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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
3. Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. 5.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. this consists of some components which are :1. 2. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER .
it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. you first need to understand how sound works.a bell. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure. When the bell flexes away. When something vibrates. the metal vibrates -. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. When it flexes out on one side. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. . The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. .A loudspeaker. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance.flexes in and out -. When you ring a bell. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles.rapidly. To see how this works. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. or speaker. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. When your eardrum vibrates. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. it moves the air particles around it. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum.
When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. In the next section.In this way. • A microphone works something like our ears. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . Making Sound . just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. Our brain interprets this motion as sound.This is the wave's amplitude. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. which determines how loud the sound is. the pitch is lower. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. • Air-pressure level . and we register this sensation as a higher volume. We hear this as a higher pitch. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. When you play this signal back on your stereo. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations.
When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. When everything is working as it should. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. like a piston.In the last section. creating sound waves. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. . This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. etc. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. In this way. which represents the original sound wave. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -.interact with each other as any two magnets do. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. LP. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. When the coil moves.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -.the reverse of the microphone. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. tapes. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. CD. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. etc. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. which can be encoded onto CDs. LPs. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. These two magnets -.
it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. Essentially. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. For this reason. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. If you reverse the flow of the current. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal.and it is attracted to iron objects.This. in turn. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire.typically a black one and a red one.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. such as iron. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. But unlike a permanent magnet. In the next section. . The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet.
typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. also called a squawker. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. A mid-range speaker. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. .
A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. in most cases. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. without requiring relative motion between its parts. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. which induces a voltage in the other windings. In this case. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. and. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids.
the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. The effect. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). and. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. . Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. is an example of electromagnetic induction. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. called mutual inductance.primary and secondary windings. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. with an open circuit secondary winding.
or alternatively. respectively. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. or equivalently. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. increased current flows in the primary circuit. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: .NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. For example. . dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. In addition. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. In this way. Hence in an ideal transformer. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding.
the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. Operation at different frequencies . f is the frequency in hertz. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. voltage. Since a direct current by definition does not change. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. In a practical transformer. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas.
such as losses within the core and skin-effect.) By purpose (distribution. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. rectifier. amplifier output. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). fan cooled. By operating at higher frequencies. other properties of the transformer. also increase with frequency. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. and a given core is able to transfer more power. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. audio. circuit isolation). etc. etc. arc furnace.).The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. For example. At a frequency lower than the design value. However. Generally. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . losses. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. water cooled. oil filled. impedance matching. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. By application (power supply. with the rated voltage applied. By frequency range (power. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current.
Transformers are.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. in general. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. Small transformers. but does not usually show the exact ratio. Step-down or step-up transformer. . and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). may be less than 85% efficient.75%. Transformer with three windings. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. Transformer with electrostatic screen. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. In practice. and would therefore be 100% efficient.
a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. causing resistive heating. At higher frequencies.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). Mechanical losses . an effect known as magnetostriction. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed.
Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. Winding resistance dominates load-losses. By concentrating the magnetic flux. has . it. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. too. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Since the steel core is conductive. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss.In addition to magnetostriction. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. such as the transformer's support structure. and consuming a small amount of power. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. and be converted to heat.
it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. and the lower the losses. After the required thickness is achieved.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. they have the advantage. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. The gap area is very large. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). and holding them closed by a steel strap. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. usually after a few cycles of the applied . Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). When power is then reapplied. all the E's are stacked on one side. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. The thinner the laminations. the lower the eddy currents. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. Like toroidal cores. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. In the EI transformer. Due to the bending of the core. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. leading to the name "EI transformer". The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. some area is lost for a rectangular winging.
Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. extending to the VHF band and beyond. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. and neon signs. level. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz.alternating current. mercury vapor lamps. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. insert air gaps. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. or a controlled. over the life of the transformer. and false operation of transformer protection devices. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. Ferrite. ii) Solid cores .
Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. This minimises the length of wire needed. At even higher. including toroids. called ferrites. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. are common. from powdered iron. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. . and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. depending on operating frequency. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. or ferrite. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. The top right is toroidal. radio-frequencies (RF). The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned.
The wire used is generally magnet wire. As a consequence. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. physical size. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. and more choice of shapes. and in the different windings. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. compared to EI types. either a wide. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. depending on the space available. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. copper. Other advantages. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. This last point means that. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. for a given power output. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). flat toroid or a tall. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. Strip conductors are . The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. include smaller size (about half). insulated usually with enamel. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). When fitting a toroidal transformer. or aluminium rectangular conductors. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. must be electrically insulated from each other. single-bolt mounting. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. and sometimes additional insulation. lower weight (about half). to reduce losses. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil.
each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. . Taps may be connected to an automatic. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. Each strand is insulated from the other. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings.used for very heavy currents. or throughout the whole winding. Audio-frequency transformers. oscillators.
The shield is connected to earth ground. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. but at increased manufacturing cost. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. By cooling the windings. electrostatic shields. and as part of the insulation system.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary.
If found to be leaking. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. Formerly. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. non-toxic.high-power transformers. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). and its accumulation in the environment. Transformers handling higher power. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. it should be changed out. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. the application of a vacuum. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. using vapor-phase heat transfer. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. The oil cools the transformer. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. . Today. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. and thus switches off the transformer. electrical self-heating. or combinations of these. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. that is stable at high temperatures. stable silicone-based oils. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. cost.
Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. which is tapped at some point along the winding. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. as described above. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections.but not the core steel loss. For example. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. and 115 volts between one end .
an autotransformer is cheaper. allowing for very small increments of voltage. By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush.and the tap. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. which reduces efficiency somewhat. In practice. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. among other factors. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. lighter. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. and a smaller core can be used. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. As the same winding is used for input and output. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. even with a constant voltage input. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. For power transformer applications. where the transformer is seen by the load . The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating.
