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OOPS Interview Questions
1) Explain the rationale behind Object Oriented concepts? Object oriented concepts form the base of all modern programming languages. Understanding the basic concepts of object-orientation helps a developer to use various modern day programming languages, more effectively.

2) Explain about Object oriented programming? Object oriented programming is one of the most popular methodologies in software development. It offers a powerful model for creating computer programs. It speeds the program development process, improves maintenance and enhances reusability of programs.

3) Explain what is an object? An object is a combination of messages and data. Objects can receive and send messages and use messages to interact with each other. The messages contain information that is to be passed to the recipient object.

4) Explain the implementation phase with respect to OOP? The design phase is followed by OOP, which is the implementation phase. OOP provides specifications for writing programs in a programming language. During the implementation phase, programming is done as per the requirements gathered during the analysis and design phases.

5) Explain about the Design Phase? In the design phase, the developers of the system document their understanding of the system. Design generates the blue print of the system that is to be implemented. The first step in creating an object oriented design is the identification of classes and their relationships.

6) Explain about a class? Class describes the nature of a particular thing. Structure and modularity is provided by a Class in object oriented programming environment. Characteristics of the class should be understandable by an ordinary non programmer and it should also convey the meaning of the problem statement to him. Class acts like a blue print.

7) Explain about instance in object oriented programming? Every class and an object have an instance. Instance of a particular object is created at runtime. Values defined for a particular object define its State. Instance of an object explains the relation ship between different elements.

8) Explain about inheritance? Inheritance revolves around the concept of inheriting knowledge and class attributes from the parent class. In general sense a sub class tries to acquire characteristics from a parent class and they can also have their own characteristics. Inheritance forms an important concept in object oriented programming.

9) Explain about multiple inheritance? Inheritance involves inheriting characteristics from its parents also they can have their own characteristics. In multiple inheritance a class can have characteristics from multiple parents or

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These DBMS use object oriented languages to make the process easier. Still many languages prefer to use DOM based languages due to the ease in coding. 10) Explain about encapsulation? Encapsulation passes the message without revealing the exact functional details of the class. float addition etc. For example an addition operator can perform different functions such as addition. Languages such as Python. A sub class can have characteristics from multiple parents and still can have its own characteristics. PHP. 16) Explain about parametric polymorphism? Parametric polymorphism is supported by many object oriented languages and they are very important for object oriented techniques. When an object belonging to different data types respond to methods which have a same name. Ruby. Objects are RaSu RaSu . 15) Explain about object oriented databases? Object oriented databases are very popular such as relational database management systems. Composition also helps in solving the problem to an extent. Hence it can be used any number of times. Overriding polymorphism is generally used in complex projects where the use of a parameter is more. It makes different classes and objects to interact with each other thus making the problem to be solved automatically. polymorphism and inheritance. Perl. Object oriented databases systems use specific structure through which they extract data and they combine the data for a specific output. 11) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction simplifies a complex problem to a simpler problem by specifying and modeling the class to the relevant problem scenario. It interacts with the problem by making different classes and objects to send a message to each other. It allows only the relevant information to the user without revealing the functional mechanism through which a particular class had functioned. Simula is credited to be the first object oriented language. etc use OOP. 17) What are all the languages which support OOP? There are several programming languages which are implementing OOP because of its close proximity to solve real life problems. Coldfusion. In parametric polymorphism code is written without any specification for the type of data present.P age |2 classes. encapsulation. 12) Explain the mechanism of composition? Composition helps to simplify a complex problem into an easier problem. --------1) Explain what is object oriented programming language? Object oriented programming language allows concepts such as modularity. 14) Explain about overriding polymorphism? Overriding polymorphism is known to occur when a data type can perform different functions. It simplifies the problem by giving the class its specific class of inheritance. 13) Explain about polymorphism? Polymorphism helps a sub class to behave like a parent class. the only condition being that those methods should perform different function. Ruby on rails.

