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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
2. this consists of some components which are :1. 3.The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4. 5. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER .
An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles.A loudspeaker. When your eardrum vibrates. Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum.rapidly. creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. When it flexes out on one side.a bell. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. When something vibrates. and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure. The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. it moves the air particles around it. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. or speaker. .flexes in and out -. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). you first need to understand how sound works. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction. To see how this works. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. the metal vibrates -. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. When you ring a bell. When the bell flexes away. .
the amplifier sends it to the speaker. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. • A microphone works something like our ears. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere.This is the wave's amplitude. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area.A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. Making Sound . Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. When you play this signal back on your stereo. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. which determines how loud the sound is.In this way. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . We hear this as a higher pitch. we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. • Air-pressure level . In the next section. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. the pitch is lower. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations.
A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. When everything is working as it should.the reverse of the microphone. These two magnets -. etc. which can be encoded onto CDs. etc. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. which represents the original sound wave. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape.In the last section. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves.interact with each other as any two magnets do. . Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. In this way. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. creating sound waves. like a piston. it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. LPs. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. LP. tapes. CD. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. When the coil moves.
If you reverse the flow of the current.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. such as iron. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles.typically a black one and a red one. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. In the next section.This. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch.and it is attracted to iron objects. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. But unlike a permanent magnet.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles. . we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. Essentially. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. For this reason. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. in turn.
is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. . also called a squawker. A mid-range speaker. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz. others only work up to 1 kHz or less. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz.Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies.
which induces a voltage in the other windings. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. and. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. without requiring relative motion between its parts. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. in most cases. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. In this case.
In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. with an open circuit secondary winding. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . and. the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. called mutual inductance. a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. is an example of electromagnetic induction.primary and secondary windings. . The effect. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit.
the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. or equivalently. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. In this way. respectively. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary. In addition. For example. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. . Hence in an ideal transformer. or alternatively. increased current flows in the primary circuit. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding.
magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. f is the frequency in hertz. Since a direct current by definition does not change. this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. Operation at different frequencies . a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. voltage. In a practical transformer.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit.
other properties of the transformer. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. with the rated voltage applied. fan cooled.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. impedance matching. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . arc furnace. At a frequency lower than the design value. transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. circuit isolation). such as losses within the core and skin-effect. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. etc.) By purpose (distribution. audio. also increase with frequency. rectifier. oil filled. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. amplifier output. etc. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level. However. By operating at higher frequencies. losses. Generally. By frequency range (power. and a given core is able to transfer more power. By application (power supply. For example. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays.). water cooled.
in general. Small transformers.75%. Step-down or step-up transformer. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. Transformers are. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss). Transformer with three windings. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. and would therefore be 100% efficient. . The symbol shows which winding has more turns. but does not usually show the exact ratio. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss.Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. In practice. Transformer with electrostatic screen. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. may be less than 85% efficient.
The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. At higher frequencies. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). causing resistive heating. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. an effect known as magnetostriction. Mechanical losses . Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed.
These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. Since the steel core is conductive. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. By concentrating the magnetic flux. more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. and consuming a small amount of power. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. such as the transformer's support structure. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. and be converted to heat. it. too. has . Winding resistance dominates load-losses.In addition to magnetostriction.
Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. The gap area is very large. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. usually after a few cycles of the applied . That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). The thinner the laminations. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation. leading to the name "EI transformer". Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. all the E's are stacked on one side. Due to the bending of the core. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. In the EI transformer. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. After the required thickness is achieved. the lower the eddy currents. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. and holding them closed by a steel strap. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. When power is then reapplied. and the lower the losses. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. Like toroidal cores. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. they have the advantage. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together.
especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. mercury vapor lamps. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. or a controlled. insert air gaps.alternating current. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. extending to the VHF band and beyond. level. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. Ferrite. so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. ii) Solid cores . On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. over the life of the transformer. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. and neon signs. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. and false operation of transformer protection devices. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight.
iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. or ferrite. The top right is toroidal. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. are common. This minimises the length of wire needed. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. At even higher. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. from powdered iron. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. including toroids. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. . and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. radio-frequencies (RF). called ferrites. depending on operating frequency.
Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire. As a consequence. lower weight (about half). This last point means that. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. must be electrically insulated from each other. physical size. Strip conductors are . it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. compared to EI types. for a given power output. insulated usually with enamel. When fitting a toroidal transformer. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. copper. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. Other advantages. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. to reduce losses. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). or aluminium rectangular conductors. and more choice of shapes. and in the different windings. flat toroid or a tall. single-bolt mounting. The wire used is generally magnet wire. either a wide. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. and weight of switch-mode power supplies. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. depending on the space available. lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). and sometimes additional insulation.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. include smaller size (about half).
(see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. or throughout the whole winding. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding.used for very heavy currents. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. . Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. Taps may be connected to an automatic. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. oscillators. Audio-frequency transformers. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. Each strand is insulated from the other.
This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. electrostatic shields. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. The shield is connected to earth ground. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. but at increased manufacturing cost. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. By cooling the windings. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. and as part of the insulation system.
This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. the application of a vacuum. and its accumulation in the environment. Transformers handling higher power. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. . Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled.high-power transformers. The oil cools the transformer. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. cost. and thus switches off the transformer. it should be changed out. stable silicone-based oils. Formerly. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. using vapor-phase heat transfer. electrical self-heating. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. non-toxic. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. Today. that is stable at high temperatures. or combinations of these. or toxicity compared with mineral oil. If found to be leaking. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner.
and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. as described above. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. For example. in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output.but not the core steel loss. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. and 115 volts between one end . A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. which is tapped at some point along the winding.
where the transformer is seen by the load . CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. even with a constant voltage input. an autotransformer is cheaper. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). which reduces efficiency somewhat.and the tap. As the same winding is used for input and output. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. lighter. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. For power transformer applications. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. and a smaller core can be used. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. In practice. allowing for very small increments of voltage. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. among other factors. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core.
It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers . it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation.(ideally) as a constant source of voltage.
The most common connections are Y-Δ. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). acts as an inductor. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. If the secondary is a Δ winding. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. and is connected in series with a capacitor. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator.For three-phase power. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. The resonant coil. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). Δ-Δ and Y-Y. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. usually the secondary. Δ-Y. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. Due to resonance. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine.
This means a CT with . efficiency is low. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0.5. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers.0. rating factor. temperature and physical CT configuration. load. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. However.0. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. B-2.1. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current. B-0.2.0 and B-4. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. In the latter case. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. B-0. B-1. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. external electromagnetic fields.
2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current.a burden rating of B-0. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services. For example. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. the most inaccurate component is the CT. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. Often times. Not to mention. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. . It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. in an electric metering circuit." of the CT) of primary current. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. or "full load. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. Recently. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. slight inaccuracies may occur." or 10% of the nominal current. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. Conversely. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void. there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. Afterall. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load.0 times the nominal rating. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4.2 can tolerate up to 0. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1.
One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. ii) Voltage transformers . Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. Yn. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). Typically. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. For example. often in the presence of high voltages. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. 2s2 and so on. Zn. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. Often. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. 1s2. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. For a three-stacked CT application. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. 2s1. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications.
They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors.) are often referred to as polarity. meter packages. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer.5kV) or generation voltage (13. X2. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. etc. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. or rework. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. X1. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). For new. to match the input ratings of protection relays. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers.2kV) meter packages. Y1. Y2. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. The terminal identifications (H1. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. This applies to current transformers as well.
radar. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. particle accelerators. the larger and more expensive the transformer. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. and a high open-circuit inductance. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. For the same reason. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. or other high energy pulsed power applications. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . wound around ferrite or other types of core. the larger this product. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. thereby raising its Q factor. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. In power-type pulse transformers. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. Generally speaking.
Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. high power handling increases the required core size. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. the speakers require high current at low voltage. vii) Speaker transformers . electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. All this makes for an expensive component. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage.
the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature. the ability to adjust. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages.g. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. This application is common in public address (e.. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). In addition. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers .In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). locally. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. Then. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. Tannoy) applications. At the audio amplifier. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges.
Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. Large. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. See synchro and resolver. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries. or radar antenna. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Electric power transmission over long distances. . See linear variable differential transformer.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required.
It may be as high as 75 . The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz). Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. In the case of television sets. Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion.7kHz. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. .120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. this is about 15. for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores.
A.Types of transformers In general. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies. .S. at significant power levels.. Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source. The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U.
A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. usually germanium or silicon. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B. and P-type material. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. Semiconductor diode can be very small. intended to pass current in only one direction. The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode.
and in many other types of circuits.the semiconductor diodes. frequency controllers. voltage regulators. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. the polarity of the output is constant. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. When used in its most common application. switches. . Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. it is known as a bridge rectifier. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. mixers. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. oscillators. They can be used as amplifiers. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input.
That is. it permits normal . and returns to the input supply via the lower one. • In each case. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output.Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection".
the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). Since about 1950. Let us assume the transformer is working . a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time.
The path for current flow is from point B through D1. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. . and back to point A.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. through D3. This path is indicated by the solid arrows. up through RL. through D2. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. up through RL. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. through the secondary of T1. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them.
This stack is then rolled up. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. in rectifier output. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not.
The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. Both of these are shown in the picture. and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. and generally only usable at low voltage. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. but ruptures can still be dramatic. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. and if the short circuit current is excessive. A constant forward bias is preferable. . Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage.face of the cylinder. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. Unlike most capacitors. and will increase the life of the capacitor.
RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. often called "Wet-slug". contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. i. RESR is the equivalent series resistance.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased.e. notably gloves and safety glasses. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. when working with the electrolyte. risking significant personal injury. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. however most of these have corroded away by now.
design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %. Variants . Since the electrolytes evaporate. 3. within the tolerance. 4. Values are generally in microfarads (µF).linearly with RESR. 100. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature).7 or 6.8 by a power of ten. 15. Therefore. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. For example. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. 22. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. 47. 1. In the manufacturing process. and so on.2. values ranging from 0.3. 33. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. which is suitable for most applications. 68. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. 2. Using this method.0. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value.5. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. 220. however this unit is often too large for practical uses.
In addition. the liquid can dry out. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. Especially with aluminum electrolytics. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. causing the capacitor to fail. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors.Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling). the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. causing the capacitor to fail. this type of specification is acceptable.000. Tantalum: . Over a long time.
which is then connected to an external wire lead. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. NiO.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains.compact. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume. IrO2. the same . unlike aluminum electrolytics. which has a high surface area per unit volume. etc. For example. as the dielectric. However. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. and very low impedance at low frequencies. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density.7 V. RuO2. Smaller units (in the 0. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes. The electrodes are made of activated carbon. eg. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating.
therefore. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors.g. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. up to thousands of farads. in electric vehicles. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. However. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. and pseudocapacitance. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. can attain huge values.with active carbon. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. Potentiometer . capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. which can store more energy than double layer effects. e. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. For use as a voltmeter. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. When an electrical current is applied. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance.
The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. and transformed ammeters. record the potentiometer's wiper position. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. For example. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. At this time. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. as discussed at the top of this article. Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. For more on circuit transformations. There are many implementations for null detectors.
and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. . The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. The Nagra V. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. The first high fidelity deck. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. British Standard BS 6840. When LEDs were developed.5-1942. the Advent used only one meter. which could be switched to average both channels. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. they were often used to indicate peak levels. How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. but this was never adopted by any other design. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. and IEC 60268-17. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. or either channel.
Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. If set too high. As a rule. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. . and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. noise levels will be high. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely.Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. If the level is set too low.