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OOPS Interview Questions
1) Explain the rationale behind Object Oriented concepts? Object oriented concepts form the base of all modern programming languages. Understanding the basic concepts of object-orientation helps a developer to use various modern day programming languages, more effectively.

2) Explain about Object oriented programming? Object oriented programming is one of the most popular methodologies in software development. It offers a powerful model for creating computer programs. It speeds the program development process, improves maintenance and enhances reusability of programs.

3) Explain what is an object? An object is a combination of messages and data. Objects can receive and send messages and use messages to interact with each other. The messages contain information that is to be passed to the recipient object.

4) Explain the implementation phase with respect to OOP? The design phase is followed by OOP, which is the implementation phase. OOP provides specifications for writing programs in a programming language. During the implementation phase, programming is done as per the requirements gathered during the analysis and design phases.

5) Explain about the Design Phase? In the design phase, the developers of the system document their understanding of the system. Design generates the blue print of the system that is to be implemented. The first step in creating an object oriented design is the identification of classes and their relationships.

6) Explain about a class? Class describes the nature of a particular thing. Structure and modularity is provided by a Class in object oriented programming environment. Characteristics of the class should be understandable by an ordinary non programmer and it should also convey the meaning of the problem statement to him. Class acts like a blue print.

7) Explain about instance in object oriented programming? Every class and an object have an instance. Instance of a particular object is created at runtime. Values defined for a particular object define its State. Instance of an object explains the relation ship between different elements.

8) Explain about inheritance? Inheritance revolves around the concept of inheriting knowledge and class attributes from the parent class. In general sense a sub class tries to acquire characteristics from a parent class and they can also have their own characteristics. Inheritance forms an important concept in object oriented programming.

9) Explain about multiple inheritance? Inheritance involves inheriting characteristics from its parents also they can have their own characteristics. In multiple inheritance a class can have characteristics from multiple parents or

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P age |2 classes. polymorphism and inheritance. Objects are RaSu RaSu . float addition etc. It allows only the relevant information to the user without revealing the functional mechanism through which a particular class had functioned. 10) Explain about encapsulation? Encapsulation passes the message without revealing the exact functional details of the class. 11) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction simplifies a complex problem to a simpler problem by specifying and modeling the class to the relevant problem scenario. 13) Explain about polymorphism? Polymorphism helps a sub class to behave like a parent class. Still many languages prefer to use DOM based languages due to the ease in coding. --------1) Explain what is object oriented programming language? Object oriented programming language allows concepts such as modularity. Simula is credited to be the first object oriented language. It simplifies the problem by giving the class its specific class of inheritance. These DBMS use object oriented languages to make the process easier. In parametric polymorphism code is written without any specification for the type of data present. Composition also helps in solving the problem to an extent. PHP. Overriding polymorphism is generally used in complex projects where the use of a parameter is more. Ruby. 16) Explain about parametric polymorphism? Parametric polymorphism is supported by many object oriented languages and they are very important for object oriented techniques. etc use OOP. For example an addition operator can perform different functions such as addition. When an object belonging to different data types respond to methods which have a same name. Languages such as Python. Coldfusion. encapsulation. the only condition being that those methods should perform different function. Ruby on rails. 12) Explain the mechanism of composition? Composition helps to simplify a complex problem into an easier problem. 15) Explain about object oriented databases? Object oriented databases are very popular such as relational database management systems. Hence it can be used any number of times. It interacts with the problem by making different classes and objects to send a message to each other. Perl. Object oriented databases systems use specific structure through which they extract data and they combine the data for a specific output. 14) Explain about overriding polymorphism? Overriding polymorphism is known to occur when a data type can perform different functions. A sub class can have characteristics from multiple parents and still can have its own characteristics. 17) What are all the languages which support OOP? There are several programming languages which are implementing OOP because of its close proximity to solve real life problems. It makes different classes and objects to interact with each other thus making the problem to be solved automatically.

