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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . 2. 3.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. this consists of some components which are :1. 5.
which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. To see how this works. the metal vibrates -. or speaker. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. When something vibrates. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure.A loudspeaker. When your eardrum vibrates. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. When the bell flexes away. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). . . When it flexes out on one side. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them.a bell. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound.rapidly. When you ring a bell. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. it moves the air particles around it. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. you first need to understand how sound works.flexes in and out -. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance.
Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this.In this way. Making Sound . the pitch is lower. In the next section. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . Our brain interprets this motion as sound. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. which determines how loud the sound is. When you play this signal back on your stereo.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. • A microphone works something like our ears. • Air-pressure level . We hear this as a higher pitch.This is the wave's amplitude.
The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave.interact with each other as any two magnets do. When the coil moves. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. CD. In this way. creating sound waves. etc. which can be encoded onto CDs. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. These two magnets -. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. like a piston. LPs. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. LP. When everything is working as it should. which represents the original sound wave. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. . The frequency and amplitude of this wave. tapes. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation.the reverse of the microphone. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. etc.In the last section. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone.
and it is attracted to iron objects. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. Essentially. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. . we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. in turn. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. such as iron. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. In the next section. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet.typically a black one and a red one.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers.This. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. But unlike a permanent magnet. If you reverse the flow of the current. For this reason. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire.
Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. also called a squawker.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. A mid-range speaker. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. . others only work up to 1 kHz or less. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond.
A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. which induces a voltage in the other windings. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. in most cases. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. and. without requiring relative motion between its parts. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . In this case. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding.
the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. . a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. called mutual inductance. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. The effect. and. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit.primary and secondary windings. is an example of electromagnetic induction. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. with an open circuit secondary winding.
Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. In addition. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. respectively. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. For example. . increased current flows in the primary circuit. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. In this way. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. or equivalently. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. or alternatively. Hence in an ideal transformer. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF.
direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. In a practical transformer. voltage. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. f is the frequency in hertz. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. Since a direct current by definition does not change. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. Operation at different frequencies . Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit.
audio. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. However. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. other properties of the transformer.) By purpose (distribution. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . By operating at higher frequencies. circuit isolation). and a given core is able to transfer more power. rectifier. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. impedance matching. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. arc furnace. etc. etc. By application (power supply. By frequency range (power. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. oil filled. At a frequency lower than the design value. with the rated voltage applied. water cooled. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. Generally. losses. amplifier output. fan cooled. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. For example.). also increase with frequency. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current.
In practice. . Small transformers. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. in general. Transformer with three windings. Step-down or step-up transformer. but does not usually show the exact ratio. Transformer with electrostatic screen. and would therefore be 100% efficient. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics.75%. may be less than 85% efficient. Transformers are.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core.
skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. an effect known as magnetostriction. causing resistive heating. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. Mechanical losses . The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). At higher frequencies. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents.
too. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. and consuming a small amount of power. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. it. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. such as the transformer's support structure. and be converted to heat. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). Since the steel core is conductive. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss.In addition to magnetostriction. has . Winding resistance dominates load-losses. By concentrating the magnetic flux. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary.
Like toroidal cores. all the E's are stacked on one side. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. the lower the eddy currents. they have the advantage. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. The gap area is very large. In the EI transformer. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). The thinner the laminations. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. and the lower the losses. leading to the name "EI transformer". The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. When power is then reapplied. After the required thickness is achieved. Due to the bending of the core. usually after a few cycles of the applied . and holding them closed by a steel strap. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section.
or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. In order to maintain good voltage regulation.alternating current. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. ii) Solid cores . or a controlled. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. and neon signs. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. over the life of the transformer. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. Ferrite. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. extending to the VHF band and beyond. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. insert air gaps. level. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. mercury vapor lamps. and false operation of transformer protection devices. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe.
The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. . iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. The top right is toroidal. including toroids. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. At even higher. depending on operating frequency. are common.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. This minimises the length of wire needed. or ferrite. radio-frequencies (RF). The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. called ferrites. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. from powdered iron. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits.
must be electrically insulated from each other. physical size. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. Other advantages. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. include smaller size (about half). and in the different windings. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. to reduce losses. and more choice of shapes. compared to EI types. or aluminium rectangular conductors. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. copper. When fitting a toroidal transformer. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. for a given power output. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. flat toroid or a tall. and sometimes additional insulation. single-bolt mounting. depending on the space available. The wire used is generally magnet wire. insulated usually with enamel. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. either a wide. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. As a consequence. This last point means that. lower weight (about half). Strip conductors are . low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits).Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen.
This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker.used for very heavy currents. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. Audio-frequency transformers. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. or throughout the whole winding. Each strand is insulated from the other. . Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. oscillators. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. Taps may be connected to an automatic. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding.
The shield is connected to earth ground. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. but at increased manufacturing cost. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. By cooling the windings. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. electrostatic shields. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. and as part of the insulation system. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil.
Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. cost. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. Today. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. or combinations of these. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). it should be changed out. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. using vapor-phase heat transfer. that is stable at high temperatures. and its accumulation in the environment. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. stable silicone-based oils. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. non-toxic. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load.high-power transformers. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. the application of a vacuum. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. . and thus switches off the transformer. electrical self-heating. If found to be leaking. The oil cools the transformer. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. Transformers handling higher power. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. Formerly. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection.
and 115 volts between one end . and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding.but not the core steel loss. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. as described above. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. which is tapped at some point along the winding. For example. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding.
where the transformer is seen by the load . By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. an autotransformer is cheaper. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. which reduces efficiency somewhat. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. allowing for very small increments of voltage. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). lighter. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. even with a constant voltage input. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers.and the tap. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. As the same winding is used for input and output. In practice. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. among other factors. For power transformer applications. and a smaller core can be used.
it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .
the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. If the secondary is a Δ winding. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. Due to resonance. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer.For three-phase power. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. and is connected in series with a capacitor. Δ-Y. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. acts as an inductor. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. usually the secondary. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. The most common connections are Y-Δ. The resonant coil.
Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. This means a CT with . B-0. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary.1. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. rating factor.0. However. load. B-2. external electromagnetic fields. efficiency is low.0 and B-4. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer.0. temperature and physical CT configuration. B-0. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage.2.5. In the latter case.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. B-1. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0.
While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. in an electric metering circuit. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5." or 10% of the nominal current. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. Recently. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. . the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world.2 can tolerate up to 0.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. the most inaccurate component is the CT." of the CT) of primary current. or "full load. slight inaccuracies may occur. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4.0 times the nominal rating. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services.a burden rating of B-0. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. Not to mention. Often times. Conversely. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. For example. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. Afterall.
Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. ii) Voltage transformers . For example. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. Yn. Zn. 1s2. 2s2 and so on. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. often in the presence of high voltages. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. 2s1. For a three-stacked CT application. Often. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Typically.
The terminal identifications (H1. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude).2kV) meter packages. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers.) are often referred to as polarity. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Y1. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. This applies to current transformers as well. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . meter packages. or rework. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. etc. to match the input ratings of protection relays. X2. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. X1. Y2.5kV) or generation voltage (13. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. For new. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1.
the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. Generally speaking. For the same reason. or other high energy pulsed power applications.radar. and a high open-circuit inductance. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . the larger and more expensive the transformer. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. particle accelerators. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. wound around ferrite or other types of core. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. the larger this product. In power-type pulse transformers. thereby raising its Q factor. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable.
A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. All this makes for an expensive component. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. the speakers require high current at low voltage. vii) Speaker transformers . high power handling increases the required core size. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers.
In addition. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). Then. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. This application is common in public address (e. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. locally. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio.g. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance.. At the audio amplifier. the ability to adjust. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . Tannoy) applications.
Electric power transmission over long distances. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). See linear variable differential transformer. See synchro and resolver. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Large. or radar antenna. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. . These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required.
7kHz. It may be as high as 75 . They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. . A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. In the case of television sets. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. this is about 15.120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores.
at significant power levels.A.S.Types of transformers In general. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. . Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies..
and the negative terminal is called Cathode. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. and P-type material. usually germanium or silicon. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. Semiconductor diode can be very small. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. intended to pass current in only one direction. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than .
The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. the polarity of the output is constant. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. and in many other types of circuits. voltage regulators. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. it is known as a bridge rectifier. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. When used in its most common application. .the semiconductor diodes. frequency controllers. mixers. They can be used as amplifiers. oscillators. switches. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics.
and returns to the input supply via the lower one. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner.Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". • In each case. it permits normal . Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. That is. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one.
and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time. Since about 1950. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. Let us assume the transformer is working . the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works.
properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. This path is indicated by the solid arrows. up through RL. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. and back to point A. through D3. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. . up through RL. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). through the secondary of T1. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. through D2. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.
This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. This stack is then rolled up. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. in rectifier output.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers.
This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). A constant forward bias is preferable. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. and will increase the life of the capacitor. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. but ruptures can still be dramatic. . electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. and generally only usable at low voltage. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. Both of these are shown in the picture. Unlike most capacitors. and if the short circuit current is excessive. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies.face of the cylinder.
notably gloves and safety glasses. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. RESR is the equivalent series resistance.e. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. when working with the electrolyte. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. i. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. however most of these have corroded away by now. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. risking significant personal injury.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. often called "Wet-slug".
Using this method. 220. 1. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value.7 or 6. For example. Since the electrolytes evaporate. 100. values ranging from 0. 47. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. any practical capacitor value can be achieved.3. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. Therefore. 3.linearly with RESR. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. 22. 4. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. however this unit is often too large for practical uses. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. 33. within the tolerance. 2. which is suitable for most applications. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. 15. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates.1 to 4700 are common in most applications.2.5. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. In the manufacturing process. 68. Variants . it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. and so on.0. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad.8 by a power of ten. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used.
000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. the liquid can dry out. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling). electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. this type of specification is acceptable. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. causing the capacitor to fail. Over a long time. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. Tantalum: . In addition.000. causing the capacitor to fail.Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors.
Smaller units (in the 0. However. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes.7 V. eg. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. unlike aluminum electrolytics. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. as the dielectric. which is then connected to an external wire lead. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. which has a high surface area per unit volume. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. RuO2. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. etc. IrO2. For example. the same .1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks.compact. NiO. and very low impedance at low frequencies.
When an electrical current is applied. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. which can store more energy than double layer effects. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. e. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. can attain huge values. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. up to thousands of farads. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. and pseudocapacitance.with active carbon. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil.g. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. therefore. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. For use as a voltmeter. Potentiometer . capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. in electric vehicles. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. However. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area.
For example. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. At this time. For more on circuit transformations. There are many implementations for null detectors. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. as discussed at the top of this article. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. and transformed ammeters. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. record the potentiometer's wiper position. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film.
the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. When LEDs were developed. The first high fidelity deck. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. but this was never adopted by any other design. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. the Advent used only one meter. and IEC 60268-17. they were often used to indicate peak levels. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. The Nagra V.5-1942. . averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. British Standard BS 6840.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. or either channel. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. which could be switched to average both channels. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels.
Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. noise levels will be high. If set too high. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. . As a rule. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. If the level is set too low. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system.