Object Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML


Course description:
OBJECTIVE: The understand the Unified Modeling Language and orient towards Object Oriented methodology using UML for modeling software systems. TARGET AUDIENCE: In particular, it is intended for software professionals who have sound knowledge of object concepts and some experience towards analysis and design. PREREQUISITES: Good understanding of object concepts. Sound knowledge of any object oriented language. Knowledge of software engineering process.

Course description:
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Module1 Introduction Module2 Use case diagram Module3 Flow of events Module 4 Realization of the class diagram
Sequence diagram and Collaboration Diagram

Module5 Module6 Module7

Class diagram and refinement attributes State transition and activity diagram Implementation diagram
Component diagram and Deployment diagram

Module8 Understanding project culture Appendix-A

Module-1 4 .

Importance of modeling What is a model? ± A model is a simplification of reality Why do we model? ± help visualizing ± permit specification ± provides a template ± document decisions 5 .

4 Principles of Modeling Choose your models well Every model may be expressed at various levels of precision The best models are connected to reality No single model is sufficient 6 .

Software development life cycle has following stages: REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION TESTING 7 .What is Software Engineering? DEFINITION:The application of systematic. disciplined and qualifiable approach to the development. operation and maintenance of a software system is software engineering.

How it is to be done ? Two Popular methodology approaches are: Structured Analysis & Design Object Oriented Analysis & Design-OO model 8 .Effort Distribution for each stage: Analysis & design Development Testing 40 % 20 % 40 % Analysis .What is to be done ? Design .

Major benefits of OOAD: The object oriented approach is a way of thinking about a problem using real world concepts instead using adhoc function concepts. We intent to learn OOAD approach for the following reason: ±Promotes better understanding of user requirements ±Leads cleaner design ±Design flexibility' ±Decomposition of the system is consistent ±Facilitates data abstraction & information hiding ±Software reuse ±Easy maintenance ±Implementation flexibility 9 .

Elements of OO Methodology: Following are three elements for every OO methodology: Notation Process / Method Tool 10 .

the unified modeling language provides the basis for a de facto standard in the domain of object oriented analysis and design founded on a wide base of user experience 11 .What is Notation? Notation: It is collection of graphical symbols for expressing model of the system. This brings end of the method wars as far as notation is concerned with adoption of the language [UML] By unifying the notations used by these object oriented methods. The Unified Modeling Language [UML] provides a very robust set of notation which grows from analysis to design.

12 . which is more expressive and more uniform than individual notations. which is mainly a collection of graphical notation that methods use to express the designs. OOSE notations but rather legitimate successor to all three. OMT.What is UML? It is a Unified Modeling Language. a good notation. The UML is language for visualizing. constructing and documenting the artifacts of software system. specifying. sets it free to concentrate on more advance and creative problems ³ UML is not a method or process but is the means to express the same. It is an evolutionary step. UML is visual modeling language for modeling systems and is non proprietary UML is not a radical departure from Booch. Whitehead says ³ By relieving the brain of unnecessary work.

absolutely anywhere everywhere.Where can you use the UML? System of several different kinds. Primarily for software intensive systems like: Systems software Business processes 13 .

1 Submission of OMG group UML1.8 Other method Booch OMT OOSE 14 . sept¶97 UML1.0 Beta version OOPSLA¶96 UML0.9 Unified Method 0.The Evolution of the UML: Public Feedback OMG vote¶97 Submission to OMG.

Advantages of UML: Captures business processes Enhance communication and ensures the right communication Capability to capture the logical software architecture independent of the implementation language Manages the complexity Enables reuse of design 15 .

component. node. class diagram. interaction diagram. State diagram. relationship.. package etc.deployment diagram 16 .UML refers to: UML things: Class. UML diagrams: Use case diagram.

Process basically encapsulates the activities leading to the orderly construction of system model.What is Process? What is Process? It is an extensive set of guidelines that address the technical and organizational aspects of software development focusing on requirements. OO model supports the iterative and incremental model for the process. 17 . analysis and design.

