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OOPS Interview Questions
1) Explain the rationale behind Object Oriented concepts? Object oriented concepts form the base of all modern programming languages. Understanding the basic concepts of object-orientation helps a developer to use various modern day programming languages, more effectively.
2) Explain about Object oriented programming? Object oriented programming is one of the most popular methodologies in software development. It offers a powerful model for creating computer programs. It speeds the program development process, improves maintenance and enhances reusability of programs.
3) Explain what is an object? An object is a combination of messages and data. Objects can receive and send messages and use messages to interact with each other. The messages contain information that is to be passed to the recipient object.
4) Explain the implementation phase with respect to OOP? The design phase is followed by OOP, which is the implementation phase. OOP provides specifications for writing programs in a programming language. During the implementation phase, programming is done as per the requirements gathered during the analysis and design phases.
5) Explain about the Design Phase? In the design phase, the developers of the system document their understanding of the system. Design generates the blue print of the system that is to be implemented. The first step in creating an object oriented design is the identification of classes and their relationships.
6) Explain about a class? Class describes the nature of a particular thing. Structure and modularity is provided by a Class in object oriented programming environment. Characteristics of the class should be understandable by an ordinary non programmer and it should also convey the meaning of the problem statement to him. Class acts like a blue print.
7) Explain about instance in object oriented programming? Every class and an object have an instance. Instance of a particular object is created at runtime. Values defined for a particular object define its State. Instance of an object explains the relation ship between different elements.
8) Explain about inheritance? Inheritance revolves around the concept of inheriting knowledge and class attributes from the parent class. In general sense a sub class tries to acquire characteristics from a parent class and they can also have their own characteristics. Inheritance forms an important concept in object oriented programming.
9) Explain about multiple inheritance? Inheritance involves inheriting characteristics from its parents also they can have their own characteristics. In multiple inheritance a class can have characteristics from multiple parents or
Overriding polymorphism is generally used in complex projects where the use of a parameter is more. Ruby on rails. float addition etc.
12) Explain the mechanism of composition? Composition helps to simplify a complex problem into an easier problem. etc use OOP. A sub class can have characteristics from multiple parents and still can have its own characteristics. --------1) Explain what is object oriented programming language? Object oriented programming language allows concepts such as modularity. It makes different classes and objects to interact with each other thus making the problem to be solved automatically. Object oriented databases systems use specific structure through which they extract data and they combine the data for a specific output. It allows only the relevant information to the user without revealing the functional mechanism through which a particular class had functioned. PHP. Objects are
. Perl. Simula is credited to be the first object oriented language.
17) What are all the languages which support OOP? There are several programming languages which are implementing OOP because of its close proximity to solve real life problems. Coldfusion. Composition also helps in solving the problem to an extent. Languages such as Python. It interacts with the problem by making different classes and objects to send a message to each other.
14) Explain about overriding polymorphism? Overriding polymorphism is known to occur when a data type can perform different functions. Still many languages prefer to use DOM based languages due to the ease in coding. In parametric polymorphism code is written without any specification for the type of data present. Ruby. Hence it can be used any number of times.
10) Explain about encapsulation? Encapsulation passes the message without revealing the exact functional details of the class.
15) Explain about object oriented databases? Object oriented databases are very popular such as relational database management systems. the only condition being that those methods should perform different function. These DBMS use object oriented languages to make the process easier.P age |2
16) Explain about parametric polymorphism? Parametric polymorphism is supported by many object oriented languages and they are very important for object oriented techniques.
11) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction simplifies a complex problem to a simpler problem by specifying and modeling the class to the relevant problem scenario. It simplifies the problem by giving the class its specific class of inheritance. polymorphism and inheritance. When an object belonging to different data types respond to methods which have a same name.
13) Explain about polymorphism? Polymorphism helps a sub class to behave like a parent class. For example an addition operator can perform different functions such as addition.
New class can be obtained from a class which is already present.
8) State some of the advantages of object oriented programming? Some of the advantages of object oriented programming are as follows: 1) A clear modular structure can be obtained which can be used as a prototype and it will not reveal the mechanism behind the design. blocks. prototypes. PHP. Popularity of these languages has increased considerably as they can solve complex problems with ease.
