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PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY:
INDRESH KUNWAR GAURAV SHAKYA SHIVJE
We would like to give our sincere thanks to the people who are directly or indirectly attached in completion of our project “ELECTRICAL ENRGY THROUGH SOUND” during the academic year 2009-2010.
We express our deep obligation to “Mr. FAHEEMULLAH, H.O.D. of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” for his kind initiation, invaluable guidance and keen interest throughout the project work, and preparation of this report. We are also grateful to “Mr. SHAHEBAN” Electrical Engineering Department for his worthy help in progressing the work. Last but not least we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our professors, friends and colleagues who helped us directly or indirectly in the completion of this project.
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2 Polarity 3 Safety 4 Electrical behavior of electrolytics 5 Capacitance 6 Variants 7 See also 8 External links References
This project is to construct a Sound Battery (generation of electrical energy by sound energy) and to study the current variation
by different sound frequencies in front of speaker working as microphone under Faraday’s Law. The main idea behind this project is that Now day’s there are so many vehicles running on the road’s with which there is a lot’s of noise pollution on the road’s. Government has made many rules to stop this but still it is same as before. We have try to solve this problem, but we also cannot get the solution for this. So finally we decided that if we cannot stop this noise pollution, we can take use of this noise pollution in our daily life by generating electricity with it. The project appears to be very simple (and it is ), but the important basic electronic operation are very profound. Virtually every electronic circuit in our house uses one or more of the concepts we are about to consider. In brief the circuit operation is as follows. Loud sounds received by the speaker generate AC voltage. The transformer steps these AC voltages up to a higher level so that may be more effective in causing a meter reading. The diode (bridge rectifier) changes the AC voltage into DC voltage which is required to drive the meter or LED (light emmiting diode). The meter uses the DC current to move the pointer (needle) of the meter so that we can see the effect of the generated electrical energy.
The project is basically used to generation of electrical energy by sound energy. this consists of some components which are :1. 3. 2. 5. Electrolytic capacitor Micro Volt Meter or LED SPEAKER . Speaker Transformer (step up) Diode (bridge rectifier) 4.
creating a drop in pressure that pulls in on more surrounding air particles. or speaker.A loudspeaker. An object produces sound when it vibrates in air (sound can also travel through liquids and solids. Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them. These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them. When you ring a bell. When the bell flexes away. the metal vibrates -. which creates another drop in pressure that pulls in particles that are even farther out and so on. which collide with the particles in front of them and so on. When your eardrum vibrates. is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. it moves the air particles around it. When something vibrates. To see how this works. but air is the transmission medium when we listen to speakers). The term loudspeaker is used to refer to both the device itself. Sound Basics To understand what and how speakers work. When it flexes out on one side. . and a complete system consisting of one or more loudspeaker drivers (as the individual units are often called) in an enclosure.rapidly. . Inside your ear is a very thin piece of skin called the eardrum. you first need to understand how sound works. Rapid changes in air pressure are the most common thing to vibrate your eardrum. let's look at a simple vibrating object -. carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air as a traveling disturbance. it pulls in on these surrounding air particles. it pushes out on the surrounding air particles on that side.a bell.flexes in and out -. your brain interprets the vibrations as sound -that's how you hear. This decreasing of pressure is called rarefaction.
A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuates faster. the pitch is lower. which re-interprets it into physical vibrations. a vibrating object sends a wave of pressure fluctuation through the atmosphere. • Air-pressure level . we'll see how the speaker accomplishes this. Differentiating Sound We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in: Sound-wave frequency . The signal from a microphone gets encoded on a tape or CD as an electrical signal. Making Sound .In this way. Sound waves with greater amplitudes move our ear drums more. • A microphone works something like our ears. it vibrates the eardrum back and forth. just like the ones originally picked up by the microphone. When there are fewer fluctuations in a period of time. Our brain interprets this motion as sound. the amplifier sends it to the speaker. We hear this as a higher pitch. It has a diaphragm that is vibrated by sound waves in an area. and we register this sensation as a higher volume. which determines how loud the sound is.This is the wave's amplitude. In the next section. When the fluctuation wave reaches your ear. When you play this signal back on your stereo. Good speakers are optimized to produce extremely accurate fluctuations in air pressure.