18 .More about Process? Guidance as to the order of team¶s activities It specifies what artifacts should be developed It directs the task of individual developers and team as a whole It offers criteria for monitoring and measuring project activities The selection of particular process will vary greatly depending upon things like problem domain. Framework for the every stage of software development life cycle.OMT.OOSE and many other methods have well defined process and UML supports almost all methods There has been some convergence on development process practices but there is no consensus for standardization. implementation technology and skills of team Booch.

Best Practices followed by Rational Unified Process Develop software iteratively Manage requirements Use component based architectures Visually model software Verify S/W quality Control changes to software. 19 .

Rational Rose 2. Cayenne 3. Select 20 . Platinum 4. analysis and design phase.What is a tool? It is automated support for every stage of software development life cycle. Since we are concentrating on requirement. following are the names of few tools which are greatly in use: 1.

Code generation Reverse engineering. Supports validations like: Consistency checking Completeness checking Constrain checking. Round trip engineering Conversion from SSAD to OOAD Quick documentation«etc 21 . Time required for certain operation could be predicted .Why Tool? Helps designer for creating designs much more quickly.

Notation Tool Method 22 .Triangle for Success: All three components play equally important role towards the success of the project.

Objective of the first module: Get introduced with Unified Modeling Language and know the basic components of software development life cycle. 23 .

Module-2 24 .

OO model: DYNAMIC MODEL STATIC MODEL LOGICAL MODEL PHYSICAL MODEL The models of Object Oriented Development 25 .

26 . The use case view is central since its contents drive the developments of other views. for each dimension we define a number of diagrams that denote a view of the system¶s model.Models and Views: 4+1 view of OO model. ± ± ± ± Process view Deployment view Logical view Dynamic view + ± Use case view As shown in the model .

Sequence diagrams .UML diagrams: 1.Interaction diagrams . Implementation diagrams .State chart diagrams .Deployment diagram 27 .Activity diagrams . Use case diagram 2.Component diagram .Collaboration diagrams 4.Object diagram . Class Diagram 3. Behavioral diagrams .

Semantics of Diagrams: Use case diagrams represent the functions of a system from the user¶s point of view. links. and correspond to simplified collaboration diagrams that do not represent message broadcasts. Sequence diagrams are a temporal representation of objects and their interactions. Class diagrams represent the static structure in terms of classes and relationships. Collaboration diagrams are a spatial representation of objects. and interactions. 28 . Object diagrams represent objects and their relationships.

.Semantics of Diagrams: Contd. State chart diagrams represent the behavior of a class in terms of states Activity diagrams are to represent the parallel behavior of an operation as a set of actions. Deployment diagrams represent the deployment of components on particular pieces of hardware.. 29 . Component diagrams represent the logical components of an application.

Components of use case diagram: Actor Use case System boundary Relationship Actor relationship Semantic of the components is followed. 30 .What is USE CASE diagram? A use case diagram establish the capability of the system as a whole.

Customer Manager Cashier 31 .ACTOR: What is an actor? An actor is some one or something that must interact with the system under development UML notation for actor is stickman. shown below.

Actors carry out use cases and a single actor may perform more than one use cases. Actors are determined by observing the direct uses of the system. 32 . Actors are not part of the system they represent anyone or anything that must interact with the system.ACTOR: More about an actor: It is role a user plays with respect to system.

.input information to the system.input to and out from the system. An actor may .ACTOR: Contd« Those are responsible for its use and maintain as well as other systems that interact with the developed system. . 33 .receive information from the system.

They are never part of the system to be developed.ACTOR: How do we find the actor? Ask following questions to find the actors: ± ± ± ± ± ± Who uses the system? Who installs the system? Who Starts up the system? What other systems use this system? Who gets the information from the system? Who provides information to the system? Actor is always external to the system. 34 .

