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31156116 Sound Energy to Electrical Energy

31156116 Sound Energy to Electrical Energy

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Publicado porMani Kandan

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Published by: Mani Kandan on Oct 07, 2010
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11/02/2011

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Sections

  • Types Of Speakers:
  • Coupling by mutual induction
  • The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation
  • Operation at different frequencies
  • Classifications
  • WINDINGS
  • Transformer losses
  • Stray losses
  • Cooling system
  • Construction
  • A) Autotransformers
  • B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance)
  • C) Polyphase transformers
  • D) Resonant transformers
  • E) Instrument transformers
  • Uses of transformers
  • Types of transformers
  • Limitations
  • Diode Bridge
  • Schematic of a diode bridge
  • Basic operation
  • How Bridge Rectifier works
  • Polarity
  • Safety
  • Electrical behavior of electrolytics
  • Capacitance
  • Variants
  • An electrolytic capacitors come in several types:
  • Electrolytic double-layer capacitors
  • Potentiometer
  • VU meter
  • How to use a VU meter

ELECTRICAL ENERGY GENRATION THROU GH SOUND

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE

Acknowledgement
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.

We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.

Contents

1 Construction

• • • • • • • •

2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References

INTRODUCTION
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation

by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.

APPARATUS

Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. this consists of some components which are :1. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . 3. 5.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. 2.

is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. When you ring a bell. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). When the bell flexes away. the metal vibrates -. it moves the air particles around it. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. When it flexes out on one side.rapidly. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. or speaker. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. .a bell. you first need to understand how sound works. When your eardrum vibrates. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. When something vibrates. . These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles.flexes in and out -. To see how this works.A loudspeaker. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure.

• Air-pressure level . Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. When you play this signal back on your stereo. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency .In this way. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. We hear this as a higher pitch. which determines how loud the sound is.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. Making Sound . When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal.This is the wave's amplitude. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. • A microphone works something like our ears. In the next section. the pitch is lower. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. the amplifier sends it to the speaker.

it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone.the reverse of the microphone. . CD. etc. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. tapes. creating sound waves. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. LP.In the last section. These two magnets -.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. LPs. which can be encoded onto CDs. When everything is working as it should. like a piston. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker.interact with each other as any two magnets do. which represents the original sound wave. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. etc. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. In this way. When the coil moves. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape.

This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. If you reverse the flow of the current. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. Essentially. in turn. such as iron. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system.typically a black one and a red one. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. .and it is attracted to iron objects.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. But unlike a permanent magnet. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. In the next section. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire.This. For this reason.

Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. A mid-range speaker. . The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. also called a squawker.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz.

without requiring relative motion between its parts. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . in most cases. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. In this case. and. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. which induces a voltage in the other windings. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling.

induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. called mutual inductance. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. with an open circuit secondary winding. .primary and secondary windings. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. and. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. The effect. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. is an example of electromagnetic induction.

suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. . For example. increased current flows in the primary circuit. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. Hence in an ideal transformer. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. or equivalently. respectively. In this way. In addition. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. or alternatively. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding.

50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. In a practical transformer. f is the frequency in hertz. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. voltage. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. Operation at different frequencies . this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. Since a direct current by definition does not change. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding.

other properties of the transformer. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. oil filled. circuit isolation). arc furnace. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). By application (power supply. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. However. also increase with frequency. By operating at higher frequencies. Generally. water cooled. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. with the rated voltage applied. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. amplifier output. and a given core is able to transfer more power. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . impedance matching. audio.) By purpose (distribution. fan cooled. etc.). For example. losses. At a frequency lower than the design value. etc. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. rectifier. By frequency range (power.

Step-down or step-up transformer. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). and would therefore be 100% efficient. .75%. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. Transformers are. Transformer with electrostatic screen. may be less than 85% efficient. Small transformers. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. but does not usually show the exact ratio. In practice. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. in general. Transformer with three windings. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses.

Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. an effect known as magnetostriction. At higher frequencies. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. causing resistive heating. Mechanical losses . Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound).

Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise.In addition to magnetostriction. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. By concentrating the magnetic flux. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. and be converted to heat. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. Since the steel core is conductive. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. and consuming a small amount of power. such as the transformer's support structure. it. has . Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. too. Winding resistance dominates load-losses.

