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5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images

5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images

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Transform compression uses unitary transforms to remove the corre-

lation of the data and to rank them according to the degree of significance

to the information content of the image. The Karhunen-Lo6ve (K-L)

transform (see sec. 2.6.1.4) results in a set of uncorrelated variables with

monotonically decreasing variances. Because the information content of

digital images is invariant under a unitary transform, and the variance
of a variable is a measure of its information content, the compression

IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION

299

MSS 4

Hori.oo,.,

_\

!o S

"X

x

\

'_

t"

0

1=0

20

30

40

50 =- _, 'q

FIGURE 9.3a_Average horizontal and vertical spatial autocorrelation

functions

of Landsat multispectral image in figure 9.2a.

300

DIGITAL PROCESSING

OF REMOTELY

SENSED

IMAGES

1.0 R(/L r/)

0,8

0.6

0.4

o2t

%Horizontal

0

MSS 5

Vertical

a

......

i_,_

10

20

30

40

50

FIGURE 9.3b_Average horizontal and vertical spatial autocorrelation functions of
Landsat multispectral image in figure 9.2b.

IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION

301

MSS 6

j Vertical

\...

0

10

20

30

40

50

FIGURE 9.3c---Average horizontal and vertical spatial autocorrelation functions of
Landsat multispectral image in figure 9,2c.

0.8

0.6

0.4

DIGITAL PROCESSING

OF REMOTELY

SENSED

IMAGES

0.2

R(_, ,1)

MSS 7

i

_ _ .__ Vertical

_""_" _ _"\ x...,

Horizontal

-- _--_--_-_.

I

I

I

l

l

l

I

I

t

b

10

2

30

40

50

,E,r_

FIGURE 9.3d---Average horizontal and vertical spatial autocorrelation functions of
Landsat mu/tispectra/ image in figure 9.2d.

IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION

303

strategy is to discard variables with low variances [9-11]. The redistri-

bution of variance in the principal components is important in an
information-theoretic

sense, because the K-L transform minimizes the

entropy function defined over the data variance distribution [12].

The shortcomings of the K-L transform are that knowledge of the

covariance matrix is required and that the computational requirements

for the two-dimensional transform in the spatial domain are proportional

to MO-N'-'for the forward and inverse transform. Furthermore, the eigen-
values and eigenvectors for the MN by MN covariance matrix have to

be computed. The three-dimensional K-L transform for compression in

the spatial and spectral dimensions is too complex to be considered.

Therefore, only the one-dimensional K-L transform is applied in the
spectral dimension where the correlation in general cannot be modeled

by the exponential correlation function in equation (9.10).

The computation of the covariance matrix and its eigenvectors can
be avoided if unitary transforms with a deterministic set of basis vectors

are used. Such transforms are the Fourier, the cosine, and the Hadamard

transforms. (See sec. 2.6.1.) Because of the existence of fast algorithms
for these transforms, the computational requirements for the two-dimen-

sional transformation are proportional to MN log._.MN operations [9, 14].

The performance of these transforms is, however, inferior to the per-

formance of the K-L transform, which is the only transform that generates
uncorrelated coefficients. Only if the autocorrelation function is of the

exponential form in equation (9.10) will the Fourier, cosine, and
Hadamard transforms generate nearly uncorrelated coefficients. Because

the spectral autocorrelation function of remotely sensed images is not

exponential, these transforms are only employed in the spatial dimension.

Table 9.2 shows the spectral correlation matrix and its eigenvalues for

the image in figure 9.2. The table also shows that 98.0 percent of the

variance in the transformed data is contained in the first two components.
Similar characteristics are shown in table 4.2 for aircraft scanner data.

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