Secondary : Who takes care of administration & maintenance. 35 . External h/w : The h/w devices which are part of application domain and must be used. Other system: The other system with which the system must interact.ACTOR: 4-Categories of an actor: Principle : Who uses the main system functions.

then new actor can be dropped.ACTOR: Note: If newly identified actor is using a system in a same way like an existing actor. 36 . If two actors use system in the same way they are same actors.

USE CASE is dialogue between an actor and the system. Examples: Open new account Withdrawal of cash from ATM 37 . the system exhibits Each use case is a sequence of related transactions performed by an actor and the system in dialogue.USE CASE: What is USE case? A use case is a pattern of behavior.

A use case may be small or large. It captures a broad view of a primary functionality of the system in a manner that can be easily grasped by non technical user. A use case typically represents a major piece of functionality that is complete from beginning to end. 38 . but you find some more as you proceed. They model a dialog between actor and system. Most of the use cases are generated in initial phase.USE CASE: More about USE CASE: It is a snapshot of one aspect of system.

Use cases also present a good vehicle for project planning.USE CASE: Contd« A use case must deliver something of value to an actor. 39 . The use cases may be decomposed into other use cases.

Or delete that information? Does the system need to notify an actor about changes in its internal state? 40 . read.USE CASE: How do we find the use cases? What functions will the actor want from the system? Does the system store information? What actors will create. update.

List of actors(external agents). If any Typical Course of Events: ACTOR ACTION : Numbered actions of the actor. SYSTEM RESPONSE : Numbered description of system responses. Description.USE CASE: Generic format for documenting the use case: . 41 . indicating who initiates the use case. Intention of the use case. primary / secondary.Pre condition: ± Use case : ± Actors : ± ± ± ± Purpose : Overview : Type : Post condition: If any Name of the case.

Description :A customer arrives in the bank to open the new account. along with the minimal deposit. Customer requests for the new account form. 42 . Cashier. Manager Purpose :Like to have new saving account. Type :Primary use case. At the end of complete successful process customer receives the passbook.USE CASE: USE CASE documentation example: The following use case describes the process of opening a new account in the bank. fill the same and submits. Use case :Open new account Actors :Customer.

Grouping USE CASES: Those use case functionality which are directly dependent on the system environment are placed in interface objects Those functionality dealing with storage and handling of information are placed in entity objects Functionality's specific to one or few use cases and not naturally placed in any of the other objects are placed in control objects By performing this division we obtain a structure which helps us to understand the system from logical view 43 .

OOAD --- USE CASE driven
Analysis Design & Implementation


Use cases make up the glue

Capture,clarify & validate use cases

Implement use cases

Verify that use cases are satisfied


What is System Boundary? It is shown as a rectangle. It helps to identify what is external verses internal, and what the responsibilities of the system are. The external environment is represented only by actors.


What is Relationship? Relationship between use case and actor. Communicates Relationship between two use cases Extends Uses Notation used to show the relationships:



. Relationship between two use cases is refereed as either uses or extends. USES: .This functionality is placed in a separate use case rather than documenting in every use case that needs it. 47 .Multiple use cases share a piece of same functionality.RELATIONSHIP: Relationship between use case and actor is often referred as ³communicates´ .

. 48 .RELATIONSHIP: Contd.. which is required only under certain condition. A uses relationship shows behavior that is common to one or more use cases. EXTENDS: It is used to show optional behavior.

Balance status report extends Clerk Withdraw cash Customer uses Validation ATM Manager 49 .USE CASE diagram: Use case diagram for the shown functionality.

Objective of the second module To understand and capture the detailed specification of a system to be developed. from user perspective. 50 .

Module-3 51 .

UML provides the framework to carry out the process of analysis and design in form of set of diagrams. Every diagram and notation used in the diagram carries the semantics. 52 .Beginning Analysis and Design Completion of first version of use case diagram initiates the processes of analysis and design. First step towards analysis and design is to specify the flow of events.

Flow of Events: A flow of events document is created for each use case. Typical contents ± How the use case starts and ends ± Normal flow of events ± Alternate flow of events ± Exceptional flow of events Typical Course of Events has: Actor Action(AA) System Response(SR) 53 . Details about what the system must provide to the actor when the use is executed.

