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To ash'c i 5 m~'yo



, ,o.:JfR!IbJU:h~ 81!1miy.(Ii~bi, - Date of hidlrm 1911

- !B~mi! ~~o~T)' ,1!,pp:lr.~nt;!Ce5hip 'no 1004,

- S't.:;IJl"t is! Q\'j;'I1, Cillt.c:U prise in H130

- ,-, ·1"!.1,e{l, in n1fl,VY 1944:-1946

- Memblii'r of' f'''-'r.(:[1IJri 'K~O:ki;d". m'l,!lctvOO lilli

de..9~Sl!l and OOI'!!3Q'!J!Ci;lOn of remples Pi"e,~i'e.:s., 'Wood sho:p d_ra,~~]'j:gs .rO:i:' Iisllin G<JJkJlleTI Higastiini:j,Bigh Sell 001 (19.83-


Gelll;g:o M:I!t~lII~

- ~b" of biffb 1900

- 'Grncioot:es i~, Ard'jj~"uliii' rrll1lm W;;;J;!':e.da

Ull:lii'l,i',~rsji,y.' ], !}JJ,3

- R.toel:Ve.s Doc~:Oj" or Ef.gin~rmg 1900

- Prof~T of" Wa:;eda lJi)j,~ ~Hll 196]

- Dir('(il:tlr of I:nc JilI.p<iiflCSC r,nmooiliBde

Associa.titml Ul79

C' TOlT;;I1ilnic.nm S1Jjm~,oohi and Gaigo. Mm.-, Ii:R~· 19.89

Fir-HI. iPtlhllitJ.OO iD JI1 lm by

K1Ij'im_:;i, ]'licl:il'itu~ Pilibl,islliiug ,Q).~ L'td. ~l1Id piiiIJ.ting,~ 'MA.y 1900,

En~i!;lh III"~lEL'!:lIBJron frem the Jii1JpaJrll~il: IIiI,

199'] by P~,e K,Q·~cs, \dvj'oo.r A~,~ G ~, _

[':IN::M)r:p~d and ,ediwd by Janos Co', agy lP:rinm:cci in Jiii.:pait'li

Japanese arel itecture brinp 00 mind tupendous ,B1.1Jddhis[ remplti~ and shrines, 'pius the three- and ffi~s~()ry pagodas. AmOrlg$.l these sacred places, one cannot bel.p be.1ng overwhelmed b~' [he r'ad" snee 'emanating om the .stD"U(:[UI"e-S. The pUdty of the liaes lea ves us in awe.

Master crafrsmea, 'inspired, by tbe beauty O'f th£ Japil.nese cypress :and ~eJkova and influenced by '[he japanese eukure pr'odi'llcedi these works of art.

Behind the beauty lies the skill and knowh:::dge. of an ~!~tI8an..T.b.e lbal'mDny o.f [he creation conceals the comphi x ity of the assem b]ag,~. Shtlple elements, such as, bea:ring blocks all play a ro]e in the final result,

There are ma.oy ways to join members togcther ~ learns call be ti~d. ~i'~h ropes, carved and assembled Of connected withili1S screws and glue, When these stru,ctUtrf;iS ~e erected, jqining \,I!:lS ~m e;:nremmy elaboraae technique,

aster jointers were derucate:d craftsmen responsible for splicm_g and. connectUlg elements of ,a bujkJing. MallY factm's had to be considered. The ccnnectiosrs h~d i(il be S"tf'(mg eneu h to tran:s:r.~r forces such as b nding, eorsion and shear, yet appear.ance was an important factor. A variety of techniques Biomet'i'mes si mp1€,. somerimes el~bor.-~JI! were dev~lo:poo"

W,e can only marvel at the soluncns adopted, They ook into aero t lime dep&tJ.cb-:nt process, such as :s~rln]~.age OJ slippage (a,used by dynamic. Load1ng. The inuicac' or the internal S rucrure of he jomm;: is hidden by the appan.:mt simplicity lor its appearance. 'Var]ou:s sbapes connect ml:o. each ether M[h ease .. Tills wjsdom, ]S the resulr of yearn of padent vrork; '''''1:: have much to learn from it.

Master Sumliyosbi and Professor Maf'Slti met while y.,l'orl{ing on the desi,g,n and const ucti,Q\D ,of E~shin Gakuen Higashino High School (ilrchi~ectu~~ by CbrLst.O'pher. AI~:llJ.nder) '.' The school, is famous, for 1ts large 'wood~n structure, '~he ' I st ersctoo in Japan fo'r many yearS!.

Master Sumiy~l:d c(j'Elluibutod his experience and knoo'iMgt; to the manry sp~ ices and )o(~n'ls ,~vailal;le ~o the o1JJJild,crs. P ofe-S$o[" Ma'tSu,1! we 'king as .an advisor \~~S deeply impressed by Master Sumi.yo.~hi'£ kno'liillledge. F'8~[ti~ his nreloIllg '-¥ISdiDm sJ:tmJJd not be Icst, be planned ,th'is: boek 'to p'r~r~ -a valuable Ir is to be or inttt~t to students or '\ -oede ' .. a:rchiT,f;chx·e ,', rd engineer-

ing worldwide.

The purpose or this book is mennoned in the authors' ~O'If~iments.

", ollo-l,Ilad£lYs! joints are made US'IDfJ metal pans. The spHces a ,d ,oon.nocrmg joint'S have 'become ,tnucll ~1mpl,elr. h is new possible to const uct large w~oden sU'ucrrures, using ~tal1.'dalr'd precesses, ,,' owev~ ~ lh~ uncertain propenie:s of ,rood have breughr forward the problem 0 weakening of the joinu.

Tru~ ~~CI[ll;:, goes back, 'Uli the fundamental of Jloi n~l'lg. It ls recommended to an ted nicians a nd als-o m a:rch.1 ects and . ngineef'S""

Yuklhiro Kamiyama P'rofe$.sor,~ W aseda . nivenity

This book elXplains splices and connecrlng joint'S ~f '~rt.iJdhio:nd Japapese wOQd~n arc..hhectm"C 'whh [pictures and diagr.!:[JJ)$. Although 'plenrry of books have been published 3!bOUl • pJices and oonnecming jQmnts nOIU:i of rhem hav-e used beth pic; ures and diagrams as Wus" ~rloni!i" In mel t caees, pictl;l'l"Ies, have O]]][y showed one or- two examples of a. 'P oint and it is difficrurt to {:Oml,p:r shend the comp~exi'ry :u[JJ,volved in joil1]~g rhe parts. ConsequendYI 'We decided tJO 'IlJJ5.'C several pictures .i\1rJ d diagrams showing the :s:~q uence of .assembly 'Wbic~l, will hOlPefllliUy make ' he descriptions eaJsilef' to [oLfCl\'ij,I. Dim~n9ions h:ave ,~ISQ been included, a. feature not found in most other publications.

Our lirs~ oh ectiv,e Is eo ensure t hat sraditional workmanship skil]s, are accurate y transferred to the next genera ion, Our :pl"l~d®oesSQ]'s accumulated the know-how necessary to achieve eomplea and effeaivc design OVe[- the y~[3 u The :i11!tricilJcy of the joints. e:Ji1harnc~ the characrer of the wood, br.1rngin.g it: alive, Many of these jamUl preserve dl~ natural strength ~',atio careful]y bala~cing shear, bm:n,d·i.ngj torsion, compression and shrinkage into account.

Our second olbjeelive is 10 see whether these techniques can be u1!ili:red in contempQI'ary architecture, Tbis book describes the or-igi~ Ia[ cheractcrlsrics o,f the joints. me mo.djJicationa, might be rtqurr.ed to make hem effeetlve fo.r today~a bu~ldin:g tc-Cbr.miogy,. Belts and modern adhesive could be used. The ~utho:r:s do Dot ,1IIan;r to make, .su'cb, p["o,~saJl~;. we leave 'it re [!h.~ rMders.

'. ·,.ay, 1989

To ~,aghichi Su,miyosbi 'Geng[! M~t_sui,

We ''Wowd J['ke to th~f,l!k Dr . Minoru. Tezu.ka, Assis~a[ilt at the M' Labora ;orr Qf Waseda U:olvf.1r:dty, in. Tokyo for IUs p emus 00 Dlributio, to this work. Gredil for the pictt. res igures, and! diagrams: gtlei to the Master degree students' of the same aboratery.

S:pe.c"al thallk~ 1:'Q Mr. Kertti.chirowa~(!i f'or helping w.ith ed"ring a l~ to all otlt~[~ 'who h.¢]p~d, along [he w,ay.

'We hereby express our ,gratitude',


Authors~ Comm nts

8,iPUcm'O JO'INTS ... ""'''''''''-' .. ,''>-_" ,_ .• -"" - ; -- " I"

_ • • ~ ~ _I!! _~ , __ ~ ~~~ 11.11 1111111111111'1. 11111111.1111111.[1 ... 11' •• 11 U.III1.11 II !I !I 'II !"! !I! iI

01 SEi~pped dove.taiJleOJ spliee 2

,02' S'ep. . d gooscllec:' - splice ,5

oa Rabbeted Qb lqjue s arf s._p]ic B

{~4 Mortised rabbeted obllq ue spl toe 11

{~5 nllnd stubbed, housed rabb red. oblique scarf :s:plice

,0.6 Tenon and ·rD~"]s.t> :spline ] 1

(1) Cro!li-~bap~d tenon and mm:ti~~ spfu::~

(2) R1gh't acgle ~enon and mortise :splk~

(3) Housed tenen and Inoni ~ pIke

(4) 'Blim.d tenon and mO:l1:b: ' spJ'ioe

n1 Halved rabbeted ob!iqiJ.L€: iSCUr splices. 21

(I} Tr]p1€.~Eabed halved rahb~~cdJ oblique scarf splitt "Iti~b .key (2} Mh ajimtll ~pJiioe

(3) QllJ,ad uple-Iaced halved rabbeted oblique scarf sP~ice

,OS Housed splices 26

(1) Housed rabbeted oblique :scarf :;j,pJiOCl! (2) Blind tenon and m~lrl:;isc

(3) Blind pin

(4) Blind key

(5) Pole tencn

09 Column spJices

(0 (2) (3)



our f~ces. gooseneck splice Chuf.i-·sh~p(:d splice

BI']. dl ;:Ilk~

.... ij

CON'"" . CTI ." ". JOIN"I"S , , , ~ ,."" " •. ~, " " , ··,,· .. 4i5

01 Hanr dO\f.etailed joml 46

02 Wedging jOiUlL'[ 48

Os. Blind '!I'oledgmg' jniil:t 50

~-4 H01:l~d dovdalled JOHn 52;

05 Sllmiyo:shl double tenon 55

.0 I) DOUilb\[e 'plug 58

07 dple p]u. 62

rOs Groll.niLd5ill eonneetors 67

(I) Housed

(2) bbbe~0d renee and mortise (3) OOll':Il! "or nliJte.r. tenon

09 '"~Kyoro,i system 12

76 80

1 'uOriokli' Systelll

11 Tie beam CQn~!eCtOr

].2 Ilip tarter jo.~nt 83

( 1) Tee-shaped g.;rdeF J:oint (:2) Ct'os:r-~ha,iied ,gfurder joint (~) &v,ded kahtmg

13 Ooffido. gi~··de]" 01

01 G~ble board lli.j

(1) Ogiu't}i with '~meas"'c.:l crossb:r..a:b~ (2) Dga:mi wir.h .~urF~ce cr·os:sbral))~ (3) Oga'mi wi/til stub tenon anel k,ey'

03·4vel 121

04 Bat~er post l22

~ .

