision of a Site Protection Plan by the contractors.is soil compaction by heavy machinery.

and to a lesser extent. Sheet Metal Air Conditioning and Contractors’ National Association. The plan should also reference Department of Buildings Tenant Safety Plan (Directive of January 6. Reference Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction. • Prevention of pest infestation once the building or renovated portion is occupied using integrated pest management (IPM) (see Appendix I). The process involves flushing the building Roofing with 100% outside air for a period of 12% not less than 20 days. These Misc.gov 73. such as carpet and furnishings. • Scheduling of construction procedures to minimize exposure of absorbent OCC/ building materials to VOC emissions. and Blaine. vandalism and pollution.75 The Plan should complement the building’s air quality design and Improves worker provide for: and occupant comfort and • Adequate separation and protection of occupied areas from construction areas. 1984) and Site Safety Plan (NYC Building Code. Technical Strategies u Health and Safety Plan. 74. dust and other airborne contaminants and odors. Benefits $CF v Avoids remediation costs associated with postoccupancy indoor air quality problems. which kills the tree). There are several reasons for tree loss in urban areas. Drywall 13% Concrete/ Brick 23% Construction and Demolition Waste (average composition. Construction is also a leading cause of tree mortality. Joan.epa. complete ‘wet’ 3% Metal construction procedures such as 9% painting and sealing before storing or Wood installing ‘dry.” Journal of Arboriculture 4(1): January 1978. Asphalt/ • Appropriate steps to control vermin (see Appendix H). www. safety during • Protection of ducts and airways from accumulating dust. VOCs and construction. Construction Administration PAGE 111 . “Urban Tree Survival: Trees in the Sidewalk. • A flush-out period.’ Mixed retaining contaminants and releasing 12% them over time.73 This means that 1 out of 3 trees planted at curbside are dead within five years. Develop contract documents requiring the contractor to produce a $PF Health and Safety Plan. Environmental Action Coalition assessment. particulates. a study in Boston concluded that more street trees were killed by construction or the after-effects of construction than any other cause. moisture. damage from autos (the wounds where cars hit trees allow fungus to enter. Paper Plastics 1% For example. fittings. tree stakes.74 Health and Safety Construction workers and building occupants need protection from pollutants produced during construction.’ absorbent materials 27% such as carpets and ceiling tiles.Trees and Construction New York City’s sidewalk trees have a 36% mortality rate. such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). including water saturation. as disposed) Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. microbials resulting from construction/demolition activities. accessible locations. beginning as soon as systems are operable and before or during the furniture. 75. 1998. particulates. • Increased ventilation/exhaust air at the construction site. salt. • Posting of material safety data sheets in high traffic. Ruth S. Article 26-01). porous components act as a ‘sink. and equipment installation phase. While causal data is lacking in New York City. These same construction contaminants must also be prevented from accumulating in building HVAC systems and in absorbent building materials. Foster.

Recyclable materials include bulk metals. and air pollution. • Coordinate ordering and delivery of materials among all contractors and suppliers to ensure that the correct amount of each material is delivered and stored at the optimum time and place. corrugated cardboard.Construction and Demolition Waste Management Benefits $OM Diverted C&D waste preserves landfill space. or local regulations. r Hazardous Materials. The following are applicable to any project: • Educate workers on waste prevention goals and the proper handling and storage of materials. List materials that are economically feasible for reclamation and any special handling requirements for each material. components such as doors or lighting fixtures. oils and lubricants) and for disposing of these wastes according to appropriate federal. and office recyclables. or paper. water. ceiling tiles. r Packaging. packaging materials. and cans. state. Materials routinely separated on Sellen Construction’s jobsites include • Identify licensed haulers of woodwaste. thus preserving valuable resources and landfill space. gypsum wallboard and concrete (shown here) as well as recyclables and document costs cardboard. for recycling and frequency of pick-ups. cans. List additional materials that are economically feasible for salvaging in the project. and damage. Where referenced. • Identify manufacturers and reclaimers who recover construction/demolition scrap of their products for recycling. solvents. C&D Waste Sorting r Recycling. Confirm with haulers what materials will and will not be accepted. Identify manufacturer and distributor options for reduced packaging. r Salvaged Materials. Inc. Construction Administration PAGE 112 . • List procedures to be taken to comply with New York City recycling law. Construction and demolition (C&D) waste management techniques divert materials from the waste stream. • Where applicable. ES Materials salvaging and reuse preserves natural resources and reduces soil. metals. existing guidelines or standards should be used to define the scope of a specific measure. hazardous materials. List those materials that are economically feasible for recycling in the project. re-use salvaged material at the site. • Identify manufacturers who reclaim their packaging for reuse or recycling. The plan will include the measures listed below. $DS Technical Strategies u Waste Management Plan. theft. and gypsum wallboard. and miscellaneous construction waste such as bottles. • Identify local haulers for salvaged materials and products that will not be reused in the project. C&D waste typically includes building demolition and scrap materials. This can help prevent material loss.. v Encourages producer reclamation and waste-handling markets for recycled products. Courtesy of Sellen Construction Co. where available. r Other Waste Prevention Measures. bottles. Examples include carpets. • List materials to be salvaged for reuse in the project in the contract documents. • Develop procedures for separating hazardous waste by-products of construction (examples include paints. Stipulate a requirement in the contract documents requiring a Waste Management Plan by the contractors.

u Implement Waste Management Plan. Indoor Environment. Almost 4. as well as a portion of the Portland Coliseum exhibition hall.000. Construction Administration PAGE 113 . 24-hour hauling services were enlisted to transport source-separated materials. for a savings of about $200. In keeping with the Health and Safety Plan. Coordinate site protection issues with site inventory and analysis actions. Site Design and Planning. Client agency and consultants to set waste recovery goals based on material types and/or total targeted percentage of material to be recovered. Community Boards should be made aware of the Construction Site Protection Plan. A C&D consulting firm identified materials for reuse and recycling. a new arena for the Oregon Trail Blazers basketball team. etc. Ninety-two percent of the waste generated was reused or recycled.000 tons of materials were salvaged for reuse in this project. Building Integration City Process. and worked closely with subcontractors to ensure proper implementation. Portland. was completed in 1995. Commissioning. LEVEL 2 u Prepare and implement a comprehensive C&D Waste Management Plan consistent with Triangle J Waste Spec: Waste Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction. PERFORMANCE GOALS Construction Administration LEVEL 1 u Implement Construction Site Protection Plan. The project involved demolition of a car wash manufacturing facility and a parking lot. Material and Product Selection.The Rose Garden. Reuse and Recycling. Thoughtful staging of construction procedures can prevent or reduce problems with indoor air quality when the building is occupied. u Implement Health and Safety Plan for construction. including identification of sensitive environmental areas. Salvaged materials at the site can be reused. Oregon The Rose Garden. Due to space limitations. protection and cleaning of the HVAC system is an integral aspect of a successful commissioning process. wildlife habitats.

and submit salvage/recycling records to the consultant and client agency.1. with procedures for salvaging selected materials. Reuse. VA. 1995. American Society of Heating. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers. The description of scope shall address the following: r Site Protection Plan as outlined in “Technical Strategies. North Carolina. ® IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction. Final Design Phase. Inc. Special coordination efforts must be undertaken when implementing high performance construction administration strategies in a multi-contractor environment. r Specification language in the Special Conditions or Specific Requirements section of the Specifications (as prepared by the consultant) shall define the following deliverables to be provided by the construction contractor(s): • Site Protection Plan.Tools ® Triangle J Council of Governments. Construction contractors are to document the types and quantities of materials salvaged or recycled for the project.” r Construction Health and Safety Plan which provides for the protection of worker and building occupant health relative to indoor air quality and pest control. The implementation responsibilities of each of the requisite four prime contractors should be clearly delineated.htm ® Proposed revisions to the current ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. May 1995. • Waste Management Plan. Deliverables Pre-Preliminary Phase. and Recycling.us/TJCOG/cdwaste. as outlined under “Technical Strategies. 1989. Construction Phase. recycling of construction and demolition material. Construction Administration PAGE 114 . the consultant should. As part of the High Performance Plan. in a brief narrative. which provides for the protection of worker and building occupant health relative to indoor air quality and pest control. November. Construction Health and Safety Plan. Chantilly. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality – Section 7. and legally disposing of hazardous materials. outline the scope of construction issues to be included in the final design drawings and specifications. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA). r Waste Management Plan with procedures for salvaging selected materials.state. r The City will monitor implementation of the Site Protection Plan. (ASHRAE). recycling of construction and demolition material.” • Construction Health and Safety Plan. and Waste Management Plan. Regulatory Constraints « Wicks’ Law. Construction Phase. www. WasteSpec: Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction. and legally disposing of hazardous materials.nc.

