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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER .The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. this consists of some components which are :1. 3. 5. 2. Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4.
To see how this works. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. When it flexes out on one side. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers).A loudspeaker. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. or speaker. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. you first need to understand how sound works. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. When the bell flexes away.a bell. When you ring a bell. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. When your eardrum vibrates. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance.rapidly. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. the metal vibrates -. it moves the air particles around it. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. .flexes in and out -. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. When something vibrates. . let's look at a simple vibrating object -.
Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. • A microphone works something like our ears. In the next section. • Air-pressure level . Making Sound .This is the wave's amplitude. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. When you play this signal back on your stereo. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. We hear this as a higher pitch. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth.In this way. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . which determines how loud the sound is. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. the pitch is lower.
and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. When the coil moves.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. etc. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. creating sound waves. which represents the original sound wave.In the last section.the reverse of the microphone. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. which can be encoded onto CDs. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. These two magnets -. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. like a piston. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. LP. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. CD. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. In this way. .interact with each other as any two magnets do. When everything is working as it should. LPs. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. tapes. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. etc. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. The frequency and amplitude of this wave.
. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. But unlike a permanent magnet. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way.typically a black one and a red one. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal.and it is attracted to iron objects. For this reason. In the next section. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. Essentially. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range.This. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. such as iron. If you reverse the flow of the current. in turn. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around.
The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. . usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. also called a squawker. A mid-range speaker.
A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. which induces a voltage in the other windings.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. In this case. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. in most cases. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. and. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. without requiring relative motion between its parts. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core.
is an example of electromagnetic induction.primary and secondary windings. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. called mutual inductance. with an open circuit secondary winding. The effect. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . . and. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit.
The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. increased current flows in the primary circuit. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. or equivalently. . Hence in an ideal transformer. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. or alternatively. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. In this way. respectively. For example. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. In addition. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding.
N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. Operation at different frequencies . direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. Since a direct current by definition does not change. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. In a practical transformer. f is the frequency in hertz. voltage.
radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. water cooled. with the rated voltage applied. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. Generally. etc.) By purpose (distribution. By frequency range (power.). At a frequency lower than the design value. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. By operating at higher frequencies. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. circuit isolation). fan cooled. However.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. arc furnace. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. other properties of the transformer. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. also increase with frequency. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . amplifier output. rectifier. and a given core is able to transfer more power. audio. impedance matching. losses. By application (power supply. For example. oil filled. etc.
75%.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). Small transformers. Step-down or step-up transformer. In practice. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. . energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. may be less than 85% efficient. Transformer with three windings. and would therefore be 100% efficient. Transformers are. but does not usually show the exact ratio. in general. Transformer with electrostatic screen. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. which prevents capacitive coupling between the.
At higher frequencies. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. an effect known as magnetostriction. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). Mechanical losses . Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. causing resistive heating. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss).
In addition to magnetostriction. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. and be converted to heat. has . the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. it. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. too. such as the transformer's support structure. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. and consuming a small amount of power. Winding resistance dominates load-losses. Since the steel core is conductive. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. By concentrating the magnetic flux. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss').
After the required thickness is achieved. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. and holding them closed by a steel strap. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. they have the advantage. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. leading to the name "EI transformer". and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. In the EI transformer. The thinner the laminations. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window).currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. the lower the eddy currents. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. Like toroidal cores. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. usually after a few cycles of the applied . That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. The gap area is very large. Due to the bending of the core. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. all the E's are stacked on one side. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. and the lower the losses. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). When power is then reapplied. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together.
Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. insert air gaps. extending to the VHF band and beyond. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. or a controlled. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. mercury vapor lamps. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. level. Ferrite. and neon signs. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. and false operation of transformer protection devices. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. ii) Solid cores . Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. In order to maintain good voltage regulation.alternating current. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. over the life of the transformer. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core.