. Abstract design can be implemented in object oriented programming languages. It acts like a messenger from one object to other object to convey specific instructions. ECMA Script. VB. They were designed to facilitate and implement object oriented methods. modules. 2) Ease of maintenance and modification to the existing objects can be done with ease.
9) Explain about inheritance in OOPS? Objects in one class can acquire properties of the objects in other classes by way of inheritance. This is also known as interfacing. Perl. C++.
3) Explain about UML? UML or unified modeling language is regarded to implement complete specifications and features of object oriented language. Code written in Java can be transported to many different platforms without changing it.
4) Explain the meaning of object in object oriented programming? Languages which are called as object oriented almost implement everything in them as objects such as punctuations.
5) Explain about message passing in object oriented programming? Message passing is a method by which an object sends data to another object or requests other object to invoke method.
7) What are the problems faced by the developer using object oriented programming language? These are some of the problems faced by the developer using object oriented language they are: 1) Object oriented uses design patterns which can be referred to as anything in general.
2) Name some languages which have object oriented language and characteristics? Some of the languages which have object oriented languages present in them are ABAP. 2) Repeatable solution to a problem can cause concern and disagreements and it is one of the major problems in software design.P age |3
said to be the most important part of object oriented language. It implements virtual machine. Ruby. characters. classes. It lacks implementation of polymorphism on message arguments which is a OOPs feature. Tcl. LISP. Reusability which is a major factor is provided in object oriented programming which adds features to a class without modifying it. C#.
6) State about Java and its relation to Object oriented programming? Java is widely used and its share is increasing considerably which is partly due to its close resemblance to object oriented languages such as C and C++. Python. Concept revolves around making simulation programs around an object. etc. 3) A good framework is provided which facilitates in creating rich GUI applications. It does have a clear interface. etc.
12) Explain the usage of encapsulation? Encapsulation specifies the different classes which can use the members of an object. A class defines the characteristics of an object and its behaviors. it logically follows that the object oriented approach models the real world accurately. This defines the nature and functioning of a specified object to which it is assigned. Critical requirements needs to be identified.
. The object oriented approach allows you to identify entities as objects having attributes and behavior. This facilitates easy changes to the code and features. It solves a complex problem by defining only those classes which are relevant to the problem and not involving the whole complex code into play. Object relational mapping is one such solution. Developer concentrates on obtaining as much information as possible about the problem.
13) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction can also be achieved through composition.
11) Explain about a class in OOP? In Object oriented programming usage of class often occurs.P age |4
10) Explain about the relationship between object oriented programming and databases? Object oriented programming and relational database programming are almost similar in software engineering. It also defines various other characteristics of a particular object. Methods are verbs meaning they define actions which a particular object will perform. Code for a class should be encapsulated. RDBMS will not store objects directly and that¶s where object oriented programming comes into play. The main goal of encapsulation is to provide an interface to clients which decrease the dependency on those features and parts which are likely to change in future.
14) Explain what a method is? A method will affect only a particular object to which it is specified.
17) Explain about the analysis phase? The anlaysis or the object oriented analysis phase considers the system as a solution to a problem in its environment or domain.
15) Name the different Creational patterns in OO design? There are three patterns of design out of which Creational patterns play an important role the various patterns described underneath this are: 1) Factory pattern 2) Single ton pattern 3) Prototype pattern 4) Abstract factory pattern 5) Builder pattern
16) Explain about realistic modeling? As we live in a world of objects.
equal. They are very powerful as they help the program by providing various classes. function definition.
7) Explain Encapsulation and differentiate with regards to C. C struct can contain only data and C++ has access limitations and contains functions such as public. private. Libraries and functions are updated in ANSI C++ compared to the earlier versions. This can benefit as well as destroy the structure of the program. Using a template allows the programmer to define the features of the class.
