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OOPS Interview Questions
1) Explain the rationale behind Object Oriented concepts? Object oriented concepts form the base of all modern programming languages. Understanding the basic concepts of object-orientation helps a developer to use various modern day programming languages, more effectively.
2) Explain about Object oriented programming? Object oriented programming is one of the most popular methodologies in software development. It offers a powerful model for creating computer programs. It speeds the program development process, improves maintenance and enhances reusability of programs.
3) Explain what is an object? An object is a combination of messages and data. Objects can receive and send messages and use messages to interact with each other. The messages contain information that is to be passed to the recipient object.
4) Explain the implementation phase with respect to OOP? The design phase is followed by OOP, which is the implementation phase. OOP provides specifications for writing programs in a programming language. During the implementation phase, programming is done as per the requirements gathered during the analysis and design phases.
5) Explain about the Design Phase? In the design phase, the developers of the system document their understanding of the system. Design generates the blue print of the system that is to be implemented. The first step in creating an object oriented design is the identification of classes and their relationships.
6) Explain about a class? Class describes the nature of a particular thing. Structure and modularity is provided by a Class in object oriented programming environment. Characteristics of the class should be understandable by an ordinary non programmer and it should also convey the meaning of the problem statement to him. Class acts like a blue print.
7) Explain about instance in object oriented programming? Every class and an object have an instance. Instance of a particular object is created at runtime. Values defined for a particular object define its State. Instance of an object explains the relation ship between different elements.
8) Explain about inheritance? Inheritance revolves around the concept of inheriting knowledge and class attributes from the parent class. In general sense a sub class tries to acquire characteristics from a parent class and they can also have their own characteristics. Inheritance forms an important concept in object oriented programming.
9) Explain about multiple inheritance? Inheritance involves inheriting characteristics from its parents also they can have their own characteristics. In multiple inheritance a class can have characteristics from multiple parents or
11) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction simplifies a complex problem to a simpler problem by specifying and modeling the class to the relevant problem scenario. For example an addition operator can perform different functions such as addition. Composition also helps in solving the problem to an extent.P age |2 classes. It makes different classes and objects to interact with each other thus making the problem to be solved automatically. float addition etc. polymorphism and inheritance. These DBMS use object oriented languages to make the process easier. Ruby on rails. Ruby. When an object belonging to different data types respond to methods which have a same name. 12) Explain the mechanism of composition? Composition helps to simplify a complex problem into an easier problem. 17) What are all the languages which support OOP? There are several programming languages which are implementing OOP because of its close proximity to solve real life problems. 14) Explain about overriding polymorphism? Overriding polymorphism is known to occur when a data type can perform different functions. Object oriented databases systems use specific structure through which they extract data and they combine the data for a specific output. 16) Explain about parametric polymorphism? Parametric polymorphism is supported by many object oriented languages and they are very important for object oriented techniques. It allows only the relevant information to the user without revealing the functional mechanism through which a particular class had functioned. It simplifies the problem by giving the class its specific class of inheritance. the only condition being that those methods should perform different function. Overriding polymorphism is generally used in complex projects where the use of a parameter is more. Still many languages prefer to use DOM based languages due to the ease in coding. PHP. encapsulation. 15) Explain about object oriented databases? Object oriented databases are very popular such as relational database management systems. Coldfusion. 10) Explain about encapsulation? Encapsulation passes the message without revealing the exact functional details of the class. In parametric polymorphism code is written without any specification for the type of data present. Hence it can be used any number of times. Objects are RaSu RaSu . It interacts with the problem by making different classes and objects to send a message to each other. --------1) Explain what is object oriented programming language? Object oriented programming language allows concepts such as modularity. Simula is credited to be the first object oriented language. Perl. A sub class can have characteristics from multiple parents and still can have its own characteristics. etc use OOP. 13) Explain about polymorphism? Polymorphism helps a sub class to behave like a parent class. Languages such as Python.