OUI ~!l) ra .. A. :!i! fit i ,.ill: oommll:!n charaeterink ef all jQi ts. T.lrf~ "'J"int is simply Msem. Ibkd by ,g~Win.g m male m'nre th,.;: fs:m:ale. No ;;lINial '!ihif~"g i51 rill:qufut ed, This fe-ami"t': ms,l\;)t:'S tbi!i joi!ij~ P,l:!Ul'tit:lJd:tlJl;ly' I!.Ise:fw on. grouljd~ilI . Evcn though. n.his splft-crz: aims 1;0' r-.esisot tensklif:ll '11J, a "'f:~ :illii eilec;tk'll-ll: '~ ·n.:sU~ !}'tr-.eogd~ is small,

• SPlfa OJ • StllPlpeldl dl,avella'''~e' siplice

(KosMkak@ Ollii:fi's!ugi)

Thi!ii ~impl:e splk u; li~liz>edJ prim .rilly w jom gyaund:sills., The' mosl!: Wln~ncm h,~m. 001" ~ooonSi [",ang.; r[orn l,05mm eo 12~mm :squ..a:re. The ends 00 be 5:pt1md are ~.Qt~lw<i ~rt half depth, The ql\i:: is ;S11~~~ likJt Ithe

ail Q{'" a dove, narrow (lit ~e gmt ~ielll :n8lriJJng QlU~ The em <1J1 I!:: 'L!;. p~cisdy hohlO' ved


_~IMlPf1il EJI!YiI~
I I-
f PI ~I~·!-

Tfi 1
{ EIMiJm ~ I.-i!j- -£&--~ ~~
Ma'; I Fermi e ,

.-'. ---- -. --------~01 •

A test. '\ a,Si f:.Mr.~dl Oillt 011 l1J1fII ~ri5~m.·bI7r of t. ical dime:l!ls&CnnL

<f,h;::: ·re'!it·~d !iipl~f~ \\1'8.iS mad! or b~ac.k pine 'W'iitl1 ,~u ar;.'(! t'a&~ :iIIlnllJljJ.,a[ rmg w~dtll of 2:. ,!)mm, TIl<e 00111,pre$s.'j,w E,ar;plllc.ity {y9.erd



.... ' .......

I ~

'f1B~t. $!Jmple d'm nsi:t!IiS

L!ltren!)l'h) Qf black pine is ~20kgfcmz. The rc.malle rained. ~:n ten.s:iom hy d¢'!.1Ir.:lopi!!l_g a kmgitudhnd mack Oiigilfi~.u:'iug footlil a nook. l'nd! f(illow~ng th 'gr~ilJ. T~ ullitm.atoEl i:,emi1\e. !!lu'CI1!'SJth of I'h~ :9p~i'O!; \",r8~ 48.{lk:g.

1:ItSI;!~ jlTUTlit L.aad-displa,ci8r111ant WI"VC

After failure

gquarrn SlGct"on lIInn_lx:r benvem 150mrn. and 200mm_ For :!iii-"CriOlii$ or mere rhan 20®mm ' :sc.arl"f s-p!·ces De moee approprita·wo

Slepped gooseneck spree

(Kcs.hi k,g ke· k(ii'ii1ot,ugi~

nil! "oos .nc:ck splice: is also IlJlsed om ground:sm Is~ li:awev.- r I 'rt has a h4gh!l;f 5M'1f,I~gdl ling the d~t:(liicd. I!Jplioe. h!l p:ra~ ciee, it is, used lQ jQi~ .larrger lrumooii" SOl:tiofiS dllU'i th¢ p:~~Cld.inrg splree. The ~,'Qou:fl!'i:clt with t~tJi.,n'i and nlHOrme serves to .spike

TM't .sempl' , dimeruioJl!ts. AnfU~ dime'rI:5<101'kli ,iID"C .shown en ttk' next p.age,.

~[j r

Th kif file t.e5!l '\'I,'8.:S p!Z{fQ:riJlItdi P;IlI a'llI ass JOb)y of lh s· me ~i;;ti: and i1i·I.a:~erian. as rat' th~ dowtanl ~lPlke, ... \tt u11im~oo strong:dl~ t.,.;~ FfII!::r!rl{:!S of f8iJ.t·l!:re ooc'urf'OO. A~ fi'!i~~ !the

8- __ ":"'Rir1;;;';_-'!~1 _.. =1 m~:~ ~oo..riI1g, ... usn;,;g ,110 he.d! of

r _~~_ ~fr== J ~~[

J ~





the ,goo~t:dk a.gailRlt the 1;n,!lJtn'!c ms Qf th • teflllillh~~; end, ~h~ seeend 1li'LoOO~ iflioo~\"ed Lh,e. sh.eaifiug of a db al the head of d'l:, male ead, The- ultimate lIte:ngth IOf the m9dA.'!1 ~e:;sl~d was 2'.;IOOk& a.:si~irl£am im;:re~~ in :sur~ll!gdli wnilparcd IlC (M d.o"retailcd 5pJit'e. Dr.Ij

;-II..",,;f. ~.~~

. i

5 ~'{rmTlJ

Loafl..dlisplEl(:l;!ilmil;lrft e;I"INe

11 BRm'i'ng f,8iilurmc(!ie

2 :5heari.!'Ig 'f.i~l!Jr~, mQid~

AlrUf" 'f,a]Ju ~



, - -_ - -r· ._


.1 spua OJ- • :··ubb, eleldJ o· b-- . II Iii ~ -- ~

~ _ _ .. Ique

Siplicil (Okkake daism'l ~I!I gl)

rcnfef W'OO~, ~.e'ping the S!ur'fa,oei!;i of the midclle dro _ s ( urf ee ~d!H) in elnse 0011,. tag;t, The pieces are 11Jh~ pressed togem:he:. and secured by pounding in I''!NOI d![aw i~ill~,¢.~ ~n~r.1d[JIeking· the from a:nd back iS1IT'fa:Ce--s fir die: j(Jigt (stlJFfaces. ~~a~~). The plns ara inserted. ta'Q:l1tJ! the thkker. ~iildl wwar:-d (he tl iiiimell" eneI. in an alii. mate l:i;lshi[J!n. Unlike other obliq~.e searf s::plioos; no ~xi~1 :shifrn:.g is roq ll.ftlf:d '[1 . .i;!~$l:imbk t lis: spike. !IT.Jakimg it p.:IrticulW:'t'y ~ui~bJc fo.r' msralltilg ((Ii 'Ii1':pla.chng.a beam be~'i;"',een fi;:olioo slLlppor!8. Ck1" a ~il1 &Dc:.b£l1.lfd !poli'II~;!;This rabbeted ob1i(llCC scarf 1ll6uJd be' mere'p .Harely cahlte~ I';',t~ ed, o.bliqll;~e: scarf splice' .

F"Q!" -5m-rii~ sections, b' Wli~ii1 1 05mni U!, 'n ~'Omm, tI'Ie J~tt~ cd th.~ :s>,PIL1i:1ii! .sJrriD-iiid be.:3 .'t@ 4- ti~" tlhe" ;;;!ickih o.f ths :SB'OtiD.Fl,

! ; r ~~[
IS (hal~
~~ ] \ Th8 kl.POOii" wood ::!!t1des ower tJhe 'ow,e-,r WO-oa (till!! d'r.filwt lPiru; are 5'tIO'r;llll too d~5rJ18~ the' ditij.{;;,triol'l "of irlS~~.

_ he tensi.le Ite81 was alse can'ied Oft an. l05mm :sec~rol1l aBSe:rnbly ,mad& of black pin,e, An ewn 'b&ggew I)trr,';~]lgth in{:ro8J~ ith::!ll1L lhaJt or the ~~~k :s~lke 'W8~ 'I,lb~~ ned. 'fh~ jQlIri!'t fai['enJ 3't 40®Okg' by sRearlng through one of die adl e,;shm ~]OO~S,

T.bit> ;sp4; .e can b Wiled to join. gou mj~ ~ giirde s 10'11" The. '1l'!,!,10 ends oJ th(: jOlrilrts m' e identical ",!!!l dl reFe.u![;d mo as do' ~.ppc:r wood a:ocli\,- ... "(,J. ,"'OCld. 1\"10 lb1.Ol'tis:e8J .i:t~ d~~l'I;~d l·hrou.g;~1. the clepfl1l of: ~be :!:ip.liciI; rOT; ill.sllllitilJJ araJW wjn~, Th - joillll ics as~mb&:d !by :aUdling the ~l'U:U1iI3il. Iace of the upper ,,..'Dl'Hi over the inreenal fMe 0 I he'

, 1 , "

: I: IJ

Ii ! I

t I 89 I 89 ~ i9 I M I' I

L_ ]is J 173 I.!)

'.1Mi _I


.Arl"'am.g,em~ (l<f iI!IJl;ln s,alJge!!;i


- . -- ~ -.---

. . . -_-


the pJlndp:;IJl differ n . consists (!II h;jlj,lling , (Ii .shift away lin.un !l;!iIi h orh~r ~h~ lm,pper an~ to\-ve:r woods i,o comn,'~ -'~~ [he :spH.~. he: tensile test produced results,ldli::a1 ro :spliCE: 00.

Ie SPUCf 04 •

orl ~ se, I Ir,g,bbeled o b~ i'rque 5 pr~i ICe, (Kanowa hliUg'U~'

I3q(h ends (I' ~lile splice , n~ idclil1'i ~J.' ;oroy the upper wood ~!!il di$pliilJC 1 j n dl(! dlagra:m~ 'fbi!;; j~I~r;rr is< ",,100 assembled by !iHding over c8A;;h 'l~I:~CIi the. inrrer-:llal [aces of Uni!: lIppc:r ", ... rood 8ifi:d lo.lh'!Mr wood, k:(iill-,ping I ht! nrrae~ of '[he' middre drops ( surfaces old"') . n elose contact,! OOIli. pI,et:. this ~'PIi~ dt UPP[!j ~'0ollil is S lifred way [rom the ~I)\\'~ weed »lllIIlg [lite JOn;gitltlmn:al uxij~_ Fin~~II. ;;1, aingJ· dra",· ~in is m!S 'rwt:U b'CIl'!>'lGl:'n dn.e lukldle , t1itOPs" iJli~£fl«'!dr'Lg ~ht 11rDtll and back. sur .. th~8- m d'R!' joJ nt (~ur-,rOlceS. "~l~!). This, splice

LS .sim.ilJJr ~O' dte pt,,:eeedirng mile, [fl. I:h.i9, case,



-----~~~ .--i .

!'=- ~..__ ++'_------...,-.~ .... ~ F(]i' '5i:iil;hl!i~ i5<e(i'tio;F!~ Ibetwee!lll 'IO,SrTlim 'to

'I 2Omm. thE!: ~e~ !O,f the !;lp!~Ge s.'h.outodl be s:

W ,4 t:im il;!i 5, the 'Wiil1!~h! ,of t;'I1;e. 5eeti:Oi'!.


a II


A. ~ir1; in a.)li~1 di;f'i!j;~t'i~n opcen$ ~ ,iBP biSlt'N'6en tih'£l' WIiIddle dro,p", qf th~ IUfiPi!!oF ~nd loweii"' ~ods:,


= ~ ~ ~
15 116 ~, in; IS
II: ~II~
l~ I



' . ..


~. . I.


. I ...JI - -..I .,. ~ r . _I.. "

a . t

I!..;. J ~ . d.

. ,_ II. _I!





SPLICE 05 '.'

a,li' nd ,stubbed), -I' 0 used

--a'lJbele,d abllique s,cart J;piice

(S'lh(ribQscmij: hU'9i~

Tb_e !fh~pt: asd mechanleal pJop'rtl-eSJ or ~hi . .!:>pUr.e are pracDic:i!illy itl "JIIJiC4;lD. 1;0 sllH~e 1M _ AeS[hfti&ali-y !3;piG;fla:thl~ nQ1iI!/CJilt}f I dus .splic.t: is said l'o b of ~ !il!lpt~l'lor d~grw rn~n ~l.hle1I' r. bbeted Qbl~qlle scarr 8p~kes· an ~Jev" ~(}ni \ ' of It1il1i!: spike reveals aal)' ill 1O~11i srraight 'l~IiI~.

!For ~fijr-lil ,:!iiiil~i~I!liS brn~E!1'n I 05 to 120 ml1l"! 't~e lon~n of the slt\ll~c: ":stJould be:3 t,lili .!\t, t.irne~ t!!U:iI wii'dtlln ,of ~h;e- ~(!:tton.



