lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

kL5UMLN DLL LI8kC nI51CkIA MUNDIAL CCN1LMÞCkÁNLA
UNIDAD 1 LL IMÞLkIALI5MCŦŴ
MCDULC 1 ÞkINCIÞIC DLL IMÞLkIALI5MC MCDLkNCŦŴ
1ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ LA CCMÞC5ICICN 1LkkI1CkIAL DLL IMÞLkIC ÞCk1UGUL5 ¥ L5ÞAÑCL DL LC5
kV ¥ kVIŦ 8ŦŴÞCk1UGALŦŴ lSLAS AZC8LSŦ lSLA MAuL8Aţ lnulAţ 88ASlLţ SLnLCAL ? CulnLAţ
8A81CLCML ulAZ LLLCC Ln 1487 PAS1A LC CuL PC? LS LL CA8C uL 8uLnA LSÞL8AnZAŦţ
vASCC uL CAMA Ln 1498 uLSCu88lC LL CAMlnC A LAS lnulAS C8lLn1ALLSţţLn 1300 ÞLu8C
ALvA8LZ CA88AL uLSCu88lC 88ASlLŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ L5ÞAÑAŦŴ CCn1lnLn1L AML8lCAnC Ln LL SlCLC
xv1 LAS LxÞLC8AClCnLS A8A8CA8A uLSuL lLC8luA PAS1A LL LS18LCPC uL MACALLAnLSţ
SAn1C uCMlnCC ţ PAl1lţ Cu8Aţ ÞAnAMÁţ An1lLLAS MLnC8LSţ vLnLZuLLAţ CuA?AnAţ
CLn18CAML8lCAţ MLxlCC ? lLC8luA ASl CCMC CALllC8nlA ? ÞL8úţ CPlLL ? A8CLn1lnAŦLn
LS1A LÞCCA SL 8LALlZA LL Þ8lML8 vlA!L uL Cl8CunnAvLCAClCn LnCA8LZAuC ÞC8
lL8nAnuC uL MACALLAnLS A?uuAuC ÞC8 !uAn SL8AS1lAn LLCAnCŦţLLLvA8Cn A LCS
lnulCLnAS LL 1LLA8 ? LL C8lS1lAnlSMCţ
2ŦŴL5ÞLCIIICAkA ÞCk LC MLNC5 CUA1kC DL LC5 MC1IVC5 ÞCk LC5 CUALL5 LC5 ÞAI5L5
LUkCÞLC5 CULkIAN AMÞLIAk 5U5 DCMINIC5ŦŴ LCS uLSCu88lMlLn1CS uL nuLvAS
1lL88ASţ nuLvCS ML8CAuCS ÞA8A SuS Þ8CuuC1CSţ C8LClMlLn1C uL LA lnuuS18lA ? LL
uCMlnlC uL LAS 8u1AS MA8l1lMASŦ lMÞuLSC A LA LMlC8AClCnŴŴŴŴŴLCS PCLAnuLSLS
C81uvlL8Cn 8ASLS Ln !AvA MlLn18AS CuL LCS lnCLLSLS CCML8ClA8Cn CCn lnulAţ Ln
1663 LCS lnCLLSLS CAÞ1u8A8Cn LA lSLA uL !AMAlCA ASl CCMC 8LLlCLţLn LL SlCLC xvll Ln
LAS 8L8MuuAS ţ Ln 1609 SL LS1A8LLCLn Ln 8CM8A? ţ MAu8AS ţ CALCu1AţŴŴŴLCS
l8AnCLSLS LxÞLC8A8Cn LL CCLAnC lnulCC ? 1CMA8Cn ÞCSLSlCn uL MAu8lClC ? LA lSLA
8LunlCnţţţl8AnClA CLulC Ln 1713 A nuLvA LSCCClAţ 1L88AnCvA ? LL 1L88l1C8lC uL
PuuSCn
3ŦŴMLNCICNAkA LC5 IAC1CkL5 CUL DL1LkMINAkCN A ÞkINCIÞIC5 DLL 5IGLC kIk LA
DLCADLNCIA DLL IMÞLkIALI5MCŦ8ŦŴ LA lnuLÞLnuLnClA uL LCS LS1AuCS unluCSŦŸ
lnCLA1L88A ÞL8ulC LA MAS ÞC8LAuA uL SuS CCLCnlAS ? 1AM8lLn LL uCMlnlC ÞCLl1lCC ?
LCCnCMlCC uL LAS CCLCnlASţŦŴŴŴ ÞL8uluA uL LSÞARA uL SuS CCLCnlAS Ln AML8lCAţŦŴŴŴ
Ln18L 1810 ? ? 1826 LSÞARA ÞL8ulC CASl 1CuAS SuS CCLCnlAS Ln AML8lCAŦŴŴŴ CÞCSlClCn
uLL Ll8L8ALlSMC LCCnCMlCC AL CCLCnlALlSMCŦŴLCS MCvlMlLn1CS uL CÞCSlClCn SL
uL8lL8Cn A LA 8LS18lCClCn uLL CCML8ClC uL LAS nAClCnLS uCMlnAuC8AS CuL
lMÞLulAn LL Ll88L CCML8ClCŦŴŦ
4ŦŴ LkAMINAkA LA5 CAU5A5 ÞCk LA5 CUALL5 kL5UkGL LL IMÞLkIALI5MC nACIA 1870Ŧ kŦŴ
LCCNCMICA5ţŦŴŴŴLAS nAClCnLS SL ASLCu8A8Cn Ln 1LnL8 ML8CAuCS ÞA8A LA
AuCulSlClCn uL MA1L8lAS Þ8lMAS ? ML8CAuCS ÞA8A LCS Þ8CuuC1CS CuL SALlAn uL SuS
lA88lCASŦŦŦŦŦ ÞCLl1lCASŦŴŴŴţ SCClALLSţŦŴŴţţţLAS CCLCnlAS SL CCnvL81l8lAn Ln 8LClCnLS
uCnuL ÞCu8lA LMlC8A8 LA ÞC8LAClCn SC88An1L ? ALCunCS LS1AulS1AS CuL C8LlAn
ÞCu8lAn lnC8LMLn1A8 Su Þ8LS1lClC MLulAn1L LA LxÞAnSlCn lMÞL8lALlS1AŦŴŴŴŴŴŴ
MlLl1A8LSţŦŸÞLnSA8An CuL ÞCu8lAn AuMLn1A8 Su ÞCuL8lC MlLl1A8 ? Aun
AC8LCLn1A8LCŦŴŴŴŴ nAClCnALlS1ASţŦŸLL lMÞL8lALlSMC SL 1CMA8A CCMC un SlM8CLC uL
18lunlCţŴŴŴ llLAn18CÞlCASţţŦŴÞLnSA8An CuL SuS ÞAlSLS 1LnlAn LL uL8L8 uL LuuCA8 ?
ClvlLlZA8 A LCS PA8l1An1LS uL LSAS 8LClCnLSŦŴ
5ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA 5CMLkAMLN1L LL kLÞAk1C DL ÁIkICAŦŦŸPAClA 1870 Al8lCA SL CCnvl81lC
Ln LL 8LAnCC Þ8lnClÞAL uLL lMÞL8lALlSMC Lu8CÞLCţ LCS lnCLLSLS 8u81Cn ţ SÞLkL ?
8AkL8 uLSCu88lL8Cn LAS luLn1LS uLL nlLCţ 8LnL CAlLLL LxÞLC8C LL uLSlL81C uLL
SAPA8Aţţţţ8lnCL8 lCu8LAuţ ţMCn1LlL ? LAMl LSÞLC8A8Cn LA ÞLAnlClLS uLL SuuAn ?
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

uLSCu88lL8Cn LL 8lC nlCL8 ? LL LACC CPAu LlvlnCS1CnLţ88AZZA ? S1AnLL?
uLSCu88lL8Cn LL 8lC CCnCCŦŴ 8LLClCA SL AÞ8CÞlC uLL CCnCCţ uLCLA8AuA ÞCSLSlCn
ÞA81lCuLA8 uLL 8L? LLCÞCLuC llţţţŴŴŴŴŴ l8AnClAŦŴŴŴ uL SLnLCALţ uAPCML?ţ CulnLA
l8AnCLSAţ CCS1A uL MA8llLţ uLSlL81C uLL SÁPA8Aţ Ál8lCA CCCluLn1AL l8AnCLSAţŴŴŴŴŴŴ
ALLMAnlAţŴŴŴ 1CCCţ Ál8lCA Su8CCCluLn1AL ALLMAnAţ ? LL CAML8únţŴŴŴŴ C8An 88L1ARAţ
nlCL8lAŦŴŴŴŴLn Al8lCA uLL nC81LŦŴ l8AnClA lnvAulC 1unLZ ? A8CLLlAŴŴŴŴLL CAnAL uL SuLZ
LClÞ1C AuCulL8L lMÞC81AnClA ÞC8 LL CAnAL CuL Ln 1873 ÞASC A MAnCS uL LCS
lnCLLSLSţ Ll8L8lA SL lC8MC ÞC8 nLC8CS CuL PA8lAn SluC LSCLAvCS Ln LCS LS1AuCS
unluCSŦŴŴ
ŦŴ LkAMINAkA LL ÞkCCL5C DL ÞLNL1kACICN CCCIDLN1AL LN CnINAŦŴŴ8ŦŴ lnCLA1L88A
ÞLnL18C Ln CPlnA A 18AvLS uL LA CuL88A uLL CÞlC Ln 1839Ŵ1842ŦŴŴţţţll8MAnuCSL LL
18A1AuC uL nAnklnCţţţţ1842ŦŦŴ C81uvC PCnC kCnC ? ÞuL81CS CCMC CAn1Cn ?
SPAnCPÁlţ AuMlSlCn uL CCnSuLLS Lu8CÞLCSţ Ll8L8AClCn uL Þ8lSlCnL8CS lnCLLSLS ŴŴŴŴ
LS1AuCS unluCSţ l8AnClAţ 8LLClCAţ Þ8uSlAţ PCLAnuA ? ÞC81uCALţ LCC8A8Cn LL
uL8LCPC uL Lx18A1L88l1C8lALluAuţŴŴŴŴ LA ulnAS1lA MAnCPu luL ÞL8ulLnuC Þ8LS1lClCŦŴŴ
Ŵţ ŦŴ Ln 1900 Pu8C unA 8L8LLlCn LLAMAuA uL LCS 8CxL8S CPlnA luL C8LlCAuA A ÞACA8
lnuLMnlZAClCn ? ÞL8Ml1l8 MAn1LnL8 18CÞAS Ln Su 1L88l1C8lCŦŴ Ln 1912 SL Þ8CCLAMC
LA 8LÞu8LlCAţŦŴ
7ŦŴ ANALI2AkA LA DC8LL VLk1ILN1L IMÞLkIALI51A CUL 1UVC IAÞCNŦ8ŦŴ LL AlSLAMlLn1C
uL !AÞCnŦŴ CuAnuC LL CCMCuC8C MA1LC CŦ ÞL88? LC vlSl1C Ln 1832ŦŴţ Ln 1867 SL
uL88uM8C LL SPCCunA1C uL 1CkuCAWA ? CCn LA 8LS1Au8AClCn uL MLl!l SL
8LS1A8LLClC LA SC8L8AnlA uLL LMÞL8AuC8 ţţ Ln LS1A LÞCCA LL ÞAlS LCC8C Ln uLCAuAS
LC CuL CCCluLn1L LL LLLvC SlCLCSŴŦŴŴ LL !AÞCn LMÞLZC A uLSA88CLLA8 unA ÞCLl1lCA
lMÞL8lALlS1A AL llnAL uLL SlCLC xlx CCMC 8LSuL1AuC uL Su ÞC8LAClCn C8LClLn1Lţ
lAL1A uL 1L88LnC LA8C8A8LLţ lAL1A uL MA1L8lAS Þ8lMAS ? ML8CAuCS ÞA8A SuS
Þ8CuuC1CS Ln 1894 !AÞCn C81uvC lC8MCSA ţ lSLA uL ÞLSCAuC8LS ? unA lnlLuLnClA
Ln CC8LAţţ Ln LA CuL88A 8uSCŴ !AÞCnLSAŴ1904Ŵ1903ŴLCS !AÞCnLSLS CCuÞA8Cn
CC8LAţţ8LCCuLA8Cn ÞuL81C A81u8C L lnvAulL8Cn MAnCPu8lAŦŦţ 8uSlA LL CLulC LA
Ml1Au uL LA lSLA uL SA!ALlnŦŴ
8ŦŴkLCCNCCLkA LA5 2CNA5 ¥ LA ICkMA LN CUL 5L IUL Lk1LNDILNDC LA INILULNCIA DL
LC5 L51ADC5 UNIDC5ŦŴŦ8ŦŴŴ uLSA88CLLC LA uCC18lnA MCn8CLţ ºAML8lCA ÞA8A LCS
AML8lCAnCS"ţLn 1898 LS1ALLC LA CuL88A Ln18L LS1AuCS unluCS ? LSÞARA ÞC8 LA
lnuLÞLnuLnClA uL Cu8A CuL SL LCC8C LL 10 uL ulClLM88L uL 1898Ŧ ţţţLn 1903ţţŦ
lCMLn1A8Cn LA SLÞA8AClCn uL ÞAnAMA uL CCLCM8lA ÞA8A LLLvA8 A CA8C LL CAnAL
uL ÞAnAMA CuL luL lnAuCu8AuA LL 12 uL !uLlC uL 1920ŦŴ Ŧ AuCul8lL8Cn ALASkAţ
PAWÁlţ CuAMţ llLlÞlnAS ? ÞuL81C 8lCCŦ
9ŦŴANALI2AkA LC5 kL5UL1ADC5 DLL IMÞLkIALI5MCŦ 8ŦŴ MuCPCS ÞAlSLS CCMC
lnCLA1L88Aţ l8AnClAţ PCLAnuAţ8uSlAţ 8LLClCAţ !AÞCn ? LS1AuCS unluCSŦŴŴ
ţţLx1LnulL8Cn Su uCMlnlC LCCnCMlCC ? ÞCLl1lCC SC88L C18CS ÞAlSLSţ SL AuMLn1C LL
CCML8ClC CCn LAS nAClCnLS Lx18An!L8AS SL LxÞLC1A8Cn Ln C8An LSCALA LCS
8LCu8SCS nA1u8ALLSŦŴ S ŶAuMLn1C uL LCS CCnCClMlLn1CS uL CLCC8AllAţ ClLnClAS
8lCLCClCASţ An18CÞCLCClAţL1nCC8AllCCS ţţţSL Þ8CÞlClC LA lnvL8SlCn uL CAÞl1ALLSŦŦ
LAS AM8lClCnLS lMÞL8lALlS1A PAn 18AluC CCMC CCnSLCuLnClA CuL88AS ? LL CulC ţ
UNIDAD 2 ÞkIMLkA GULkkA MUNDIALŦŴ
MCDULC 2Ŵ CAU5A5 DL LA GULkkAŦ
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

1ŦŴ L5CULMA1I2AkA LA DIVI5ICN DL LUkCÞA LN ALIAN2A5 Ŧ8ŦŸLn 1882Ŵ ALLMAnlA ÞA8A
MAn1LnL8 AlSLAuA A l8AnClA 8LALlZC unA ALlAnZA Ln18L ALLMAnlAţ AuS18lA L l1ALlA
CCnCCluA CCMC LA 18lÞLL ALlAnZAţţCulLLL8MC SLCunuC uLSÞluL A 8lSMA8Ck ? SL
8LuSA A ll8MA8 LL 18A1AuC uL 8LASLCu8C CCn 8uSlAţţ Ln 1882 l8AnClA ? 8uSlA
ll8MAn LA ALlAnZA uuALţŴŴŴ Ln 1904 SL ll8MA LA Ln1Ln1L CC8ulAL Ln18L l8AnClA L
lnCLA1L88A ? uLSÞuLS Ln18A 8uSlA ? SL LL LLAMA A LSA ALlAnZA LA 18lÞLL Ln1Ln1LţŦ
ÞC8 LC 1An1C Lu8CÞA CuLuA8A ulvluluA Ln18L uCS 8AnuCSŦŴ
2ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA LL ÞAÞLL DLL NACICNALI5MC ¥ DL LA CkGANI2ACICN DL LC5 LILkCI1C5 LN
LL DL5LNCADLNAMILN1C DL LA GULkkAŦ 8ŦŴŦ LL nAClCnALlSMC PA SluC lMÞC81An1L Ln
LCS uL1lMCS uCSClLn1CS ARCSŦŦŴ A ÞA81l8 uL LA 8LvCLuClCn l8AnCLSA uLSA1C unA
C8An luL8ZA ? uL ACul Ln AuLLAn1L LA CLn1L CuL SL SLn1lA CCn LA MlSMA
nAClCnALluAu uLSLC vlvl8 !un1Aţ AL LxACL8A8SL LL nAClCnALlSMC CuL Ln lnCLLS SL
LLAMA !lnCClMţ ? Ln l8AnClA SL LL CCnCCL CCMC CPAuvlnlSMCŦŴţ LS1L L8A
lCMLn1AuC ÞC8 LCS ulvL8SCS ÞA81luCS ÞCLl1lCCS ? LS1C PAClA CuL LA CLn1L uLSLA8A
LA CuL88AŦ
3ŦŴ DLDUCIkÁ DL LA 5I1UACICN AN1LkICk DC5 IU51IIICACICNL5 DL LA GULkkAŦkţŴŦŴSL
uLClA CuL LA CuL88A L8A nLCLSA8lA ţ Ln 1880 LL CLnL8AL MCL1kL uLClA CuL un
MunuC Sln CuL88A Þ8Cn1C SL Punul8lA Ln LL CAÞl1ALlSMCţţţţţPLCLL uLClA CuL LCS
ÞL8lCuCS uL lLLlCluAu SCn ÞAClnAS vAClAS uL LA PlS1C8lA ţ AÞC?A8An A8lL81AMLn1L
LA CuL88AŦŴ LA LxlS1LnClA uL L!L8Cl1CS SL uL8lA A LA uLSCCnllAnZA Ln18L ÞAlSLSŦ
4ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ LA 5I1UACICN DL LC5 8ALCANL5 LN LA LÞCCA CUL NC5 CCUÞA
L5ÞLCIALMLN1L LL ÞkC8LLMA 5Lk8ICŦŴ8Ŧ 8uSlA CuL8lA LA SALluA AL MA8ţ ? uLSLA8A
ÞCSLSlCnA8SL uL CCnS1An1lnCÞLA ? uL LCS LS18LCPCS CuL CCMunlCAn LCS MA8LS
nLC8C ? MLul1L88AnLC ÞC8 L C 1An1C LA ZCnA uL LCS 8ALCAnLS SL luL CCnvl81lLnuC
Ln unA ZCnA uL CCnlLlC1CŦŴ Ln LL SlCLC xlx AL lMÞL8lC C1CMAnC SL LL CCnCClA CCMC
LL PCM88L LnlL8MC uL Lu8CÞAŴA LCS 8ALCAnLS SL LL CCnCClA CCMC LL ÞCLvC8ln uL
Lu8CÞAţ lMÞC81An1L ÞC8 Su LS18A1LClCA ÞCSlClCn CLCC8ÁllCAŦŴŴŴŴ CuL88A l1ALC Ŷ
1u8CAŴŦ1911Ŵ1912ŦŴl1ALlA CuL8lA ÞCSLSlCnA8SL uL 18lÞCLl ? LA lnvAulC CCn MC1lvCS
8ALAulLSţŦŴŴţ CuL88A uL LCS 8ALCAnLSŦŴ8uLCA8lAţ SL8vlAţ C8CAClA ? MCn1LnLC8C LL
uLCLA8An LA CuL88A A 1u8CulA SL LL CCnCCL CCMC LA Þ8lML8A CuL88A uL LCS
8ALCAnLS uL 1912 A 1913ŦŴţ ÞL8C LCS ÞAlSLS 18lunlAn1LS vuLLvLn A CAL8 Ln CuL88A ţ
8uLCA8lA ţ CCn18A SL8vlAţ C8LClAţ 8uMAnlA ? 1u8CulAţ A LS1C SL LL CCnCCL CCMC
SLCunuA CuL88A uL LCS 8ALCAnLSţ SL8vlA nC LCC8A SALluA AL MA8 ÞL8C Ln 1908
AuS18lA SL AnLxC AM8AS Þ8CvlnClAS ţ Ln 1788 8CSnlA ? PL8ZLCCvlnA ÞASAn A AuS18lA
ÞL8C ALCunCS nAClCnALlS1AS LS1A8An ulSÞuLS1CS A CuALCulL8 CCSA ÞC8 LCC8A8 LA
AnLxlCn uL 8CSnlA ? PL8ZLCCvlnA A SL88lAŦŴ
MCDULC III LL CAMINC nACIA LL CCNILIC1CŦŴ
1ŦŴ ANC1AkA LL nLCnC CCNCkL1C CUL DL5LNCADLNC LA GULkkAŦ8ŦŴŴASLSlnA1C uL
l8AnClSCC lL8nAnuC Ln SA8A!LvC CAÞl1AL uL 8CSnlAŦŴLL 28 uL !unlC uL 1914 ţ A18ÁS
uLL ASLSlnA1C LS1uvC LA SCClLuAu uL LA MAnC nLC8A ţSL ÞLnSA8A CuL A18ÁS uLL
ASLSlnA1C LS1A8A LL CC8lL8nC SL8vlC ? CuL AuS18lA AC1uA8lA CCn SLvL8luAu
2ţŴL5CULMA1I2AkA LA5 MCVILI2ACICNL5 CUL 5L nICILkCN LN LUkCÞA CCN VI51A5 A LA
GULkkAŦ 8ŦŴ MCvlLlZAClCn uL AuS18lA ţ CuL8lA CAS1lCA8 A SL8vlA ÞL8C 1LMlA A 8uSlA
ÞC8 LC CuL C81uvC LA AÞ8C8AClCn ALLMAnA ÞA8A A1ACA8 A SL88lA ţ SL88lA ? AuS18lA
uLC8L1An unA MCvlLlZAClCn CLnL8ALŦŴţ lnCLA1L88A nC PA8lA PLCPC nAuA ÞC8
uL1LnL8 LA CuL88A ? Auv81lC A ALLMAnlA CuL Ln CASC uL CuL88A lnCLA1L88A nC
Pl8A A SL8 nLu18AL ţ Ln ALLMAnlA 8L81CPCLu LnCARC AL Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C ulClLnuCLC
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