8) State some of the advantages of object oriented programming? Some of the advantages of object oriented programming are as follows: 1) A clear modular structure can be obtained which can be used as a prototype and it will not reveal the mechanism behind the design. 5) Explain about message passing in object oriented programming? Message passing is a method by which an object sends data to another object or requests other object to invoke method. Ruby. It acts like a messenger from one object to other object to convey specific instructions. blocks. Tcl. Popularity of these languages has increased considerably as they can solve complex problems with ease. ECMA Script. It does have a clear interface. etc. classes. This is also known as interfacing. etc. Perl. prototypes.P age |3 said to be the most important part of object oriented language. 7) What are the problems faced by the developer using object oriented programming language? These are some of the problems faced by the developer using object oriented language they are: 1) Object oriented uses design patterns which can be referred to as anything in general. It lacks implementation of polymorphism on message arguments which is a OOPs feature. C++. 3) A good framework is provided which facilitates in creating rich GUI applications. 2) Ease of maintenance and modification to the existing objects can be done with ease. 9) Explain about inheritance in OOPS? Objects in one class can acquire properties of the objects in other classes by way of inheritance. modules. 2) Repeatable solution to a problem can cause concern and disagreements and it is one of the major problems in software design. It implements virtual machine. 3) Explain about UML? UML or unified modeling language is regarded to implement complete specifications and features of object oriented language. 2) Name some languages which have object oriented language and characteristics? Some of the languages which have object oriented languages present in them are ABAP. VB. 6) State about Java and its relation to Object oriented programming? Java is widely used and its share is increasing considerably which is partly due to its close resemblance to object oriented languages such as C and C++. 4) Explain the meaning of object in object oriented programming? Languages which are called as object oriented almost implement everything in them as objects such as punctuations. PHP. RaSu RaSu . C#. Python. characters. Concept revolves around making simulation programs around an object. Abstract design can be implemented in object oriented programming languages. LISP. Reusability which is a major factor is provided in object oriented programming which adds features to a class without modifying it. New class can be obtained from a class which is already present. Code written in Java can be transported to many different platforms without changing it. They were designed to facilitate and implement object oriented methods.
Code for a class should be encapsulated. Object relational mapping is one such solution. it logically follows that the object oriented approach models the real world accurately. This defines the nature and functioning of a specified object to which it is assigned. Critical requirements needs to be identified. 14) Explain what a method is? A method will affect only a particular object to which it is specified. RaSu RaSu . Developer concentrates on obtaining as much information as possible about the problem. The object oriented approach allows you to identify entities as objects having attributes and behavior. It also defines various other characteristics of a particular object. 15) Name the different Creational patterns in OO design? There are three patterns of design out of which Creational patterns play an important role the various patterns described underneath this are: 1) Factory pattern 2) Single ton pattern 3) Prototype pattern 4) Abstract factory pattern 5) Builder pattern 16) Explain about realistic modeling? As we live in a world of objects. Methods are verbs meaning they define actions which a particular object will perform. 17) Explain about the analysis phase? The anlaysis or the object oriented analysis phase considers the system as a solution to a problem in its environment or domain. 11) Explain about a class in OOP? In Object oriented programming usage of class often occurs. 13) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction can also be achieved through composition. 12) Explain the usage of encapsulation? Encapsulation specifies the different classes which can use the members of an object. The main goal of encapsulation is to provide an interface to clients which decrease the dependency on those features and parts which are likely to change in future. A class defines the characteristics of an object and its behaviors. It solves a complex problem by defining only those classes which are relevant to the problem and not involving the whole complex code into play.P age |4 10) Explain about the relationship between object oriented programming and databases? Object oriented programming and relational database programming are almost similar in software engineering. RDBMS will not store objects directly and that¶s where object oriented programming comes into play. This facilitates easy changes to the code and features.
