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Contents

Preface
SI units of measurement
The basic units
Derived units
Metric Prefixes
Basic Terms and Concepts
Light
Optics in CCTV
The very basics of television
CCTV Equipment Basics
Video collection
Signal Transmission Media
Video management
CCTV Cameras
Camera Categories
Understanding camera types
Understanding camera specifications
Camera power supplies
LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Day/Night Cameras
LiLin Dome Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras
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Contents

LiLin PTZ Cameras


LiLin IP PTZ Cameras
LiLin IP Cameras
CCTV Monitors
General about Monitors
Monitor Sizes
Monitor Adjustment
Analog & Digital Signal/Device
Video Processing equipment
Analog switching equipment
Video sequential switchers
Video matrix switchers(VMSs)
Switching and processing equipment
Quad compressors
Multiplexers (MUX)
DVR (Digital Video Recorder) Concept
DVR Hardware Layout
DVR Storage(HDDs) Analysis Diagram
HDD Capacity Formula
CCTV System Transmission Media
Video Cable
Data Cable
Power Cable LiLin USA Training

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Contents

Network concepts and components


Network concepts and components
Networking software
The internet protocol
CCTV Accessories
Camera housing
Pan/Tilt Scanner and Controller
Video amplifiers/equalizers
Video distribution amplifiers(VDAs)
Protocol converter
Data Distributor
Appendix A
RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485 Description
Appendix B
IP PTZ Camera -PIH-7XXXNLIP
Appendix C
RS-232/RS-485 Data Converter and 7000SP Protocol Converter
Appendix D
PIH-804 Diagram

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Contents

Appendix E
Star connection with Keyboard
Appendix F
Lilin PTZ camera works with PE DVR
Appendix G
PIH-800II connection
Appendix H
LILin PTZ camera with Converter connection

4
Preface

Closed Circuit Television, commonly known as CCTV, is an


interesting area of television technology. It is usually used in
surveillance systems, but a lot of Components and concepts can be
implemented in an industrial production monitoring System, or
equally, in a hospital or university environment.

This training material is designed to be a valuable tool for


security professionals (CCTV sales).
For security equipment sales personnel, this training material should
provide a better knowledge of the customer’s needs, as well as an
understanding of their point of view and requirements.
It should also give the security sales the knowledge to discuss the
system, features desired, and areas of concern of the customers and
service organizations.
This training material should help the sales person determine
exactly what questions they should be asking the customer and what
the responses mean. It should show them what choices to give in
order to help ensure that the customer is satisfied with the system
and meeting the customer’s specifications.

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SI units of measurement

In physics, which Electronics and Television are a part of, the


International System of Units, known as SI (from French Systeme
Internationale),is used.

The basic units

Unit Symbol Measures

Meter [M] length


Kilogram [kg] mass
Second [s] time
Ampere [A] electric current
Kelvin [K] temperature
Candela [cd] luminous intensity
Mole [mol] amount of substance

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Derived units

Quantity Unit Symbol/Definition

Area Square meter m²


Volume Cubic meter m³
Velocity Meter per second m/s
Acceleration Meter per second per second m/s²
Frequency Hertz Hz=1/s
Density Kilograms per cubic meter kg/m³
Force Newton N= kg.m/s²
Pressure Pascal Pa=kg/m.s²
Torque Newton meter T=N.m
Energy,work Joule J=N.m
Power Watt W=J/s
Electric Charge Coulomb C=A.s
Electric potential Volt V=Ώ/A
Electric resistance Ohm Ώ=V/A
Electric Capacitance Farad F=C/V
Conductance Siemens S=A/V
Illumination Lux 1x=1m/m²

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Metric prefixes

Prefix Multiple Symbol


exa - 10^18 E
peta- 10^ 15 P
tera- 10^ 12 T
giga- 10^9 G
mega- 10^6 M
kilo- 10^3 K
hecto- 10^2 h
deca- 10 D
unity 10^0=1
deci- 10^ -1 d
centi- 10^ -2 c
milli- 10^-3 m
micro- 10^-6 

A very common unit used these days in CCTV when handling hard disk drives is
gigabytes(GB). One gigabyte is equal to thousand of megabytes, or a million of
kilobytes. The correct value for binary 1GB megabytes is 1024MB(which is 2^10),
and the correct binary value for 1 MB is 1024 KB. So when a 300GB hard disk is
installed in a computer, the operating system reports 279GB. This is the real binary
value.