6. 2. 5.(SR) The ATM accepts the card and reads its serial number.(SA)The ATM asks the user to select the kind of transaction.(AA) The user enters 1234. 8. 3. 4.(SR) The ATM requests the password. 54 .(SR) The ATM asks the user to insert a card. 7.(AA) The user inserts a cash card.(SR) The ATM verifies the serial number and password with the bank and gets the notification accordingly.Normal Flow of Events: For withdrawal of cash: 1.(AA)User selects the withdrawal.

to process the transaction which eventually confirms success and returns the new account balance.(SR)The ATM verifies that the amount of cash is within predefined policy limits and asks the bank. 14. 2500/10.(SR) The ATM asks whether the user wants to continue. 13. 9..(AA) The user takes the cash. 11. 55 .(SR)The ATM asks for the amount of cash. 12.Normal Flow of Events: Contd..(AA) The user indicates no. user enters Rs.(SR) The ATM dispenses cash and asks the user to take it.

.Normal Flow of Events: Contd. 56 ..(AA) The user takes the receipt and the card.(SR) The ATM asks a user to insert a card.(SR) The ATM prints a receipt. 15. 17. ejects the card and asks the user to take them 16.

Alternative Flow of Events: For withdrawal of cash use case: 9. The ATM asks for the amount of cash. the user has change of mind and hits the ³cancel´. 57 .

11 Money gets stuck in the machine.Exceptional Flow of Events: For withdrawal of cash use case: 3 Suspicious pattern of usage on the card. 58 . 10 The machine is out of cash.

Flow of events helps in finding objects of the system to be developed. Happens to be most important and very first step towards analysis and design.Why flow of events? It helps in understanding the functionality of a system to be developed. 59 .

What is Scenario? The functionality of the use case is captured in flow of the events. 60 . Scenarios are developed to help identify objects. A scenarios is one path through the flow of events for the use case. classes and object interactions for that use case.

Objective of the third module To understand the flow of each functionality and find out the objects and methods required to build the system. 61 .

Module-4 62 .

USE CASE Realizations: The use case diagram presents an outside view of the system Interaction diagrams describe how use cases are realized as interactions among societies of objects. Two types of interaction diagrams ± Sequence diagrams ± Collaboration diagrams 63 .

links and interrelations 64 .What is Interaction diagram? Interaction diagrams are models that describe how groups of objects collaborate in some behavior There are 2 kinds of interaction diagrams ‡ Sequence diagram ‡ Collaboration diagram Sequence diagrams are a temporal representation of objects and their interactions Collaboration diagrams are spatial representation of objects.

vertical represents time & horizontal represents objects. Shows object interaction arranged in time sequence. Components of sequence diagram: -objects -object lifeline -Message -pre/post conditions. It has two dimensions.What is sequence diagram? Typically these diagrams capture behaviors of the single scenario. 65 . They show sequence of messages among the objects.

They are used to model the existence of objects over time. Object life line are denoted as dashed lines.OBJECT & OBJECT LIFE LINE: Object are represented by rectangles and name of the objects are underlined. Name:Class 66 .

Messages are denoted as labeled horizontal arrows between life lines. The sender will send the message and receiver will receive the message. They are used to convey information between objects and enable objects to request services of other objects. 67 .MESSAGES: They are used to model the content of communication between objects. receiver. and possibly other information according to the characteristics of the request. The message instance has a sender.