P age |3 said to be the most important part of object oriented language. It acts like a messenger from one object to other object to convey specific instructions. Code written in Java can be transported to many different platforms without changing it. Concept revolves around making simulation programs around an object. It lacks implementation of polymorphism on message arguments which is a OOPs feature. VB. 6) State about Java and its relation to Object oriented programming? Java is widely used and its share is increasing considerably which is partly due to its close resemblance to object oriented languages such as C and C++. They were designed to facilitate and implement object oriented methods. ECMA Script. It does have a clear interface. 2) Ease of maintenance and modification to the existing objects can be done with ease. RaSu RaSu . Perl. New class can be obtained from a class which is already present. It implements virtual machine. classes. Abstract design can be implemented in object oriented programming languages. 9) Explain about inheritance in OOPS? Objects in one class can acquire properties of the objects in other classes by way of inheritance. modules. 2) Name some languages which have object oriented language and characteristics? Some of the languages which have object oriented languages present in them are ABAP. Tcl. etc. characters. C++. 8) State some of the advantages of object oriented programming? Some of the advantages of object oriented programming are as follows: 1) A clear modular structure can be obtained which can be used as a prototype and it will not reveal the mechanism behind the design. Ruby. LISP. C#. This is also known as interfacing. 5) Explain about message passing in object oriented programming? Message passing is a method by which an object sends data to another object or requests other object to invoke method. Reusability which is a major factor is provided in object oriented programming which adds features to a class without modifying it. Python. blocks. 3) A good framework is provided which facilitates in creating rich GUI applications. 2) Repeatable solution to a problem can cause concern and disagreements and it is one of the major problems in software design. 3) Explain about UML? UML or unified modeling language is regarded to implement complete specifications and features of object oriented language. prototypes. 4) Explain the meaning of object in object oriented programming? Languages which are called as object oriented almost implement everything in them as objects such as punctuations. 7) What are the problems faced by the developer using object oriented programming language? These are some of the problems faced by the developer using object oriented language they are: 1) Object oriented uses design patterns which can be referred to as anything in general. etc. PHP. Popularity of these languages has increased considerably as they can solve complex problems with ease.

11) Explain about a class in OOP? In Object oriented programming usage of class often occurs. 12) Explain the usage of encapsulation? Encapsulation specifies the different classes which can use the members of an object. This facilitates easy changes to the code and features. Critical requirements needs to be identified. 15) Name the different Creational patterns in OO design? There are three patterns of design out of which Creational patterns play an important role the various patterns described underneath this are: 1) Factory pattern 2) Single ton pattern 3) Prototype pattern 4) Abstract factory pattern 5) Builder pattern 16) Explain about realistic modeling? As we live in a world of objects. The object oriented approach allows you to identify entities as objects having attributes and behavior. The main goal of encapsulation is to provide an interface to clients which decrease the dependency on those features and parts which are likely to change in future. Developer concentrates on obtaining as much information as possible about the problem. it logically follows that the object oriented approach models the real world accurately. Code for a class should be encapsulated. 13) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction can also be achieved through composition. This defines the nature and functioning of a specified object to which it is assigned. 17) Explain about the analysis phase? The anlaysis or the object oriented analysis phase considers the system as a solution to a problem in its environment or domain. It solves a complex problem by defining only those classes which are relevant to the problem and not involving the whole complex code into play. RaSu RaSu . Object relational mapping is one such solution.P age |4 10) Explain about the relationship between object oriented programming and databases? Object oriented programming and relational database programming are almost similar in software engineering. A class defines the characteristics of an object and its behaviors. Methods are verbs meaning they define actions which a particular object will perform. It also defines various other characteristics of a particular object. 14) Explain what a method is? A method will affect only a particular object to which it is specified. RDBMS will not store objects directly and that¶s where object oriented programming comes into play.

