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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
3. 2. this consists of some components which are :1.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . 5.
When something vibrates. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure.rapidly. To see how this works. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. When you ring a bell.flexes in and out -. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on.a bell. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. When the bell flexes away. .A loudspeaker. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. it moves the air particles around it. When your eardrum vibrates. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. When it flexes out on one side. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. you first need to understand how sound works. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. or speaker. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. the metal vibrates -. .
a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . which determines how loud the sound is. We hear this as a higher pitch. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. • Air-pressure level . the pitch is lower. In the next section. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. Our brain interprets this motion as sound.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. Making Sound . When you play this signal back on your stereo. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. • A microphone works something like our ears.This is the wave's amplitude. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations.In this way.
In the last section. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. CD. which represents the original sound wave. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. In this way. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation.interact with each other as any two magnets do. tapes. LP. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. LPs.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. creating sound waves.the reverse of the microphone. . We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. When the coil moves. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. These two magnets -. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. like a piston. etc. etc. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. When everything is working as it should. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. which can be encoded onto CDs.
For this reason. But unlike a permanent magnet. Essentially. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. in turn. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second.and it is attracted to iron objects. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. . This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. In the next section. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil.This. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -.typically a black one and a red one. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. If you reverse the flow of the current. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. such as iron. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire.
typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. . Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. A mid-range speaker. also called a squawker.
The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. in most cases. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. and. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. In this case. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. which induces a voltage in the other windings. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. without requiring relative motion between its parts. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer.
a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. and. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit.primary and secondary windings. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . The effect. with an open circuit secondary winding. is an example of electromagnetic induction. called mutual inductance. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. . a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding.
the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. or equivalently. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: .NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. . The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. or alternatively. In this way. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. respectively. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. For example. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. Hence in an ideal transformer. increased current flows in the primary circuit. In addition. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load.
Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. Operation at different frequencies . The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. Since a direct current by definition does not change. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. voltage.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. f is the frequency in hertz. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. In a practical transformer. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat.
transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation.) By purpose (distribution. other properties of the transformer. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. etc. audio. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. oil filled. However. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . with the rated voltage applied. arc furnace. By operating at higher frequencies. rectifier. Generally. also increase with frequency. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. circuit isolation). By application (power supply. At a frequency lower than the design value. and a given core is able to transfer more power. etc. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. fan cooled. amplifier output. By frequency range (power. water cooled. For example. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. losses. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. impedance matching.). Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA).
In practice. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. Transformer with electrostatic screen. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. may be less than 85% efficient. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99.75%. . and would therefore be 100% efficient. Transformers are. Step-down or step-up transformer.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. Small transformers. in general. Transformer with three windings. but does not usually show the exact ratio. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. The symbol shows which winding has more turns.
Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. Mechanical losses . Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. causing resistive heating. At higher frequencies. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). an effect known as magnetostriction. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.
Winding resistance dominates load-losses. By concentrating the magnetic flux. it. has . Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. Since the steel core is conductive. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. too.In addition to magnetostriction. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). and consuming a small amount of power. such as the transformer's support structure. and be converted to heat. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer.
leading to the name "EI transformer". The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. When power is then reapplied. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). In the EI transformer. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. the lower the eddy currents. some area is lost for a rectangular winging.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. usually after a few cycles of the applied . The gap area is very large. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. After the required thickness is achieved. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. all the E's are stacked on one side. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. and the lower the losses. Due to the bending of the core. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. they have the advantage. and holding them closed by a steel strap. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. Like toroidal cores. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. The thinner the laminations. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced.
and false operation of transformer protection devices. extending to the VHF band and beyond. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. mercury vapor lamps. over the life of the transformer. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. and neon signs. or a controlled. ii) Solid cores . induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. Ferrite. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. insert air gaps. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. level. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents.alternating current. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher.
The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. At even higher. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. including toroids. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. The top right is toroidal. This minimises the length of wire needed. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. depending on operating frequency.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. from powdered iron. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. called ferrites. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. are common. . and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. or ferrite. radio-frequencies (RF). Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core.
Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. physical size. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. for a given power output. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. either a wide. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. flat toroid or a tall. single-bolt mounting. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. to reduce losses. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. must be electrically insulated from each other. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. or aluminium rectangular conductors. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). and in the different windings. Other advantages. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). depending on the space available. lower weight (about half). Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. compared to EI types. As a consequence. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. copper. and sometimes additional insulation. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. This last point means that. When fitting a toroidal transformer. and more choice of shapes. Strip conductors are . Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. insulated usually with enamel. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. The wire used is generally magnet wire. include smaller size (about half). toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA.
This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. Taps may be connected to an automatic. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. Each strand is insulated from the other. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers.used for very heavy currents. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. Audio-frequency transformers. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. . used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. or throughout the whole winding. oscillators. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding.
thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. but at increased manufacturing cost. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. By cooling the windings. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. The shield is connected to earth ground. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. and as part of the insulation system. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. electrostatic shields. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. Specific provision must be made for cooling of .
Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. or combinations of these. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. and thus switches off the transformer. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. that is stable at high temperatures. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Transformers handling higher power. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled.high-power transformers. non-toxic. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. and its accumulation in the environment. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. electrical self-heating. Formerly. cost. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. it should be changed out. stable silicone-based oils. Today. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. If found to be leaking. . or toxicity compared with mineral oil. the application of a vacuum. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. using vapor-phase heat transfer. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. The oil cools the transformer.
and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. which is tapped at some point along the winding. as described above. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. For example. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. and 115 volts between one end . in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output.but not the core steel loss. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas).
the flux in the core is partially cancelled. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). an autotransformer is cheaper. By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. where the transformer is seen by the load . among other factors. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. For power transformer applications. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. which reduces efficiency somewhat.and the tap. In practice. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. As the same winding is used for input and output. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. and a smaller core can be used. allowing for very small increments of voltage. lighter. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. even with a constant voltage input.