They are very powerful as they help the program by providing various classes. This is possible only when there are many similarities in the number of parameters. The methods in the class Rational explicitly mention only one. ANSI C++ is the updated and advanced version than the earlier versions of C++. This increasingly becomes difficult to process during the run time. 4) Define and explain about the classes in C++ comparing with C? A C++ class builds on the concept of a structure. In multiple inheritance a derived class or an unrelated class can obtain function of the base class. add. the C++ language implements the concept of information hiding. In this process it can obtain multiple inheritance. 9) Explain about virtual member functions of C++? Virtual member functions come into play when a function belonging to a derived class over rides a base class. a C++ class is a collection of named fields and methods that apply to objects of that class type. This is avoided in Java. 5) Explain about rational class? Rational class contains two data members. A derived class or unrelated class may obtain more than one base class. restricting access to certain members of the class to methods of the class itself. Whereas a C structure is a collection of named fields. This can benefit as well as destroy the structure of the program. private and Protected which is not possible in C. functions and methods. reduce. divide. This is because the class object for which they are invoked is an implicit parameter for each routine. There is also a disadvantage when we are using C++ templates. Libraries and functions are updated in ANSI C++ compared to the earlier versions. Encapsulation is an entirely new concept which is present in C++ but not in C. etc. etc. private. function definition.P age |5 C++ Interview Questions 1) Contrast and state the difference between visual c++ and ANSI c++? Visual C++ deals with graphical user interface and is the most advanced IDE for creating complex applications. and set rational. In Encapsulation you can restrict the access of the functions to Public. The creation of a class of a particular type is called instantiation. numerator and denominator and seven method members. 3) Define about template in C++ and instantiation? The C++ feature that supports the definition of an object of undetermined type is called a template. This is used to create real time applications. At this point of time virtual member functions comes to rescue. 7) Explain Encapsulation and differentiate with regards to C. object. 8) Explain multiple inheritances in C++? Multiple inheritances in C++ are a controversial issue. Using a template allows the programmer to define the features of the class. they tend to duplicate themselves and get installed which slows down the functioning of the program. C struct can contain only data and C++ has access limitations and contains functions such as public. This overwhelming task is made easy by RaSu RaSu . 2) State the difference between the structure for C and C++? The main difference between the structure of C and C++ is. Additionally. multiply. equal. print. It is a general practice among programmers to allow only partial functions which can help in designing to be public while the rest of the code is made into private or protected. while reserving the option of binding the type of the class to the class itself until a class of a particular type is actually needed. 6) Explain about Templates in C++? C++ templates are used to optimize code.
significant runtime errors get reduced with this implicit conversion because it accepts values which are compatible. 11) Explain about different problems which C++ faces today. This transfers pointers. characters. This class provides flexibility in converting a string based object to stream. functions. Also they should define what type it is and to what type it belongs to. These data elements are collectively RaSu RaSu . Also this language is unruly compared to modern languages such as Java which has both object oriented and procedural programming. This allows conversions between bool to numerical types. It automatically performs when a value is copied to the code. 17) Explain about implicit conversion in relation to C++? Implicit conversion does not require any operator for performing its function. This is useful in extraction and insertion of numerical. After the try block a catch function is placed through which exception handlers are declared. 12) Explain about name spaces? Namespaces help you to group classes. They should also satisfy complex scoping rules for C++. irrespective of classes. strings. This can lead doors to security lapses. it should be compatible. 16) Explain about explicit conversion within C++ and its supportability? This explicit conversion is required where there is different interpretation on value. This forms a image of the specific class and also pointer pointed or the pointer itself is not checked. The code generated for reinterpret_cast is generated for the platform which makes it not useful for inter operability. To access these name spaces we can use scope operator. etc under one name which helps you to access it at later stage. 18) Explain about the class string stream? This string stream class is defined by a standard header file . 19) What exactly a data structure performs in C++? A data structure is a collection of data elements under one name. There are two different types of explicit conversion such as c like casting and functional.P age |6 virtual functions tables. etc. Static_cast makes sure that atleast classes and objects are completed. This explicit conversion can be applied indiscriminately on the code which significantly increases errors during run time. This exception throws error when the condition is not satisfied. This also aids in insertion. 13) Explain about exceptions and its relation to handlers? This function is used for exceptional circumstances and this is made possible by handlers. During name space naming there arises difficulty when a function uses the same name which causes redefinition errors. This handler is placed in a try block in which throw function is present. 14) Explain about static_cast? Static cast is very helpful for conversions from pointers to related class and also from derived class to base class. This is useful to extract a specific numerical from a string. It should also satisfy the basic criteria of parsing source code. The only exception being. 15) Explain about reinterpret_cast? Reinterpret_cast is platform specific. 10) Explain the basic steps to parse a C++ source code? The main difficulty to parse a C++ code lies in the complex definitions of C++ identifiers. pointer conversions. It doesn¶t have language features to create multi threaded software. and etc. It is almost similar to C language because of which much of the criticism faced by ³C´ is faced by C++. This static_cast is also helpful to convert base class to derived class. This has its disadvantages such as programmer should ensure that the object specified is being moved to its destination. The main problem which C++ faces today is because of its large feature set. This exception handler is placed in the code which throws exception and error.