CuL LCS SL88lCS ?A PA8lAn A1ACAuCŦŴ ÞC8 LC CuL ll8MC LA uLCLA8AClCn uL CuL88AŦŴţ
LCS MlLl1A8LS vAn 1CMAnuC LL CCn18CL l8AnClA ? 8uSlA LLLCAn A un ACuL8uC LL ZA8
nlCCLAS ll ll8MA LA MCvlLlZAClCn CLnL8AL ÞC8 AÞA8Ln1A8 ÞCuL8 Ln LL lMÞL8lCţ LA
MCvlLlZAClCn 8uSA LCPA A Lu8CÞA A 8CuA8ţ ALLMAnlA SL ÞCnL Ln ÞlL uL CuL88Aţ
l8AnClA SL MCvlLlZAţ ALLMAnlA uLCLA8A LA CuL88A A 8uSlA ? A l8AnClAŦŴŴ
3ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA 8kLVLMLN1L LC5 ÞLANL5 MILI1AkL5 DL ALLMANIA ¥ IkANCIAŦ 8ŦLA MA?C8
ÞA81L uL LCS ÞLAnLS MlLl1A8LS L8An uL A1ACuL SCLC ALLMAnlA 1LnlA un ÞLAn
uLlLnSlvCŦŴŴŴÞLAn uL ALLMAnlAŦŴ 1LnlLnuC Ln CuLn1A unA CuL88A CCn18A 8uSlA ?
l8AnClAŦŴŴ SCPLlLlLn ÞLAnLC LLlMlnA8 A l8AnClA Þ8lML8C ÞC8 Su MACnlllCA 8Lu uL
18LnLS ? ML!C8 C8CAnlZAClCnţŦLL L!L8Cl1C SL CCnCLn18A8lA Ln LL CLS1L ÞA8A ACA8A8
CCn l8AnClA ? unA vLZ uL88C1AuA MCvlLlZA8 LL L!L8Cl1C PAClA AL LS1L ÞA8A A1ACA8
A 8uSlAŦţ ÞA8A lnvAul8 l8AnClA 1Lnu8lAn CuL ÞASA8 ÞC8 8LLClCAţŦŴŴŴŴŴl8AnClAŦŴ Su
ÞLAn L8A CCnCCluC CCMC ÞLAn xvll ÞL8C nC L8A nlnCún ÞLAnţ L8A unA LCCA CA88L8A
A 18AvLS uL LA l8Cn1L8A ALLMAnAŦŴ
4ŦŴMLnClCnA8A un lAC1C8 uL AÞC?C ? C18C uL CÞCSlClCn A LA CuL88AŦ 8ŦŴ Pu8C
AÞC?C ÞSlCCLCClCC Ln18L LAS MASASţ LL CPAuvlnlSMC nAClCnALlS1A ţLL AÞC?C uL
ÞLnSAuC8LS CCMC AnA1CLL l8AnCLţ LL llLCSClC 8L8CSCnŦ Ln CCn18A LS1uvC LL
CLnL8AL L?Au1L?ţ LC8u 8CS1CPlLuţ 8AnCuL8C ÞlulC CC8uu8A ţ Sl8 nC8MAL ÁnCLLţ
LSC8l1C8 uLL 1lMLSŦ
5ŦŴL5ÞLCIIICAkA LA CAU5A ÞCk LA CUL INGLA1LkkA LN1kC AL CCNILIC1CŦŴ 8ŦLA uLlLnSA
uL un ÞAlS ÞLCuLRC CCMC 8LLClCA lnvAuluC ÞC8 LA MA?C8 ÞC1LnClA MlLl1A8 uLL
MunuC L8A un 8uLn Þ8L1Lx1C ÞA8A LCC8A8 LL AÞC?C uL LA nAClCn ? LAS SlMÞA1lAS
uLL MunuCŦ LA vL8uAuL8A 8AZCn L8A ţ Lvl1A8 CuL 1CuA LA Lu8CÞA CCCluLn1AL CAlCA
8A!C LA uCMlnAClCn uL unA SCLA ÞC1LnClAŦŴţ LA CuL88A ?A L8A CLnL8AL uL un LAuC
ŦţALLMAnlAţ AuS18lAŴPunC8lA ? uLL C18C LAuC l8AnClAţlnCLA1L88A 8uSlAţ8LLClCA ?
SL8vlAŦŴŴ
MCDULC 4Ŧ LA5 ÞkIMLkA5 8A1ALLA5
Ŵ1ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ 8kLVLMLN1L LA 5I1UACICN DLL LILkCI1C IkANCL5Ŧ 8ŦŴ LA lnvASlCn uL
8LLClCAŦŴ LL !LlL uLL LS1AuC MA?C8 L8A PLLMu1P MCLkL ? A LL 1CCA L!LCu1A8 LL ÞLAn
SCPLlLllLn ÞA8A LLlMunA8 A l8AnClAţ SLCún LL ÞLAn ÞASA8lAn A 18AvLS uL 8LLClCAŦ
Pu8C 8LSl1LnClA uL 8LLClCAţ LCS ALLMAnLS CCML1lL8Cn A18CCluAuLS CCMC LL
lnCLnulC uL LA CluuAu unlvL8Sl1A8lA uL LCvAlnA CCn 230 000 vCLuMLnLS ţ730
LSC8l1CS MLulLvALLS ? MAS uL MlL lnCunA8LLSŦŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴLA 8A1ALLA uL LAS l8Cn1L8ASŦŦŴ
LL !LlL uLL LS1AuC MA?C8 L8A !Cll8Lţ LL L!L8Cl1C l8AnCLS CCn 1AC1lCAS An1lCuAuAS ?
CCn un CLnL8AL CuL nC luL A LA LSCuLLA SuÞL8lC8 uL CuL88A ÞL8ulC 300 MlL
PCM88LS ? C8An ÞA81L uL SuS CllClALLS Þ8ClLSlCnALLS ţA LS1C SL LL LLAMC LA
8A1ALLA uL LAS l8Cn1L8ASŦŴ
2ŴŦŴ5IN1L1I2AkA LA5 ÞkIMLkA5 ACCICNL5 8LLICA5 DL L51A ÞkIMLkA L1AÞA DL LA
GULkkAŦ 8ŦLCS lnCLLSLS Ln18An Ln 8A1ALLA LL 23 uL ACCS1C LCS lnCLLSLS SL
Lnl8Ln1An A LCS ALLMAnLSŦ Ln MCnS LCS lnCLLSLS SL 8L1l8An ÞC8 1LMC8 A SL8
lLAnCuLAuCSŦŸSL lC8MA un l8Ln1L uLSuL ÞA8lS PAS1A LA l8Cn1L8A CCn SulZA ? SL LL
CCnCCL CCMC LA 8A1ALLA uLL MA8nL PA? CPCCuLS Ln18L ALLMAnLS ? l8AnCLSLS LCS
ALLMAnLS 8L18CCLuLnŦŴ Ŧ 8uSlA lnvAuL Þ8uSlA CCn uCS L!L8Cl1CSţ LCS ALLMAnLS
uL88C1An un L!L8Cl1C Ln 1AnnLn8L8CŦ LA vlC1C8lA LS uLL CLnL8AL vCn PlnuLn8u8Cţ
A PlnuLn8u8C LL ASlCnA8Cn CCMC !LlL uL LS1AuC A LuuuLnuC8lP Ŵ
MCDULC 5 UN CALLLICN 5IN 5ALIDAŦŴ
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

1ţŴDL5CkI8IkA 8kLVLMLN1L LA 5I1UACICN DL LC5 DI51IN1C5 IkLN1L5 Ŧ8Ŧ SL Þ8CLCnCA LA
LlnLA uL 8A1ALLA uLSuL LA l8Cn1L8A SulZA PAS1A LL CAnAL uL LA MAnCPA Ln unA
ulS1AnClA uL 600 kM ţ LC CuL SL PA LLAMAuC LA MA8CPA PAClA LL MA8ŦŴŴŴŴŴÞA8A llnLS
uL 1914 LA CuL88A SL vuLLvL LS1A1lCAţ un L!L8Cl1C l8Ln1L A C18C LC CuL SL LL LLAMA
LA CuL88A uL LAS 18lnCPL8ASŴŴŴ!AÞCn Ln18A A LA CuL88AţŦŴ !AÞCn CuL 1LnlA unA
ALlAnZA CCn lnCLA1L88A Ln18A A LA CuL88A uLL LAuC uL LA Ln1Ln1L LL 23 uL ACCS1C
uL 1914ŦŴ Ln18C SCLC uL MAnL8A Þ8LuA1C8lA AÞCuL8AnuCSL uL 1SlnC1SAC ţ LAS lSLAS
MA8lAnAS ŦţCA8CLlnAS ? MA8SPALLSŴţŴŴLL l8Ln1L CCCluLn1AL Ln 1916 ŴŴţlC8MA uL
LuCPA Ln LL l8Ln1L ţL8A uL LS1A8 ulSÞA8AnuC CCn1lnuAMLn1L uu8An1L ulAS LuLCC
A1ACA8 ţ MlLLS uL MuL81CS ? LSÞL8A8ţ LA unlCA nCvLuAu Ln LL l8Ln1A luL LL uSC uL
CASLS ASllxlAn1LS LL 22 uL A88lL uL 1913 Ln ?Þ8LSţţţŴŴ LA CAMÞARA uL CALLlÞCLlŴŴŦ8uSlA
SL vL AlLC1AuA ÞC8 LA ÞA81lClÞAClCn 1u8CA ÞC8 CL88A8SL LL ÞASC uLL MA8 nLC8C ?A
CuL L8A LL ÞASC ÞA8A SuS SuMunlS18CSţ SL PlClL8Cn ÞLAnLS ÞA8A A1ACA8 A 18AvLS uL
LCS uA8uAnLLCS ? A88l8 LL ÞASC uLL 8CSlC8Cţ Ln unA ACCluLn1AuA ÞLnlnSuLA
LLAMAuA CALLlÞCLlţ 8uSlA A ÞLSA8 uL CuL LA CAMÞARA L8A ÞA8A A?uuA8LA nC CulZC
ACLÞ1A8 nl uA8 A?uuA ÞC8 LA AM8lClCn uL ÞCSLL8 A CCnS1An1lnCÞLAŦŴŴŴŴŴŴl1ALlA Ln
CuL88AŦŴ LL 27 uL !uLlC uL 1914 l1ALlA nC AÞC?C A LA 18lÞLL ALlAnZAţLL 26 uL A88lL uL
1913 SL ll8MC un 18A1AuC SLC8L1C LLAMAuC 18A1AuC uL LCnu8LS Ln LL CuAL
Cl8LClAn Sl Ln18A8A A LA CuL88A LL 18Ln1lnC ţLL 8A!C 1l8CL ţ lS18A ţuALMAClA ? C18CS
1L88l1C8lCSŦŴţţţţŴŴŴLL 23 uL MA?C l1ALlA LL uLCLA8C LA CuL88A AL lMÞL8lC AuS18C
PunCA8C ÞL8C MAS CuL un A?uuA luL unA CA8CA ţ uL8lL MlLl1A8MLn1L ţ CCn
lnuuS18lA uL CuL88A Mu? LSCASAŦţŴŴŴŴŴŴLL l8Ln1L C8lLn1AL Ln 1913ŦŴ LL 2 uL MA?C LCS
ALLMAnLS ? LCS AuS18lACCS LAnZAn unA ClLnSlvA CCn18A LCS 8uSCS C8LlCAnuCLCS
A 8L1l8A8SL PAS1A 300 kMSŦŦC18C uL SuS Lxl1CS luL LA CCnCulS1A uL SL8vlA AL ll8MA8
un ACuL8uC MlLl1A8 CCn 8uLCA8lA Cl8LClLnuCLL ÞA81L uL SL8vlA Sl A?uuA8A A Su
LLlMlnAClCn ŴŴŴŴŴvL8uunŴŴŴA llnLS uL 1913 LL CLnL8AL lALkLnPLln Þ8LSLn1A LL ÞLAn uL
A1ACA8 vL8uunţvL8uun ?A nC L8A vl1AL ÞL8C C8LlCA8Cn AL CLnL8AL !Cll8L A
uLlLnuL8LA uAnuC C8lCLn A LA 8A1ALLA MAS Þ8CLCnCAuA uL 1CuCS LCS 1lLMÞCS ?
MAS CCS1CSA uL vluAS PuMAnAS ŶLL 8CM8A8uLC lnlClC LL 2 uL lL88L8C uL uL 1916ŦŴ
nunCA SL PA8lA vlS1C nAuA lCuAL CAlAn 100 00C Þ8C?LC1lLLS ÞC8 PC8AŦŴ ÞA8A
uLlLnuL8 vL8uun SL nCM88C A AL CLnL8AL PLn8l ÞPlLLlÞL ÞL1Alnţ LA 8A1ALLA uu8C 6
MLSLS ÞL8C AL llnAL LCS L!L8Cl1CS LS1A8An uCnuL PA8lAn lnlClAuCŦŴŴŴŴŴŴLL SCMMLŦŴ
CCnvLnCluCS uL CuL SL uL8lA A1ACA8 ÞC8 LL 8lC SCMML LCS lnCLLSLS A1ACA8Cn CCn
LCS l8AnCLSLSţ LA ClLnSlvA l8ACASC ţ LCS lnCLLSLS 1uvlL8Cn 60 000 8A!AS Ln un ulA LA
MAS AL1A PAS1A Ln1CnCLSŦŴŴŴLA CuL88A Ln LL MA8 ŴŴ SC88LSALL LL C8uCL8C PLMuLn
CuL LCC8A CAÞ1u8A8 13 8A8CCS ALlAuCS luL uLS18uluC LL 9 uL nCvlLM88L uL 1914ŦŦLL
22 uL A88lL un SCLC Su8MA8lnC ALLMAn PunuL LCS C8uCL8CS lnCLLSLS PCCuLţ
C8LC?ţ A8Cukl8Ŧ ? LL AuuACluSŦŦŦLL C8An CPCCuL Ln18L ALLMAnlA L lnCLA1L88A SL uA
Ln LA 8A1ALLA uL !u1LAnulA LL 31 uL MA?C uL 1916 LA lLC1A ALLMAnA nunCA vCvlC A
SALl8 Ŧ
2ŦŴL5CULMA1I2AkA LA5 DI51IN1A5 ACCICNL5 DL LA GULkkA CUL 5L L51UDIAN LN L51L
MCDULCŦ 8ŦŴMA8CPA PAClA LL MA8ţ !AÞCnţ 1u8CulAţ l1ALlA Ln18An A LA CuL88Aţ
CAMÞARA uL CALlÞCLlţ Lxl1CS uL LAS ÞC1LnClA CLn18ALLSţ A1ACuL A vL8uunţ LL
SCMMLţ LA CuL88A Ln LL MA8ŦŴ
3ŦŴANALI2AkA LA5 ICkMA5 DL LUCnA CUL 5L LMÞLLAkCNŦ8ŦŴŴ CuL88A uL 18lnCPL8ASţ
lC8MAS uL LuCPAţ uSC uL nuLvAS A8MASţ
4ŦŴLkÞLICAkA A5ÞLC1C5 5CCIALL5 ¥ LCCNCMICA5 DL LC5 ÞAI5L5 LUkCÞLC5ŦŴ LA CuL88A
LxlClA MuCPCS CAM8lCSţ Pu8C MlLLS uL 8LluClAuCSţ Pu8C 8AClCnAMlLn1Cţ Pu8C
MC81AnuAu ÞC8 uLSnu18lClCn ţ A LCS 18A8A!AuC8LS lnuuS18lALLS SL uA8A MA?C8
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