(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .
Δ-Y. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. and is connected in series with a capacitor. acts as an inductor. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. The resonant coil. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. usually the secondary. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. If the secondary is a Δ winding.For three-phase power. The most common connections are Y-Δ. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. Due to resonance. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding.
rating factor. load. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. B-0. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current.0 and B-4. external electromagnetic fields.5. temperature and physical CT configuration. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. However. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. This means a CT with .0. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers.2.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. efficiency is low. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver.1. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. B-0. B-1.0. In the latter case. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. B-2. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0.
While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. slight inaccuracies may occur. Afterall.0 times the nominal rating. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. For example. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. Conversely. Not to mention. . Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy.2 can tolerate up to 0. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. the most inaccurate component is the CT.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. Recently. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services.a burden rating of B-0. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors." or 10% of the nominal current. in an electric metering circuit." of the CT) of primary current. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. Often times. or "full load. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature.
Yn. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. often in the presence of high voltages. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. Often. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. For a three-stacked CT application. 1s2. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Typically. Zn. ii) Voltage transformers . Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. 2s1. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. 2s2 and so on. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. For example. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs).
Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . or rework. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. Y1.) are often referred to as polarity. etc. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. The terminal identifications (H1.5kV) or generation voltage (13. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1.2kV) meter packages. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. meter packages. This applies to current transformers as well. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. X1. to match the input ratings of protection relays. Y2. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. X2. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. For new.
because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. wound around ferrite or other types of core. For the same reason. In power-type pulse transformers. Generally speaking. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . the larger this product. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers.radar. or other high energy pulsed power applications. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. particle accelerators. and a high open-circuit inductance. thereby raising its Q factor. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. the larger and more expensive the transformer. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance.
(The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. vii) Speaker transformers . Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. the speakers require high current at low voltage. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. All this makes for an expensive component. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. high power handling increases the required core size.
Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system).g. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. Tannoy) applications. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. locally.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. At the audio amplifier. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. In addition. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. the ability to adjust. This application is common in public address (e. Then..
See linear variable differential transformer. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. . Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. or radar antenna. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. Electric power transmission over long distances. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). See synchro and resolver. Large.
Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion.120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). . Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. this is about 15.7kHz. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. It may be as high as 75 . In the case of television sets. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator.
but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. . Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U.A. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source.S. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current.Types of transformers In general. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies.. at significant power levels.
and P-type material. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. usually germanium or silicon. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). intended to pass current in only one direction. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . Semiconductor diode can be very small. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material.
.the semiconductor diodes. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. switches. and in many other types of circuits. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. voltage regulators. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. oscillators. it is known as a bridge rectifier. mixers. frequency controllers. They can be used as amplifiers. When used in its most common application. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. the polarity of the output is constant. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input.
the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. and returns to the input supply via the lower one. • In each case. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. That is.Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. it permits normal .
• Prior to availability of integrated electronics. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Let us assume the transformer is working . Since about 1950. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works.
This path is indicated by the solid arrows.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. up through RL. through D2. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. through D3. through the secondary of T1. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. up through RL. and back to point A. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. .
It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. This stack is then rolled up. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. in rectifier output. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies.
or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. .face of the cylinder. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. and if the short circuit current is excessive. Unlike most capacitors. but ruptures can still be dramatic. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. and generally only usable at low voltage. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. and will increase the life of the capacitor. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. Both of these are shown in the picture. A constant forward bias is preferable. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies.
Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . when working with the electrolyte. often called "Wet-slug". and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. i. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. risking significant personal injury. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. however most of these have corroded away by now. RESR is the equivalent series resistance. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance).e.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. notably gloves and safety glasses.
2. 4. Therefore. and so on. 3. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value.linearly with RESR.7 or 6. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. Variants . values ranging from 0. Using this method. which is suitable for most applications. 1.3. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. however this unit is often too large for practical uses.5. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. 220. 2. Since the electrolytes evaporate.0. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. 68. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. 22. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). In the manufacturing process. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. 15. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. 100. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. 33. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. For example.8 by a power of ten. 47. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. within the tolerance. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates.
000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. Tantalum: . causing the capacitor to fail. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates.Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. In addition.000. causing the capacitor to fail. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. the liquid can dry out. this type of specification is acceptable. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. Over a long time. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling).
these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. which is then connected to an external wire lead.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). further increasing the capacitor's energy density. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. etc. eg. the same . However. which has a high surface area per unit volume. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure.7 V. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. unlike aluminum electrolytics. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. Smaller units (in the 0. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. and very low impedance at low frequencies. as the dielectric. NiO. RuO2. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte.compact. For example. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. IrO2. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. Compared to aluminum electrolytics.
using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate.with active carbon. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter.g. However. When an electrical current is applied. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. up to thousands of farads. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. which can store more energy than double layer effects. in electric vehicles. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. can attain huge values. therefore. For use as a voltmeter. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. e. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. and pseudocapacitance. Potentiometer .
record the potentiometer's wiper position. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. There are many implementations for null detectors. For example. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. For more on circuit transformations. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. and transformed ammeters. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. At this time. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. as discussed at the top of this article.
they were often used to indicate peak levels. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. and IEC 60268-17. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. but this was never adopted by any other design. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16.5-1942. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. The first high fidelity deck. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. British Standard BS 6840. which could be switched to average both channels. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. or either channel. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. . the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. the Advent used only one meter. The Nagra V. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. When LEDs were developed.
If the level is set too low. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. noise levels will be high. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely.Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. If set too high. As a rule. .
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