interact with each other as any two magnets do. Making Sound: Magnets So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. tapes. CD. the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field. In this way. etc. The frequency and amplitude of this wave. This vibrates the air in front of the speaker. we saw that sound travels in waves of air pressure fluctuation. so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. These two magnets -. which can be encoded onto CDs. A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -. Players convert this stored information back into an electric current for use in the stereo system. creating sound waves. etc. and that we hear sounds differently depending on the frequency and amplitude of these waves. and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole.In the last section. dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. When everything is working as it should. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly. LP.the reverse of the microphone. . it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches.the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -. LPs. the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape. When the coil moves. like a piston. which represents the original sound wave. We also learned that microphones translate sound waves into electrical signals.
and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers.typically a black one and a red one. Essentially.a "north" end and and a "south" end -. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -. Making Sound: Voice Coil The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire and black wire. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles.it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal. determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. In the next section.This. such as iron. For this reason. you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire. If you reverse the flow of the current. we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range. the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around. But unlike a permanent magnet. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system. . in turn. The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -. the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal. Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles. then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -. loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers.and it is attracted to iron objects.
others only work up to 1 kHz or less. .Types Of Speakers: A woofer is a driver capable of reproducing low (bass) frequencies. A tweeter is a driver capable of reproducing the higher end of the audio spectrum. A mid-range speaker. is designed to cover the middle of the audio spectrum. The usable frequency range varies widely according to design. also called a squawker. usually from about somewhere around 3-5 kHz up to 20 kHz and beyond. Whilst some woofers can cover the audio band from bass to 3 kHz. Some woofers are capable of very deep bass performance in the proper enclosure. typically from 200 Hz to about 45 kHz. Midranges are used when the other drivers are incapable of adequately covering the mid audio range. while others become unusable below 50 or 60 Hz.
All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts. yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. in most cases. the core requires negligible magnemotive force to sustain flux. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. and. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings.Transformer A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling. In this case. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both . without requiring relative motion between its parts. Coupling by mutual induction The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. which induces a voltage in the other windings. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no resistance in its coils. The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. and all flux linking the primary winding also links the secondary winding.
induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to . with an open circuit secondary winding.primary and secondary windings. is an example of electromagnetic induction. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core. Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux: and where vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding. called mutual inductance. If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of turns. The effect. and. . a voltage is induced in the neighboring coil. a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit. so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit.
Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. In this way. the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled. dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings. the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding. P = EI (power = electromotive force × current) 50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2. The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to flow in a secondary circuit. the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady. (See note 1) Now with transformer change: . In addition. or alternatively. the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings. increased current flows in the primary circuit. The MMF produced by current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. . Hence in an ideal transformer.NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. For example. or equivalently. In the hypothetical ideal transformer. respectively. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: where vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary.
voltage. it produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core. Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation. magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law): where E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding. direct current applied to the winding will create only heat. The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. N is the number of turns of wire on the winding. the relationship for either winding between its number of turns. a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas. Operation at different frequencies . this quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in the secondary winding.50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. f is the frequency in hertz. Since a direct current by definition does not change. In a practical transformer.
amplifier output. water cooled. At a frequency lower than the design value. For example. Classifications Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways: By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA). and a given core is able to transfer more power. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. fan cooled. with the rated voltage applied. etc. By frequency range (power. such as losses within the core and skin-effect.). transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with overexcitation protection. oil filled. audio. to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load. By application (power supply. rectifier. Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. radio frequency(RF)) By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts) By cooling type (air cooled. By operating at higher frequencies.The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. circuit isolation). also increase with frequency. losses. transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation. arc furnace. etc. However. other properties of the transformer.) By purpose (distribution. Generally. so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays. impedance matching. By ratio of the number of turns in the coils Circuit symbols . the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level.
and would therefore be 100% efficient. Transformer with electrostatic screen. WINDINGS • Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no losses. energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2R loss. The symbol shows which winding has more turns. may be less than 85% efficient. Transformers are. but does not usually show the exact ratio. such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings. Step-down or step-up transformer. Small transformers. .75%. in general. and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss).Standard symbols Transformer with two windings and iron core. In practice. highly efficient: large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99. which prevents capacitive coupling between the. Transformer with three windings.
Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. Eddy currents Induced eddy currents circulate within the core. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores. a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. causing resistive heating. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material. an effect known as magnetostriction. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing sound). skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Mechanical losses . Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping ageing of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago. At higher frequencies.Transformer losses Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed.
too. Stray losses Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. Winding resistance dominates load-losses. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses.In addition to magnetostriction. Since the steel core is conductive. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. Losses may be either load-dependent('load-losses') or independent of it ('no-load loss'). it. creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise. and be converted to heat. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. Construction A) Cores i) Steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. By concentrating the magnetic flux. has . more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects. and consuming a small amount of power. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer. such as the transformer's support structure.
the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced. The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. Usually two Ccores are used to shorten the return path for the magnetic flux resulting in a form similar to the EI. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents. Using a longer E and wedging it with two small Is will increase the overlap and additionally make the grains more parallel to the flux (think of a wooden frame for a window). The gap area is very large. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. That means saturation occurs at half the flux density. and the lower the losses. The thinner the laminations. Like toroidal cores. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. leading to the name "EI transformer". That means that on one end all flux is only on every second E. and all the I's on the other creating a gap. usually after a few cycles of the applied . all the E's are stacked on one side. After the required thickness is achieved. Due to this interleaving a second gap in parallel (in an analogy to electronic circuits) to the gap between E and I is formed between the E-pieces. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. In the EI transformer. the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. and holding them closed by a steel strap. it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. they have the advantage. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. so that the effective gap width is very small (in analogy to a capacitor). If an air gap is needed (which is unlikely considering the low remanence available for steel). Due to the bending of the core. More cores would necessitate a triangular cross-section. A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. some area is lost for a rectangular winging. For this to work the flux has to gradually flow from one E to the other. The E-pieces are pressed together to reduce the gap width to that of the insulation.currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces. When power is then reapplied. the lower the eddy currents. that the flux is always in the oriented parallel the grains.
Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths. or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass.alternating current. extending to the VHF band and beyond. Ferrite. In order to maintain good voltage regulation. insert air gaps. Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel. over the life of the transformer. especially audio transformers that have a DC component added. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by the reduction in core and winding weight. ii) Solid cores . so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms. or a controlled. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. Ferrite is used in higher frequency applications. distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance. Some types of very thin steel laminations can operate at up to 10 kHz or higher. mercury vapor lamps. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe. or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. level. and false operation of transformer protection devices. and neon signs.
These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. from powdered iron. including toroids. iii) Air cores High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. iv) Toroidal cores Various transformers. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials. Other shapes include so-called E-cores and C-cores. radio-frequencies (RF). The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. but more expensive cores with circular crosssections are also available. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. . or ferrite. Cores are available in a wide variety of shapes. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. At even higher. The top right is toroidal. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance.Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. This minimises the length of wire needed. depending on operating frequency. are common. called ferrites.
include smaller size (about half). The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size. for a given power output. compared to EI types. and in the different windings. insulated usually with enamel. and more choice of shapes. depending on the space available. The wire used is generally magnet wire. typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz. The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. When fitting a toroidal transformer. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire.Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). and weight of switch-mode power supplies. flat toroid or a tall. B) Windings The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil. to reduce losses. physical size. Strip conductors are . lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). This last point means that. making a loop of conductive material that passes through the hole in the toroid. it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. which is a varnished type of magnet wire. single-bolt mounting. must be electrically insulated from each other. low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen. and sometimes additional insulation. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. As a consequence. or aluminium rectangular conductors. copper. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt. either a wide. Other advantages. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends. lower weight (about half). then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings.
and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. Each strand is insulated from the other. . This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. Audio-frequency transformers. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small. and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits. oscillators. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. Taps may be connected to an automatic. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections.used for very heavy currents. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size is. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers. (see reference (1) below) For signal transformers. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. C) Insulation of windings The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. or throughout the whole winding. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve highfrequency response.