Public Technology.. Raleigh.. Environmental Protection Agency.References Construction Waste and Demolition Debris Recycling-A Primer. EPA Report No. School of Forest Resources. New York City Department of Sanitation. Part V. INFORM./US Green Building Council/US DOE/US EPA. Tree Roots – Where They Grow: Implications & Practical Significance. 1987. EPA530-R-98-010. NC 27650. Inc. Perry. Maryland (301) 585-2898 Fishbein. Silver Spring. June 1998.. Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States. June 1998. The Guide to Mandatory Recycling in the Workplace. 1993. Solid Waste Association of North America. Bette K. Inc. Illustration: Bruce Hendler Construction Administration PAGE 115 . Building for the Future: Strategies to Reduce Construction and Demolition Waste in Municipal Projects. Thomas O. Chapters 19 and 20 U. Sustainable Building Technical Manual.S. Office of Solid Waste. North Carolina State University. Prepared by Franklin Associates.

The commissioning process encompasses–but also surpasses–the normal testing.Commissioning The commissioning process assures the building owner that the equipment. Because so many building systems are now integrated. a deficiency in one component can result in substandard operation and performance among other components. and ventilation are effectively working together in conformance with design intent. Commissioning may also occur based on a partial system upgrade. indoor air quality. cooling. Commissioning also involves comprehensive functional testing to determine how well mechanical and electrical systems work together. systems. . and controls providing light. Commissioning determines whether the systems need to be adjusted to improve efficiency. In general practice. and balancing (TAB) activities commonly performed in inspections. a commissioning agent assists the construction team in substantively reducing and eliminating defects before the building is turned over to its occupants. heat. adjusting. and acoustic performances.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Commissioning Existing Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Performance Goals .Commissioning Fully Integrating Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . .

During all tests and performance protocols.Fully Integrated Operating Systems “Commissioning is a systematic process.) Commissioning Identify the person or persons responsible for developing and overseeing project commissioning (independent contractor.000 s.” Participants in the first National Conference on Building Commissioning Proper and efficient operation of mechanical and electrical systems minimizes operational costs. and reduces contractor callbacks. Determine the budget for appropriate levels of commissioning activities. r Conduct periodic commissioning team meetings. r Identify the systems that require commissioning (see Systems or Components to be Included in the r Commissioning Process. u Construction Phase. that all building systems perform interactively according to the documented design intent and the owner’s operational needs. r Review all milestone design documents for compliance with initial design intent. the primary reasons to commission buildings is to ensure system performance and to reduce energy costs. of ensuring. paying careful attention to construction sequences. (For a detailed explanation of commissioning activities refer to ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996. and balancing. Why Owners Commission Their Buildings Ensuring system performance v 81% 80% 53% 41% 37% 25% Benefits of Commissioning According to a survey of owners involved in 175 projects (with a median facility size of 66. $PF Technical Strategies The project team should determine the need for commissioning procedures. start-up. testing.f. materials storage. Benefits $OF Commissioning activities transform the various building systems into an integrated whole. r Develop the commissioning specifications to be produced by consultant or commissioning agent.) that have been commissioned since 1994. and that the staff are trained to operate and maintain the facility in conformance with design intent. minimizes downtime due to component failures. construction manager. and site access. u Design Phase. Inc. a dedicated commissioning agent oversees the building team to ensure that the systems have been well-designed. r Review shop drawings and equipment submittals. r Review contract documents to assure complete coordination among the various trades. r Observe construction. below.) u Programming and Budget Phase. construction process review. including design integration and review. including the phases during which commissioning is needed. r PAGE 118 . The team should then identify the individual(s) responsible for administering the activities described below. and operations and maintenance staff training. which are essential to the health and performance of occupants. or City representative) and determine the responsibilities of individual team members. installation. lasting at least one year after construction. and including the preparation of operating staff. and functionally tested. Source: Portland Energy Conservation. operation. r Develop the Commissioning Plan. r Finalize details of the commissioning procedures. interactive systems testing. through documented verification. beginning in the design phase. Potential energy savings Improve client satisfaction Utility funding Research Improve comfort Optimized performance of systems supports thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Levels of commissioning can range from a single-source testing and verification contract to full-scale involvement of a dedicated commissioning team. extends equipment life. appropriately installed.

direct digital controls/energy management control systems. Consider extending the benefits of commissioning to other (or all) building systems to extend the life of these systems and to improve overall building performance. and modification of systems to meet specified operating requirements. r Identify deficiencies discovered during the commissioning process and make corrective recommendations. • Water pressure booster systems. u Post-Acceptance Commissioning. • Cooling plant and associated systems. and ventilation systems. adjusting. Systems or Components to be Included in Commissioning Process: u Building Envelope. optimization. • Gas pressure booster systems. Evaluate existing systems not previously commissioned. r Commissioning Existing Buildings For a building renovation or infrastructure upgrade. u Other Specialty Equipment and Systems. or installers for inclusion in the Owner’s Manual. • Heating plant and associated systems. distribution. Commissioning PAGE 119 . Verify conformance of building system performance with design intent. • Domestic hot water systems. commissioning should be performed on the affected systems or parts of systems in a comprehensive manner. • Air-handling. • Exterior wall system. r Verify the accuracy and completeness of final testing. • Variable frequency drives. • Hydronic distribution systems. Technical Strategies u Existing systems evaluation.u Acceptance Phase. • Fire detection and alarm systems. • Fire protection/suppression systems. u Plumbing Systems. • Building automation systems and controls. u HVAC. and adjust systems as required to achieve optimal performance for present and future anticipated performance levels. fabricators. including fenestration. • Roofing membrane. • Motor control centers. • Stand-by power systems. u Building tune-ups. r Assemble completed as-built records. including instruction manuals prepared by equipment manufacturers. • Electrical main switchgear and power systems. and balancing reports. r Administer continuing adjustment. u Electrical. uninterrupted power supply systems. • Lighting systems and controls. r Conduct operations and maintenance staff training.

® Building Commissioning Guidelines. Design Development Phase. 1997. r Commissioning agent to develop detailed commissioning test plan identifying tests to be performed. r Commissioning agent to produce progress reports delineating test results and making recommendations for rectifying deficiencies. r Develop a training program for building operators. Construction. attendance. Deliverables Pre-Preliminary Phase. to commission the building upon completion of construction and prior to occupancy. schedules.S. The bridge between commissioning and operations and maintenance is formed by training and sustained through development of a comprehensive Owner’s Manual. U. and required documentation. describing the systems scheduled for commissioning.S. r Review and comment on design development documents. r Produce a commissioning test plan. PERFORMANCE GOALS: NEW CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATION u Commission the building in accordance with ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996. This entails the identification and description of the scope of commissioning activities to be performed before and after construction completion. December.DDC Pilot Program DDC is proceeding with a pilot commissioning program for its high performance building for the Administration for Children’s Services intake and training center. ® General Services Administration (GSA) Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications. Building Integration Operations and Maintenance.S. nature of testing to be performed. Bonneville Power Administration. including schedule development and implementation for pre-functional testing and functional testing. November 1992. prepared by Portland Energy Conservation. which should be updated on a regular basis. 2nd Edition. Department of Energy ® International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. U. Construction Documents. Inc. DDC will use its consultant team. Commissioning PAGE 120 . r Issue a final commissioning report. Commissioning Tools ® ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996 (with sample contract language and specifications). General Services Administration Public Building Service and U.. and attendance required for pre-functional testing and functional testing. Develop the Commissioning Opportunities Scope segment of the High Performance Plan. r Consultant or commissioning agent to develop commissioning specifications for incorporation into the contract documents. together with a commissioning agent retained through the construction manager. The scope description should include the following tasks: r Produce a commissioning outline plan. Department of Energy.

