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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. 5. 3. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . 2. this consists of some components which are :1.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy.
Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them.A loudspeaker. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. When something vibrates. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. When it flexes out on one side. it moves the air particles around it. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. When your eardrum vibrates. When the bell flexes away. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. you first need to understand how sound works. . To see how this works.flexes in and out -. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. . Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. the metal vibrates -. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side.a bell. or speaker. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. When you ring a bell.rapidly. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear.
which determines how loud the sound is. In the next section. • A microphone works something like our ears. Making Sound . we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. Our brain interprets this motion as sound.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. the pitch is lower. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth.In this way. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. We hear this as a higher pitch. • Air-pressure level .This is the wave's amplitude. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. When you play this signal back on your stereo.
This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. etc. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. LP. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. creating sound waves. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. which can be encoded onto CDs. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. etc. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. When everything is working as it should. . so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. which represents the original sound wave. like a piston. tapes. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals.the reverse of the microphone. These two magnets -. When the coil moves. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field.interact with each other as any two magnets do. CD. LPs. In this way.In the last section. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole.
Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. such as iron. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. But unlike a permanent magnet.This. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. in turn. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. In the next section.typically a black one and a red one. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. . Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. For this reason. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. If you reverse the flow of the current. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. Essentially.and it is attracted to iron objects. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system.
A mid-range speaker. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. . typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. also called a squawker. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure.
Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. in most cases. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. In this case. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. without requiring relative motion between its parts. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. and. which induces a voltage in the other windings. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding.
The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. . is an example of electromagnetic induction. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. The effect. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. with an open circuit secondary winding.primary and secondary windings. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). and. called mutual inductance.
In the hypothetical ideal transformer. respectively. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. . Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. In addition. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. Hence in an ideal transformer. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . increased current flows in the primary circuit. or equivalently. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. For example. In this way. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. or alternatively. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding.
N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. voltage. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. Since a direct current by definition does not change. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. f is the frequency in hertz. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. Operation at different frequencies . The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. In a practical transformer.
and a given core is able to transfer more power. etc. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. By frequency range (power. water cooled. losses.) By purpose (distribution. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. arc furnace. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . fan cooled. impedance matching. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. audio. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). etc. circuit isolation). amplifier output. For example. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. Generally. oil filled. By operating at higher frequencies. However.). By application (power supply. other properties of the transformer. also increase with frequency. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. At a frequency lower than the design value. with the rated voltage applied. rectifier.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency.
Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. and would therefore be 100% efficient. Transformer with electrostatic screen.75%. Step-down or step-up transformer. may be less than 85% efficient. In practice. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. but does not usually show the exact ratio. . which prevents capacitive coupling between the. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. Transformers are. in general. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. Transformer with three windings. Small transformers. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss).
Mechanical losses . Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. At higher frequencies. an effect known as magnetostriction. causing resistive heating. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.
By concentrating the magnetic flux. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. Since the steel core is conductive. and consuming a small amount of power. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. it. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. and be converted to heat. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. has . more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings.In addition to magnetostriction. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. Winding resistance dominates load-losses. too. such as the transformer's support structure.
all the E's are stacked on one side. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. After the required thickness is achieved. When power is then reapplied. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. The gap area is very large. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. the lower the eddy currents. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. and the lower the losses. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. In the EI transformer.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. leading to the name "EI transformer". For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). The thinner the laminations. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. and holding them closed by a steel strap. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). Like toroidal cores. usually after a few cycles of the applied . Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. Due to the bending of the core. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. they have the advantage. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced.
and neon signs. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. level. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. over the life of the transformer. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. ii) Solid cores . or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms.alternating current. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. mercury vapor lamps. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. and false operation of transformer protection devices. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. or a controlled. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. insert air gaps. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Ferrite. extending to the VHF band and beyond.
Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. This minimises the length of wire needed. including toroids. The top right is toroidal. At even higher. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. or ferrite. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. called ferrites. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. . These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. are common. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. from powdered iron. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. radio-frequencies (RF). and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. depending on operating frequency. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers.
Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. depending on the space available. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. and sometimes additional insulation. to reduce losses. flat toroid or a tall. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. for a given power output. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. or aluminium rectangular conductors.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. must be electrically insulated from each other. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. copper. compared to EI types. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. include smaller size (about half). The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). When fitting a toroidal transformer. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. Other advantages. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. either a wide. The wire used is generally magnet wire. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. physical size. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. Strip conductors are . narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. and in the different windings. As a consequence. lower weight (about half). This last point means that. single-bolt mounting. insulated usually with enamel. and more choice of shapes.
have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. Taps may be connected to an automatic. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers.used for very heavy currents. Each strand is insulated from the other. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. . used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. oscillators. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. or throughout the whole winding. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. Audio-frequency transformers.
an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. By cooling the windings. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. and as part of the insulation system. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. electrostatic shields. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. but at increased manufacturing cost. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . The shield is connected to earth ground. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary.
and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. the application of a vacuum. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. If found to be leaking. cost. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. and thus switches off the transformer. or combinations of these. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. using vapor-phase heat transfer. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. The oil cools the transformer. stable silicone-based oils. and its accumulation in the environment.high-power transformers. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). it should be changed out. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. non-toxic. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. Transformers handling higher power. electrical self-heating. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. that is stable at high temperatures. . Formerly. Today.
as described above. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. and 115 volts between one end . Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts.but not the core steel loss. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. For example. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. which is tapped at some point along the winding.
or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. As the same winding is used for input and output. where the transformer is seen by the load . among other factors. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. lighter. In practice. which reduces efficiency somewhat.and the tap. For power transformer applications. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. and a smaller core can be used. allowing for very small increments of voltage. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. an autotransformer is cheaper. even with a constant voltage input. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances.