A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. all the E's are stacked on one side. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. Due to the bending of the core. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). some area is lost for a rectangular winging. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. In the EI transformer. The thinner the laminations.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. leading to the name "EI transformer". it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. The gap area is very large. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). and holding them closed by a steel strap. they have the advantage. Like toroidal cores. usually after a few cycles of the applied . The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. After the required thickness is achieved. the lower the eddy currents. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. and the lower the losses. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. When power is then reapplied. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces.

Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. Ferrite. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. and neon signs. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. over the life of the transformer. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. mercury vapor lamps. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. level. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. and false operation of transformer protection devices.alternating current. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. extending to the VHF band and beyond. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. insert air gaps. or a controlled. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. ii) Solid cores .

depending on operating frequency. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. radio-frequencies (RF). from powdered iron. The top right is toroidal. . or ferrite. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. are common. This minimises the length of wire needed. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. called ferrites. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. including toroids. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. At even higher. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil.

depending on the space available. single-bolt mounting. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. or aluminium rectangular conductors. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth).Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. Strip conductors are . As a consequence. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. The wire used is generally magnet wire. and sometimes additional insulation. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. Other advantages. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). flat toroid or a tall. for a given power output. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. This last point means that. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. insulated usually with enamel. lower weight (about half). and in the different windings. either a wide. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. and more choice of shapes. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. to reduce losses. copper. When fitting a toroidal transformer. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. include smaller size (about half). compared to EI types. physical size. must be electrically insulated from each other.

used for very heavy currents. or throughout the whole winding. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. Taps may be connected to an automatic. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. Each strand is insulated from the other. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. oscillators. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. . Audio-frequency transformers. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker.

The shield is connected to earth ground. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. but at increased manufacturing cost. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. and as part of the insulation system. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. electrostatic shields. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. By cooling the windings. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil.

and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. Formerly. that is stable at high temperatures. and thus switches off the transformer. non-toxic. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes.high-power transformers. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. stable silicone-based oils. or combinations of these. using vapor-phase heat transfer. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. If found to be leaking. The oil cools the transformer. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. it should be changed out. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. cost. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. the application of a vacuum. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. electrical self-heating. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Transformers handling higher power. Today. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. and its accumulation in the environment. . The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil.

While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. as described above. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. which is tapped at some point along the winding. and 115 volts between one end . For example. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts.but not the core steel loss. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding.

an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. For power transformer applications. even with a constant voltage input. In practice. which reduces efficiency somewhat. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. an autotransformer is cheaper. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. and a smaller core can be used. among other factors. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. where the transformer is seen by the load . transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core.and the tap. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. allowing for very small increments of voltage. lighter. As the same winding is used for input and output.

it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation.

each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. acts as an inductor. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. If the secondary is a Δ winding. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. The most common connections are Y-Δ. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. Δ-Y.For three-phase power. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). and is connected in series with a capacitor. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. The resonant coil. usually the secondary. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. Due to resonance. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency.

Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current.1.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. efficiency is low. B-1. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. external electromagnetic fields. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation.5. B-2. B-0.2. This means a CT with . This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer.0 and B-4. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0.0.0. temperature and physical CT configuration. However. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. load. In the latter case. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. B-0. rating factor. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden.

This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. . The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT.2 can tolerate up to 0.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services. For example. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. Often times. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. Conversely. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current." of the CT) of primary current. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius.a burden rating of B-0. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. in an electric metering circuit. the most inaccurate component is the CT. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. Recently. Not to mention. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. or "full load.0 times the nominal rating.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. Afterall.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. slight inaccuracies may occur." or 10% of the nominal current. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors.

a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. Typically. 2s2 and so on. For a three-stacked CT application. Yn. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. 2s1. Often. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. ii) Voltage transformers . the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. often in the presence of high voltages. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. For example. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). Zn. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. 1s2. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems.

pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. This applies to current transformers as well. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. X2. The terminal identifications (H1. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. Y2.) are often referred to as polarity.5kV) or generation voltage (13. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers.2kV) meter packages. to match the input ratings of protection relays. or rework. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. meter packages. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. etc. X1. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. Y1. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . For new.