U. 1989. Rebecca. 86-89. www. et al. Oregon Office of Energy. King. findings. pp. Mar. (15): 1. Commissioning Resources: Web Sites with Commissioning Information and Documents. (70): 4. Ellis. www. www.. Building Commissioning. ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989. 1999.org Bearg. 1998. Engineered Systems Magazine.ashrae. Post. David W. Michael J. Inc. pp.. (105): 1.1998. Illustration: Bruce Hendler Commissioning PAGE 121 . Atlanta. Building Commissioning: Benefits and Costs.. Commissioning: Agents Claim Their Service Can Prevent Building Malfunctions. 1998. r References ASHRAE.51-59. Inc. June 1.or. Engineered Systems Magazine.. (240): 22. pp. (15): 5.us/external/ooe Portland Energy Conservation. Bernheim..13-14. 108-116 (continuing series through May). Portland Energy Conservation. Apr. 1998 (51): 8. 15 May 1998. Commissioning for Better Buildings in Oregon. Commissioning: Britain vs. GA. Aug.. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The Use of Multipoint Monitoring as a Tool for Commissioning Buildings for IAQ. pp. presented at the AIA 1998 National Convention. which summarizes the results of functional testing and makes recommendations for rectifying deficiencies.. Schiess. ASHRAE Transactions.Commissioning agent to submit Final Evaluation Report.. Nadine M. Guideline for Commissioning of HVAC Systems. as of 2/12/99.state.1997. 49-53. Engineering News Record.cbs.. Commissioning: Getting It Right: Building Systems Commissioning. Paul C.peci. The Construction Specifier. American Society of Heating. r Issue a final report compiling all results. HPAC Magazine. Occupancy. CA. pp. Jan. May 1998. Inc.org. Anthony. Commissioning Specifications. and documentation produced in support of the commissioning process. r Produce a training videotape that records all sessions covered in the training of operations and maintenance personnel. Klaus.S. Tseng. San Francisco.

. Design strategies that address operations and maintenance (O&M) issues can result in reduced custodial costs and lower energy consumption. odors. Exposure to physical and chemical hazards. it is important to ensure that planned systems and strategies are consistent with the resources available to the client agency. and potential asthma ‘triggers’ can be reduced or eliminated.Operations and Maintenance Adequate planning for the efficient operation and maintenance of a building and its systems is a critical component of high performance design and construction. toxins. To achieve successful operations and maintenance. Efficient operation and maintenance also enhances the indoor environment and may contribute positively to user/occupant well-being and productivity.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Healthy and Efficient Custodial Operations . . 125 Waste Prevention and Recycling . . . 127 Performance Goals . . . . . . . .Operations and Maintenance Operating and Maintaining Building Systems . . . . . . . . . 129 Deliverables . . . . . . . . . .

38 Relating to the Citywide Occupational Safety and Health Program: General Provisions (supersedes Personnel Policy and Procedure No. Simplify building systems design to promote ease of maintenance. Ongoing system maintenance. as well as scheduled major system overhaul. peak usage patterns. replace lamps as they burn out with more efficient lamps. If group relamping proves impractical.html . “Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Documentation for Building Systems”) provided to the client agency’s O&M staff. run a system purge during morning start-up and/or during maintenance and cleaning. timely repointing of masonry. oiling.gov/iedweb600/base/baqact. electrical. mainly during spring and fall when energy penalties are slight. To assure optimum performance. resealing of roof cracks. provide O&M staff with adequate training in systems operations and maintenance.Operating and Maintaining Building Systems Operational savings are achieved through efficient management of systems and extended life of equipment and materials. Operations and Maintenance Manual. or gases that reduce the transmission of light. An agency-appointed Safety and Health Coordinator77 should develop procedures for reporting and documenting IAQ complaints and subsequent actions taken. and food service systems. EPA 402-K-98-001.78 Morning purge. Avoid start-up control sequences where dampers are closed. so that they may be easily changed and maintained. Mayor’s Executive Order No. Training. Review energy consumption on a quarterly basis. Consideration should be given to hours of operation. Relamping. particularly where windows are close to sources of air-borne dust. u Simplification. 78. June 1998. When the energy penalty is not too severe or where heat recovery ventilators are in place. Maintaining envelope performance. Perform relamping using the most energy efficient lamps (and ballasts. fumes. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. reduced damage and repairs to equipment and systems. See: Building Air Quality Action Plan. United States Environmental Protection Agency. ‘building systems’ include all mechanical. and minor repairs. maintain proper pressures at all times. Refer to the Operations and Maintenance Manual (written in accordance with ASHRAE Guideline 4-1993. Energy performance review. plumbing. For example. telecommunications. and maintaining proper weatherstripping and vapor barriers. Equipment manufacturers and operations staff should be consulted on access points and needed clearances early in the design process. Document may be downloaded at www. u u employ lighting design solutions that minimize the number of different types of lamps. u u u u u u u u Operations and Maintenance PAGE 124 76. if applicable). Access to systems. In a facility that has many older lamps. and maintenance practices. Perform adequate system maintenance. including periodic cleaning. This can be achieved through activities such as immediate replacement of damaged glazing.epa. Actively engage client agency’s O&M staff from the point of substantial construction completion through commissioning and building occupancy. Ensure weathertightness through a building envelope maintenance program that minimizes thermal bridging. 77. This should be performed from time to time. group relamping can be very cost effective. rather than simply replacing the old ones with lamps of the same type. Window cleaning. Schedule regular window cleaning to maximize the benefits of daylighting. 1997. For the purposes of the Guidelines. Benefits $OF Operating and maintenance practices ensure that all building systems76 function to the fullest extent of their designed efficiency and meet specified levels of energy and indoor air quality performance. Safety and Health Coordinator. v Technical Strategies u Staff participation. October 1. Scheduled maintenance and cleaning will help to yield ongoing energy savings for the building while promoting occupant health and comfort. 740-77b). building envelope. fixture efficiency. fire detection and suppression. Report irregularities to the NYC Office of Energy Conservation and agency budget analysts. and energy savings that accrue based on proper systems maintenance. Design for adequate access to building systems.

Numerous scientific studies have shown a strong link between asthmatic attacks and the presence of cockroaches. Because maintenance problems (such as dirty filters) are checked electronically. accessible locations. r Design kitchen areas and restrooms for ease of maintenance. Plantings bordering walkways should not be of the type that drop flowers or berries that can be tracked into the building. many systems can be repaired or maintained before a more serious breakdown occurs. Foster a sense of pride. and the estimated annual cost of treating asthma in those under 18 years of age is $1.80 r Ensure that custodial staff are adequately trained and educated in the use of cleaning products and procedures. Select textured paving (rather than smooth surfaces) for outside approaches. avoid overwetting and allow sufficient time for thorough drying. r Coordinate housekeeping and custodial operations with building ventilation schedules to ensure that adequate ventilation is provided. as well as potential reductions in absenteeism. Specifically. sponsored by American Institute of Architects. Consider installing additional ‘walk-off’ mats in entryways to further prevent dirt from entering the building.79 r Design janitor’s closets or central storage facilities with adequate space for cleaning product storage and the mixing of concentrated cleaning solutions. Technical Strategies u Preventative Strategies. November 6-9. save packaging. Water-damaged carpets can harbor mold and bacteria. presented at The 21st Century Outlook Conference. Operations and Maintenance PAGE 125 . The BMS calls up each library on a computer and checks status remotely. When shampooing carpets. ES Negative impacts on the environment are reduced or eliminated by using lowtoxicity or non-toxic cleaning products. restroom stall partitions should be suspended from the ceiling or extended from walls to expedite floor cleaning and eliminate soil build-up on legs and supports. and US Department of Energy. both during and after these activities. r Since carpets tend to act as ‘sinks’ for dirt and dust. This is especially important in facilities where children are housed or spend significant amounts of time. Stephen P. Miami. and reduce chemical consumption. Obtain material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and post in prominent. 1997. asthma is the leading serious chronic illness in children. Provide separate outside venting operated under negative pressure. Ashkin. US Green Building Council. r $PF The potential exists for improved worker/ occupant productivity. this also helps develop markets for environmentallyfriendly products and practices. 80.9 billion. and provide performance incentives for custodial staff. 79. r Develop an Integrated Pest Management Plan (see Appendix I). Sinks should be recessed into counter tops or molded as a single unit with a front lip that keeps water from spilling onto the floor. u Ongoing Maintenance Strategies. Rochester Midland Corporation. so that soils are scraped off shoes prior to building entry. r Select healthy and environmentally preferable cleaning products (see Appendix J). Healthy and Efficient Custodial Operations Reduced human exposure to physical and chemical hazards and odors associated with cleaning products and pesticides can be achieved through custodial operations that employ appropriate methods and low-toxicity or non-toxic cleaning products. which enables monitoring and control of all branches’ HVAC systems from the Main Branch at 42nd Street. According to the American Lung Association. Green & Clean: The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and Maintenance. Benefits $OF v Operational savings (labor and materials) from efficient cleaning protocols and reduced use of chemical products. which help ensure safe mixing of cleaning solutions. r Consider the use of portion control devices such as mechanical dispensers. recessed metal grating within vestibules. Florida. a vacuum with high-efficiency vacuum bags or high efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters should be used.Centralized Building Management System New York Public Libraries has instituted a centralized building management system (BMS). r Minimize introduction of dirt with appropriately sized.