May have return list consisting of a comma -separated list of names that designate the values of returned by the operation. Must have a name or identifier string that represents the message. This is a Boolean condition that must be satisfied to enable the message to be sent. 68 . May have parentheses containing an argument list consisting of a comma separated list of actual parameters passed to a method.MESSAGES: Contd« May have square brackets containing a guard conditions. This specifies the number of times the message is sent. May have have an asterisk followed by square brackets containing an iteration specification.

normal flow] :ATM Verify account Account o.eject card Request take card Take card Display main screen and prompt for the card. Create Transaction :Bank :Transaction Dispense cash Request take cash Take cash Request continuation Update transaction Transaction commit Transaction complete Terminate Print receipt .Sequence diagram :Customer Insert card Request password Enter the password Request option Enter option Request amount Enter the amount [for withdrawal of cash. 69 .k.

without going into the details of user interface. This helps in representing the interaction. In these diagrams. an actor can be displayed in order to represent the triggering of interaction by an element external to the system. using static spatial structure. 70 .What is Collaboration diagram? Collaboration diagrams illustrate the interaction between the objects. The UML uses the decimal numbering scheme. Unlike sequence diagram the time is not explicitly represented in these diagrams In collaboration diagram the sequence of messages is indicated by numbering the messages.

and indicates the exchange of messages. ‡ *[iteration]. Messages has following attributes: ‡ Synchronization --thread name. ‡ It uses decimal notation. ‡ Sequence number ‡ Message labels : The name of the message often corresponds to an operation defined in the class of the object that is the destination of the message. Message names may have the arguments and return values. 71 .Components of collaboration diagram: Named objects Links: Links are represented by a continuous line between objects. ‡ Message direction. step within thread.

The direction of the message defines the sender and receiver of the message 72 . Messages in the collaboration diagram get transformed to more detailed signature. They use the decimal notation system for numbering the messages.Semantics of components: Object names identify which objects are participating and the links show which objects collaborate A link between two objects must exist for one object to send message to another and vice a versa.

The elements of message: Predecessor Role names Message qualifiers ± ± ± ± ± Iteration expression Parameters Return values Guard Message stereotypes Concurrent thread sequencing Thread dependencies Message expression [Pre] A1:*(expression):doIt(p.r):return value 73 .

ith other flo of execution Iteration arallel iteration [ ge =18] 6.b.a.n]:Turnoff() 74 .y) 3.a.The examples of message: 4: isplay(x.1: isplay(x.2:subtract[Today..1:Turnon( amp) 1*: ash() 3.2: ote() 4.3.6/c.3.b/4*||[i:=1.y) 4. irthday]:age imple message ested message ested message ith return value onditional message ynchro.

Take card cancel. Take cash. request take cash request continuation. Verify account. eject card. request take card bad account message. request password. failure message. Continue CUSTOMER Create Transaction Transaction complete Display main screen unreadable card message. bad password. Enter kind Enter amount.k. bad account. request kind.] 1. print receipt. canceled message. dispense cash.Terminate. bad bank account message process transaction ATM Transaction succeed Transaction failed account o. request amount. Insert card Enter password. normal flow. bad bank code TRANSACTION BANK 75 .Collaboration diagram [for withdrawal of cash.

76 . To understand how the messages get matured with more information.Objective of the fifth module To know the interaction among the objects in temporal and spatial form. To know how objects collaborate among each other and hence delegate the responsibility to the respective objects.

Module-5 77 .

dependency and inheritance ± Multiplicity and navigation indicators ± Role names or labels. ± relationships components among the classes like association.What is Class diagram? A class diagram shows the existence of classes and their relationships in the logical view of a system UML modeling elements in class diagrams are: ± Classes. aggregation. 78 . their structure and behavior. composition.

Major Types of classes: Concrete classes A concrete class is a class that is instantiable. An abstract operation defines the form of operation. that is it can have different instances. 79 . for which each concrete subclass should provide its own implementation. Abstract classes An abstract class is a class that has no direct instance but whose descendants classes have direct instances. Only concrete classes may be leaf classes in the inheritance tree. An abstract class can define the protocol for an operation without supplying a corresponding method we call this as an abstract operation.

RELATIONSHIP: Association Aggregation Composition Inheritance Dependency Instantiation 80 .

ASSOCIATION: These are the most general type of relationship: It denotes a semantic connection between two classes It shows BI directional connection between two classes It is a weak coupling as associated classes remain somewhat independent of each other Example: CUSTOMER ATM system 81 .