It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers . The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation.(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.
the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. If the secondary is a Δ winding. The most common connections are Y-Δ. The resonant coil.For three-phase power. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. and is connected in series with a capacitor. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. usually the secondary. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. Δ-Y. acts as an inductor. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. Due to resonance. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. Δ-Δ and Y-Y.
Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. B-0. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. In the latter case.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. efficiency is low. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. However. load. B-1.0. rating factor.5. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables.2. external electromagnetic fields. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. B-0. temperature and physical CT configuration. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation. This means a CT with . the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0. B-2. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current.0.0 and B-4.1.
When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. slight inaccuracies may occur. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services. For example. Not to mention. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves.2 can tolerate up to 0. ." of the CT) of primary current. Recently. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. Afterall. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. or "full load. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. Often times. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. in an electric metering circuit.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. the most inaccurate component is the CT. Conversely. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1." or 10% of the nominal current.a burden rating of B-0. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A.0 times the nominal rating.
Yn. Zn. ii) Voltage transformers . Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. For example. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. 2s2 and so on. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. 1s2. For a three-stacked CT application. Often. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. 2s1. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Typically. often in the presence of high voltages. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs).
etc. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase.) are often referred to as polarity. X2. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. For new. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . or rework. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. The terminal identifications (H1. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Y2.5kV) or generation voltage (13. This applies to current transformers as well. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. meter packages.2kV) meter packages. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. to match the input ratings of protection relays. Y1. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. X1.
a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. In power-type pulse transformers. the larger and more expensive the transformer. thereby raising its Q factor. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. and a high open-circuit inductance. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. For the same reason. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. wound around ferrite or other types of core. Generally speaking. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. the larger this product. particle accelerators. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. or other high energy pulsed power applications. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers.radar. The core material increases the inductance dramatically.
bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. vii) Speaker transformers . Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. the speakers require high current at low voltage. All this makes for an expensive component.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. high power handling increases the required core size. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.
In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. locally. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. Tannoy) applications. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature.. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. At the audio amplifier.g.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. This application is common in public address (e. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. the ability to adjust. In addition. Then. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit.
For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. or radar antenna. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Electric power transmission over long distances. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. See synchro and resolver. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. . Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Large. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. See linear variable differential transformer.
. Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. this is about 15. In the case of television sets. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz).120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. It may be as high as 75 . Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores.7kHz. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator.
Types of transformers In general. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. . transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts.S. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency.. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. at significant power levels. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another.A.
intended to pass current in only one direction. and P-type material. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. usually germanium or silicon. Semiconductor diode can be very small. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow.
switches. . and in many other types of circuits. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. They can be used as amplifiers. the polarity of the output is constant. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. When used in its most common application. it is known as a bridge rectifier. frequency controllers. oscillators. voltage regulators. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. mixers. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage.the semiconductor diodes.
and returns to the input supply via the lower one. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. it permits normal .Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. • In each case. That is. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection".
functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. Let us assume the transformer is working . One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. Since about 1950. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings.
through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. through D3. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. up through RL. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). This path is indicated by the solid arrows.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. through D2. up through RL. . this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. through the secondary of T1. and back to point A. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.
Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. in rectifier output. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. This stack is then rolled up.
The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors.face of the cylinder. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. A constant forward bias is preferable. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. but ruptures can still be dramatic. and if the short circuit current is excessive. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). and will increase the life of the capacitor. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. Both of these are shown in the picture. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. . or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. Unlike most capacitors. and generally only usable at low voltage.
when working with the electrolyte.e. risking significant personal injury. i. RESR is the equivalent series resistance. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. notably gloves and safety glasses. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. however most of these have corroded away by now. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. often called "Wet-slug".
3.2. 33. Variants . such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area.0. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. 4. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. In the manufacturing process. 15. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. Therefore. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. 220. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). any practical capacitor value can be achieved.8 by a power of ten. Since the electrolytes evaporate. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. 22.5. 2. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. 100. 1.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. Using this method. which is suitable for most applications. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates.linearly with RESR. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. 47. 68. For example. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. within the tolerance. 3.7 or 6. however this unit is often too large for practical uses. and so on. values ranging from 0. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10.
Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. causing the capacitor to fail.Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards.000. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. causing the capacitor to fail. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling). electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. In addition. Tantalum: . the liquid can dry out. this type of specification is acceptable. Over a long time. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. Especially with aluminum electrolytics.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC.
unlike aluminum electrolytics. which has a high surface area per unit volume. However. which is then connected to an external wire lead. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. IrO2. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. the same . NiO. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. RuO2. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. etc. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. as the dielectric. eg.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. Smaller units (in the 0. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. For example. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. and very low impedance at low frequencies.compact.7 V.
The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. When an electrical current is applied. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. Potentiometer . For use as a voltmeter. in electric vehicles. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil.with active carbon.g. e. up to thousands of farads. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. therefore. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. and pseudocapacitance. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. which can store more energy than double layer effects. However. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. can attain huge values.
divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. as discussed at the top of this article. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. For more on circuit transformations. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . and transformed ammeters. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. There are many implementations for null detectors. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. For example. At this time. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. record the potentiometer's wiper position.
British Standard BS 6840. but this was never adopted by any other design. . The Nagra V. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. When LEDs were developed. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. they were often used to indicate peak levels. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument.5-1942. the Advent used only one meter. The first high fidelity deck. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. or either channel. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. and IEC 60268-17. which could be switched to average both channels.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels.
As a rule. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders.Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. If set too high. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. . If the level is set too low. noise levels will be high. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts.
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