CAn1luAu uL ALlMLn1CSŦŴŴŴŴ AuMLn1C uL Þ8LClCS ţLS1C AlLC1C MAS A LCS CuL 1LnlAn
un SALA8lC ll!C C vlvlAn uL unA 8Ln1Aţ LCS ÞLnSlCnAuCS ? LAS vluuASţ LCS
AC8lCuL1C8LS ÞCulAn vLnuL8 SuS Þ8CuuC1CS A 8uLn Þ8LClCŦŴŴ LAS Mu!L8LS Lx1lLnuLn
Su Á8LA uL 18A8A!CţŦŸAPC8A PA8lA Mu!L8LS ÞCLlClAS ţ C88L8AS Ln LA lnuuS18lA
ÞLSAuAţ MAnL!AnuC 18AnvlAS ? PAS1A CCnuuClLnuC CAMlCnLS uLL L!L8Cl1CŦŴŴŴŴŴ
Su8CLn nuLvCS PCM88LS Ln LA CuL88Aţ LL CLnL8AL nlvLLLL 1CMA LL MAnuC Ln
l8AnClA ? LLC?u CLC8CL LS Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C Ln lnCLA1L88A Ln AuS18lA Su8L AL 18CnC
CA8LCSŦ
MCDULC 1917 UN AÑC CkUCIALŦŴ
1ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA LC5 CAM8IC5 IN1LkNC5 CCUkkIDC5 LN kU5IAŦ kŦŴLL ZA8 nlCCLAS ll L8A LL
MAS lnAuLCuAuC ÞA8A LL CA8CCţSu LSÞCSA ALL!Anu8A Þ8CvLnlA uL lnCLA1L88A ?
1CMC LA 8LLlClCn C81CuCxA ? C8LlA Ln SAn1CnLS CCMC 8ASÞu1lnŦŴŴŴLn un Þ8lnClÞlC
LA CuL88A unlC AL ZA8 CCn LL ÞuL8LC ţţÞL8C ÞCS1L8lC8MLn1L CCn LAS LnC8MLS
ÞL8uluAS Ln LL l8Ln1L ţ LL uL1L8lC8C uLL 18AnSÞC81L ? LA LSCASLS uL ALlMLn1CS
LMÞLZC A Su8Cl8 LL uLSCCn1Ln1C LMÞLZA8Cn LCS MC1lnLS ? SL LMÞLZA8Cn A
CCnS1l1ul8 LCS SCvlL1S ţ Ln 1903 Pu8C unA 8LvCLuClCn ÞL8C luL CCn18CLAuA ţÞL8C
C8LlCC AL ZA8 A lC8MA8 unA uuMA C ÞA8LAMLn1C ţSu8CL LA 8LvCLuClCnţ SL
C8CAnlZAn LCS SCvlL1S ? LA uuMAţ CCASlCnA LA CAluA uLL ZA8 CCn LL ÞCS1L8lC8
Su8ClMlLn1C uL LLnlnţ uL LA uuMA Su8CL ALL!Anu8C kL8LnSk? un SCClALlS1A !CvLnţ
Ln 1903 LCS MA8xlS1A 8uSCS SL ulvluLn Ln MLnCPLvlCuLS ? 8CLCPLvlCuLS ? LLnln
CuLuA CCMC !LlL uL LS1CS úL1lMCSţ ÞCCC uLSÞuLS SL LL unL LLCn 18C1Sk? ŦLCS
8CLCPLvlCuLS lnlClAn unA SLCunuA 8LvCLuClCnţ SL ll8MA LL 18A1AuC uL 88LS1
Ll1CvSkţ ÞC8 MLulC uL LS1L 8uSlA ÞL8ulC LL 34 Ʒ uL Su ÞC8LAClCn ţ 32 Ʒ uL LAS 1lL88AS
uL LA8C8ţ30 Ʒ uL LA lnuuS18lA 8uSlA ? LL 9° Ʒ uL SuS MlnAS uL CA88CnŦŴ Ŧ
1Ŧ1 8LLAClCnA8A LA Sl1uAClCn ln1L8nA uL 8uSlA ? Su 8L1l8C uL LA CuL88AŦŴŴ
2ŦŴANALI2AkA LC5 CAM8IC5 DL L51ADC5 UNIDC5 CCN MC1IVC DL 5U ÞAk1ICIÞACICN LN
LA GULkkAŦ 8Ŧ Ln LL uu PA8lA lMÞC81An1LS nuCLLCS AllMLS A LAS ÞC1LnClAS
CLn18ALLS ÞL8C LA lnvASlCn uL 8LLClCA PlZC CuL LA CÞlnlCn Þu8LlCA SL lnCLlnA8A
PAClA LCS ALlAuCSŦŴ LL PunulMlLn1C uLL LuSl1AnlA LL 7 uL lL88L8C uL 1913ţLLvAn1C
unA CLA uL lnulCnAClCn ŦŴ LL 2 uL lL88L8C uL 1917 LL uu 8CMÞL 8LLAClCnLS CCn
ALLMAnlA Sln LM8A8CC LL uu Ln18A A LA CuL88A ÞC8 un L88C8 ALLMAnţ LL
1LLLC8AMA ZlMML8MMAn ţ ulCPC 1LLLC8AMA uLClA CuL Sl MLxlCC SL ALlA8A CCn
ALLMAnlA 8LCuÞL8A8lA SuS 1L88l1C8lCS ÞL8uluCSŦ LL 8 uL A88lL LS1L ÞAlS LL uLCLA8C
LA CuL88AŦŴŴnC CCn1A8A CCn 8LCu8SCS 8LLlCCS nl CCn L!L8Cl1CS C8AnuLSţţnC
CCn1A8A CCn SL8vlClC MlLl1A8 C8LlCA1C8lCţ LA lnuuS18lA nC81LAML8lCAnA nC
LS1A8A Þ8LÞA8AuA ÞA8A LA Þ8CuuCClCn 8LLlCAŦţ unA LuCPA uL LA uLMCC8AClA CCn18A
LA Au1CC8AClAŦ L8A LL SLCCAnŴ SL u1lLlZC LA Þ8CÞACAnuA ÞA8A PACL8 AÞA8LCL8 LA
CuL88A CCMC unA C8uZAuA MC8ALŦ
3ŦŴLkÞLICAkA LA5 CAU5A5 DLL DL1LkICkC DLL LILkCI1C IkANCL5Ŧ Ŵ8ŦŴLL CLnL8AL nlvLLLL
1CMC LL MAnuC uLL L!L8Cl1C ÞC8 LnClMA uL vA8lCS CLnL8ALLS MÁS An1lCuCS ? CCn
MAS ML8l1CS ÞL8C Su lnLxÞL8lLnClA CCnuu!C A L L!L8Cl1C A un uLSAS18L ÞL8ulLnuC
187 000 MlL PCM88LSţ LCS SCLuAuCS SL AMC1lnA8Cn ÞC8 1An1A 1C8ÞLZA uLL AL1C
MAnuCţ LA lnulSClÞLlnA CCLLC1lvA AlLC1C A LA Ml1Au uLL L!L8Cl1CŦŴŴŴŴlLAnuLS ?
CAM88A?ŦŴPAlC !LlL uLL L!L8Cl1C lnCLLS uLCluL A1ACA8 ÞC8 lLAnuLS Ln un CAMÞC
LCuCSC ţÞL8ulC AL8LuLuC8 uL 300 000 PCM88LSŦŴŦLL 20 uL nCvlLM88L LCS lnCLLSLS
LAnZAn un A1ACuL Ln CAM88A? u1lLlZAnuC LL 1AnCuL Pu8C uuuAS ? LCS ALLMAnLS
8LCuÞL8A8C n LL 1L88LnCŦ Ln LCS l8Ln1LS uL uL18AMA8 LCS ALlAuCS 1CMA8Cn
8ACuAu LL 11 uL MA8ZC ? LL 11 uL ulClLM88L Ln18A8Cn A !L8uSALLMŦŴ
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

4ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ LL CAM8IC DL 1ÁC1ICA5 DL LC5 INGLL5L5ŦŴ8ŦŴuLSuL PAClA 1lLMÞC A
ALCunCS CllClALLS ?A nC LCS CCnvLnClAn LCS ML1CuCS An1lCuCS ? PA8lAn LLLCAuC
A LA CCnCLuSlCn uL CuL LA SCLuClCn L8A LL 1AnCuL ASl CuL LAnZA8Cn un A1ACuL uL
381 1AnCuLS LCC8AnuC unA ÞLnL18AClCn Þ8ClunuAŦŴ
MCDULC 7 LL IINAL DL LA GULkkA
1ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA 8kLVLMLN1L LC5 L5IULk2C5 IINALL5 1AN1C DL LC5 ALlAuCS CCMC uL
LC5 ALLMANL5Ŧ 8ŦŴ LuuLnuC8ll LS1A8A uLCluluC A CAnA8 LA CuL88A Ln 1918ţ LMÞLZC
A u1lLlZA8 unA 1ÁC1lCA LLAMAuA lnllL18AClCn ? CCnSlS1lA Ln A1ACA8 LCS Þun1CS
uL8lLLS uLL LnLMlCC ÞA8A A88l8SL ÞASC PAClA LA 8L1ACuA8ulA ? uL!A8 LCS Þun1CS
luL81LS ÞA8A SL8 uLS18uluCS ÞC8 LAS 18CÞAS uL AÞC?CŦLA luLA L8A 8LÞLLCA8 A LCS
lnCLLSLS PAClA LL MA8 LL 21 uL MA8ZC uL 1918 6000 CARCnLS A88lL8Cn luLCC ţţ Ln
uCS SLMAnAS LCS ALLMAnLS CCuÞA8Cn 3000 kMSŦŴuLS18uluC un L!L8Cl1C ţ 90 000
Þ8lSlCnL8CS LS1C SL 18Auu!C Ln un CCMAnuC ALlAuC unlllCAuC CCn lL8ulnAnu lCCP
AL MAnuCŦŴŴŴŴLCS ALlAuCS CCn18A1ACAn LAnZAn unA CCn18AClLnSlvA CCn 604
1AnCuLS LLLCAnuC lnCLuSC PAS1A LCS CuA81LLLS CLnL8ALLS 1CMAnuCLCS
Þ8lSlCnL8CSŦ LCS ALlAuCS SLCulAn AvAnZAnuC ? LA ALlAnZA LMÞLZA8A A
uLSln1LC8A8SL ţLL 13 uL SLÞ1lLM88L AuS18lA ÞlulC ÞAZţ ţ 1u8CulA LS uL88C1AuA ÞC8
LCS lnCLLSLS Ln ÞALLS1lnAŦŴ
2ŦŴLNUMLkAkA ÞCk LC MLNC5 5 DL LC5 CA1CkCL ÞUN1C5 ÞkCÞUL51C5 ÞCk WIL5CN
8ŦŴ 1Ŧ CuL 1CuCS LCS CCnvLnlCS luL8An A8lL81CSŦ
2ŦŴ LA Ll8L81Au uL LCS MA8LS Ln 1CuCS LCS 1lLMÞCSŦ
3ŦŴ LA 8LuuCClCn uL A8MAMLn1CSŦ
4ŦŴ LL A!uS1L uL l8Cn1L8AS SlCulLnuC LAS LlnLAS uL nAClCnALluAuŦ
3ŦŴ LA Au1CuL1L8MlnAClCn uL LCS ÞuL8LCSŦŴ
kL8LLICN LN ALLMANIAŦŴ LL 2 uL nCvlLM88L LL ALMl8An1L SCPLL8 C8uLnC A LA lLC1A
SALl8 ÞL8C LLvAn1A8Cn LA 8AnuL8A 8C!A ? LCS SCClALlS1AS AMLnAZA8Cn CCn unl8SL
CCn LCS CCMunlS1AS L lnlClA8 unA 8LvCLuClCn ÞC8 LC CuL LL kAlSL8 ? LL Þ8lnClÞL
PL8LuL8C A8ulCA8CnŦŴ
3ŦŴLLA8CkAk UNA LI51A DL LA5 CCNDICICNL5 CUL ÞU5ILkCN LC5 ALIADC5 ÞAkA LA ÞA2Ŧ
kŦŴ LvACuAClCn uL LA 8l8L8A CCCluLn1AL uL 8Plnţ 8LÞA18lAClCn uL 1CuCS LCS
Þ8lSlCnL8CS uL CuL88A ? ClvlLLS ALlAuCSŦ 8LnulClCn Ln 8uLnAS CCnulClCnLS uL uL
3CCC CARCnLS ţ 23 AML18ALLAuC8ASţ 3000 MC81L8CS uL 18lnCPL8Aţ 1700 AvlCnLS ?
1CuCS LCS Su8MA8lnCSţţ ln1L8nAClCn Ln ÞuL81CS lnCLLSLS uL uL C8An ÞA81L uL LA
MA8lnA uL CuL88Aţţţţ LA 8LÞA8AClCn uL LCS uARCS CAuSAuCSŦŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ
4ŦŴNCM8kAkA A LC5 ÞLk5CNAIL5 CUL ÞAk1ICIÞAkCN LN LA LLA8CkACICN DLL 1kA1ADC
DL VLk5ALLL5Ŧ 8ŦŴ WlLSCnţ LLC?u CLC8CLţ CLLMLnCLAuţ ? C8LAnuCŦ
5ŦŴ ANALI2AkA ALGUNC5 IUICIC5 5C8kL LA ÞA2 Ŧ8ŦŴ Ln LL 18A1AuC uL vL8SALLLS SL
8LuAC1C 1C1ALMLn1L ÞC8 LCS CAnAuC8LS uL LA CuL88Aţ Pu8C CCnS1An1LS
uLSACuL8uCS Ln18L LCS vLnCLuC8LSŦţ SL LL 8LuuClA LL L!L8Cl1C A ALLMAnlAţ SL LL
C8LlCA8A A ÞACA8 unA CCMÞLnSAClCnţ ? C18AS CCnulClCnLS Mu? uu8AS
ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ LC5 CAM8IC5 1LkkI1CkIALL5 CCUkkIDC5 A CAU5A DLL IIN DL LA GULkkAŦ
8ŦŴ ALLMAnlA ÞLulA LA ALSAClA ? LA LC8LnAţ CuL vCLvlAn A l8AnClAŦ LCS 1L88l1C8lCS
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

uLL LS1L ÞASA8An A ÞCLCnlAţ ÞL8ulA LA SlLLSlA SuÞL8lC8 CuL ÞASA8A A ÞCLCnlA ? LL
SAA8 CuL CuLuA8A ln1L8nAClCnALlZAuCŦŴLCS lnCLLSLS 1CMA8Cn Mú8MAnSk ?
A8CÁnCLL Ln 8uSlAŦ LCS AML8lCAnCS Ln vLAulvCS1Ck SL lnuLÞLnulZC llnLAnulAţ
LL1CnlA ŦLl1uAnlA ? LS1CnlAţ ÞCLCnlAţ Su8CL AuS18lAţ CPLCCSLCvACulAţ PunC8lAţ
8uMAnlAţ ?uCCLSLAvlAŦ
7ŦŴ ANALI2AkA LC5 kL5UL1ADC5 DL LA GULkkAŦŴ8ŦŴulLZ MlLLCnLS uL SCLuAuCS
Mu8lL8Cn Ln LA CuL88A ? C18CS 20 MlLLCnLS 8LSuL1A8Cn PL8luCS nC SL lnCLu?Ln
LCS MlLLS uL ClvlLLS CuL Mu8lL8Cn ÞC8 uLSnu18lClCnţ ulSMlnu?L8Cn LAS
ulS1lnClCnLS SCClALLS ? A LA Mu!L8 SL LL CCnCLulC LL vC1C Ln ALCunCS ÞAlSLSţ
Su8CLn ulC1Auu8AS Ln MuCPAS ÞA81LS uL Lu8CÞAţ LA CuL88A uL1L8MlnC un
AuMLn1C uL ÞCuL8 uLL CC8lL8nCţ Lu8CÞA ÞL8ulC Su Þ8LuCMlnlC 18AulClCnAL
SuS1l1uluA ÞC8 LS1AuCS unluCSţ MuCPCS luLALLS SL ACA8A8Cn CCn LA CuL88AŦŴ
D- LL MUNDC LN1kL DC5 GULkkA5
MCDULC 8 LA 1LNDLNCIA nACIA LL 1C1ALI1AkI5MCŦŴ
Ln18L LAS uCS CuL88AS AÞA8LCLn LCS 1C1ALl1A8lSMCSŦŴ
1ŦŴ L5CULMA1I2AkA LL ÞkCCL5C DL LA kLVCLUCICN kU5AŦ 8ŦŦŴCuAnuC LLnln SL AÞCuL8A
uLL CC8lL8nC Ln 8uSlA LL 7 uL nCvlLM88LuL 1917 Cl8LCL ACA8A8 LA CuL88A ?
8LÞA81l8 1lL88AS A CAMÞLSlnCS ţ ÞL8C nC ÞCulA LLLvA8 A CA8C unA 8LvCLuClCn
SCClAL ÞC8CuL PA8lA SLC1C8LS CuL SL LL CÞCnlAnŦ C8LC LA CCMlSlCn Lx18AC8ulnA8lA
CCnCCluA CCMC CPLCA C CŦÞŦuŦ Au1C8lZAuA ÞA8A A88LS1A8 ? L!LCu1A8 A 1CuA
ÞL8SCnA A!LnA AL CC8lL8nC 8CLCPLvlCuLŦŴÞA8A 1921 PA8lAn uL88C1AuC A SuS
LnLMlCCS ţ LCS 18A8A!AuC8LS ? CAMÞLSlnCS SL PA8lAn CCnC8LCAuC Ln SCvlL1SţŦŦAL
LLLCA8 LCS 8CLCPLvlCuLS AL ÞCuL8 nAClCnALlZA8Cn LCS 8AnCCSţţ CCnllSCA8Cn LAS
CuLn1AS Þ8lvAuAS ţ SL 8LÞuulC LA uLuuA nAClCnAL ? LAS lA88lCAS ÞuLS1AS 8A!C LL
CCn18CL uL LCS C88L8CSŦŸÞA8A 1921 PA? C8lSlS Ln LA LCCnCMlA CCn C8AvL LSCACLS
uL CCM8uS1l8LL ? ALlMLn1CS LL uLSCCn1Ln1C L8A CLnL8ALŦŴŴŴŴ LL ÞA81luC CCMunlS1A
AuCÞ1C LA nuLvA ÞCLl1lCA LCCnCMlCAŦŴ SALvC AL CC8lL8nC 8CLCPLvlCuLŦŴŴŴLA
ulC1Auu8A uL S1ALlnŦŴLA MuL81L uL LLnln LL 28 uL MA8ZC uL 1824 lnlClA unA LuCPA
ÞC8 LL ÞCuL8 Ln18L 18C1Sk? ? S1ALlnţLL ARC uL 1927 MA8CA LL 18lunlC uL S1ALln SL
CCnuLnA 1CuA uLSvlAClCn uLL ÞA81luC ţ18C1Sk? MuL8L Ln MLxlCC Ln 1940ŦŴţ S1ALln
ln18Cuu!C LCS ÞLAnLS CulnCuLnALLS Ln LLLCS SL SLRALA8An LAS ML1AS A SLCul8 SL
lnlClC LL uLSA88CLLC uL LA lnuuS18lA ÞLSAuA Ln AC8lCuL1u8A vCLvlC AL SCClALlSMC
LS1A8LLClLnuC C8An!AS LLAMAuAS kCvPCZLS ? C8LlCAnuC A LCS CAMÞLSlnCS Ln
C8uÞCS LLAMAuCS kCLPCZLSŦŦŦŦŦA LS1C Pu8C 8LSlS1LnClA uL LCS CAMÞLSlnCS CuL
uL!A8An ÞL8uL8 SuS CCSLCPAS ? SLM88A8An SCLC LC nLCLSA8lCţţţţ ÞC8 LC CuAL SL
ulL8CnŦŦ lnCLn1lvCS A LCS CAMÞLSlnCSţ Ln 1936ŦŴ38 Pu8C LAS Þu8CAS LS uLCl8
LLlMlnA8 A LCS LnLMlCCS ÞCLl1lCCSŦŴţţţ LxlS1lA LL Au1C8l1A8lSMC uL un SCLC PCM88L ?
un ÞA81luC ÞLCuLRCŦŴŴŴ
PlZC LA 2ŦŴLkÞLICAkA LC5 CAM8IC5 IUNDAMLN1ALL5 CUL nI2C LA kLVCLUCICN kU5AŦŴ8ŦŴ
nAClCnALlZA8Cn LCS 8AnCCSţ CCnllSCA8Cn LAS CuLn1AS Þ8lvAuAS ţSL 8LÞuulC LA
uLuuA nAClCnALţ LAS lA88lCAS luL8Cn ÞuLS1AS 8A!C LL CCn18CL uL LCS C88L8CSţSL
nLCC LL uL8LCPC uL PuLLCA ţŦ LL CCML8ClC Þ8lvAuC luL C8AuuALMLn1L
SuÞ8lMluCţţLL CC8lL8nC SL PlZC CA8CC uL LA 8LÞA81lClCn uL ALlMLn1CSŦŴSu8ClC LA
lnuuS18lA ÞLSAuAţSL PlClL8Cn AuLCuAClCnLS A LCS CAMÞLSlnCSţSL SuÞ8lMlL8Cn LAS
8LCulSlClCnLS uL ALlMLn1CSţţ SL ll!C un lMÞuLS1C Ln C8AnCSţ SL 8LS1l1u?C LA
Ll8L81Au uL CCML8ClCţ
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