"n .. e,; s.tJtf~es il)'f 'th" m~i:I'd[e ~ foMos, "'d"~ :t~I;f.(:1'i

iI, i5Ji1i·~t in' iit:dEll gi'l'B'etil:)n 'a',Pei!iS. itL :lap- ',_ If''he ,s~liCiQ F:s coroplil;ll't(ld b)' iftl~lB"rtcin.g tl:l;e

bi!;t''tIf,Iee:r.i1 tlfile middle d'f'l0'P-S of 'tti,a, uppal' Ql"oI!!W ~rfi.

i!lirtdl I~(i-r' '1."1000.

.1 SPUCf 06, • 'Te'nlon alnld m'Orl~:5e slpl~c,e,s

n' Ci'Q;;Ss-shaip d [tenon and Diut.;tis:e iSlp,ike (juii

1: his :s:plit.e is errocli'?,~ ,at;;jLii'!ls[ (Or1!IDII t1Ut C'ai1il1lr1l¢ re 'iSit aJlJJy ~~siJe rif!f<C~. [t h~ t1ifttfil oombimr::d with :sp~i~i['ig plams oo~~~ 1hl'u-ughout.


(:~) .ll.i'f;bt alngrne li~i'l!Oml .. ilDd m:(iI'l'li56 'splitle (ilk.i1.I:lI€!D!E"'~, ml¢:G.IilIiW;~)

Twol laces or this s.-p!ioe :L'we.aJ 3 dean Ijt~(!l~'nl 11 n~ '!/!!,ht.;1l. a~!'OOi!Il;b~~,

"I r =t=:

_}_. I

ll ~-~1

I • , .... ,U:~ __



I 1~ ]-,--.~


(:3) iHlO~l!lcd, teliilOfi iililil(l iiM;(1!(ftise !;flice (kakJ!.n;h~ meehiin)

T~ r:iil!!f~!1: [l]f IhLl!-i. !;;e;t~i~ !P~~t ~, 't1.lcan str.Qig~t 1iri~ 6n(1e' iIs~mble_d, It is- a ilXtimDflOti, lJ"];lt"tlriod. tor spl'fu::inJ exposed posts,

-- .. ~ - i- -. ~
'== . .-
I;........ -
.... ----' -- - -- _iii
b....._ ~
~ - _ .. -;


•. ~.l

_11-· - - -- -........1;rr-

.. -_.,."


-_ ......

(~) :Rood Iten4ll(llil ,aDd mD.rt~~ "pmk'll: (hako Inec'klm,ire)

This mealLltifu1 sp.llke r-eil'oo.t.s: O]l,ly iIiI reI~4;I:uI M[''t lint O~ aU ra~$ OI'WE: assem~ect HtOW'c:fvcr, 111UIII1i1ll raO'tJJ,ii"~riIiff oft" thi!i: join;1 ,ts leclmkaUy cl,~Ak.wr.

, .....
i 1 I I
r- I 1"-
I '---~-l ~


••• II"'~


~:;. .

• SPUCE (17 '.

Hldllved ra I -:e.1ed

5C arf Spr ees

(lsukol ,tsugliJ


_, dinEd plane J8 n;" ice the. ~ ,of. tb Q'fOSS ~cfion. Pox strong~ atJ"ILiCotur,alI tille, as lOr balte.r po$S f(l.rex,ampf.e~ the ,[.si!J!g~Jl'!, of aile in~merl wl:.=:!!lI1,ei!ijl Is made t'iqr~iij IlO ~hlt; size of

idle qo~ ~Cl:iCl!ll. 'I'h~ ,dQItIJbI~,,;-fa:coo, ~:M'II'l!ldl flIbbelledi obliqU.-e 1St'M.f ~~!iiU: ,._"bh. lkey ,,!ld ~Irn; dngle.raQed ludvM rabbeted Qb'Hque

~ill'r :sptke:., as shown '~n r~ !b) arnd - ) respoctivdy, ,arc: often, used in buildings whelFe ,ilp~~r'U'ice~ a [acror O\f I iii ~ ler ~ ~ of mil:. ;!¢. is; net or ulJn-ost iniiportatrL-Ce (fool' '!<!K::JJrfIlple,;. dle "residents" Ii'IiiJ.dil!lg' 1Ll't" a tempIe}" [-Jere.aftu ,d'€!oori.'boo :are three is:':-i3m,~ plies; of halved rtdJi'beit d obliqu.e scarf '!iplices: ,,,,,jIb. thre faces or more:

Thi2; demrativ splice is ofll:elil used, 0 Irnishil~~ parncullady lOti exposed oeili1l'lg mem be rs' it h~§: 'I;I'@:"y r~ .. v ~i:j"li.Icr.ura1l 8l?p1±c~~ tiail'll~" ,[)olJJblc-raoeli1 hi1il~ ved rabbeted il.JbUque $C;;u'r sp]tcC',s, as :sihow~ iIII figure' a.) wben ~rpfi!n"d 8, dLlii001'8tive d:r:.sign, ar diine:IlI~lloned 'so t!bat [he kngt'tiJ, Qf ~ he bit,

( f)o.tJbl ..f~.Ci d ht!i1ved I',d~b~~ (Ii:! iqUB

sc.arf' split' .

{b) 1J~~.f~G,{;d h;D~d r,!dib~ted 'o:b.'I~\JQ st:,e.rrf s,pll (i 6 'wirth key

(1) T:riple-fi:H~e,d baWved I',a.bbet,~~ iUbliq l'H::: scad .,Iice 'with key

Tha k~r has no 5tTliI<;lll.iII:!ili1 rUl[u,ti[:~IIl. h is cllesigl10cl Si!:i I' the ,t];p1jf;C ca,~nO[ 00 eai>ily p'ldlOO: aiP~rt. ,A~ iMIttntTolwdi ~arli.e: ~

le appe8I'anOO of these jo,in~lii is a di.t>eCl f'!.mClf.on g' It his' I JI.Ilh. of 't1:i1l!; ~plidf, ] owever, the longt:T ~pJi.(:es are also "o\o·eake'r. (~on~q ~;c:ntly~ tl!Jc indined faelf'-S, of (be joim are r.J1~~de '[u be a. maXiJl]'Ulm of 'cwo limes ~!h.e ii~' lof rhe cross :secli'O.l1.


The :l}p1~~<i;i. I:;: tCornme-1Li1;!d1 ~~ fo~kiflg It ~illil1 a Iw'y.


(2} Miy,ajima :spike

Very .sfil'biJar to th.~ p,!"g'vio~i5 I!;lphk:e. The difference resides ill1 ~'ht:: presence of !1JJ Itl~ip1e • .ra«dl rom; ;j1I,'t. I t!U~ end of tk~ i;m::jilll~


_iil-~..-:;;.;.; 'ifNI'"

Tille "$,p1~II;I' i!;i com,pI!iJt8:~ !;Ill' t(l(;klng iit ~rt._h e~,

(3' Q;~_a,dl~l,]p[e-f: eo. d b~lved 31bb~tcd ,obUqu,ec d ~pl~

The s:ilD]pfu;f~y lor rn.u: Sp~~D~ hides the (:OmpL~Niql of: lirL.aill,ufaal'm'~fl mi.. hiIICitiCUJClII.:!Ilii :![l~ltW{lliil 'muiS[ be ,a,!:'I,I"owdi ILe!' flinhlh~l1Ig it,


- - - __: .. _:.- _"

Very slmWa:r m m h· rab - eeed oblique :!ic.ill'f 'spHre ~-':;Q pI f'ia:!lJl: itIi'il; half ill' the widt~h of the ~t[on is ,rabbeted ob~iquc;. TIw other lull r is housed [Jrooud-n~ ~ Iclil::'..!!111 :s.trmghit!ii~ 01i1 t~-'(lI faces Qf1i.J;\': ;jIIi!is,.em~.ed, Thi:;, joint is userul wnt:.n no ~;gnirIlcMn 1>[["~1'Igth.1s :re.quir<dJ- 1',1rI~ J.c:flWh o.f [be ,splice ~ndine.lioo.'O'n of m~"e obli ue surface ("Re

• SfUCf 061 • HOUS81d1 spli ces (Kak IW s.~,i ~sugi)


ing ms.wriah.. I and c) :.;lIn: aTbiu-ar~ .

(l) H,gu8::ed ira 'b~ e;~~d ~,b~l,~ue SCiU'f

!i!pliJee (:kak !S~ i k~1l8.wil.)

--- --- - -

.s:PU'Of 2;-
Ii ----,
I r (2) BUo.di t,etlio:n a'md m_iIU'l'"Si (blJko d.almoel1:iJ

Simils,r in shape :r'Q tile, PI"],.'V~Ij.!I_S :splklli' but widltlUm: ~nr lneliaed SUJf,rail:,es:., A Ikqr 'is: 'I,J5oo to lock thi~, j:O;UClJt loge.dlt:a'"


(3) B~'i.llI!d, pmc Jha ' :seD)

his S 1I1ice &so fiJIUo~ tl:!,'" nUlolel or the rniboored ,obliq I;_J~ ~earf .l:>,~li!lle. The form of iSptit:e 04, is !l;.at'l,\lW, on 'two peu~ndicruM Faee::;L

- 'II$..


I ' • ,

. - ,

, - .

- _. ~ - ,!I

~ ...... ~III·I'I-~loIl.I.-_~.1I1!

nnrliln ~I~


(4) Bed, key (' I '!IjI1 ~biiWh~

ALmQ:;>E ideD'Iia.'~ il:Q the p:rcv1oWl, spike: 1b11;t 'Kliihollt iiHJiY ~ndined :$I,u·r~s.

A key is us d to the: joh1ll.Og£tb 1', Tile :p1;",~par:a:rion 01: m.:hjs s~ :w;_ ,easier 'lh~n for tile; Mimd pin.


~I~ n ~ }j

M~lo Femmh!l The 5pli~ i, eil)mp~eUld lb.y Ii'iMrting two k'e~

(5) Pome ~¢D.~ (,iJ,Q ug;i)

Pole rorltlJnJ!:l are used on expesed oe~ltog d~ments. The three f3«rj ar this splice [['w.-ea~ a ,~c;a_n iitu"aigh~ line 0;110: a!S~mbled"


. ~ .
~ , ~
~ f
S c I ~ 1
i r l r
!' E i
... I. III II .!m .. ..5 .-.!....;., ..... II .. .....: c. );
S p!il1: bu (1m

- .. --- ... ~-- .. .}1-- .... , -- ... '--"iii ~

_._. __ '11-'1

~---, •• T.i-.::"~ .• r __ --- --_ ••

The< sjtlrlse i~, (:Qnm.pleb:id.iby ~l'IS'I3rtin . t'lo'Kl ~e1!'.s,

• SPUCE 09 • Co l'UIIII n 5pll lees (Ho~hira tsu.gill

(1) F(Jl!.u" f~e-'¢';s g([Jjlil:s:(:IItI,~ck!f;pijc~

Two go, seneeks are il'::Arv¢d di:j:lg~milJl}·' ,across lite seedon, I . e mille and f.r;:male slide over each other at 45" te a$$emb~,e rhe Ifp~kll!l. The two goosenecke are :Sfll!'!J1I 'Lilt rdaJrL'O.D to, dl€ siu of the :s.&:tion, Skill fuJI, c.;ri!!lfl~mfm.Ship il':i1 required whlle' m~l1llf8C~' tw:ing. 'This SI)li'Oc. is .!i".llItablc for larg "01-, QfniEl.-S_ Hasdl 'W~d~ sueb ,a:;; ~~kqv,~ .~\i. 'ofe ·m. used. The [~f!.ulia(iry or ritts, :!;i[pli!:!~ il) the

idcmrical gocsene k €o1];m'1di oil aU fa.o~:5 or m'n~ t:01,iLlmn.