9) Explain about virtual member functions of C++? Virtual member functions come into play when a function belonging to a derived class over rides a base class. This is possible only when there are many similarities in the number of parameters. etc. and set rational. object. numerator and denominator and seven method members. This is avoided in Java. 8) Explain multiple inheritances in C++? Multiple inheritances in C++ are a controversial issue. reduce. divide. equal. functions and methods. private and Protected which is not possible in C. Whereas a C structure is a collection of named fields. There is also a disadvantage when we are using C++ templates. This is used to create real time applications. print. 5) Explain about rational class? Rational class contains two data members. This increasingly becomes difficult to process during the run time. the C++ language implements the concept of information hiding. Additionally. ANSI C++ is the updated and advanced version than the earlier versions of C++. add. This is because the class object for which they are invoked is an implicit parameter for each routine. while reserving the option of binding the type of the class to the class itself until a class of a particular type is actually needed. 4) Define and explain about the classes in C++ comparing with C? A C++ class builds on the concept of a structure. This can benefit as well as destroy the structure of the program. private. restricting access to certain members of the class to methods of the class itself. Libraries and functions are updated in ANSI C++ compared to the earlier versions. It is a general practice among programmers to allow only partial functions which can help in designing to be public while the rest of the code is made into private or protected. C struct can contain only data and C++ has access limitations and contains functions such as public. The methods in the class Rational explicitly mention only one. This overwhelming task is made easy by RaSu RaSu . They are very powerful as they help the program by providing various classes. 3) Define about template in C++ and instantiation? The C++ feature that supports the definition of an object of undetermined type is called a template. they tend to duplicate themselves and get installed which slows down the functioning of the program. In Encapsulation you can restrict the access of the functions to Public. A derived class or unrelated class may obtain more than one base class. function definition. 2) State the difference between the structure for C and C++? The main difference between the structure of C and C++ is.P age |5 C++ Interview Questions 1) Contrast and state the difference between visual c++ and ANSI c++? Visual C++ deals with graphical user interface and is the most advanced IDE for creating complex applications. Using a template allows the programmer to define the features of the class. multiply. a C++ class is a collection of named fields and methods that apply to objects of that class type. In multiple inheritance a derived class or an unrelated class can obtain function of the base class. In this process it can obtain multiple inheritance. 6) Explain about Templates in C++? C++ templates are used to optimize code. The creation of a class of a particular type is called instantiation. At this point of time virtual member functions comes to rescue. 7) Explain Encapsulation and differentiate with regards to C. etc. Encapsulation is an entirely new concept which is present in C++ but not in C.

and etc. This transfers pointers. pointer conversions. This allows conversions between bool to numerical types. 16) Explain about explicit conversion within C++ and its supportability? This explicit conversion is required where there is different interpretation on value. it should be compatible. It is almost similar to C language because of which much of the criticism faced by ³C´ is faced by C++. These data elements are collectively RaSu RaSu . This is useful to extract a specific numerical from a string. It doesn¶t have language features to create multi threaded software. irrespective of classes. Also this language is unruly compared to modern languages such as Java which has both object oriented and procedural programming. The code generated for reinterpret_cast is generated for the platform which makes it not useful for inter operability. The only exception being. It should also satisfy the basic criteria of parsing source code. There are two different types of explicit conversion such as c like casting and functional. It automatically performs when a value is copied to the code. This class provides flexibility in converting a string based object to stream. significant runtime errors get reduced with this implicit conversion because it accepts values which are compatible. 19) What exactly a data structure performs in C++? A data structure is a collection of data elements under one name. During name space naming there arises difficulty when a function uses the same name which causes redefinition errors. 10) Explain the basic steps to parse a C++ source code? The main difficulty to parse a C++ code lies in the complex definitions of C++ identifiers. The main problem which C++ faces today is because of its large feature set. This exception handler is placed in the code which throws exception and error. Also they should define what type it is and to what type it belongs to. This forms a image of the specific class and also pointer pointed or the pointer itself is not checked. They should also satisfy complex scoping rules for C++. 13) Explain about exceptions and its relation to handlers? This function is used for exceptional circumstances and this is made possible by handlers. This is useful in extraction and insertion of numerical. 17) Explain about implicit conversion in relation to C++? Implicit conversion does not require any operator for performing its function. This explicit conversion can be applied indiscriminately on the code which significantly increases errors during run time. Static_cast makes sure that atleast classes and objects are completed. This can lead doors to security lapses. characters. etc. functions. strings. This exception throws error when the condition is not satisfied. 11) Explain about different problems which C++ faces today. 15) Explain about reinterpret_cast? Reinterpret_cast is platform specific. This static_cast is also helpful to convert base class to derived class. To access these name spaces we can use scope operator. This handler is placed in a try block in which throw function is present. This has its disadvantages such as programmer should ensure that the object specified is being moved to its destination.P age |6 virtual functions tables. etc under one name which helps you to access it at later stage. 14) Explain about static_cast? Static cast is very helpful for conversions from pointers to related class and also from derived class to base class. 18) Explain about the class string stream? This string stream class is defined by a standard header file . This also aids in insertion. 12) Explain about name spaces? Namespaces help you to group classes. After the try block a catch function is placed through which exception handlers are declared.