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Basic Terms and Concepts
Light
Light is an electromagnetic radiation.

Light Units-Lux [lx]


Light unit for measuring illumination. It is defined as the
illumination of a surface when the luminous flux of 1 lumen
falls on an area of 1m². It is also known as lumen per square
meter, or meter-candelas.
Clear
Dark Night
Typical levels of illumination sunny
Home or
Cloudy Without Young Full Street With some
Office Overcast
night moon moon lighting clouds sunny
moon lighting sky

100- 10,000-
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1-10 100-1000 100,000
10,000 100,000 Lux
Light sources
Two major light sources:
Primary sources (the sun, street lights, tungsten lights, monitor
CRTs
Secondary sources (all objects that do not generate light but
reflect it) LiLin USA Training

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Basic Terms and Concepts

Color Temperature
Color temperature refers to the temperature to which an imaginary perfectly
black body is heated and consequently produces light.
Example:
500w tungsten=>3200°K(approximately 27 lumens/watt)
200w tungsten=>2980°K(approximately 17.5 lumens/watt)
75w tungsten=>2820°K(approximately 15.4 lumens/watt)

F –Number
In lenses with adjustable irises, the maximum iris opening is expressed as a
ratio (focal length of the lens)/(maximum diameter of aperture). This
maximum iris will be engraved on the front ring of the lens.
Example:
1.4;2;2.8;4;5.6;8;ect.
Every next higher F-number transmits half the amount of light of the
previous F-number.

Depth of field
Practically, objects slightly in front of and behind the object in focus will
also appear sharp. This “extra” depth of sharpness is called Depth of Field.

Manual Iris-MI
Manual iris lenses adjust the iris manual(that is by hand).

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Basic Terms and Concepts

Auto iris-AI
Auto iris lenses have electronic circuitry that processes the video signal coming
out of the camera and decides on the basis of the video signal level, whether the
iris should open or close.
Auto iris works as automatic electronic-optical feedback. If video signal is low, the
electronics tells the iris to open, and if it is too high, it tells to close.

Video- and DC-driven auto lenses


Where the electronics are built inside the lens itself and which we call video-
driven AI lenses.(since they require a video signal from the camera). the
processing electronics are not inside the lens but rather inside the camera, this AI
lens can be called DC-driven AI lenses.

Angles of view
There are some very basic rules to follow when analyzing the angles of view:
•The shorter the focal length, the wider the angle of view is.
•The longer the focal length , the narrower the angle of view is.
•The smaller the CCD chip, the narrower the angle of view(with the same lens) is.
•The vertical angle of view can be easily determined if the horizontal is known.
Standard lenses for a 30° horizontal angle of view:
1”=25mm
2/3”=16mm
1/2”=12mm
1/3”=8mme
1/4”=6mm

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Basic Terms and Concepts

Field of View
The FOV is the horizontal or vertical scene size at a given length from the
camera to the subject. An important aspect that must be considered before
choosing a camera lens is the field of view (FOV), or the actual area that the
camera is expected to "see."

Below is table that shows the width and the height of the FOV on a 1/3”
format camera and lens.

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Basic Terms and Concepts

Fixed focal length lenses


Fixed focal length lenses are designed with a fixed focal length, that is,
giving only one angle of view.

Variable focal length lenses


Vari-focal lenses can be clasified as manually adjustable fixed focal lenses.

Zoom lenses
The most popular zoom lenses used in CCTV:
6X six times lenses: with 6-36mm, 8-48mm, 8.5-51mm,and 12.5-75mm.
10X ten times lenses: with 6-60mm, 8-80mm, 10-100mm, 11-110mm.
15X fifteen times lenses: with 6-90mm, 8-120mm.