3ŦŴDLDUCIkA LA5 CAkAC1LkI51ICA5 CUL ÞLkMI1LN CCN5IDLkAk AL kLGIMLN DL 51ALIN
CCMC UNA DIC1ADUkAţŦŴ8ŦŴLA unlCn SCvlL1A nC L8A unA SCClLuAu Sln CLASLS ţ Ll88L ?
ulSl8u1AnuC uL unA LCul1A1lvA ulS18l8uClCn uL LA 8lCuLZAţ1AMÞCCC L8A unA
SCClLuAu uLMCC8A1lCAţ LC CuL LxlS1lA L8A LL uLSÞC1lSMC uL un SCLC PCM88L ? un
ÞA81luC ÞLCuLRC CuL ul8lClA LA vluA uL MlLLCnLSŦŴ
4ŦŴANALI2AkA LA5 ÞkINCIÞALL5 CAkAC1LkI51ICA5 DLL IA5CI5MCŦŴŦŴkŦLn l1ALlA PA8lA
uLSLMÞLLC ţLA MCnLuA uLvALuAuA ţuLSCCn1Ln1C ÞC8 LAS CCMÞLnSAClCnLS uL
CuL88Aţ C8AnuLS PuLLCAS ţ luL8Cn A8CnAnuC LA 1lL88A ÞA8A LA LLLCAuA uLL
lASClSMC AL ÞCuL8 ŦŴŦŦŦLL C8CAnlZAuC8 uLL ÞA81luC lASClS1A luL 8Lnl1C MuSSCLlnnl Ŵ
LL lASClSMC vlLnL uL lASCLS ţ MAnC!C uL PACLS CuL SlCnlllCA8A LL ÞCuL8
ţţluL81LMLn1L nAClCnALlS1A ? ÞCLl1lCA Lx1L8lC8 AC8LSlvAŦŴţLL lASClSMC L8A
nAClCnALlS1A ţ nC 1LnlA unA uCC18lnA uLllnluAŦŴţ1AM8lLn SL CÞCnlA AL CCMunlSMC ţ
Ln 1922 MuSSCLlnnl C8CAnlZA LA LLAMAuA MA8CPA CCn18A 8CMAŦŴţţţLL 8LClMLn
lASClS1A SlLMÞ8L lnSlS1lC Ln CuL l1ALlA L8A un LS1AuC CC8ÞC8A1lvCŦŴ SL Þ8CPl8lL8Cn
LAS PuLLCAS ? LAS C8CAnlZAClCnLS nC lASClS1ASţ C18C ASÞLC1C uLL lASClSMC luL Su
nAClCnALlSMC ? Su MlLl1A8lSMCŦŴŦŦŦLL 18A1AuC uL LL18AnŦŦŴMuSSCLlnnl SL ulC CuLn1A
CuL ÞCulA lC81ALLCL8 Su ÞCSlClCn ML!C8AnuC LAS 8LLAClCnLS CCn LA lCLLSlA ?
ll8MC LL LLAMAuC 18A1AuC uL LL18An CuL uLClA ť 8LCCnCCL LA lnuLÞLnuLnClA uL LA
CluuAu uLL vA1lCAnCŦ 8LCCnCCL LA 8LLlClCn CA1CLlCA CCMC unlCA uLL LS1AuC ? LL
ÞAÞA 8LCCnCClA LL 8LlnC uL l1ALlAŦ

MCDULC 9 LC5 ÞAI5L5 DLMCCkA1ICC5ŦŴ
1ŦŴ CAkAC1LkI2AkA LL ÞANCkAMA DL LC5 AÑC5 VLIN1L5ţ8Ŧ LCS Þ8LSluLn1LS uL LL uu
Ln18L 1921 ? 1933 WA88Ln CŦ PA8ulnC ţ CALvln CCCLluCLţ ? PL88L81 PCCvL8Ŧţ
C8AnuLS CAM8lCS ŴluL un ÞL8lCuC uL unA Þ8CSÞL8luAu Lx18AC8ulnA8lA uL 1922 A
1929 Ln C8An ÞA81L A unA SL8lL uL lnvLn1CS ? 1LCnlCAS ţ SL lnC8LMLn1C LL uSC uLL
Au1CMCvlLţLAS CA88L1L8AS ţ LAS CluuAuLS C8LClL8Cn ţSL lnvLn1C LL 8AulCţţSL
CA8AC1L8lZA ÞC8 LA Ll8L8AClCn uL LA Mu!L8ţţLn 1920 SL LxÞluL LA LL? SLCA ? Þ8CPl8lA
LA vLn1A uL 8L8luAS ALCCPCLlCAS luL uL8CCAuA Ln Ln 1933Ŧ ÞC8 LCS C8AnuLS
Þ8C8LLMAS CuL CCASlCnCŴŦ
2ŦŴANALI2AkA LA CkI5I5 LCCNCMICA DL 1929 5U5 CAU5A5 ¥ 5U5 CCN5LCULNCIA5ŦŴ8ŦŴLAS
CAuSAS CAluA uL LA 8CLSA uL vALC8LS uL nuLvA ?C8kţunA SC88LÞ8CuuCClCn
MunulAL uL Þ8CuuC1CS CCMC ALCCuCnţ AZuCA8ţţLL C8An vCLuMLn uL uLuuA ÞC8 LAS
CCMÞ8AS A ÞLAZCS ţLL CAC1lCC SlS1LMA 8AnCA8lC uL LS1AuCS unluCS ţuL8lLluAu uL LAS
MCnLuAS Lu8CÞLAS ţLL Þ8C8LLMA uL LAS 8LÞA8AClCnLS uL LA SLCunuA CuL88A
MunulALŦŴ
3ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ LA ÞCLI1ICA DLL NULVC 1kA1CŦ8ŦŴACA8A8 CCn LA Þ8CPl8lClCnţ A?uuA8 A
LCS uLSCCuÞAuCSţ 8LuuCl8 LCS uL8LCPCS uL lMÞC81AClCnţnuLvA LLClSLAClCn ÞA8A
A?uuA8 A LA AC8lCuL1u8Aţ8LPA8lLl1A8 LCS lL88CCA88lLLS ? Þ8C1LCL8 A LCS
CCnSuMluC8LS L lnvL8SlCnlS1ASŦŴ
4ŦŴ LkÞLICAkA A GkANDL5 kA5GC5 LA 5I1UACICN ÞCLI1ICA ¥ LCCNCMICA DL GkAN
8kL1AÑAţ IkANCIA ¥ ALLMANIAŦŴ8ŦŴţC8An 88L1ARAŦŴ1LnlA MAS CCMÞ8CMlSCS ? MLnCS
ML8CAuCSţ SL SuCLuLn CC8lL8nCS LA8C8lS1AS ? CCnSL8vAuC8LS Ln 1916 CAnC LLCu
CLC8CLŦulC C8AnuLS Su8SlulCS A LCS S18A8A!AuC8LS uLSCCuÞAuCS ţ AMÞLlC LL
SLCu8C ? ţ8LCCnCClC LL LS1AuC Ll88L uL l8LAnuAţ 8LnunClC AL Þ8C1LC1C8AuC SC88L
LClÞ1CŦŦŦLn 1924 LLLCC AL ÞCuL8 8AMSL? ? uu8C MLnCS uL un ARCţţ PA8lA
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

8LCCnCCluC LL 8LClMLn uL 8uSlAţţţţ 8ALuWln Ln 1924 PlZC l8Ln1L A unA PuLLCA uL
MlnL8CSţCCnCLulC LL vC1C A LA Mu!L8ţţţ Ln 1929 MC uCnALu 1uvC unA Sl1uAClCn
ulllClL ÞC8 LA C8lSlS LCCnCMlCAţŦţ l8AnClAŦŤC8AnuLS ÞL8uluAS uL l8AnClA Ln LA
CuL88A un MlLLCn 383 MlL SCLuAuCS MuL81CS ţ 700 000 CCn PL8luAS C8AvLS ţ 2
MlLLCnLS 300 MlL CCn PL8luAS LLvLSţ 300 000 CASA uLS18uluASţţ LS1A L8A LA CAuSA ÞC8
LA CuAL l8AnClA lnSlS1lA Ln LA 8LÞA8AClCn LCCnCMlCAţţl8AnClA CuL8lA
lnuLMnlZAClCnLS Ln LlLC1lvC uL ALLMAnlAţ l8AnClA SL 8LCCnS18u?L SCLAţ
CC8lL8nCS uL CCALlClCnLS uL uL8LCPA ? uL lZCulL8uA
5ŦŴLkAMINAkA LA INILULNCIA CUL LA LIMI1ACICN DL AkMAMLN1C5 1UVC LN LC5
ÞAI5L5 CUL ÞAk1ICIÞAkCN LN LA GULkkAŦŴrŦŴPu8C ln1Ln1CS ÞC8 8LS1A8LLCL8 LA ÞAZ SL
C8LA8Cn C8CAnlZAClCnLS CCMC LA LlCA uL LAS nAClCnLS ? LA CC81L ln1L8nAClCnAL
ÞL8MAnLn1Lţţţţţ Ln Lu8CÞA SL PlClL8Cn 18A1AuCS ÞA8A MAn1LnL8 AlSLAuA A
ALLMAnlA Ln18L l8AnClA ţÞCLCnlAţ?uCCLSLAvlA ? CPLCCSLCvACulAŦţţţţLL 18A1AuC uL
WASPlnC1Cn ÞA8A LA LlMl1AClCn nAvAL Þ8CPl8lA CCnS18ul8 8A8CCS MA?C8LS uL 10
000 1CnLLAuAS ŦŦŦŦŦţţţALLMAnlA ? 8uSlA ll8MAn LL 18A1AuC uL 8AÞALLC Ln uCnuL
8LnunClAn A LAS CCMÞLnSAClCnLS Mu1uAMLn1Lţ ţţţLL 18A1AuC uL LCCA8nC
CA8An1lZA8A LAS l8Cn1L8AS uL l8AnCCŴALLMAnA ? 8LLCCŴALLMAnAţţţţţţţţţţţţ LL ÞAC1C
88lAnu kLLLCC uL 1928 8LnunClA8A A LA CuL88A AC8LSlvAŦŴ
UNIDAD IV LL NA2I5MC ¥ LA 5LGUNDA GULkkA MUNDIAL
MCDULC 10 LL NA2I5MCŦŴ
nI1LLk NACIC LN 1889 LN AU51kIA
1ŦŴ kLLACICNAkA LA 5I1UACICN DL LA ÞC5GULkkA DL LA ALLMANIA CCN LL 5UkGIMILN1C
DLL NA2I5MCŦŴLA uLvALuAClCn uLL MA8CCţţ ALLMAnlA uL!A uL ÞACA8 uLuuAS uL
CuL88Aţ l8AnClA lnvAuL LL 8uP8ţLL SALA8lC nC 1LnlA nlnCun vALC8
AuCulSl1lvCţPl1LL8 LnCuLn18A LA Sl1uAClCn LCCnCMlvA lAvC8A8LL ÞA8A 1CMA8 LL
ÞCuL8
2ŦŴL5CULMA1I2AkA 8kLVLMLN1L LA ICkMA LN CUL ADCLIC nI1LLk LLLGC AL ÞCDLk
Ŧ8Ŧ1929 C8lSlS LCCnCMlCAţ AuMLn1An LCS uLSCCuÞAuCSţţ LCS nAZlS C81lLnLn MAS
8AnCAS Ln LL ÞA8LAMLn1Cţ LL ÞA81luC nAZl AuMLn1A Su lnlLuLnClAţ Pl1LL8 ÞlL8uL Su
CAMÞARA A LA Þ8LSluLnClAţ 1933 Pl1LL8 LS Þ8lML8 MlnlS18Cţţ LCS nAZlS CuLMAn LL
8LlSCP1AC(ÞA8LAMLn1C)ţLL CA8lML1L uL Pl1LLL8 8LCl8L ÞCuL8LS LLClSLA1lvCSţ Pl1LL8
CCnCLn18A 1CuCS LCS ÞCuLL8LS uLL CC8lL8nCŦŴ
3ŦŴ5LÑALAkA ÞCk LC MLNC5 CUA1kC DL LC5 MLDIC5 CUL U5C nI1LLk ÞAkA LCGkAk LL
CCN1kCL CUL1UkAL DL ALLMANIAţkţŴţţ8ŦŴ SL Þ8CPl8lL8Cn LCS Ll88CSţ LAS AC1lvluAuLS
CuL1u8ALLSţţA81lS1AS ulC8lMlnAuCSţCCn18CL uL LA LuuCAClCn ţLMlC8AClCn uL
A81lS1AS L ln1LLLC1uALLSŦŴ
4Ŧ ŶL5ÞLCIIICAkA LA5 kA2CNL5 CUL ADUCIA nI1LLk ÞAkA 8U5CAk MA5 1LkkI1CkIC5Ŧ8ŦŴ
LCS ALLMAnLS nLCLSl1A8An MAS LSÞAClC vl1AL ÞA8A uLSA88CLLA8 SuS AC1lvluAuLSŴ
5ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA 8kLVLMLN1L LC5 MCVIMILN1C5 ÞCLI1ICC5 ¥ 8LLICC5 DL ALLMANIA
AN1L5 DL LA GULkkAŦŴ8ŦŴPl1LL8 ÞLAnLA unA CuL88A ÞA8A CCnSLCul8 MAS LSÞAClC
vl1ALţŦPl1LL8 ASuML LA ul8LCClCn uL LAS luL8ZAS A8MAuASţţPl1LL8 Þ8CCLAMA LA
unlCn uL AuS18lA ? ALLMAnlAţPl1LL8 CulL8L A8SC88L8 CPLCCSLCvACulAţţ18CÞAS
ALLMAnAS CCuÞAn 8CPLMlAţPl1LL8 CulL8L A ÞCLCnlAţlnCLA1L88A ? l8AnClA uLCLA8An
LA CuL88A A ALLMAnlA
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

MCDULC 11 ALLMANIA 1kIUNIAN1LŦ
LA CAluA uL ÞCLCnlAŦŴ ALLMAnlA A1ACC A ÞCLCnlA CCn uCS CuL8ÞCS uL L!L8Cl1C 8A!C
LL MAnuC uLL CLnL8AL lLuC8 vCn 8CCk ? Ln LL Su8 LL CLnL8AL vCn 8uuLnS1Lnu1 LL
ulA 17 LCS 8uSCS lnvAulL8Cn ÞCLCnlA ÞC8 LL LS1Lţ vA8SCvlA SL 8lnulC A LCS ALLMAnLS
LL ulA 17 uL SLÞ1lLM88L ţ ÞA8A LL 6 uL CC1u88L PA8lA CLSAuC 1CuA 8LSlS1LnClA ţ
1ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ 8kLVLMLN1L LL L51ANCAMILN1C INICIAL DL LA GULkkAţ8Ŧ SL LL PA uAuC
LL nCM88L uL CuL88A lALSA C CuL88A SLn1AuA AL ÞL8lCuC uL LA CAluA uL ÞCLCnlA
PAS1A LL ÞL8lCuC uL CÞL8AClCnLS ALLMAnAS Ln A88lL uL 1940ţŦŦ un A1ACuL ul8LC1C
uL LCS ALLMAnLS L8A lMÞ8C8A8LL ÞC8 LA LlnLA MAClnC1 unA SL8lL uL
lC81lllCAClCnLSţţ Pl1LL8 1CMC LL ÞLAn luLAuC ÞC8 LL CLnL8AL MAn1S1Lln SLCún LL
CuAL LL A1ACuL uL8lA SL8 ÞC8 LAS A8uLnASŴŴŴLA CuL88A 8uSC llnLAnuLSAŴ LCS 8uSCS
CuL8lAn uL llnLAnulA unA ÞA81L uLL l1SMC uL kA8LLlAţţvA8lAS lSLAS Ln LL CCLlC uL
llnLAnulA ? LL ÞuL81C uL PAnCC 8Ln1AuC ÞC8 30 ARCSţ LAS ÞLA1lCAS SL LS1AnCA8Cn ţ
lnlClC LA CuL88A LL 30 uL nCvlLM88L 8CM8A8uLAnuC PLLSlnk?ţLL 12 uL MA8ZC
1L8MlnC LA CuL88A ? llnLAnulA CLulC A 8uSlA LL l1SMC uL kA8LLlA ? C18CS
1L88l1C8lCSţţţLA CCuÞAClCn uL ulnAMA8CA ? nC8uLCA ţLL 16 uL lL88L8C uL 1940 LL
8A8CC ALLMAn AL1MA8Ck CuL LLLvA8A 300 MA8lnL8CS luL A1ACAuC uLn18C uL
ACuAS 1L88l1C8lALLS uL nC8uLCA ? 8LSCA1AuCS LCS Þ8lSlCnL8CS PLCPC CuL
Lnlu8LClC A Pl1LL8 ? C8uLnC LA lnvASlCn uL nC8uLCA ? ulnAMA8CAţ LCS ALLMAnLS
lnvAuLn LL 7 uL A88lL uL 1940ŴŴŴŴLL A1ACuL Ln LL CLS1LŦŴŴŴ LL A1ACuL CCn18A
lnCLA1L88A ? l8AnClA LC lnlClA8Cn LL 10 uL MA?C uL 1940ţ 8LLClCA ? PCLAnuA SCn
A1ACAuCS ÞC8 Pl1LL8ŦŦŦŦŦÞA8A LL 30 uL MA?C LCS ALLMAnLS PA8lAn LLLCAuC A LAS
CCS1AS uLL CAnAL uL LA MAnCPAŴŴŴLA 8L1l8AuA uL uunkL8kL ţ ÞA8A Lvl1A8 SL8
uLS18uluCS LCS ALlAuCS LSCAÞAn ÞC8 uunkL8CuL LCC8An 8LLM8A8CA8 338 MlL
SCLuAuCSŦŴŴŴŴLA CAluA uL l8AnClAŦŴLL nuLvC l8Ln1L l8AnCLS lC8MAuC A LC LA8CC uLL
8lC SCMML ? ALSlnL L8A MAS LA8CC CuL LL C8lClnAL ? LL nuML8C uL 18CÞAS ÞA8A LA
uLlLnSA MuCPC MLnC8 ţ LA ClLnSlvA SL LAnZC LL 3 uL !unlCţuCS ulAS uLSÞuLS LCS
ALLMAnLS Ln18An Ln ÞA8lSŴŴŴÞAuL 8L?nAuu ? WlnS1Cn CPu8CPlLL ÞluLn A?uuA A LCS
LS1AuCS unluCSŦţţţLL MA8lSCAL 8L?nAuu 8LnunClC ? luL SuS1l1uluC ÞC8 LL CLnL8AL
ÞL1Aln AL ulA SlCulLn1L SL ÞlulC un A8MlS1lClC ţLL 21 uL !unlC Pl1LL8 8LCl8lC A LCS
l8AnCLSLS Ln LL MlSMC 8CSCuL ? Ln LL MlSMC vACCn uL 18Ln Ln CuL LCS l8AnCLSLS
PA8lAn ulC1AuC A LCS ALLMAnLS LAS CCnulClCnLS ÞA8A LA ÞAZŦ ţ l8AnClA luL ulvluluA
? LCS l8AnCLSLS LSCCClL8Cn vlCP? ÞA8A Su nuLvC CC8lL8nCţ l8AnClA ll8MC un
A8MlS1lClC CCn l1ALlAŦŴŴŴŴŴŴLA 8A1ALLA uL lnCLA1L88AŦŴlnCLA1L88A CuLuC SCLA
LuCPAnuC CCn18A ALLMAnlA Sln LM8A8CC lnCLA1L88A CCn1A8A CCn LA Þ8lML8A
MA8lnA uLL MunuC ? CCn unA AvlAClCn CuL Þ8C8C SL8 Lx18AC8ulnA8lAMLn1L
LllClLn1L ÞL8C LC CuL MAS A?uuC luL 1LnL8 un Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C Lx18AC8ulnA8lCţ
WlnS1Cn CPu8CPlLLţţţLL 13 uL !uLlC LCS ALLMAnLS lnlClA8Cn LA 8A1ALLA A1ACAnuC
CCnvC?LS Ln LL CAnAL uL LA MAnCPA ? LL 24 uL ACCS1C uLS18u?L8Cn AL8Cu8CMCS ţ
lnS1ALAClCnLS uL 8AuA8 ŦŦLL MCMLn1C MAS ulllClL luL Ln18L LL 24 uL ACCS1C ? LL 7
uL SLÞ1lLM88L Ln CuL vA8lCS AL8Cu8CMCS L lnS1ALAClCnLS uL 8Au8 luL8Cn
ÞuLS1CS luL8A uL SL8vlClC ţţţLn LS1A lLCPA LCS ALLMAnLS CCMLnZA8C A 8CM8A8uLA8
LCnu8LS M LCS ALLMAnLS PlClL8Cn Su MAxlMC LSluL8ZC LL 13 uL SLÞ1lLM88L ÞL8C
ÞL8ulL8Cn 60 AvlCnLSŦŴŴŴŴLA CuL88A SL Lx1lLnuLŴŴŴŴŴ8LvLSLS uL LCS l1ALlAnCSŦŴ
MuSSCLlnl uLSLÞL8AuC ÞC8 nC 1LnL8 CCnCulS1AS C8uLnA LL A1ACuL A LCS lnCLLSLS
Ln LClÞ1CţţÞL8C LL CLnL8AL C8AZlAnl SL uL1lLnL AL AvAnZA8 AÞLnAS 73 kMS ŴŴŴŴLL 27 uL
SLÞ1lLM88L ALLMAnlA ţl1ALlA ? !AÞCn lC8MALlZAn LL ÞAC1C 18lÞA81l1A ŦŦl1ALlA LS
uL88C1AuA Ln AL8AnlA LL 28 uL CC1u88LţŦŦŦLn Al8lCA 1AM8lLn 8LCl8lL8Cn 8LvLSLS LCS
l1ALlAnCS LL 7 uL ulClLM88L LCS lnCLLSLS A1ACA8Cn Ll8lA uLSALC!AnuC A LCS
l1ALlAnCS uL Cl8LnAlCAţ CCnCulS1A8Cn LL Al8lCA C8lLn1AL l1ALlAnA CuL lnCLulA
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