The range of positive values is determined by your system. Variables declared externally outside a function are known as µglobal¶ variables. then the name of the variable in which the input will be stored. For µshort¶ type these are the maximum and minimum values +327676 and minimum -32768. 7) Explain about register variables relative to compiler? A register variable declaration informs the compiler that the specified variable will be heavily used by the program. 20) I am getting an error at runtime for an oversized array but it never shows it as a fault during debugging? In C++ it is very correct syntactically to declare over sized array. Automatically pointers assign the variable to a certain location and when it tries to extract during extraction it fails thus creating error. This scanf () function is responsible for giving input into the program. 6) What are signed values? When an int variable is declared it can by default contain either positive of negative integer values.P age |7 known as members and they can have variable lengths and types. µlocal variables¶ and µglobal variables¶? The extent to which a variable is accessible in a program is called the µvariable scope¶. Structure types are defined by structure_name and object_name contains valid identifiers. 5) What exactly is a µvariable scope¶. Structure_name and object_name are two important types defined in C++. 8) State some significant uses of arrays in C programming? One of the most significant uses of arrays in c programming concerns with their ability to store strings RaSu RaSu . C Interview Questions 1) Name the four basic data types in ³C´ language? The four basic data types in ³c´ language are as follows (i) Char (ii) Int (iii) Float (iv) Double 2) Describe at least five different format specifiers? %d: -An integer whole number %f: -a floating point number %c: -a single character %p: -a machine memory address 3) Define and explain scanf () function? The Scanf () function can be used to get input into a program and it requires two arguments. 4) What are the maximum and minimum possible ranges of values for long and short type? If the int variable is created by default as a µlong¶ type it typically will have a possible range of values from a maximum of +214748347 and a minimum of -2147483648. The intention is for the compiler to place register variables in the machine register of the computer to speed access times. Local internal variables can only be declared as register variables. The answer lies in pointers. Variables declared internally inside a function are known as µlocal¶ variables. This problem can be mitigated if we can manually specify the memory location by using a reference operator. These are known as µsigned¶ values. (While answering this question you can specify the approximate value raised to power). First a format specifier defines the type of data to be entered. It also never shows you any error during compilation but it shows error during run time.