Code written in Java can be transported to many different platforms without changing it. 3) Explain about UML? UML or unified modeling language is regarded to implement complete specifications and features of object oriented language. 4) Explain the meaning of object in object oriented programming? Languages which are called as object oriented almost implement everything in them as objects such as punctuations. C++. 2) Ease of maintenance and modification to the existing objects can be done with ease. characters. Python. It does have a clear interface. 9) Explain about inheritance in OOPS? Objects in one class can acquire properties of the objects in other classes by way of inheritance. etc. Reusability which is a major factor is provided in object oriented programming which adds features to a class without modifying it. It acts like a messenger from one object to other object to convey specific instructions. LISP. Ruby. RaSu RaSu . 3) A good framework is provided which facilitates in creating rich GUI applications. Perl. New class can be obtained from a class which is already present. Abstract design can be implemented in object oriented programming languages. classes. ECMA Script. PHP. Tcl. It implements virtual machine. 2) Repeatable solution to a problem can cause concern and disagreements and it is one of the major problems in software design. modules. 2) Name some languages which have object oriented language and characteristics? Some of the languages which have object oriented languages present in them are ABAP. VB. Popularity of these languages has increased considerably as they can solve complex problems with ease. blocks. 7) What are the problems faced by the developer using object oriented programming language? These are some of the problems faced by the developer using object oriented language they are: 1) Object oriented uses design patterns which can be referred to as anything in general. 8) State some of the advantages of object oriented programming? Some of the advantages of object oriented programming are as follows: 1) A clear modular structure can be obtained which can be used as a prototype and it will not reveal the mechanism behind the design.P age |3 said to be the most important part of object oriented language. C#. etc. Concept revolves around making simulation programs around an object. It lacks implementation of polymorphism on message arguments which is a OOPs feature. 5) Explain about message passing in object oriented programming? Message passing is a method by which an object sends data to another object or requests other object to invoke method. prototypes. This is also known as interfacing. They were designed to facilitate and implement object oriented methods. 6) State about Java and its relation to Object oriented programming? Java is widely used and its share is increasing considerably which is partly due to its close resemblance to object oriented languages such as C and C++.

14) Explain what a method is? A method will affect only a particular object to which it is specified. A class defines the characteristics of an object and its behaviors. RDBMS will not store objects directly and that¶s where object oriented programming comes into play. Critical requirements needs to be identified. 12) Explain the usage of encapsulation? Encapsulation specifies the different classes which can use the members of an object. This defines the nature and functioning of a specified object to which it is assigned. it logically follows that the object oriented approach models the real world accurately. Code for a class should be encapsulated. The main goal of encapsulation is to provide an interface to clients which decrease the dependency on those features and parts which are likely to change in future. The object oriented approach allows you to identify entities as objects having attributes and behavior. Methods are verbs meaning they define actions which a particular object will perform. 11) Explain about a class in OOP? In Object oriented programming usage of class often occurs. It solves a complex problem by defining only those classes which are relevant to the problem and not involving the whole complex code into play. 17) Explain about the analysis phase? The anlaysis or the object oriented analysis phase considers the system as a solution to a problem in its environment or domain. 15) Name the different Creational patterns in OO design? There are three patterns of design out of which Creational patterns play an important role the various patterns described underneath this are: 1) Factory pattern 2) Single ton pattern 3) Prototype pattern 4) Abstract factory pattern 5) Builder pattern 16) Explain about realistic modeling? As we live in a world of objects. 13) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction can also be achieved through composition. Object relational mapping is one such solution. It also defines various other characteristics of a particular object. RaSu RaSu .P age |4 10) Explain about the relationship between object oriented programming and databases? Object oriented programming and relational database programming are almost similar in software engineering. Developer concentrates on obtaining as much information as possible about the problem. This facilitates easy changes to the code and features.