(2) Cb:m~,b~:ptd :tp~oe (kac'; DlO guchlii)

Tblll rela~. 'Ct ~DlIlg splice has a re;w ex.clu.s3ve atpp.ika~mls. 'Fw±{l~ tbr: !!!f!!:gth ~f the s:plj~ h: ICquired II!1 j:I:S~MbJ,ing '\Ji,lhiah i1;; very inQt'iI!Iir'!!'t!nit;l.1:'iI1 :fll)t. 'i!.lii1derpinrli~. II is l!Isltiilly ['ser\l'ed fu~r spliciDi dis,,[jogwsJlled

[emenrs such as; [!:lit ·cenJ[J'.a~ CQlwnm iIi a pagoda, Both ends Nhih~t a Hfr.e:tlc,h ypc' tenon Il!nd! mmtillt ~tt~rr;J, Findl:y to ~tifl;;l!:n ~he' a'1!ir.mbL:y.,.~ iSiJ~d ring liDlay ~lMe ever Lb.c joi,ti.'[, Tbe ;spIke .iSi politihed wid] S'.Il'D1d~ paper,






~ ~


....•..•................•.•..•••• ,', •••• j



(3) B~md s,U.ce < m iii ko tcSlJs;D

Tb,i.ti splice is; mJlflf~rinli in :!ltttf<!gr'h E6 the rabbeted ~bliql,ll,e s tstf ;9~ce b :C&iJ:!:le of the method '1IItS;~d 00 ![)~k (h~ joint, A ~C.}I O~mtii'ijbt~~!i. little [(II the lSll1tdil1.~5:S 'of t he assembly oomt:rpillredl ,til) a dr.ariL-V pi UI~ The key bole and lhe IClilllghu(Hmlll ioint ine are .P'OSiriORGd ~l the corner !fir ell ~e:cEion 'makmg d'ii~s 'J?li~ v,ery 8urnctive en ~dlcr I,.UDns.

~t Fi II-
! • 1
.__ --'-I --
I I ~,
I. ...
• ~

!~ - 1--1,t
~ ----, '-----+- --·~T _. ,J., ~
I J 1~
• ~
- ~ I .
I :t
~ ~ ~ ~
jj" t
• l:t
~ - , -- ,
I 1
I "~
iI~ !ill
I I , ... '
~ 1-1_1
-+-I - -
! I
:-~ I-
.__ iN


(4) .osaka . ~]g-·( ·tem.IO<D (~, '~e~s: pfib!F U.ilre of m.b~ splice.-o g~p existliii OOlVi' ~1iI the

is,IDke, t1.w parts,

OIl~iJn gate is the MJy k!19\' n aarm-

pie or dli::; diC$ip, Once ,<1!ssen'lllhlr.:!d~ !II deco-

r.a!illof:.e :!ik)'ti~1!: lfulke 'paroor:Q iGilil:IJ be

5ee;n OlD the surface, An X"f:i!l)1 rest .f:lad m be

'r:~d our ~o' w'lJles[·· \ilk: ~b~ m~!'iirlmj;s ue-

MaJ, aJild fern.ell;li 'Ii;di~ upper p.ert; of tI'Ie C;t!tumn; II'II(trt: bwel!' I)lIrt !!!J'f tiI'!.e' oo1li.!m~d

"The ~Ie. [50 ijl'll:!:,ertod ~ ma fell'M~e D,~ :s.I!roding: iit: u,pw rd frem UlIB (;ent8r t,o the

X-fa;)' p.i~'bure A

"fna Qri~t !i!1es r tho internal p.I;!Im"t5i ,of it!'\;:jQinrt ,ei~d d'islPl- y ttl o LrtIiir\81 of t~ Qoc'letll,


X-f'~ lIict1!.!'IO B The BXi!JJ1 b:leit1.K: .mas ,dispIQ,the S!r1ll!!'J ,of the W,EJ.fH,t Tb· - ~imt1tal !:i~ ~ ithlil' mOiinhirl' sh!.&!ped ~ to ar-e~ 'the UA - _II" face ,ot t!h 'mals on the: itmiae BI'1(11 t:ne :9lU1m (In t~ tM:It~dl;i' !5o\!iI"faca.


: a If d D ve'uli led 'i oi nit

(lKat'lZlsage ori)

. The: 'mode:l deplCt$ ~ \\'3lIl de WI11,nil;..'"C~-

:ing into ~ co ner GOlllhm1.l_ The column waJi RpLir 10 h~Jfle:IiI(t1'l~~ 'e' ~ revealthe im:e~]laJ. lockiug rmeci1uism. WaJJ ~~5. are lItsui!lll,ly l:J[1I, ,h~w.gv<cl:.~ tradi ri;j',]n~ J~:Pii!fIJJ!.'::re architecture :!;il1)mctlmtHJ: call r6~ e}j!pt~~d ties, ~Ihe: ~ .sOInt:'wh:a.t lODger d'l~n :ru.!:c(!s~ :K!IJTY] .w--e driven in a,!j. de-p as po.3sib~f::f to SlV'ii1iid !r8fmng. J::i ~rst,. the oo.IlII.m1lS are ereeee~1 ,th~J1I the ties are iO!imoo to prevent ,llorii'oml~1 movement, ,,' ~~".e& iIlT(: driven ~ nl aJiJer. !the ereedon is ,cQmp.Ile~d!_ .sT;i;l~dJ waHs heilF' f'e:si~~~ n!; horko;1lJru >f:tirlhq~ ~ ~diln,g' kl J:il:pa:tl~1\!; \"'OIJQ archlreceure, The bruf

'MVea-ail: oo:Hfieet'.!;i ~ ~i.n~ :tie mt=o a corO'4t column. The' diO'ligt'aiU b~", 'sElow.s a tic. QC1[],Ii!~tfil1lg Ulll0 <' oohJlmlil from. I1WQ '[JP~iD~ :sides.

Waill purlin Qll'llib'o Qi:!posite, !!;I.ide.s O'f ~ Gol'umFI

The bNII!&;'9 ~ if1saMi8'd1 in its. final p~:;i,tioii'il OP'i9fl i n:j a sp 91 CJ8' '11"0 Ii ,m 'H8:dge.



1ih!l;l' jl!)~nt " eOIm'pJl9tlat:l bey d'ri1ol'JlilS in ttl . w\;li:!!B':e-

• CONNECTf.NG JO~N1 02 •

edgling iioinr

(W orli ,kll:Jsabi~


( .... ,
I ' .. ' .~----

Thli j,Q~IiI; 00 III '!!'I illel"S columns Vi1th

grQlJlIdl!iillli~ girdcr~· girl" lC. [I[:I! [the mode the t_olumn \·,lW1 :!lptijt itl, h ~ If lenlthl\"j~ I) reeeal the inrenaJ .focki,[llg ~y&tei1:L lnl;: j~inD, is siIitlply assembled byh:32>BilDllg ~1C. it:J:l;OI1 ill'mn the .rnilM·j'~st:. Two w..ed; are peunded i11'II tlrw tenoill, 5~]tdng . t 011100 and ,locking 'il: 8.~ me mortise,

.J \



I I j


~ II ,




~ I



• • I



B;lind wedging lo'·lnt (J igok u hOZiO)

This: mod I "'~~!i M:SO .splil iu half. This jaint is; cCJlmmm:!J'y used on eave ~):rackefs~ balQgi . pods u.:f !.mwJ ad "rheaever the ~:eOOR and mortise aye better !.crt hid!d.en, To assemble this j;uiiil~., itM) ·wt:dg"&'S atf: ~~iy dri~n in the l'tlf.ton.. Tih·fl It!'.;:I11IQ.:1I1 ~~ [hen j nSlli"~d. ~!Il 'the' mUftiS(! and d'rl'!le!1J mn, Tile '!i\~edJg,~, th - OOi)ftom of dle mortlse opening d:te tenO'J!l 'I ike a £3J1l and locli.n it lK:['mtmeMld~. xpeiti,¢r.l(;:t IS i.mPOI"~81I1l in rnan.ufacttuing this: jriiuu:. Th' tenon is ~WR)'ll cut a ~in~f: bit i!lhOri:~ ~h~nJ :he depth f,( fhe 'mi!J1:t~.g to uf'J.8tlrre the element being ~L·'!;~mM~d. Is fl!!'[~Y inside before the l(:n{UiI, 'Wed~ i~clr parmammtly. Smllle ledl~i(~tlJ!~ are h_rlpfw ro:r ,as~embnr:tg the jo.t~l suc«:. 5~

'WI)". The m~sid! iglf~!h rnorslse mWi.t be clean and hlewn rret 0 :any debris. Somelimes the ~oinll is splasbed w~~hl ..... aller :dt~ r iliilrerllng' the tenou inro tilt! c~.'!,.f.itJ.

·11---~! ~~ 9 ~!

11 •••• 1110.'1." j

l 1M )1

! :

.... _..'!II.

• CONNf:Cflf\lG JO'NT 04 1., Haused d,ove!ta"le,d loint

(O'k ur ~ crill

This 10int is reC;lIlu~lildy inSOO 0111 .hangiDS' po;s~ (G;s:!.lrizt:a). :\1[ first the doverall is inoorm.ed. in "h.c la;rge:J;' openiDg of ~h~~ m:Q:rt~ {area A) and. rtU:fI sillIi'fted mew.ary untllJl the lrliii!iH'o-w-er :do.t {.@rc~ !) wbith 'has [he: e'M.lLCI iD'Il~r'i:td shape, FiJruilly ,f!I; \voode:o 'plug is; ser 00 ~SULl'e the join'~ 'Will fU~ easily come ~~11- 8ome:till_lle~ . lie dii)\'eEall, is r;:",n in ha~r

along (h~ de.pth o· the mw~ ,~nd, The: Half tiotil$Bd tdQvetaUeci oO'til shaff una

as.:sembRv proceeds as m.elilDoLiedJ ~ru-

The I~~.- opening of the w01'we (arr;a. A) O1f Itihis jolrni( can be U!900 to anchor the lags is now.hiddlen by th-' m8JJe. The latt~f. ~O~M !i)f !ihldm,g !I.Ill.iu en fl. Kloor.

U'ih.e' d!l)!J~!3Iil slid8i!ii into t:kt.9 tJii.~1!' Elnd g.i 'tni3l m!Wti$i;I'.

• tONNrr:T~NG JOINT OS • d"Dulb II 'enoo

Th~ il .. Ppii:F rell'ttlll".l, is a dbWnaii with ihu~tng walls, T~c t~" ltc.~illl'il ~8 re018D'~jU' ",\;rlt:.h.m;..,; surface tiiliper;:~ng up. Th'C, j~l~u ii 8J~.:s~n1IJMr::.rl by ~'Iid'ung 'the dQUI~le' te:riblll, Uip'""ac'd ~ morose at '~~ S;!IIme a!a~~~ as rh~' Laperecl ~ut.riiloe: or 'tJJc; 1.M'II.~ ten{l!l1I. M3_;!li!i~iI" S'i1m:1yo-~:hi leiali'i".tled of thls jQiOl ~E'mn fdlftlW craFtS1Ile.i1I . .An 'X~'(if.I;y pi.-ClUl'e oJ [he: ~~mbiy ~hovoiS soma ~IS;OOi'i:tfinuity niI~lng ;t ll'lJ..t ¢!I'Ii~lre1}' S8II:ks.:f:;!lcJtorv·

K-faY ~t.!01tlogt'a;ph sne".,.ill~: II ~i~9rnti rtuit.iI Oft;i;J" BlS58l'i'ibl¥

Thll;!i ~OWl!r 'teMI1i ,~~a~ ~~le'1i:Ei~ wni,te S4.!:g,);!'Sti'Ht t.ln irJl!~eri-e~t ,filt. "N1h:lte .g~s. can m!o ~e. ,~i!JB'Jl On Uie I~ ~ndI ri!lhit side a~ tlil!31 ~iN1g tenon. ,f;, j)el"iect fit afl.ot ;(!i!S!lembLt!l S'i'i3t!i'<es \!he, irrtl3'.Illfity !1)f ~ jO'i~t.

F~--r l'

~ j -

: ~

. .

'-f~: ~--*H~ --f-



{~ _.cg_ - [2:]- --~--E:j

1'1 T ,,;,
• ~ • '.

' .. ~I",,;;,"ro";,

~ .......

•• - -- - - -'--.II\:, - III III I!.IE

; ~!I. .. ;;.

