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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
2. 5. this consists of some components which are :1. Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. 3. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER .
. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. When something vibrates. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. When the bell flexes away. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. When you ring a bell. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. To see how this works. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure.flexes in and out -. . The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. it moves the air particles around it. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). or speaker. you first need to understand how sound works. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. When your eardrum vibrates.rapidly.A loudspeaker. the metal vibrates -. When it flexes out on one side. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum.a bell.
This is the wave's amplitude. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. • Air-pressure level . When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. the pitch is lower. In the next section. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. When you play this signal back on your stereo. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. which determines how loud the sound is. • A microphone works something like our ears.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster.In this way. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. Making Sound . We hear this as a higher pitch. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . which re-interprets it into physical vibrations.
LPs. When everything is working as it should. which can be encoded onto CDs. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. which represents the original sound wave. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. tapes.the reverse of the microphone. These two magnets -. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. etc. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. When the coil moves.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -.interact with each other as any two magnets do. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. creating sound waves. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. In this way. etc. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. LP. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. .In the last section. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. like a piston. CD. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker.
the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. In the next section. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. Essentially. If you reverse the flow of the current.This. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil.a "north" end and and a "south" end -.and it is attracted to iron objects. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. But unlike a permanent magnet. in turn. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -.typically a black one and a red one. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. such as iron. For this reason. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. . Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers.
A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. also called a squawker. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. . A mid-range speaker.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies.
All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. in most cases. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. In this case. and. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. without requiring relative motion between its parts. which induces a voltage in the other windings. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved.
the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. called mutual inductance. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. and. is an example of electromagnetic induction. The effect. . Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF).primary and secondary windings. with an open circuit secondary winding. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core.
respectively. increased current flows in the primary circuit. In this way. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. or alternatively. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. or equivalently. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. For example. Hence in an ideal transformer. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. . The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. In addition. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings.
50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. f is the frequency in hertz. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. voltage. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. Since a direct current by definition does not change. In a practical transformer. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. Operation at different frequencies .
circuit isolation).The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency.) By purpose (distribution. oil filled. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. arc furnace. However. fan cooled. At a frequency lower than the design value. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. By frequency range (power. Generally. amplifier output. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. etc. rectifier. By operating at higher frequencies. audio. other properties of the transformer. such as losses within the core and skin-effect. water cooled. and a given core is able to transfer more power. For example. with the rated voltage applied. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. losses. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. also increase with frequency. etc. impedance matching. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages.). By application (power supply. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA).
and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). The symbol shows which winding has more turns. In practice.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core.75%. Transformer with electrostatic screen. Small transformers. and would therefore be 100% efficient. in general. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. Transformer with three windings. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. but does not usually show the exact ratio. may be less than 85% efficient. Step-down or step-up transformer. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. Transformers are. .
a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). causing resistive heating. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. an effect known as magnetostriction. Mechanical losses . At higher frequencies. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.
and be converted to heat. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. By concentrating the magnetic flux. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. Since the steel core is conductive. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. such as the transformer's support structure. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). Winding resistance dominates load-losses.In addition to magnetostriction. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. and consuming a small amount of power. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. too. has . it. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork.
Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. the lower the eddy currents. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. Due to the bending of the core. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. usually after a few cycles of the applied . they have the advantage. and holding them closed by a steel strap. When power is then reapplied. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. In the EI transformer. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. leading to the name "EI transformer". the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). all the E's are stacked on one side. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. Like toroidal cores. and the lower the losses. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. After the required thickness is achieved. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. The thinner the laminations. The gap area is very large. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section.
This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. Ferrite. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. and neon signs. insert air gaps. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. or a controlled. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms.alternating current. extending to the VHF band and beyond. and false operation of transformer protection devices. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. ii) Solid cores . On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. over the life of the transformer. mercury vapor lamps. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. level.
These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. . These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. This minimises the length of wire needed.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. or ferrite. The top right is toroidal. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. At even higher. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. from powdered iron. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. depending on operating frequency. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. radio-frequencies (RF). including toroids. called ferrites. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. are common. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials.
less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). lower weight (about half). typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. to reduce losses. or aluminium rectangular conductors. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. depending on the space available. This last point means that. and in the different windings. The wire used is generally magnet wire. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. for a given power output. Strip conductors are . Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. single-bolt mounting. As a consequence. physical size. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. and sometimes additional insulation. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. must be electrically insulated from each other. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. copper. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). When fitting a toroidal transformer. compared to EI types. insulated usually with enamel. Other advantages. and more choice of shapes. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. either a wide. flat toroid or a tall. include smaller size (about half).
The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. Audio-frequency transformers. . High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. or throughout the whole winding. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. Each strand is insulated from the other. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings.used for very heavy currents. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. Taps may be connected to an automatic. oscillators.
and as part of the insulation system. but at increased manufacturing cost. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. By cooling the windings. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. The shield is connected to earth ground. electrostatic shields. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits.
and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. using vapor-phase heat transfer. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). The oil cools the transformer. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. non-toxic. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. cost. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers.high-power transformers. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. . Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. stable silicone-based oils. If found to be leaking. Transformers handling higher power. electrical self-heating. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. that is stable at high temperatures. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. or combinations of these. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. the application of a vacuum. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. and its accumulation in the environment. Today. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. and thus switches off the transformer. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. Formerly. it should be changed out.
and 115 volts between one end . Transformers may have a shield enclosure. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. as described above. which is tapped at some point along the winding. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. For example. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding.but not the core steel loss. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals.