or as strings or as formatted data. This allows conditional branching of the program to run sections of the code according to the result.g. It returns the inverse value of the given operand so if the variable ³c´ had a value of true then! C would return value of false. 14) Why do we use structures? We use structures for different purposes which are 1) Construct individual arrays E. The #ifdef directive has a companion directive #ifndef. 1) one array for storing names. a value of zero is returned. If there is no matches between two strings then a difference of the two non matching values are returned according to ASCII values. 11) Define and explain about! Operator? The logical operator! NOT is a unary operator that is used before a single operand. Writing a buffer full of data resembles the fwrite() function. and another for storing number of pages. 16) How do you write data to low level disk I/O? In low level disk I/O. This ensures that on each pass the value is changed. Constants defined with a #define directive can be undefined with the #undef directive. the order of precedence determines whether the addition or the multiplication is completed first. 15) State the difference between sprint () and sscanf() Functions? The sprint() function works similar to the printf() function except for one small difference. If in case two strings are identical. The not operator is very much useful in C programs because it can change the value of variables with successful iterations. RaSu RaSu .g. Once str has been built. There is only one way data can be written to read in low level disk I/O functions as buffer full of bytes. The two strings are compared character by character until there is a mismatch or end of one of the strings is reached. Each element in an array of the char data type can store a single character. A structure contains a number of data types grouped together. Operators on the same row have equal precedence. 9) What is enum used for and state its format? The enum keyword provides a handy way to create a sequence of integer constants in a concise manner. 10) Explain about the constants which help in debugging? A #if directive test can be offered with #else and #else if directives. It can be referenced using the array name and can be displayed using the %s format specifier. The name assigned can be used to call the function again at later stage. in the expression a=6+b*3. 13) Explain about the functions strcat() and strcmp()? This function concatenates the source string at the end of the target string. Strcmp() function compares two strings to find out whether they are the same or different. another array for storing prices. whichever occurs first.P age |8 of text. its contents can be displayed on the screen. 2) Use a structure variable. Adding the special null character escape sequence in the arrays final element promotes the array to string. e. These commands can be useful when debugging problem code to hide and unhide sections of the program. data cannot be written as individual characters. The constant names follow with a comma and placed within braces. These data types may or may not be of the same type. Optionally the declaration can include a name for the sequence after the enum keyword. instead of sending the output to the screen as printf() does. The constants can be assigned any individual value but the following constant will always increment it by one. this function writes the output to an array of characters. 12) What is operator precedence? Operator precedence defines the order in which C evaluates expressions.

Fwrite(): -The pointer moves to the beginning of the next record on closing the file the pointer is deactivated.Function lets us move the pointer from one record to another. 18) State the difference between Unions and structures? Both structures and unions are used to group a number of different variables together. All these macros are #defined in the µwindows. The real constants could be written in two forms fractional form and exponential form. But while a structure enables us treat a number of different variables stored at different places in memory. fwrite() and fseek()? Fopen(): .P age |9 17) Define these functions fopen().On opening a file.h¶ header file.The pointer moves to the next record while reading a file. a pointer is set up which points to the first record in the file. 19) What are the different styles present in WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW? The different styles present in windows are WS_OVERLAPPED. Fread(): . 20) What are the rules for constructing real constants? Real constants are often called Floating point constants. WS_THICKFRAME. and WS_MAXIMIZEBOX. fread(). a union enables us to treat the same space in memory as a number of different variables. RaSu RaSu . WS_MINIMIZEBOX. It always reads the file where the pointer is pointed. WS_CAPTION. Fseek(): . This pointer writes the record where the pointer is currently places. These are the following rules while constructing real constants 1) A real constant must have at least one digit 2) It must have a decimal point 3) It could be wither positive or negative 4) Default sign is positive 5) No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant.

abstract and final classes. octal. Out of 33. These both functions can function simultaneously. Many of the features present in PHP 5 are adopted from C++. It depends upon factors such as time taken for execution of the PHP script and the actual percentage of the source code requested. standalone and for graphical applications. Logging functions pave the way for users to use log applications and send messages to system logs.P a g e | 10 PHP Interview Questions 1) What exactly is PHP ? PHP is also known as personal home page. object was fully copied before assigning a variable to a method. The setcookie() function is used to create a cookie and PHP $_COOKIE variable helps the programmer to retrieve the cookie stored on the users computer. 9) Describe about PHP error and logging information? Error handling function allows the user to detect the error and do necessary changes which paved the way for the error. This is released under PHP license and is considered to be free software. Most of these security vulnerabilities occur due to poor programming techniques. abstract and final methods. constructors and destructors with exception handling borrowed from C++. 2) Describe about the security vulnerability of PHP? According to the information obtained from the National vulnerability database. This GET gets executed on the server and then information is sent back to the user. 7) Explain about the $_GET variable of PHP? This GET variable is executed when a request is sent from the user for information. With PHP a programmer can create and retrieve information simultaneously. Register_globals a feature present in PHP is responsible for most of these vulnerabilities and now it is deprecated by PHP. This problem was solved in new versions of PHP by the handle function. This language can be used for varied types of scripting such as server side scripting. 5) Explain about objects in PHP? In previous versions of PHP. 8) Explain about PHP cookies? A Cookie is placed on the user desktop which uniquely identifies the user and every time a user views the webpage the same cookie is retrieved. PHP is used for producing dynamic WebPages. Zero is considered as false and all non zero numbers are considered as true. A maximum of 100 characters is sent by the GET variable. RaSu RaSu . These functions have to be defined inside the parenthesis except for a class constructor function where there is no argument. and hexadecimal notations can be easily assigned to integers. The information transmitted through this GET variable is viewable by everyone and is displayed in the address bar of the browser. 3) Explain about the data types in PHP? PHP stores information numerical in a platform dependent range. This boost of performance can be around 2-10 times. Unsigned integers can be easily converted to signed integers. Functions can be called or referenced by specifying their name. 6) What is a PHP accelerator? PHP accelerator increases the speed of applications written in PHP.33% software and scripts vulnerability PHP amounts to almost quarter of them. Some of the features which are incorporated are restricted classes such as private and public. PHP accelerator increases the speed of the applications by decreasing parsing each and every time a PHP application runs. These functions can be defined at runtime by defining them inside the code. 4) Explain about Functions in PHP? PHP has a large pool of functions and a huge number of them can be created by extensions. Decimal. Floating point notation and two forms of scientific notation can be easily assigned to Real numbers. PHP has more than quarter of the software vulnerabilities discovered in 2008.