The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. thereby raising its Q factor. wound around ferrite or other types of core. For the same reason. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. or other high energy pulsed power applications. the larger and more expensive the transformer. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. and a high open-circuit inductance. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. Generally speaking. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. In power-type pulse transformers. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. the larger this product. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. particle accelerators. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers.radar.

(The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. vii) Speaker transformers . vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. the speakers require high current at low voltage. All this makes for an expensive component. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. high power handling increases the required core size. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers.

In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. the ability to adjust. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). This application is common in public address (e. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage.. At the audio amplifier. locally. Then.g. In addition. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. Tannoy) applications. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages.

 Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism.  Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other.  Electric power transmission over long distances. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players.  Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary.  Large. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. See synchro and resolver. . and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries.  For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. or radar antenna.  A transformer-like device is used for position measurement.  Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. See linear variable differential transformer.  Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. Uses of transformers  For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage.

It may be as high as 75 . The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz).  Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. .7kHz.  Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. this is about 15.120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. In the case of television sets.  Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching.

Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall.Types of transformers In general. .S. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies.A. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. at significant power levels.. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source.

and the negative terminal is called Cathode. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. and P-type material. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. intended to pass current in only one direction. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. Semiconductor diode can be very small. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). usually germanium or silicon. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device.

They can be used as amplifiers. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. switches. oscillators. mixers. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. the polarity of the output is constant. and in many other types of circuits. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. it is known as a bridge rectifier. frequency controllers. . for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output.the semiconductor diodes. When used in its most common application. voltage regulators.

current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. That is. it permits normal .Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. • In each case. and returns to the input supply via the lower one. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC.

• Prior to availability of integrated electronics. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. Let us assume the transformer is working . The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). Since about 1950.

properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. through the secondary of T1. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. and back to point A. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. This path is indicated by the solid arrows. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). This path is indicated by the broken arrows. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. . At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. up through RL. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. through D3. up through RL. through D2.

The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. in rectifier output. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. This stack is then rolled up.

The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. and will increase the life of the capacitor. Unlike most capacitors. and if the short circuit current is excessive. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. . A constant forward bias is preferable. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. Both of these are shown in the picture. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. and generally only usable at low voltage. but ruptures can still be dramatic. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement.face of the cylinder. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time.

Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. often called "Wet-slug". however most of these have corroded away by now. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. RESR is the equivalent series resistance. i.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. risking significant personal injury. notably gloves and safety glasses. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. when working with the electrolyte.e. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time.

4. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %.3.5. 22.linearly with RESR. 33. 3. within the tolerance. In the manufacturing process. 15.7 or 6. 2. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. Using this method. 1.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. and so on. 47.2. 68. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. 220. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1.0. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. which is suitable for most applications. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. Therefore. values ranging from 0. however this unit is often too large for practical uses. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. Since the electrolytes evaporate.8 by a power of ten. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. 100. Variants . For example. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10.

this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates.000. causing the capacitor to fail. causing the capacitor to fail. Tantalum: . Over a long time. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling).Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. In addition. the liquid can dry out. this type of specification is acceptable. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer.

tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. as the dielectric. RuO2. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. and very low impedance at low frequencies. NiO. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. eg. However. unlike aluminum electrolytics. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide.compact. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density.7 V. which is then connected to an external wire lead. etc. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. IrO2. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. the same . they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. For example. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. which has a high surface area per unit volume. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. Smaller units (in the 0. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. rather than a manufactured sheet of material.

in electric vehicles. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. For use as a voltmeter. which can store more energy than double layer effects. When an electrical current is applied. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. up to thousands of farads. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors.with active carbon. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. therefore. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. can attain huge values. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. However. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles.g. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. Potentiometer . e. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. and pseudocapacitance.

if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. record the potentiometer's wiper position. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. and transformed ammeters. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. At this time. as discussed at the top of this article. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. There are many implementations for null detectors. For more on circuit transformations.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. For example. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure.

It is intentionally a "slow" measurement.5-1942. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. When LEDs were developed. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. . The first high fidelity deck. they were often used to indicate peak levels. the Advent used only one meter. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. which could be switched to average both channels. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. or either channel. and IEC 60268-17. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. British Standard BS 6840. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. The Nagra V. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. but this was never adopted by any other design. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass.

If set too high. If the level is set too low. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. .Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. As a rule. noise levels will be high. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts.

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