.......... "' . .J. ........

.J;""'_ . __ -I

The' m~1e is !fI:I!:erwoil! if'V1t'iO ':tn0 flCm~1e ,mt an !i:lii'i~O"

;(!I'5:s~mb~y ExrQ-l· mnserting !pill! and ke~M Qtb4M~e: mln: r;:.o;rnponot:nms could. be expos xi, 'to If.:<<£s<sh.rcl)t brge SIlll'e8S.


D ou bile pllug

Thj!jl a~:iCmbly eonneers itVo1Q beams on 'ljfp~i(;(: H'~c:es: of :ill colu mn, The bcerm ,a; • iipll.oed through E be' eoUal'l'IlJlIl. !Larger iipJiGe:G (pt',lI~e a.enoin.) 'Pt·Qduce smrdiru-$ei1lbf s •

. he beam ",viih the &:mger tellioo is eenneeted to dre COfullLUil rirst. The recp.ndl beam is. inSEll'l-ea and :shillted. fOF~~'~['d until the lower len-om; butt at the c.el'ltr:~ of (he wl"l)Jmn. Th0 cQIl1Ilt!e~T.I b t\~FI the beems and the ooli;1I1i1'l11'1 i" . Olly.rplr,!t~d before filili!ihin_g [be ~p1joo bee _"eeR tlilt oo;:UlIli!i... [iii ordll:r lit) Fl'(Ntde [he jCl!il'lit 't,yith ~li:Iugl'li Iifl-fiSile reslstaace, f'lo'ffi b:iey& mel: a cE~;:l'!iI piD are d1r~vef'll in. One or the orher '1{\fotnld be ill$lIIf11i'iclem by iIscl[ ] [ is impo.1: {anI 10 tightetll til

pmceecl!s: IIll th3dme fa.8lnom ;;l~ ~i~1" the pl'eccdlil1lg joint. The. lowm- part o~ [ht; ~~[[i!JnS of beam 2 {tl'flah;) ;a I1!d be-am ,3 (rc~ilk) ~ sneerer thai! On m-e double ph>~ due 1f~1 'the' presence of' the ~:OHI'i!li ~m_, A ~ tight: j oi:1ll I, wolks better. ] iii mde:r fO achleve this, d!l~ long pr-ojOOMlg ~ellon .of beam 2 {male) lif made ill re-w m.illime>tm ~hD;rtcr maD [he cHmclliSiQIlIi 'llil ~gtcd in tht [j ~1lJj['e. The: rrlple p.tli1,g. gi'i1r..~.dr ~ppei!!I8n • or wl1ltirminr when seen 1irro~]1 the ill!~de. SMn f![']:lm rthe iJ!X~idJe! a seam Coilrn, be seen 'Ii>\lh.ere thr.:: IVIICJ QPP!l»lil:!Z beams meet,


Tr" lie plug

Th~, [liiS 'mbh" c.qni!"!~S three reams iOm'fi m::!llf\t:le fa(e~ of,~ r..ohJmn. The lwo QP'PO~ .siw bea:-ms areii:pllt.ed tiu'iuugln f':hl!' oolll.J[!!ll. The firsa. beam tobe {lQunet::llcdi (b.t:am I; .shOflt male) is pel1l.di.cula.r 00 dru 6Lt'U~t itWQ beams A do",;,rel :SOCJ.IIl'e:s 'n~ 1.0 !til ~ column, The 5li:!com;~ p,iilJrt of ~he as si3mhl!a,g.

From loft to riehti 00"00 1 ~1J'8iif1~~aJ 'i a9Qm ~ ('$oorit Imilllle'), ,eclumn, beiSl!lf1 3 Gm8!Ie.~ Iii d'o';;!ul~ draw 'pin and t.w~ ~ ,e7li;!! Bt. the frelrcit.

,-=--~t] I f,~oo"~t I

B8II!Im' ,2 (male) ~iil'i!l. 1, (sJ!(ltrt ma1e)


~~ ~~-



E~aliorJ 1

( r ... -.- .. - .. -. '·"1 10-

~. .

g ~

J :


8 B~m '3 (-~'elTi:!llJEi') !5lia8~dDll,i'.e!" tirle pr<ilj:er;'fl.oing: lI!l!llcli !I)f the <ten.-Olil ·aif 1!W,ftil1l1! ,:;;!: bl1'l_lltIo) "

• CONNECTING JQINT 08 .' Gr'Dun alsi III e O'in ne(1 Irs ~D,odai shiguchi)

{lJ HG~5ed. d,~tan (.~d ~to\9hi)

A dO"'l¢~il ~~, oa~d. 'On 'h_alf of the iC~pth ~r o~e m,eMb",r. A )'c~t~'n.~wa:r merd!;c ti.UlcS. [nrnug~ ,tJhf: dcp,tlhi (:If "hI; ~eoog_d! .ED'tcm,be:r Immediately be.hincll the lMoorcis~' Hh:r rim dcwe18~, A OOIIlln:llc) w~~'b. :[I, ~~n},pli2: t~OoJ:ll may clOmpkte vile' a.s;;sernbly. A d;rn'IAf pillj :se~ ~:hlii>: (ltl'YID_q, 'm tMi g;lotmdsiU. The l.:::ngtn ~f '~:he' 'poW tenon OJ] !the: column eqI.ilH~' rille depth r(if: ~he grou_[1:~l~UL Thus, e'J;,'clll 'iif lite ~QthF.lrlslU ~!i~ ·:f~!'i~ toi'lIIiJl'i1'li "" .. ,m -SUiIild! fum. THr!is ofl~!l ht!L,PlJX!'l1 !>UIi1~ '~!I:J~ gJ't;1!11'fubW is: ~1IJ~lIy m~d~ Iijl[ :S~I~lw~ ,and I b~' ooh,u'[Il!W 'mt«li't 'Uf laaf,Ifi'~\;\[;ill41d.


- . . , - - .
....: (2'J' Rabb!ete,d ~cllii.i!h_"IID ,!ind HilrOi'1~:is:tf (kmD.'~ ,~]IJ!fiIg, ~,!i.dti)

T,. joinl 1:!! useful In a:!>!i~mble cp.l'nu groUD~. The' I~!;l!fi;it., iill (B) Il'ta!i aJi'i ~Il!ecllr c:rii~ ~'~nil)n at the end. The reIlilm.e ,~~) has a. iffLfi:il'liS;!f il."!lit ~11~;iZiqM1.n:. AJ~t:ir' {!..:sS~l11ht)f, a 'Wcd~ is iI?Oulild~ through. a :9~O~ in the ~elJ.ffn~, l.oclui1Iff the ml::iJ]l~r.s togt;:rhtlr_ :IT t:Di&Je:. IS !;lnoug:h. r"OOitl .l\elfl '8! the end o.f m~cnbm· A (di:struooe a - l~/2) I a COIumrUl C8!r'I, be OOrl'fllgc'Qt.ed lIJV(!f lln.e Jo~nl iJ.]::ii~r:J~ i stub ItenilYI:'iI.

ul;llft :s,i"e: ~O'UJ&dI ~oloiV!t~il.

I!iii!~~ht ~'i~e~ f,BtibutiKI tel10n ·l!I;J1d mol':ti~

j +- ID~~~

I Gro~~111

R-abbetedl tenon !Sill1d mOji"ti~e (re.ft)~ Aft rtli'l!ra; mala is: ~r'1"Ibled; .a."_ tiS9 iG. ~liidBC! lin. lock[fiB,:t e joint (I1D col!;lmn !!;lhD»'nl. HouSed d,otlleuil' (lI'Ii~nlt); tI'Ie IIIiI e :9lid~ irrbo the 'f'emSlle, Thift QollJrnl"l is EtI;i£iembl'.eQ .¥Ill:!! the Ji~t.nrt is com' p'leted ib<;!f dri~li\g illl! ij !i:I'r,J,w ~in.

(J) GorDer miter me . 0.11. (sum '1illJlme ~i02iO i5i shi)

This: i'Oint. ub; itJ QOn'mli:!(:lJ!i- OOt'ilIe:1I" oundnils '~1;I!1 is mprc an:ra(:tl'!f,e than Itlx previous: rmg. A KIi-rlig'Ue: and gt'IoQ''!,I',e en dllll: mlild£ ·1'Hi.!f1~ rigiruu~y Whl~ a p,;iljnsl {lin ·m,h·· olJbiids ~ tLl~ joint :;JI ca·aner- loOk Thr: eutside ~arm ij~ ~Qeat~d ,~t 'rhe OOi"tilw making the

.ass~ll'iIIb~ ~!p~:rur DO have b¢.e._m m~' out of a SMg~ piece of ~ood. The mapetOG'! pil'IBci2Lt. t:~~ c.n~ of memb r 8 (.m.aIe} reduces 'die' d~~n(¢ (II,) left at the ~md of membe :A (femrue}. far this reSJ:tO"~ II 'lira[lX-zQidid stub. tenon is p1deit'l:.r;:d ~® 'OO1lLn.e.el iI ¢.I£IllI!lt'h~ over th~ comer join r.

.' CONN~CnNG JOJNT 09 • uK'y'QrO!" -system

'[''ihis roobg $}~!;em joiin wry speclalized elemems .. ThE: eave giJ;''d~.ts run Oil! top of rh~ coh!unfil$ Qln tile outer W!i!lll!i- ,. lila.: rattet"ii ~ Q[)fineetdi [0 {'!il_' beams c~.ued ltfi ra;JrlI b~wl beams, The; r !1JIjn 00'10 _ beams are :SIiLP'I?OnM by [be eave g1rd~"["~. T~~ ,suppon. ~l1g painl. of j-Ile. raimbQ\ be~n'llls is d~er· .Il'Iliined mth a t001. ca.~~l!:dJ m:'nc rainool;;v board (lUar-i ~ta), The 'h']a~~JS! foJr the roof support sys.klm 'liill~ ~m di~ saddle point' {mgt) - "1 .Ii,. saddle poin t. it> at m:tr.e ~]}t~I"~l:iQ[!' of n hlt:: ooMoi!"Ul e-di1~ or ttu; . ruE· r.s: aDd! .or a ve.m.C'ru lin J)l:i'"pe:nrllk.ular to the ttnWr ~il1e of the ~,VC gil: de rs, Oft,cm ltbi§: point: u tOGat·d ilJb~II.I'G the ea:v~ girder ill. mrl\!'i!!i' [0 a.",fo,id Ii,'\i-eake:ning of the fflltlf"!.C .. :rhe rainbow beam ha.s a. dove~ai1 sb.:l!l;· !al tile, end wbic'b.

oon!!1·'~t!!il 9'JiIW the ca-~ gi:rde::r. A grpov~ " ~ ,va,d:' ~, litt: i"i;.1tinbtn bearm ilii ~ CI,iI into me eave. girder to '_ i'!l,e ruu 8U!PP£lfl l,g a:hi;: nr~liIbow beam, This ,s~tcm !las ro be Inad-e sn:ol1g e.Ddlllb to :S!Jjp'P'D~l I;_~e :roo;HDg 1~i1!d and alse too fen,; , ",vito :Ji'n;.qjuA:lltly b~ng omtJ the [i~ ~eams dUriJlg ,~t!!:eti()n. or usC: tfll!m to lift loads, e fl1i.llll ",.fscldl eove prof.]. f:ts aglllmst sptlmti of ~h,e d.e beams, Another gr-oove is sometirn s cut t U"01JIgn the rop !Of me tra.inw!o' beam to ['~h'c the 'Hlfool',s_

EI •

.[r- ..... ---_~-.-------- .......... ~nfi ..... --=~--=-~~-~



A t!"l!I!koilr' Is i:n~qll\ed lOR the ki~, IgIf th..e' rS!IJilDO'W' beam •

.. _" . --_ .. _. _.-

,A GO!o!!I!!Fin,g board >C:tlm,poje1i!!!,.!;l 'lI:;h~ ky(Iro ~y-Gt!ll!m.