Photo: Harry Yarwood. The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) and Rochester Midland Corporation. installation of a proportioning product dispenser. remove and replace any damaged porous materials. Immediately eliminate standing water and condensate. petroleum distillates. Public Education and Formation of the ‘Green Team’ Comprised of a representative cross-section of departments as well as custodial staff.r r r Institute procedures to prevent occasional or chronic water damage. Ensure that custodial staff is adequately trained in the management and handling of hazardous materials. productivity has increased. July 1990. and testing the program on one floor.400 people) on these Brooklyn Public Library Green Team important environmental initiatives. Grand Army Plaza. US EPA. staff training. BPL Operations and Maintenance PAGE 126 81. isopropanol. initiated a ‘green housekeeping’ program at BPL’s central branch. the Green Team has given library staff the opportunity to participate in positive change. painting. which included establishing a baseline. • For lead awareness. Where damage has occurred. In addition to overseeing the green housekeeping program. and other disruptive activities are anticipated. together with DDC’s Office of Sustainable Design and Construction. sanding. Follow the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction in planning for construction activities where material removal. The program aimed to improve the quality of the indoor environment by reducing toxins in cleaning products and increasing the efficiency of cleaning operations. methyl ether. particularly lead and asbestos. Packaging Waste Reduction The need for 55-gallon storage drums has been eliminated. naptha. see Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner’s Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials. After an initial trial period. the Green Team has improved the library’s purchasing and discard procedures. these drums were difficult and dangerous to handle. In addition. Improved Efficiency The proportioning dispenser has been shown to save time because the need for mixing of products and walking back and forth for water has been eliminated. diacetone alcohol. These include butoxyethanol. isobutane. 20T-2003. This is primarily the result of using a proportioning chemical dispenser. training should include: – Lead physical properties and characteristics – Health effects and medical surveillance requirements – Federal regulations – State and health department regulations – Lead-based paint identification techniques – Worker protection equipment Results of ‘Green Housekeeping’ Program at Brooklyn Public Library Reduction of Toxins Over 16 hazardous substances have been eliminated from BPL’s cleaning operations. ensure that maintenance staff takes immediate action to repair the water source. which premixes cleaners and disinfectants for accurate dilution. • To promote asbestos awareness. Pesticides and Toxic Substances (TS-799). . dipropylene glycol. BPL staff believe that this initiative has boosted the morale of the custodial staff. ethyl ether. 82. ethanolamine. The Green Team also has educated the entire BPL system (approximately 1. nonyl phenolethoxylate. In addition to being bulky and wasteful.82 Reduction of Cleaning Product Usage Facility staff estimates a reduction of approximately 50% in the amount of cleaning product used. the program was expanded to the entire library. and as a result.

For a copy of the Directive. which requires agencies to institute various waste prevention practices. Technical Strategies u Education. recycling chutes. and other accommodations to promote ease of waste management. Follow the Mayoral Directive on Waste Prevention and Efficient Materials Management Policies of 1996. Illustration: Bruce Hendler Operations and Maintenance 83.83 u Recycling areas.g.. contact the Mayor’s Office of Operations at 212-788-1400. specifying mechanicallycontrolled roll towels instead of disposable folded towels. and recycling solid. reusing. liquid.Waste Prevention and Recycling Reducing. Provide dedicated areas for recycling bins. Educate client agency (users/occupants) on recycling and waste reduction measures. Purchasing decisions can also contribute to waste prevention (e. conservation of natural resources. Publicize and reward successful employee efforts. PAGE 127 . in that they effectively promote ongoing resource conservation. such as double-sided copying and use of e-mail rather than paper for office communications. Environmental benefits accrue based on reduced material waste and consumption. ES u Waste prevention compliance. Benefits $OM v Municipal operational savings are achieved by diverting waste from landfills. avoiding products with excessive or unnecessary packaging). Ensure that there is adequate storage space for–and access for removal of–recyclables. and food waste from day-to-day building operations and activities are critical high performance operating strategies.

For guidance on composting strategies. Indoor Environment. . Material and Product Selection. materials that do not require unusual or potentially toxic cleaners. Commissioning will inform and enhance the effectiveness of the building’s operations and maintenance.g. 85. Properly cleaned and maintained HVAC systems support healthful indoor air quality. or combinations of cleaners in the same space.84 u Composting. Comply with current Department of Sanitation requirements for recycling. (212) 219-8090. Select materials and products for ease of maintenance. client agencies can contact the Sanitation Action Center. Adhere to sustainable landscape practices as described in Site Design and Planning..85 u Water management training.u Department of Sanitation requirements. Building site design must incorporate facilities and space for recycling. Consider composting if there is substantial food or yard waste. Composting Facility at Rikers Island Photo: Joyce Lee Building Integration Site Design and Planning. Operations and Maintenance PAGE 128 84. For most current recycling rules. client agencies should contact the Sanitation Action Center at (212) 219-8090. as well as access for collection vehicles. Commissioning. Communicate with the client agency on plans for recycling and/or composting. This includes space for collection and storage. Site Design and Planning. Provide maintenance staff with any necessary training to support rainwater/graywater management. e.

main ducts. u As appropriate. u Commit to documenting the facility’s overall annual building energy use and energy costs so as to establish a benchmark performance level. The benchmark energy use level shall be compared to energy use predictions established by the building design team. u Institute a policy of ‘lights out’ in rooms left unoccupied for more than 15 minutes. u Commit to HVAC system inspections as follows: (1) semi-annual inspection of HVAC system operation by designated and trained IAQ manager. First Edition. fans. Ensure that the manual establishes criteria for evaluating the building’s O&M program and commits the maintenance staff to basic standards of performance. institute energy efficient measures such as replacing failed standard electric motors with high efficiency motors. replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps and ballasts. 1993. heat exchange units and coils. separate organic waste for composting. u Complete the Operations and Maintenance Manual as described in Operations and ASHRAE Guidelines 4-1993. u Commit to documenting waste and strive to recycle 75% of total recyclable material. Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Maintenance Documentation for Building Systems. Also seek to minimize downtime and expedite failure response time.htm u Examine feasibility of a green housekeeping program. equipment rooms. damper linkages. and other disruptive activities are anticipated.org/standard/h-cleanr. intake points. Operations and Maintenance PAGE 129 . and attention to planned functions that protect the capital investment. and other active components respond to controls in accordance with design intent. including use of a proportioning dispenser and low-toxicity or non-toxic cleaning products. and/or shall be at or below the energy use (kbtu/sf/yr or equivalent $/sf/yr) standards developed in the EPA Energy Star Buildings program. Note that total recyclable materials for a given agency may decrease once waste prevention measures are implemented. Numbers 2 (Product Specific Environmental Requirements) and 3 (Packaging Requirements). condensate collection points. humidifiers and ceiling tiles in ceiling plenum spaces. u Comply with current DOS recycling rules for city agencies and institutions. calibrating equipment and controls to meet actual load conditions. November 2. so as not to defer scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. ongoing maintenance. filters. painting. u Cleaning products shall comply with the environmental and packaging requirements of the Green Seal Standard for Household Cleaners.PERFORMANCE GOALS (FOR CLIENT AGENCIES) LEVEL 1 u Maintain building systems to level of designed efficiency. VAV devices. sanding. u Follow SMACNA’s IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction in planning for construction activities where material removal. u Commit to establishing preventive maintenance procedures and performing these activities based on recommended scheduling as established in the O&M manual. GS-08. www. according to equipment’s life expectancy.greenseal. such as prompt response to mechanical failure. including at minimum. (2) annual inspection to verify that dampers. valves. u Where facilities exist. LEVEL 2 u Formation of a ‘Green Team’ similar to that established by Brooklyn Public Library’s main branch (See Example on page 126). fans.