7) Explain Encapsulation and differentiate with regards to C.P age |5 C++ Interview Questions 1) Contrast and state the difference between visual c++ and ANSI c++? Visual C++ deals with graphical user interface and is the most advanced IDE for creating complex applications. 3) Define about template in C++ and instantiation? The C++ feature that supports the definition of an object of undetermined type is called a template. This is avoided in Java. The methods in the class Rational explicitly mention only one. numerator and denominator and seven method members. This overwhelming task is made easy by RaSu RaSu . reduce. At this point of time virtual member functions comes to rescue. This is used to create real time applications. object. Additionally. Libraries and functions are updated in ANSI C++ compared to the earlier versions. This can benefit as well as destroy the structure of the program. restricting access to certain members of the class to methods of the class itself. It is a general practice among programmers to allow only partial functions which can help in designing to be public while the rest of the code is made into private or protected. add. This is because the class object for which they are invoked is an implicit parameter for each routine. ANSI C++ is the updated and advanced version than the earlier versions of C++. A derived class or unrelated class may obtain more than one base class. This increasingly becomes difficult to process during the run time. equal. private. In multiple inheritance a derived class or an unrelated class can obtain function of the base class. The creation of a class of a particular type is called instantiation. etc. There is also a disadvantage when we are using C++ templates. In this process it can obtain multiple inheritance. 4) Define and explain about the classes in C++ comparing with C? A C++ class builds on the concept of a structure. a C++ class is a collection of named fields and methods that apply to objects of that class type. and set rational. Using a template allows the programmer to define the features of the class. C struct can contain only data and C++ has access limitations and contains functions such as public. etc. Encapsulation is an entirely new concept which is present in C++ but not in C. functions and methods. In Encapsulation you can restrict the access of the functions to Public. 8) Explain multiple inheritances in C++? Multiple inheritances in C++ are a controversial issue. divide. 2) State the difference between the structure for C and C++? The main difference between the structure of C and C++ is. 5) Explain about rational class? Rational class contains two data members. multiply. function definition. 6) Explain about Templates in C++? C++ templates are used to optimize code. private and Protected which is not possible in C. 9) Explain about virtual member functions of C++? Virtual member functions come into play when a function belonging to a derived class over rides a base class. Whereas a C structure is a collection of named fields. they tend to duplicate themselves and get installed which slows down the functioning of the program. print. the C++ language implements the concept of information hiding. while reserving the option of binding the type of the class to the class itself until a class of a particular type is actually needed. They are very powerful as they help the program by providing various classes. This is possible only when there are many similarities in the number of parameters.

strings. and etc. These data elements are collectively RaSu RaSu . There are two different types of explicit conversion such as c like casting and functional. It is almost similar to C language because of which much of the criticism faced by ³C´ is faced by C++. To access these name spaces we can use scope operator. irrespective of classes. The main problem which C++ faces today is because of its large feature set. 11) Explain about different problems which C++ faces today. This static_cast is also helpful to convert base class to derived class. It automatically performs when a value is copied to the code. characters. After the try block a catch function is placed through which exception handlers are declared. 18) Explain about the class string stream? This string stream class is defined by a standard header file . pointer conversions. Also this language is unruly compared to modern languages such as Java which has both object oriented and procedural programming. 16) Explain about explicit conversion within C++ and its supportability? This explicit conversion is required where there is different interpretation on value. This class provides flexibility in converting a string based object to stream. The only exception being. 19) What exactly a data structure performs in C++? A data structure is a collection of data elements under one name. This is useful in extraction and insertion of numerical. This exception handler is placed in the code which throws exception and error. significant runtime errors get reduced with this implicit conversion because it accepts values which are compatible. The code generated for reinterpret_cast is generated for the platform which makes it not useful for inter operability. functions. It should also satisfy the basic criteria of parsing source code. etc under one name which helps you to access it at later stage. This transfers pointers. etc. This also aids in insertion. This forms a image of the specific class and also pointer pointed or the pointer itself is not checked. it should be compatible. This exception throws error when the condition is not satisfied. 10) Explain the basic steps to parse a C++ source code? The main difficulty to parse a C++ code lies in the complex definitions of C++ identifiers. 14) Explain about static_cast? Static cast is very helpful for conversions from pointers to related class and also from derived class to base class. 15) Explain about reinterpret_cast? Reinterpret_cast is platform specific. They should also satisfy complex scoping rules for C++. This explicit conversion can be applied indiscriminately on the code which significantly increases errors during run time. Static_cast makes sure that atleast classes and objects are completed. This is useful to extract a specific numerical from a string. 17) Explain about implicit conversion in relation to C++? Implicit conversion does not require any operator for performing its function.P age |6 virtual functions tables. 13) Explain about exceptions and its relation to handlers? This function is used for exceptional circumstances and this is made possible by handlers. It doesn¶t have language features to create multi threaded software. This can lead doors to security lapses. This has its disadvantages such as programmer should ensure that the object specified is being moved to its destination. This handler is placed in a try block in which throw function is present. Also they should define what type it is and to what type it belongs to. This allows conversions between bool to numerical types. During name space naming there arises difficulty when a function uses the same name which causes redefinition errors. 12) Explain about name spaces? Namespaces help you to group classes.