but at increased manufacturing cost. or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further insulation. The shield is connected to earth ground. Specific provision must be made for cooling of . an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. Certain power transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate. or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer. the insulation will not break down as easily due to heat. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil. air spaces within the windings are replaced with epoxy. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air-cooling.Supplemental sheet or tape insulation is usually employed between winding layers in larger transformers. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil. Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields. the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. Although the oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. it also helps to reduce the formation of corona discharge within high voltage transformers. thereby sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments. and as part of the insulation system. By cooling the windings. insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn. D) Shielding Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. electrostatic shields. or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of nearby devices that may be sensitive to stray fields such as CRTs.
high-power transformers. Old transformers that still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. . This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. and thus switches off the transformer. to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulphur hexafluoride gas. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly refined mineral oil. and professionally decontaminated or scrapped in an environmentally safe manner. non-toxic. the application of a vacuum. electrical self-heating. Transformers handling higher power. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB by-products. If found to be leaking. using vapor-phase heat transfer. oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. and its accumulation in the environment. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. Today. Formerly. Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings). or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled. it is no longer permitted in new equipment. The oil cools the transformer. and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. cost. or combinations of these. it should be changed out. stable silicone-based oils. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. that is stable at high temperatures. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. or toxicity compared with mineral oil.
a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. and 115 volts between one end . bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts. which is tapped at some point along the winding. Transformer types and uses A) Autotransformers An autotransformer has only a single winding. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output. E) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. F) Enclosure Small transformers often have no enclosure. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil. Transformers may have a shield enclosure. and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas). in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. as described above. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap.but not the core steel loss. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. For example. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding.
lighter. the flux in the core is partially cancelled. smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. an autotransformer is cheaper. where the transformer is seen by the load . For power transformer applications. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage constant regardless (within some limits) of any variance in the primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. an autotransformer with a nearcontinuously variable turns ratio can be obtained. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. In practice.and the tap. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. As the same winding is used for input and output. even with a constant voltage input. which reduces efficiency somewhat. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. The output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. allowing for very small increments of voltage. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. for the regulating action is dependent on core saturation. and a smaller core can be used. among other factors. B) Constant voltage transformer (ferro-resonance) By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. and installing a resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding). By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush.
It can be calculated from the following formula: Characteristic of CVT Physical view Circuit diagram C) Polyphase transformers .(ideally) as a constant source of voltage. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current.
For three-phase power. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. The resonant coil. usually the secondary. acts as an inductor. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. and is connected in series with a capacitor. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. D) Resonant transformers A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. Δ-Y. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). Due to resonance. The most common connections are Y-Δ. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. Δ-Δ and Y-Y. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine . These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. such as a square or Sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. If the secondary is a Δ winding. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown.
A voltage-regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each half-cycle of the alternating current. E) Instrument transformers i) current transformer A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. efficiency is low. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. This means a CT with . B-1.Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor. rating factor. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. external electromagnetic fields.2. However. which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage.1. load.0. The burden in a CT metering circuit is essentially the amount of impedance (largely resistive) present. B-0. temperature and physical CT configuration. In the latter case.0. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. Typical burden ratings for CTs are B-0.0 and B-4. B-2. B-0. due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation.5. This accuracy is directly related to a number of factors including the following: burden. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers.
there are some issues when attempting to apply theory to the real world. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. the relative cost of a 500:5 CT is significantly greater than that of a 200:5." of the CT) of primary current. Afterall.0 is most accurate between 20A (light load)and 800A (4. Not to mention. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch blocks meters and intermediate conductors. While previous revisions of CTs were on the order of 500:5 with a rating factor of 1. a 200:5 CT with a rating factor of 4." or 10% of the nominal current. Physical CT configuration is another important factor in reliable CT accuracy.0 times the nominal rating. It is important to center primary conductors as they pass through CTs to promote the greatest level of CT accuracy. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. While all electrical engineers are quite comfortable with Gauss' Law. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. For example.5 yielding an effective range of 50A to 750A. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. Often times.2Ω of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) void.a burden rating of B-0. This is an 11% increase in effective range for two CTs that would be used at similar services. or "full load. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. A CT usually demonstrates reduced capacity to maintain accuracy with rising ambient temperature. Recently. .2 can tolerate up to 0. Conversely. the most inaccurate component is the CT. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. slight inaccuracies may occur. in an electric metering circuit.