E_PARSE: -These errors occur during compile time and these errors should only be generated by the parser. for. endwhile.. for each and switch.while. E_PARSE. This forms a good security practice for programmers. 14) What is the alternative structure for control structures? The basic control structures are if. E_STRICT. E_USER_WARNING: -This warning error is generated by the user and is non fatal. It is very important for every programmer to validate user defines information as it can potential harm. 11) Explain about looping in PHP? Looping is used to run the same script many number of times. for each. E_ALL. do. and for statement. The way the code performs can be set by the directive part which directly leads the code to follow. E_WARNING: -This warns the programmer about the error but the execution of the script is not stopped. while. endfor. do while. When the expression and statement matches themselves the code is executed. The alternative structure is applicable to else and elseif also. Some of them are E_ERROR. These declare construct can be set in such a manner that all the code is affected. If you are planning to use alternative structures then the closing braces should be changed to endif. This actually describes the way the code should perform. 13) Define about declare construct? Declare construct allows you to define execution directives for a block set of code. PHP has efficient error and logging constants to its credit. It does execute the statement until the end of the block till it finds the break statement. E_COMPILE_WARNING. This is a compile time non fatal error. 15) Explain about switch statement in PHP? Switch statement is executed line by line. This is set by the programmer using trigger_error(). E_USER_WARNING. filters according to the predefined statements from the programmer. PHP executes the statement only when the case statement matches the value of the switch expression. 16) Explain about PHP filter and why it should be used? A PHP filter validates. 10) Name and explain five of the PHP error constants? Some of the five PHP error constants are E_ERROR. Following statements are used in PHP for looping while. etc. endswitch.. E_COMPILE_WARNING: -this error is generated by the Zend scripting engine. PHP eliminated this risk by using PHP filter extension. etc E_ERROR: -This error is displayed when there is fatal error which halts the execution of the script immediately.P a g e | 11 email or for other specific purpose. 12) Explain about require and include function? Include function collects all the text in a defined specific file and copies the text information to the file which has the include function in it Require function is similar to the include function except that it handles the error system in a different manner. Similarly the opening brace of the alternative syntax should be changed to (:) or colon. E_NOTICE. E_WARNING. and endforeach. Require function displays a fatal error and stops the execution of the script while the include function still executes the script. 17) What are the different filter functions used to filter a variable? T filter a variable these are the following different functions used they are: 1) Filter_var() 3) Filter_input 2) Filter_var_array() 4) Filter_input_array RaSu RaSu .