This scanf () function is responsible for giving input into the program.P age |7 known as members and they can have variable lengths and types. Structure_name and object_name are two important types defined in C++. Variables declared internally inside a function are known as µlocal¶ variables. 6) What are signed values? When an int variable is declared it can by default contain either positive of negative integer values. Automatically pointers assign the variable to a certain location and when it tries to extract during extraction it fails thus creating error. Local internal variables can only be declared as register variables. For µshort¶ type these are the maximum and minimum values +327676 and minimum -32768. (While answering this question you can specify the approximate value raised to power). 8) State some significant uses of arrays in C programming? One of the most significant uses of arrays in c programming concerns with their ability to store strings RaSu RaSu . then the name of the variable in which the input will be stored. 4) What are the maximum and minimum possible ranges of values for long and short type? If the int variable is created by default as a µlong¶ type it typically will have a possible range of values from a maximum of +214748347 and a minimum of -2147483648. 5) What exactly is a µvariable scope¶. First a format specifier defines the type of data to be entered. 20) I am getting an error at runtime for an oversized array but it never shows it as a fault during debugging? In C++ it is very correct syntactically to declare over sized array. This problem can be mitigated if we can manually specify the memory location by using a reference operator. These are known as µsigned¶ values. It also never shows you any error during compilation but it shows error during run time. µlocal variables¶ and µglobal variables¶? The extent to which a variable is accessible in a program is called the µvariable scope¶. The intention is for the compiler to place register variables in the machine register of the computer to speed access times. 7) Explain about register variables relative to compiler? A register variable declaration informs the compiler that the specified variable will be heavily used by the program. C Interview Questions 1) Name the four basic data types in ³C´ language? The four basic data types in ³c´ language are as follows (i) Char (ii) Int (iii) Float (iv) Double 2) Describe at least five different format specifiers? %d: -An integer whole number %f: -a floating point number %c: -a single character %p: -a machine memory address 3) Define and explain scanf () function? The Scanf () function can be used to get input into a program and it requires two arguments. The answer lies in pointers. Structure types are defined by structure_name and object_name contains valid identifiers. Variables declared externally outside a function are known as µglobal¶ variables. The range of positive values is determined by your system.