The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio. multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. For example. Typically.Current transformers (CTs) are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. 2s1. Yn. ii) Voltage transformers . wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. 2s2 and so on. Zn. the secondary connection points are labelled as 1s1. 1s2. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. For a three-stacked CT application. Often. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. often in the presence of high voltages. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. the secondary winding connection points are typically labelled Xn. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary.
and sometimes an X3 tap may be present.) are often referred to as polarity. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. Y1. X2. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. or rework. iii) Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for . Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. This applies to current transformers as well. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. For new. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. meter packages.2kV) meter packages. etc. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. Y2. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. VTs are typically only installed in primary voltage (typically 12. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1.5kV) or generation voltage (13. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages.Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. X1. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The terminal identifications (H1. to match the input ratings of protection relays.
the larger this product. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. and a high open-circuit inductance. particle accelerators. In power-type pulse transformers. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary.radar. thereby raising its Q factor. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial . Generally speaking. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. wound around ferrite or other types of core. or other high energy pulsed power applications. the larger and more expensive the transformer. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. For the same reason. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. iv) RF transformers (transmission line transformers) For radio frequency use. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. v) Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits.
but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. All this makes for an expensive component.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all.cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example. bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. vi) Audio transformers Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. high power handling increases the required core size. vii) Speaker transformers . the speakers require high current at low voltage.
the ability to adjust. a large audio transformer may be used to stepup the low impedance. Then. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps. the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature.g. viii) Small Signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. At the audio amplifier. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. ix) 'Interstage' and coupling transformers .In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio. a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. This application is common in public address (e. locally. Tannoy) applications.. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage. even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). In addition.
See linear variable differential transformer. Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head. See synchro and resolver. and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers. or radar antenna. Large. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism. Uses of transformers For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage. A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other. For regulating the secondary output of a constant voltage (or ferro-resonant). Electric power transmission over long distances. specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking. Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. . in which a combination of core saturation and the resonance of a tank circuit prevents changes in the primary voltage from appearing on the secondary. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries.A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices.
120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors. . It may be as high as 75 . for example to match a microphone to an amplifier. Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching. Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 30-1000 kHz. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator.7kHz. Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. this is about 15. In the case of television sets. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz).
Power Transformers Power transformers are used to convert from one voltage to another. The CRT display tube of your computer monitor requires thousands of volts. Step-up transformers A "step-up transformer" allows a device that requires a high voltage power supply to operate from a lower voltage source.. at significant power levels. Examples: • • You are a Swiss visiting the U.Types of transformers In general. Limitations • • • • Transformers alone cannot do the following: Convert DC to AC or vice versa Change the voltage or current of DC Change the AC supply frequency. . The transformer takes in the low voltage at a high current and puts out the high voltage at a low current. but must run off of 110 VAC from the wall.S.A. and want to operate your 220VAC shaver off of the available 110 VAC. transformers are used for two purposes: signal matching and power supplies.
The positive terminal of a • diode is called Anode. Electron movement is contrary to the arrow. and the negative terminal is called Cathode. The schematic symbol for a semiconductor diode is shown at B.Diode • A diode is a tube or semiconductor device. under conditions of forward bias (conduction). Semiconductor diode can be very small. intended to pass current in only one direction. Positive current flows in the direction of the arrow. Diode can be used for a wide variety of different purposes. The older tube type diodes are much bulkier and less efficient than . A diode consists of N-type semiconductor material. The semiconductor diode is far more common than the tube diode in modern electronic circuits. and still handle hundreds or even thousands of volta at several amperes. usually germanium or silicon. Electrons flow into the N-type material and out of the Pterminal. and P-type material.
for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. Some of the tube type diodes require a separate power supply for the purpose of heatihg a filament. it is known as a bridge rectifier. . The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. mixers. They can be used as amplifiers. and in many other types of circuits. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage.the semiconductor diodes. frequency controllers. voltage regulators. the polarity of the output is constant. oscillators. Semiconductor diodes are used for many different purposes in electronics. When used in its most common application. Diode Bridge A diode bridge or bridge rectifier (occasionally called a Graetz bridge) is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. switches. Schematic of a diode bridge • The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input.
Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. That is. it permits normal . • In each case. this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. and returns to the input supply via the lower one.Basic operation • When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner. the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. • When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner.
We have discussed transformers in previous modules in the NEETS series and will not go into their characteristics at this time. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Since about 1950. How Bridge Rectifier works When four diodes are connected.functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC inputpower supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). Let us assume the transformer is working . and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. One complete cycle of operation will be discussed to help you understand how this circuit works. • Prior to availability of integrated electronics. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings.
through D2. up through RL. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. The positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown in waveform (5). and back to point A. You should have noted that the current flow through RL is always in the same direction. up through RL. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverses. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse bias D2. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. through D3. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B.properly and there is a positive potential at point A and a negative potential at point B. through the secondary of T1. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. This path is indicated by the solid arrows. . forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3.
It was largely responsible for the development of mainspowered radio receivers. one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies. This was not practical without the small volume and low cost of electrolytic capacitors. Construction Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminium foils. The electrolytic capacitor was invented in 1921 by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. This stack is then rolled up. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity.Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. after it was rectified to power the radio tubes. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. in rectifier output. This is especially the case in power-supply filters. making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular . since it permitted the filtering of the 50-60 hertz power supplied to residences.
and it is the thinness of this layer that provides high capacitance. . and will increase the life of the capacitor. denoting the adjacent terminal that should be more negative than the other. the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric. but ruptures can still be dramatic.face of the cylinder. electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads. Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit. but circuits should be designed so that there is not a constant reverse bias for any significant amount of time. Polarity In aluminum electrolytic capacitors. Modern capacitors have a safety valve on one circular face to vent the hot gas/liquid. Unlike most capacitors. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction (see Redox reactions). A constant forward bias is preferable. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per metre. Tantalum capacitors are more expensive than aluminum-based capacitors. Both of these are shown in the picture. then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. Most will survive with no reverse DC bias or with only AC voltage. and if the short circuit current is excessive. Electrolytics can withstand a reverse bias for a short period of time. but they have higher capacitance per unit volume and lower impedance at high frequencies. or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. thus they are popular in miniature applications such as cellular telephones. but they will conduct significant current and not act as a very good capacitor. and generally only usable at low voltage. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density.
e. RESR is the equivalent series resistance. It is important to follow safe working practice and to use appropriate protective equipment. Some very old tantalum electrolytics. and any areas of the body where skin contact has occurred should be washed in good time. Were this to happen the capacitor may self-distruct with spectacular and damaging results. notably gloves and safety glasses.Safety The electrolyte is usually boric acid or sodium borate in aqueous solution together with various sugars or ethylene glycol which are added to retard evaporation. RESR must be as small as possible since it determines the loss power when the capacitor is used to smooth voltage. LESL the equivalent series inductance (L being the conventional symbol for inductance). i. often called "Wet-slug". contain the more hazardous sulfuric acid. Care should be taken to avoid ingestion of or eye contact with the electrolyte. connected to a circuit where the negative terminal voltage is more positive than the positive terminal voltage. Loss power scales quadratically with the ripple current flowing through and . when working with the electrolyte. Electrical behavior of electrolytics A common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor has the following schematic: where Rleakage is the leakage resistance. Particular care needs to be taken with electrolytic capacitors in that the device should not be reverse-biased. however most of these have corroded away by now. risking significant personal injury.