These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. or ferrite. including toroids. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. from powdered iron. are common. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. . depending on operating frequency. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. This minimises the length of wire needed. called ferrites. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. At even higher. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. The top right is toroidal. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. radio-frequencies (RF).Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits.
flat toroid or a tall. single-bolt mounting. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. Strip conductors are . then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. for a given power output. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. must be electrically insulated from each other.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. and more choice of shapes. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. to reduce losses. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. and in the different windings. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. or aluminium rectangular conductors. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. physical size. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. compared to EI types. When fitting a toroidal transformer. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). depending on the space available. either a wide. and sometimes additional insulation. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. Other advantages. insulated usually with enamel. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. include smaller size (about half). Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. The wire used is generally magnet wire. lower weight (about half). This last point means that. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. As a consequence. copper.
Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. or throughout the whole winding. Each strand is insulated from the other. Taps may be connected to an automatic. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. Audio-frequency transformers. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. . have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. oscillators. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor.used for very heavy currents. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding.
The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. The shield is connected to earth ground. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. but at increased manufacturing cost. electrostatic shields. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. By cooling the windings. and as part of the insulation system. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. Specific provision must be made for cooling of .
the application of a vacuum. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. Transformers handling higher power. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. that is stable at high temperatures. or combinations of these. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses.high-power transformers. cost. . or toxicity compared with mineral oil. electrical self-heating. and thus switches off the transformer. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. If found to be leaking. stable silicone-based oils. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. and its accumulation in the environment. Formerly. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. it should be changed out. Today. non-toxic. using vapor-phase heat transfer. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. The oil cools the transformer.
F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. as described above. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. and 115 volts between one end . For example.but not the core steel loss. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. which is tapped at some point along the winding. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. Transformers may have a shield enclosure.
the flux in the core is partially cancelled. which reduces efficiency somewhat. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. among other factors. In practice. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. where the transformer is seen by the load . CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. For power transformer applications. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. allowing for very small increments of voltage. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. As the same winding is used for input and output. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. and a smaller core can be used. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. an autotransformer is cheaper.and the tap. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. even with a constant voltage input. lighter.
The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers . it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.(ideally) as a constant source of voltage.
and is connected in series with a capacitor. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. The most common connections are Y-Δ. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). usually the secondary. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. Δ-Y. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . acts as an inductor. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. Due to resonance. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. If the secondary is a Δ winding.For three-phase power. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. The resonant coil. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor.
the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. rating factor.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden.0 and B-4. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation. temperature and physical CT configuration. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. B-1.5. In the latter case. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary.0. B-2.0. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. load.1. B-0. This means a CT with . efficiency is low. external electromagnetic fields. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current.2. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0. B-0. However.
The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT.0 times the nominal rating. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. Afterall. or "full load. the most inaccurate component is the CT. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. Conversely. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. . This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law.2 can tolerate up to 0. For example. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. in an electric metering circuit." of the CT) of primary current. Recently. slight inaccuracies may occur. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance.a burden rating of B-0. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4." or 10% of the nominal current. Not to mention. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. Often times. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy.
Yn. 1s2. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. 2s2 and so on. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. 2s1. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Typically. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. Zn. For example. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. For a three-stacked CT application. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. often in the presence of high voltages. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. ii) Voltage transformers . Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. Often. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example.
meter packages.5kV) or generation voltage (13. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. The terminal identifications (H1. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. This applies to current transformers as well. For new. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. Y2.) are often referred to as polarity. X2. to match the input ratings of protection relays. X1. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. Y1. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. or rework. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. etc. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present.2kV) meter packages. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines.
For the same reason. particle accelerators. the larger and more expensive the transformer. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line.radar. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . the larger this product. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. In power-type pulse transformers. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. Generally speaking. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. or other high energy pulsed power applications. and a high open-circuit inductance. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. wound around ferrite or other types of core. thereby raising its Q factor. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary.