9) Explain about virtual member functions of C++? Virtual member functions come into play when a function belonging to a derived class over rides a base class. Encapsulation is an entirely new concept which is present in C++ but not in C. Additionally. This is used to create real time applications. the C++ language implements the concept of information hiding. It is a general practice among programmers to allow only partial functions which can help in designing to be public while the rest of the code is made into private or protected. a C++ class is a collection of named fields and methods that apply to objects of that class type. etc. A derived class or unrelated class may obtain more than one base class. print. and set rational. etc. add. private and Protected which is not possible in C. ANSI C++ is the updated and advanced version than the earlier versions of C++. Whereas a C structure is a collection of named fields. This overwhelming task is made easy by
8) Explain multiple inheritances in C++? Multiple inheritances in C++ are a controversial issue. There is also a disadvantage when we are using C++ templates. reduce. restricting access to certain members of the class to methods of the class itself. At this point of time virtual member functions comes to rescue. 4) Define and explain about the classes in C++ comparing with C? A C++ class builds on the concept of a structure. In this process it can obtain multiple inheritance. numerator and denominator and seven method members. This is avoided in Java. while reserving the option of binding the type of the class to the class itself until a class of a particular type is actually needed.P age |5 C++ Interview Questions
1) Contrast and state the difference between visual c++ and ANSI c++? Visual C++ deals with graphical user interface and is the most advanced IDE for creating complex applications. 6) Explain about Templates in C++? C++ templates are used to optimize code. 3) Define about template in C++ and instantiation? The C++ feature that supports the definition of an object of undetermined type is called a template. In Encapsulation you can restrict the access of the functions to Public. they tend to duplicate themselves and get installed which slows down the functioning of the program. In multiple inheritance a derived class or an unrelated class can obtain function of the base class. The creation of a class of a particular type is called instantiation. This is because the class object for which they are invoked is an implicit parameter for each routine. This increasingly becomes difficult to process during the run time. functions and methods. 2) State the difference between the structure for C and C++? The main difference between the structure of C and C++ is. 5) Explain about rational class? Rational class contains two data members. The methods in the class Rational explicitly mention only one. This is possible only when there are many similarities in the number of parameters. multiply. object.
It is almost similar to C language because of which much of the criticism faced by ³C´ is faced by C++. To access these name spaces we can use scope operator. 12) Explain about name spaces? Namespaces help you to group classes. pointer conversions.
10) Explain the basic steps to parse a C++ source code? The main difficulty to parse a C++ code lies in the complex definitions of C++ identifiers. During name space naming there arises difficulty when a function uses the same name which causes redefinition errors. 19) What exactly a data structure performs in C++? A data structure is a collection of data elements under one name. This allows conversions between bool to numerical types. This forms a image of the specific class and also pointer pointed or the pointer itself is not checked. etc. Also they should define what type it is and to what type it belongs to. characters.P age |6
virtual functions tables. strings. The main problem which C++ faces today is because of its large feature set. etc under one name which helps you to access it at later stage. It doesn¶t have language features to create multi threaded software. This transfers pointers. This static_cast is also helpful to convert base class to derived class. It should also satisfy the basic criteria of parsing source code. Static_cast makes sure that atleast classes and objects are completed. it should be compatible. and etc. This has its disadvantages such as programmer should ensure that the object specified is being moved to its destination. 16) Explain about explicit conversion within C++ and its supportability? This explicit conversion is required where there is different interpretation on value. This class provides flexibility in converting a string based object to stream. significant runtime errors get reduced with this implicit conversion because it accepts values which are compatible. 18) Explain about the class string stream? This string stream class is defined by a standard header file . Also this language is unruly compared to modern languages such as Java which has both object oriented and procedural programming. This is useful in extraction and insertion of numerical. The only exception being. This exception throws error when the condition is not satisfied. This is useful to extract a specific numerical from a string. functions. 17) Explain about implicit conversion in relation to C++? Implicit conversion does not require any operator for performing its function. These data elements are collectively
. This exception handler is placed in the code which throws exception and error. 11) Explain about different problems which C++ faces today. irrespective of classes. The code generated for reinterpret_cast is generated for the platform which makes it not useful for inter operability. After the try block a catch function is placed through which exception handlers are declared. This explicit conversion can be applied indiscriminately on the code which significantly increases errors during run time. This can lead doors to security lapses. It automatically performs when a value is copied to the code. This also aids in insertion. 15) Explain about reinterpret_cast? Reinterpret_cast is platform specific. 14) Explain about static_cast? Static cast is very helpful for conversions from pointers to related class and also from derived class to base class. They should also satisfy complex scoping rules for C++. This handler is placed in a try block in which throw function is present. There are two different types of explicit conversion such as c like casting and functional. 13) Explain about exceptions and its relation to handlers? This function is used for exceptional circumstances and this is made possible by handlers.