15. Low ESR capacitors are imperative for high efficiencies in power supplies. By multiplying these base numbers by a power of ten. A standardized set of capacitor base numbers was devised so that the value of any modern electrolytic capacitor could be derived from multiplying one of the modern conventional base numbers 1. Therefore.7 or 6. reaching 15 years at 45 degrees. Values are generally in microfarads (µF).linearly with RESR.8 by a power of ten. Since the electrolytes evaporate. meaning that the manufacturer guarantees that the actual value of the capacitor lies within 20 % of its labeled value. Most electrolytic capacitors have a tolerance range of 20 %.5.0. 22. Variants . 68.3. The basic unit of capacitance is a farad. such as the thickness of the dielectric and the plate area. design life is most often rated in hours at a set temperature. electrolytic capacitors are made to conform to a set of preferred numbers. 100. Design life doubles for each 10 degrees lower.2. 33. Capacitance The capacitance value of any capacitor is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored per unit of potential difference between the plates. which is suitable for most applications. typically as 2000 hours at 105 degrees Celsius (which is the highest working temperature). Using this method. It should be pointed out that this is only a simple model and does not include all the effects associated with real electrolytic capacitors. values ranging from 0. 2. For example. however this unit is often too large for practical uses. 4. 47. Selection of the preferred series ensures that any capacitor can be sold as a standard value. any practical capacitor value can be achieved. 3. In the manufacturing process. and so on. so microfarad and picofarad are more commonly used. it is common to find capacitors with values of 10. 1.1 to 4700 are common in most applications. 220. within the tolerance. Many conditions determine a capacitor's value.
Unlike capacitors that use a bulk dielectric made from an intrinsically insulating material. but maintaining the integrity of the dielectric usually requires the steady application of the correct polarity of direct current else the oxide layer will break down and rupture. Tantalum: . Especially with aluminum electrolytics.000. For most purposes (such as power supply filtering and signal coupling). In addition. these are available in the range of <1 µF to 1. this very thin dielectric allows for much more capacitance in the same unit volume. Electrolytic capacitance values are not as tightly-specified as with bulk dielectric capacitors. it is quite common to see an electrolytic capacitor specified as having a "guaranteed minimum value" and no upper bound on its value. the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors depends on the formation and maintenance of a microscopic metal oxide layer.000 µF with working voltages up to several hundred volts DC. the liquid can dry out. Over a long time. The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminum oxide. causing the capacitor to fail. electrolytic capacitors generally use an internal wet chemistry and they will eventually fail as the water within the capacitor evaporates. Bipolar electrolytics contain two capacitors connected in series opposition and are used for coupling AC signals. An electrolytic capacitors come in several types: Aluminum electrolytic capacitor: compact but lossy. They contain corrosive liquid and can burst if the device is connected backwards. this type of specification is acceptable. causing the capacitor to fail. Compared to bulk dielectric capacitors.
have very high capacitance values but low voltage ratings. The electrodes for EDLCS could also be made by transition metal oxides. which is then connected to an external wire lead. which has a high surface area per unit volume.compact. useful for electric vehicles and solar energy applications. IrO2. The anode electrode is formed of a chemically deposited semi-conductive layer of manganese dioxide. However. NiO. Compared to aluminum electrolytics. The thin layer of oxide and high surface area of the porous sintered material gives this type a very high capacitance per unit volume.1 F – 10 F range) are frequently used instead of (or in addition to) batteries to supply standby power to memory circuits and clocks. these have a lower energy density and are more accurate than aluminum electrolytics. with the dielectric electrochemically formed as a thin layer of oxide. A development of this type replaces the manganese dioxide with a conductive plastic polymer (polypyrrole) that reduces internal resistance and eliminates a selfignition failure. also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. further increasing the capacitor's energy density. these capacitors have an extremely high energy density. As the energy stored is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. Tantalum capacitors are also polarized because of their dissimilar electrodes.7 V. the same . The electrodes are made of activated carbon. The cathode electrode is formed of sintered tantalum grains. they are intolerant of voltage spikes and are destroyed (often exploding violently) if connected backwards or exposed to spikes above their voltage rating. low-voltage devices up to about 100 µF. Individual EDLCs can have capacitances of hundreds or even thousands of farads. as the dielectric. etc. Smaller units (in the 0. For example. Electrolytic double-layer capacitors Electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). RuO2. rather than a manufactured sheet of material. eg. the Korean company NessCap offers units up to 5000 farads (5 kF) at 2. Electrodes made by metal oxides store the charges by two mechanism: double layer effect. tantalum capacitors have very stable capacitance and little DC leakage. They use a molecule-thin layer of electrolyte. and very low impedance at low frequencies. unlike aluminum electrolytics.
