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5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images

5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images

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For the analysis of compression techniques, it is desirable to have a model

characterizing the image properties and involving only a few essential

IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION

297

FIGURE 9.2_andsat multispectral image of Washington, D.C., area. (a) MSS 4.
(b) MSS 5. (c) MSS 6. (d) MSS 7.

TABLE 9.1--Entropies of Landsat MSS Image
in Figure 9.2

MSS

spectral
band

Entropies '

H.

Hd

4

4.15

3.94

5

4.4

4.38

6

4.86

4.63

7

4.28

3.99

Average

4.4

4.2

1H_ is the entropy of the gray-level probability density,

given in equation (9.4); H_ is the entropy of the probability

distribution of first gray-level differences, given in equa-
tion (9.8).

298 DIGITAL PROCESSING OF REMOTELY SENSED IMAGES

parameters. A useful model for multi-images is a random field g(x, y, ,o)
(see sec. 2.2.2) where (x, y) are spatial variables and o, refers to the
spectral or temporal variable. The spatial characteristics of a large class

of remotely sensed images may be approximated by an autocorrelation
function for a homogeneous random field g of the form [8]

R(,_, _) = (R(0, 0) --t_2)e-_l_l°--_l_12 +_ '-'

(9.10)

This autocorrelation function depends only on the mean value t_, the

variance C(0, 0), where

C(0, 0) =R(O, 0) ___2

(9.11 )

and the two parameters 0_ and fl, which specify the average number of

statistically independent gray levels in a unit distance along the horizontal

and vertical direction, respectively. In practice the autocorrelation func-

tion is computed as the spatial average given in equation (2.8). Figure
9.3 shows the horizontal and vertical autocorrelation functions of the

image in figure 9.2, computed as averages of line and column correlation
functions.

The correlation between spectral bands cannot be represented by the

exponential model of equation (9.10). For example, Landsat MSS images
often exhibit strong positive correlations between bands 4 and 5 and

between bands 6 and 7 and small negative correlations between bands

5 and 7.

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