The range of positive values is determined by your system. Local internal variables can only be declared as register variables. 8) State some significant uses of arrays in C programming? One of the most significant uses of arrays in c programming concerns with their ability to store strings
. Structure_name and object_name are two important types defined in C++.P age |7
known as members and they can have variable lengths and types. It also never shows you any error during compilation but it shows error during run time. 7) Explain about register variables relative to compiler? A register variable declaration informs the compiler that the specified variable will be heavily used by the program. 5) What exactly is a µvariable scope¶. The intention is for the compiler to place register variables in the machine register of the computer to speed access times. For µshort¶ type these are the maximum and minimum values +327676 and minimum -32768. This problem can be mitigated if we can manually specify the memory location by using a reference operator. This scanf () function is responsible for giving input into the program. Structure types are defined by structure_name and object_name contains valid identifiers. Automatically pointers assign the variable to a certain location and when it tries to extract during extraction it fails thus creating error. (While answering this question you can specify the approximate value raised to power). Variables declared internally inside a function are known as µlocal¶ variables. 6) What are signed values? When an int variable is declared it can by default contain either positive of negative integer values.
C Interview Questions
1) Name the four basic data types in ³C´ language? The four basic data types in ³c´ language are as follows (i) Char (ii) Int (iii) Float (iv) Double 2) Describe at least five different format specifiers? %d: -An integer whole number %f: -a floating point number %c: -a single character %p: -a machine memory address 3) Define and explain scanf () function? The Scanf () function can be used to get input into a program and it requires two arguments. µlocal variables¶ and µglobal variables¶? The extent to which a variable is accessible in a program is called the µvariable scope¶. then the name of the variable in which the input will be stored. First a format specifier defines the type of data to be entered. 20) I am getting an error at runtime for an oversized array but it never shows it as a fault during debugging? In C++ it is very correct syntactically to declare over sized array. 4) What are the maximum and minimum possible ranges of values for long and short type? If the int variable is created by default as a µlong¶ type it typically will have a possible range of values from a maximum of +214748347 and a minimum of -2147483648. The answer lies in pointers. Variables declared externally outside a function are known as µglobal¶ variables. These are known as µsigned¶ values.
in the expression a=6+b*3. These data types may or may not be of the same type. A structure contains a number of data types grouped together. 10) Explain about the constants which help in debugging? A #if directive test can be offered with #else and #else if directives. a value of zero is returned. instead of sending the output to the screen as printf() does.g. and another for storing number of pages. Writing a buffer full of data resembles the fwrite() function. Optionally the declaration can include a name for the sequence after the enum keyword. The two strings are compared character by character until there is a mismatch or end of one of the strings is reached. Strcmp() function compares two strings to find out whether they are the same or different. These commands can be useful when debugging problem code to hide and unhide sections of the program.g. The not operator is very much useful in C programs because it can change the value of variables with successful iterations. 15) State the difference between sprint () and sscanf() Functions? The sprint() function works similar to the printf() function except for one small difference. 13) Explain about the functions strcat() and strcmp()? This function concatenates the source string at the end of the target string.
