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5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images|Views: 152|Likes: 5

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https://es.scribd.com/doc/37431322/5571145-Digital-Processing-of-Remote-Sensed-Images

05/24/2012

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- 2.2.1 Delia Function and Convolution
- 2.2.2 Statistical Characterization of Images
- 2.2.3 Unitary Transforms
- 2.2.3.1 Fourier Transform
- 2.2.3.2 Hankel Transform
- 2.2.3.3 Karhunen-Lo6ve Transform
- 2.2.4 Description of Linear Syslems
- 2.2.5 Filtering
- 2.3 Image Formation and Recording
- 2.4.1 Geometric Distortion
- 2.4.2. Radiometric Point Degradation
- 2.4.3 Radiometric Spatial Degradation
- 2.4.4 Spectral and Temporal Differences
- 2.5.1 Sampling
- 2.5.2 Quantization
- 2.6 Operations on Digital Images
- 2.6.1 Discrete Image Transforms
- 2.6.1.1 Discrete Fourier Transform
- 2.6.1.2 Discrete Cosine Transform
- 2.6.1.3 Hadamard Transform
- 2.6.1.4 Discrete Karhunen-Lo6ve Transform
- 2.6.2 Discrete Convolulion
- 2.6.3 Discrete Crosscorrelation
- 2.7 Reconstruction and Display
- 2.8 Visual Perception
- 2.8.1 Contrast and Contour
- 2.8.2 Color
- 2.8.3 Texture
- 3. Image Restoration
- 3.2 Preprocessing
- 3.2.2 Atmospheric Correction
- 3.3 Geometric Transformations
- 3.3.1 Coordinate Transformations
- 3.3.2 Resampling
- 4. Image Enhancement
- 4.5.1 Ratioing
- 4.5.2 Differencing
- 5. Image Registration
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Matching by Crosscorrelation
- 5.3 Registration Errors
- 8.3.1 Geometric Distortions
- 5.3.2 Systematic Intensity Errors
- 5.3.3 Preprocessing tor Image Registration
- 5.4 Statistical Correlation
- 5.5 Computation of the Correlation Function
- 6. Image Overlaying and Mosaicking
- 6.1 Introduction
- 6.2 Techniques for Generation of Overlays and Mosaics
- 6.3 Map Projections
- 6.3.1 Classes of Map Projections
- 6.3.2 Coordinate Systems
- 6.3.3 Perspective Projections
- 6.3.4 Mercator Projection
- 6.3.5 Lambert Projection
- 6.3.6 Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
- 7. Image Analysis
- 8. Image Classification
- 8.2.10rthogonal Transforms
- 8.3 Supervised Classification
- 8.3.1 Statistical Classification
- 8.3.2 Geometric Classification
- 8.4 Unsupervised Classification
- 8.4.1 Statistical Unsupervised Classification
- 8.4.2 Clustering
- 8.5 Classifier Evaluation
- 8.6 Classification Examples
- 9. Image Data Compression
- 9.1 Introduction
- 9.3 Statistical Image Characteristics
- 9.4 Compression Techniques
- 9.4.1 Transform Compression
- 9.4.2 Predictive Compression
- 9.4.3 Hybrid Compression
- 9.5 Evaluation of Compression Techniques
- 9.5.1 Mean Square Error
- 9.5.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
- 9.5.3 Subjective Image Quality
- Symbols
- GLOSSARY OF IMAGE PROCESSING TERMS
- Index

Linear space invariant image formation and linear filtering are convolution

operations. A discrete representation of the convolution integral, equation

(2.80), is obtained by approximate integration, where the continuous

functions are described by samples, spaced over a uniform grid .Xx, .xy.