LiLin PTZ cameras


17X seventeen times, with 3.9-66.3mm
22X twenty two times, with 3.9-86mm
25X twenty five times, with 3.8-95mm

C-and CS mount
C-mount,represented with 17.5mm(more precisely 17.526)
CS-mount, represented with 12.5mm.

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Basic Terms and Concepts

The very basics of television


PAL- Phase Alternating Line 625 TV-lines
NTSC- the National Television Systems Committee 525 TV lines
EIA- Electronics Industry Association
SECAM- Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire
Resolution
Resolution is the property of a system to display fine detail.
Vertical resolution
The vertical resolution is defined by the number of vertical elements that
can be captured on a camera and reproduced on a monitor screen.
Horizontal resolution
The horizontal resolution is defined by the number of horizontal elements
that can be captured a camera and reproduced on a monitor screen.
HDTV
HDTV-High-definition television
720i –1280X720 pixels interlaced 1080i-1920X1080 pixels interlaced
720p-1280X720 pixels progressive 1080p -1920X1080 pixels progressive

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CCTV Equipment Basics

Camera systems often appear to be complicated; but in truth, they can be


categorized into three groups.

Signal Transmission Media: This media will receive the signal from the
camera end and send it to the video management end with lowest possible
attenuation. This media could be wired or wireless transmission.
Video management: This end will receive the signal and process it to be
viewed. A video processing unit, recording unit and a monitor construct
this end.
Video collection: This end collects the image from object and send via
the transmission media to the processing end. It is constructed from
camera, lens, power and mounting accessories.

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CCTV Cameras

Camera
A camera is designed to collect the reflected light from objects around them and
then to convert them into electronic video signals that measure 1 Vpp (Volt,
peak to peak). These signals then are transported by one of many transmission
media to the monitor, where these signals are converted back to visible light in a
CCTV monitor.

Cameras could be divided into 4 categories:

Monochrome camera
Produce black and white picture
Color camera
Produce Color picture
Day/Night Camera
Color picture in a daytime light level
Monochrome picture below certain light level, automatically changed
IR (Infrared) Cameras
Color picture during the day
Monochrome picture when used with infrared illuminator

Understanding Camera Types

Board Cameras- a board camera is small camera consisting of a lens mounted


directly to a circuit board or small group of boards.

Bullet Cameras-bullet cameras use similar technology to the board cameras with
a different configuration.
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CCTV Cameras

Dome cameras

Fixed Domes-a fixed dome camera means that the camera within the dome
enclosure remains in one position.

PTZ domes- fully the camera equipped pan/tilt and zoom (PTZ) domes
provide the camera system operator with the ability to move the camera left
and right(PAN) or up and down (tilt).they also allow the operator to change
the view on the camera with a zoom lens, closing in on smaller areas of the
subject field.

Full-size cameras- this type of camera is a traditional Box camera.

Network Cameras-Network cameras are the newest type of cameras in the


security industry. instead of the traditional video output from the back of
camera, this camera connects directly to a computer network.

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CCTV Cameras

Understanding Camera specifications

Pickup Element-CCD

It is the electronic element that captures the image and change to electronic
signal. Obviously, the pickup element is one of the major features of the
CCTV camera. This element will affect the rest of the features of the camera
such as resolution and illumination, electronic shutter, etc

There are two basic types of pickup elements in the market, the older CRT
(cathode ray tube) type and the more recent CCD (Charged Coupled
Discharge), which all CCTV manufacturers use the later.

Illumination

Illumination is a standard measurement for light. In CCTV, minimum


illumination is the minimum amount of light necessary for the camera to
capture an acceptable image. Illumination is usually expression if fc (foot
candle) or in Lux.
.0929 fc = 1 Lux
Or simply
10 Lux = 1 fc

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CCTV Cameras

Synchronization
Electronic pluses that are inserted into the video signal in order to assemble the
picture correctly.