. 16) How do you write data to low level disk I/O? In low level disk I/O. the order of precedence determines whether the addition or the multiplication is completed first. If there is no matches between two strings then a difference of the two non matching values are returned according to ASCII values. Each element in an array of the char data type can store a single character. another array for storing prices. It can be referenced using the array name and can be displayed using the %s format specifier. 1) one array for storing names. If in case two strings are identical. This ensures that on each pass the value is changed. this function writes the output to an array of characters. There is only one way data can be written to read in low level disk I/O functions as buffer full of bytes. The constant names follow with a comma and placed within braces. Once str has been built. its contents can be displayed on the screen. e. 12) What is operator precedence? Operator precedence defines the order in which C evaluates expressions.P age |8
of text. or as strings or as formatted data. The name assigned can be used to call the function again at later stage. The constants can be assigned any individual value but the following constant will always increment it by one. The #ifdef directive has a companion directive #ifndef. This allows conditional branching of the program to run sections of the code according to the result. 11) Define and explain about! Operator? The logical operator! NOT is a unary operator that is used before a single operand. 14) Why do we use structures? We use structures for different purposes which are 1) Construct individual arrays E. 2) Use a structure variable. Adding the special null character escape sequence in the arrays final element promotes the array to string. 9) What is enum used for and state its format? The enum keyword provides a handy way to create a sequence of integer constants in a concise manner. whichever occurs first. Constants defined with a #define directive can be undefined with the #undef directive. It returns the inverse value of the given operand so if the variable ³c´ had a value of true then! C would return value of false. Operators on the same row have equal precedence. data cannot be written as individual characters.
It always reads the file where the pointer is pointed. 19) What are the different styles present in WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW? The different styles present in windows are WS_OVERLAPPED.The pointer moves to the next record while reading a file. This pointer writes the record where the pointer is currently places. a union enables us to treat the same space in memory as a number of different variables. The real constants could be written in two forms fractional form and exponential form. fread().h¶ header file. a pointer is set up which points to the first record in the file. fwrite() and fseek()? Fopen(): . 20) What are the rules for constructing real constants? Real constants are often called Floating point constants.P age |9
17) Define these functions fopen(). Fread(): . These are the following rules while constructing real constants 1) A real constant must have at least one digit 2) It must have a decimal point 3) It could be wither positive or negative 4) Default sign is positive 5) No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant. 18) State the difference between Unions and structures? Both structures and unions are used to group a number of different variables together.On opening a file. WS_MINIMIZEBOX. Fwrite(): -The pointer moves to the beginning of the next record on closing the file the pointer is deactivated. WS_THICKFRAME.Function lets us move the pointer from one record to another. All these macros are #defined in the µwindows. But while a structure enables us treat a number of different variables stored at different places in memory. WS_CAPTION.
. and WS_MAXIMIZEBOX. Fseek(): .
A maximum of 100 characters is sent by the GET variable. The information transmitted through this GET variable is viewable by everyone and is displayed in the address bar of the browser. Some of the features which are incorporated are restricted classes such as private and public. Unsigned integers can be easily converted to signed integers.
. Floating point notation and two forms of scientific notation can be easily assigned to Real numbers. standalone and for graphical applications. This boost of performance can be around 2-10 times. With PHP a programmer can create and retrieve information simultaneously. Zero is considered as false and all non zero numbers are considered as true. Most of these security vulnerabilities occur due to poor programming techniques. Functions can be called or referenced by specifying their name. These both functions can function simultaneously. 3) Explain about the data types in PHP? PHP stores information numerical in a platform dependent range. This language can be used for varied types of scripting such as server side scripting. This problem was solved in new versions of PHP by the handle function. 9) Describe about PHP error and logging information? Error handling function allows the user to detect the error and do necessary changes which paved the way for the error. PHP is used for producing dynamic WebPages. This is released under PHP license and is considered to be free software. 7) Explain about the $_GET variable of PHP? This GET variable is executed when a request is sent from the user for information. Logging functions pave the way for users to use log applications and send messages to system logs. object was fully copied before assigning a variable to a method. 