L8l?18LA ? SCMALlA ? LA 8LClLn CCnCulS1AuA L1lCÞlAţ LAS uL88C1AS l1ALlAnAS
LLLvA8Cn A LCS ALLMAnLS A Al8lCA CCn uCS ulvlSlCnLS 8LlnuAuAS AL MAnuC uL
8CMMLL ŦţţLL ZC88C uLL uLSlL81CţŴŴŴŴŴLA CuL88A Ln LCS 8ALCAnLSţŦŴLn !unlC LCS 8uSCS
C8LlCA8Cn A 8uMAnlA A CLuL8LLS 8LSA8A8lA ? 8ukCvlnA uLL nC81L CCn LS1L AvAnCL
AMLnAZA8An LCS ÞCZCS uL ÞL18CLLC uL 8uMAnlAţLn LL MlSMC MLS LCS lnCLLSLS
LS1A8LLClL8Cn CuA8nlClCnLS Ln LLMnCS ? C8L1A ? Ln LL Su8 uL C8LClA uLSuL uCnuL
ÞCulAn 8CM8A8uLA8 LCS ÞCZCS uL 8uMAnlAţţţţţţALLMAnlA lnvAuL ?uCCSLAvlAţC8LClA
? C8L1AŸCÞL8AClCn 8A88A 8C!AŴŴŴŴPl1LL8 MCLLS1C ÞC8 AC1l1uuLS uL 8uSlA C8uLnA
un ÞLAn ÞA8A LA CCnCulS1A uL 8uSlAŦŴŴţţCCL8lnC ? 8l8Ln18CÞ nC CuL8lAn LA CuL88A
CCn 8uSlA ? PLSS Pu?C A lnCLA1L88A 8uSCAnuC LA ÞAZ ţA LA ACClCn ALLMAnA CCn18A
8uSlA SL LL LLAMC CÞL8AClCn 8A88A 8C!AŦŸLL A1ACuL SL 8LALlZC A LAS 3ţ30 uLL ulA 22
uL !unlC uL 1941 LL 3 uL ACCS1C 1CMA8Cn SMCLLnk ţţţLL 31 uL ACCS1C LL C8uÞC uLL
nC81L LLLCC AL 8lC nLvA A 16 kM uL LLnlnC8AuCţPl1LL8 C8uLnC CuL nC SL 1CMA8A
LLnlnC8AuCţLL MA8lSCAL MAnPLlMM CCMAnuAn1L uL LCS llnLAnuLSLS SL 8LPuSC A
SLCul8 LL A1ACuL ÞC8CuL LS1A8An PAClLnuC 1A8LAS uL LCS ALLMAnLSţPl1LL8
8LCCnCLn18A SuS luL8ZAS Ln ul8LCClCn A MCSCu ÞA8A LL 3 uL ulClLM88L CCn
1LMÞL8A1u8AS uL 30 C8AuCS 8A!C CL8C LCS ALLMAnLS LLLCA8Cn A MCSCu ÞL8C nC
ÞCulAn MAS ŦŦŦŦLn LL vL8AnC 8uSlA ÞL8ulC Ln18L 4 ? 3 MlLLCnLS uL PCM88LSţ Ln LA
MARAnA uLL 6 uL ulClLM88Lţ LCS 8uSCS CCn18A1ACA8Cn CCn un LlLC1C uLvAS1AuC8
LL 19 uL ulClLM88L 8LnunClC LL CLnL8AL 88AuCPl1SCPŦŦŦLL 13 uL LnL8C uL 1942 Pl1LL8
C8uLnC LA 8L1l8AuA ŴŴŴŴLu8CÞA 8A!C LA uCMlnAClCn nAZlŦŦŸLCS ÞAlSLS 8A!C LA
uCMlnAClCn nAZl Sul8lL8Cn MuCPC MAS CuL C18CS A MLnuuC LCS !uulCS L8An
ÞL8SLCuluCS ţ ACA88LAuCS A CAMÞCS uL CCnCLn18AClCn ? Lx1L8MlnAuCSŦŴ MlLLS uL
PCM88LS luL8Cn ACA88LAuCS CCMC LSCLAvCS ţLS1C C8lClnC LL LLAMAuC
MCvlMlLn1C uL 8LSlS1LnClAţ ÞCCC A ÞCCC ? A?uuAuCS ÞC8 LCS ALlAuCS SL CCnvl81lC
Ln unA CuL88A uL CuL88lLLASŦŴ
ŴŴ
MCDULC 12 LA GULkkA 5L VULLVL GLC8ALŦŴ
LC5 L51ADC5 UNIDC5 A8ANDCNAN 5U NLU1kALIDADŦŴ
1ŦŴ ANALI2AkA LA5 LIMI1ACICNL5 CUL 1LNIA L51ADC5 UNIDC5 ÞAkA ÞAk1ICIÞAk LN LA
GULkkAŦŴkŦŴLAS LL?LS uL nLu18ALluAu LC 1LnlAn MAnlA1AuCţ ţLL?LS CuL Þ8CPl8lAn LA
LxÞC81AClCn uL A8MAS ţÞ8CPl8lAn Þ8LS1AMCS AÞAlSLS Lx18An!L8CS Ln CuL88A
ţÞ8CPl8lAn A LCS nC81LAML8lCAnCS vlA!A8 Ln 8A8CCS 8LLlCL8An1LSŦŴ SL LCC8A8Cn
MCulllCA8 LS1AS LL?LS PAS1A LL 4 uL nCvlLM88L uL 1939 ÞCCC uLSÞuLS LCS lnCLLSLS ?
l8AnCLSLS ÞCulAn CCMÞ8A8 Ln LL uu Ŧ A LCS 8A8CCS AML8lCAnCS LLS L1A8A Þ8CPl8luC
nAvLCA8 Ln LuCA8LS uCnuL ÞuulL8An SL8 uARAuCSţ LA CAluA uL l8AnClAţ LA Ln18AuA
uL l1ALlA A LA CuL88AŦŦLCS AML8lCAnCS LnvlA8Cn A?uuA A lnCLA1L88A Ln A8MAS ţ
AvlCnLS ţ 30 uLS18uC1C8LSţ Ln18LnA8Cn ÞlLC1CS Ln LCS LL uuţ ţ LL 16 uL SLÞ1lLM88L
LL CCnC8LSC AÞ8C8C LA CCnSC8lÞClCn Sln LS1A8 LL ÞAlS Ln CuL88AţŦŦŦLL CCnC8LSC
AÞ8C8C LA LL? uL A88LnuAMlLn1C ? Þ8LS1AMCS LL 11 uL MA8ZC uL 1941ţ uLSuL LS1L
MCMLn1C LCS LL uu A8AnuCnA8Cn LA nLu18ALluAuţţţLL CC8lL8nC LS1AuCunluLnSL
CCnllSCC 69 8A8CCS vA8AuCS AL CCMlLnZC uL LA CuL88Aţ LCS AML8lCAnCS CCuÞA8Cn
C8CLnLAnulAţţţ Ln !uLlC CCuÞA8Cn lSLAnulAŦŦŦCPu8PlLL ? 8CSLvLL1 SL 8LunLn Ln
A8CLn1lA ţ 1L88AnCvA ? PACLn LA CA81A uLL A1LAn1lCC CuL uLCLA8A CuL nC SL
ÞL8SlCuLn llnLS 1L88l1C8lALLSţ CuL nC SL Þ8CÞCnlAn 8LC8LSA8 LA SC8L8AnlA A
ACuLLCS CuL LA PA8lAn ÞL8uluC ? LL ACCLSC uL 1CuCS LCS ÞAlSLS AL CCML8ClCţŦŴÞA8A
1941 ?A LxlS1lA unA CuL88A nAvAL Ln18L ALLMAnlA ? LCS LL uu ŴŴŴŴ!AÞCn Ln LA
CuL88AŦŴ PA8lA unA CCMÞLL!A Sl1uAClCn Ln !AÞCn ?A CuL Ln LCS CllClALLS !CvLnLS
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

PA8lA unA 1LnuLnClA uL 8LlC8MA LxÞAnSlCnlS1A ? uL 8LlC8MA LCCnCMlCAŦţţţţLn
1931 LCS !AÞCnLSL A1ACA8Cn MAnCPu8lAŦŦ!AÞCn CuL8lA LL Su8LS1L uL ASlA ÞL8C LS1A
ulvluluAu Ln18L Lu8CÞLCSŦŦŦlnuCCPlnA L8A uL l8AnClAţ LAS lnulAS C8lLn1ALLS L8An uL
PCLAnuA ? LA MALAS?A uL lnCLA1L88AŦŴŦŦŦLL 20 uL !unlC uL 1940 LAS 18CÞAS !AÞCnLSAS
LMÞLZA8Cn A lnvAul8 LL nC81L uL lnuCCPlnAţţLS1AuCS unluCS Þ8LSlCnA A!AÞCn AL
nC vLnuL8LL CPA1A88A ÞC8 LC 1An1C !AÞCn ll8MA LA ALlAnZA CCn ALLMAnlAţţ LCS
!AÞCnLSLS uLCluLn 1CMA8 LL Su8LS1L uL ASlA ? A1ACAn ÞLA8L PA88C8Ŧ ÞLnSAnuC Ln
uL!A8 luL8A A LLuu uu8An1L ALCunCS MLSLS ŦŦŦ!AÞCn CCuÞC LL 24 uL !unlC uL 1941
LA LA ÞA81L Su8 uL lnuCCPlnA ? LL uu uL!C uL LnvlA8LL ÞL18CLLC ? SL CCnllSCA8Cn
LCS 8LCu8SCS !AÞCnLSLS Ln LLuu ţţţLL A1ACuL A ÞLA8L PA88C8 luL Þ8LÞA8AuC CCn
C8An SlClLC ţ LL A1ACuL SL lnlClC A LAS 7ţ33 ? uu8C uCS PC8AS uLS18u?L8Cn 188
AvlCnLS ţ 7 ACC8AZAuCS ţ2400 ÞL8SCnAS Mu8lL8Cn ţLL ulA 7 8CCSLvLL1 uLCLA8C CuL
LL uu LS1A8A Ln CuL88A CCn LCS LS1AuCS unluCS 18LS ulAS uLSÞuLS Pl1LL8 ?
MuSSCLlnl CuMÞLlLnuC CCn LL ÞAC1C uLCLA8A8Cn LA CuL88A A LL uuŦŦŦŦ 18lunlCS
!AÞCnLSLSŦŴŴŦŴLCS Þ8lML8CS SLlS MLSLS luL8Cn unA SL8lL lnln1L88uMÞluA uL Lxl1CS
uL LCS !AÞCnLSLS ţ uCS PC8AS An1LS uLL A1ACuL A ÞLA8L PA88C8 uLSLM8A8CA8Cn Ln
LA ÞLnlnSuLA uL MALAS?A ? ÞCCC uLSÞuLS A1ACA8Cn LA 8ASL lnCLLSA uL SlnCAÞu8 ţLCS
!AÞCnLSLS PunuLn LL Þ8lnClÞL u L CALLS ? LL 8LÞuLSL LSL MlSMC ulA 1CMA8Cn LA lSLA
uL CuAMţ ? LL 23 uL ulClLM88L LA uL WAkL? ţLL ulA uL nAvluAu uLL ÞuL81C uL PCnC
kCnCţ LL 10 uL ulClLM88L uLSLM8A8CAn Ln LAS llLlÞlnAS ţţţMC A81Pu8 A8AnuCnC
LuZCn ? SL PlZC luL81L Ln 8A1AnŦŦŦLL 16 uL lL88L8C LL CCMAnuAn1L lnCLLS 8lnulC
SlnCAÞu8ŦŴ LCS !AÞCnLSLS 1CMAn !AvAŦŴ8l8MAnlA luL LL uL1lMC LuCA8 Ln SL8
1CMAuC ÞC8 LCS !AÞCnLSLS Ln LnL8C uL 1942ŦŴŴŴŴŴŴuL1lMCS Lxl1CS uL LCS ALLMAnLSŦŸ
uCLnl1Z LL CCMAnuAn1L uL LA lLC1A uL Su8MA8lnCS SL ulC CuLn1A CuL uCnuL
ÞCulA PACL8 uARC L8A Ln LAS CCS1A uL AML8lCA LMÞLZC Ln LL A1LAn1lCC ? SL MCvlC
AL CCLlC ? AL CA8l8LţţLn un MLS PunulL8Cn 47 8A8CCS Ln MA?C uL 1942ţ MLxlCC
uLCLA8C LA CuL88A LL 22 uL MA?C uL 1942ţţţnuLvC AvAnCL ALLMAn Ln 8uSlAŦŴ AllnLS
uL 1942 LCS ALLMAnLS 8LlnlClAn LA CAMÞARA Ln 8uSlA ţ LL C8!L1lvC L8A
ÞCSLSlCnA8SLuL SL8AS1CÞCL ? uL LA 8LClCn uLL CAuCASC ÞC8 Su ÞL18CLLCŸLA
uL1lMA ClLnSlvA ALLMAnA Ln Al8lCAŦŴLA CuL88A Ln Al8lCA SL vCLvlC MAS unA LuCPA
uL LCS lnCLLSLS CCn18A 8CMMLLţ CuL SL AÞCuL8A uL LA ÞLAZA luL81L uL 1C88uCk ?
1CMA 33 000 Þ8lSlCnL8CS lnCLLSLS
MCDULC 13ŴŦŴ CAM8IA LL CUk5C DL LA GULkkAŦŴ
1ţŦŴ L5CULMA1I2AkA LA 5I1UACICN DL LC5 DI51IN1C5 ÞAI5L5 CUL ÞAk1ICIÞAkCN LN LA
GULkkAŦŴkŦŴLn 1942 LAS ACClCnLS LMÞlLZAn A ÞCnL8SL uLL LAuC uL LCS ALlAuCSŦŴ
AunCuL Ln un l8Ln1L Mu? ulS1ln1Cţ A Þ8lnClÞlCS uL MA?C LCS !AÞCnLSLS LnvlA8Cn
unA LxÞLulClCn ÞA8A AÞCuL8A8SL uL lC81 MC8LS8? Ln nuLvA CulnLA ţ A LS1A
AMLnAZA SALlC A PACL8LLS l8Ln1L unA lLC1A Ln LL MA8 uL CC8ALţ LCS
nC81LAML8lCAnCS ÞL8ulL8Cn un ÞC81AAvlCnLS ? unC uARAuC ÞL8C LCS !AÞCnLSL SL
8L1l8A8Cn Sln LCC8A8 Su C8!L1lvCŦŦŦLL CuA18C uL !unlC uL 1942 SL Ll88C LA 8A1ALLA
uL MluWA?ţ LCS !AÞCnLSLS LnvlA8Cn 200 8A8CCS CCn18A 76 uL LCS ALlAuCS LCS
!AÞCnLSLS LLLvA8An 4 ÞC81AAvlCnLS CCn MAS uL 600 uL LLLCS ţ LCS AML8lCAnCS
LLLvA8An unlCAMLn1L 18LS ÞC81AAvlCnLSŦŴţţţLL 7 uL ACCS1C LCS AML8lCAnCS
uLSLM8A8CAn Ln CuAuALCAnAL ţ SL PA8lA lnlClAuC LL Þ8CCLSC ÞC8 LL CuAL !AÞCn vA
A8AnuCnAnuC 1CuC LC CuL PA8lA CCnCulS1AuCŦŴŴŴCCn18AClLnSlvA lnCLLSA Ln
Al8lCAŦŴLCS lnCLLSL nCM88An A MCn1CCML8? !LlL uLL L!L8Cl1C Ln LSL SLC1C8ţ nC SL
uLCluL A A1ACA8 A 8CMMLL PAS1A 1LnL8 Þ8LÞCnuL8AnClA Ln PCM88LS ? LCulÞCţLA
ClLnSlvA lnCLLSA lnlClC LL 23 uL CC1u88L ? LCC8C 8CMÞL8 LL l8Ln1L uL 8CMMLL
PAS1A LL 4 uL nCvlLM88L ţ LC uLMAS luL unA ÞL8SLCuSlCn A 18AvLS uL LClÞ1C ? Ll8lAŦŴ
ŴŦŴŴŴŴuLSLM8A8CC AnCLCŴAML8lCAnC Ln LL Al8lCA l8AnCLSAŦŴŴŴŴLL 8 uL nCvlLM88L
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

