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Published by: Raghav_Dave_1552 on Sep 04, 2010
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The glass has been used as an engineering material since ancient times.

But beca use of the rapid progress made in the glass industry in recent times, the glass has come out as the most versatile engineering material of the modern times. The first glass objects made by man were of natural glass such as obsidian and rock crystal. The manufactured glass dates from per-historic times in the Far East, India and Egypt. But its exact place and date of origin are unknown. It is howev er believed that the ancient Hindus knew the method of glass making long before the Christian era.

CLASSIFICATION : With the help of techniques developed in the glass industry, the glass of any ty pe and quality can be produced to suit the requirements of different industries. The glass is a mixture of a number of metallic silicates, one of which is usuall y that of an alkali metal. It is amorphous, transparent or translucent. It may a lso be considered as a solidified super-cooled solution of various metallic sili cates having infinite viscosity. For the purpose of classification, the glass may be grouped in to the following three categories. (1) Soda-lime glass. (2) Potash-lime glass. (3) Potash-lead glass. The glass is not a single compound. It is therefore very difficult to give any p articular chemical formula for it. But with reasonable accuracy, it may generall y be expressed as follows: aX2, bYO, 6SiO2 where a and b are numbers of molecules, X = an atom of an alkali metal such as Na, K, etc. Y = an atom of a bivalent metal such as Ca, Pb, etc. With this expression, the chemical formulas for three groups of glass, as classi fied above, are as follows Soda-lime glass: Na2O, CaO, 6SiO2 Potash-lime glass: K2O, CaO, 6SiO2 Potash-lead glass: K2O, PbO, 6SiO2

MANUFACTURE PROCESS : The procedure adopted in the manufacture of glass may broadly be divided into th e following five stages: (1) Collection of raw materials. (2) Preparation of batch

(16) It is transparent and translucent. (1) It absorbs. drawn or pressed .(3) Melting in furnace (4) Fabrication (5) Annealing PROPERTIES : The properties of glass are mainly governed by factors such as composition of th e constituents. it also works as a good . (7) It is available in beautiful colours. (11) It is not usually affected by air or water. But when the elastic limit is exceeded. colorless. (12) It is not easily attacked by ordinary chemical reagents. (5) It is affected by alkalies. (15) It is possible to weld pieces of glass by fusion. (14) It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties. refracts or transmits light. hardness. (6) It is an excellent electrical insulator at elevated temperatures due to the fact that glass can be considered as an ionic liquid. it fractures instead of deforming. (9) It is capable of being worked n many ways. The transparency is the most used charac teristic of glass and it is due to the absence of free electrons. dimensions of sp ecimen. refractive power. The ions are not easily mo ved at room temperature because of the high viscosity. state of surface. (13) It is possible to intentionally alter some of its properties such as fusibi lity. (4) It has no sharp melting point. Following are the properties of glass which have made the glass popular and usef ul. It can be blown. thermal treatment conditions. to suit different purposes. (2) It can take up a high polish and may be used as substitute for every costly gems. (8) It behaves more as a solid than most solids in the sense that it is elastic. But when the temperature rises the ions are permitted to flow and thus they will sustain an electric curr ent. etc. etc. The glasses may be clear. (3) It has no definite crystalline structure. diffused and stained. But it is strange to note that it is difficult to cast in large pieces. For the same r eason. (10) It is extremely brittle.

mechanical and opt ical properties of glass by suitably changing the basic composition of the glass . electrical. Further investigations are yet in the process for preparing glass with extraordinary unusual characteristics and thus to increase the utility of this unique and complex material.It can thus be easily appreciated that glass. though used for thousands of years . is just beginning to be understood and it is still possible to get a variety o f glasses with certain chemical additives. TYPES : As present. As a matter of fact. the glass has emerged as a versatile engineering material which can be tailor-made to meet with the requirements of different industries in the most effective and economic way. The glass may be given any of the following treatment: (1) Blending (2) Cutting (3) Opaque making (4) Silvering. TREATMENTS : As a matter of fact. The brief descriptions of some of the following important special varietites of glass are given: (1) Bullet-proof glass (2) Fibre glass (3) Float glass (4) Foam glass (5) Glass blocks (6) Heat-excluding glass (7) Obscured glass (8) Perforated glass (9) Safety glass (10) Shielding glass (11) Soluble glass . it is possible to alter the chemical. the glass industry has made enormous progress all over the world and the glass has become very cheap and useful to the poor as well as to t he rich.

(12) Structural glass (13) Ultra-violet ray glass (14) Wired glass (15) ordinary sheet glass (16) energy efficient glass (17) self cleaning glass (18) laminated glass (19) mirrors (20) picture frame glass (21) coloured glass .

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