Inc. US Environmental Protection Agency.gov/opptintr/epp/cleaners/select/ Green Seal Web Site: http://www. r Recommend waste prevention and recycling measures. First Edition. including the following: • Maintenance implications of design alternatives and features. March.greenseal. Post Occupancy. • Space and access requirements to support recycling. EPA 909-B-97-001. two videos are available free of charge. • Identification of low-toxicity or non-toxic housekeeping materials. r Identify and describe the scope of operations and maintenance issues to be implemented in the project. Integrated Pest Management for Schools: A ® ® ® ® How-to Manual.html. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air. Standard for Household Cleaners (GS 08). Additionally. Indoor Environments Division (6607J). • Waste prevention and recycling during building operations. United States Environmental Protection Agency. “IAQ Tools for Schools–Taking Action” and “Ventilation Basics” available from IAQ Info Clearinghouse. Incorporate these protocols into the Owner’s Manual. 1995. Indoor Air Quality: Tools for Schools Action Kit. • Development of cleaning and maintenance schedules and protocols for systems and finishes. Operations and Maintenance PAGE 130 . 20T-2003. 1997. US EPA. ® United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 1990.epa. r Development of low toxicity maintenance and cleaning protocols for the full spectrum of installed materials. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner’s Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.gov/iaq/schools/tools4s2. November 2. Construction Documents.org See: Green Seal. 1993 (While these standards are geared toward residential cleaners. Deliverables Pre-Preliminary Phase. EPA Cleaning Products Pilot Project: http://www. they provide product-specific environmental requirements). Design Development Phase. (800) 438-4318. High Performance Plan: Operational Waste Analysis. Available from http://www. Pesticides and Toxic Substances (TS-799).Tools ® Mayoral Directive on Waste Prevention and Efficient Materials Management Policies of 1996. EPA 402-K-95-001. r Perform a design review of materials and details from the standpoint of cleaning protocols and costs.epa.

For ordering information: http://www.usgbc. EPA-402-K-97-003.gov/iedweb600/base/baqact. Miami. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. 1988. Document may be downloaded from www. EPA 402-K-98-001. ASTM: West Conshohock PA. Indoor Environments Division.html Illustration: Bruce Hendler Operations and Maintenance PAGE 131 . ASTM Standard E1971.” Architectural Design and Indoor Microbial Pollution. Public Technology. An Office Building Occupant’s Guide to Indoor Air Quality. US Green Building Council. Inc. Oxford University Press. November 6-9.gov/iedweb600/pubs/occupgd. Standard Guide for the Cleaning of Commercial and Institutional Buildings.epa. “Architecture and Commensal Vertebrate Pest Management. and US Department of Energy.epa. sponsored by American Institute of Architects. Green Seal.B. 1997. Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Documentation for Building Systems. Choose Green Report: General Purpose Cleaners. Frantz.. Ed. pages 228-295. October 1997. ASHRAE Guidelines 4-1993. US Green Building Council.html United States Environmental Protection Agency. Kundsin. Part VI. Sustainable Building Technical Manual.org/resource/index. 1998. New York. Document may be downloaded at www.htm United States Environmental Protection Agency. US Department of Energy..References American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Green & Clean: The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and Maintenance.. Stephen P. Rochester Midland Corporation. presented at the 21st Century Outlook Conference. June. Building Air Quality Action Plan. Stephen C. Florida. March. 1998. Ashkin. R. Office of Air and Radiation.

Part Four: End Pages .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .End Pages Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Appendices . . . . 134 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Acronyms . . .

Diane Smith. Department of Environmental Protection. Angelo Elmi. Ellery Pichardo. OMB. OMB End Pages Indoor Environment Johannes Knesl. Office of Energy Conservation (OEC). who envisioned the project and guided it daily. Craig Kneeland. Louise Woehrle. NYSERDA. ODC Building Energy Use Maria Voitiuc. Richard Appelbaum. Roger Cumming. Bruce Hendler. Design Trust Fellow. Maria Kolesnick. Stephen Campbell. Carol Latman. The Design Trust would like to acknowledge the leadership and commitment of DDC's Assistant Commissioner Hillary Brown. Angelo Elmi. John Harrington. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Markets for Recycled Products. OEC Construction Administration Jennifer Stenzel. The Department of Design and Construction would especially like to acknowledge: Craig Kneeland of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Maria Puternicki. Richard Brotherton. Charles Morrissey. Vincent Yuen. Misia Leonard. Michael Cetera. Kung Ko. Joyce Lee. Christopher Gallo Operations and Maintenance Jennifer Stenzel. and Nancy VandenBerg. OMB PAGE 134 . Frantz Woolley. OMB. Overview of High Performance Buildings Hillary Brown Measurable Costs and Benefits Robert Watson and Date Bryk. NRDC. as well as the tireless energies of Deputy Project Director Jennifer Stenzel and the guiding knowledge and commitment of project consultant William Reed. Thomas Roberts. Joyce Lee. Authors The authors of the Guidelines were recruited from DDC's own architectural and engineering. ODC Commissioning Christopher Gallo. Adrian Tuluca. Written chapter material resulted from a series of workshops that were facilitated by the consultants. all of Steven Winter Associates. and project management staff. Joyce Lee. John Krieble. Louise Woehrle. John Krieble. and John Amatruda. technical support. Robert Watson and Dale Bryk of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). Carol Latman. Johannes Knesl. Aydin Kurun Site Design and Planning Marcha Johnson. Part I Design Process John Krieble. Roger Cumming. and the dedication and managerial expertise of lead Design Trust Fellow Stephen Campbell. Louise Woehrle. as well as all the Guidelines authors and contributors listed below. Charles Morrissey. benefitting from the vision and sustained contributions of many individuals. Richard Brotherton Introduction. Christopher Gallo. Unless otherwise noted by City agency or other affiliation. John Krieble. Hillary Brown Material and Product Selection Jennifer Stenzel. William Bobenhausen. Roger Cumming. Simon Kong. Carol Latman.Acknowledgments The success of the High Performance Building Guidelines project is in no small measure due to the highly collaborative nature of its development. Design Trust Fellow. How to Use and Purpose of these Guidelines. Joyce Lee. Carol Latman. Department of Parks and Recreation. Fredric Bell. John Harrington Part II City Process Stephen Campbell. Cal Goldstein. as well as members of other City agencies. Cal Goldstein. Dan Eschenasy. Richard Appelbaum. all listed below are DDC staff. Catherine Coombs. Richard Brotherton. Hillary Brown Part III Water Management Warren Liebold. Mayor’s Office of Construction (ODC). Jennifer Stenzel. Michael Cetera. Joyce Lee.

Catherine Coombs. Deputy Project Director Steering Committee Department of Design and Construction: Fredric Bell. Gail Lindsey. NYSERDA Funding New York State Energy Research and Development Authority The Energy Foundation Robert Sterling Clark Foundation Office of Energy Conservation of Department of Citywide Administrative Services: Chet Advani. Ove Arup & Partners. Carpenter/Norris Consulting. Managing Editor Stephen Campbell. Tiffany Bader Environmental. David Kleckner. Signe Nielsen. Silman Associates. William Esposito. Mariano D. Flack + Kurtz. Caples Jefferson. Carol Latman. Rachel Chaput. David Kluge. William Bobenhausen. Kallen & Lemelson. Hillary Brown. Robin Burns. Purinton & Wisniewski. Department of Sanitation. Thomson Architects. Bette Fishbein. Dale Bryk INFORM: John Winter Markets for Recycled Products: Nancy VandenBerg INDUSTRY CONTRIBUTORS Workshop Facilitators: Alan Traugott. Consulting Engineers. Robert Silman. Stephen Frantz. Harry Yarwood. Cline Bettridge & Associates.DDC Architecture & Engineering Coordinators: Johannes Knesl. Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn. DDC PAGE 135 . a State Agency. Johannes Knesl. Beyhan Karahan and Associates. Client Contributors: Brooklyn Public Library: Elisabeth Martin. Craig Kneeland. Management Hillary Brown. Stein White Architects. Cesar Pelli & Associates. This publication is made possible with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts. Flack + Kurtz. Carol Latman Other DDC Advisors and Participants Jessica Williamson. David Norris. Mark Harari. Gruzen Samton Architects. Claire Weisz Office of Management and Budget: Joyce Lee Mayor's Office of Construction: Louise Woehrle New York State Energy Research and Development Authority: Craig Kneeland HLW International. Walter Bishop. Kenneth Tolbert. City University of New York. Barry Donaldson. Beyhan Karahan. Green October Foundation Workshop Participants and Peer Reviewers: Michael Ambrosino. Rochester Midland Corporation. Christine Bruncati. ODC. Jordan Fox. EPA Indoor Air Branch. Construction Specifications. Richard Appelbaum Design Trust Fellows Stephen A. Barry Donaldson & Associates. John Amatruda. Susan Scotti Graphics Graphic Designer:Kristin Barnes Graphics Contributors: Bruce Hendler. Lou Arzano. Ogee Architects. Lehr Associates. Asher Derman. Carl Kaiserman. Carl Brown Natural Resources Defense Council: Robert Watson. Robert Silman. Susan Drew. Global Environmental Options Design Trust Staff Simon Bertrang Tobie Cornejo Consultants Steven Winter Associates (SWA): William Bobenhausen. Ambrosino DePinto Schmeider. Vollmer Associates. Ravi Shenoy. Empire State Development. Susan Kaplan. Design Harmony. Anne Kale. Raisa Saratovsky Editing Senior Editor: Will Zachmann. O'Brien Kreitzberg & Associates. Lehrer McGovern Bovis. Stephen Ashkin. Harshad Lakani. Joyce Lee. Daniel J. NYSERDA. New York State Department of Health. John Tiffany. Hillary Brown. Jamie Purinton. Fox & Fowle. Steven Winter Associates Editing Contributor: Mary Jean Frank. Rothzeid Kaiserman Thomson & Bee Architects. Anne Papageorge. Ellen Reiser. Molina. Aaron Pines. Jay Jacoby. Carl Stein. Alan Traugott. Maiya Shaw. Polytechnic University. Sierra Club. Design Trust for Public Space: Andrea Woodner. Syska & Hennessey. Adrian Tuluca. Valentine Lehr. Camroden Associates. Louie Rueda. Everado Jefferson.Kenneth Damally. Bradley Cohen. Stephen Thomson. Signe Nielsen Associates. Kaplan. OMB. Wank Adams Slavin Associates. Erica Porter. Anton Wolfshorndl Department of Cultural Affairs: Susan Chin Department of Citywide Administrative Services: Elizabeth Theofan Administration for Children's Services: Elizabeth Cucchiaro Department of Health: Sally Yap ‘Environmentally Responsible’ Building Guidelines Project Bud Griffis. Flack + Kurtz Consulting Engineers Asher Derman. Marty Salzberg. Richard Meilin. Stephen LaSpina. Lakani & Jordan. Green October Foundation. Matt Monahan. Campbell. Anne Haynes. End Pages Louise Woehrle. Dan Nall. Ambient Labs. Steven Winter Associates. Terry Brennan. INFORM. Project Executive Jennifer Stenzel. Victor Goldsmith. Columbia University. Quentin Munier. Anne Kale Associates. Reed. Danielle Smoller. Mark Hastak. Phoenix Design William G.