Line Lock
The ability to synchronize AC powered cameras to the same line voltage
frequency

AGC
Automatic Gain Control, an electronic circuit that amplifies the video signal
when the strength of the signal falls below a given value

BLC
Back light compensation. A function of the camera that compensates for
excessive light directed at the camera causing the video to bloom or causing the
images in front of the light to be unusable
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CCTV Cameras

ES
Electronic Shutter. CCD Iris, which eliminates the need for an Auto Iris
Lens. The CCD Iris automatically controls the light intensity by adjusting
the electronic shutter speed to mimic auto iris control.

Aperture Correction
Compensation for the loss in sharpness of detail because of the finite
dimensions of the image elements or the dot-pitch of the monitor

Auto White Balance


A feature that allows a color camera to automatically adjust its color to
sharpen white areas within the picture

SNR
Signal-to-noise ratio. The SNR relates how much stronger a signal is than the
background noise. Usually expressed in decibels (dB)

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CCTV Cameras

Lenses

A basic definition of a lens is "A device that collects light from an


environment, narrowly focusing it onto either a cathode ray tube or solid-
state target."

Without the proper lens, video images cannot be focused onto the light-
sensitive target in a video camera to produce a "usable" video signal.
Among the many issues that pertain to a CCTV system, the most
important that should be considered before buying a lens are:

Format

Lenses and cameras now come in four formats: 1/3-, 1/2-, 2/3-, and 1-in.
Lens format is actually determined by the size of the opening in a camera
where the lens attaches. When the diameter of this opening measures 1/3
in., the camera is said to be a 1/3-in. formatted camera.

For proper viewing, use only a lens that is formatted the same or higher
than the camera used. For example, if the opening in a camera (camera
format) is 1/2 in., a 1/2- to 1- in. formatted lens should be used for
optimum viewing. Or, if a camera with an opening of 1 in. is used, use a
1-in. formatted lens. To do otherwise will result in the projection of only
part of the viewing area onto the target in the camera.

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CCTV Cameras

C and CS Mount

C and CS mount camera is the positioning of the pickup element. A C-


mount camera sets the lens at a distance of 17.526 mm away from the
pickup chip. Whereas, A CS-mount camera sets it at 12.526 mm. So there is
a 5 mm difference between the C and CS mount.

For instance CS-camera works with CS-lens, C-camera works with C-lens,
and CS-camera with C-lens if we add a 5 mm extension ring.
Iris
The iris is a small aperture through which light must pass before it can strike
the light-sensitive target inside a camera. In low light, for example, the
aperture is fully opened and in bright light, it will nearly be closed.

Fixed-Iris and Manual-Iris


Fixed-iris and manual-iris lenses can be used in situations where the light
essentially stays the same all of the time. This type of application is often
found inside of buildings where the lights never vary, no matter what time of
day it may be.

Auto-Iris Lenses
A lens with an auto-iris feature should be used in environments where the
light intensity can vary from minute by minute, hour by hour, or day by day.
This is almost a necessity in outdoor applications and where lights change
throughout the day

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CCTV Cameras

To measure the size of an aperture opening, the lens industry adopted the F-
stop measurement. The larger the F-stop number, for example, the smaller the
opening. Thus, when a camera is set to an F-stop of f-1.4, the size of the
aperture is larger than when the same lens on the same camera is adjusted to f-
8 or f-22.

In a fixed-iris lens, the aperture is set and cannot be changed. In manual- and
auto-iris lenses, however, the aperture can be changed to suit the amount of
reflective lighting in the environment.

Focal Length

The Focal Length (FL) of a lens is actually the distance from the center of the
lens to the surface of the tube or solid-state target.

As the focal length of the lens increases, the area being viewed decreases.
Focal length may be fixed (fixed field of view) or variable (variable field of
view using a zoom length).

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CCTV Cameras

Camera Power Supplies

A typical CCD camera consumes between 3 and 4 W of energy. This means


that a 12V DC camera needs no more than 300mAof current supply. A 24 V
AC camera needs no more than 200mA. As the technology improves,
cameras will consume less current.