For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. All this makes for an expensive component. high power handling increases the required core size. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. vii) Speaker transformers . Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. the speakers require high current at low voltage.
Tannoy) applications. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature. locally. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. At the audio amplifier. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. the ability to adjust. Then.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . In addition. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage.. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. This application is common in public address (e. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps.g. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel).
See linear variable differential transformer. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. . Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. Large. See synchro and resolver. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. or radar antenna. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. Electric power transmission over long distances.
The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz).120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. this is about 15. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. In the case of television sets. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads.7kHz. It may be as high as 75 . Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. .
A. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies. at significant power levels. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall.. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts.Types of transformers In general. . Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U.S.
and P-type material. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . and the negative terminal is called Cathode. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. intended to pass current in only one direction.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. usually germanium or silicon. Semiconductor diode can be very small. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow.
oscillators. and in many other types of circuits. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. the polarity of the output is constant. voltage regulators. it is known as a bridge rectifier. When used in its most common application. frequency controllers. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. mixers. . that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. switches. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. They can be used as amplifiers.the semiconductor diodes. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage.
Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. • In each case. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. That is. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. it permits normal . and returns to the input supply via the lower one. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output.
Since about 1950. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Let us assume the transformer is working . How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time.
This path is indicated by the solid arrows. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. up through RL. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. up through RL. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. through D2. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. through the secondary of T1. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). through D3. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. . this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. and back to point A. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2.
Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular .Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. This stack is then rolled up. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. in rectifier output. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors.
but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. but ruptures can still be dramatic. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. and if the short circuit current is excessive. and will increase the life of the capacitor. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. A constant forward bias is preferable. . Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors.face of the cylinder. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. Both of these are shown in the picture. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. and generally only usable at low voltage. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. Unlike most capacitors.
when working with the electrolyte. notably gloves and safety glasses. Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and .e. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. i. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. often called "Wet-slug". Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. risking significant personal injury. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. however most of these have corroded away by now. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. RESR is the equivalent series resistance.
7 or 6. 68. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. however this unit is often too large for practical uses. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. In the manufacturing process. 220.5. Since the electrolytes evaporate.0. 1. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. 100. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. 22. For example.3. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. 15. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). which is suitable for most applications. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. 33. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. Variants . values ranging from 0. 4. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. and so on. Therefore. 3. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers.2. within the tolerance. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). it is common to find capacitors with values of 10.1 to 4700 are common in most applications.linearly with RESR.8 by a power of ten. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. Using this method. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. 47. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. 2.
this type of specification is acceptable. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. In addition. the liquid can dry out. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling).000. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. Over a long time.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. Tantalum: .Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. causing the capacitor to fail. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. causing the capacitor to fail.
unlike aluminum electrolytics. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. and very low impedance at low frequencies. IrO2. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Smaller units (in the 0. etc. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. For example.compact. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications.7 V. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. which has a high surface area per unit volume. NiO. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. the same . which is then connected to an external wire lead. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. However. eg.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. RuO2. as the dielectric. further increasing the capacitor's energy density.
Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. and pseudocapacitance. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. For use as a voltmeter. e. Potentiometer . The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. up to thousands of farads. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. can attain huge values. in electric vehicles. When an electrical current is applied. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. However. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field.g.with active carbon. therefore. which can store more energy than double layer effects. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.
simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. and transformed ammeters. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. For example. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. record the potentiometer's wiper position. There are many implementations for null detectors. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . For more on circuit transformations. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. as discussed at the top of this article. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. At this time. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected.
but this was never adopted by any other design. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. and IEC 60268-17. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. The first high fidelity deck. which could be switched to average both channels. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3.5-1942. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. British Standard BS 6840. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. . How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. When LEDs were developed. or either channel. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. The Nagra V. they were often used to indicate peak levels. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. the Advent used only one meter. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement.
If the level is set too low. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. As a rule. noise levels will be high. If set too high. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. .Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level.
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