AGGREGATION: This is a special type of association The association with label ³contains´ or ³is part of´ is an aggregation It represents ³has a ³ relationship It is used when one object logically or physically contains other The container is called as aggregate It has a diamond at its end The components of aggregate can be shared with others It expresses a whole .part relationships 82 .

AGGREGATION: Example: Customer ATM card 83 .

COMPOSITION: This is a strong form of aggregation It expresses the stronger coupling between the classes The owner is explicitly responsible for creation and deletion of the part Any deletion of whole is considered to cascade its part The aggregate has a filled diamond at its end Window Client Area 84 .

shown below. Notation used is solid line with arrowhead. Account CurrentAccount SavingAccount 85 . Generalization and specialization are points of view that are based on inheritance hierarchies.INHERITANCE: The inheritance relationship helps in managing the complexity by ordering objects within trees of classes with increasing levels of abstraction.

DEPENDENCY: Dependency is semantic connection between dependent and independent model elements. This association is unidirectional and is shown with dotted arrowhead line. The server need not know about client. The client avails services provided by server so it should have semantic knowledge of server. Client Server 86 . In the following example it shows the dependency relationship between client and server.

INSTANTIATION This relationship is defined between parameterized class and actual class. A parameterized class can¶t have instances unless we first instantiated it Example: Element Queue Queue<int> 87 . Parameterized class is also referred as generic class.

* From one to any positive integer Also thought can be given about navigability to every applicable relationship. Common multiplicity values: Symbol Meaning 1 One and only one 0.* From zero to any positive integer 1.... 88 .1 Zero or one M«N From M to N (natural integer) 0.What is Cardinality? : Definition: Number of instances of each class involved in the dialogue is specified by cardinality.

their interaction and detailed message signature. At this point. This information is carried forward to the class diagram.Reaching the class diagram: In collaboration diagram we have shown the objects. Relationship is further refined with respect to multiplicity and navigability. Messages get mapped to responsibilities for respective classes. Transform the links to appropriate relationships. This complete procedure brings the minimal class diagram [for withdraw cash use case.] 89 . Find the attributes for every class. normal flow.we group the similar objects and form classes.

* Transaction 1...Class diagram [for withdrawal of cash.* 1...* 1 1 1 Bank[Branch] 90 .* ATMSystem 0. normal flow] Customer 1 1.

Next few slides will take into the discussion of refinement attributes.What more to the Class Diagram? Till this slide we have worked out the essentials of class diagram for withdrawal of cash use case. At this point. normal flow of events. Refinement attributes should be updated right from sequence diagram to class diagram. we refine this integrated class diagram to add further fine details. Approximate sketch for this class diagram has been shown at the end of this module. This process of iterative and incremental development will continue till there is no change in two consecutive iteration. 91 . Similar exercise required to be carried out for every scenario and clubbed all in the class diagram.

OOAD---Iterative & Incremental Approach Identify objects Identify Messages Validate Classes & Objects Group classes into domains Identify class behavior Group Objects into classes Identify & classify Class relationships 92 .

Refinement attributes: Stereotypes: Stereotypes are part of the range of extensibility mechanism provided by UML It permits user to add new model element classes on top of the kernel predefined by UML 93 .

pseudo code. association.Refinement attributes: Contd« Constraints: Constraints are functional relationship between the entities and object model. The entities include objects. attributes. navigation expression or mathematical expression UML1. classes.2 does prefer the use of a constraint language OCL i. so they may therefore be expressed using natural language. which is subset of UML. 94 . other than they should appear between braces. Object Constraint Language.e. A constraint restricts the values that entities can assume. links. UML doesn't specify a particular syntax for constraints.

5 Window length/width A constraint between the properties of the same object {0. Constraint on the same class. (length/width) of less than 0. of transaction < 5 /day} No window will have an aspect ratio i.Refinement attributes: Example:Constraints Number of withdrawal transaction should be less than five per day.5} 95 .e.8 or > 1.8< length/width < 1. Transaction {No.