Current science indicates a discernible link between climate change over the last century and human activity. encouraging generation of integrated design solutions. lasting at least one year after construction. and contributes to the deterioration of buildings and historical monuments. resurfacing material. Usually a set of double doors or a revolving door. and microorganisms. packaging. mulch. that all building systems perform interactively according to the documented design intent and the owner’s operational needs. and other fossil fuels – mix with water vapor in the atmosphere to create acidic compounds. Building related illness: The term "building related illness" (BRI) is used when symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants. air conditioning. A high albedo indicates high reflectance properties. or as solvents and aerosol propellants.” Carbon dioxide (CO2): A naturally occurring greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. insulation. oil. oil. paper. plants. or landfill cover. Daylighting: The method of illuminated building interiors with natural light. Building commissioning: A systematic process beginning in the design phase. high altitude forests. or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. “Air-lock” entrances: A passive device that acts as a buffer to prevent conditioned air from escaping a building. Climate change: A regional change in temperature and weather patterns. and including the preparation of operating staff of ensuring. See also “sick building syndrome. to have a large number and wide range of species of animals. Demand control ventilation: Ventilation provided in response to actual number of occupants and occupant activity. natural gas and organic matter (e. Clerestory: Clerestories have many of the attributes of skylights except that they occur in the vertical rather than the horizontal plane. Bioswale: Strategically placed earthen depression that capture stormwater and filter it using native wetland plants. specifically the burning of fossil fuels. including food wastes. Buffer: A ‘buffer’ is a strip of heavily vegetated land that absorbs and filters runoff water. resulting in a product rich in minerals and ideal for gardening and farming as a soil conditioner. Human population pressure and resource consumption tend to reduce biodiversity. Composting: A process whereby organic wastes. and yard wastes. Because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy the earth’s protective ozone layer. creates haze. Design charrette: The charrette process is a focused workshop(s) which takes place in the early phase of the design process. Brownfields: Abandoned. Brise-soleil: An exterior architectural element designed to control the penetration of direct sunlight into a building. concentrations of which have increased (from 280 parts per million in preindustrial times to over 350 parts per million today) as a result of humans' burning of coal. idled. Acid rain impacts aquatic ecosystems. when undisturbed. fungi. Biodiversity: The tendency in ecosystems. decompose naturally. All project team members meet together to exchange ideas. End Pages PAGE 136 . Acid rain: Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides – pollutants resulting primarily from burning coal.GLOSSARY Acceptable indoor air quality: Air in an occupied space toward which a substantial majority of occupants express no dissatisfaction and in which there are not likely to be known contaminants at concentrations leading to exposures that pose a significant health risk (ASHRAE 62-1989 draft revision). through documented verification. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): A family of chemicals used in refrigeration.g. Albedo: The ratio of reflected light to the total amount falling on a surface.. wood and crop wastes).

Ion generators: Ionizers or ion generators act by charging the particles in a room so that they are attracted to walls. oil. Fuel cell: A technology that uses an electrochemical process to convert energy into electrical power. packaging. Environmentally preferable: Products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. Integrated pest management: A coordinated approach to pest control that is intended to prevent unacceptable levels of pests by the most cost-effective means with the least possible hazard to building occupants. workers. those in tobacco smoke) from the indoor air. installation costs. In addition. operation. reuse. geothermal heat exchange technology utilizes heat from subsurface water to heat buildings. these devices contain a collector to attract the charged particles back to the unit. operating costs. K-Rated transformer: A transformer used to supply power to non-linear loads such as computers. tabletops. Often powered by natural gas. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC): HCFCs are generally less detrimental to depletion of stratospheric ozone than related chlorofluorocarbons. Global warming: Increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface. manufacturing. Greenhouse effect: The process that raises the temperature of air in the lower atmosphere due to heat trapped by greenhouse gases. A total ban on all CFCs and HCFCs is scheduled effective 2030. etc. this technology extracts heat from the building into subsurface water for cooling. distribution. occupants. maintenance costs. hot water is produced as a by-product that can be utilized as a thermal resource for the building. including raw material extraction. and tropospheric (ground level) ozone.. manufacturing. and the environment. transportation. such as carbon dioxide. production. such as coal. While ion generators may remove small particles (e. Geothermal heat exchange technology: In winter. and disposal costs discounted over the lifetime of a product. nitrous oxide. (See ‘greenhouse effect’). Embodied energy: Embodied energy accounts for all energy expended for production and transportation plus inherent energy at a specific point in the life cycle of a product. Life cycle cost: The amortized annual cost of a product. and natural gas. Life cycle assessment: The comprehensive examination of a product’s environmental and economic aspects and potential impacts throughout its lifetime. in summer. or disposal of the product or service. chlorofluorocarbons. HCFCs are generally used to replace CFCs where mandates require CFCs to be eliminated. produced by the decomposition of ancient (fossilized) plants and animals. methane. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition.g. Upstream and downstream paper target filters collect particles and the opacity (light transmission) is measured. Graywater: Wastewater that does not contain sewage or fecal contamination and can be reused for irrigation after simple filtration. fuel cell power is cleaner than grid-connected power sources. Abrasion can result in these particles being re-suspended into the air. use and disposal. including capital costs. and may be relatively ineffective in removing large particles such as pollen and dust allergens. In some cases. It is a specially designed transformer with an oversized neutral to accommodate the high neutral current caused by the harmonics generated by the equipment served. Energy modeling: A computer model that analyzes the building’s energy-related features in order to project energy consumption of a given design. Fossil fuel: A fuel. they do not remove gases or odors. maintenance. floors.Dust spot efficiency: The dust spot efficiency test is a semi-quantitative measure of a filter’s collection efficiency for fine particles – those associated with smudging of the interior surfaces of buildings. End Pages PAGE 137 . Heat recovery systems (sensible and latent): Building mechanical systems that capture waste heat from another system and use it to replace heat that would otherwise come from a primary energy source. draperies.