18CÞAS AML8lCAnAS L lnCLLSAS uLSLM8A8CAn Ln MA88uLCCS AL MAnuC uLL CLnL8AL
uWlCP1 uţ LlSLPCWL8 Ln 8LSÞuLS1A LCS ALLMAnLS lnvAulL8Cn LA l8AnClA CCuÞAuA ?
LCS l8AnCLSLS PunulL8Cn Su lLC1A Ln 1CLCnŦŦŦLA CAMÞARA uL 1unLZ uu8A8A PAS1A
LL 13 uL MA?C uL 1943 Ln LS1A lLCPA LCS ALlAuCS 1L8MlnA8Cn LA CCuÞAClCn uLL
nC81L uL Al8lCAţ LAS ÞC1LnClAS uLL L!L PA8lAn ÞL8uluC 240 000 PCM88LSŦŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ
8LnulClCn uL LCS ALLMAnLS Ln S1ALlnC8AuCŦŸLCS 8uSCS LS1uvlL8Cn 8LunlLnuC
luL8ZAS AL8LuLuC8 uLL L!L8Cl1C ALLMAn CuL Sl1lA8A S1ALlnC8AuC ? LL 19 uL
nCvlLM88L LAnZAn unA ÞCuL8CSA ClLnSlvA uL!AnuCLC AlSLAuC LL 31 uL LnL8C uL
1943 LL CLnL8AL ÞAuLuS SL 8lnuL CCn 92 000 PCM88LS ÞC8 Þ8lML8A vLZ LCS
ALLMAnLS PA8lAn ÞL8uluC un C8An L!L8Cl1CŸuL1lMA ClLnSlvA ALLMAnA Ln 8uSlAŦŴ
LCS MlnlS18CS uL ALLMAnlA ? 8uSlA 8l88Ln18CÞ ? MCLC1Cv SL 8LunLn A nLCCClA8 LA
ÞAZ uL8luC AL l8ACASC LCS ALLMAnLS PACLn Su uL1lMC A1ACuL ClLnSlvC SL LL
CCnCCL CCMC LA 8A1ALLA uL ku8Skk LL A1ACuL ALLMAn nC LCC8C unA ÞLnL18AClCn
Þ8ClunuA ? LL 12 uL !uLlC LCS 8uSCS CCn18A1ACA8Cn ţ LCS ALLMAnLS vAn ÞL8ulLnuC
1L88LnC CCn1lnuAMLn1LŦŴŴŴŴ LA 8A1ALLA uL SlClLlAŦŴLCS ALlAuCS LnCARAn A Pl1LL8
PAClLnuCLL C8LL8 CuL A1ACA8An C8LClA C CL8uLRA ÞL8C LL A1ACuL luL CCn18A
SlClLlA uCnuL uLSLM8A8CA8Cn LL 10 uL !uLlC uL 1943 LA CAMÞARA SCLC uu8C 38 ulASŴŴ
Ŵ LA CAluA uL MuSSCLlnlŴŴŴel 24 de !uLlC uLSÞuLS uL un CCnSL!C lASClS1A MuSSCLlnl LS
uLS1l1uluC LLAMAnuC Ln Su LuCA8 AL MA8lSACL 8AuCCLlCŦŴŴŴlnvASlCn uL LA
ÞLnlnSuLA l1ALlAnAŦŴŦŦŴŴŴLL 3 uL SLÞ1lLM88L LL CLnL8AL MCn1CCML8? C8uZC LL
LS18LCPC uL MLSSlnA ? uLSLM8A8CC Ln LL Su8 uL l1ALlAţ LL 8 uL SLÞ1lLM88L LL
CC8lL8nC PA8lA CAÞl1uLAuCţ LSL MlSMC ulA un L!L8Cl1C AnCLCŴAML8lCAnC
uLSLM8A8CC Ln SALL8nCŦ LA CCuÞAClCn llnAL uL l1ALlA SL LCC8A PAS1A LL llnAL uL LA
CuL88AŦŴŴŴuLS18uCClCn uL LAS CluuAuLS ALLMAnAS ŦŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴLL Þ8lML8 A1ACuL AL8LC luL
CCn18A LA CluuAu uL Lu8LCk LL 28 uL MA8ZC uL 1942 SL LSCCClC ÞC8CuL LA MA?C8
ÞA81L uL SuS LulllClCS L8An uL MAuL8A ţ MlL LulllClCS uLS18uluCS ? CuA18C MlL
uARAuCSŦŴţ LL 30 uL MA?C A1ACA8Cn CCLCnlA uLS18u?L8Cn 3300 LulllClCS u? ?
uL!AnuC uARAuCS C18CS 9300 ŴŴPAM8u8CCŦŴ SL A88C!A8Cn SC88L LA CluuAu 9000
1CnLLAuAS uL 8CM8AS ţ MA1AnuC 30 000 ÞL8SCnAS ? uLS18u?LnuC 277 300 LulllClCSŦţ
CCn18l8u?L8Cn MAS AL CCLAÞSC uL LS1L ÞAlS LCS 8CM8A8uLCS ulu8nCS uL LCS
AML8lCAnCS SC88L CLn18ALLS LLLC18lCAţ ÞA1lCS uL lL88CCA88lLţŦŦŦŴŴŴLCS uL1lMCS
MLSLS uL LA CuL88AŴŴţ LA Ll8L8AClCn uL l8AnClA ţuLSLM8A8CC Ln nC8MAnulAţ ÞA8A LL
uLSLM8A8CC Ln l8AnClA SL 8LunlC Ln lnCLA1L88A un L!L8Cl1C uL 2 000 000 uL
PCM88LS CCMC !LlL SuÞ8LMC CuLuC LlSLnPCWL8 ? LL LuCA8 SLLLCClCnAuC luL
nC8MAnulAŦŸLA uLllClLn1L LS18uC1u8AClCn Ln LCS MAnuCS Lvl1A8A CuL SL ÞuSlL8An
uL ACuL8uC Ln LA 1AC1lCA A SLCul8 ? LS1C SL CCMÞLlCA8A CAuA vLZ MAS ÞuLS Pl1LL8
1LnlA LL MAnuC SC88L ALCunAS unluAuLS 8LlnuAuASţŴŴŴŴL1AÞAS uL LA Ll8L8AClCn uL
l8AnClAŦŴŴŴŴLL uLSLM8A8CC lnlClAL luL LL 6 uL !uLlC uL 1944 u1lLlZAnuC 2727
LM8A8CAClCnLS uL 1CuC 1lÞC ţ CCn 9210 AvlCnLS ÞA8A LL ulA 18 PA8lAn
uLSLM8A8CAuC 630 MlL PCM88LS ţ93 MlL vLPlCuLCS ? 220 000 1CnLLAuAS uL
ALlMLn1CSŦŴŦŦŦLL 26 uL !unlC LCS ALlAuCS 1CMA8Cn CPL88u8CCţţLL 13 uL ACCS1C LCS
ALlAuCS uLSLM8A8CA8Cn CASl Sln 8LSlS1LnClA Ln LL Su8 uL l8AnClA ? LL 23 SL 8lnulC
ÞA8lS ţ ÞA8A MLulAuCS uL SLÞ1lLM88L l8AnClA ? 8LLClCA PA8lAn SluC Ll8L8AuAS ŦŦŦŦŦ LA
Sl1uAClCn uL LA l8AnClA 8LS1Au8AuAŦŦŦŦLA 8LS1Au8AClCn uL l8AnClA luL C88A uL
lnCLA1L88A ? uL LL uu ţ uL CAuLLL LSCAÞC A LCnu8LS uCnuL lC8MC un C8uÞC
LLAMAuC LCS l8AnCLSLS Ll88LSţţCuAnuC SL ÞLAnLA LA lnvASlCn uL Al8lCA SL 8uSCA un
CLnL8AL CuL ul8l!A LA 8LSlS1LnClA Ln l8AnClAţ LSL LS uL CAuLLL ţLA 8LSlS1LnClA L8A
lCMLn1AuA ÞC8 LCS AML8lCAnCS ? LCS lnCLLSLS ţ LlSLnPCWL8 AÞC?A A uL CAuLLLţ LA
Sl1uAClCn uLSÞuLS uL LA Ll8L8AClCn l8AnCLSA luL uL 8LÞ8LSALlA CCn18A CulLnLS
PA8lAn CCLA8C8AuC CCn LCS ALLMAnLS ŦŴŴŴLA 8LSlS1LnClA Ln ALLMAnlAŦŴŴţţLL 20 uL
!uLlC uL 1944 Pu8C un A1Ln1AuC CCn18A Pl1LL8 ŦŦŦLA CÞCSlClCn CCn18A Pl1LL8 nC L8A
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

nuLvA LCS Þ8lML8CS CÞCSl1C8LS luL8Cn kA8L CCL8uLLL8 ? LL CLnL8AL LuuWlC 8LCk
ţÞA8A 1938 ?A LA CCnSÞl8AClCn LS1A8A SullClLn1LMLn1L Lx1LnuluA Ln18L LCS
MlLl1A8LS ÞA8A PA8L8 ÞLAnLAuC un CCLÞL uL LS1AuCŸA1Ln1AuC CCn18A Pl1LL8ţŦŴ LL
A1Ln1AuC CCn18A Pl1LL8 LC 8LALlZC LL CC8CnLL vCn S11AulLn8L8C ţLn LA LxÞLCSlCn
Pl1LL8 8LSuL1C LLvLMLn1L PL8luC ţ LA vLnCAnZA uL Pl1LL8 luL 1L88l8LLŦţ Mu8lL8Cn
MAS uL 3000 ÞL8SCnAS uL LA MAnL8A MAS PC88l8LL lnCLu?LnuC ÞL8SCnAS uL LAS MAS
uLS1ACAuAS uL ALLMAnlAŦŦŦŴŴŴLL AvAnCL uL LCS 8uSCSŦŴÞA8A LnL8C uL 1944 LCS
SCvlL1lCCS LCC8A8Cn 8CMÞL8 LL Sl1lC uL LLnlnC8AuC CuL PA8lA LS1AuC 8A!C Sl1lC
CASl 18LS ARCS ţ Ln ACCS1C LS1A8An Þ8CxlMCS A vA8SCvlAţţLL 23 uL ACCS1C uL 1944
8uMAnlA AnunClC CuL LS1A8A Ln ÞAZ CCn 8uSlA ? Ln CuL88A CCn ALLMAnlAŦţţLL 27
CCuÞA8Cn LCS CAMÞCS ÞL18CLL8CS uL ÞLCLS1lţ LL ulA 30 Ln18A8Cn A 8uCA8LS1 ? Ln
unCS ulAS PA8lAn LLLCAuC A LA l8Cn1L8A uL ?uCCSLAvlAŦŴţţţţ8uLCA8lA luL CCuÞAuA
ÞC8 LCS 8uSCS AL lCuAL CuL llnLAnulA ţA MLulAuCS uL CC1u88L LCS 8uSCS Ln18A8Cn
A 8LLC8AuCţ C8LClA lC8MALMLn1L Ll88L ţ SL PA8lA ACC8uAuC CuL C8LClA nC SL8lA
CCuÞAuA ÞC8 LCS 8uSCS ţÞL8C Pu8C un ln1Ln1C uL LCS CCMunlS1AS ÞC8 AÞCuL8A8SL
uL ÞCuL8 ţ LCS lnCLLSLS AC1uA8Cn LnL8ClCAMLn1L ? l8uS18A8Cn LL CCLÞL uL
LS1AuCŦŴŴŴLL CCLAÞSC 1C1AL uL ALLMAnlAŦŴ LL 16 uL ulClLM88L uL 1944 LCS ALLMAnLS
LAnZA8Cn LA uL1lMA ClLnSlvA uL LA CuL88A Ln LAS A8uLnAS ţ LA ClLnSlvA luL
ÞLAnLAuA ÞC8 Pl1LL8 ţ luL LL uL1lMC SuS1C uL LA CuL88A ÞA8A LCS ALlAuCS ţÞ8Cn1C
LCC8A8Cn uL1LnL8 LA ClLnSlvA ALLMAnAţ LCS 8uSCS AvAnZAn ÞC8 LL LS1L ? LCS
AML8lCAnCS ÞC8 LL CLS1Lţ LL 12 uL LnL8C uL 1943 LCS 8uSCS LAnZAn unA ClLnSlvA ?
LL ulA 20 Ln18An Ln SlLLSlAţ Þ8uSlA C8lLn1ALţ ? LL 31 LLLCAn AL 8lC CuL8 A 60 kM uL
8L8Lln ţţţLCS ALlAuCS PA8lAn LLLCAuC AL 8lC LL8A A 80 kM uL 8L8LlnŦţ ÞA8A LL 21 uL
A88lL LCS 8uSCS LS1A8An Ln 8L8Lln ÞA8A MLulAuCS uL A88lL ALLMAnlA LS1A8A
uLSln1LC8AuA ţLL 30 uL A88lL Pl1LL8 SL SulCluA ţ Pl1LL8 uLSlCnA A uCLnl1Z CCMC
SuCLSC8 CulLn lnlClA Þ8LÞA8A1lvCS ÞA8A LA 8LnulClCn uL ALLMAnlAţţLL 7 uL MA?C LL
CLnL8AL !CuL ll8MA LA 8LnulClCn Ln LL CuA81LL CLnL8AL uL LlSLnPCWL8 ? AL MlSMC
1lLMÞC LL MA8lSCAL kLl1LL PlZC LC MlSMC Ln 8L8LlnţLn18L LL 17 uL !uLlC ? LL 2 uL
ACCS1C ţ S1ALln ţ CPu8CPlLLŦ ? PA88? 18uMAn SL 8LunlL8Cn Ln ÞCS1uAM LLLCA8Cn A
un ACuL8uC SC88L LCS 1L88l1C8lCS CuL PA8lAn LS1AuC 8A!C LCS uCMlnlCS
nAZlSţţ1AM8lLn SL ACC8uC Ln ÞCS1uAM LA uLnAZlllCAClCnţ uLSMlLl1A8lZAClCn ?
uLMCC8A1lZAClCn uL ALLMAnlAŦŴŴŴŴŴŴ LA CuL88A Ln LL ÞAClllCCŦŸA MLulAuCS uL 1942
SL lnlClA LA CCn18AClLnSlvA Ln LA lSLA uL CuAuALCAnAL ţLn ACCS1C uL LSL MlSMC
ARC LA LS18A1LClA L8A l8 1CMAnuC unAS lSLAS ? uL!A8 C18AS AlSLAuAS ţ LA CCnCulS1A
luL LLn1A ? ÞC8 LC 8LCuLA8 CCn ÞCCCS Þ8lSlCnL8CS ?A CuL LA MA?C8 ÞA81L SL
SulCluA8AţLCS nC81LAML8lCAnCS CCnCulS1An CuAuALCAnAL Ln lL88L8C uL 1943ţ SL
ÞCSLSlCnAn uLL A8CPlÞlLLACC uL LAS SALCMCnţ ţţLL uu ? AuS18ALlA SL AÞCuL8An uL
nuLvA CulnLAţţ LCC8An CCnCulS1A8LA 1C1ALMLn1L Ln 1943 ţ Ln 1944 uLSLM8A8CAn
Ln LAS lSLAS uLL ALMl8An1AZCCţţ Ln nCvlLM88L uL 1943 LCS AML8lCAnCS SL
ÞCSLSlCnAn uL LAS lSLA MACkLln ? 1A8AWAţ Ln lL88L8C uL 1944 SL AÞCuL8An uL
kWA!ALLln ? LnlWL1Ck Ln LAS lSLAS MA8SPALL ? LL 13 uL !uLlC uLSLM8A8CAn Ln SAlÞAn
uLL A8CPlÞlLLACC uL LAS MA8lAnAS ţ 1AM8lLn SL ÞCSLSlCnAn uL CuAM ? uL 1lnlAn Ln
LL MlSMC A8CPlÞlLLACCţŦŴŴŴŴŴLL CL8CC SL ClL88AŦŴŦ LL 20 uL CC1u88L LCS AML8lCAnCS
8LlnlClAn LA CCnCulS1A uL LAS llLlÞlnAS CCn MC A81Pu8 AL l8Ln1LŦŴŴŴ1AC1lCAS
SulCluAS Ln LCS !AÞCnLSLS AL lnlClA8 LL uLSLM8A8CC Ln LL?1L LCS !AÞCnLSLS LMÞlLZAn
A u1lLlZA8 1AC1lCAS uLSLSÞL8AuAS unC uL LLLCS luL8Cn LCS kAMlkAZLS C vlLn1C uLL
ClLLC AvlCnLS CA8CAuCS uL LxÞLCSlvCS CCn un ÞlLC1C SulCluAŦŴţţLL 10 uL LnL8C LCS
AML8lCAnCS uLSLM8A8CAn Ln LuZCn LA lSLA MAS C8AnuL L lMÞC81An1L uL LAS
llLlÞlnAS ţ LL 19 uL lL88L8C ASAL1A8Cn LA lSLA uL lWC !lMA ţ LA SlCulLn1L ClLnSlvA luL
CCn18A CklnAWA Ln LL A8CPlÞlLLACC uL LA 8?uk?uS ţ SL uLSLM8A8CA8Cn 170 000
PCM88LS ţ 1uvlL8Cn MAS uL 12000 8A!AS ŦŦŦAL LMÞLZA8 LA 8A1ALLA uL CklnAWA LCS
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

!AÞCnLSLS LnvlA8Cn 8A8CCS ÞA8A Ln1C8ÞLCL8 LL uLSLM8A8CC ţLn LA lLC1A l8A LL
ACC8AZAuC ?AMAMC1C unC uL LCS ACC8AZAuCS MAS C8AnuLS !AMAS CCnS18uluCţ
Sln LM8A8CC nunCA LLLCA8Cn A CklnAWA luL8Cn ln1L8CLÞ1AuCS ? PunuluCSŦŴ
LA 8CM8A A1CMICA ¥ LL IIN DL LA GULkkAŦŴ Ln LL uu PA8lA CÞlnlCnLS CuL
CCnSluL8A8An SL uL8lA uA8 A !AÞCn LA ÞCSl8lLluAu uL 8Lnul8SL Sln PuMlLLAClCn ţCCn
unA 8LnulClCn lnCCnulClCnALţ ÞL8C LA CÞlnlCn Þu8LlCA CuL8lA CuL A Pl8CPl1C SL LL
SCML1lL8A A !ulClC ÞC8 LC 1An1C LAS CCnulClCnLS 8A!C LAS CuALLS !AÞCn ÞCulA
8Lnul8SL L8Anť CuL nC SL8lA uLS18uluC CCMC nAClCn ţţ MAnC uu8A A C8lMlnALLS uL
CuL88A ţ LA CCuÞAClCn 1L8MlnA8lA 1An Þ8Cn1C Pu8lL8A un CC8lL8nC 8LSÞCnSA8LL ţ?
CuL !AÞCn Þ8CCLAMA8A LA 8LnulClCn lnCCnulClCnAL ţ Sl nC SL CuÞLlAn LAS
CCnulClCnLS A !AÞCn LL CuLuA8A unA uLS18uCClCn 1C1ALŦŴŴŦŦLCS AML8lCAnCS
ÞLAnLAn lnvAul8 !AÞCn CCn 766 760 PCM88LS ÞL8C luL lnnLCLSA8lC ţLL nuLvC
lAC1C8 luL LA 8CM8A A1CMlCAŦŴŴŴŴŴŴ LA 8CM8A A1CMlCAŦŴ LCS Þ8lML8CS Ln LL uu Ln
uA8SL CuLn1A uLL ÞCuL8 uL LA 8CM8A A1CMlCA luL8Cn un C8uÞC uL ClLn1lllCCS
8LluClAuCS Ln LSL ÞAlSť Ln8lCC lL8Mlţ LLC SZLlA8u ţLuCLnL WlCnL8 ? LuWA8u 1LLLL8
? vlC1C8 WLLlSkCÞlţ CCnvLnClL8Cn AL LMlnLn1L llSlCC AL8L81 LlnS1Lln ÞA8A AvlSA8 A
8CCSLvLL1 ţ un MLS uLSÞuLS uL PA8L8 LMÞLZAuC LA CuL88AţţLL 16 uL !uLlC uL 1943 SL
LxÞLC1C LA Þ8lML8A 8CM8A uL LS1L 1lÞC Ln ALAMC CC8uC nuLvC MLxlCCţţ A 18uMAn
CCMC Þ8LSluLn1L LL 1CCC LA uLSClSlCn uL uSA8 LA 8CM8Aţ ÞA8A WlnS1Cn CPu8CPlLL
LA 8CM8A L8A SCLC unA A8MA MAS ţţţţLL ALMl8An1L LLAP? !LlL uLL LS1AuC MA?C8 uLL
Þ8LSluLn1L 18uMAn LS1A Ln CCn18A uL Su uSCţLA Þ8lML8A 8CM8A A1CMlCA luL
A88C!AuA SC88L Pl8CSPlMA LL 6 uL ACCS1C uL 1943 Mu8lLnuC 64 MlL ÞL8SCnAS
lnMLulA1AMLn1LŦ LA SLCunuA 8CM8A luL SC88L nACASAkl LL 9 uL ACCS1C uL 1943Ÿ
LA 8LnulClCn uL !AÞCnŦŴluL A 8C8uC uLL ACC8AZAuC MlSSCu8l LL CLnL8AL MC A81Pu8
ll8MC ÞC8 LAS ÞC1LnClAS ALlAuAS ÞC8 !AÞCn LL MlnlS18C uL 8LLAClCnLS Lx1L8lC8LS
SPlCLMl1Su ? LL CLnL8AL uMLZu ţ LS1AuCS unluCS SL CÞuSC A LA CCuÞAClCn uL LS1L
ÞAlS ? LC SALvC uL SL8 uLSMLM88AuCŦŴŦŴŴŴ
ŦŦŦŦŦŴ
Ŵ
UNIDAD 5 NUL51kC MUNDC LN LA5 UL1IMA5 1kL5 DLCADA5 1945Ŵ1974
MCDULC 14 LA CNU
LA CNU kADICA LN LL LA51 kIVLk DL LA CIUDAD DL NULVA ¥Ckk
1ŦŴLnLlS1A8A LCS Þ8lnClÞALLS C8!L1lvCS uL LA Cnu ? uL SuS C8CAnlSMCS
LSÞLClALlZAuCSŴ8ŦŴ1ŦŴ LL MAn1LnlMlLn1C uL LA ÞAZ ? LA SLCu8luAu
ln1L8nAClCnALLSŦŦŦŦ2ŦŴ LL lCMLn1C uL LAS 8LLAClCnLS AMlS1CSAS Ln18L LAS nAClCnLS
? LA CCCÞL8AClCn ln1L8nAClCnAL ÞA8A 8LSCLvL8 Þ8C8LLMAS MunulAL uLL C8uLn
LCCnCMlCCţ SCClALţ CuL1u81AL C PuMAnl1A8lCŦ3ţŴLL lCMLn1C uLL 8LSÞL1C A LCS
uL8LCPCS ? Ll8L81AuLS lunuAMLn1ALLS uLL PCM88LŦŴŦŦŦŦŦC8CAnlSMCS LSÞLClALlZAuCSŦŴ
LA ASAM8LLA CLnL8ALţ LL CCnSL!C uL SLCu8luAuţ LL CCnSL!C LCCnCMlCC ? SCClALţ LA
CC81L ln1L8nAClCnAL uL !uS1lClAţ LL CCnSL!C uL AuMlnlS18AClCn lluuClA8lA ? LA
SLC8L1A8lAŴŴŴŴŴC8CAnlSMCS LSÞLClALlZAuCSŦŴCl1 ţ C8CAnlZAClCn ln1L8nAClCnAL uLL
18A8A!CŴŴŴlACŦŦC8CAnlZAClCn uL LAS nAClCnLS unluAS ÞA8A LA AC8lCuL1u8A ? LA
ALlMLn1AClCn ŦŴŴŴŴunLSCCŤ C8CAnlZAClCn uL LAS nAClCnLS unluAS ÞA8A LA
LuuCAClCnţ LA LA ClLnClA ? LA CuL1u8Aţ ŴŴŴLA CMS ţ C8CAnlZAClCn MunulAL uL LA
SALuuŦŴ
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