Refinement attributes: Qualifier: UML provides a role of constraint notation to indicate different kind of collections that may be inherent in the analysis model Common role constraints for multi valued roles include {ordered} {bag} {set} Collection is maintained in sorted manner Collection may have multiple copies of same item. Collection may have at most one copy of given item. Some constraints may be combined such as: {ordered set} 96 .

A qualified association is the UML equivalent of a programming concept variously known as associative arrays.Refinement attributes: Qualifier: Another common design scheme is to use a key value to retrieve an item from the collection. maps. This is called as qualified association and the key value as qualifier.dictionaries A qualified association relates two object classes and a qualifier The qualifier is a special attribute that reduced the effective multiplicity of an association. 97 . One to many and many to many association may be qualified.

Check for helper functions. normalize with qualifier or association class. 98 . Check for the scope forming abstract classes and template classes.Refinement attributes: Check for many to many relationship. Thought can be given for using the design patterns. if any.

Objective of the fifth module:
Learn to build the architecture, which contains the entire information of the system to be developed. It is this architecture which is called as BLUE PRINT is handed over for coding.


Refined Class diagram
Area ATMSystem

[for withdrawal of cash]

Few more relationship can be further added to the shown diagram:

1..* 1 Bank[Branch] 1 1

BankComputer <<abstract>> person

Cash <<abstract>> AccountAccessor

Transaction 1..* Slips 1..* <<abstract>> Account 1 CurrentAccount SavingAccount 1 1

CashierStation Customer BankAssociates 1 TellerScreen 0..1 BankCard NoteHelpForBankCard ATMScreen




Components of State Diagram: ± Start State ± Stop state ± State Transition 102 . the events or the messages that cause a transition from one state to another and the action that result from a state change.What is state transition diagram? A state transition diagram shows the states of a single object. A state transition diagram will not be created for every class in the system.

Semantics of every components: State: A state is a condition during the life of an object when it satisfies some condition. or waits for an event. Notation for stop state is bull¶s eye. Special states:There are two special states. Start state: Each state diagram must have one and only one start state. Stop State: An object can have multiple stop states. Notation for start state is ³filled solid circle´. 103 . performs some action. The UML notation for a state is a rectangle with rounded corners.

State transition: A state transition represents a change from an originating to a successor state..Semantics of every components: Contd.. Transition label: event name[guard condition] / action 104 .

State Transition Diagram [for Account class. ] request and fill the form for new saving account[ validate ] / process Open transaction request[ validate ] / update() transactionStrart / Transfer_to_main_ledger () Dormant Operational no transaction / Transfer_to_Dormant_Ledger Fraud or authorized instruction[Validate] / lockAccount() matter_resolved[ validate ] / unlockAccount() seized fill_the_request_form/update() close fill_the_request_form / update() Note:Account can be closed from open state as well 105 .

State diagrams are also useful to investigate the behavior of user interface and control classes. state diagrams are used only for those classes that exhibit interesting behavior.More about State Diagram: A state diagram will not be created for every class. State diagram are used to show dynamics of a individual class 106 .

What is activity diagram?
It is a special kind of state diagram and is worked out at use case level. These are mainly targeted towards representing internal behavior of a a use case. These may be thought as a kind of flowchart. Flowcharts are normally limited to sequential process; activity diagrams can handle parallel process. Activity diagrams are recommended in the following situations:  Analyzing use case  Dealing with multithreaded application  Understanding workflow across many use cases.


Consistency Checking

Consistency checking is the process of ensuring that, information in both static view of the system(class diagram) and the dynamic view of the system(sequence and collaboration diagram) is telling the same story.


Objective of the sixth module
Understand the dynamic behavior of a class Way to find the parallel processes at use case level.


Module-7 110 .

111 . A component may be ‡ A source code component ‡ A run time components ‡ An executable component ‡ Dependency relationship.What is component diagram? COMPONENT DIAGRAM: Component diagrams illustrate the organizations and dependencies among software components.

dll Branch Bank.exe 112 .Component Diagram policy.exe customer.dll Branch Bank.dll [for withdrawal of cash] Bank Server.exe ATM.