Low-e windows: “Low-E" (low-emissivity) windows reflect heat. including collection. Stratospheric ozone: In the stratosphere (the atmosphere layer beginning 7 to 10 miles above the earth). R-value: A measure of the thermal resistance of material. not light. e. vibration analysis. separation. and personal protection appropriate for use of a particular chemical in an occupational environment.g. disrupting biological cycles in plants and animals. NOx is a major contributor to acid rain and to ground level ozone (the primary component of smog). temperature ranges. Renewable energy: Energy resources such as wind power or solar energy that can keep producing indefinitely without being depleted. Photovoltaic panels (PVs): Photovoltaic devices use semiconductor material to directly convert sunlight into electricity. health effects. Ozone produced near the earth’s surface through complex chemical reactions of nitrogen oxides. storage. regrind or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process. and therefore keep spaces warmer in winter and cooler in summer. “Preventive maintenance” performed on a periodic or schedule basis to ensure optimum life and performance is designed to prevent breakdown and unanticipated loss of production or performance. Material safety data sheet (MSDS): Forms that contain brief information regarding chemical and physical hazards. Post-consumer recycled content: Post-consumer material is a material or finished product that has served its intended use and has been discarded for disposal or recovery. when a system should be turned on.” “Predictive” maintenance is performed on equipment monitored for signs of wear or degradation.g. Ground level ozone. 2. End Pages PAGE 138 . Maintenance refers to servicing or repair of equipment and systems.Light pollution: Light pollution – excess brightness in the sky resulting from direct and indirect lighting above urban areas – has had a negative impact on the urban ecology. which do not need it. and processing. through thermography. set points for boiler pressures and temperatures. Synonyms include post-industrial and secondary material. having completed its life as a consumer item. It has also been hypothesized that human health requires a certain amount of exposure to darkness. Operations & Maintenance: Operations refers to how equipment or systems are run. and sunlight. e. by which products or other materials are recovered from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products other than fuel for producing heat or power by combustion.. Ground level ozone is the primary component of smog and is harmful to humans and the environment. “Corrective” or “unscheduled” maintenance refers to repairs on a system to bring it back “on-line. Radiant cooling: A cooling system in which temperatures of room surfaces are adjusted to maintain comfort by absorbing the heat radiated from occupants. Power is produced when sunlight strikes the semiconductor material and creates an electric current. thermostat set points. proper handling. Monolithic building systems: A characteristic of architectural building systems that are comprised of a few larger elements with few if any joints between them. Recycling: The series of activities.. Pre-consumer recycled content: Pre-consumer material is material diverted from the waste stream following an industrial process. excluding reutilization of materials such as rework. Ozone: 1. maintenance history evaluation. Light shelf: A light shelf is a horizontally-placed light reflector. Low pressure drop high efficiency air filters: Extended surface pleated air filters that allow greater air filtration without a significant increase in fan horsepower requirements. oil analysis. The amount of energy wasted in lighting the sky or outdoor and indoor spaces. ozone is a form of oxygen found naturally which provides a protective layer shielding the earth from ultraviolet radiation’s harmful effects on humans and the environment. etc. volatile organic compounds. has been estimated conservatively to reach approximately $2 billion per year in the US. Nitrogen oxide (NOx): A product of combustion from transportation and stationary sources such as power plants.

nasal congestion. SO2 combines with other pollutants to form acid rain. paints adhesives. Volatile organic compounds: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals that contain carbon molecules and are volatile enough to evaporate from material surfaces into indoor air at normal room temperatures (referred to as off-gassing). but no specific illness or cause can be identified. and particles deposit. rooftops and other man-made materials. or may be widespread throughout the building. producing a dome of elevated air temperatures up to 10OF greater over a city compared to air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. on surfaces such as carpet. such as a video display terminal or glossy magazine. Thermal buffer: A space or other element that reduces the heating and cooling load on another space located between the space and the exterior.effect: The phenomenon in a building or building component caused by wind pressure and temperature differentials which results in air being drawn through some components of a building and out others creating a continuous pattern of air flow. The complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone. concrete. These materials store much of the sun’s energy. a luminous veil is apparent. Thermal bridge: A highly conductive element such as a metal channel in the building envelope that penetrates or bypasses the less conductive element such as insulation. Veiling reflections: Veiling reflections can be created by light sources in specific locations when a task contains primarily specular (shiny) surfaces. Signs and symptoms of VOC exposure may include eye and upper respiratory irritation. but are not limited to: solvents. etc. headache and dizziness.Sick Building Syndrome: The term "sick building syndrome" (SBS) is used to describe situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building. Light colored rooftops and lighter colored pavement can help to dissipate heat by reflecting sunlight. Stack . Superheating: Process of adding heat to the refrigerant beyond its saturation point. Also See: “building related illness. Variable air volume (VAV): Use of varying air flow to control the condition of air. Thermal flywheel: A building element such as a solid masonry wall that collects heat during one period and releases it during another in a repetitive pattern. carpeting and particleboard.” “Sink”: Gases and vapors often adsorb. drywall. Examples of building materials that may contain VOCs include. These surfaces are known as “sinks” – contaminants can be re-emitted from the sinks at a later time. End Pages PAGE 139 . and tree planting can further help modify the city’s temperature through shading and evapotranspiration. and acts as a thermal short circuit through the insulation system. in contrast to the use of constant flow (often) with varying temperature. Urban heat island effect: The additional heating of the air over a city as the result of the replacement of vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt. Sulfur dioxide (SO2): An air pollutant formed primarily by coal and oil burning power plants.

ACRONYMS ACEEE ACS AIA AIMS ANSI ASEAM ASHRAE ASME ASTM BLAST BMS BPL BTU C&D CFCs CFD CO2 CPG DCAS DCV DDC DOE DOE-2. air conditioning Indoor air quality End Pages PAGE 140 .0 HCFCs HVAC IAQ American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy New York City Administration for Children’s Services American Institute of Architects Asset Information Management Survey American National Standards Institute A Simplified Energy Analysis Method American Society of Heating.1E DOS DOT DPR EIS EPA EPACT FGD FRESA FSC GSA HAP v4. ventilating. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Testing and Materials Building Loads and System Thermodynamics Building Management System Brooklyn Public Library British thermal unit Construction and demolition (waste) Chlorofluorocarbons Computational fluid dynamics Carbon dioxide Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services Demand Control Ventilation New York City Department of Design and Construction United States Department of Energy United States Department of Energy computer modeling New York City Department of Sanitation New York City Department of Transportation New York Department of Parks and Recreation Environmental Impact Statement United States Environmental Protection Agency Energy Policy Act of 1992 Flue-gas desulfurization (gypsum) Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant Forest Stewardship Council United States General Services Administration Hourly Analysis Program Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Heating.

IESNA IPM LEED MCLGs MEA MSDS MSW NC NIST NOx NRDC NYPA NYSERDA O&M OEC OMB OSDC PV RFP RMANs SCS SMACNA SO2 SOx SR STC TAB TRNSYS ULURP UPS USGBC VAV VOCs Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Integrated pest management Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Maximum Contaminant Level Goals Materials and Equipment Approval Material Safety Data Sheet Municipal solid waste Noise Criteria National Institute for Standards and Technology Nitrogen oxides Natural Resources Defense Council New York Power Authority New York State Energy and Research Development Authority Operations and maintenance New York City Office of Energy Conservation New York City Office of Management and Budget DDC Office of Sustainable Design and Construction Photovoltaic Request for Proposals Recycled Materials Advisory Notices Scientific Certification Systems Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association Sulfur dioxide Sulfur oxides Specific Requirements Sound Transmission Class Testing. adjusting and balancing Transient system simulation program Uniform Land Use Review Process Uninterrupted power supply United States Green Building Council Variable air volume (systems) Volatile organic compounds End Pages PAGE 141 .