6) What is a PHP accelerator? PHP accelerator increases the speed of applications written in PHP. These functions have to be defined inside the parenthesis except for a class constructor function where there is no argument.33% software and scripts vulnerability PHP amounts to almost quarter of them. and hexadecimal notations can be easily assigned to integers. This GET gets executed on the server and then information is sent back to the user. constructors and destructors with exception handling borrowed from C++. 8) Explain about PHP cookies? A Cookie is placed on the user desktop which uniquely identifies the user and every time a user views the webpage the same cookie is retrieved. 5) Explain about objects in PHP? In previous versions of PHP. Register_globals a feature present in PHP is responsible for most of these vulnerabilities and now it is deprecated by PHP. The setcookie() function is used to create a cookie and PHP $_COOKIE variable helps the programmer to retrieve the cookie stored on the users computer. abstract and final classes. It depends upon factors such as time taken for execution of the PHP script and the actual percentage of the source code requested.P a g e | 10
PHP Interview Questions
1) What exactly is PHP ? PHP is also known as personal home page. 2) Describe about the security vulnerability of PHP? According to the information obtained from the National vulnerability database. abstract and final methods. 4) Explain about Functions in PHP? PHP has a large pool of functions and a huge number of them can be created by extensions. These functions can be defined at runtime by defining them inside the code. Decimal. Out of 33. Many of the features present in PHP 5 are adopted from C++. PHP accelerator increases the speed of the applications by decreasing parsing each and every time a PHP application runs. octal. PHP has more than quarter of the software vulnerabilities discovered in 2008.
E_USER_WARNING. 13) Define about declare construct? Declare construct allows you to define execution directives for a block set of code. The way the code performs can be set by the directive part which directly leads the code to follow. PHP has efficient error and logging constants to its credit. etc E_ERROR: -This error is displayed when there is fatal error which halts the execution of the script immediately. E_PARSE. E_USER_WARNING: -This warning error is generated by the user and is non fatal. It does execute the statement until the end of the block till it finds the break statement. endswitch. do while. and endforeach. E_WARNING. It is very important for every programmer to validate user defines information as it can potential harm. for each. E_PARSE: -These errors occur during compile time and these errors should only be generated by the parser. Similarly the opening brace of the alternative syntax should be changed to (:) or colon. etc. This actually describes the way the code should perform. E_WARNING: -This warns the programmer about the error but the execution of the script is not stopped. 16) Explain about PHP filter and why it should be used? A PHP filter validates. 10) Name and explain five of the PHP error constants? Some of the five PHP error constants are E_ERROR.P a g e | 11
email or for other specific purpose. 12) Explain about require and include function? Include function collects all the text in a defined specific file and copies the text information to the file which has the include function in it Require function is similar to the include function except that it handles the error system in a different manner. Some of them are E_ERROR. If you are planning to use alternative structures then the closing braces should be changed to endif.while. for each and switch. PHP eliminated this risk by using PHP filter extension. This is set by the programmer using trigger_error(). endfor. When the expression and statement matches themselves the code is executed. and for statement. E_COMPILE_WARNING: -this error is generated by the Zend scripting engine. 14) What is the alternative structure for control structures? The basic control structures are if. Require function displays a fatal error and stops the execution of the script while the include function still executes the script. Following statements are used in PHP for looping while. These declare construct can be set in such a manner that all the code is affected.. 17) What are the different filter functions used to filter a variable? T filter a variable these are the following different functions used they are: 1) Filter_var() 3) Filter_input 2) Filter_var_array() 4) Filter_input_array
. This forms a good security practice for programmers. E_ALL. E_STRICT. This is a compile time non fatal error. 15) Explain about switch statement in PHP? Switch statement is executed line by line. The alternative structure is applicable to else and elseif also. for. do. filters according to the predefined statements from the programmer. while. endwhile. PHP executes the statement only when the case statement matches the value of the switch expression. E_COMPILE_WARNING. E_NOTICE. 11) Explain about looping in PHP? Looping is used to run the same script many number of times..
Help can be obtained from. there is no value set. This can be directly embedded into HTML code. Functions like call_user_func() or usort() accept user defined functions as parameter. These
. This tags allow PHP to be embedded between many documents. it is set to be unset(). This filter always returns the string.