20) I am getting an error at runtime for an oversized array but it never shows it as a fault during debugging? In C++ it is very correct syntactically to declare over sized array. (While answering this question you can specify the approximate value raised to power). C Interview Questions 1) Name the four basic data types in ³C´ language? The four basic data types in ³c´ language are as follows (i) Char (ii) Int (iii) Float (iv) Double 2) Describe at least five different format specifiers? %d: -An integer whole number %f: -a floating point number %c: -a single character %p: -a machine memory address 3) Define and explain scanf () function? The Scanf () function can be used to get input into a program and it requires two arguments. Variables declared internally inside a function are known as µlocal¶ variables. These are known as µsigned¶ values. It also never shows you any error during compilation but it shows error during run time. This scanf () function is responsible for giving input into the program. 5) What exactly is a µvariable scope¶. The range of positive values is determined by your system. This problem can be mitigated if we can manually specify the memory location by using a reference operator. The answer lies in pointers. First a format specifier defines the type of data to be entered. 4) What are the maximum and minimum possible ranges of values for long and short type? If the int variable is created by default as a µlong¶ type it typically will have a possible range of values from a maximum of +214748347 and a minimum of -2147483648. Local internal variables can only be declared as register variables. 7) Explain about register variables relative to compiler? A register variable declaration informs the compiler that the specified variable will be heavily used by the program. Automatically pointers assign the variable to a certain location and when it tries to extract during extraction it fails thus creating error. µlocal variables¶ and µglobal variables¶? The extent to which a variable is accessible in a program is called the µvariable scope¶. For µshort¶ type these are the maximum and minimum values +327676 and minimum -32768. then the name of the variable in which the input will be stored. Structure_name and object_name are two important types defined in C++.P age |7 known as members and they can have variable lengths and types. Structure types are defined by structure_name and object_name contains valid identifiers. 6) What are signed values? When an int variable is declared it can by default contain either positive of negative integer values. 8) State some significant uses of arrays in C programming? One of the most significant uses of arrays in c programming concerns with their ability to store strings RaSu RaSu . The intention is for the compiler to place register variables in the machine register of the computer to speed access times. Variables declared externally outside a function are known as µglobal¶ variables.
10) Explain about the constants which help in debugging? A #if directive test can be offered with #else and #else if directives. Operators on the same row have equal precedence. This ensures that on each pass the value is changed. data cannot be written as individual characters. and another for storing number of pages. instead of sending the output to the screen as printf() does. this function writes the output to an array of characters. 12) What is operator precedence? Operator precedence defines the order in which C evaluates expressions. e. It can be referenced using the array name and can be displayed using the %s format specifier. Adding the special null character escape sequence in the arrays final element promotes the array to string. The two strings are compared character by character until there is a mismatch or end of one of the strings is reached. The constants can be assigned any individual value but the following constant will always increment it by one. another array for storing prices. Constants defined with a #define directive can be undefined with the #undef directive. Once str has been built. 13) Explain about the functions strcat() and strcmp()? This function concatenates the source string at the end of the target string. Strcmp() function compares two strings to find out whether they are the same or different. 1) one array for storing names. or as strings or as formatted data. 15) State the difference between sprint () and sscanf() Functions? The sprint() function works similar to the printf() function except for one small difference. 14) Why do we use structures? We use structures for different purposes which are 1) Construct individual arrays E.P age |8 of text.g. 9) What is enum used for and state its format? The enum keyword provides a handy way to create a sequence of integer constants in a concise manner. This allows conditional branching of the program to run sections of the code according to the result. A structure contains a number of data types grouped together. its contents can be displayed on the screen. 