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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
5.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. 2. 3. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . this consists of some components which are :1.
When your eardrum vibrates. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. When the bell flexes away. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on.A loudspeaker. When it flexes out on one side.flexes in and out -. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. When you ring a bell. it moves the air particles around it. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. the metal vibrates -. or speaker. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound.a bell. To see how this works. .rapidly. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. you first need to understand how sound works. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. . When something vibrates. let's look at a simple vibrating object -.
Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. the pitch is lower.This is the wave's amplitude.In this way. Making Sound . Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. • A microphone works something like our ears. which determines how loud the sound is. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. In the next section. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . We hear this as a higher pitch. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. When you play this signal back on your stereo. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. • Air-pressure level . just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. and we register this sensation as a higher volume.
This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. etc. which can be encoded onto CDs. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. LPs. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. In this way. When the coil moves. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches.In the last section. When everything is working as it should.the reverse of the microphone. tapes. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. LP. which represents the original sound wave.interact with each other as any two magnets do. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. CD. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. etc. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. like a piston.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. These two magnets -. . and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. creating sound waves.
The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. Essentially. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. In the next section. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. If you reverse the flow of the current.typically a black one and a red one. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. such as iron. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -.This.and it is attracted to iron objects. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. in turn. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. But unlike a permanent magnet. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. For this reason. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. . If you've ever hooked up a stereo system.
Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. A mid-range speaker. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. . Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. also called a squawker. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum.
the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. which induces a voltage in the other windings. In this case. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. without requiring relative motion between its parts. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. in most cases. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. and.
The effect. . Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes.primary and secondary windings. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. is an example of electromagnetic induction. with an open circuit secondary winding. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. and. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. called mutual inductance. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core.
The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. respectively. For example. Hence in an ideal transformer. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. In addition. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. or alternatively. or equivalently. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . In the hypothetical ideal transformer. increased current flows in the primary circuit. . dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. In this way. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady.
voltage. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. f is the frequency in hertz.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. Since a direct current by definition does not change. Operation at different frequencies . In a practical transformer. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding.
amplifier output. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. However. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. rectifier. and a given core is able to transfer more power. By operating at higher frequencies. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. etc. etc. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. losses. oil filled. water cooled. with the rated voltage applied. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . other properties of the transformer.). By frequency range (power. fan cooled. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. audio. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. Generally. By application (power supply. impedance matching. also increase with frequency. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. arc furnace. circuit isolation). and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. At a frequency lower than the design value. For example.) By purpose (distribution. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA).
and would therefore be 100% efficient. Transformer with three windings. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. Transformer with electrostatic screen. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss).75%. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. Transformers are. . such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. Small transformers. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. may be less than 85% efficient. in general.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. but does not usually show the exact ratio. In practice. Step-down or step-up transformer. The symbol shows which winding has more turns.
an effect known as magnetostriction. At higher frequencies. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. Mechanical losses . The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. causing resistive heating. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.
whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Since the steel core is conductive. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. and consuming a small amount of power. has . more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans.In addition to magnetostriction. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. too. By concentrating the magnetic flux. and be converted to heat. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). it. Winding resistance dominates load-losses. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. such as the transformer's support structure.
The thinner the laminations. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. Like toroidal cores. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. usually after a few cycles of the applied . That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). After the required thickness is achieved. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). they have the advantage. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. all the E's are stacked on one side. and the lower the losses. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. Due to the bending of the core. In the EI transformer. The gap area is very large.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. and holding them closed by a steel strap. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. the lower the eddy currents. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. leading to the name "EI transformer". The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. When power is then reapplied.
or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. and false operation of transformer protection devices. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. mercury vapor lamps. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. level. or a controlled. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. over the life of the transformer. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. Ferrite. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. insert air gaps. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. and neon signs. ii) Solid cores . The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased.alternating current. extending to the VHF band and beyond. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load.
from powdered iron. are common.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. depending on operating frequency. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. . This minimises the length of wire needed. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. or ferrite. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. At even higher. radio-frequencies (RF). including toroids. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. The top right is toroidal. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. called ferrites. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material.
to reduce losses. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. either a wide. When fitting a toroidal transformer. Other advantages. flat toroid or a tall. single-bolt mounting. lower weight (about half). insulated usually with enamel. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). depending on the space available. and in the different windings. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. and sometimes additional insulation. include smaller size (about half). Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. physical size. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. As a consequence.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). for a given power output. The wire used is generally magnet wire. Strip conductors are . narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. compared to EI types. must be electrically insulated from each other. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. or aluminium rectangular conductors. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. and more choice of shapes. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. This last point means that. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. copper.
This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. Each strand is insulated from the other. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. Taps may be connected to an automatic. . C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding.used for very heavy currents. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. oscillators. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. or throughout the whole winding. Audio-frequency transformers. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well.
electrostatic shields. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. By cooling the windings. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. The shield is connected to earth ground. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. and as part of the insulation system. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. but at increased manufacturing cost. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum.
to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. and its accumulation in the environment. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. or combinations of these. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. Today. The oil cools the transformer. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. and thus switches off the transformer. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. Transformers handling higher power. electrical self-heating. non-toxic. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. the application of a vacuum. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. Formerly. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. stable silicone-based oils. using vapor-phase heat transfer. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans.high-power transformers. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. If found to be leaking. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. cost. that is stable at high temperatures. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. it should be changed out. . polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable.
F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. For example. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. as described above. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals.but not the core steel loss. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. which is tapped at some point along the winding. and 115 volts between one end . Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding.
transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. among other factors. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. and a smaller core can be used. an autotransformer is cheaper. allowing for very small increments of voltage. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. In practice. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). even with a constant voltage input. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. As the same winding is used for input and output. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. For power transformer applications. lighter. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. where the transformer is seen by the load . By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. which reduces efficiency somewhat. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1.and the tap. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. the flux in the core is partially cancelled.