This allows conditional branching of the program to run sections of the code according to the result. Each element in an array of the char data type can store a single character. Constants defined with a #define directive can be undefined with the #undef directive. 11) Define and explain about! Operator? The logical operator! NOT is a unary operator that is used before a single operand. another array for storing prices. The constant names follow with a comma and placed within braces. a value of zero is returned. Once str has been built. 2) Use a structure variable. Writing a buffer full of data resembles the fwrite() function. If in case two strings are identical. RaSu RaSu . These data types may or may not be of the same type. If there is no matches between two strings then a difference of the two non matching values are returned according to ASCII values. 16) How do you write data to low level disk I/O? In low level disk I/O. the order of precedence determines whether the addition or the multiplication is completed first.P age |8 of text. Optionally the declaration can include a name for the sequence after the enum keyword. its contents can be displayed on the screen. The #ifdef directive has a companion directive #ifndef. Operators on the same row have equal precedence.g. this function writes the output to an array of characters. This ensures that on each pass the value is changed.g. 12) What is operator precedence? Operator precedence defines the order in which C evaluates expressions. 13) Explain about the functions strcat() and strcmp()? This function concatenates the source string at the end of the target string. whichever occurs first. 1) one array for storing names. A structure contains a number of data types grouped together. These commands can be useful when debugging problem code to hide and unhide sections of the program. There is only one way data can be written to read in low level disk I/O functions as buffer full of bytes. The name assigned can be used to call the function again at later stage. It returns the inverse value of the given operand so if the variable ³c´ had a value of true then! C would return value of false. Strcmp() function compares two strings to find out whether they are the same or different. The two strings are compared character by character until there is a mismatch or end of one of the strings is reached. 10) Explain about the constants which help in debugging? A #if directive test can be offered with #else and #else if directives. or as strings or as formatted data. in the expression a=6+b*3. and another for storing number of pages. 9) What is enum used for and state its format? The enum keyword provides a handy way to create a sequence of integer constants in a concise manner. instead of sending the output to the screen as printf() does. 14) Why do we use structures? We use structures for different purposes which are 1) Construct individual arrays E. Adding the special null character escape sequence in the arrays final element promotes the array to string. The not operator is very much useful in C programs because it can change the value of variables with successful iterations. e. 15) State the difference between sprint () and sscanf() Functions? The sprint() function works similar to the printf() function except for one small difference. data cannot be written as individual characters. It can be referenced using the array name and can be displayed using the %s format specifier. The constants can be assigned any individual value but the following constant will always increment it by one.

a union enables us to treat the same space in memory as a number of different variables. RaSu RaSu . All these macros are #defined in the µwindows. Fseek(): . This pointer writes the record where the pointer is currently places. 18) State the difference between Unions and structures? Both structures and unions are used to group a number of different variables together. 19) What are the different styles present in WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW? The different styles present in windows are WS_OVERLAPPED.Function lets us move the pointer from one record to another.On opening a file. The real constants could be written in two forms fractional form and exponential form.P age |9 17) Define these functions fopen(). WS_THICKFRAME. These are the following rules while constructing real constants 1) A real constant must have at least one digit 2) It must have a decimal point 3) It could be wither positive or negative 4) Default sign is positive 5) No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant. It always reads the file where the pointer is pointed. fwrite() and fseek()? Fopen(): . But while a structure enables us treat a number of different variables stored at different places in memory.The pointer moves to the next record while reading a file. 20) What are the rules for constructing real constants? Real constants are often called Floating point constants. and WS_MAXIMIZEBOX. fread(). Fwrite(): -The pointer moves to the beginning of the next record on closing the file the pointer is deactivated. Fread(): . WS_CAPTION. a pointer is set up which points to the first record in the file.h¶ header file. WS_MINIMIZEBOX.

8) Explain about PHP cookies? A Cookie is placed on the user desktop which uniquely identifies the user and every time a user views the webpage the same cookie is retrieved. PHP is used for producing dynamic WebPages. 9) Describe about PHP error and logging information? Error handling function allows the user to detect the error and do necessary changes which paved the way for the error. Out of 33. 2) Describe about the security vulnerability of PHP? According to the information obtained from the National vulnerability database. This language can be used for varied types of scripting such as server side scripting. 6) What is a PHP accelerator? PHP accelerator increases the speed of applications written in PHP. Logging functions pave the way for users to use log applications and send messages to system logs.P a g e | 10 PHP Interview Questions 1) What exactly is PHP ? PHP is also known as personal home page. PHP has more than quarter of the software vulnerabilities discovered in 2008. 4) Explain about Functions in PHP? PHP has a large pool of functions and a huge number of them can be created by extensions. Many of the features present in PHP 5 are adopted from C++. These functions can be defined at runtime by defining them inside the code. object was fully copied before assigning a variable to a method. 5) Explain about objects in PHP? In previous versions of PHP. RaSu RaSu . The setcookie() function is used to create a cookie and PHP $_COOKIE variable helps the programmer to retrieve the cookie stored on the users computer. abstract and final methods. 3) Explain about the data types in PHP? PHP stores information numerical in a platform dependent range. This boost of performance can be around 2-10 times. abstract and final classes. Unsigned integers can be easily converted to signed integers. Some of the features which are incorporated are restricted classes such as private and public. Zero is considered as false and all non zero numbers are considered as true. With PHP a programmer can create and retrieve information simultaneously. This GET gets executed on the server and then information is sent back to the user. A maximum of 100 characters is sent by the GET variable. constructors and destructors with exception handling borrowed from C++. The information transmitted through this GET variable is viewable by everyone and is displayed in the address bar of the browser. Register_globals a feature present in PHP is responsible for most of these vulnerabilities and now it is deprecated by PHP. Functions can be called or referenced by specifying their name. standalone and for graphical applications. Decimal. This problem was solved in new versions of PHP by the handle function. 7) Explain about the $_GET variable of PHP? This GET variable is executed when a request is sent from the user for information. Floating point notation and two forms of scientific notation can be easily assigned to Real numbers. These both functions can function simultaneously. and hexadecimal notations can be easily assigned to integers. octal.33% software and scripts vulnerability PHP amounts to almost quarter of them. It depends upon factors such as time taken for execution of the PHP script and the actual percentage of the source code requested. Most of these security vulnerabilities occur due to poor programming techniques. This is released under PHP license and is considered to be free software. PHP accelerator increases the speed of the applications by decreasing parsing each and every time a PHP application runs. These functions have to be defined inside the parenthesis except for a class constructor function where there is no argument.