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin Day/Night Cameras


PIH-8026/8046//8086/8156/8196

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Day/Night Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Day/Night Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin Dome Cameras


PIH-2126XN/2146XN/2422/2442/2522/2542/2622/2642/2226/2246/2326/2346

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Dome Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Dome Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Dome Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Dome Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin Dome Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin IR Cameras
PIH-0022/0124/0144/0224/0244/0422/0442/0522/0542/0624/0644

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IR Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin PTZ Cameras


PIH-7000NL/7600NL/7625NL

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin PTZ Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin WDR PTZ Cameras


PIH-7625DN/7625DWN

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin WDR PTZ Cameras

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LiLin CCTV Cameras

LiLin IP PTZ Cameras


PIH-7000NlIP/7600NLIP/7625/NLIP

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LiLin CCTV Cameras
LiLin IP Cameras
PIH-1000SN

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CCTV Monitors

General about Monitors


CRT CCTV monitors Cathode Ray Tube technology
LCD CCTV monitors Liquid Crystal Display
Monitor Sizes
Monitors are referred to by their diagonal screen size,
Which is usually expressed in inches.
Example:
15” CCTV monitor
17” CCTV monitor
Monitor Adjustments
CCTV monitors usually have four adjustments at the front of
the unit:
Horizontal hold
Vertical hold
Contrast
Brightness

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Analog signal & Digital Signal
Analog Device & Digital Device

-Analog Device processing analog signal (AC or series signal)

+5V
+3V
Example: VCR
Video Cassette Recorder
-
3
V
-5V -5V

-Digital Device processing Digital signal (DC or Logic Pulse)

1 1 1 1 1

Example: DVR
Digital Video Recorder

0 0 0 0 0

AC : Alternating Current
DC : Direct Current
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Video Processing equipment

Basic Switcher Concept

The “basic” switcher, as shown above, will select a video signal from any of
the inputs and route it to the monitor for display.
This can be a manual switch – Callup, or automatically switched –
Sequencing.

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Video Processing equipment

Matrix Switcher

General Definition

A Matrix Switcher is a video switcher that permits any camera to be


displayed on any system monitor and permits a single camera to be
displayed on all system monitors simultaneously. This capability is also
known as Full Cross point Switching.

Example:LiLin Matirx PIH-816II, PIH-832II,PIH-864II


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Video Processing equipment

Quad

Example:LiLin Quad PIH-4C


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Video Processing equipment

Multiplexer

Example:LiLin Multiplexer PIH-604, PIH-616,PIH-624

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DVR (Digital Video Recorder)
Concept
DVR

PC Base DVR Non PC Base DVR(Standalone DVR)

Software (Applications) and


Hardware (CPU& Memory Card &
Capture Cards … built in a single Board

Example: PDR-3160
PDR-1600
Linux(OS) PDR-400IP
Windows (OS) Base DVR
Base DVR others

Hardware: CPU&M/B&DRAM&VGA
&Capture Card ..
Software: Windows OS & Applications

Genuine Linux(OS) DVR Embedded Linux OS DVR


Windows OS & Applications
must be loaded into the HDDs Hardware:
Hardware: CPU&M/B&DRAM&VGA
CPU&M/B&DRAM&VG &
Example: Techsun H.264 DVR A&Capture Card .. Capture Card ..
Geovision DVR Software: Linux OS & Software: Linux OS &
others Applications Applications
Linux OS &
Linux OS & Applications
Applications
Embedded in a DOM
must be loaded into
the HDDs
Example: PE Series DVR
Example: Techsun SE Series DVR
(Linux OS) H.264
DVR others LiLin USA Training

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DVR (Digital Video Recorder)
Concept

VGA Card: Video Graphics Array Card


CPU: Central Processing Unit
OS: Operating Systems
HDD: Hard Disk Drive
DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory
M/B: Mother Board
NIC: Network Interface Card

Image Compressions Standard In CCTV


JPEG a widely spread standard,used DCT type of compression.