2) Use a structure variable. The name assigned can be used to call the function again at later stage. If there is no matches between two strings then a difference of the two non matching values are returned according to ASCII values. 11) Define and explain about! Operator? The logical operator! NOT is a unary operator that is used before a single operand. Writing a buffer full of data resembles the fwrite() function. the order of precedence determines whether the addition or the multiplication is completed first. These data types may or may not be of the same type.g. If in case two strings are identical. RaSu RaSu . There is only one way data can be written to read in low level disk I/O functions as buffer full of bytes. The constant names follow with a comma and placed within braces. It returns the inverse value of the given operand so if the variable ³c´ had a value of true then! C would return value of false. Optionally the declaration can include a name for the sequence after the enum keyword. The #ifdef directive has a companion directive #ifndef. These commands can be useful when debugging problem code to hide and unhide sections of the program. 16) How do you write data to low level disk I/O? In low level disk I/O. a value of zero is returned. Each element in an array of the char data type can store a single character. whichever occurs first. in the expression a=6+b*3. The not operator is very much useful in C programs because it can change the value of variables with successful iterations.
RaSu RaSu .On opening a file. Fread(): . The real constants could be written in two forms fractional form and exponential form. 18) State the difference between Unions and structures? Both structures and unions are used to group a number of different variables together. Fseek(): . fread(). fwrite() and fseek()? Fopen(): . 19) What are the different styles present in WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW? The different styles present in windows are WS_OVERLAPPED.P age |9 17) Define these functions fopen().Function lets us move the pointer from one record to another. a union enables us to treat the same space in memory as a number of different variables. This pointer writes the record where the pointer is currently places. Fwrite(): -The pointer moves to the beginning of the next record on closing the file the pointer is deactivated. WS_MINIMIZEBOX. All these macros are #defined in the µwindows. and WS_MAXIMIZEBOX. a pointer is set up which points to the first record in the file. It always reads the file where the pointer is pointed. WS_THICKFRAME.h¶ header file.The pointer moves to the next record while reading a file. 20) What are the rules for constructing real constants? Real constants are often called Floating point constants. WS_CAPTION. But while a structure enables us treat a number of different variables stored at different places in memory. These are the following rules while constructing real constants 1) A real constant must have at least one digit 2) It must have a decimal point 3) It could be wither positive or negative 4) Default sign is positive 5) No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant.
constructors and destructors with exception handling borrowed from C++. Logging functions pave the way for users to use log applications and send messages to system logs. These functions have to be defined inside the parenthesis except for a class constructor function where there is no argument. The information transmitted through this GET variable is viewable by everyone and is displayed in the address bar of the browser. This boost of performance can be around 2-10 times.P a g e | 10 PHP Interview Questions 1) What exactly is PHP ? PHP is also known as personal home page. It depends upon factors such as time taken for execution of the PHP script and the actual percentage of the source code requested. With PHP a programmer can create and retrieve information simultaneously. Many of the features present in PHP 5 are adopted from C++. 4) Explain about Functions in PHP? PHP has a large pool of functions and a huge number of them can be created by extensions. 3) Explain about the data types in PHP? PHP stores information numerical in a platform dependent range. Register_globals a feature present in PHP is responsible for most of these vulnerabilities and now it is deprecated by PHP. 6) What is a PHP accelerator? PHP accelerator increases the speed of applications written in PHP. and hexadecimal notations can be easily assigned to integers. Floating point notation and two forms of scientific notation can be easily assigned to Real numbers. This language can be used for varied types of scripting such as server side scripting. Unsigned integers can be easily converted to signed integers. This problem was solved in new versions of PHP by the handle function. abstract and final methods. octal. Functions can be called or referenced by specifying their name. RaSu RaSu . Decimal. This GET gets executed on the server and then information is sent back to the user. standalone and