64 DIGITALPROCESSING

OFREM()FELYSENSEDIMAGES

*g(j._Xx, k±y* )

*J_l(* 1* L,L* t

._ ._Xx&v __, __,* w,,,,f(m_Xx, n_Xy) h([j--m+Kl_xx,[k
*

*n+L]_xy)
*

+* n* (/.x.r,* kay* )

(2.138 )

where* w,* .... is one of the integration coefficients,* M:: x,,/-xx, N=y,,,/.Xy,
*

*K xh/..xx,* and* L_-v ",v.* For._xx ..xv I and* w,*.... 1, equation (2.138)

can be written as

*1(1* L t

g(j,k)=ZZ](m,n)h(

j rn, k-n)+n(j,k

(2.139)

*j=K,K+I* .....* M-I
k=L,L+I* .....

In this discrete representation, []], [h], [g], and [n] are mamces, formed by

sampling the corresponding continuous functions, of the following sizes:

[f] is of size* M* by* N.* [h] is of size* K* by* L,* and [g] and [hi are of size* M'
*

byN', (M'=M-K:N'

*N-L).* Equation (2.139) is a linear system of

equations that can be written in vector form as

g=Bf+n

(2.140)

where g and n are vectors with* M'N'* components each, and f is a vector

with* MN* components, created by lexicographically ordering the column

vectors of matrices [g], In], and If], respectively. The matrix B has dimen-

sions* M'N'* by* MN* and can be partitioned as

**B_
**

ti_._** B** ......** B,** I. 0

0 ...

0** \
**

**B,
**

**B*** j,* I.** B,,** I._ 0 . . .

*)
*

0 . . .

0

**Bx,** v i......** Bx,,** ._-

(2.141)

The structure of** B** is determined by** B,.** _=** B,** ,., ,. Each submatrix** B,.** _ is

a circulant matrix. In matrices with this property, each row is equal to the

row preceding it shifted one element to** the** right, with the last element

wrapped around to the first place. Circulant matrices have the special

property that they are diagonalized by the DFT [37].

The computation of equation (2. 139) requires* MNKL* operations. The

convolution theorem, equation (2.46a), permits computation of equation

(2.139) in the spatial frequency domain with the FFT algorithm [32, 33].

Whenever the values of* f(j, k)* and* h(j, k)* are required for indices outside

**the** ranges O

*-l,O*

and O

re-

spectively, the), must be obtained by the rules given in equation (2.118).

IMAGEPROCESSING

FOUNDATIONS

65

Withthiscondition,equation(2.139)becomesa periodicor circular

convolution.

Toavoiddistortionoftheconvolutionduetowraparound,

theimages

areextendedwithzeroes.Extendedmatrices[/,], [h,],[g,],and[n,] of

commonsize*P* by* Q* are defined according to

*f,.(j,k)=
*

*jf(j,k)
*

for O_j_M

l,O

]

_ 0

for* M*

*h,(j, k)* = _h(j,* k)
*

for O

1

_ 0

for* K_j*

I'g(j_k)

for O

{

*g,(j, k)* =

for* M'Sj_P, N'_k_Q
*

*n,,(], k):* _n(j,* k)
*

for O_]fM'-1, O

**for*** M'<]*

(2.142)

where* P:2_>M+K_I,
*

*Q* 2'J_N+L-[

(p,q integer). If these in-

equalities are satisfied,* h* (]-m,* k-n* ) will never wrap around and engage

a nonzero portion of fCm,* n),* and therefore the circular convolution will

be identical** to** the desired linear convolution.

The number of computational operations required to obtain the con-

volution with the FFT is on the order of* PQ* (2 log* P+2* log* Q+I).* If

multiplications by zero are avoided, the convolution in the transform

domain can be more efficient than direct computation. Figure 2.23 shows

a comparison of computer times** for** direct and Fourier transform con-

volutions** for** a 256 by 256 image for different sizes of** the** matrix [h] with

an** IBM** 360/75 computer. The figure suggests that indirect computation

should be used for filter sizes greater than* K- L* :** 13.
**

**It** is important to note that the matrices [1,] and [h, ] must be of the same

size,* P* by* Q.*** If the** matrix [h] is much smaller than [f] (K<

block filtering by convolving segments of* j* with* h* can be used [38].

490410

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