2ŦŴCCNCLÞ1UALI2AkA LA GULkkA IkIAŦŴ8ŦŴ L8A unA LnCCnAuA LuCPA ulCLlMA1lCA L
luLCLCClCA CuL LMÞLZC CCn LA ulvlSlCn uL LA ALLMAnlA CCuÞAuAŦŴ
3ŦŴLILMÞLIIICAkA LA IN1LkVLNCICN DL LA CNU CCMC MLDIADCkAŦ8ŦŴ LA CuL88A l8lA
Ln18C Ln CALC8 CuAnuC LA ACClCn ÞASC uLL l8Ln1L ulÞLCMA1lCC AL CAMÞC uL
8A1ALLA Ln CC8LAŦŦCC8LA SL LnCCn18A8A ulvluluA Ln LL ÞA8ALLLC 38 Ln uCS
CC8lL8nCS LL uLL nC81L AÞC?AuC ÞC8 LA u8SS ? LL uLL Su8 AÞ?AuC ÞC8 LL uu LCS
nC8CC8LAnCS A1ACA8Cn LL Su8 Ln 1930 ţ LAS 18CÞAS uL LAS nAClCnLS unluAS luL8Cn
A CC8LA Ln LS1A CuL88A uL 18LS ARCS ţ 8LÞLLCA8Cn A LCS nC8CC8LAnCS PAS1A LL
ÞA8ALLLC 38 ? uL!C LL Þ8LCLuLn1L uL LA 8AÞlCuA ? CCnCLn18AuA ACClCn uL LAS
18CÞAS uL LA CnuŦţŴŴ LA Cnu Ln C18CS CCnlLlC1CSŦŸAC1uC CCMC MLulAuC8A Ln LA
CuL88A uL LCS SLlS ulAS Ln !unlC uL 1967 Ln18L A8A8LS L lS8ALLlLS ţţln1L8vlnC Ln
CACPLMl8A Ln LL CCnlLlC1C Ln18L lnulA ? ÞACulS1Anţţţ Ln CPlÞ8L uCnuL ÞA8LClA
lnMlnLn1L unA CuL88A ClvlL Ln18L C8lLCCS ? 1u8CCSŦŴŴŴŴŴMCulllCAClCn uLL MAÞA uL
Lu8CÞAŦŴţţA LA u8SS LL SL8lAn CLuluCS ÞA81L uL ÞCLCnlA ? ? LS1L uL Þ8uSlAţ A ÞCLCnlA
LL luL8Cn CLuluCS LL 8LS1C uL Þ8uSlA C8lLn1AL ? LCS 1L88l1C8lCS ALLMAnLS AL LS1L
uLL 8lC CuL8 ? nLlSSL ţŴŴŴLA u8SS 8LCl8lC uL 8uMAnlA LL nC81L uL 8uSCCvlnA ? LA
8LSA8A8lAţ 8u1LnlA uL PunC8lAţ ? LL A88LnuAMlLn1C uL LA ÞLnlnSuLA uL ÞC8kkALA Ln
llnLAnulAŦŴŦŦŦl1ALlA ÞL8ulC lSLAS Ln LL MA8 LCLC ? Au8lA1lCCţ 1AM8lLn CLulC SuS
1L88l1C8lCS uL Al8lCAţ ALLMAnlA CuLuC ulvluluA Ln CuA18C ZCnASŤ
AML8lCAnAţl8AnCLSAţ lnCLLSA ? 8uSAŴŦŴ
5Ŧ LC5 L51ADC5 UNIDC5 DL NCk1LAMLkICA LN LUkCÞAŦŴŦŴ LS1L ÞAlS ASuMlC LA
8LSÞCnSA8lLluAu uLL 8LCCuL CCCluLn1AL uu8An1L LA ÞCSCuL88A Ln C8An ÞA81L A LA
uLCAuLnClA uLL 8LlnC unluC CuL LS1A8A uLS18CZAuCŴuLSC8l8l8A LA Sl1uAClCn uL
ÞCSCuL88A Ln LS1AuCS unluCS ? LCS ÞAlSLS Lu8CÞLCSŦ8ŦŴLA CuL88A 18A!C un AuCL
lnuuS18lAL CuL LLlMlnC LL uLSLMÞLLCţSL 8uSCA8Cn nuLvCS ML8CAuCS Ln uL18AMA8ţ
ÞA8A CCn1LnL8 LA ÞLnL18AClCn 8uSA Ln LL CCCluLn1L uL Lu8CÞA SL lnlClC LA ÞCLl1lCA
uL CCn1LnClCn luLAuA ÞC8 CLC8CL kLnnAn ţ SL PlZC CllClAL LL 12 uL MA8ZC uL
1947ţţ18uMAn ÞlulC AL CCnC8LSC uLS1lnA8 MlLLCnLS uL uCLA8LS ÞA8A CCn1LnL8 LCS
LM8A1LS CCMunlS1A Ln C8LClA A LS1C SL LL LLAMC LA uCC18lnA 18uMAnŦŴŤ LS1AuCS
unluCS LS1A8A ll8MLMLn1L uLCluluC A A?uuA8 A LCS ÞuL8LCS Ll88LS A MAn1LnL8 SuS
lnS1l1uClCnL S ? Su SC8L8AnlA CCn18A MCvlMlLn1CS AC8LSlvCS uLL Lx1L8lC8ţ ŴŴŴŴLL
ÞLAn MA8SPALLŦŴ LS1AuCS unluCS 8LCC 12 MlL MlLLCnLS uL uCLA8LS Ln Lu8CÞA ţ LCS
8LSuL1AuCS luL8Cn LxCLLLn1LSŦŴŴŴŴLA unlCn SCvlL1lCAŦŴLA Sl1uAClCn uL ÞCSCuL88AŦŴ
LCS SCvlL1lCCS ASLCu8An CuL Ln LA CuL88A Mu8lL8Cn 20 MlLLCnLS uL PCM88LS ţ
uu8An1L ARCS MlLLCnLS uL ÞL8SCnAS vlvlL8Cn Ln unA Sl1uAClCn Þ8LCA8lA ţ ÞA8A
8LSCLvL8 LA Sl1uAClCn uL MAnC uL C88A LSÞLClALlZAuA LA u8SS uLSMCvlLlZC LCS
L!L8Cl1CSţ LA 8LCCnS18uCClCn uL 8uSlA SL C81uvC uL ALLMAnlA uLL LS1L CCn LAS
lnuLMnlZAClCnLS ţ AuLMAS LAS lnS1ALAClCnLS lnuuS18lALLS luL8Cn uLSMAn1LLAuAS ?
CCnllSCAuAS ÞA8A 8LLMÞLAZA8 LA MACulnA8lA 8uSA uLS18uluA uu8An1L LA
CuL88AŦţţţ LA S1ALlnlZAClCn nC L8A C18A CCSA CuL LL SCML1lMlLn1C uL LA Lu8CÞA
C8lLn1AL A LAS nLCLSluAuLS ÞCLl1lCAS ? LCCnCMlCAS uL 8uSlAŦ lnlClAn LAS Þu8CAS Ln
CPLCCSLCvACulA AL nLCA8SL LL Þ8LSluLn1L LuWA8u 8LnLS A lunul8SL CCn LL
ÞA81luC CCMunlS1A ? ACLÞ1A8 A?uuA uL CCCluLn1L ţţţţLn ?uCCLSLAvlA LL MA8lSCAL
1l1C nunCA SL uC8LLCC An1L S1ALln Ln 1948 SL 8CMÞlL8Cn LAS 8LLAClCnLS
1C1ALMLn1LţţţS1ALln MuL8L LL SLlS uL MA8ZC uL 1933 LA SCLuClCn Þ8CvlSlCnAL AL
vAClC uL ÞCuL8 luL un Cuu8unvl8A1C lC8MAuC ÞC8 MALLnkCvţMCLC1Cvţ8L8lAţ ?
k8uSCPLvŦţ8L8lA luL uLS1l1uluC ? luSlLAuC Ln 1933Ŧ ŦŦŦLn 1936 LMÞLZA LA LLAMAuA
uLSLS1ALlnlZAClCn ŦŴţŦŦţLuCPA ÞC8 LL ÞCuL8 ŴŴŴŴk8uSCPLv uLulCC Su A1LnClCn A
8LlC8ZA8 LA LS18uC1u8A vAClLAn1L uLL ÞA81luC ? LMÞLZC A 8LC8CAnlZA8LC ţ
MALLnkCv luL uLS1l1uluC CCMlC Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C ? CCuÞAuC Su ÞuLS1C ÞC8
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

8uLCAnln Cu?C ÞuLS1C uL MlnlS18C SL LC CLulC A ZPukCvţ 18LS ARCS uLSÞuLS
8LnunClC A lAvC8 uL nlkl1A kuSCPLvŦŴŴŴ LL 8LClMLn uL k8uSCPLv luL uLSlCuAL Ŧ
ALCunCS uL SuS CCLLCAS LMÞLZA8Cn A 18AMA8 Su CAluA SL vlC C8LlCAuC A
Þ8LSLn1A8 Su 8LnunClA ţ luL 8LLMÞLAZAuC ÞC8 ALLxLl kCSlCln CCMC !LlL uL
CC8lL8nC ? ÞC8 LLCnlu 88LZPnLv CCMC !LlL uLL ÞA81luCŦŴŴŴACL8CAMlLn1C uL
ÞC1LnClAS ŦŦSL PACLn C8AnuLS LSluL8ZCS Ln18L ÞC1LnClAS ŦŦŦŦŦ8lCPA8u nlxCn vlSl1C LA
unlCn SCvlL1lCAţ ? vlA!C A CPlnAŦŴŴŴŴALLMAnlAŦŦŴŦŦLA ulvlSlCn uL ALLMAnlAţŴŴŴAL
1L8MlnA8 LA SLCunuA CuL88A MunulAL ALLMAnlA ÞL8ulC C8An ÞA81L uL Su
1L88l1C8lC ţÞCLCnlA ASuMlC LL CCn18CL uL 12 MlL kMS CuAu8AuCS ţ LA AC1l1uu uL
8uSlA PlZC CuL LCS AML8lCAnCSţl8AnCLSLS L lnCLLSLS PlClL8An unA SCLA ZCnA Ln
CCMun CCn CAÞl1AL Ln 8Cnn ? SL LL LLAMC ALLMAnlA CCCluLn1ALţ SL LS1A8LLClC unA
MCnLuA CCMun LC CuL C8lClnC un 8LCCuLC SCvlL1lCC A 8L8Lln LCS ALlAuCS
SCLuClCnA8Cn LS1C MAnuAnuC vlvL8LS uu8An1L un ARC ţ Ln 1949 SL LS1A8LLCLn LAS
uCS 8LÞu8LlCAS ? ALLMAnlA CCCluLn1AL SL LS18LnA CCn 1LCuC8 PAuSS CCMC
Þ8LSluLn1Lţ ? CCn8Au AuLnAuL8 CCMC CAnClLLL8ţŦ Ln 1934 SL LL ulC SC8L8AnlA L
lnC8LSC A LA C1AnŦŴţţţLL Mu8C uL 8L8Lln ŦŦŦluL LLvAn1AuC ÞC8 LCS 8uSCS ÞA8A Lvl1A8
LA luCA uL ALLMAnLS PAClA LA ZCnA CCCluLn1ALţŴŴŴAuS18lA Ŷ8LCuÞL8C Su SC8L8AnlA
LL 13 uL MA?C uL 1933ŦŴ C8An 88L1ARAŦŸLA Sl1uAClCn uL C8An 88L1ARA uLSÞuLS uL
LA CuL88A luL uLSAS18CSAŦ ţ LL vC1C uLL ÞuL8LC LLLvC AL ÞA81luC LA8C8lS1A AL
ÞCuL8 LMÞLZC CCn LA nAClCnALlZAClCn uL LAS lnuuS18lAS CLAvLţ LL 8AnCC uL
lnCLA1L88A ţ LAS MlnAS uL CA88Cn ţ LCS 18AnSÞC81Lţ LA AvlAClCn ClvlL ţ LAS
1LLLCCMunlCAClCnLSţ LS1L CC8lL8nC LS1A8A LMCA8LZAuC ÞC8 CLLMLn1 A11LLţ LL
8AClCnAMlLn1C uL ALlMLn1CS ? A81lCuLCS uL vLS1l8 luL Mu? LS18lC1C ţ C18C uL LCS
AClL81CS luL LA Þ8CMuLCAClCn uL LL?LS ÞA8 lCMLn1A8 LL SLCu8C ? ASlS1LnClA
nAClCnALţ SL lnC8LMnL1C LA LuuCAClCn Þu8LlCAŦŴŴŴŴŴ ŴŴl8AnClAŦŸCuAnuC ÞA8lS luL
Ll8L8AuC Ln 1944 SL C8LC un CC8lL8nC Þ8CvlSlCnAL Þ8LSluluC ÞC8 LL CLnL8AL
CPA8LLS uL CAuLLL CulLn ulMl1lC Ln 1948 ţ PAS1A 1938 nC PA8lA CCnSLCuluC
LS1A8lLluAu CCn 21 CC8lL8nCS CCn uu8AClCn uL 6 MLSLS ŦŦLAS 8L8LLlCnLS Ln LAS
CCLCnlAS l8AnCLSAS uL1L8MlnA8Cn LA CAluA uL LA CuA81A 8LÞu8LlCAţţ CPA8LLS uL
CAuLLL ACLÞ1C LA Þ8LSluLnClA Ln MA?C uL 1938 CCn ÞCuL8LS Lx18AC8ulnA8lCS unA
CCnS1l1uClCn Þ8CÞuLS1A ÞC8 uL CAuLLL Ln nCvlLM88L uL 1938 ulC C8lCLn A LA
Culn1A 8LÞu8LlCA ţţţLn18L 1938 ? 1960 l8AnClA ulC LA lnuLÞLnuLnClA A CulnCL uL SuS
CCLCnlAS ? Ln 1962 A A8CLLlAŴŴŴŴl1ALlAŦŴ SL Þ8CCLAMA 8LÞu8LlCA LL 3 uL !unlC uL 1944ţ
CCn LA CuL88A LCS l1ALlAnCS ÞL8ulL8Cn Ll8lAţL1lCÞlA ? C18AS Ln uL18AMA8 Ŧ LL 3 uL
CC1u88L uL 1934 SL CCnCLu?C LA ulSÞu1A CCn ?uCCSLAvlA SC88L 18lLS1Lţ l1ALlA SL
CCnvl81lC Ln 8LÞu8LlCA ? Ln18L 1946 ? 1933 SL uLSLMÞLRC CCMC Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C
ALCluL uL CASÞlL8lţŦŴ
MCDULC 15 LC5 GkANDL5 CAM8IC5 LN A5IA ¥ AIkICAŦŴ
1ŦŴ CAkAC1LkI2AkA LA 5I1UACICN DLL IAÞCN A ÞAk1Ik DL LA ÞC5GULkkA Ŧ8ŦŴ Ln ACCS1C
uL 1943 !AÞCn L8A unA nAClCn uL88C1AuA ? PAS1lAuA uL LA CuL88A LA MA?C8 ÞA81L
uL LAS CluuAuLS luL8Cn A88ASAuASŦŴŴţ LC Þ8lML8C CuL PlZC luL ALlMLn1A8 A Su
ÞuL8LC ţ!AÞCn luL CCuÞAuC ÞC8 LS1AuCS unluCS uu8An1L 7 ARCSŦŴŴŴŴLA
MCuL8nlZAClCnŦŴŴŴ8LlC8MAS AC8A8lAS ÞA8A Þ8CuuCl8 Ln LA AC8lCuL1u8A ?
CL8LClMlLn1C ÞA8ALLLC uL LA lnuuS18lAŦ LL C8LClMlLn1C uL LA AC8lCuL1u8A luL A
ÞASCS AClCAn1AuCSŴ LL lnC8LMLn1C uL CAÞl1ALLSţ ţŦŸSL uLS1lnC unA Þ8CÞC8ClCn
Mu? C8AnuL uL LA Þ8CuuCClCn AnuAL uL ML8CAuL8lAS A LA lC8MAClCn uL CAÞl1ALLS
LS1C luL ÞCSl8LL ÞC8 LA C8An Þ8CÞLnSlCn AL APC88C uL LCS !AÞCnLSLSŦŴ ?A LA
nuML8CSAS CÞC81unluAuLS ÞA8A PACL8LCţţţ!AÞCn LS uLSuL 1947 unA MCnA8CulA
PL8Lul1A8lAŦŴ
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