9) Explain about mixed and callback functions? Mixed function indicates that the function may contain multiple types but it doesn¶t form a necessary condition. PHP parses all the code present between the opening and closing tags. it ignores everything present out of the closing and opening tags. 6) Explain about converting an object? When an object is converted into an object the stance of the object is not modified. Null is defined to be null if and only if it is assigned a constant null. Initially it can be controlled by the command line options. There are also two functions they are is_null and unset(). This function compares array values in a user defined function and it returns the array. 5) Explain about array uintersect()? This function is very useful in PHP. It also sends the success type for a particular operation whether false or true. If assoc() is added to the function it compares array keys.These filters are used to allow or disallow specific characters present in a string. Resource holds defined and special handlers for opening files. It is used on various operating systems with Apache modules. This language is widely used. 8) Explain about null? Null represents a variable with no value inside. This function can also be defined as array uintersect uassoc().These filters are used to validate user sent information (input). There doesn¶t exist any value for type Null. A new instance of the class is created if a value of different type if converted into an object. Generally the first two tags are widely used because they are portable. Incase the value is null at the time of conversion the new instance will be empty. There are no restrictions on data format rules. Sanitizing filters: . 1) Explain about PHP? Personal home page language is used to create dynamic and interactive websites which are very efficient in delivering client needs from the server side. Strict rules are applied for formatting such as URL or Email validating. This is the case insensitive keyword. After installing PHP modules or executables can be configures and make command should help you in the process./configure help command. 3) How to enable parsing? Parsing is an important concept if you want to run your code appropriately and timely. 2) Explain about the installation of PHP on UNIX systems? PHP can be installed on UNIX in many different ways there are pre defined packages available which can ease the process. 4) What are the different opening and closing tags available in PHP? There are four different types of tags available in PHP they are * PHP short tags * ASP style tags. These are created and used by specially defined functions. 7) Explain about resource? Resource holds reference to an external resource and it is a special variable. Converting to a resource makes no sense at all.P a g e | 12
18) What exactly is validating and sanitizing? Validating and sanitizing are two different kinds of filters Validating filters: .
Casting and support was added in PHP 5. Boolean.
14) How to change the principal password? Principal password can be changed by using kadm5_chpass_principal command. 3) Connectivity ability lets you to connect to different interfaces and predefined libraries. This changes the password to password. string. Compiling PHP functions with MYSQL will increase the support and functioning of the language. They can load their own programs by using the dynamic loading mechanism. do while. These statements are case insensitive.
12) Explain about Type juggling? PHP uses Type juggling similar to the way Perl uses.
13) Explain about the casts allowed in PHP? Type casting acts and functions similarly as it performs in C.
10) Explain about PHP looping? Looping statements are used in PHP to execute the code for a developer defined number of times. For example if a string value is assigned to a variable it is defined as string. graphics and encryption.
11) Explain about Booleans in PHP? A Boolean type states a truth value whether it is true or false.
. 4) Execution is very fast because it uses less system resources.
15) Explain about the advantages of using PHP? There are many advantages of PHP they are 1) Easy and fast creation of dynamic web pages and a developer can also embed these dynamic functions into HTML. Foreach is used to loop a block of code in each element in an array. A variable can be enclosed in double quotes instead of casting it to a string. string password).2. You can use --withmysql=DIR function to make available SQL on your system.
17) How can MYSQL functions be available with PHP? MYSQL is not available as a default feature it must be created by the user.
16) Explain about the connective abilities of the PHP? A huge advantage for PHP is its connective ability. If you also want to specify the new password for effecting a change to the principal password it should be as Bool kadm5_chpass_principal (resource $handle. float and double. It uses huge number of extensions to interface with huge pool of libraries such as XML. The casts allowed are Integer.P a g e | 13
functions are not only simple but also object methods which includes static methods. etc. PHP has these following looping statements they are while. Programmers can create their own extensions and compiling them. If an argument is required it is automatically converted. Variable is defined in the context in which it is used. string $principal. binary. It doesn¶t require any explicit definition for a function to perform its duties. An operator returns a Boolean value and this value is passed onto the control structure which executes the statement. for and for each.1. array and object. 2) A huge community resource which has a ton of information before you. MYSQL should be installed where there are extensions of PHP.