(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers . it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.
There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. The most common connections are Y-Δ. and is connected in series with a capacitor. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. If the secondary is a Δ winding. acts as an inductor. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . Δ-Δ and Y-Y. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. The resonant coil. Due to resonance. usually the secondary.For three-phase power. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). Δ-Y. three separate single-phase transformers can be used.
efficiency is low. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. B-1. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. temperature and physical CT configuration. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0. However. rating factor. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. B-2. external electromagnetic fields. B-0.5.1. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver.0 and B-4. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers.0. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. In the latter case. B-0. load.2.0. This means a CT with . The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present.
It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. Recently. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services." or 10% of the nominal current. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. or "full load.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void.2 can tolerate up to 0. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy.0 times the nominal rating. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. Often times. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. Afterall.a burden rating of B-0.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. slight inaccuracies may occur. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. . For example. the most inaccurate component is the CT. Not to mention. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law." of the CT) of primary current. Conversely. in an electric metering circuit. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load.
Typically. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. 2s2 and so on. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. Yn. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. For a three-stacked CT application. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). ii) Voltage transformers . For example. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. 1s2. often in the presence of high voltages. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. 2s1. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. Often. Zn.
X1. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. X2. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. For new. or rework. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . meter packages. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage.2kV) meter packages. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. The terminal identifications (H1. Y1. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Y2. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. This applies to current transformers as well. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12.5kV) or generation voltage (13. etc. to match the input ratings of protection relays. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude).Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary.) are often referred to as polarity. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits.
iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. the larger this product. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. the larger and more expensive the transformer. thereby raising its Q factor. and a high open-circuit inductance. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. In power-type pulse transformers. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. wound around ferrite or other types of core. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9.radar. or other high energy pulsed power applications. For the same reason. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. particle accelerators. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. Generally speaking. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial .
vii) Speaker transformers . but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. the speakers require high current at low voltage. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. high power handling increases the required core size. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. All this makes for an expensive component. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example.
even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). Tannoy) applications.. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance.g. In addition. At the audio amplifier. the ability to adjust. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . Then. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. locally. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. This application is common in public address (e. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps.
Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. See linear variable differential transformer. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. or radar antenna. See synchro and resolver. Large. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. . Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Electric power transmission over long distances. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices.
. this is about 15. In the case of television sets. Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads.7kHz. It may be as high as 75 .120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier.
and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC..S. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts.A.Types of transformers In general. at significant power levels. . transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current.
Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. intended to pass current in only one direction. usually germanium or silicon. and P-type material. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). and the negative terminal is called Cathode. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. Semiconductor diode can be very small. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes.
. They can be used as amplifiers. voltage regulators. it is known as a bridge rectifier. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. frequency controllers. and in many other types of circuits. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. oscillators. switches. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input.the semiconductor diodes. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. When used in its most common application. the polarity of the output is constant. mixers. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics.
this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. and returns to the input supply via the lower one.Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. it permits normal . • In each case. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. That is. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC.
Since about 1950. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. Let us assume the transformer is working .
through the secondary of T1. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. through D2. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. . Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. This path is indicated by the solid arrows. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. through D3. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. up through RL. and back to point A. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. up through RL.
This is especially the case in power-supply filters. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. This stack is then rolled up. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. in rectifier output.
. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. and will increase the life of the capacitor. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). A constant forward bias is preferable. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density.face of the cylinder. Unlike most capacitors. Both of these are shown in the picture. and generally only usable at low voltage. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. but ruptures can still be dramatic. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. and if the short circuit current is excessive.
Some very old tantalum electrolytics. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. however most of these have corroded away by now. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte.e. i. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance).Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. notably gloves and safety glasses. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. risking significant personal injury. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. RESR is the equivalent series resistance. often called "Wet-slug". when working with the electrolyte. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage.
7 or 6. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. however this unit is often too large for practical uses.8 by a power of ten. Variants . meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. 1. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. 3. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. 15. 47. For example. Since the electrolytes evaporate.2. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. Using this method. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. and so on. 220. 22. 4. within the tolerance. which is suitable for most applications.0. 100.5. 33.linearly with RESR. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. 68. values ranging from 0. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature.3. Therefore. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. In the manufacturing process. 2.
Over a long time. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide.Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. causing the capacitor to fail. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. causing the capacitor to fail. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. In addition. Tantalum: . electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC.000. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. the liquid can dry out. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling). this type of specification is acceptable. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors.
these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. However. which is then connected to an external wire lead. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte.7 V. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. RuO2. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. eg. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. NiO. For example. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. which has a high surface area per unit volume. unlike aluminum electrolytics.compact. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. IrO2. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. etc. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. and very low impedance at low frequencies. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. the same . The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. as the dielectric. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. Smaller units (in the 0.
which can store more energy than double layer effects. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. and pseudocapacitance. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. in electric vehicles. therefore. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. When an electrical current is applied.with active carbon. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. can attain huge values. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. For use as a voltmeter.g. up to thousands of farads. e. However. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. Potentiometer . Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance.
and transformed ammeters.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. For more on circuit transformations. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. as discussed at the top of this article. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . At this time. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. For example. record the potentiometer's wiper position. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. There are many implementations for null detectors. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected.
The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs.5-1942. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. British Standard BS 6840. which could be switched to average both channels. they were often used to indicate peak levels. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. The first high fidelity deck. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. . but this was never adopted by any other design. the Advent used only one meter. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. The Nagra V. When LEDs were developed. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. and IEC 60268-17. or either channel. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels.
.Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. noise levels will be high. If set too high. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. As a rule. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. If the level is set too low. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels.
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