Ethernet connection. The connections may represent direct hardware coupling line RS-232 cable. in most cases a piece of hardware. Connection among nodes show the communication path over which the system will interact.What is deployment diagram? A deployment diagram shows the relationship among software and hardware components in the delivered system. These diagram include nodes and connections between nodes. they also may represent indirect coupling such as satellite to ground communication. 113 . Each node in deployment diagram represents some kind of computational unit.

exe 114 .exe Ethernet Ethernet ATM_ machine ATM.Deployment diagram Branch Bank_ Bank.exe Bank_ server BankServer.

Objective of the seventh module: To understand the organization of software modules and their deployment on the respective hardware. 115 .

Module-8 116 .

Architecture Centric 117 .Understanding the project culture It may be: 1.Requirement Centric 3.Documentation Centric 4.Calendar Centric 2.Quality Centric 5.

architect-driven policies are in evolutionary step beyond requirement driven policies. Architecture driven style of development is usually the best approach for the creation of most complex software intensive systems 118 . that are not yet known or well understood. These projects are characterized by a focus on creating a frame work that satisfies all known requirement. yet is resilient enough to adapt to those requirements. In every sense of the word.Understanding the project¶s culture Architecture driven projects represent the most mature style of development.

(Analysis) 2. then validate. 119 . making mid-course corrections as necessary to adopt to new requirements as they are uncovered.Understanding the project¶s culture Architecture driven style of development typically observe the following process: 1. an architecture. (Design) 3. Create. Specify the system¶s desired behavior through a collection of scenarios. Evolve that architecture.

A set of collaboration that specify how those classes co-operate to provide various system function. typically organized into multiple hierarchies.OOAD---Architecture Centric What exactly is nature of the well structured object oriented architecture?? 1. 120 . A set of classes. 2.

ESSENCE OF OOAD AND UML Use case driven Architecture centric Incremental and iterative approach. 121 .

that one day. 122 .Desire for good Architecture Those of us who have been trained as architects have this desire perhaps at the very center of our lives. CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER Same desire should also be applicable in creating software architecture as well. we shall build one building which is wonderful. beautiful. some where somehow. breathtaking. a place where people can walk and dream for centuries.

Appendix-A 123 .

Strong recommendation Object Technology ± David A. Taylor Object Oriented Analysis and design with Applications ± Grady Booch UML distilled ±Martin Fowler Instant UML ± Pierre .Alain Muller Software Engineering ± Roger S Pressman 124 .

Winters UML Toolkit ± Hans-Eriksson and Magnus Penker Version1.REFERENCES Contd.1 125 . Object Oriented Modeling and Design ± James Rumbaugh Object Oriented Software Engineering ± Ivar Jacobson Clouds to code ± Jesse Liberty Applying use cases ± Geri Schneider ±Jason p...

THANK-U! 126 .

Course description: SESSION BREAKUP: The course will be offered in series of fourteen hours theory session.8 2-hours Demonstration 2-hours 127 .2 2-hours demonstration lecture Module-3 2-hours Module-4 2-hours Module-5 4-hours Module-6 2-hours Module-7. One demonstration session on the tool like Rational Rose can be accompanied.The following is the suggested agenda for the course. Duration Session Module-1.

128 .Course description: REFERENCE AND READING MATERIALS: Refer to Appendix-A EXERCISE AND HANDS ON: One case study should be given to the group of four members. TEST: Case study given for exercise can be evaluated as part of the test.

Following are strongly recommended reading and should be used as supplementary with this power point courseware. Focus should be primarily on understanding UML[1.Object oriented analysis and design with applications by Grady Booch Note: UML toolkit should be refereed for UML notations.UML toolkit by Eriksson and Magnus Penker 2. 129 .2] and UML diagrams and then applying to a problem. Object oriented analysis and design with applications should be refereed for OO concepts.their syntax and semantics.Course description: INSTRUCTION TO THE FACULTY: Course should emphasize on OO modeling. 1. Several excellent references are given in Appendix-A.

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