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5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images

# 5571145 Digital Processing of Remote Sensed Images

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05/24/2012

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## Sections

Linear space invariant image formation and linear filtering are convolution

operations. A discrete representation of the convolution integral, equation

(2.80), is obtained by approximate integration, where the continuous

functions are described by samples, spaced over a uniform grid .Xx, .xy.

64 DIGITALPROCESSING

OFREM()FELYSENSEDIMAGES

g(j._Xx, k±y )

J_l( 1 L,L t

._ ._Xx&v __, __, w,,,,f(m_Xx, n_Xy) h([j--m+Kl_xx,[k

n+L]_xy)

+ n (/.x.r, kay )

(2.138 )

where w, .... is one of the integration coefficients, M:: x,,/-xx, N=y,,,/.Xy,

K xh/..xx, and L_-v ",v. For._xx ..xv I and w,.... 1, equation (2.138)
can be written as

1(1 L t

g(j,k)=ZZ](m,n)h(

j rn, k-n)+n(j,k

(2.139)

j=K,K+I ..... M-I
k=L,L+I
..... N--|

In this discrete representation, []], [h], [g], and [n] are mamces, formed by

sampling the corresponding continuous functions, of the following sizes:
[f] is of size M by N. [h] is of size K by L, and [g] and [hi are of size M'

byN', (M'=M-K:N'

N-L). Equation (2.139) is a linear system of

equations that can be written in vector form as

g=Bf+n

(2.140)

where g and n are vectors with M'N' components each, and f is a vector
with MN components, created by lexicographically ordering the column

vectors of matrices [g], In], and If], respectively. The matrix B has dimen-

sions M'N' by MN and can be partitioned as

B_

ti_._ B ...... B, I. 0

0 ...

0 \

B,

B j, I. B,, I._ 0 . . .

)

0 . . .

0

Bx, v i...... Bx,, ._-

(2.141)

The structure of B is determined by B,. _= B, ,., ,. Each submatrix B,. _ is

a circulant matrix. In matrices with this property, each row is equal to the

row preceding it shifted one element to the right, with the last element

wrapped around to the first place. Circulant matrices have the special
property that they are diagonalized by the DFT [37].

The computation of equation (2. 139) requires MNKL operations. The

convolution theorem, equation (2.46a), permits computation of equation
(2.139) in the spatial frequency domain with the FFT algorithm [32, 33].

Whenever the values of f(j, k) and h(j, k) are required for indices outside

the ranges O

-l,O

and O

re-

spectively, the), must be obtained by the rules given in equation (2.118).

IMAGEPROCESSING

FOUNDATIONS

65

Withthiscondition,equation(2.139)becomesa periodicor circular
convolution.

Toavoiddistortionoftheconvolutionduetowraparound,

theimages

areextendedwithzeroes.Extendedmatrices[/,], [h,],[g,],and[n,] of
commonsizeP by Q are defined according to

f,.(j,k)=

jf(j,k)

for O_j_M

l,O

]

_ 0

for M

h,(j, k) = _h(j, k)

for O

1

_ 0

for K_j

I'g(j_k)

for O

{

g,(j, k) =

for M'Sj_P, N'_k_Q

n,,(], k): _n(j, k)

for O_]fM'-1, O

for M'<]

(2.142)

where P:2_>M+K_I,

Q 2'J_N+L-[

(p,q integer). If these in-

equalities are satisfied, h (]-m, k-n ) will never wrap around and engage
a nonzero portion of fCm, n), and therefore the circular convolution will
be identical to the desired linear convolution.

The number of computational operations required to obtain the con-

volution with the FFT is on the order of PQ (2 log P+2 log Q+I). If
multiplications by zero are avoided, the convolution in the transform

domain can be more efficient than direct computation. Figure 2.23 shows
a comparison of computer times for direct and Fourier transform con-

volutions for a 256 by 256 image for different sizes of the matrix [h] with

an IBM 360/75 computer. The figure suggests that indirect computation
should be used for filter sizes greater than K- L : 13.

It is important to note that the matrices [1,] and [h, ] must be of the same
size, P by Q. If the matrix [h] is much smaller than [f] (K< L<

block filtering by convolving segments of j with h can be used [38].

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