endswitch. E_COMPILE_WARNING: -this error is generated by the Zend scripting engine. 13) Define about declare construct? Declare construct allows you to define execution directives for a block set of code. and endforeach. It does execute the statement until the end of the block till it finds the break statement. 10) Name and explain five of the PHP error constants? Some of the five PHP error constants are E_ERROR. This is a compile time non fatal error.. E_USER_WARNING: -This warning error is generated by the user and is non fatal. PHP eliminated this risk by using PHP filter extension. 17) What are the different filter functions used to filter a variable? T filter a variable these are the following different functions used they are: 1) Filter_var() 3) Filter_input 2) Filter_var_array() 4) Filter_input_array RaSu RaSu . for each. E_ALL. When the expression and statement matches themselves the code is executed. PHP has efficient error and logging constants to its credit. This actually describes the way the code should perform. This forms a good security practice for programmers. 12) Explain about require and include function? Include function collects all the text in a defined specific file and copies the text information to the file which has the include function in it Require function is similar to the include function except that it handles the error system in a different manner.. do. E_USER_WARNING. 16) Explain about PHP filter and why it should be used? A PHP filter validates. 15) Explain about switch statement in PHP? Switch statement is executed line by line. These declare construct can be set in such a manner that all the code is affected. This is set by the programmer using trigger_error(). 11) Explain about looping in PHP? Looping is used to run the same script many number of times. E_COMPILE_WARNING. Require function displays a fatal error and stops the execution of the script while the include function still executes the script. E_WARNING. Similarly the opening brace of the alternative syntax should be changed to (:) or colon. E_PARSE. PHP executes the statement only when the case statement matches the value of the switch expression. endfor. E_NOTICE. E_STRICT.while. endwhile. do while. for each and switch. The way the code performs can be set by the directive part which directly leads the code to follow. etc E_ERROR: -This error is displayed when there is fatal error which halts the execution of the script immediately. Following statements are used in PHP for looping while. The alternative structure is applicable to else and elseif also. filters according to the predefined statements from the programmer.P a g e | 11 email or for other specific purpose. 14) What is the alternative structure for control structures? The basic control structures are if. E_WARNING: -This warns the programmer about the error but the execution of the script is not stopped. while. for. etc. If you are planning to use alternative structures then the closing braces should be changed to endif. E_PARSE: -These errors occur during compile time and these errors should only be generated by the parser. Some of them are E_ERROR. and for statement. It is very important for every programmer to validate user defines information as it can potential harm.

