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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. this consists of some components which are :1.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. 2. 3. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . 5.
it moves the air particles around it. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. . the metal vibrates -. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. To see how this works. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side.rapidly. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. When you ring a bell. When the bell flexes away.A loudspeaker. When your eardrum vibrates. When something vibrates.a bell. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. you first need to understand how sound works. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. When it flexes out on one side.flexes in and out -. or speaker. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. . This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles.
• Air-pressure level . When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. We hear this as a higher pitch. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. which determines how loud the sound is. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure.In this way. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. Making Sound . we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone.This is the wave's amplitude. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. In the next section. When you play this signal back on your stereo. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . the amplifier sends it to the speaker. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. • A microphone works something like our ears. the pitch is lower. and we register this sensation as a higher volume.
We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. etc. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. . Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. These two magnets -. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. When everything is working as it should. When the coil moves. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction.the reverse of the microphone. tapes. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. which can be encoded onto CDs. creating sound waves. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. LPs. LP. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. etc. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. CD. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. which represents the original sound wave. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. like a piston. In this way. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone.In the last section.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -.interact with each other as any two magnets do.
. In the next section. If you reverse the flow of the current. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. For this reason. in turn. such as iron.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil.This. Essentially. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. But unlike a permanent magnet. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers.and it is attracted to iron objects. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges.typically a black one and a red one. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm.
The usable frequency range varies widely according to design.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. . Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. also called a squawker. A mid-range speaker. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum.
A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. without requiring relative motion between its parts. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. in most cases. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. In this case. and. which induces a voltage in the other windings. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved.
and. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. is an example of electromagnetic induction. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. The effect.primary and secondary windings. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. with an open circuit secondary winding. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). called mutual inductance. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. .
(See note 1) Now with transformer change: . For example. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. increased current flows in the primary circuit. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. Hence in an ideal transformer. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. . the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. In addition. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. respectively. In this way. or alternatively.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. or equivalently.
the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. f is the frequency in hertz. Since a direct current by definition does not change. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. Operation at different frequencies . magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. In a practical transformer.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. voltage.
losses. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. However. By frequency range (power. circuit isolation). so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays.). operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current.) By purpose (distribution. etc. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. By application (power supply. oil filled. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. At a frequency lower than the design value. For example. and a given core is able to transfer more power. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. arc furnace. also increase with frequency. fan cooled. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . rectifier. other properties of the transformer. etc. audio.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. amplifier output. impedance matching. By operating at higher frequencies. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. with the rated voltage applied. water cooled. Generally.
Transformers are. Step-down or step-up transformer. Small transformers. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. . may be less than 85% efficient. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. In practice. Transformer with electrostatic screen. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). Transformer with three windings. and would therefore be 100% efficient. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. but does not usually show the exact ratio.75%.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. in general. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss.
The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. Mechanical losses . Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). causing resistive heating. At higher frequencies. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. an effect known as magnetostriction. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.
A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Winding resistance dominates load-losses. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. and be converted to heat. Since the steel core is conductive. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. and consuming a small amount of power. has . the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). too. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. it. such as the transformer's support structure.In addition to magnetostriction. By concentrating the magnetic flux.
the lower the eddy currents. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. leading to the name "EI transformer". Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. The thinner the laminations. In the EI transformer. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. they have the advantage. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. and the lower the losses. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. usually after a few cycles of the applied . Like toroidal cores. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). The gap area is very large. When power is then reapplied. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. After the required thickness is achieved. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. all the E's are stacked on one side. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. Due to the bending of the core.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. and holding them closed by a steel strap.
This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. mercury vapor lamps. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. insert air gaps. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. ii) Solid cores . distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. extending to the VHF band and beyond. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. and false operation of transformer protection devices. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. over the life of the transformer.alternating current. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. and neon signs. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. or a controlled. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. level. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. Ferrite. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents.
which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. depending on operating frequency. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. or ferrite. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. At even higher. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. including toroids. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. This minimises the length of wire needed. called ferrites. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. radio-frequencies (RF). are common. from powdered iron. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. The top right is toroidal. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. . Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes.
Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). flat toroid or a tall. to reduce losses. for a given power output. and more choice of shapes. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. or aluminium rectangular conductors. The wire used is generally magnet wire. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. As a consequence. compared to EI types. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. Strip conductors are . either a wide. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. single-bolt mounting. and sometimes additional insulation. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. must be electrically insulated from each other. When fitting a toroidal transformer. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. depending on the space available. lower weight (about half). The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. Other advantages.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. physical size. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. and in the different windings. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). and weight of switch-mode power supplies. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. insulated usually with enamel. include smaller size (about half). A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. This last point means that. copper. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level.
the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response.used for very heavy currents. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. Taps may be connected to an automatic. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. . The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. Each strand is insulated from the other. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. or throughout the whole winding. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. Audio-frequency transformers. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. oscillators.
By cooling the windings. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. electrostatic shields. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. The shield is connected to earth ground. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. but at increased manufacturing cost. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. and as part of the insulation system.
Formerly. If found to be leaking. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. . Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. it should be changed out.high-power transformers. and thus switches off the transformer. Transformers handling higher power. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. non-toxic. the application of a vacuum. that is stable at high temperatures. or combinations of these. and its accumulation in the environment. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. using vapor-phase heat transfer. Today. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. cost. electrical self-heating. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. stable silicone-based oils. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. The oil cools the transformer. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled.
as described above. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. which is tapped at some point along the winding. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap.but not the core steel loss. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. For example. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. and 115 volts between one end . These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding.
allowing for very small increments of voltage. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. In practice. even with a constant voltage input. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. among other factors. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. where the transformer is seen by the load . an autotransformer is cheaper.and the tap. By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. which reduces efficiency somewhat. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. For power transformer applications. lighter. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. and a smaller core can be used. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. As the same winding is used for input and output. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding).
it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation.(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .
three separate single-phase transformers can be used. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. The most common connections are Y-Δ. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. The resonant coil. usually the secondary. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. and is connected in series with a capacitor. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. acts as an inductor. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together.For three-phase power. Δ-Y. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. Due to resonance. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). If the secondary is a Δ winding. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer.
Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. B-1. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present.0 and B-4. This means a CT with . rating factor. load. temperature and physical CT configuration. However.2. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. efficiency is low.0.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver.5. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current.0. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. external electromagnetic fields. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden.1. B-0. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation. B-2. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. B-0. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. In the latter case.
a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. Often times. Recently. slight inaccuracies may occur. Afterall. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. . Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. in an electric metering circuit. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current.0 times the nominal rating. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. Not to mention. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms." of the CT) of primary current. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature.2 can tolerate up to 0. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void." or 10% of the nominal current. the most inaccurate component is the CT. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law.a burden rating of B-0. or "full load. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. Conversely. For example. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy.
2s2 and so on. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. 1s2. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. Zn. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. often in the presence of high voltages. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Typically. Yn. 2s1. Often. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. ii) Voltage transformers . a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. For example. For a three-stacked CT application. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary.
H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. meter packages. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. X2. For new.5kV) or generation voltage (13. Y2. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. to match the input ratings of protection relays. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Y1. The terminal identifications (H1. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. This applies to current transformers as well. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential.) are often referred to as polarity. or rework.2kV) meter packages. etc. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . X1. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1.
the larger this product. For the same reason. particle accelerators. and a high open-circuit inductance. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. Generally speaking. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. or other high energy pulsed power applications. thereby raising its Q factor. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. wound around ferrite or other types of core.radar. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. In power-type pulse transformers. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. the larger and more expensive the transformer. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately.
vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. vii) Speaker transformers . Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. the speakers require high current at low voltage. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. All this makes for an expensive component. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. high power handling increases the required core size.
speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. This application is common in public address (e. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. At the audio amplifier. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system).g. locally. Then. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized.. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature. Tannoy) applications. In addition.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . the ability to adjust.
. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Electric power transmission over long distances. See linear variable differential transformer. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. Large. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. See synchro and resolver. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. or radar antenna. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other.
In the case of television sets. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. this is about 15. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. It may be as high as 75 . .120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching.7kHz. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator.
. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. . Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency.A. at significant power levels. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts.S. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source.Types of transformers In general. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC.
usually germanium or silicon. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. and P-type material. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. Semiconductor diode can be very small. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. intended to pass current in only one direction.
it is known as a bridge rectifier.the semiconductor diodes. switches. oscillators. and in many other types of circuits. When used in its most common application. They can be used as amplifiers. frequency controllers. voltage regulators. the polarity of the output is constant. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. mixers. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. . Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament.
That is. • In each case. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. and returns to the input supply via the lower one. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. it permits normal .Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner.
The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. Let us assume the transformer is working . the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. Since about 1950. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time.
through D3. . This path is indicated by the solid arrows. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. and back to point A. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. through the secondary of T1. through D2. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. up through RL. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). up through RL. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B.
Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. in rectifier output. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. This stack is then rolled up. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity.
the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric.face of the cylinder. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. Unlike most capacitors. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. and will increase the life of the capacitor. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. and generally only usable at low voltage. . but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. and if the short circuit current is excessive. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. Both of these are shown in the picture. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. A constant forward bias is preferable. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. but ruptures can still be dramatic. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions).
RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. RESR is the equivalent series resistance.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . however most of these have corroded away by now. often called "Wet-slug". Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results.e. risking significant personal injury. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. notably gloves and safety glasses. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. when working with the electrolyte. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. i.
For example. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. 15.3. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. 1. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. 2. In the manufacturing process. Therefore. 68. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. which is suitable for most applications.8 by a power of ten. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used.7 or 6. Since the electrolytes evaporate. 33.2. within the tolerance. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). Values are generally in microfarads (µF). Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. 47. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. and so on. 3. 100.5. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. 220. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. values ranging from 0. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. Using this method. 22. 4. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees.linearly with RESR. Variants . A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1.0.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. however this unit is often too large for practical uses.
Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. causing the capacitor to fail. Tantalum: . For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling).000. Over a long time. the liquid can dry out. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. this type of specification is acceptable. causing the capacitor to fail. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. In addition. Especially with aluminum electrolytics.
and very low impedance at low frequencies. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. For example. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. Smaller units (in the 0. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. as the dielectric. NiO. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. which has a high surface area per unit volume.compact. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. etc. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. RuO2. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. eg. the same .1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. IrO2. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics.7 V. which is then connected to an external wire lead. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). rather than a manufactured sheet of material. unlike aluminum electrolytics. However. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads.
However.g. which can store more energy than double layer effects. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. therefore. Potentiometer . the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. in electric vehicles. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. For use as a voltmeter. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. and pseudocapacitance. When an electrical current is applied. can attain huge values. up to thousands of farads. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. e. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage.with active carbon. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter.
as discussed at the top of this article. For example. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. record the potentiometer's wiper position. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. For more on circuit transformations. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. and transformed ammeters. There are many implementations for null detectors. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. At this time. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure.
British Standard BS 6840. and IEC 60268-17. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. the Advent used only one meter. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. which could be switched to average both channels. When LEDs were developed. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. . meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. they were often used to indicate peak levels. The first high fidelity deck. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels.5-1942. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. but this was never adopted by any other design. The Nagra V. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. or either channel.
Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. . noise levels will be high. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. As a rule. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. If the level is set too low. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. If set too high.
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