• CONNSCT'j\,fG JOINT J Q • 'UOriluU system

In tbis: cas, tlh· TjI'_lter.s" ~i.e beams si IWre;cilly cmmp ~f 'tn r;;O],Uifluu: and the ~a\l'e girders run on IiOp or lite tie reams. Tnt stepped ~filJ)(!J (IIi I[h eelnmn is aetehed a ~e.w miU'umcre~ shorter [b_a'Ill :!l<hEJwn 'in, [he'l1i !.O aV-did: h~ving: the ~r;f9~r aceid~ nwJy ~Q~gged by it. T~ Or.tQt:u.'e,D:lI .r~(l!h:!i in a !ower tt~m~l1l d~a1il Ithe:

K.YMO. The I r' ymo, SYi"litiD :i:!l. more fleN~ble: beeanse :raff rs !i!ind he ~ams do ~ot mv ro be illppol' 00 at [file same ktcation as ~:he ealumns,

ir- -· ... -r-." I I I • ~

~! I I It-

~ I I II. r I

I I I I I I I I ~


The t'llII bMm 11$ i5,e'h. orloo the' cDllIlIrm.n (CGltill'nf! lhIe8d= ;Stgpped teoofl).

U:PFT ~i.e be~m. SiIlB'Fi r a recl!llCoo1il m ~t(On <Ill [ftclr spJiciH.g pillnt.T'be diagr-am dL'Jpla:rvs [he ar,ml1g:e:m~[rt' of ~~~h :til jiDErn.t .... ith provtsio.J:l (Q!f It ,pwJjll1l ~S!. on. top !!!If a:hcE! assembly. Gtn~d.iI[y ]'lljJr'.IiIJl posts am gy.e~1Jty dJi. fril:).uJti;:d. They are not 3.1>.i.'81YS located ~~ m~ conneenen of tlebesms and r-oof beams. The dO'l.".f;Bls used to posillQI1!. 't:h:e rie beam ever each (lithe .:in~ IIJslL~Day 30mm wide ,aqd are atwa,rs drilled 'in ~ical.lly kn.s4!ead of JIIDrmaJ ~c' ~tw' mterlil$ll. ~~I.'Ljes, or the joint.

,.1 CONNECllNG lOJ'NT I j • 'i'e beo1m I,allnee'fla,r

Sometim.;:.; tie bearas IDy&t be !Spliced and [led !lJo an iInt mJ! rwl"lJ.e.amm netwl[Jd,;:. Tile 'WIiqu.e: cIiLMa"t~'1'i$l;ic of [~ join!:: i dlaLi Illei~~~ m' ~01i~r, lie: beam ner the

---'.-,_. --- 81 --


"- ,/
-e- -=-
~ .r ' rrLE:i~:=:::sc:::=:;:;; -A'ec1' I ~ rid! ts all P;ld'l] {.

--...~t-Gp fl'jlet ~l'"

-'-HEIr 1l'OII-I rd'fte' pll.'dJrz~ am p:li1:d1), ... -_-....i....O..=F....,.;..'-_oll-_-£


Hi P Ira[ er ioilnt'

(Yosemlune nlll sumu)

", '-,

Three kinds, or hi.p mfiiel' joinm 'wim, Ii e sun pit)!::n 'Will 'b~ illtrodlJ.laidJ {one sun, is: one tA;:nrh of ~ (tH"Jl)" All 0'1' th~e jOlnts have eqmfDlUlrL ch~u',ac:ltri-'i1it::s~ Th~ 'roof roJte:rs (i.1l.t;ludirng G.orf3,er'1i eariJ;~ br~c.k~~) ~:~ liOt'mi!lJ to each ether aJ!"i:d. all .or t'ht.n1l 1l1~'1;''¢ me ~:mm pltcb.

(, ) Tle>e"s~:m;ped gkdi€l" jolDlt

Pt~'Ci5dy m~rliuf8.cruood lenOIl and m,Ortl~ ,goytl, hO~i;li :S:illshl) are: neces ,,11' 10


t ~""' ...



m~k~ this joint.h' hlp rnfigr tSlU1lIigi) sit on mp of thr<: 1~~I::i'gird~r_ A'll eeccmric kil'liJn and lJ:l[lI~ti5C erves eo <!J:S$::~:nb.le the ea ve :girr;d~ IS.

IFri';li1in lek 1io riigtft;! 'C~mEic"!5. e~lJe br"1il ts. ~!"i!l!el" ( , , giroder {sJ I hi~ r"s,fter


11.- ....

- - - - - ',-' 1

- - " ...


inS t~b;Q:J

• Gif,'Jtj\i)ij tA) is. r'l'iMrt.edl into gird!l;l'l" (e) .zt'I1Q !!II w~d!8 is p@ul'tdl8d II'!! b',elbbeltl~ 'tel1!!:)n ;BInd f'nortl=sol.

L:tY'~ uJ (~,.

A ca. ~uiln: ~. lL'Iurl l'O Jaytl r the: diiim~liMiion:!l !iii" J:;it~_ One we or I1w 1!:3I'fU:IUt.' -sqW!lfi: h':lIl5- :iii :l: I SCliIIi'!. .'M W1~r fide nll~ a ] :,/2 scale,

[~e ill} shows hllf~ .'fI' lafQ-'!X[ ~w dimcllll§:kms: r@r al~ nill:er ~kef," m:1J tn~ 1l!8rve. il!:i~. o.~ gjim~ l! ;i. [i!lei!: is I~:-;rend(id ~Wlll ri ~ lfu:: j~IlIJ~~ I' (Pil!'~flit A) ,·!,rLtb I'he sarae 'pitc.h 8,,"1 chic: 1[~jf,b:'llii (~ sun pilK:hj. ThiG: lin!> [(lfteJ~u ~. [ on il:h~ top f;;!l!l',£' ad "-"1H~[ fuQC :lilt poilu II and po,in t C _ pea:i'o';::,I),. T .... ,co, linEll, p~~ Jet Ito; 'chill- ClentC. line of d~ giM r ~ are b:fed out fro jpOinl: Band poiru C tu Lhtoc inmr~km ",~iI'l\ gir~ [] aJ: point G and m);l)im D. Lwe. CD is c:~trm1lGly :im]XI .' aIlil. b is ~ed thll!' «:K1.I(;h·'\'i;lkf ·lnll:. Frum point .D ::If!, ther li,He js l:Iryoo (Jut 'Ii lrh tlTtc: ~JJ:II.(. p:m.h. as rcJu:~ roof rB.ii:N~. ni, lin im~ Lh~ end rlllcc of girdw n al :poojlll. 'E. Line .U ~ du.wn aeross We ~3 I?liJraI '1 t@ ttrr: ~ ~u['.rhcc;5! ,Dill'th- chdeITt. TlE planes 511JV .i:llII1C1i WX'IIl r ~~~. the bouom faID~ ·,o.r il~ ~es, ,d~Stum.1XI ~I!l '~r:;[)C:i~1l':! tht

Tn!!: hly.Dut :rm In.e hip, rane.1" i~ dlil!;iplill.'!,;{1 an f'DglLr€:' b~ • We ha'""e j'W,ca!; eHplalnoo hoo,.,! ~ihl jll aM C ..... "CUe ~rcal'£(Ji [rom rhe ~'C~' (J1@~l!lt A) OD t:Lird~ [. hi a'lie sam!!;: tfa~'hrioo, ]X1IUU HI aniill C" are es't2Lb~il!ilnoo en gi~ u. The Kuchiw;alhi I~nilt ~'(illi. POUlt C' aniiil'it-5 cQunterP'R'rI o ~ the fi\O:~ surface from po~~t iB~,,Me ilirawim .idem,g: gdnk:.r II, ~n ~ B" • im~ '. rth{!, i.n~~f :13..& . or ~.J'der I am ~i'lIl}] {lirne 1'].)" lsparalJel r~ giroie-r i!I ],I Q,'tnt~1" ~in RQ jus UB line 00 is pJU"{IIW tQ gHd~r' I eeflitt.r li.l!lt;:· P-q:)"


{d) Layout, of th rf!~i"M~tio'n 0.' iii rsfti&r tOOTnW' ea:u'-e bl"~ket) wirUir ttl nip ra:fl:eF

(c;) U~I1.It. io.I'" ttr loOt fal ;:ritC'.. of 'UI t.op :l;ur· , f8~e of till . hip rat· T C,'

·· ..• ~r.~

Rafter· or WTJI" e.iI\-'e I;rHd;et



,f-\ ;it'L-"", ~illl(:~ GH, ~~ lilyed. (J'I.[t on. rop DJ '~lh¢ il1l~tii;m Qf !,M ,'11'.1'(;1 glfQe-ffi, ~ :t'Ii'i.QJ"Il: lX!3rnS. J ru~d Ii{ aee set lOne lUlI[ or t~ hlp ralf!1,:l1" 'W0Cl)~'hx ~par~. fTll;ml ~'nc: 'C-cnti;1l' ~'il!llt :H: and point G. .. ThJe: iiil~ ,or th~ hip r.ajl~~ ~ l)Nj~red d.o .. 'tltii ',Dill IJit~ l:ap suuf:;~~ ti.4J fuITUll linea IJ'" ::! nod lim: o;.~ _ o.n these Hnss, po:im; 1" anci K_' are ,e~~rad,e1l.3 UJ I~hc: lnCl::trel;;lliiiill1l 1iViln [hI:. Il:m~[ tI::u;~ of sird~1' II: ,st ~in~: I, I..ini]; nil' j!'!, f.I'r.~WflI :U {Il1i'l: hair thl2. r~ 1:'ill:icr"5 .pi1lol1 (:2.,5 .UJlIJ<I;j pif'(:M ii1n LHlc outer .r2ii:~ rl;i[ si~dcr n, ':!'lklplJf;l'g' di!!ilm fmm pe~t J.. '['be .ext:enSrlfn !!JIf lktc JJ' and. lin~ KK" gi'!fC 1lL!:i 'po:IJJ.t l. ill:l:td ~nnt: M, 1~;!I!t~d. !l:il!i th~ outer ra~e of ~ II. Frcml 'poirJ f L .aru;l1 M, u~m ve~~a11IJl]~ ,i:!J]U dr<ll'i\li[L clmm ·~c l"iiI!DI: of g:hd~1T 'II. TI~~ l1Tte-r:!ec~wn of t~l~ ~ru!S ~~IiJ:'h liDe IN [l!l'M.1tre!l po~tiI[ .~ .i:U].tI! po:Lnn 0 're!lpi;cri,vcly_ W~ no .... • ha'!,.le !ilU of ~h~ ~IliU ~3Si}ry

• .0' 1l:i!J~ GUll ~he gilOOiVc d:~ruiiGd. llO th!: hip l"iIIfr1l~l!", The :hoott~m i'lurf:.;:!irl;t;· Qr th,~ gfOOV{; ~ incl!...Ioed. will'lfi I'll riC'ON. (rK';'i...-k[clfI, of hipr ... aIlt~~)

Li1o.. J"L 5 '~~II"O r .... ·M' 5 ]L J'L t;; LN :1

~'-I=' *~,' JIU '=.1.'\.. ~.*~ .. .;;;;1 ,i'IliVi:.. rr~L'I"L~?

1012 10,,/2 =16.0 IJ' ...

F~~ c) dell~GHSIii:',iW~ hli)~'i iIJD b:)'IIiiUI, Ebc l~t;::rnJ] ·1P~tGh,·rjn the ~.tlp !j;'liltTaDC !l;ifl:hc n~.f! 1i2rh~1I". ,..~ p!aru:: :eCO on :I~li:'e e) is::p.i.U" to O:tJ31 G ~n fi:gure 'D). The ][ .. J p'LitClii of 1m top iilJ]'ffl~ ~ ,~'I,\'rIi:!l ~ the 'ri!.tia (II!' ~IF' I~F en figure e) •

. A.:gglJJm~ .AC~b

CBI::.2h, AB=A"h, CD=:2i2h, AO=3t1, ~J)=2h! AEF'-BE:i:,= AJrl, 'B.D~- BW .. ED:!! .. AE+EDr!!!!!A.D

A~-l3:D'J=A~-ElJlJ:= CAD-ED)3 -EIJI=~h~-6'b'E[) :. ED= ~ h

,.;; ~ ... 'i"'ic ~'p Ilil. 4 R.. _~'I. "-'"I? 111':'Fr. ,"" 1 ~h 1. ./1. L.