... 35........ 29.. 98.......... 68 . 5........... 29................... 107 .... 68.. 135 E electrical systems and equipment ..................... 57.... 136.............................. 113 End Pages H heat recovery .... 79.............................. 125.................. 60....... 70................... 136.......... 64... 51......... 83.............. 24......... 99... 72......... 22.... 78 D daylighting . 109............. 78...................................... 87............ 136 bioswale ... 89.... 68.83...................... 76.. 17.. 35...40.......................................... 117. 130 Audubon House .... 87............... 92.... 104.. 54...... 16. 38..... 119.... 137 emissions trading ...... 5. 24.............. 67....... 55. 23..... 71........ 38.35...... 97.............. 94......... 23..... 63....... 72.................. 129 engineered wood ........ 13.. 12.............. 55................ 80.... 129.. 121.... 5.... 55............................................... 88..... 59.... 5.... 83.............. 85... 124 global warming ................................ 72. ......... 136..................... 40.... 108. 31. 136 composting ......... 54... 51. 76....................... 15.. 83............ 64 energy modeling ............ 58 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation .......... 77.......... 137 glazing ......... 70 Energy Star .. 16......... 67..... 121...Alphabetical Index A acid rain .. 95 Department of Citywide Administrative Services ..... 136 commissioning ......... .................. 61 geothermal heat exchange technology ...... 66.. 24....... 136 boilers ..... 21......... 64..... 37. .. .... 82........... 25...... 87.......... 30 carbon dioxide (CO2) ..... 136 climate change ...40.... 30................... 88.... 71.. 58....... 80.34..... 65 ....... .......... 119.......... 69......... 124..... 84. 139 building related illness .............70.......124....... 27............................ 11.. 80..... 54.... 128............ 124........ 21.. 137 heating ... 94 environmental justice ........... ................ 55................................ 34... 24.. 2............ 29 Environmental Program Matrix ............. 97............ 87........................ 20...113............................... 53 biodiversity ....... 128. 97....... 56. 48.. 58............ 82. 48.... 34. 68....... 56...... 97................ 15. 24................ 58........... 51.......................... . 24. 38....... 86.... 129.......79............ 136................ 87. 61......... 138 Guide for Design Consultants ....................... 88............ ....... 136 American Society of Heating..... 24.. 63.. 10.. 63... 21.. 56.. 61. 79......... 40..... 50 energy load management ... 60 electromagnetic field/pollution .. 112. 63 modular boilers ........ 57... 137 carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors . 62... 106..... 13.... 86................ 136.......... 14....... 87............................ 63.. 22 encouraging alternative transportation .. 61....116........... 5... 15...... 77......... 121 High Performance Plan ................ 47....... 92............. 17.. 69. 119. 17.................. 137 graywater .......... 60.............................. 136. 76......... .. 63...... 38. 24. 99... 35........ 76........... 60.. 40 gypsum ........ 136 concrete .......................... 13 construction and demolition (C&D) waste ........... 76..... 98...... 62........ 57... 57.................. 38.. 79. 27....... 128............. 5. 62.................. 139 Condé Nast Building ........ 15.... 25... 16.... 63. 15.. 90................ . 89 ................. 114....... 70....... 50....... 136 brownfields . 136 chillers ................... 105... 128... 51... 23.............................. 61......................... 86....... 96....................... 55.... ... 65... 22. 65... 58.... Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (ASHRAE) . 22.. 87. 93. 139 certified wood products ...... 112 C capital planning process ............. 39..... 17.. 56.. 96.................... 139 building envelope . 78. 137 PAGE 142 ....74..................... 5............ 62..61.. 60 embodied energy .. 18.............. 66... 5...... 86........ 137 G geothermal energy ... 15.......... 34 fuel cell . 23.. 86. 5...............114...... 22.................. 65............ 86.. 76..... 137 greenhouse gases ......15........... 11.. 57......... 75 carpeting ..... 38........ 38....... 139 acoustic quality ............ 92... 89....... 89... 139 air conditioning ..... 54..... 10................... 30 buffer . 72............................. 126........ 81....................58.......... 120..................... 21.. 62.... 124......... 55.. 16.... 95................... 60.... 22..... 75 B bicycle storage/amenities ........70.. 52..... 124...... 139 building-site relationship ... 76................... 99 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) .........63.... 61.. 92... 69............ 112. 89...66......... 84............... 134.... 83.111...... 92........ 12....................... 68. 85....... 126... 57........ 24............... 92. 61.... 68. 25.. 24... 107............... 35... 10............... 137 greenhouse effect.... 17. 94.. 17............ 61........ 56. ... 137 charrette ................... 5...... 16... 129 hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) .. 51.............. 80... 69 HVAC ......... 119.................. 118.. 92 clerestories .. 57......... 28 ......... 65................ 113.... 79........ 80 condensing boilers ... 39.... 70.......... 52...... 24... 9. 92.. 25..... 136 architectural sealants ...... 93.... 11... .. 5....... 102. 87.. 138. 54........ 25.................. 47 F Four Times Square .... 114.. 64. 61........ 89 adhesives ... 28..... 45. 50. 24. 94 asbestos .... 5. 15... 75....... 96................... 111.. 88.... 15...... 118.... 137 energy sources . 73. 30...... 131..... 15........... 49.............. 136 ground level ozone .... 120..75............... 62................ 136 budget planning ......... 121........... 81... 5......... 35........ 76...... 40.......... 136 daylighting/sun control ............. 84..... 63 brise-soleil .. 69................. 136 albedo ..

25................... 84..... 79.............. 49. 136........ 107.. 60 volatile organic compounds ................... 130....... 60. 125.. 138 monolithic building systems ........ 138 renewable energy ... 76.... 13.......... 84.. 138 plants .. 63............ Environmental Protection Agency . 52.... 114..I Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) .. 85............ 82....................................... 24................. 37.... 2.... 139 V variable air volume (VAV) .... 111................ .. 23...... 57........... 69. 107.. 74................... 38.......... 111 U U. 88 New York City Department of Sanitation .. 138 S sick building syndrome .... 138.................... 63..... 46. 56.... 12... 37........... 20. 51................ 138 PAGE 143 ...... 137 ion generators ..... 137................ 115.. 72. 77.... 48........... 61........... 38............ 47........ 37.......... 88.................. ....... 95.......... 83.. 35................................. 77.................. 81......... 15........ 137 P paints .. 129 smog ........... 95.... 56...... 5. 134... 125... 139 videoconferencing .... 110 T thermal bridge ............ 106.... 13. 136...... 137.. 38. 51. 38..... 139 thermal flywheel ............................52......................... 48....... 70........107...................................67... 52 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) ........... 48.......... 14... 138 radiant cooling ....... 57.............. 24.... 86......... 21................... 1. 131 urban heat island effect .... 64......... 50.S.... 139 SMACNA . 25................. 93........... Green Building Council .. 77............... 136...................... . 57........................ 135 natural ventilation ............ 92..... 80................... 106 porous paving ... 70 photovoltaic panels (PVs) ....................................................... 88. 135 nitrogen oxide (NOx) ..... 99...... 92...... 23.. 79 low pressure drop high efficiency air filters . 47.........97..... 54.. 2............................ 15...93.......... 71...................... 110 noise control ............... 126.. 138 light shelf ...... 93..... 25... ........ 72. 138 rainwater .... 80..... 24.. 138 lighting modeling tools ........ 57... 129............. 80......... 28...... 23... 94 M mass transit ... 112...... 97......................... 134 ozone ............................ 77.............. 136. 96............ 130 U........... 53.......... 108 N Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) .......... ...... 82........... 137 life cycle cost .................67......... 16.... 115.. 125.... 56.......... 138 sulfur dioxide (SO2) .................................... ........ 30.....30... 16... 22.. 100.... 29....S... 139 plumbing fixtures ........... 94. 58.............................. 137 light pollution .................. 49............. 57............. 52....... 63....... 139 thermal buffer ... 61................... 25.. 104............... 108............ 15.......... 71.................................. 23............ 61........ 22.. 137 L Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ....... 87................. 68... 24.................. 37........... ... 105.... 139 End Pages O OEC (New York City Office of Energy Conservation) ....... 22.......141 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) ...................................... 90............ 138 productivity ............ 76..............56......... 20... 52... 104.............. 128 recycled content ............ 93.. 47 pre-consumer recycled content .........96............ 122... 71........... 60. 5......... 110.... 139 trees .. 89................... 48... 49. 51........ 15............. 22........ 47.................. 86....... 138 R R-value ........ 138 noise ..............78... 58............ 84......... 38.... 15........... 68..... 68... 134........ 93...... 24.............. 75.................. 16................... 52............ 10......... 111......... 52.... 24. 97............ 57.... 47........ 15........... 16....... 47. 138 municipal solid waste ... 138.. 99. 65.................. 139 systems furniture .... 102................. 51..... 95 New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code ...... 22.. 107. 94 life cycle assessment ... 100......... 5............. 73... . 74..... 88 integrated pest management .... 115 New York City Office of Energy Conservation (OEC) .... 22............... ... 138 low-E windows ........ 25...... 55. 62....... 85 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) . 47....... 2. 21. 56...... 68............. 73. 22.. 58........................................... 81.............. 125.......... 23..... 94........... ........... 47...... 16..................... 134. 58......................... 93. 24............. 126 K K-rated transformer ........... 89........ 70........ 66................. 111..... 139 passive solar ...

Comparison of Methods: Building Code of the City of New York Index for Ventilation versus ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 H.Executive Summary B. Environmentally Responsible Guidelines for New York City Buildings . Integrated Pest Management Strategies J. Basic Sanitation Guidelines for Construction Sites Regarding Pest/Vector Management I. Healthy and Environmentally Preferable Cleaning Products End Pages PAGE 144 . High Performance Building Workplan D. Required Minimum Outdoor Air Supply and Exhaust. Measurable Benefits -. Environmental Matrix Sample (Kensington Library) G.APPENDICES A. High Performance Plan Sample (Kensington Library) F. Project Initiation Form E.Calculations C.