In practice. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. For power transformer applications. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). even with a constant voltage input. lighter. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment.and the tap. which reduces efficiency somewhat. an autotransformer is cheaper. and a smaller core can be used. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. among other factors. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. where the transformer is seen by the load . The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. As the same winding is used for input and output. allowing for very small increments of voltage. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up.
it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .
and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. The most common connections are Y-Δ. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. If the secondary is a Δ winding. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. Δ-Y. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. Due to resonance. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine .For three-phase power. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. The resonant coil. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. usually the secondary. and is connected in series with a capacitor. acts as an inductor. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding.
external electromagnetic fields. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. rating factor. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers.0. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current.1. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation. In the latter case. B-1. However.0. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. This means a CT with .2.0 and B-4. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. B-2. efficiency is low. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. B-0. B-0. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. load. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. temperature and physical CT configuration.5.
Conversely.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current.0 times the nominal rating. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. Not to mention. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. Afterall. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. Often times. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT." or 10% of the nominal current. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius.a burden rating of B-0. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4.2 can tolerate up to 0. . slight inaccuracies may occur. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. in an electric metering circuit. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. the most inaccurate component is the CT. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. For example." of the CT) of primary current. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. or "full load. Recently. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature.
Zn. 2s1. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Typically. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. 2s2 and so on. For a three-stacked CT application. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. 1s2. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Often. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. often in the presence of high voltages. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. ii) Voltage transformers . with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). For example. Yn. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example.
X1. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. For new. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. or rework. Y1. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. X2. meter packages. Y2. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors.) are often referred to as polarity.5kV) or generation voltage (13. to match the input ratings of protection relays. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12.2kV) meter packages. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. This applies to current transformers as well. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The terminal identifications (H1. etc. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase.
the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. and a high open-circuit inductance. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . For the same reason.radar. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. the larger this product. thereby raising its Q factor. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. wound around ferrite or other types of core. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. In power-type pulse transformers. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. or other high energy pulsed power applications. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. the larger and more expensive the transformer. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. particle accelerators. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. Generally speaking.
vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. vii) Speaker transformers . the speakers require high current at low voltage. All this makes for an expensive component. high power handling increases the required core size. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers.
a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. locally. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). the ability to adjust. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. In addition. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature.. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. At the audio amplifier. This application is common in public address (e. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers . Then. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. Tannoy) applications.g.
in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. . See synchro and resolver. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. See linear variable differential transformer. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. Large. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. Electric power transmission over long distances. or radar antenna. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required.
Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion.7kHz. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). for example to match a microphone to an amplifier.120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. It may be as high as 75 . Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. In the case of television sets. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. this is about 15. . Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz.
A.Types of transformers In general.S. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another.. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies. at significant power levels. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. .
and P-type material. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. under conditions of forward bias (conduction).Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. Semiconductor diode can be very small. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. usually germanium or silicon. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. intended to pass current in only one direction. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow.
They can be used as amplifiers. . Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. the polarity of the output is constant.the semiconductor diodes. mixers. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. it is known as a bridge rectifier. When used in its most common application. voltage regulators. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. frequency controllers. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. oscillators. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. and in many other types of circuits. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. switches. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below.
it permits normal . Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. That is. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. and returns to the input supply via the lower one. • In each case.Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output.
a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. Let us assume the transformer is working . One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. Since about 1950.
This path is indicated by the solid arrows.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. up through RL. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. through D2. through D3. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. up through RL. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. through the secondary of T1. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. and back to point A. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. .
Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. in rectifier output. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. This stack is then rolled up. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . This is especially the case in power-supply filters. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences.
face of the cylinder. A constant forward bias is preferable. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. and will increase the life of the capacitor. . The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. and generally only usable at low voltage. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. Both of these are shown in the picture. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. but ruptures can still be dramatic. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. and if the short circuit current is excessive. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. Unlike most capacitors. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode.
connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. however most of these have corroded away by now. contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. i. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. RESR is the equivalent series resistance.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. risking significant personal injury. when working with the electrolyte. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. often called "Wet-slug". Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased.e. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). notably gloves and safety glasses. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and .
A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. however this unit is often too large for practical uses.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature).7 or 6. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. 2. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area.linearly with RESR.0. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value.5. 4. 68. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. 1. 100. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. For example. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors.2. values ranging from 0. 220. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. which is suitable for most applications. Since the electrolytes evaporate. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. Variants .8 by a power of ten. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. 47. 3. and so on. In the manufacturing process.3. 15. Values are generally in microfarads (µF). Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. within the tolerance. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value. 22. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. Using this method. 33. Therefore.
the liquid can dry out. Over a long time. In addition. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture.000. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors.Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling). the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. causing the capacitor to fail. this type of specification is acceptable. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. Tantalum: . these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. causing the capacitor to fail.
compact. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2.7 V. which has a high surface area per unit volume. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. the same . For example.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). unlike aluminum electrolytics. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. RuO2. which is then connected to an external wire lead. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. etc. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. and very low impedance at low frequencies. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. NiO. IrO2. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. However. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. as the dielectric. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. eg. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. Smaller units (in the 0.
It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. However. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. Potentiometer . When an electrical current is applied. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. e. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable.g. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. For use as a voltmeter. in electric vehicles. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. can attain huge values.with active carbon. and pseudocapacitance. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance. therefore. which can store more energy than double layer effects. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. up to thousands of farads. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors.
thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. At this time. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. record the potentiometer's wiper position. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. There are many implementations for null detectors. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. and transformed ammeters. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. For example. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. as discussed at the top of this article. For more on circuit transformations. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit.
meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly.5-1942. or either channel. British Standard BS 6840. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. which could be switched to average both channels. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. The first high fidelity deck. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. the Advent used only one meter. When LEDs were developed. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. and IEC 60268-17. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. but this was never adopted by any other design. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. they were often used to indicate peak levels. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. The Nagra V. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. . 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC.
which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. noise levels will be high. As a rule. If the level is set too low. If set too high. . usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control.Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels.
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