M-JPEG a variation on JPEG, and not really standard. M-JPEG stand


for motion JPEG. (example: PIH-3160 using M-JPEG compression)

MPEG-4 Developed as an object-based compression.there are a few


version of it. Handles compression of video and audio and a wide variety
Of streaming rates. Suitable for anything that uses narrow bandwidths, from
mobile phones, internet, to television.

H.264 Newest work based on h.263 and MPEG-4(also called AVC), which
offers a wide range of video quality, including more efficient coding for
HDTV(quoted up to three times more efficient than MPEG-2).

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DVR Hardware Layout
(Standard)

CCTV Monitor

PC Monitor
Camera #16 Camera #1

-------
Key board
Internet WAN
LAN

VGA Out Mouse


TV Out

Capture Card 4 Capture Card 1 VGA Card

CPU
Processor

Mother Board
NIC
Primary IDE
NIC: Network Interface Card

Secondary IDE Memory Card(DDR)

HDD OR DOME
Floppy Drive HDD Master HDD Slave CD Rom Power Supply

Internal HDDs Up to 500 GB ( 2 HDDs)

More than 500GB (Long Time Recording Required), Raid-5 Card & HDDs
Storage Must be Added.
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PE series DVR support 4,8,16 channel
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DVR Storage(HDDs)
Analysis Diagram

Windows OS
Base & Genuine Embedded Linux DVR
Linux OS Base HDD &DOM(Chip)
DVR HDD

OS & Applications
Partition OS &
Swap Partition Applications
5-8GB (Data Buffer)
1-3GB
Swap Partition
(Data Buffer) DOM (Chip)

Video
Video Data
Data
Partition Partition

117—
115-112 GB
119GB

120GB Hard Disk Drive 120GB Hard Disk Drive

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HDD Capacity Formula

-How Many GBs HDD need for 1 Day & 1 CH & 1


Frame recording (MPEG4 Format)?

1 GB = 1024MB=1024x1024 KB  1000,000 KB (Kilobytes)

1 Frame File size(MPEG4)= 2—25 KB

1 Day=60seconds X 60 Minutes X 24 hours=86400 seconds

1 Day= 86400/1000,000=0.0864 seconds/G

Example 1: 1 Frame file size=5 KB & 1 Day & 1 CH

* 1 Frame/sec. & 1 CH & 1 Day= 5 KB x 1CH x 0.0864= 0.432 GB

Example 2: 8 frame/sec. (1 Frame =5KB) & 16 CH & 1 Day

* 8 Frame/sec. & 16 CH & 1 Day= 8x5 KB x 16CH x 0.0864


= 0.432x8x16 GB
=55.296GB
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Video Transmission Media

CCTV transmission is mainly related to transmission of video, data and power.


The transmission of video and data signals could be done using wires or
wireless, whereas, the power signal has to be connected using wires.

Video Cable Types

There are two main types of cable used for transmitting video signals, which are:
Unbalanced (coaxial) and balanced (twisted pair).

Unbalanced (Coaxial) Cables

This type of cable is made in many different types of impedance. In this case impedance
is measured between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. 75-Ohm impedance cable
is the standard used in CCTV systems. Most video equipment is designed to operate at
this impedance. Coaxial cables with an impedance of 75 Ohms are available in many
different mechanical formats, including single wire armored and irradiated PVC sheathed
cable for direct burial. The cables available range in performance from relatively poor to
excellent. Performance is normally measured in high frequency loss per 100 meters. The
lower this loss figure, the less the distortion to the video signal. Therefore, higher quality
cables should be used when transmitting the signal over long distances.

Another factor that should be considered carefully when selecting coaxial cables is the
quality of the cable screen. This, as its name suggests, provides protection from
interference for the centre core, as once interference enters the cable it is almost
impossible to remove.