.FIi. ~= ,M;~!j! -.!1io'y:::::: ~~ ~ - 3~1 ~~I ~J.' = iCY ~ 2Ji=T" :2,n = TU

FD.;;;:.ED * -:!E=J2h r. BWm-A.8}-.A~~~

2",2 ;:;l --

, ". 1 -

L. FYD==9~", L FDF'=~$a FiF' =F.lD ;4;; Ji-n.t=.FD) BF'=B[)-F'D-:lhJ-n.


BF=-·Jijjfi+ FF.'i~J2h . 8r+E.l~='~.(DW=.BJEl

eG:fl:Eeq,l;Ifl.lUlf L. EFlE=9~ ~~ ... 4h I (.["2'h) Zit

F~~ d.) ~e]niJfL:s:trnu~ h.o\'; to IIltj'oWim. the (;ilnling jIdruu::: [or I1I:'M: llnte~clli.on D:H" ,iii roor :rafter (rCCInu::or wve braek~ts: ilu::h.lde~l w:~th [H~~ flip ran:e'-J:' .. 'HIJ OR ~iglly(:! c) is: mw1lt: m O~ :e,.G III iigure b). au (in limn"€: c) is mad\c paraUeIIt(l; O~E L G fin rilgUre b), 'I1b.t:: ~urf;aces Ol.U a.nd. GKN are (I(j'j 1M :rld..e: iI)!f In!: ~Rle; (OOfnu oove b~.s included). 'Ih(:il" PltdfL ute. GIlI]' an,tIl K.N/tL ~eg~ciiv.el,,-

L.Gl§~ LHU -'90~ "'-GH.I- L.Gllj·=90i:! ,z.lHJ.!!!!!!! L]J[~1-45'~ .ASSIlI m~ Il=a

I';ll=a lU~na. t;aJ} {..::::G)lO =1/21i GH=~ Gl.:;:=G]ili+Hl~=~

. orJ 15

•• 'U, .' =~

t I!iI il s.eql;lJl!fttl:yo

" - JS (a/U=T

L KL] = L l(LG= 9D~~ .1. KNJL KNG ~ ~O~II L. I I~ - ,..;:: HMJ =-HO!!'

GH' 1 G~u' 1 [ 1

=p ~ b'~ :;;;Or'" 1'"-=]'3.

A;ssllJrn.e .r<L;;;;;l h

GL-1.2~ (h GK=4b GN= GK = /5h

~ e ,3, iIJ

0011seqUIi!Uiltly KN/I<L='f

On 'tGP. ~rQm left to IFmght! Girde!" B.. ,,,!'"dar nO!;l8" rd~F A. IhlF,i' c-after

On ina IbOtto.m: IilBftell'S!

(2) Or09S-.:s'h.~, ~t1l g~rder jQ~nt

J1II pra~l:ice the gi,-der.:l j~in lOge [her in :iii 'Tee-sbaped 8.!'IS rnbly. AI(,erward ~ "1:1I000~! 1$. added ~o I'hl:: shorre gftrdc:r, gi'j,l'in.g [~];e ]ulll1t tht, ~ppearc"ance (!if a CfQ:!'i:!¥·

~. -a-. - ,ooi I'iIl~ - 1drl($!\In 11'11111) - ~ -.- m__'" Hip ~~.iI!i;f Ilild

-'-~-lHait~ ~h)' i!'I~~5!Ul- 'Ith)

, , ,


L _ .... _"""

__ ..... Il

I • L •

• I • .-J ~



"~ ..

-1;,.. . : i -::J!,!: ~~ ,

• • - L".

II i .. ~-..."II

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!I ._



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.t' .... iii , ) ,,"iI~
:<-.,;: , ..,.:'" ,(. P1if'I,j(ijl I{'€'II <)
.... '
, ..... ~, ~ . . '1
' . /~
~ . <& ~ ~ 4 ~1¥--"·-- ~

to :m •• mnn.; ··==:==~>=··r-~-:--~--"'>

- -- "1" !II" _ ",' •• ,.__ .. ••• • • •••••• .,.....,.....- --- _ --

•• 'C' ". ~UIi'rl V'iE'N . '. '.' , '. /_.'¢!..: - Pz



. ~ ~ Fbl\ OO'It(I'u '(tr:;N

2 LZJ> ...............:' ~ EIi;n~~

.' ~


L" 'Y0l!lt 1(2)

if'.:ole; The g"C"Dsb"1:l.1IaYO-ill: d.i.8Gus.scd f{' lh- Te~lm.ped girder j!l:iunm win be: I!)mit~ ror .he llIe);lt (l,\fO j;Clinbi. Only n~ .. \," eo~~ need Ib inlffxiuoOOl.

,["be l!ayttut Df ~le I!I:r!fd or Il~ hlp raftc.r 'Ji!:l dJijlplay.ed tnl dii_.ilgt'illtL b), n~ pitdl oli the h1P ,[~f~u, ealted ,[I a~lulili :Eli1i~h. I~hepe_nds: ou ~~]e !["iIJIlJIf :r.'~lrel"3 pitch (5 S"tllil p11~M and ii5 8;S!lUIlifl~d pelC~nditLl'lll:r to ~h~ I',lI=U;i: sunaees of thll: hip m~_ The p11D [liltS Is ~dlli:1 1:0 Oli"G ;111 liigu'l' b). ~n~c; plim ORS i~ pM'3.l!oeJ 10 O:tBj G in fi!,u'e: b)" O~ aJnt1i OPS Jac~, ~ lthrin the

'!;I'.~ru ilJ,OO of ~"l.c bip ~~~C'_ ~ h value!> n'qui:r1r:d a~ OQ, 0, and res:p.e:cy"" 1~.


Ls.-yeut rer,t!llt"tiflg ina :hIP iF.!Ifti!!'r-":ei e;F!.d

TIi'IIISl iSlJ.rfs;e~' OQ.S, 18 ncrmam to the '~as~ia bGards"

Asstl me jjp =11

RSI:::: P~~=2JiJ. P$=2/2h. OS-Btl iSin~ LO:E!Q=9~'

c POR ~ .r.:; PRQ ,PQ.= PH :4; Z =dh 10;" OO::.,5:h


'Siln{;~LOSi = L. TV'S 1A,.g~b OR/RS- ./5{2. TV = ~ " ~ i= '! w

(5) DlIilV~lill~~, biLy~qg (Il¢j~gumw)

Th~ el~\I'ft girtle['!l CfQ!lS CUll lOp {~f each Q'tli~r 'iii ;ii, :t.l!!l"ml'Iatiut:1l called :li1ip ,r_:ii)irher., T~ balaaee ~:ne iSll"ellfth aJo~ ba~h aNls, tile girn6t 'SOO!lroIliS rue ca,VVOO otU by an eq,uad aruO'!Jnt This OO:~p'rr of joil'll~l'.ig is, called !J.ev.ellerl '~tdvm ~g. Th~' ,ovu:I~~ iJt

l~:lie5Jt' 11li[¢r:!;oof:ion_ The :o;'~cppOO Ilefilnllii or !the oor,nor oo.hHllll sl.ides tllIl'!i:!tll,gh rhe hU!ei'tx:c~ don of the' girdm.·si ~.'illd teMt,elld beyond ~I:~ (early lQ rnceiw ~e ll~p ..arter. TIle ilip ~:~ft¢r jQira~ onto It rm~er eelamn set hack :Fmm the Obrffil~1i e.oh,nn:n.

~ I LsM.
i 'ws
--, i: r
;~ 0
---.I Ii.. 1

iii- ~
8 ~
I ~
~ 91

F- ~


.... ~

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I 'Q
.Ei e
go ~ S ,lil
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i b3
it E[ i I. ....... ..!

........ ---- ....... _
I ... ~

-------- il


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s a
~ -g, J -,
-, [it _J~
. -.~_- _I

j [(16 J


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1 j ..::::I g ;
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til l fI:t ~ ·
i1ii !
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• ,U1J,t ,1,A'il.J

,~ f.ll
It! DJ~ I!..
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110. 'i'II
iQo ~
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H j i ! ;
m It> .E:
Q l ~ 1:
[[ iJ

(0'" J." {i'j,



1~ ,A.Il'~e. bn':-Bce; eent<1H 'lfO;fitI IEI~·t. 'IOD i!i!' lI'~fters. i"8r1Uf column\; sirders A :B"d 9, hllll! tM1ls'f' a~U,olfm f,fQm Ie-ft to ,.iSM; Coverin.g OCil!illr'diS. (;olu-mns. hip l',aJtel" ~t

.Msemlilil~n.g t'ne< oQ'a~' gird "' (the sti9'AI;III;fQ telilon "" 'ltih,~ c;omer ~Iyl'i"'!i'!! e.:-:te~ Ib-evond ttil1'81 :girdll;!ll"$ 1.0 we t@p 5Lfrf;",c-.c, Ii1f the hip rafte!")

e ~1"ii:;;t~il1n\l iiJ ':;;Iil~ pD"Eot tD Sl;fptJQrt 1;tu;j·

llijp !rBifteF!i fur "this.!I\l1iI ,onl~)'


• CONN£CHNG JO~NT ~.:3' • (olrr;idor gi rdler

(EllIIgowo fIlQ ~e'''all

Thill it;; :iii mor,f'!_ f~mmp~1tX joirlU. han the previous hip corn,eli joints. The srruemre ls: eompesed of l we log girdE1:fS~ joined in a T.Ge;..-sll1a'p and of a lo-g giId6V 'II1OSi;L The: girder 1l0~ ~B-l) gLV¢t.]l fbu a~5£.._m:b!y ~ billlaru:oo bruk The :!lhlJit;~~r girdc~ (.5 .... 2) i5ij,"em:s to ~I)rl!'l'il a '!Jjngfe OQn'litu.lOUS .membit>r \vr~'h the girder nese, To, aeceatuate thi ,cl]'e£;[ the nose (8-1) and [be short ~rd~T (B-2) an edt out 0/' the same piece of wood. This as;s.e.mbltlgeis ext[lr:mely oompl~x- 'ITU'Sit the [lose (B-:i) is ms'e'Il.¢d, 'i~to fJJ;d~r A", A fiu the t~J'J:I:m hes gtlDI:. ttr_]''O:u,~. d:a nose ~, rQtI!jt~ ~t 9@ d:r::.grotc!:i iiIInd PIjI>$l-t: d ~ow,~td A m mts fm4tl po;sitiol'll- A ten~~rd - ~he .~ _on gi__lrdeJ" B .. 2 [~, il..s[j.Cml:r~OtB On-EQ ~['Irl~r::> A cUn.d s-t.


ArrBn 'illmertlt gf ti'r8 la-,s: IJir-d.en;;. From t-et1it to ris;l1rt: ;giF-(ij(:;i n<Ml!!l OS~ 111. ku" fllirderl' (110). ~ort. ,did~i {IB-2)

,0, Thu ,SiiCICi J!!o-~e''5 (B- 1 ) tenon i:s inserted!

into "tel i" in ~ l1or12iDrlta1 posi1Ui)nl.


ThiIiJ ~1f(::h;!III" n!:;l~e':s; (0 '1) 1iefIii)fil is, rinserted into girder (JEh'2),

Th,g, hil': iaftelr r;;;i!!'rnll!l\a,t.~ tb~ .I!I~lT!bl~. ~t. i".9! not. rt!X;Q!;l'I!I"if U!, flU itI ~ 1J1!.!1l.