3) Explain about . and garbage collection. It translates the code into Intermediate language which helps interoperability of code. which are capable of interacting seamlessly with each other. Users can subscribe to such a service and use it as long as they need it. It forms the core of the .
4) Which platform does Microsoft .NET uses for exchanging data between applications? .
8) Explain about CLS? CLS consists of a set of common rules followed by all the languages of the .NET Interview Questions
1) Explain about ASP. A web services is an application or business logic that is accessible through standard internet protocols such as HTTP and simple object access protocol.net which can be realized to a maximum potential with the language support.NET offers a complete suite for developing and deploying applications. This set of rules is known as Common language specifications. develop and deploy applications. CLR is the environment where all programs using .NET applications by using programming languages such as Visual Basic. and Visual C++.
. CLS enables an object or application to interact with the objects or applications of other languages. XML can be used to transfer structures data between heterogeneous systems.NET infrastructure because it exists as a layer between the .
7) Explain about the Common language Runtime? The CLR is one of the most essential components of the .NET services? . Multilanguage development.
5) Explain about . security.Net framework with the intention of bridging the gap in interoperability between applications. It provides services such as code compilation.NET framework.NET technologies are executed.Net products? Microsoft has already introduced visual studio. These products aim at allowing developers to create applications. This framework aims at integrating various programming languages and services. It allows computers to store data in a format.NET framework.NET applications and the underlying operating system. which is a tool for developing .NET helps you to create software as web services.NET? It is designed to make significant improvements in code reuse. resource management.NET? Microsoft introduced the .
6) Explain about . code specialization. regardless of the hardware and software platform.NET. deployment and administration. It is a platform independent markup language. The . There are lots more features included in Microsoft . which can be interpreted by any other computer system. Visual C#.P a g e | 14 ASP. memory allocation. It is consistent and simplified programming model that helps you to easily build robust applications.
2) State the various features present in .Net products use eXtensible markup language (XML) for describing and exchanging data between applications.NET framework? It is the foundation on which you design.
The size of integer and long variables is the same across all CLs compliant programming languages.NET. This process is done by CLR automatically. When you double-click any one of the items in the Class view window. To enable objects with each other regardless of the language use to develop them.
10) Explain the process of compilation in . and retrieving data. In the second stage the conversion of IL to machine language is done at run time by the JIt compiler. task list window. solution explorer. and properties associated with a particular file. This object model can be used in code to perform several tasks.NET? When you compile a program in .NET. such as reading from and writing to files. Whenever you create an object. A particular file can be opened in a project by double clicking the file in the solution explorer window. a set of language features has been defined in CLS. If a programmer does not free these resources. the application may not execute properly. the project name.
12) Explain about consistent programming model in . code editor. methods. They are displayed in a hierarchical tree-view depicting the containership of these items. it brings up the code editor window for that item
11) Explain about managed heap? A managed heap is a region of the memory that is available for program execution.
14) Explain about Automatic resource management? While creating an application. In the first stage. the garbage collection process is invoked. and class view window. the CLR allocates memory for the object from the managed heap. the compiler translates code into an IL instead of machine language or assembly language. It is possible to create a class in VC# that derives from a class implemented in VB. network connections.
17) Explain about the Class view window? The class view window displays the classes.NET framework? The . a programmer may be required to write code for managing resources such as files. and all the classes that are used in the project. output window. If sufficient memory is not available on the managed heap. which provides a type system that is common across all languages.
15) Explain about the features and elements present in Visual studio. and database resources.
16) Explain about solution explorer window? The solution explorer window lists the solution name. CTS define how data types are declared. connecting to databases. the conversion of source code to machine language happens in two stages.NET IDE? Elements present in Visual studio IDE are toolbars. memory.NET Framework provides a common OOPs model across languages.Net allows multiple languages to be integrated.P a g e | 15
9) Explain about CTS? One of the specifications defined in CLS is common type system (CTs). In addition to these elements start page and project properties windows is also present. used and managed in the code at run time. 13) Explain about Multi-Language integration? .