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Video Transmission Media

Balanced (Twisted Pair) Cables

In a twisted pair each pair of cables is twisted with a slow twist of about one to two twists
per meter. These cables are made in many different types of impedance, 100 to 150 Ohms
being the most common. Balanced cables have been used for many years in the largest cable
networks in the world. Where the circumstances demand, these have advantages over
coaxial cables of similar size. Twisted pair cables are frequently used where there would be
an unacceptable loss due to a long run of coaxial cable.

The main advantages are:


1) The ability to reject unwanted interference.
2) Lower losses at high frequencies per unit length.
3) Smaller size.
4) Availability of multi-pair cables.
5) Lower cost.

The advantages must be considered in relation to the cost of the equipment required for this
type of transmission. A launch amplifier to convert the video signal is needed at the camera
end and an equalizing amplifier to reconstruct the signal at the control end.

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Video Transmission Media

Typical Cable Losses


A selection of commonly used cable specifications is given below.

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Video Transmission Media

Video non-cable type transmission

The previous section dealt with the transmission of video signals by various types
of cable. There are many instances where it is not possible or desirable to use
cable and other methods need to be employed. These can be:

•Infrared beams
•Microwave
•Optical Fiber Cables

Infrared Beams

With this type of system the video is superimposed onto an infrared beam by a
transmitter. The beam is aligned to strike a receiver where the signal is output as a
conventional composite video signal. The infrared beam is at a wavelength of 860
nanometers, which is above the visible part of the spectrum. The system may be
configured as a full duplex set up. Then it is possible to transmit telemetry control
signals in the reverse direction to control pan, tilt units. The system can also carry speech
in both directions. The actual configuration must be specified at the time of obtaining
quotations or ordering.

Microwave Transmission
Microwave links carry the video and telemetry along a link from a transmitter to a
receiver. They are capable of much farther transmission distances from 1 kilometer to 50
kilometers. They are largely unaffected by weather conditions. On the other hand they
are more expensive than infrared links.

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Video Transmission Media

Fiber Optic Transmission


Fiber optics is the technology of transmitting data along cables that consist of
optical fiber.

•Optical fibers are much smaller and lighter than copper, therefore easier and cheaper to
install in long runs.
•A major advantage of optical fibers is that they can carry far more information than
copper.
•Optical fibers are completely immune to interference from electromagnetic sources

Power Cable
The CCTV cameras usually use 3 different kinds of voltages: 12V DC, 24V AC and 110V AC
(220 V AC). Usually 12 VDC cameras come with its power supply pre-wired.

When 24 VAC PSU is used, the recommended cables are:


UL SPT-1 VW-1 E94163 18AWGx2C
UL SPT-2 VW-1 E94163 18AWGx2C
UL E115988 SUT 105C VW-1 18AWGx3C
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Networking In CCTV
Network concepts and components
•Network A network is a group of computers connected together in
away that allows information to be exchanged between the
computers.

•Local area Network(LAN) A LAN is work of computers that are in


the same general physical location, usually within a building or a
campus. If the computers are far apart(such as across town or in
different cities), the a Wide Area Network(WAN) is typically used.

•Switch A network switch is another”intelligent” data


communication device that is more common and a successor to the
network bridge.

•Router Routers are specialized computers the send message to their


destinations along thousands of pathways.

Networking software
The internet protocol
•TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

•PPP Point-to-Point Protocol

•HTTP Hyper Text Transport Protocol

•SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


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CCTV Accessories

Camera housing
Box Cameras Housing
PTZ cameras Housing

Pan/Tilt Scanner and Controller

Video amplifiers/equalizers

Video distribution amplifiers(VDAs)

Protocol converter

Data Distributor

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Appendix A

RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485 Description

RS-232

A serial format of digital communication where only two wires are required.
It is also known as a serial data communication. The RS-232 Standard defines
a scheme for asynchronous communications, but it does not define how the bits should
represent the data, that is, it does not define the overall message format and protocol. It
is often used in CCTV communications between keyboards and matrix switchers or
between matrix switchers and PTZ site drivers. The advantage of RS-232 over others is
its simplicity and use of only two wires, but it is limited with distance. Typically,
maximum 15 meters is recommended.