- . .......,,_- fii:IO~ 11J:!'J:!iM(5~ :d1J

_.. .- r P-

I I'PUI r ~ Ikid'IU: 5 ~ 1t11)


P-' ~'i ....... l
:II:! 1:.111: "-:, I
?'.- ...
,-;;.~ \
I.-.. l'U'


r-J , -
I-' '
p..r i


1'iQ J



: ~ i . ;

I ;


j 'ogaDil,H are shown, The pM,. boards :illfe not fmedi v~r~oC:;LLUy ~c> the e:~jds or me IU'~ tins. Atilllfhetic..rliJ ool1i.8idl-ra:lIO:l1s ,d~wf'miii.i: [he i£i!uglc: ;;u which th~y Me fh~w. ThE ·~,qgm;niU joint i:1 rhe ~'tI'c~kh':!ll par~ 0"[ tlrle: gaMe board, <:~::fn5Tcq!l!I~ndy l\i1he11. espesed lo loading; 8 gap ~¥ npct'll at tile bettom, TQ this:oCCl!IT{l:lIle~ n'iClltllod];: J) and 2} art. preferred.


The ,&!1ibk: oo~:rd i2i used to ~{:r the ends {1;'ti' pUffins r:1ind giule:rs.. The joint {:~JJ'j}g necting the l.-W[]I -loping ~["d i!i ealled ~,IOg.;JJm:i?',~ wnic:b, means ~8Lyillg wiiIh 'hands clapp!:d t~[ber. Thr ce wa~ of makin.g an


~--~~~~=-------~~----~--~l i

The al2MtmI9'J'Iit;S ;';!rr-'& [n®.EII1l!3(ll onto the' !!liSl~e. b(\llliMl! b'()81i1il1. C!roMN,MEi, d'rawp5Ill51_


/1 .}

i /


'r CI11!~110

~ ~~Ii!!




n 8



'. MJSCfLtANroUS 02 .' lev'e'~

Traduional hand level, Longe:r lev, I~ give lfiore aeeurar '1" adjK:igs, h 1.c:~J i.$ s, 't all lOp' 0' the £UlF a e to be measured. WaJtt'[ .. is p;lIUIOO into 1:11 . ,mid!dl~ cavity. ,J horiwnl.all~~c j~ round ""he'llI an eq ual ''ll.lamtrmy of W.jI:rCIT riIm .... s on ~idDcr :side down th~, sJot. ] n gen.em1J [I~ [(:Dg'th O'r the ,~~'!.I"el is r .. JiIO 'b!n (:!ib;: feet) and ~'~g cr (I! 00, :SOCI L'On is 2: X 4 :SUD (one ::;u:n i!5: one tewih oJ 81 lw~). TbJ:!1 handI levcl hali been commonly U:ied if!! een] uglIJticl1 wit.h barter iJJQ~!!il t,!;! set revel references aromld an area,

, "

• M'SaUAN~OUS OJ • 110' '·.r [POSltl

The baUd postsare urea OD. r:Ji'a,",~~ un which liM!ii are taut ;j!JS refer-ence l;e",eI. The post ilSo tap~¢d ~a g, inl ~t CIne end [0 mak "r eagy iQ clri",'e into th~ ~Qlu'ld" The orh r end is: cr,o:tl!ibiU d :fib~p;:d ttl, racilitam chOCking IO[ ve1'ltica!l. disr~aoeltD'il;nl" of I he ~Stl:.


Se,'I,;Ierr.'i!ii.I. s.ysl,ef!l:us; e::td8.~: fnl' de.sjg:l:l:;!lting j;o1illtti$. 'The ror.mlllology· hI, 1I0Jt s.bM'uj8irdiw~, A~ pomli~d out ~ n the authors' commc:r.w~ '!,lljS. biJ.ok alms at describing ill "'~ 'v~jgw of ~liee::;, and jO~fk~ desc.ribing; them in t1elAliil!. H:m~'!,I'e:L"'! no P1'li:t~ jIJ 'IDtlJdii:i or !l:iving- ~[l aecutare designation f01i" :a.lll. oJ II:he. 'joints, nor do '\lie try ~o eJl:p]:..iru 'tIi1 origi 1 of '(be ap~1lI.,..tmilJn5 selected.

The ·oUalw"n.g teTrninolbgy 'hcudd provide some I'I!" Ip in It:m:lier:slandiL1g ith~ rechaleal t~l'mi!;l {1rnploye(L

II eam (hi31lll"I): li:u)f:l:zonta1 S.trRC.t"Ul'~ ~~men,t. whkh 'n.~~iY~ load ill fj' fiMIlrrI. a 'r'OOJ or a .nOCll' 3'Il.d! tr.:illnsmih. it ~o ~h.e oo~umn~.

GWde.r (keta): hl;)~ntaJ :Sll'l,I_ttnra'l ele<tnelilit ;,vithll'll the fr,aD:te~'Io'Or~ of 'me ~Kl ... rnal '~ II F1'Jie:m;li'Cuin~r w dle ~lie-heam-n.

Girt (dlill~:!iilibi): hQn~ntru sU·UGtUl'aJ. elemenr within ,the fr;;rn]e1./Il'ork or lM '~"ilt,~~niI! wall il1lt.e,I~t::ltiU;g Ii:.nt~ seeond tlGor beam pe_rpendlicwarr1y. S'J1lt:ket (l:IIde:g~) ~ .1B['ac~et 3JnciJoring the e:av~ rJ~t::r.,!i: W1~ a be~oo 0.1' ,;[1 ~J.' Wh.e:1Il tlle eave :r8Jfil~rs are not braced perpoei.,.dj..cllJfa1tl~~~ e-a.V'C :oo;.ck~i:. :nU.lS1I. b~ rl~si,g[Jecl to, carry.ill (iI;~n:ttihrv(!r ea~ tr~rl~~_

Hangmg. post (ts,uizll!ika) ~ f. angi!!lg'pO!;ti ax •. li'~ ro !:iu~JrId mJu,!: UDml rll''C!m a beam 0 ,girder 'w!hi ]I Qol!.1LmII Iwjiglu e:.'!;ce~ds 2 _ :rnn.

T~\e (lily!lkO ~ 'Or cing ·r..'1C1n~IiiJt rh.e hnm'iJl~ frame ~.r'k. of;8, 1;.8ilI II"mming b lwe 111 'C~JI,.IIJl ns,

l\.ii!l!~;g...rlCm,d¢'i 'T.he posit].~ and :negath,.e p~rt'Qf II ::;plict'l or jg~n_t"

U EiPJ!:F 'W01fl dI-.~o.,we~ 'W!EiiD·d:: bli mnnOCnD'R witih i'll'mtB, tine: tIpper aVId Jo.w!i}'( 'wllXIifIl :reJeJi" to. ['W'O' Ddefi~fi:ea] ends of a splice Oil' a joint, Wb£rli aiS~mb1il!1K fh--' joint rile pllirit wl-rich is jo~ed 0 1tQ the e,lIdl .ab~dy m p_~c i~ ~JI~"d ~~ ,-vood. The ether end ;~ th~ low r wood,

E~Blmp]c:;R.abbet(!d o· liqilC' liCairt .s<p]jces ;;JiI'illi ebliqee s an stub tenon

aw,b ~e:iiLOil (daitlHl!C ~): When die liOwer 'Wood is llf:'ieaf:lit. m be e posed to lhe'V·1!! mieallod fr.'om me up'pe wood O'lf6.l' the . mire Sle:aio~ Il]f the joint 'the &~E!:mb1)r is aBed t!i1~1.Ib tenon.

Ei'lamp] : lBafi ndl :!;itlll.·f.lj. menon ~d tiltl erub ~E:JlO[!l

S!:ep!p ed jQ~[]t {kil!1!lhilka.k,e): W~nr:!JTi Ul,C' :m~l~ end. Qr:i:l jnill!~. j~ stepped k!I ll"ail:lsmit at vertleal load Onto the .remail.e~orviiJe.ij..ef.si1L.~h.f:-dilu.Ls.sai.drob.M·"

. ::;;a.m;p!e: Stepped dJlJVetnii splice alDd stepped gooSCll1;cc:k pliee

D\iDV,etati (. '1'"): The part of a 'oJl'lt shaJped! lik.~ the raiill (!if.a: dC)\~e. '1iUJJl'.fOt',; at litre gird) E~en our"


EcNampJe: DQvet,pil;';d spJlic~, beused dovetait spltce ~nd hatiy. d do".'ctaj TeinQ;o (h'IilZ'U'); A prDje ··tion:w the end of the male part ef ill j:o~m~.

E.:Ki.i!impl~: Trlile renon aed ,if{!iorfLs". rabbeted 'rerJOl1, dovetailed 'tenon, bhind \'W;d;g(d l\t!l]l;lirli

GOo.iSCfl:l;:cik (k.2Il1lllJa) ~ hf'e:rs to. [h,e dbbecl, 1t'J1d: (li:a lang' leJiO~~

.1.Ralrilple; Slepped: ~~1:Ie.'{!k ,·ia.-b renonaad m~ ad sq uare :!:iteppcd! ~os-eJ'n~~.k: wlrh tenon aad ,m r.1.LcS~

Tengue aln!li1l ~(j;~e:/I~O~gll~ (:ID(chii:l"ri2J-om 1&11· O\lo..): Refers. 1)0 the p.nioog of ~\'IIQ , lements. A long end .oar-row l\e:n~rJI (tongue) 00'11(:1':1 the [engrh of the end sW"faee or dl~ rn~11Zi an eqwyruem: i.!l e6ll('V(,l:d on the end surfaee of me femaJe..

,BUnd joimt {hab): Refers to, an encased t~l1Io;l!l sbaped fitk Ith~ lemer 41.'11 o..f, the .lapanese lai'Ja j,,;:.t" .(k'Q).

ENa::rnp!l2-: B:Jinifll ~il,."1l10fl and monlse, $tli.llh ~el1lQ:n; b'H~d pllil and b:Ii11d splicg

Cr'OS;sbll1cd lUi halved jOlli!!t (jsllka): R,eien to. a Joint where [he IruL~ ,ilIfnd, f~~k: are

:shB~d m,e d beak (Iff ~ CfOOib1U finch.

E:i'l:am~: [1a1",'oo Jrabbetr~tIl Qb~iqtt '!.!Cf!lJ'I !S:pJic:er ttipl~facr:d and quadruple-faced ~'albbc~d g,bliqrRre sea, sptooe; Miyajim.i:!, splice

M'it~l" .'~:Q~. (i~mle): "Wh n 3.'0 iill.diili,ed ~am h. ~rM ,21:1 fh~ mOkroe-chon. of two!) m~mbe:n, !LirE: >s:enm il5l caltcd miller .

.DlI:'o),W,CLtii: (km:mir,l;t,m) ~ T'11f1lll t~5! ,of d];'all,l,fp~iIl au used ~D 't.igl·u:ell:1J a joi~ll. So~ p;r~~ 'WtIl'k in slu~ar' (lYIPeA) 't:bc ~lh_,er typE 'I;~irh_Btand crushililg pre&Suoo (tYljfI¢ l)


A,,cd Q' 1iqu,.e ~ ~ :s;pli£~, double-Iaeed phlg~ trip.le-faGe~ p!ug

B) Mortl:s'e rabbeted OWiqiU~ SIi!:!IlI" ~pli~ housed Jfalbb;;:Lcedl obliq se~i'r ·plif!~. ~jind pin

Key ( ba;;:h '): :L_.ocking; et m;;:iIll: in.s:ern.\(I '~rqtilll' alc-y hok I~ugh the socri:cm:s uDder sheer, ~.;am~G: tn:p!Naced halved jc!~JijC ~ 'Mi'laji~a. bli~d i5l~IiI'b 'O-tIilOJll certidor $1xder i ere. 'W il;:dge: (kilJ,l.9lH,bm): Tapered ttriacmguiar €:Leme:nl poundod brz,t.\~:r.I tl"\iQ :S1:!!rfaces~ d,r,uving fhcm ;iI]~~rit frOm ~h qfh~r.

E.'4tmpl~; wed~cI tb.tuugh halved doverall, bllnd wedgh"lg jo'hdt i,/;"dgil'i joint etc. ,DQJ.we~ 'd~bl!J)<~ ~titas(;d dl;:mr.l:1'n lnserted lflta a cavity passirlg thrQugh two jCi!inEnl Ii:lLirfac;;es_ E.~.~fi'ipk:: sUl,1b, lel~.'o,Q. CD ties

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