for graphical applications. These functions can be defined at runtime by defining them inside the code. object was fully copied before assigning a variable to a method. PHP is used for producing dynamic WebPages. This is released under PHP license and is considered to be free software. Zero is considered as false and all non zero numbers are considered as true. 7) Explain about the $_GET variable of PHP? This GET variable is executed when a request is sent from the user for information. PHP has more than quarter of the software vulnerabilities discovered in 2008. Most of these security vulnerabilities occur due to poor programming techniques. PHP accelerator increases the speed of the applications by decreasing parsing each and every time a PHP application runs. Some of the features which are incorporated are restricted classes such as private and public.33% software and scripts vulnerability PHP amounts to almost quarter of them. A maximum of 100 characters is sent by the GET variable. Out of 33. 2) Describe about the security vulnerability of PHP? According to the information obtained from the National vulnerability database. 8) Explain about PHP cookies? A Cookie is placed on the user desktop which uniquely identifies the user and every time a user views the webpage the same cookie is retrieved. 9) Describe about PHP error and logging information? Error handling function allows the user to detect the error and do necessary changes which paved the way for the error. abstract and final classes. 5) Explain about objects in PHP? In previous versions of PHP. The setcookie() function is used to create a cookie and PHP $_COOKIE variable helps the programmer to retrieve the cookie stored on the users computer. These both functions can function simultaneously.
E_WARNING: -This warns the programmer about the error but the execution of the script is not stopped. 16) Explain about PHP filter and why it should be used? A PHP filter validates. endfor. 13) Define about declare construct? Declare construct allows you to define execution directives for a block set of code. do while. This actually describes the way the code should perform. do. It does execute the statement until the end of the block till it finds the break statement.. for. E_COMPILE_WARNING: -this error is generated by the Zend scripting engine. This is a compile time non fatal error. for each and switch. Require function displays a fatal error and stops the execution of the script while the include function still executes the script. This is set by the programmer using trigger_error(). 17) What are the different filter functions used to filter a variable? T filter a variable these are the following different functions used they are: 1) Filter_var() 3) Filter_input 2) Filter_var_array() 4) Filter_input_array RaSu RaSu . etc. and endforeach. E_STRICT. while. Some of them are E_ERROR. E_USER_WARNING: -This warning error is generated by the user and is non fatal. The way the code performs can be set by the directive part which directly leads the code to follow. filters according to the predefined statements from the programmer. PHP eliminated this risk by using PHP filter extension. 14) What is the alternative structure for control structures? The basic control structures are if. E_PARSE. 11) Explain about looping in PHP? Looping is used to run the same script many number of times. E_USER_WARNING. If you are planning to use alternative structures then the closing braces should be changed to endif. This forms a good security practice for programmers. E_PARSE: -These errors occur during compile time and these errors should only be generated by the parser. for each.while. Following statements are used in PHP for looping while. and for statement. PHP executes the statement only when the case statement matches the value of the switch expression.. 10) Name and explain five of the PHP error constants? Some of the five PHP error constants are E_ERROR.P a g e | 11 email or for other specific purpose. 15) Explain about switch statement in PHP? Switch statement is executed line by line. These declare construct can be set in such a manner that all the code is affected. Similarly the opening brace of the alternative syntax should be changed to (:) or colon. When the expression and statement matches themselves the code is executed. endwhile. etc E_ERROR: -This error is displayed when there is fatal error which halts the execution of the script immediately. It is very important for every programmer to validate user defines information as it can potential harm. The alternative structure is applicable to else and elseif also. E_WARNING. E_ALL. E_COMPILE_WARNING. 12) Explain about require and include function? Include function collects all the text in a defined specific file and copies the text information to the file which has the include function in it Require function is similar to the include function except that it handles the error system in a different manner. PHP has efficient error and logging constants to its credit. E_NOTICE. endswitch.
Resource holds defined and special handlers for opening files. 5) Explain about array uintersect()? This function is very useful in PHP. 6) Explain about converting an object? When an object is converted into an object the stance of the object is not modified. This can be directly embedded into HTML code. These RaSu RaSu .P a g e | 12 18) What exactly is validating and sanitizing? Validating and sanitizing are two different kinds of filters Validating filters: . 3) How to enable parsing? Parsing is an important concept if you want to run your code appropriately and timely. 2) Explain about the installation of PHP on UNIX systems? PHP can be installed on UNIX in many different ways there are pre defined packages available which can ease the process. This function can also be defined as array uintersect uassoc(). Help can be obtained from. Null is defined to be null if and only if it is assigned a constant null. This tags allow PHP to be embedded between many documents. This function compares array values in a user defined function and it returns the array. it ignores everything present out of the closing and opening tags. If assoc() is added to the function it compares array keys. 4) What are the different opening and closing tags available in PHP? There are four different types of tags available in PHP they are * PHP short tags * ASP style tags. There are also two functions they are is_null and unset(). it is set to be unset(). Initially it can be controlled by the command line options. It also sends the success type for a particular operation whether false or true. There doesn¶t exist any value for type Null. There are no restrictions on data format rules. This language is widely used. Converting to a resource makes no sense at all. there is no value set. 7) Explain about resource? Resource holds reference to an external resource and it is a special variable. 1) Explain about PHP? Personal home page language is used to create dynamic and interactive websites which are very efficient in delivering client needs from the server side. PHP parses all the code present between the opening and closing tags.These filters are used to validate user sent information (input). These are created and used by specially defined functions. Functions like call_user_func() or usort() accept user defined functions as parameter. Strict rules are applied for formatting such as URL or Email validating. Sanitizing filters: ./configure help command. 8) Explain about null? Null represents a variable with no value inside.These filters are used to allow or disallow specific characters present in a string. It is used on various operating systems with Apache modules. A new instance of the class is created if a value of different type if converted into an object. This filter always returns the string. Generally the first two tags are widely used because they are portable. After installing PHP modules or executables can be configures and make command should help you in the process. Incase the value is null at the time of conversion the new instance will be empty. This is the case insensitive keyword. 9) Explain about mixed and callback functions? Mixed function indicates that the function may contain multiple types but it doesn¶t form a necessary condition.
2) A huge community resource which has a ton of information before you. string password). float and double. 17) How can MYSQL functions be available with PHP? MYSQL is not available as a default feature it must be created by the user.P a g e | 13 functions are not only simple but also object methods which includes static methods. These statements are case insensitive. An operator returns a Boolean value and this value is passed onto the control structure which executes the statement. If you also want to specify the new password for effecting a change to the principal password it should be as Bool kadm5_chpass_principal (resource $handle. It doesn¶t require any explicit definition for a function to perform its duties. string $principal. Boolean. Casting and support was added in PHP 5. RaSu RaSu . array and object. The casts allowed are Integer. Foreach is used to loop a block of code in each element in an array.2. Compiling PHP functions with MYSQL will increase the support and functioning of the language. MYSQL should be installed where there are extensions of PHP. graphics and encryption. 14) How to change the principal password? Principal password can be changed by using kadm5_chpass_principal command. 11) Explain about Booleans in PHP? A Boolean type states a truth value whether it is true or false. A variable can be enclosed in double quotes instead of casting it to a string. 15) Explain about the advantages of using PHP? There are many advantages of PHP they are 1) Easy and fast creation of dynamic web pages and a developer can also embed these dynamic functions into HTML. For example if a string value is assigned to a variable it is defined as string. Programmers can create their own extensions and compiling them. binary. 16) Explain about the connective abilities of the PHP? A huge advantage for PHP is its connective ability.1. do while. for and for each. etc. 4) Execution is very fast because it uses less system resources. If an argument is required it is automatically converted. You can use --withmysql=DIR function to make available SQL on your system. It uses huge number of extensions to interface with huge pool of libraries such as XML. PHP has these following looping statements they are while. 3) Connectivity ability lets you to connect to different interfaces and predefined libraries. Variable is defined in the context in which it is used. string. 13) Explain about the casts allowed in PHP? Type casting acts and functions similarly as it performs in C. 10) Explain about PHP looping? Looping statements are used in PHP to execute the code for a developer defined number of times. They can load their own programs by using the dynamic loading mechanism. 12) Explain about Type juggling? PHP uses Type juggling similar to the way Perl uses. This changes the password to password.
NET. It translates the code into Intermediate language which helps interoperability of code. It allows computers to store data in a format. This set of rules is known as Common language specifications. code specialization. It is a platform independent markup language. RaSu RaSu .Net products use eXtensible markup language (XML) for describing and exchanging data between applications. which can be interpreted by any other computer system. and Visual C++. memory allocation. There are lots more features included in Microsoft .net which can be realized to a maximum potential with the language support.NET applications by using programming languages such as Visual Basic. The .Net products? Microsoft has already introduced visual studio.NET technologies are executed. 6) Explain about .NET services? .NET Interview Questions 1) Explain about ASP. which is a tool for developing .NET framework.NET uses for exchanging data between applications? .NET offers a complete suite for developing and deploying applications. 4) Which platform does Microsoft . 5) Explain about .NET? Microsoft introduced the . Visual C#. 8) Explain about CLS? CLS consists of a set of common rules followed by all the languages of the . 2) State the various features present in .NET? It is designed to make significant improvements in code reuse. These products aim at allowing developers to create applications. CLS enables an object or application to interact with the objects or applications of other languages. security. which are capable of interacting seamlessly with each other. develop and deploy applications.Net framework with the intention of bridging the gap in interoperability between applications. and garbage collection. CLR is the environment where all programs using .P a g e | 14 ASP.NET helps you to create software as web services.NET infrastructure because it exists as a layer between the . A web services is an application or business logic that is accessible through standard internet protocols such as HTTP and simple object access protocol.NET framework? It is the foundation on which you design. 7) Explain about the Common language Runtime? The CLR is one of the most essential components of the . XML can be used to transfer structures data between heterogeneous systems. It provides services such as code compilation. deployment and administration. 3) Explain about . It is consistent and simplified programming model that helps you to easily build robust applications.NET applications and the underlying operating system. It forms the core of the . This framework aims at integrating various programming languages and services.NET framework. Users can subscribe to such a service and use it as long as they need it. Multilanguage development. resource management. regardless of the hardware and software platform.
the compiler translates code into an IL instead of machine language or assembly language. A particular file can be opened in a project by double clicking the file in the solution explorer window. and class view window. a set of language features has been defined in CLS.NET IDE? Elements present in Visual studio IDE are toolbars.NET. It is possible to create a class in VC# that derives from a class implemented in VB. This object model can be used in code to perform several tasks. To enable objects with each other regardless of the language use to develop them. The size of integer and long variables is the same across all CLs compliant programming languages. and database resources. This process is done by CLR automatically. the CLR allocates memory for the object from the managed heap. the garbage collection process is invoked. 11) Explain about managed heap? A managed heap is a region of the memory that is available for program execution. 12) Explain about consistent programming model in .NET. solution explorer. In the first stage. 17) Explain about the Class view window? The class view window displays the classes. 10) Explain the process of compilation in .NET? When you compile a program in . the application may not execute properly. network connections. used and managed in the code at run time. In the second stage the conversion of IL to machine language is done at run time by the JIt compiler. and all the classes that are used in the project. If a programmer does not free these resources. 15) Explain about the features and elements present in Visual studio. methods. code editor. the project name. Whenever you create an object. a programmer may be required to write code for managing resources such as files. 14) Explain about Automatic resource management? While creating an application. output window. If sufficient memory is not available on the managed heap.NET Framework provides a common OOPs model across languages.P a g e | 15 9) Explain about CTS? One of the specifications defined in CLS is common type system (CTs).NET framework? The . the conversion of source code to machine language happens in two stages. such as reading from and writing to files.Net allows multiple languages to be integrated. and properties associated with a particular file. which provides a type system that is common across all languages. They are displayed in a hierarchical tree-view depicting the containership of these items. and retrieving data. 16) Explain about solution explorer window? The solution explorer window lists the solution name. CTS define how data types are declared. it brings up the code editor window for that item RaSu RaSu . memory. In addition to these elements start page and project properties windows is also present. When you double-click any one of the items in the Class view window. connecting to databases. 13) Explain about Multi-Language integration? . task list window.
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