RS-422

A serial data communication protocol, which specifies 4-wire, full-duplex, differential


line, multi-drop communications. It provides for balanced data transmission with
unidirectional, nonreversible, terminated or non-terminated transmission lines. This is
an advanced format of digital communication when compared to RS-232. The signal
transmitted is read at the receiving end as the difference between the two wires
without common earth. Therefore, if there is noise induced analog the line, it will be
canceled out. The RS-422 can drive lines of 1200 meters in length and distribute data
up to 10 receivers, with data rate up to 100kb/s.
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Appendix A

RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485 Description

RS-485

This is a more advanced format compared to RS-422. It is an electrical


specification of a two-wire, half-duplex, multipoint serial connection. The
major improvement is in the number of receivers up to 32 that can be driven
with this format. In contrast to RS-422, which has a single driver circuit
which cannot be switched off, RS-485 drives need to be put in transmit
mode explicitly by asserting a signal to the driver. This allows RS-485 to
implement star network topologies using only two lines. RS-485, like RS-
422, can be made full-duplex by using four wires, however, since RS-485 is
a multipoint specification, this is not necessary in many cases.

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Appendix B

IP PTZ Camera -PIH-7XXXNLIP

The similarity of IP PTZ Camera and Reg. PTZ

Camera module & features& functions


Camera setup (DIP switch setting)
PIH-7625 On Screen setup

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Appendix B

IP PTZ Camera -PIH-7XXXNLIP

The difference of hardware with Regular LiLin’s PTZ Camera

Regular PTZ Camera bottom base Layout

IP PTZ Camera bottom base Layout

Bottom base (Circuit Board)


Network card and web server have been built in on the
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Appendix B

IP PTZ Camera -PIH-7XXXNLIP

Web server interface has been improved


Previous version was designed using Java Script & Flash language
Newest version was designed using Macromedia flash 8.0

Flash Language

Java Script Language

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Appendix B

IP PTZ Camera -PIH-7XXXNLIP


For outdoor installation, IP PTZ camera housing must be required.

Macromedia Flash 8.0

Typical Control Panel Pointer (XY axis) control panel


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Appendix C

RS-232/RS-485 Data Converter and 7000SP Protocol Converter

a. RS-232/RS-485 Data Converter


The RS-232 to RS- 485 converter module converts RS-232 levels from
a DVR (PC base DVR) COM port to RS-485 levels suitable for interfacing with
the data control of PTZ camera. (Refer to Figure 1.1)

Figure 1.1

In what condition the RS-232/RS-485 Converter would be required?


If you want to use any types of PC base( such as Linux OS, Windows OS) DVRs to
control any model of PTZ cameras, The RS-232/RS-485 Converter will be required.

The connection of RS-232 to RS-485 converter working with PC base DVR with
LiLin’s PTZ protocol built-in. Please refer to Figure 1.2 .

The connection of RS-232 to RS-485 converter working with PC base DVR without
LiLin’s PTZ protocol built-in. (7000SP Protocol Converter will be required in this case)
Please refer to Figure 1.3 .

Figure 1.2

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Appendix C

Figure 1.3

PIH-7000SP Converter

b. 7000SP Protocol Converter

7000SP protocol converter was designed for LiLin’s PTZ camera working with
other vender’s DVR/Controller (Refer to figure 2.1).

Figure 2.1

In what condition the 7000SP Converter would be needed?

If you want to use any other vender’s DVR/controller (such as Panasonic, Pelco, Sony..)
to control LiLin’s PTZ camera, The 7000SP converter must be used.

The connection of PIH-7000SP Protocol Converter working with the vender’s


DVR/Controller without LiLin’s PTZ Protocol built-in.Please refer to Figure 2.2.
Example: DedicatedMicros DVR working with 7000SP Protocol Converter with
Pelco P Protocol.

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Appendix C

Figure 2.2

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Appendix D

PIH-804 Diagram

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Appendix E

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Appendix F

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Appendix G

PIH-800II Connection

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Appendix H

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