Incase the value is null at the time of conversion the new instance will be empty. Sanitizing filters: . 1) Explain about PHP? Personal home page language is used to create dynamic and interactive websites which are very efficient in delivering client needs from the server side. Help can be obtained from. Strict rules are applied for formatting such as URL or Email validating. There are no restrictions on data format rules. Converting to a resource makes no sense at all. This tags allow PHP to be embedded between many documents. There are also two functions they are is_null and unset()./configure help command. There doesn¶t exist any value for type Null. 6) Explain about converting an object? When an object is converted into an object the stance of the object is not modified. Null is defined to be null if and only if it is assigned a constant null. Resource holds defined and special handlers for opening files. These RaSu RaSu . This filter always returns the string. 3) How to enable parsing? Parsing is an important concept if you want to run your code appropriately and timely. it is set to be unset(). Initially it can be controlled by the command line options. If assoc() is added to the function it compares array keys. 4) What are the different opening and closing tags available in PHP? There are four different types of tags available in PHP they are * PHP short tags * ASP style tags. This language is widely used.These filters are used to allow or disallow specific characters present in a string. 7) Explain about resource? Resource holds reference to an external resource and it is a special variable. it ignores everything present out of the closing and opening tags. Functions like call_user_func() or usort() accept user defined functions as parameter. After installing PHP modules or executables can be configures and make command should help you in the process. there is no value set. It also sends the success type for a particular operation whether false or true. 5) Explain about array uintersect()? This function is very useful in PHP. This function can also be defined as array uintersect uassoc(). PHP parses all the code present between the opening and closing tags. 2) Explain about the installation of PHP on UNIX systems? PHP can be installed on UNIX in many different ways there are pre defined packages available which can ease the process. This is the case insensitive keyword. This can be directly embedded into HTML code. Generally the first two tags are widely used because they are portable. 9) Explain about mixed and callback functions? Mixed function indicates that the function may contain multiple types but it doesn¶t form a necessary condition.These filters are used to validate user sent information (input). 8) Explain about null? Null represents a variable with no value inside. This function compares array values in a user defined function and it returns the array. It is used on various operating systems with Apache modules. These are created and used by specially defined functions. A new instance of the class is created if a value of different type if converted into an object.P a g e | 12 18) What exactly is validating and sanitizing? Validating and sanitizing are two different kinds of filters Validating filters: .

RaSu RaSu . 12) Explain about Type juggling? PHP uses Type juggling similar to the way Perl uses. Compiling PHP functions with MYSQL will increase the support and functioning of the language. float and double. Variable is defined in the context in which it is used. etc. It uses huge number of extensions to interface with huge pool of libraries such as XML. string. 11) Explain about Booleans in PHP? A Boolean type states a truth value whether it is true or false. 3) Connectivity ability lets you to connect to different interfaces and predefined libraries. graphics and encryption. MYSQL should be installed where there are extensions of PHP. It doesn¶t require any explicit definition for a function to perform its duties. 17) How can MYSQL functions be available with PHP? MYSQL is not available as a default feature it must be created by the user. 14) How to change the principal password? Principal password can be changed by using kadm5_chpass_principal command. do while. Casting and support was added in PHP 5. You can use --withmysql=DIR function to make available SQL on your system. If you also want to specify the new password for effecting a change to the principal password it should be as Bool kadm5_chpass_principal (resource $handle. An operator returns a Boolean value and this value is passed onto the control structure which executes the statement. Programmers can create their own extensions and compiling them. For example if a string value is assigned to a variable it is defined as string. 16) Explain about the connective abilities of the PHP? A huge advantage for PHP is its connective ability. PHP has these following looping statements they are while.2. string $principal. array and object. A variable can be enclosed in double quotes instead of casting it to a string. 10) Explain about PHP looping? Looping statements are used in PHP to execute the code for a developer defined number of times. Boolean. binary. for and for each. 15) Explain about the advantages of using PHP? There are many advantages of PHP they are 1) Easy and fast creation of dynamic web pages and a developer can also embed these dynamic functions into HTML. string password). 4) Execution is very fast because it uses less system resources.P a g e | 13 functions are not only simple but also object methods which includes static methods. This changes the password to password.1. They can load their own programs by using the dynamic loading mechanism. If an argument is required it is automatically converted. 2) A huge community resource which has a ton of information before you. These statements are case insensitive. The casts allowed are Integer. Foreach is used to loop a block of code in each element in an array. 13) Explain about the casts allowed in PHP? Type casting acts and functions similarly as it performs in C.