The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.
acts as an inductor. If the secondary is a Δ winding.For three-phase power. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). Δ-Y. Due to resonance. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. and is connected in series with a capacitor. The most common connections are Y-Δ. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. The resonant coil. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. usually the secondary. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine .
the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance.0. However. B-0.2. B-0.0 and B-4. load. B-2. external electromagnetic fields. temperature and physical CT configuration. This means a CT with . The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current. In the latter case. efficiency is low. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables.5.0. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. rating factor. B-1. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation.1.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor.
a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. Recently. Not to mention. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services." of the CT) of primary current. in an electric metering circuit. . manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves." or 10% of the nominal current. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. the most inaccurate component is the CT. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. Conversely. Afterall.0 times the nominal rating. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A.a burden rating of B-0. slight inaccuracies may occur.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. Often times. or "full load. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. For example. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature.2 can tolerate up to 0.
Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. For example. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. For a three-stacked CT application. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. Zn. often in the presence of high voltages. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. Often. Typically. Yn. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. 1s2. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). 2s2 and so on. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. 2s1. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. ii) Voltage transformers .
or rework. The terminal identifications (H1. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. Y2. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer.2kV) meter packages. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. Y1. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. meter packages. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. X2. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. etc. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. to match the input ratings of protection relays. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage.) are often referred to as polarity. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. This applies to current transformers as well. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. X1.5kV) or generation voltage (13. For new. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for .
1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. and a high open-circuit inductance. For the same reason. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. wound around ferrite or other types of core. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. thereby raising its Q factor. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. particle accelerators. In power-type pulse transformers. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. the larger this product. or other high energy pulsed power applications. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. Generally speaking. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load.radar. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. the larger and more expensive the transformer.
All this makes for an expensive component. vii) Speaker transformers . (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. the speakers require high current at low voltage. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. high power handling increases the required core size. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console.
Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. This application is common in public address (e. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. Then. In addition.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers .. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature.g. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. the ability to adjust. Tannoy) applications. locally. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. At the audio amplifier. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance.
or radar antenna. See synchro and resolver. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. . and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. See linear variable differential transformer. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. Large. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. Electric power transmission over long distances. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head.
Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion.7kHz. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. this is about 15. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. .120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. It may be as high as 75 . In the case of television sets.
Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. .. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current.Types of transformers In general.S. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. at significant power levels. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies.A.
intended to pass current in only one direction. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. Semiconductor diode can be very small. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . usually germanium or silicon. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. and P-type material.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow.
Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. When used in its most common application. switches. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. it is known as a bridge rectifier. mixers.the semiconductor diodes. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. oscillators. the polarity of the output is constant. and in many other types of circuits. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. They can be used as amplifiers. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. . voltage regulators. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. frequency controllers. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament.
• When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. and returns to the input supply via the lower one. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. • In each case. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". it permits normal .Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. That is.
The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. Let us assume the transformer is working .functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. Since about 1950. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time.
Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). This path is indicated by the solid arrows. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. up through RL. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. through D3. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. and back to point A. up through RL. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. This path is indicated by the broken arrows.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. through the secondary of T1. through D2. . D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow.
This stack is then rolled up.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. in rectifier output. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits.
thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. Unlike most capacitors. and generally only usable at low voltage. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. and will increase the life of the capacitor. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. A constant forward bias is preferable. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor.face of the cylinder. and if the short circuit current is excessive. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. Both of these are shown in the picture. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). . Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. but ruptures can still be dramatic. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric.
Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. when working with the electrolyte. often called "Wet-slug". Some very old tantalum electrolytics. i. Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. RESR is the equivalent series resistance. risking significant personal injury. however most of these have corroded away by now. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time.e. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. notably gloves and safety glasses.
any practical capacitor value can be achieved. Using this method. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower.2.linearly with RESR. 33. 47. 1. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. 220. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. 15. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. 100. In the manufacturing process.7 or 6. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. 3. Therefore. which is suitable for most applications. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. 68. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value.3. Since the electrolytes evaporate. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature).0. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. within the tolerance.8 by a power of ten. 22.5. For example. and so on. Variants . Values are generally in microfarads (µF). 2. 4. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. values ranging from 0. however this unit is often too large for practical uses.
Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. Over a long time. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. causing the capacitor to fail. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. In addition. this type of specification is acceptable. the liquid can dry out. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. Tantalum: . this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume.000.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. causing the capacitor to fail. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling).Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material.
eg. NiO. the same . Smaller units (in the 0. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. etc. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. which has a high surface area per unit volume. For example. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings.compact. However. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. which is then connected to an external wire lead. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. RuO2. as the dielectric. IrO2. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric.7 V. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). and very low impedance at low frequencies. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. unlike aluminum electrolytics.
unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. and pseudocapacitance. For use as a voltmeter. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. which can store more energy than double layer effects. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. can attain huge values. Potentiometer . therefore. up to thousands of farads.with active carbon. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. However.g. in electric vehicles. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. e. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. When an electrical current is applied. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage.
The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. There are many implementations for null detectors. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. record the potentiometer's wiper position. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. For example. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. and transformed ammeters. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. At this time.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. as discussed at the top of this article. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. For more on circuit transformations. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem.
the Advent used only one meter.5-1942. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. The first high fidelity deck. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. . and IEC 60268-17. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. When LEDs were developed. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. which could be switched to average both channels. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. The Nagra V. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. or either channel. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. British Standard BS 6840. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. they were often used to indicate peak levels. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. but this was never adopted by any other design. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument.
Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. noise levels will be high. If set too high. If the level is set too low. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. . the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. As a rule.
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