there is no value set. Resource holds defined and special handlers for opening files. 3) How to enable parsing? Parsing is an important concept if you want to run your code appropriately and timely. 5) Explain about array uintersect()? This function is very useful in PHP. 2) Explain about the installation of PHP on UNIX systems? PHP can be installed on UNIX in many different ways there are pre defined packages available which can ease the process. 1) Explain about PHP? Personal home page language is used to create dynamic and interactive websites which are very efficient in delivering client needs from the server side.These filters are used to validate user sent information (input). If assoc() is added to the function it compares array keys. Functions like call_user_func() or usort() accept user defined functions as parameter. After installing PHP modules or executables can be configures and make command should help you in the process. A new instance of the class is created if a value of different type if converted into an object. Converting to a resource makes no sense at all. 4) What are the different opening and closing tags available in PHP? There are four different types of tags available in PHP they are * PHP short tags * ASP style tags. This is the case insensitive keyword. This can be directly embedded into HTML code. it ignores everything present out of the closing and opening tags. These RaSu RaSu .P a g e | 12 18) What exactly is validating and sanitizing? Validating and sanitizing are two different kinds of filters Validating filters: . Strict rules are applied for formatting such as URL or Email validating. This function can also be defined as array uintersect uassoc(). 6) Explain about converting an object? When an object is converted into an object the stance of the object is not modified. 8) Explain about null? Null represents a variable with no value inside. These are created and used by specially defined functions. Incase the value is null at the time of conversion the new instance will be empty. This tags allow PHP to be embedded between many documents. Help can be obtained from. PHP parses all the code present between the opening and closing tags. Null is defined to be null if and only if it is assigned a constant null. This function compares array values in a user defined function and it returns the array.These filters are used to allow or disallow specific characters present in a string. Initially it can be controlled by the command line options. Sanitizing filters: . There doesn¶t exist any value for type Null. 9) Explain about mixed and callback functions? Mixed function indicates that the function may contain multiple types but it doesn¶t form a necessary condition. Generally the first two tags are widely used because they are portable. 7) Explain about resource? Resource holds reference to an external resource and it is a special variable. This language is widely used. There are no restrictions on data format rules./configure help command. it is set to be unset(). It also sends the success type for a particular operation whether false or true. There are also two functions they are is_null and unset(). This filter always returns the string. It is used on various operating systems with Apache modules.

PHP has these following looping statements they are while. If you also want to specify the new password for effecting a change to the principal password it should be as Bool kadm5_chpass_principal (resource $handle. float and double. Casting and support was added in PHP 5. Programmers can create their own extensions and compiling them. 14) How to change the principal password? Principal password can be changed by using kadm5_chpass_principal command.P a g e | 13 functions are not only simple but also object methods which includes static methods. For example if a string value is assigned to a variable it is defined as string.2. 12) Explain about Type juggling? PHP uses Type juggling similar to the way Perl uses. array and object. You can use --withmysql=DIR function to make available SQL on your system.1. If an argument is required it is automatically converted. A variable can be enclosed in double quotes instead of casting it to a string. 13) Explain about the casts allowed in PHP? Type casting acts and functions similarly as it performs in C. graphics and encryption. 4) Execution is very fast because it uses less system resources. These statements are case insensitive. 11) Explain about Booleans in PHP? A Boolean type states a truth value whether it is true or false. Variable is defined in the context in which it is used. 10) Explain about PHP looping? Looping statements are used in PHP to execute the code for a developer defined number of times. It uses huge number of extensions to interface with huge pool of libraries such as XML. Boolean. 3) Connectivity ability lets you to connect to different interfaces and predefined libraries. do while. 2) A huge community resource which has a ton of information before you. MYSQL should be installed where there are extensions of PHP. Compiling PHP functions with MYSQL will increase the support and functioning of the language. They can load their own programs by using the dynamic loading mechanism. This changes the password to password. The casts allowed are Integer. An operator returns a Boolean value and this value is passed onto the control structure which executes the statement. string. 16) Explain about the connective abilities of the PHP? A huge advantage for PHP is its connective ability. 15) Explain about the advantages of using PHP? There are many advantages of PHP they are 1) Easy and fast creation of dynamic web pages and a developer can also embed these dynamic functions into HTML. etc. string password). string $principal. RaSu RaSu . 17) How can MYSQL functions be available with PHP? MYSQL is not available as a default feature it must be created by the user. Foreach is used to loop a block of code in each element in an array. It doesn¶t require any explicit definition for a function to perform its duties. for and for each. binary.

NET uses for exchanging data between applications? . code specialization. It is consistent and simplified programming model that helps you to easily build robust applications. It forms the core of the .NET. It translates the code into Intermediate language which helps interoperability of code.NET? Microsoft introduced the . Users can subscribe to such a service and use it as long as they need it. 6) Explain about . develop and deploy applications. The .NET applications by using programming languages such as Visual Basic. deployment and administration.net which can be realized to a maximum potential with the language support. which are capable of interacting seamlessly with each other.NET applications and the underlying operating system. CLS enables an object or application to interact with the objects or applications of other languages. and Visual C++.NET framework. 5) Explain about . which can be interpreted by any other computer system.NET helps you to create software as web services.Net products? Microsoft has already introduced visual studio. It provides services such as code compilation. CLR is the environment where all programs using .NET Interview Questions 1) Explain about ASP. regardless of the hardware and software platform.NET services? . It is a platform independent markup language.NET framework? It is the foundation on which you design. security. There are lots more features included in Microsoft . 2) State the various features present in . 3) Explain about . Visual C#. resource management. Multilanguage development. 8) Explain about CLS? CLS consists of a set of common rules followed by all the languages of the . 7) Explain about the Common language Runtime? The CLR is one of the most essential components of the . A web services is an application or business logic that is accessible through standard internet protocols such as HTTP and simple object access protocol. This framework aims at integrating various programming languages and services. 4) Which platform does Microsoft . which is a tool for developing . These products aim at allowing developers to create applications.NET technologies are executed.NET infrastructure because it exists as a layer between the .P a g e | 14 ASP. XML can be used to transfer structures data between heterogeneous systems.NET offers a complete suite for developing and deploying applications. It allows computers to store data in a format.Net products use eXtensible markup language (XML) for describing and exchanging data between applications. memory allocation.NET? It is designed to make significant improvements in code reuse. This set of rules is known as Common language specifications.NET framework. and garbage collection. RaSu RaSu .Net framework with the intention of bridging the gap in interoperability between applications.

NET framework? The . the garbage collection process is invoked. CTS define how data types are declared. If sufficient memory is not available on the managed heap. methods.NET IDE? Elements present in Visual studio IDE are toolbars. They are displayed in a hierarchical tree-view depicting the containership of these items. memory. the CLR allocates memory for the object from the managed heap. which provides a type system that is common across all languages. network connections.NET. and all the classes that are used in the project.NET? When you compile a program in . 10) Explain the process of compilation in . In the second stage the conversion of IL to machine language is done at run time by the JIt compiler. When you double-click any one of the items in the Class view window. A particular file can be opened in a project by double clicking the file in the solution explorer window. It is possible to create a class in VC# that derives from a class implemented in VB. and class view window. such as reading from and writing to files. code editor. a programmer may be required to write code for managing resources such as files. 17) Explain about the Class view window? The class view window displays the classes. and retrieving data. The size of integer and long variables is the same across all CLs compliant programming languages. 13) Explain about Multi-Language integration? . the application may not execute properly. and properties associated with a particular file. 15) Explain about the features and elements present in Visual studio. This object model can be used in code to perform several tasks. task list window. the conversion of source code to machine language happens in two stages. the compiler translates code into an IL instead of machine language or assembly language. and database resources. To enable objects with each other regardless of the language use to develop them. If a programmer does not free these resources. 16) Explain about solution explorer window? The solution explorer window lists the solution name. 11) Explain about managed heap? A managed heap is a region of the memory that is available for program execution. In the first stage.P a g e | 15 9) Explain about CTS? One of the specifications defined in CLS is common type system (CTs). the project name. a set of language features has been defined in CLS. output window.NET Framework provides a common OOPs model across languages.NET. connecting to databases.Net allows multiple languages to be integrated. 12) Explain about consistent programming model in . Whenever you create an object. it brings up the code editor window for that item RaSu RaSu . 14) Explain about Automatic resource management? While creating an application. In addition to these elements start page and project properties windows is also present. solution explorer. This process is done by CLR automatically. used and managed in the code at run time.

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