However. EDLCs can be used as replacements for batteries in applications where a high discharge current is required. capacitor voltage drops faster than battery voltage during discharge. The voltage can be measured by allowing it to pass a current through a resistance. unlike conventional batteries which last for only a few hundred or thousand recharge cycles. therefore. When an electrical current is applied. The moving coil galvanometer is one example of this type of voltmeter. in electric vehicles. which can store more energy than double layer effects. The angular rotation is proportional to the current that is flowing through the coil. a series resistance is added so that the angular rotation becomes proportional to the applied voltage.g. can attain huge values. so a DC to DC converter may be used to maintain voltage and to make more of the energy stored in the capacitor usable. Aerogel capacitors Aerogel capacitors. They can also be recharged hundreds of thousands of times. It employs a small coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field.with active carbon. For use as a voltmeter. Volt Meter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. the galvanometer's indicator rotates and compresses a small spring. Potentiometer . One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and hence the instrument should draw a minimum of electric current to operate. a voltmeter can be seen as a very high resistance ammeter. and pseudocapacitance. e. up to thousands of farads. using carbon aerogel to attain immense electrode surface area. This is achieved by using a sensitive ammeter or microammeter in series with a high resistance.
Now replace the unknown voltage supply with the known voltage supply and repeat the procedure.A voltmeter may also be realized using a potentiometer. record the length of wire between the wiper and the end of the wiper that is in our circuit. simple audio circuits that click to indicate voltage difference. if our potentiometer were a length of very long wire and our wiper were some sort of metal wand in contact with that wire. Then the wiper position is adjusted to change the potentiometer's effective resistance until a balance is obtained and no current is detected. while the known voltage source is connected to an end terminal of the potentiometer. One may also measure voltage using a potentiometer in the nullbalance method. For example. as discussed at the top of this article. including nanovolt-sensitive integrated circuits. and transformed ammeters. for instance) and a "wiper" that can short-circuit any portion of the material. which is a length of uniform resistance material (wire or carbon film. Level is in dB and time is in seconds . record the potentiometer's wiper position. thereby changing effective resistance between the wiper and an end terminal of the potentiometer. The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. At this time. There are many implementations for null detectors. The unknown voltage is then given by the product of the known voltage and the recorded used length of wire corresponding to the unknown voltage. note Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. divided by the recorded length of wire corresponding to the reference voltage. The unknown voltage source may be connected to a current detector. which is in turn connected to the potentiometer's wiper. The potentiometer's resistance is changed at the wiper until the null detector shows zero voltage between the two circuits. For more on circuit transformations. VU meter A VU meter is often included in analog audio equipment to display a signal level in volume units.
How to use a VU meter Tape and cassette decks typically used physical meters similar to needles on a compass. . British Standard BS 6840. The behaviour of VU meters is defined in ANSI C16. averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument. The instrument used to measure VU is called the volume indicator (VI) instrument. and is not optimal for measuring peak levels. When LEDs were developed. The first high fidelity deck. 0 VU was defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 vu when it is connected to a 600-ohm resistance in which is flowing one milliwatt of sine-wave power at 1000 cycles per second The typical VU scale is from −20 to +3. Computer recording software often emulates an array of LEDs. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC. for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. and later arrays of them replaced mechanical meters. the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. which could be switched to average both channels.It is intentionally a "slow" measurement. the Advent used only one meter. the latest digital version of a professional reel-to-reel recorder dating from the 1960s still uses analog meters. and IEC 60268-17. Most users ignore this and call it a VU meter. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds. The needles would be "pegged" when they hit the physical pegs which stopped the maximum motion of the needle. they were often used to indicate peak levels. but this was never adopted by any other design.5-1942. The Nagra V. meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly. and later LCD and fluorescent displays which are not subject to Newton's laws of motion to limit reaction time. or either channel.
Systems tailored for voice often incorporate automatic level control.Peak levels may be displayed in addition to the current level. . the sound quality and frequency response is typically poorer at high recording levels. noise levels will be high. which is typically required for recording live music rather than compressed television or radio broadcasts. recording levels should be set so that they do not exceed the red area beyond 0 VU or only rarely. and clipping effects can be especially severe for a digital recording system. As a rule. If the level is set too low. usually not defeatable in inexpensive recorders. VCR's only rarely included VU meters when they provided a manual level control. If set too high.
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