2ŦŴuLSC8l8l8A LL Þ8CCLSC ÞCLl1lCC CuL 1uvC LuCA8 Ln CPlnA A ÞA81l8 uL 1923 Ŧ8 ţLCS
nAClCnALlS1AS ? LCS CCMunlS1AS SL LAnZAn Ln unA LuCPA ÞC8 LL ÞCuL8 CAnAnuC
LCS CCMunlS1ASţ Ln 1947 ţ LCS CCMunlS1AS CuL8lAn CuL SuÞA81luC uCMlnA8A
CCMÞLL1AMLn1L ? CuL LCS 1L88A1LnlLn1LS luL8An uLSÞCSLluCS uL SuS Þ8CÞlLuAuLS
? Ln18LCAuAS A LCS CCMunlS1ASţŦŦ LţuŴŦ LnvlAn AL CLnL8AL MA8SPALL A CPlnA ÞA8A
ln1Ln1A8 ÞCnL8 C8uLn ll8MAnuC unA 18LCuAţ Ln 1947 MAC 1SL 1unC SL AÞCuL8A
uL MAnCPu8lA ? 1CMA LL ÞCuL8 MAC Þ8CCLAMA LA 8LÞu8LlCA ÞCÞuLA8 CPlnA ţ Ln
CC1u88L uL 1946 8uSlA lnlClA 8LLAClCnLS ulÞLCMA1lCAS CCn CPlnA ? ll8MAn un
18A1AuC uL ALlAnZAŦ Ln l930 Ln LS1L ARC lnvAuLn AL 1l8L1 CuL luL lnCC8ÞC8AuC A
CPlnA CCMC Þ8CvlnClAŦŴŴŴ8LlC8MA AC8A8lA Ln CPlnA CCMunlS1A ţŦŴ AC1uALMLn1L
PAn uLSAÞA8LCluC LCS 1L88A1LnlLn1LS ţţ LCS CAMÞLSlnCS 18A8A!An Ln CCMunASŦ? LA
MACulnA8lA AC8lCCLA A LLLvAuC LL 8LnulMlLn1CŦŴ Ln LA AC1uALluAu LL CC8lL8nC uA
MAxlMA A1LnClCn AL CAMÞC ÞC8 LA ÞCSl8lLluAu uL unA PAM88unA ţ? LL
uLSCCn1Ln1C uL LCS CAMÞLSlnCSŦţ LL AuCC18lnAMlLn1CŦ LL nL8vlC MC1C8 uL LA
8LvCLuClCn CPlnA A SluC LA Þ8CÞACAnuA Ŵ LS1A LA8C8 uL AuCC18lnAMlLn1C LMÞlLZA
Ln LAS LSCuLLAS Þ8LÞ8lMA8lAS ? nC CLSA !AMAS ţ CPlnA A nlvLL ln1L8nAClCnALŦŴ Ln
1971 luL AuMl1luA CCMC MlLM88C Ln LAS nAClCnLS unluAS ŴŴŴŴ8LLAClCnLS CPlnCŴ
nC81LAML8lCAnAS ŴŴŴLAS CLS1lCnLS Þu8LlCAS SL lnlClA8Cn Ln 1969 ? CuLMlnA8Cn Ln
1972 Ln un 8AnCuL1L uCnuL LL Þ8LSluLn1L nlxCn LLvAn1C LA CCÞA 88lnuAnuC ÞC8
CPCu Ln LAl ? LAS 8LLAClCnLS uL CCCÞL8AClCn CPlnCŦAML8lCAnASŦŦŦŦLA CPlnA
nAClCnALlS1AţŦŴ CPlAnC kAl SPLk uLSuL CuL SL LS1A8LLClC Ln lC8MCSA SL Lnl8Ln1C A
LCS Þ8C8LLMAS uL LA 8LCCnS18uCClCn ţLn18L 196C A 1961 LS1AuCS unluCS
AÞC81A8Cn MAS uL 3300 MlLLCnLS uL uCLA8LS Ln A?uuA LA CuAL luL SuSÞLnuluA Ln
1963Ŧ
3ŦŴ DL5CkI8IkÁ LA5 LUCnA5 ÞCk LA INDLÞLNDLNCIA DL LA INDIAŦŦŴ8Ŧ LA uCMlnAClCn
88l1AnlCA LL PA8lA uAuC ClL81A unluAu A LA lnulAţ ţ LCS lnCLLSLS LLLvA8Cn Su LL? ? LL
C8uLn ? vlnCuLA8Cn A LCS PlnuuLS A LA LCCnCMlA Lu8CÞLA ţLS1A8LLClL8Cn LL lnCLLS
CCMC LLnCuA CCMunŦţln18Cuu!L8Cn MACulnA8lA 1Lx1lLţlL88CCA88lLLSţ LA 8AnCA
MCuL8nA ? LA AC8lCuL1u8AŦŴŴŴLL CCnC8LSC nAClCnAL lnulCŸLL LSÞl8l1u nAClCnALlS1A
Su8CL Ln 1883 CuAnuC SL lunuA LL CCnC8LSC nAClCnAL lnulC AL 1L8MlnC uL LA
Þ8lML8A CuL88A MunulAL LCS SCLuAuCS PlnuuLS vCLvlL8Cn uLSCluluCS A C81LnL8
LA lnuLÞLnuLnClAŦŴţ Ln LS1A LÞCCA Su8CL MAPA1MA CAnuPlŴŴŴ LuCPA ÞC8 LA
lnuLÞLnuLnClA CCn CAnuPlţţ Su vL8uAuL8C nCM88L L8A MCPAnuAS kA8AMCPAu
CAnuPl ţSuS A8MAS L8An LA 8AZCnŦ LA vL8uAu ? LA uLSClSlClCn ÞAClllCAŦŴŴŴCLLMLn1 ÞŦ
A11LL Ln LA CAMA8A uL LCS CCMunLS LL 20 uL lL88L8C uL 1947 PACL LA uLCLA8AClCn
uL CuL lnCLA1L88A Ll8L8A8A A LA lnulA Ln lLCPA nC ÞCS1L8lC8 A !unlC uL 1948ŦŦ
ţţuLSÞuLS uL uCS ARCS uL Þ8LÞA8AClCn lnulA C81uvC Su lnuLÞLnuLnClA LL 13 uL
ACCS1C uL 1947Ŧ LL CC8lL8nC uL LA lnulA lnvl1C A LC8u MCun18A11Ln A CuL lunClL8A
CCMC CC8L8nAuC8 CLnL8ALŦŴŴţţţ LAS 8LClCnLS MuSuLMAnAS lunuA8Cn LA nuLvA
nAClCn uL ÞAklS1AnŦ LL nAClMlLn1C uL AM8AS nAClCnLS uL88AMC MuCPA SAnC8LţţţLA
lnulA SL Þ8CCLAMC nAClCn SC8L8AnA Ln LL 26 uL LnL8C uL 1930 ŦluL nCM88AuC
Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C ÞAnul1 !AWAPA8LAL nL8Pu ţ LA MlSL8lA ? LL PAM88L SCn SuS
Þ8lnClÞALLS Þ8C8LLMAS ŦŦŦŦŦlnul8A CAnuPlŦŴŴŴÞ8lML8 MlnlS18A Ln 1966 ţ PA CCn1lnuAuC
LA ÞCLl1lCA lnlClAuA ÞC8 Su ÞAu8L ŦLn LA CuL88A ClvlL uL ÞAklS1An lnulA AÞC?C A LA
SLÞA8A1lS1A PC? 8LÞu8LlCA uL 8AnCLAuLSP ? SL LAnZC A LA CuL88A CCn ÞAklS1An
vLnClLnuCLC Ln ulLZ ulASŦŴ Ŧ Ŧ
4ŦŴ CAkAC1LkI2AkA 8kLVLMLN1L LA 5I1UACICN DL C1kA5 CCLCNIA5 CUL 5L
INDLÞLNDI2AkCNŦŸ8l8MAnlA SL lnuLÞLnulZA uL lnCLA1L88A Ln 1947ţCLlLAnŸS8l LAnkA
SL lnuLÞLnulZC uL lnCLA1L88A Ln 1948ţ LA lLuL8AClCn MALA?A SL lnuLÞLnulZC Ln 1937
uL lnCLA1L88Aţţ SlnCAÞu8 SL lnuLÞLnulZA Ln 1963ţ lnuCnLSlA SL lnuLÞLnulZA uL !AÞCn
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

Ln 1947ŦŴţlnuCCPlnA SL lnuLÞLnulZA Ln 1943ţţLL 4 uL !uLlC uL 1946 llLlÞlnAS SL
lnuLÞLnulZA uL LL uu
5ŦŴANALI2AkA LL ÞkCCL5C DL ICkMACICN DLL L51ADC DL I5kALLŦ8ŦŴÞ8C8LLMAS ÞA8A
lC8MAr un esLadoŦŦŴŴŴŴŴ Ln 1947 LA Cnu uLSCluL LL 8LÞA81C uL ÞALLS1lnA Ln uCS
LS1AuCS unC uL LLLCS !uulC ţ LA llCu8A MAS nC1A8LL uLL Þ8C?LC1C luL 1LCuC8C
PL8ZLţţSuS luLAS ulL8Cn un C8An lMÞuLSC AL SlCnlSMC Ln Su Ll88C LL LS1AuC !uulC
un ln1Ln1C PAClA LA SCLuClCn MCuL8nA uLL Þ8C8LLMA !uulCţ" ţ Ln 1904Ŧ1914 SALLn
uL 8uSlA 30 000 !uulCS A ÞALLS1lnA Ln18L LLLCS uAvlu 8Ln Cu8lCn LL lunuAuC8 uLL
MCuL8nC LS1AuC uL lS8ALLţlnCLA1L88A AÞC?C ţ CPAlM WLllZMAn 8LÞ8LSLn1C LL
AÞC?C lnCLLS A LA CAuSA !uulA Ln 1917ţ A81Pu8 !AMLS 8ALlCu8 uLCLA8C unA C8An
AuPLSlCn A 1CuCS LCS Þ8CÞCSl1CS uLL SlCnlSMCŦŴţţLn 1923 LA LlCA uL nAClCnLS
CCnll8lC A LA C8An 88L1ARA un MAnuA1C ln1L8nAClCnAL SC88L ÞALLS1lnA Ln uCnuL
SL lAClLl1A8lA LA LMlC8AClCn !uulA ? ? LA CCLCnlZAClCn ÞC8 !uulCSŦţ LCS A8A8LS
8LALlZAn Þ8C1LS1AS ţLL 14 uL MA?C uL 1948 SL uLCLA8A LA 8LÞu8LlCA uL lS8ALL Ln18L
1948 ? 1969 LLLCA8Cn 1 MlLLCn 280 MlL lnMlC8An1LS uL 1CuC LL MunuC A lS8ALLŴŴŴŴ
C8lSlS ÞC8 LL CCnlLlC1C A8A8L lS8ALLlŴŴŴţuLSuL LL lnlClC lS8ALL 1uvC Þ8C8LLMAS uL
uLlLnSA ţLn 1936 LClÞ1Cţ!C8uAnlA ? Sl8lA ll8MA8Cn un 18A1AuC Ln uCnuL ÞCnlAn AL
MAnuC uL nASSL8 SuS L!L8Cl1CS Ln 8LSÞuLS1Aţ lS8ALLŦ A1ACA A LClÞ1C ţ SL unLn C8An
88L1ARA ? l8AnClAţ LCS lS8ALLlLS CCuÞA8Cn LA ÞLnlnSuLA uL SlnAl ţlS8ALL SuSÞLnuL
SuS ACClCnLS PAS1A 1937 ţ LL 3 uL !unlC uL 1967 Ln unA ACClCn 8LLAMÞACC LLLCA8Cn
A C8lLLAS uLL CAnAL uL SuLZ ? LCS LS18LCPCS uL 1l8An Ln SCLC 3 ulAS LA CÞL8AClCn
uu8C 6 ulAS ţ SL LL LLAMC LA CuL88A uL LCS SLlS ulASţŦŦŴţLL MA?C8 1LSC8C uLL MunuC
A8A8L LC CCnS1l1u?L LL ÞL18CLLCŦŴ Ŧ
ŦLC5 GkANDL5 CAM8IC5 CÞLkADC5 LN LA5 NACICNL5 DL AIkICAŦŴŴLSCuLMA1lZA8A LCS
C8AnuLS CAM8lCS ÞCLl1lCCS CCu88luCS Ln Al8lCA uLSuL 1943ŦŦŴ8ŦŴ A ÞA81l8 uL 1943
Su8CLn MuCPCS ÞAlSLS lnuLÞLnulLn1LSŦ Ln 1937 LCS lnCLLSLS ulL8Cn LA
lnuLÞLnuLnClA A CCS1A uL C8C nk8uMAP SL CCnvl81lC Ln LL Þ8lML8 MlnlS18C ?
LLAMC AL ÞAlS CPAnA CCS1A uL MA8llL SL lnuLÞLnulZA Ln 1947 LL CCnCC 8LLCA SL
lnuLÞLnulZA Ln 1960 CCn ÞA18lClC LuMuM8A CCMC Þ8LSluLn1Lţţţ A8CLLlA Ln 1962Ŧ
MLulAn1L un ÞLL8lSCl1C SL SLÞA8An uL l8AnClA l uL CAuLLL Þ8CCLAMC LA
lnuLÞLnuLnClA LL 3 uL !uLlC ? SL CLLL88C CllClALMLn1L LL 3 uL !uLlC uL 1962ŦŴŴŴŴ
C8AnuLS Þ8C8LLMAS uLL Al8lCA AC1uALŦŴŴ unC uL LCS C8AnuLS Þ8C8LLMAS uL
unluAu Ln Al8lCA SCn LCS LLnCuA!LS CuL SL PA8LAn Ln CAuA unA uL LAS nAClCnLSţţ
C18C uL LCS Þ8C8LLMAS LS CuL un LluL8 uL lnuLÞLnuLnClA ÞC8 LC 8LCuLA8 SL vuLLvL
un ulC1AuC8 CCn SuMA lAClLluAu un L!LMÞLC LS nk8uMAP Ln CAPAnAŦŦ Þ8C8LLMAS
uL unluAuţ ulC1Auu8ASŦŴŴ

MCDULC 1 LC5 ÞAI5L5 DLL CCN1INLN1L AMLkICANCţŦŴ
1ŦŴDL5CkI8IkA LC5 kA5GC5 CAkAC1LkI51ICC5 DL CANADÁ ¥ L51ADC5 UNIDC5Ŧ kŦ CAnAuÁť
LCCnCMlA uLÞLnulLn1L Ln C8An MLuluA uL LCS LS1AuCS unluC S ŴŴŴÞ8C8LLMAS uL
unluAu AlCn1A Þ8C8LLMAS uL unluAu ÞC8 LA ln1LnClCn uL SLÞA8AClCn uL CuL8LCŴŴŴŴŴ
LS1AuCS unluCS LCCnCMlA uL ÞCSCuL88Aţ uLSÞuLS uL LA CuL88A LS1A nAClCn luL
MÁS Þ8CSÞL8A CuL nunCAţ LA uCC18lnA 18uMAn uL1uvC LL AvAnCL uL 8uSlA Ln
Lu8CÞAţ Ln 1933 LL ÞA81luC 8LÞu8LlCAnC LLLvC AL ÞCuL8 A LlSLnPCWL8 CulLn LC
PlZC CCn 1ALLn1C Lnl8Ln1C LCS Þ8C8LLMAS uL PunC8lAţ SuLZţlC8MCSAţ8L8Lln ?
Cu8AŦŴ Ln 1960 LLlCLn A !CPn lţ kLnnLu?Ŧ SL Lnl8Ln1C A Þ8C8LLMAS CCMC LL uL Cu8A ţ
SuuLS1L uL ASlA ? 8L8Llnţţţţ A LA MuL81L uL kLnnLu? luL 8LLMÞLAZAuC ÞC8 L?nuCnn 8
ţ !CPnSCn CulLn luL LLLCluC ÞA8A LL ÞL8lCuC 63Ŵ69 uu8An1L Su CC8lL8nC LCS
lnaŦ Mlauel Ánael del prado ulaz 48 111 03373

Þ8C8LLMAS 8AClALLS ? LA CuL88A uL vlL1 nAM Þ8LCCuÞA8An AL ÞAlSţţţţţţLn LL 69 1CMA
ÞCSLSlCn 8lCPA8u nlxCn CulLn ÞuSC lln A LA CuL88A uL vlL1 nAM CCn LA A?uuA uL
PLn8? klSSlnCL8 CCMC SLC8L1A8lC uL LS1AuCŦŴţŴ
2ŦŴAMLkICA LA1INAţŦ CA8AC1L8lZA8A LA Sl1uAClCn CLnL8AL Ln AML8lCA LA1lnAŦ 8ŦŴ
MACnlClulCSţ LA LlL8vLSCLnClA ÞCLl1lCA PA CCnuuCluC A MACnlClulCS CCMC LL
LLCMluLS 18u!lLLCŦ Ln SAn1C uCMlnCCţţ !CSL A 8AMCn Ln ÞAnAMÁţ AnAS1ASlC
SCMCZA Ln nlCA8ACuAŦŴŦŦŦuL88CCAMlLn1CS CCMC LL uL !uAn uCMlnCC ÞL8Cn Ln
A8CLn1lnA Ln 1963ţ ţ Ln vLnLZuLLA A Mţ ÞL8LZ !lMLnLZ Ln 1938ţLn SAn1C uCMlnCC A
!uAn 8CSCP Ln 1963ŴŴŴuLSlCuALuAuLS LCCnCMlCASŴ PA? MuCPAS uLSlCuALuAuLS
LCCnCMlCAS ţ LA MA?C8lA uL CCnulClCnLS Þ8LCA8lAS ? ALCunAS PAS1A MlSL8A8LLSţŦŴŴŴŴ
ŴŴŴ AnALlA8L1lSMCŦŴ LA Þ8CÞC8ClCn uL AnALlA8L1AS LS uLL 30 Ʒţţ ţŦŦLA CLAŦŴŴ C8!L1lvCSŦ
1ŦŴ MAn1LnL8 LA ÞAZŦ2ŦŴL!L8CL8 unA ACClCn CCn!un1A Ln CASC uL AC8LSlCnŦ3ŦŴ
LSlC8ZA8SL ÞC8 8LSCLvL8 Þ8C8LLMAS CuL AlLC1Ln A LCS ÞuL8LCŦSŴţ4ŦŴ 8LALlZA8
18A8A!CS CCCÞL8A1lvCS ÞA8A lMÞuLSA8 LL uLSA88CLLCŦŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴCu8A ŶulC1Auu8A uL
8A1lS1Aţţuu8C uL 1932 A 1939 ŦŦŦCAS18C Ln 1933 ln1Ln1C ASAL1A8 LL CuA81LL MCnCAuA
ţLn ulClLM88LuL 1936 lluLL CAS18C ? LL CCMunlS1A L8nLS1C CPL CuLvA8A
LS1A8LLClL8Cn unA 8ASL uL CuL88lLLA Ln LA SlL88A MALS18Aţ llnALMLn1L 8A1lS1A
SALlC uL Cu8AţţLn LnL8C uL 1939 LA Ln18AuA 18lunlAL uL CAS18C Ln LA PA8AnA
ţţuLSÞuLS uL LA 8LvCLuClCn vlnlL8Cn LCS A!uS1lClAMlLn1CS uL LCS CCLA8C8AuC8LS
uL 8A1lS1A LS1C Þ8CÞlClA LL LxCuC uL Cu8AnCS A LL uu ţţţLn !uLlC uL 1938 ll8MA un
18A1AuC uL A?uuA CCn LA u8SS ŦŦŦ uL 1939 A 1961 Cu8A 1uvC C8An lnlLuLnClA Ln LA
ZCnA ÞL8C uLSÞuLS uL LA C8lSlS LCCnCMlCA ? LL C8LClMlLn1C uLL L!L8Cl1C ? LA ÞCLlClA
? LA uLÞLnuLnClA uL 8uSlA Ŧ LA ÞCLl1lCA LA1lnCAML8lCAnA CCMLnZC A MCS18A8
lnullL8LnClAţţLn CC1u88LuL 1962 1uvC LuCA8 unA uL LAS MAS C8AnuLS C8lSlS
ln1L8nAClCnALLS CuL PAn 1LnluC LuCA8 Ln LL CCn1lnL1L AML8lCAnC ţţLL 8LCCuLC uL
Cu8AţŦţţţ LCS 8uSCS LS1A8An CCnS18u?LnuC lnS1ALAClCnLS uL MlSlLLS ? CCPL1LS
1LLLul8lCluCS ţ A ÞA81l8 uL APl ÞCCCS ÞAlSLS 1lLnLn 8LLAClCnLS CCn Cu8AŦŴŦŸ88ASlL ?
SuS C8lSlS ÞCLl1lCASŦŴŴŴŴŴŴŴCL1uLlC vA8CAS ţŦŴŴŴLA SLCunuA CuL88A MunulAL Þ8CÞlClC LA
CAluA uL LA ulC1Auu8A uL CL1uLlC vA8CAS AunCuL uLSÞuLS 8LC8LSC ÞC8 MLulC uL
unA LLLCClCn ţLn 1964 un LLvAn1AMlLn1C MlLl1A8 1CMA LL ÞCuL8 ŴŴŴA8CLn1lnA ŦŴ
ÞL8CnŦŸuCMlnCC ÞL8Cn CC8L8nC A8CLn1lnA CCMC ulC1AuC8ţ Ln 1933 luL
uL88CCAuC ÞC8 un LLvAn1AMlLn1C A8MAuC uLSÞuLS Pu8C MuCPCS CAM8lCS Ln LL
ÞCuL8 PAS1A CuL 8LC8LSC ÞL8Cn Ln 1973 ? 1CMC LL ÞCuL8 Ŧ Su LSÞCSA MA8lA LS1LLA
MA81lnLZ luL LA Þ8lML8A Mu!L8 vlCLÞ8LSluLn1A Ln LL PLMlSlL8lC CCCluLn1ALţ ŦŴŴŴ
CPlLLŦŴŴ CAluA uL ALLLnuL Ln 1973ţţ ţ CC8lL8nC MlLl1A8 uL luL8ZAŦ
3

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful