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‫‪5‬‬
‫‬ ‫‪X _W‬‬

‫‬ ‫‪lT S Rm‬‬


‫‪ – B‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪(٤) :‬‬

‫~‪: T S‬‬

‫" ﺍ ﹶﳌﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹸﻘﺮﺁ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ﺍﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﺮﺍ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ‬
‫‪‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠ ِﺬﻱ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹸﺃ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺘ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻊ ِﻓ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﻕ‪ ‬؛ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﺮ‪‬ﺍﻥ "‬
‫ﺴﻠِﻢ (‬
‫ﺻﺤِﻴﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫) ‪‬‬

‫ﹶﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍ ِﻹ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ﹸﺔ א א


‪‬ﺭ ِﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪$! !"#‬‬ ‫    ‬


‫‬
‫ ‬ ‫   ‬
‫ ‬ ‫  ‬
‫‬ ‫    ‬
‫  
 ‬ ‫‬ ‫  ‬
‫ ‬
‫‪/0‬‬ ‫‪   &,‬‬
‫‪ ,-.‬‬ ‫‪  *+‬‬
‫ ‬ ‫) ‬ ‫& (‪ %‬‬‫' ‬ ‫&  ‬ ‫‪  &%‬‬
‫  ‬
‫‬ ‫ ‬ ‫‬ ‫‪ 4‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫( ‪  1‬‬ ‫‪2  +‬‬
‫"‪56‬‬
‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫‬‫‪#‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫  ‪  ,‬‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪5/‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫‪ 4‬‬ ‫‪ - 3‬‬ ‫  ‬
‫  =‬ ‫‬
‫‪;#:‬‬‫>  ‬ ‫‪  ; 4<0‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‪; #‬‬ ‫‪ 9":‬‬ ‫‪   678.‬‬ ‫‪   +‬‬ ‫  ‬
‫‪&3HIA‬‬
‫‪   F"-G%‬‬
‫‪   DE C<3‬‬
‫‬ ‫   ‬ ‫‪&30‬‬‫
‬
‫‬
‫ =‬ ‫? ‪ BA‬‬
‫ ‬ ‫ @‬
‫‪L>NK‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‪  M7,‬‬ ‫‪  @ DE L73‬‬
‫ @  ‬ ‫‪ 3*K‬‬
‫‪@  "-‬‬ ‫ ‪  J‬‬ ‫ ‪ 2‬‬
‫‪@ /‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫*‪ /I‬‬ ‫ ‬
‫"‪  <  Q‬‬ ‫‪&A"K‬‬
‫*&‬ ‫‪=   4P‬‬ ‫?  ‬ ‫‪  .‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫‪ -‬‬
‫‪ &,-‬‬ ‫  ‬
‫‪   O-‬‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫
‬
‫ﺱ ‪:‬א؟ ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ‪:‬‬
‫      ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬ذא)('&‪"#$%‬א! و؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ ./0 :‬א(م‪+,‬א؟‬
‫"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺘﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑـ " ‪P‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪2:‬عא؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪:‬وא‪(2‬אא؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫א א‪ W‬ﻫﻢ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳋﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺅﱄ ‪.‬‬
‫א א‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ ﺟﻞﱠ ﻭﻋﻼ ﰒ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪()3# :‬א؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫א א‪ W‬ﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺗ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺗِﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ﴾‪.‬‬
‫א א‪ W‬ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪5 :‬א‪()$4‬א؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻳﻦ " ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ " ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪()6 75:‬א؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﲦﺮﺓ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺻﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﻭﺍﳋﺸﻮﻉ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א؟و‪8.5‬؟‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ‪P‬‬
‫ ‪،‬وא"! ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ..‬ﳘﺎ ‪ :‬א ‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬אא‪5‬؟و‪%3#‬؟‬
‫ﺨﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃ ‪‬ﺧﻞﱠ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﻠﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ &‪ : %‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ ‪ -١ :‬ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﻳﺄﰒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﳉﻠﻲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬אא‪59:‬؟و‪%3#‬؟‬
‫ﺨﻞ ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺘﺮﻙ ﻏﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﹶﺼ ِﺮ ﺍﳌﻤﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ : %‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ ‪ ..‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻦ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ > :‬א=‪6‬א <ن א)‪+‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪*+ -١‬א)‪ W‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺆﺩﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫‪*+ -٢‬א‪ W,-‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪*+ -٣‬א‪-‬و‪ W‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪*+ -٤‬א‪ W.+/‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻧﺰﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺗِﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ﴾‬
‫ﻼ﴾‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺗ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺁ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺗِﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ِﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‬
‫‪٣‬‬
‫ 
‪ ،  ! ، " :‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬אذ& ‪3#‬א‪(BC‬ذ‪6‬و‪?4@A‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ : 0& :‬ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻄﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﻌ ﹾﺬ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﹼ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟِﻴ ِﻢ ﴾ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓِﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹾﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﷲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ِ ‬ﻤﻴ ِﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ِﻠﻴ ِﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴ ﹶﻄﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ِ ‬ﺟﻴ ِﻢ " ‪.‬‬ ‫و ‪ " : 0‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﺎ ِ‬
‫ﷲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻴ ﹶﻄﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ِ ‬ﺟﻴ ِﻢ " ﺃﻭ " ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﺎ ِ‬
‫ﺱ ‪(BD$#& :‬ذ‪6‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ W0102 -١‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﰲ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ W014 5 3 -٢‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪3#:‬א‪$%E‬؟و‪.‬و‪F‬א‪,$%E‬א‪G) BG>A‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ : 0& :‬ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ " ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ " ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪6 7 -١‬א‪ K6‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬و ‪.‬א‪ K6‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪6 7 -٣‬א‪:‬ولوو ‪.‬א<; ‪ K=<1‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬و ‪.‬א‪:‬ول‪ ;<1‬و‪6 7‬א<=‪ K‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰒ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ و?>א‪ @ABCD‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻼﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬אذ& ‪.‬و‪F‬א‪(BC‬ذ‪H6‬א‪I$%E‬אא=א א=‪6‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪6 7 -١‬א‪ . 6‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬و ‪.‬א‪ . 6‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬و ‪.‬א‪:‬ول‪ ;<1‬و‪6 7‬א<= ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪6 7 -٤‬א‪:‬ولوو ‪.‬א<; ‪ . =<1‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬
‫" 


‫ﺱ ‪5 :‬א‪$‬؟ ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א))? ‪ W‬ﺫﺑﺬﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻜﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﹰﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ‪.‬‬
‫א&(نא‪ W   :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻻ ﺣﺮﻙ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫א&(نא‪,‬ض‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﹰﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ #5 :‬وא‪$‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﻠﺔ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻫﻲ ) ﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻁ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺩ ( ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ " ‪. " -BG 7‬‬
‫‪HI<J‬א))‪ W‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ِﻐﻲ (‬
‫ﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺢ ‪ ،‬ﹾﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﱂ ‪‬ﻳﻮﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻭ ‪‬‬
‫) ﺃ ﹾﱂ ﹾﳒ ‪‬ﻌ ِﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬

‫" (' & &‪#$%‬‬


‫ﺱ ‪3# :‬א‪,‬نوא‪@L‬א‪KL‬د)‪G‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻏﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪﳘﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪5 :‬א‪$,4‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﻨﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺭﺧﻴﻢ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ) ﺍﳋﻴﺸﻮﻡ ( ﺯﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪@1L+‬א‪ WK‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻐ ‪‬ﺮﻕ ﰲ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﻂ ﺍﻹﺻﺒﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪HI<J‬א‪ W‬‬
‫ﳉﻨ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﰒﱠ ‪ ،‬ﳌﱠﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻢ‪( ‬‬
‫) ﺇﻥﱠ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒﺄ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ﹶ‬

‫‪٥‬‬
‫‪ ( () '( *"+‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪,‬نא&‪$,‬وא‪,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א(نא‪ WK‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﳍﺎ ) ﻣﻌﺮﺍﻩ ( ﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻭﻃﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻖ ‪.‬‬
‫א(‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬אذ& ‪3#.‬مא‪,‬نא&‪$,‬وא‪,‬؟ ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬א‪ -٤   KP
7M‬א‪Q!RM‬א)) ‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬א‪M‬د‪D‬مو‪7%‬ن‪ K‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬א‪,0'M‬א) ‪ K‬‬
‫‪@ ïÔܧa@‰bèÃ⁄a@Z@üëc‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4 ?OP‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪ W      ,0'M‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪,0'M‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ) ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ( ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ ?O0Q :‬א‪,‬نא&‪$,‬وא‪,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﳘﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪ ) :‬ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻍ ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺥ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬و‪7K‬لא'‪!TUV‬א‪!S:‬ل‪%?   =#GR=?S %  W‬ن‪ =TGUR‬‬
‫‪ )W<J‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﻠﻘﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ (‪ .‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ  ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﹸﻛ ﹲﻞ َﺀﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ َﺀﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨﺄ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ ) ﺀ (‬ ‫‪١‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻫﺎ ٍﺭ‬
‫‪‬ﺟﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺀ ) ﻫـ (‬ ‫‪٢‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ِﻘﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠﻲ‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋ ﹾﻠ ٍﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ) ﻉ (‬ ‫‪٣‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ِﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻜﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺎﺩ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺀ ) ﺡ (‬ ‫‪٤‬‬
‫ﲑ‬
‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﻻ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻏ ٍﻞ‬ ‫ﻀﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻨ ِﻐ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﲔ ) ﻍ (‬ ‫‪٥‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣِﺌ ٍﺬ ‪‬ﺧﺎ ِﺷ ‪‬ﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﲑ‬
‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ٍ‬ ‫ﺨِﻨ ﹶﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺀ ) ﺥ (‬ ‫‪٦‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﻠﻘﻲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ‪ .‬‬
‫‪٦‬‬
‫@‬

‫‪@ âbË…⁄a@Z@bîãbq‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪P‬د‪U‬م‪$4‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪M‬د‪D‬م      ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪M‬د‪D‬مא
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺼﲑﺍﻥ ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺸﺪﺩﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪$@%)Q :‬א‪P‬د‪U‬م‪,‬نא&‪$,‬وא‪,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪ :‬‬
‫) ﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻥ ( ‪ ،‬ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ " (ن " ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪V> :‬د‪U‬م‪8.‬م؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻺﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪X -١‬د‪D‬م;‪ W1W7‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﻫﻲ ) ﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ( ‪ .‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ( " ‪.‬‬
‫‪X -٢‬د‪D‬م‪-1.K‬ون‪ WD‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ ) ﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻝ ( ‪ .‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ‪,‬ل " ‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪P‬د‪U‬مא‪ WE$,4FX8,‬‬
‫א‪M‬د‪D‬مא‪ W1W7‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ( " ‪.‬‬
‫‪HI<J‬א‪M‬د‪D‬مא‪ W1W7‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ  ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺑﻐﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻠﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ) ﻱ (‬ ‫‪١‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺌ ٍﺬ ‪‬ﻧﺎ ِﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺔ‬ ‫ِﻣﻦ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ) ﻥ (‬ ‫‪٢‬‬
‫ﹸﻟﺆﹸﻟﺆﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻨﺜﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ِﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ٍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ) ﻡ (‬ ‫‪٣‬‬
‫ِﻟ ﹸﻜ ٍﻞ ﻭِﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ِﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺍ ٍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ) ﻭ (‬ ‫‪٤‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪F‬א(نא‪K‬وא(‪ E‬ﻭﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ‪F‬א‪. E‬‬
‫('?‪ W‬ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺗﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ( " ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ‪P‬‬
‫‪F‬د;‪( ،‬אن‪(7،‬אن‪1،‬ن‪E‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪. ,0'X‬‬
‫א‪,0'M‬א[ ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ( " ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﺻﻨ ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹲﻥ ‪ِ ،‬ﻗﻨ ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹲﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﹲﻥ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﲰﻲ   ‪ :‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﻴﺪ ﲟﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ) :‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪ِ ،‬‬
‫‪٧‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪P‬د‪U‬مא‪F>3‬ون‪ WE$,U‬‬
‫א‪M‬د‪D‬مא&‪-1.‬ون‪ WD‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺣﺮﰲ " אא‪Q‬وא
م " ‪.‬‬
‫‪HI<J‬א‪M‬د‪D‬مא&‪-1.‬ون‪ WD‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ  ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻳ ﹲﻞ ِﻟ ﹸﻜ ِﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺰ ٍﺓ ﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺰ ٍﺓ‬ ‫ِﻣﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺀ ) ﺭ (‬ ‫‪١‬‬
‫ﹶﻏ ﹸﻔﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺣﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ِﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺭِﺑ ِﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ) ﻝ (‬ ‫‪٢‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪F‬א(نא‪K‬وא(‪ E‬ﻭﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪F‬א‪E‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻗِﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬
‫ﻕ﴾‬
‫ﺑﺴﻮﺭﺓ " ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺣﻔﺺ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ \& ! ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ lýÓ⁄a@Z@brÛbq‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4\D8P‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪ WP
7M‬ﻫﻮ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪P
7M‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﰒ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺀ ﺇﺧﻔﺎ ًﺀ ﺷﻔﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﺑﻐﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺱ ‪$@%)Q :‬א‪,\D8P‬نא&‪$,‬وא‪,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻼﺏ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ " ﺍ*‪. " Q‬‬
‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﻭ ِﺭ(‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺑﻮ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻋ ِﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ﹶﺬﺍ ِ‬
‫ﺞ ‪ ،‬ﺳ ِﻤﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺑ ِ‬ ‫‪HI<J‬א‪)WP
7M‬ﺃﻧِﺒﺌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺒ ِﻐﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬
‫ﺝﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ِﻬﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪@ ïÔîÔ§a@õbЁ⁄a@Z@bÈia‰‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4=9TP‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪ WQ!RM‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪Q!RM‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺎﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ) א ( ‪@ .‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪$@%)Q :‬א‪,=9TP‬نא&‪$,‬وא‪,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪`A :‬ذא‪F&,R‬د_^‪]8X‬دم‪ًE@c‬زد‪ ًLOH2a)I‬‬
‫ﻀﻮﺩ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪HI<J‬א‪ ) WQ!RM‬ﺍﻷﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺎﺭ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﻫﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﹶﳒﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣِﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﺍﺭ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﺑ‪‬ﺔ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻃِﲔ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪٨‬‬
‫‪ () & *"+‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪@L‬א&‪$,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א[‪V‬א‪ WK‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﳍﺎ ) ﻣﻌﺮﺍﻩ ( ﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻭﻃﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬אذ& ‪3#.‬مא‪@L‬א&‪$,‬؟ ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ‪ -١:‬א‪Q!RM‬א^!(]‪ -٢K‬א‪M‬د‪D‬مא^!(]‪ -٣K‬א‪,0'M‬א^!(]‪K‬‬
‫‪@ ðìÐ’Ûa@õbЁ⁄a@Z@üëc‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪$@%)Q :‬א‪=9TP‬א‪@% 9K‬א&‪$,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ " א*‪ . " Q‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ " ‪. " 1](!_Q!RX‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻪ ) א[‪،V‬א*‪ ( Q‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ٍﺓ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺘﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬ﺮِﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫‪HI<J‬א‪Q!RM‬א^!(]‪ ) W‬ﻫﻢ ‪‬ﺑﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺯﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬
‫ﺼﻢ ﺑﺎﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮ ِﻣﻴ ِﻬﻢ ِﺑ ِ‬
‫‪@ ðìÐ’Ûa@âbË…⁄a@Z@bîãbq‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪$@%)Q :‬א‪P‬د‪U‬مא‪@% 9K‬א&‪$,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ " ‪ . " KV‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ " ‪X‬د‪D‬م_!(]‪. " 1‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺣﺮﻑ )א[‪ (V‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ‪،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪X" 1‬د‪D‬م<` ‪." C‬‬
‫‪HI<J‬א‪M‬د‪D‬مא^!(]‪ ) W‬ﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﺆ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜﻢ ِﻣﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﹸ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻮﹸﺛﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻢ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺎ ُﺀﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹸﻜﻢ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ ðìÐ’Ûa@‰bèÃ⁄a@Z@brÛbq‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪$@%)Q :‬א‪ ?OP‬א‪@% 9K‬א&‪$,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ "א*‪،Q‬א[‪. "V‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻱ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺣﺮﻑ ) א[‪ ( V‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﹾﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﷲ ‪ ،‬ﹾﱂ ﺃﲣِﺬ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ِ‬ ‫‪HI<J‬א‪,0'M‬א^!(]‪ ) W‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﹾﱂ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫‪?>T‬م‪ً-B‬א‪ W‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ " א(אو‪،‬א!‪ " Q‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﺮﺏ ﳐﺮﺝ " א(אو‪،‬א!‪ " Q‬ﻣﻦ ﳐﺮﺝ " א[‪ ) W<J . " V‬ﺃﺷ‪‬ﻴﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻔ ِ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺪﻭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻓ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪٩‬‬
‫‪,- & *"+‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4L‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א[‪ W -‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮﺍ ٍﻝ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑِﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﴾ ﳝﺪﺩﻛﻢ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻛﻢ‪.‬‬
‫א[‪-‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻼﻗﺎﺓ ﳘﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4 d‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﲔ ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﳏﺒﻮﺳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻑ ِﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﹼ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א)‪ W a‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻊ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻋِﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ِ‬
‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫א)‪a‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ #5 :‬وא‪L‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ) א(אو ‪ ،‬א‪ ، L:‬א‪ ( Q‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " وא] " ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪5 :‬א‪ K‬وطא‪.+eQ‬ن)‪ghI S‬א! و‪3)a#‬ن‪ #‬و؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﲝﺮﻭﻑ "‪-‬و`" ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻠﻔﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ " ` " ﻓﻘﻂ ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬
‫‪@ H@ïÈîjĐÛa@I@ïÜ•þa@†½a@Z@üëc‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪L‬א‪F5Ai‬א‪E5(@EN‬؟و‪L‬ذא]‪h?5‬אא‪BC‬؟و‪%3#‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻦ ﳘﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﲰﻲ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪- " 1‬א>א‪" b‬‬
‫ﻭﲰﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻷﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪%> :‬א‪F5Ai‬א‪[.E5(@EN‬אع؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ) ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ( ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪K AcU - -٣‬‬ ‫‪(I- -٢‬ض‪I‬א(‪K‬‬ ‫‪K - -١‬‬
‫‪- -٥‬א‪a‬א‪Q?Fda‬א&‪KE‬‬ ‫‪- -٤‬א&`‪K‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪L‬א‪ W"NL‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﳘﺰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﳘﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﹶﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻳ ﹸﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪ِ ،‬ﻗﻴ ﹶﻞ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪L‬א(ضא‪ W,‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺭ ِﺣ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋ ِﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺷ ﹸﻜﻮ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮﺍ ًﺀ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪WًkR‬א‪L‬א! ‪I‬א‪ W5l,k‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ " ‪."0S‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﰲ ﺑﺎﳌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺠﺎﺀ ﺣﺮﻭﻓﻪ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺣﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻃﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ א(ً‪W‬א‪ WG3%‬ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺔ ﻳﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ‪ ) W.< .‬ﺍﻟﱠ ِﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﻡ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﻳﺎﺀ ﻣﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ) W.< .‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺒﻴ‪‬ﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﻴ‪‬ﲔ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ‪َ ) W.< .‬ﺀﺍ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤ ﹸﻠﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ِﻗﻴ ‪‬ﻤﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪١١‬‬
‫‬

‫‪WًT‬א‪$d‬א‪.m 4d‬وא‪=F6nd‬א‪WE$,3‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪=  :‬א‪$,3‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪Q? :‬א&‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﻫﺎﺀ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﻦ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ‬
‫ﺏ ﴾ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ <‪ ﴿ .‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﹼﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﴾ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﴾ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ <‪ ﴿ .‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ <‪ِ ﴿ .‬ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﻠﹼ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶ‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬אذ& ‪=oC#‬א‪$,3‬؟ ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﳍﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﺎﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫א!‪$‬א‪i‬و‪ ) W/‬א‪ ، ( a‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺮﻓﲔ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W0‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻫﺎ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﲟﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ) ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁﻳﺎِﺗ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ) W<J‬ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹸ‬
‫ﻆ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫('?‪ W‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺮﻓﲔ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﳘﺰ ‪ ،‬ﲤﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ ) א[‪-‬א[!‪، ( .a‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ " ‪. " deK -‬‬
‫ &‪ W0‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﺪﻫﺎ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﻭ ﲬﺲ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪ ﴿W.< .‬ﻣﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺪﻩ ﴾‪.‬‬
‫و<‪H‬ذ‪d  -fgbK61,Jh‬و? ‪W‬‬
‫‪ ﴿ -١‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪-‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ﴿ -٢ [١١١:‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﴾]ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ‪ -‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪[٣٦:‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ِ‪‬ﻢ ﴾ ] ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ ‪ -‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪[ ٧ :‬‬
‫‪ ﴿ -٣‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﹾﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾]ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ ‪ -‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ﴿ -٤ [٢٨ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫‪Q?-f
k‬א&‪j>?U‬א‪ ... bg‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﺔ ‪ .‬‬
‫א!‪$‬א‪-I ) W$@[k‬مא‪. ( a‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪ WًC‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W0‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ‪ِ ﴿ W.< .‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻯ﴾‪.‬‬
‫و?‪l‬א\<‪WQ‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﴾ ]ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪[٦٩ :‬‬
‫‪Q?-k‬א&‪j>?U‬א ) ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ( ‪ ...‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﺔ ‪ .‬‬
‫‪ Wً@[R‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W0‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ‪ِ ﴿ W.< .‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﺍﳌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ﴾‪.‬‬
‫‪ WًkR‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫ﲑ﴾‪.‬‬‫ &‪ W0‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ‪ِ ﴿ W.< .‬ﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬
‫ﺼ‪‬‬

‫‪١٢‬‬
‫@‬

‫‪@ ïÇŠÐÛa@†½a@Z@bîãbq‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪%> :‬א‪[.5 9‬אع؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬א[‪-‬א‪@A‬و‪7J%‬م‪ -٣   K‬א[‪-‬א
زمو‪7J%‬م‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬א[‪-‬א[‪F.a‬א(א‪KEGB‬‬

‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪L‬א‪F>dL‬אא‪E+F‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﳘﺰﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﻭ ﲬﺲ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻤﺂ ْﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﹶﻶِﺋﻜﹶﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺂ ْﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺂ ْﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮﺁ ْﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮ ْﺀ ‪ِ ،‬ﺳﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﲰﻲ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺑﺎﳍﻤﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪L‬א‪ l‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪%> :‬א‪[. l‬אع؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬א[‪-‬א‪,‬ض&(ن‪ -٣     K‬א[‪-‬א*‪-‬ل‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬א[‪K.a!-‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪L‬א‪ W>d9,L‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﻭ ﲬﺲ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﹶﻟﻴ‪‬ﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨِﻲ ِﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﺋِﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﱐ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻫ‪‬ﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪L‬א( ض‪3‬ن‪ W‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺩِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺷ‪‬ﻲ ْﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﹸﺆﻣِﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺧِﺒ ‪‬‬‫‪ ) W<J‬ﹶﻗﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻧ ِ‬
‫ﺼ‪‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬
‫ﻑ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻮﻥ ) ﻟﲔ ( ‪ )W.< .‬ﹸﻗﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫‪WًkR‬א‪L‬א‪E‬ل‪ W‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﳘﺰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﳘﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﻭﺭﺵ ﳝﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺀَﺍﻣِﲔ ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﳝ‪‬ﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺀَﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺘﻨِﺒﺌﹸﻮﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ(‪.‬‬
‫‪١٣‬‬
‫‬

‫‪WًkR‬א‪L‬א‪D‬زم ‬
‫ﺱ ‪%> :‬א‪D‬زم‪[.‬אع؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪g- -١‬زم‪g- -٢    K.)< K‬زم‪ KL!n K‬‬
‫‪g- -٣‬زم ‪g--٤    K.)<U‬زم ‪KL!nU‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪L‬א‪D‬زمא‪5%3‬א‪ W>kL‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺸﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺂﻟﱢﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﹶﺂﻗﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﹶﺂﻣ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺂﺧ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪‬ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺂﻓﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣ‪‬ﺂﺟ‪ ‬ﻪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪L‬א‪D‬زمא‪5%3‬א‪ W`9^L‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﺮﺭﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ " ﻳﻮﻧﺲ " ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪[٥١ :‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺃﹸﺛﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ * َﺀﺁﹾﻟﹶﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻛﹸﻨﺘ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪[٩١ :‬‬
‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ ِ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹸﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪َ ﴿ :‬ﺀﺁﹾﻟﹶﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫‪WًkR‬א‪L‬א‪D‬زمא! ‪I‬א‪ W>kL‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺸﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺍﱂ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺴﻢ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺑﻐﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫('‪ W‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﰲ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﻪ ) ﺍﳌﺜﻘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻒ ( ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ‪." W);.IVK‬‬
‫ א(ً‪W‬א‪L‬א‪D‬زمא! ‪I‬א‪ W`9^L‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W%‬ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻣﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻬﻴﻌﺺ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ WWo+‬ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﲤﺪ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ‪. " 0S‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﲤﺪ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ‪. " W);.IVK‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺣﺮﻑ " א‪ " L:‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳝﺪ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٤‬‬
‫‬

‫)‪@E,‬م‪F‬אً‪W‬‬

‫‪HIG2F‬א)‪p,‬א‪--I%+I‬א[!‪،.a‬و‪-I-I‬م‪ Ej-‬‬
‫‬

‫ﻣﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ ) ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺒﻴﺔ (‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ ) ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ (‬ ‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ ‪ ٤‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ٥‬ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻞ ‪ ٤‬ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﳘﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ٦‬ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫‪٢‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ٦‬ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪ ) :‬ﺀﺁﺫﻛﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺀﺁﻟﺌﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺀﺁﷲ (‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺎﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺍﳌﺼﻴﻄﺮﻭﻥ ( "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ" ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺼﺔ‬ ‫‪٣‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺎﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﲟﺼﻴﻄﺮ ( " ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺷﻴﺔ " ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺼﺔ‬ ‫‪٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻳﺒﺼﻂ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ "ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ"‬
‫‪٥‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺑﺼﻄﺔ( ﰲ "ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ" ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﳊﻔﺺ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﳊﻔﺺ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٦‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻖ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﺭﺍﺀ ) ِﻓ ‪‬ﺮﻕ ( ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ " ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ "‪.‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﴰﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﺱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﴰﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺗﺄﻣﻨﺎ ( ﺑﺴﻮﺭﺓ "ﻳﻮﺳﻒ"‬ ‫‪٨‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳊﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻳﺎﺀ)ﺀﺍﺗﻦ(ﰲ "ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ" ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳊﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ( ﰲ "ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ" ﻭﻗﻔﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻟﻒ ) ﺳﻼﺳ ﹾ‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺿﺎﺩ )ﺿﻌﻒ( ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ "ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ"‬ ‫‪١١‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ‪ ٤‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ٦‬ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﲔ‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﰲ‬
‫‪١٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﳔﻠﻘﻜﻢ ( ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ " ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻼﺕ " ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ ) ﻳﺲ*ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ (‪ )،‬ﻥ*ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ( ﻭﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫‪١٥‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺗﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺗﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٥‬‬
‫‪. /0 12 *"+‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4@^9‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א!‪ W Vo‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫א!‪Vo‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﲰﻨﻪ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺘﻸ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪$4"@8q‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪ W 7/‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺤﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪7/‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﳓﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻼ ﳝﺘﻸ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻩ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺱ ‪#.5 :‬אل‪ #‬وא‪r@#$4‬א‪@^9‬وא‪"@8q‬؟‬


‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪( J6qUVo! -١‬א‪K%‬‬
‫‪( J6qU7 -٢‬א‪K%‬‬
‫‪r,+Vo! -٣‬و‪KdRJr,+7‬‬

‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א! وא‪#.H@tI^9)Q‬א‪Ws‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ " ‪. " s7tuWR‬‬

‫ﺱ ‪:‬אذ&  א)‪+‬א‪@^9‬؟ ‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﲬﺲ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫<‪ )W.‬ﺧ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺪِﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻇﹶﺎِﻟ ِﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺻ‪‬ﺎﻟِﺢ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ (‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ‪ )W.< .‬ﺧ‪‬ﻮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺒِﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺻ‪‬ﱪ‪ ،‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻇ ِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ‪ )W.< .‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪ ،‬‬
‫ﺻ ِﺮ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪ )W.< .‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻄﻤ‪‬ﺌﻨ‪‬ﺔ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ‪ )W.< .‬ﻗِﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪ِ ،‬ﻃﺒ‪‬ﺎﻗﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘِﻴﻢ ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٦‬‬
‫‪HI+‬א[‪*+‬אא‪ ) W1‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ )W.< .‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ِ )W.< .‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ِﺮ ٍ‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ‪)W.< .‬ﰲ ِﺍ ‪‬ﺧﺘِﻼ ِ‬
‫ﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫و<‪j>?H‬א ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ِ )W.< .‬ﺇ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺟﺎ ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪Wً@[R‬א! وא‪#.H@tI"8 )Q‬א‪ Ws‬‬


‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﻡ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳉﻼﻟﺔ ) ﺍﷲ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫‪WًkR‬א! وא‪6 )^9)Q‬و) ‪ Wm T.6 )"8‬‬


‫‪ -١‬א‪L:‬א‪F‬א[‪ WE-‬ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫<‪ )W.‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺨﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺨﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫<‪ )W.‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﻗﻖ ‪.‬‬
‫‪g -٢‬م!‪s‬א
‪F‬א‪WEv‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺨﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ‪ )W.< .‬ﺗ‪‬ﺎﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﷲ ( ‪.‬‬
‫<‪ِ )W.‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺑِﺎﷲ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬אא‪WQ‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬
‫‪õaŠÛa@âbØyc‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ :‬אذ& ‪3#.‬مא א=؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺀ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫אא‪:‬و‪ Ww‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻖ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫אא<;‪ W‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫אא<<‪ W‬ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺨﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻖ ‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪ًC8"@8q‬وא‪#‬אً‪ W‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪ِ : .< .‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺭِﻳﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮِﻳﺞ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ‪ : .< .‬ﻧﺎ ِ‬
‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘﺎ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪ِ ،‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﻨ ِﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﻗﻖ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ِ : .< .‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺨﻢ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ : .< .‬ﺃﻧ ِﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻗﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻚ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﻗﻖ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ‪ : .< .‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﱢ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺧِﺒ ‪‬‬‫‪ -٦‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﺎﺀ ﻣﺪﻳﺔ ) ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ( ‪ : .< .‬ﹶﻗ ِﺪﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻧ ِ‬
‫ﺼ‪‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪ًC8@^9‬وא‪#‬אً‪ W‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪ : .< .‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬‬
‫ﲪﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ِ ‬ﺣﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ ‪ : .< .‬ﺭ ِﺯ ﹸﻗﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪ : .< .‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﱘ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ‪ .< .‬ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺨﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ِ : .< .‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻗﺔ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٦‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪ : .< .‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻛﺴﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ) ﳘﺰﺓ ﻭﺻﻞ (‪ : .< .‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺟﻌِﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ِﻡ ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺗﺎ‪‬ﺑﻮﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫‪FWًkR‬אزא‪@^9‬وא‪ W"@8q‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺨﻢ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ <‪ِ : .‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ٍ‬
‫ﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻔﺨﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ‪ِ : .< .‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ ِﻘ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻳﺎﺀ ﳏﺬﻭﻓﺔ ‪ : .< .‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻧ ﹸﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬
‫‪3,4 567‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪  :‬א‪ ^L‬ج‪$4‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א[‪o‬ج ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﳏﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫א[‪o‬جא
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﳏﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻭﲤﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪ v& :‬ج! وא‪$4‬؟‬
‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﲬﺴﺔ ﳐﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺗﻔﺼﻴ ﹰ‬
‫‪.‬א‪ W5)w&5?SًCt0$%:‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬א"^(م‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -٤‬א^!`‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬אن‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬א‪K‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬א(‪K‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪ W‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﳐﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺔ " وא] "‪.‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א!"‪ W‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﳐﺎﺭﺝ ‪ .‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪ :‬‬
‫‪Ha7J -١‬א‪ W‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ " א‪،r@y‬א‪. " Qy‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬و\‪t‬א‪ W‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ " א`‪،‬א‪. " Q‬‬
‫‪J -٣‬د; ‪H‬א‪ W‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ " א`‪،‬א"‪. " Q‬‬
‫‪WًkR‬אن‪ W‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﳐﺎﺭﺝ ‪ .‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ " א) " ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﺫﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ " א& " ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﺫﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ " א‪CDQ‬א[‪-‬وא^`وא‪ " V‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ " א>אلوא‪Q‬وא<‪. " Q‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ " א‪-‬אلوא ‪Q‬وא‪. " Q‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﺫﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ " א‪z‬د " ‪ .‬ﻭﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺘﲔ ﺃﻋﺴﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺪﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﺃﺩﱏ ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻴﺎﺏ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﺫﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ " א
م " ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﺫﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ " א(ن " ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٩‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻇﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﺫﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﻴﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺘﲔ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ " אא‪. " Q‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻓﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ " א‪a‬دوא`وא@א] " ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﲑ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٩‬‬
‫‬

‫ א(ً‪W‬א‪ WG9K‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬


‫א[‪o‬جא‪:‬ول‪ W‬ﺑﻄﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ " א!‪. " Q‬‬
‫א[‪o‬جא<; ‪ W‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ﺑﺎﻧﻄﺒــﺎﻕ ‪ :‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﰲ " א[‪V‬وא*‪. " Q‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻧﻄﺒﺎﻕ ‪ :‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ " א(אو‪CD‬א[‪. " -‬‬

‫‪WًT‬א‪K@:‬م‪ W‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﳐﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬
‫!‪3,4 82‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪5 :‬א‪$4$9d‬وא‪ً#DNA‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬א‪ W!a‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﺴﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪!a‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳘﺲ ﻭﺟﻬﺮ ﻭﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﺭﺧﺎﻭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪8.5 :‬مא‪o9d‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﳍﺎ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫‪gF Jb! -١‬ز‪ WE‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ WEu,IF JCDb! -٢‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪.‬‬
‫و)‪,‬א‪o9d‬א‪ WG%8/0$@Ai‬‬
‫א)‪V‬א‪:‬ول‪ K-uyb! W‬ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﻭﺓ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﳍﻤﺲ ﻭﺿﺪﻩ ﺍﳉﻬﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻹﻃﺒﺎﻕ ﻭﺿﺪﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ -٥ .‬ﺍﻹﺫﻻﻕ ﻭﺿﺪﻩ ﺍﻹﺻﻤﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ ﻭﺿﺪﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫א)‪V‬א<; ‪ Ky-ugb! W‬ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪ :‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﻠﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﲑ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺸﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٥‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﻳﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪@ †™@b@Ûa@pbЖÛa@Z@Þëþa@áŽÔÛa‬‬
‫@‬

‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪x%s‬و‪g2‬א? ‪ W‬‬


‫א‪ W     {y‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﻔﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪{y‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ " ‪. " |&\Wo_%<k‬‬
‫א‪ W     0‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪0‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳓﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳍﻤﺲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢١‬‬
‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪6K‬و‪2‬א ‪T‬و‪6‬و@‪%?,‬א‪ WyB‬‬
‫א^‪ W      r-‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫א^‪r-‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﳓﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W0k‬ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ " ‪. " |&1t7-BJ‬‬
‫א(\‪ W      t‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫א(\‪t‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﻭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ " ‪. " I‬‬
‫א‪R‬و‪ W      r‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪R‬و‪r‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W0k‬ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪.‬‬

‫‪WًkR‬א‪=D(BC‬و‪g2‬א‪9BC‬ل‪ W‬‬
‫א‪ W     Q
\g‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪Q
\g‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ " ‪. " s7tuWR‬‬
‫א‪!\g‬ل     ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪!\g‬لא
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ א(ً‪W‬א‪EcP‬قو‪g2‬א‪ W{9[C‬‬
‫א‪*SM‬ق     ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻟﺼﺎﻕ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪*SM‬قא
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﳊﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﻫﻲ " א‪a‬د‪،‬א‪z‬د‪،‬وא ‪،Q‬وא‪. " Q‬‬
‫א‪ W      ~!;g‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﻕ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪~!;g‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﻃﺒﺎﻕ ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬
‫‪WًT‬א‪P‬ذ‪C‬قو‪g2‬א‪ Wo%AP‬‬
‫א‪M‬ذ‪g‬ق     ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﻼﻏﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪M‬ذ‪g‬قא
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺧﻔﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﳋﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﳘﺎ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ " ‪. " Gk‬‬
‫א‪ W     b M‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪b M‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺛﻘﻞ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺧﻔﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﳐﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﳘﺎ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻹﺫﻻﻕ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ b@†™@ü@Ûa@pbЖÛa@Z@ïãbrÛa@áŽÔÛa‬‬
‫‬

‫‪.‬و‪WًC‬א‪ Wn9d‬‬
‫א‪ W     C!a‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪C!a‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﻭﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﹰﺎ ﳊﺮﻭﻓﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﻫﻲ " א`‪،‬א‪a‬د‪،‬א@א] " ‪.‬‬

‫‪Wً@[R‬א‪ W$‬‬
‫א))     ‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫א))א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W0k‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ " ‪. " -BG 7‬‬
‫א‪G+‬א))‪ W‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬א[‪*+‬א‪:‬و‪ WEd )7Fw‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻘﻞ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬א[‪*+‬א<;‪ WEdeK)7F‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬א[‪*+‬א<<‪HIJ)7F‬و‪ WEd(7J‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﻘﻞ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺪﺩﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬

‫‪WًkR‬א‪ WG‬‬
‫א`      ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫א`א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻠﻔﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺣﺮﻓﺎﻥ " א(אووא‪Q‬א‪`K‬א[!(~‪. " 0*7‬‬
‫‪٢٣‬‬
‫ א(ً‪W‬א‪ |C‬א‪ W‬‬
‫א‪g‬א      ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪g‬אא
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺮﺟﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﺨﺮﺝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺣﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﳘﺎ " א
م‪،‬אא‪. "Q‬‬

‫‪WًT‬א‪ W  3‬‬
‫א&     ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫א&א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺩ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻮ " אא‪. " Q‬‬

‫‪B‬د‪WًB‬א‪ W5K9‬‬
‫א!^       ‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫א!^ א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W%k‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻮ " א^` " ‪.‬‬

‫‪Wً(B‬א‪ W$NBC‬‬
‫א‪ W      \g‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫א‪ \g‬א
ً‪ W‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻓﱵ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫و و‪ W0k‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻮ " א‪z‬د " ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬‬
‫‪ ) 89 *"+‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪[.5 :‬אعא‪D‬مא&‪$,‬؟‬
‫ﺝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻟﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪g -١‬م‪J‬لא!‪g -٢ K‬مא!‪g -٣  K.‬مא‪g -٤  KV\g‬مא‪g -٥  K‬مא‪K:‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪CWًC‬م‪.‬لא( ‪ W$@9‬ﻫﻲ ﻻﻡ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﳘﺰﺓ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬א
مא^‪ K‬‬ ‫و‪gV)+‬م‪J‬لא!‪ -١  W?`7wX‬א
مא)‪K‬‬
‫‪##‬א
مא)‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ " א‪h€ 1‬و‪. " %)ILR‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﺍﹾﻟﻘﱠ‪‬ﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ِﺮﱘ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪##‬א
مא^‪W‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ‪:‬‬
‫م ‬
‫_
‪} 3ً9‬‬
‫‪O=B‬ز  ‬
‫ دع ‬ ‫ ‬
‫( }‬
‫‪}`~2 9€ )ً%}# }>~AR+~c‬ذא[~ ‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻤﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﲪﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎِﻟﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪CWً@[R‬مא‪ W>(9‬ﻫﻲ ﻻﻡ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻭﻃﺮﻓﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ W<J‬‬ ‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ " א
م‪J‬وאא‪ " Q‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ﹾﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﹾﻟ ِﻖ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﺘ ِﻘﻄ ‪‬ﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﻬ‪‬ﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟ‪‬ﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ِﻟ ِﻌ‪‬ﺒﺎ ِﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ‬
‫‪CWًkR‬مא‪ WBC‬ﻫﻲ ﻻﻡ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨِﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺍِﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫ א(ً‪CW‬مא! ‪ W‬ﻫﻲ ﻻﻡ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﻣﺜﻞ " ‪. " .?،.1‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ﹾﻞ ﺃﻧﺘ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ِﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﻥ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ " א
م‪J‬وאא‪ " Q‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﺩﻏﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫و?‪l‬א\<‪Q‬ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﴿ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻥ ﴾ "ﺍﳌﻄﻔﻔﲔ" ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻣﻈﻬﺮﻩ ﻷﻥ ﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺣﻔﺺ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ \& !‬
‫‪CWً‚ T‬مא ‪ W ‚i‬ﻫﻲ ﻻﻡ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﻖ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ‪ ) :‬ﰒ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺀ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻘﻀ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟﻴ‪‬ﻮﻓﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻧﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﺐ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢٥‬‬
‫‪:! ;< *"+‬‬
‫‬

‫ﺱ ‪6 %  :‬א‪>A‬؟و‪F).‬؟و‪L‬ذא]@ƒ?‪h‬אא‪BC‬؟‬


‫ﺝ ‪r@? :‬א( ‪ W ?.‬ﳘﺰﺓ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﺗﺴﻘﻂ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻴﺖ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻷﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮﺻ‪‬ﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬و‪6 %WًC‬א‪H>A‬א‪ W=]i‬‬
‫<‪ ) W.‬ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺪ‪‬ﻭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ (‪.‬‬ ‫‪r@? -١‬א( ‪6.‬א‪Q‚:‬א[‪JF1k‬ل‪ WE‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫<‪ ) W.‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳِﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑِﺘ ‪‬ﻐﺎﺀ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪r@? -٢‬א( ‪6.‬א‪Q‚:‬א&‪r‬א[‪,-a‬א)\‪ W‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪r@? -٣‬א( ‪6.‬א‪Q‚:‬א‪ WI‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺳﻢ ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﺳﺒ‪ِ ‬‬
‫ﺢ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﴾‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﺑﻦ ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﺛﻨﺘﲔ ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﹶﻓﺈِﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﴾ ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ِﻹ‪‬ﺑ ِﻞ ﺍﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﴾ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹶﺓ ِﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﴾ ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻣﺮﺅ‪ ﴿ W.< .‬ﺇِﻥ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ﴾‪.‬‬
‫‪6 %Wً@[R‬א‪H>A‬א‪(Si‬ل‪ W‬ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﳘﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﳍﺎ ﺣﻜﻤﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ ‪ :‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬א‪ WVz‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺿﻤﹰﺎ ﻻﺯﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ) .‬ﺃﻱ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ (‪.‬‬
‫ﺉ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺿ ﹸﻄﺮ‪ ، ‬ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺰ ‪‬‬
‫ﺝ‪،‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫<‪ ) W.‬ﺍﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬א&‪ W‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﺘ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻘﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧ ﹶﻘﻠﹶﺒﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫﻫ‪‬ﺐ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬‬ ‫<‪ ) W.‬ﺍﺿ ِﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ﹾﻛ ِ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺿﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻮﺍ " (‪.‬‬
‫ﺸﻮﺍ " ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ " ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬
‫ﻀ‪‬ﻴﻮﺍ "‪ "،‬ﺍﺋ‪‬ﺘﻮﱐ " ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ " ﺍﺋِﺘ‪‬ﻴﻮﱐ "‪ "،‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫<‪ " )W.‬ﺍ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻮﺍ " ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ " ﺍ ﹾﻗ ِ‬
‫‪6 %WًkR‬א‪H>A‬א! ‪ W‬ﳘﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻻﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪ ) W.<.‬ﺍﻟ ِﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻕ ﴾ " ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺍﺕ " ﳍﺎ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻔﺴ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫('‪ -١ W‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ِ ﴿ :‬ﺑ ﹾﺌ ‪‬‬
‫‪ ##‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﳘﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻼﻡ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ##‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺪﺀ ‪‬ﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ﺍﺋ‪‬ﺘﻮﱐ " ﺑﺴﻮﺭﺓ " ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ " ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ‪‬ﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ " ﺍِﻳ‪‬ﺘﻮﱐ "‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ " ﺍﺅ ِﹸﲤ ‪‬ﻦ " ﺑﺴﻮﺭﺓ " ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ " ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ‪‬ﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ " ﺍﻭ ِﹸﲤ ‪‬ﻦ " ‪.‬‬
‫?@‪r‬א) ‪ W ?6‬ﳘﺰﺓ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ًﺀ ﻭﻭﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻭﺳﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ &‪ W0‬ﺍﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪٢٦‬‬
‫ء )(‪#‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﲝﺮﻓﲔ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﲔ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪3#‬א=א&‪ WG%&IG,‬‬
‫‪ -١‬א>‪ W‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ) ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﺪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ) W<J‬ﻭﺃ ِﻗ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻤﺎ ِﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻗﺎ ﹾﻻ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﷲ ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬א&‪ W‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ) ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﺩﹰﺍ ﺍ ُﻷﻭﱃ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ) W<J‬ﹸﻗ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ِﻥ ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ِﺮ ‪‬‬

‫‪Eƒ„ F6 -٣‬א‪ Wr,‬ﻭﻧﺒﺪﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪.‬‬


‫ﺠ ِﺪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴِ‬ ‫‪ِ ) W<J‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ِ‬
‫ﳉﻨ‪ِ ‬ﺔ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪِﻳﻦ ‪ِ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌ ‪‬‬

‫‪X -٤‬ذאو  א[‪s!1V‬א


א‪ Wv‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ " ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ " ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺼﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫" ﺍﱂ ﺍﷲ " ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪X -٥‬ذא‪|;K‬א(אو‪ W‬ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬


‫ﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ) W<J‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪ ‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﳌﹶﻮ ‪‬‬

‫‪V -٦‬א‪ W6‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻰ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﲔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻻﳘﺎ ﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻄﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ِ ) W<J‬ﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ِ ،‬ﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺒ‪‬ﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬
‫و‪nT.‬אً‪ W‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﺄﺭﺟﻮ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺒﺨﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﻋﺴﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻐﻤﺪﱐ ﺑﺮﲪﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﲏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺣﺴﻨﺎﰐ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﹸﺩﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺃﻛﻔﺎﱐ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﺫﹸﺧﺮﹰﺍ ﱄ ﰲ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ‬
‫ﺐ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﹲﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻨﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﻠ ٍ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺰﻱ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻤﻨﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺧﲑ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﳚﻤﻌﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﲝﻤﺪﻙ ﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮﻙ ﻭﺃﺗﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬
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