regardless of the hardware and software platform.NET applications and the underlying operating system. A web services is an application or business logic that is accessible through standard internet protocols such as HTTP and simple object access protocol.NET services? .NET framework. It provides services such as code compilation. Users can subscribe to such a service and use it as long as they need it. resource management. which are capable of interacting seamlessly with each other. This framework aims at integrating various programming languages and services. 4) Which platform does Microsoft . which can be interpreted by any other computer system.net which can be realized to a maximum potential with the language support. It allows computers to store data in a format. RaSu RaSu . 6) Explain about . and Visual C++.Net framework with the intention of bridging the gap in interoperability between applications. 8) Explain about CLS? CLS consists of a set of common rules followed by all the languages of the . code specialization. Visual C#. 7) Explain about the Common language Runtime? The CLR is one of the most essential components of the . The .NET Interview Questions 1) Explain about ASP.P a g e | 14 ASP. XML can be used to transfer structures data between heterogeneous systems.NET applications by using programming languages such as Visual Basic.NET infrastructure because it exists as a layer between the . These products aim at allowing developers to create applications. It translates the code into Intermediate language which helps interoperability of code. It is a platform independent markup language. deployment and administration. security.Net products? Microsoft has already introduced visual studio. Multilanguage development. CLS enables an object or application to interact with the objects or applications of other languages.NET helps you to create software as web services. and garbage collection.NET framework.Net products use eXtensible markup language (XML) for describing and exchanging data between applications. develop and deploy applications.NET.NET technologies are executed.NET offers a complete suite for developing and deploying applications. It is consistent and simplified programming model that helps you to easily build robust applications.NET framework? It is the foundation on which you design.NET? It is designed to make significant improvements in code reuse. which is a tool for developing . 5) Explain about . memory allocation. There are lots more features included in Microsoft . CLR is the environment where all programs using . 3) Explain about .NET? Microsoft introduced the .NET uses for exchanging data between applications? . This set of rules is known as Common language specifications. 2) State the various features present in . It forms the core of the .

the application may not execute properly.P a g e | 15 9) Explain about CTS? One of the specifications defined in CLS is common type system (CTs). In the second stage the conversion of IL to machine language is done at run time by the JIt compiler. a set of language features has been defined in CLS. Whenever you create an object. the compiler translates code into an IL instead of machine language or assembly language. network connections. 15) Explain about the features and elements present in Visual studio.NET? When you compile a program in . output window. A particular file can be opened in a project by double clicking the file in the solution explorer window. and retrieving data. used and managed in the code at run time. the CLR allocates memory for the object from the managed heap. In the first stage.NET Framework provides a common OOPs model across languages. They are displayed in a hierarchical tree-view depicting the containership of these items. it brings up the code editor window for that item RaSu RaSu . 11) Explain about managed heap? A managed heap is a region of the memory that is available for program execution. such as reading from and writing to files. 17) Explain about the Class view window? The class view window displays the classes. the project name. 16) Explain about solution explorer window? The solution explorer window lists the solution name. The size of integer and long variables is the same across all CLs compliant programming languages.NET. the conversion of source code to machine language happens in two stages.NET IDE? Elements present in Visual studio IDE are toolbars.Net allows multiple languages to be integrated. If a programmer does not free these resources.NET. It is possible to create a class in VC# that derives from a class implemented in VB.NET framework? The . the garbage collection process is invoked. methods. a programmer may be required to write code for managing resources such as files. solution explorer. When you double-click any one of the items in the Class view window. 14) Explain about Automatic resource management? While creating an application. To enable objects with each other regardless of the language use to develop them. In addition to these elements start page and project properties windows is also present. CTS define how data types are declared. If sufficient memory is not available on the managed heap. This object model can be used in code to perform several tasks. 12) Explain about consistent programming model in . connecting to databases. and properties associated with a particular file. which provides a type system that is common across all languages. and all the classes that are used in the project. 10) Explain the process of compilation in . and database resources. This process is done by CLR automatically. task list window. memory. code editor. 13) Explain about Multi-Language integration? . and class view window.

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