Está en la página 1de 6

Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

FICHA #12: CONJUNCIONES y CONECTORES LÓGICOS

Se pueden combinar dos o más afirmaciones o cláusulas dentro de un enunciado mayor a través de conjunciones, o bien
combinar afirmaciones expresadas en diferentes enunciados o partes del texto a través de conectores. Los conectores y
conjunciones lógicas cumplen la función de unir o combinar ideas dentro de un enunciado o afirmaciones de diferentes
enunciados o partes del texto, como párrafos. Es fundamental que te familiarices con ellos a fin de que comprendas las
relaciones lógicas entre las ideas del texto, a la vez que las jerarquizas. Según el tipo de combinación, reciben diferentes
nombres. El siguiente cuadro clasifica, explica y ejemplifica las conjunciones/conectores y sus usos:

ADICIÓN SIMPLE
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

Also, You can pay your fees by credit card. You can also Expresan una simple adición.
write a check. Tienen el mismo significado de
also y too (también, además)
in addition Ming has to register for classes today. In addition, he
has to pay his course fees.

furthermore This plant requires sun all day. Furthermore, it needs


rich soil.

moreover As your mayor, I promise to make this city safe for all.
Moreover, I will create more jobs.

ADICIÓN ENFÁTICA
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

what is more We have succeeded in cleaning up the river. What is Presentan una idea que
(más aún, y lo que more, we have made it the cleanest in the entire enfatiza algún aspecto de lo
más) province. que se ha dicho anteriormente.
Su significado es similar a: “No
as well Ricardo won the award for athletic achievement. He solo eso (lo que acabo de
(incluso) received academic honors as well. mencionar) sino también esto
(lo que voy a decir a
besides (this) My brother goes to school full time. Besides this, he continuación) Not only ... but
(además de esto) manages to work twenty hours a week. also …

ADICIÓN INTENSIFICADORA
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

in fact Spokane has a lot of rain lately. In fact, it has been Muestran que la idea a
raining all week. continuación apoyará
fuertemente la idea
as a matter of fact You can take the rest of the pie with you. As a matter mencionada anteriormente.
of fact, I wish you would since I am on a diet. (de hecho)

actually Gretchen has never cared for the color magenta.


Conjunciones y Conectores Lógicos

Actually, it’s one of her least favorite colors.

DE EJEMPLIFICACIÓN
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

for example Reactions to bee stings can be severe. For example, a Presentan ejemplos de lo que
person could experience breathing difficulty. se ha mencionado antes.
for instance Some sports involve considerable body contact. Take, Presentan un miembro o
for instance, rugby. instancia típica de un grupo.

especially Violence in movies seems to be increasing. Action films Presentan un miembro o


especially appear to be getting more violent. instancia importante de un
grupo.
in particular Learning the use for article use in English can be
difficult. In particular, the use of articles with generic
nouns may be confusing.

to illustrate The steps to save your computer files are quite simple. Presentan ejemplos extensos
To illustrate, we will save the file you have just que consisten en una narración
created. o un proceso.

as an example Many great composers have had their share of misery.


As an example, consider the life of Mozart.

DE IDENTIFICACIÓN
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

namely There is a very important issue before us; namely, we Identifican algo, sea que se
(es decir) need to decide how to reduce the budget by one fourth. haya mencionado o implicado
anteriormente. Presentan una
specifically I have a question about connectors; specifically, when elaboración más específica
(para ser específico) do you use “in fact”? o detallada.

DE ACLARACIÓN
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

that is The garlic should be minced; that is, you should chop it Señalan que algo va a ser
(es decir) into very small pieces. expresado nuevamente de otra
manera o que va a ser
in other words You can’t go on with this hectic life style. In other aclarado.
(en otras palabras) words, you need to learn to relax.
Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

DE SIMILITUD
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

similarly The lungs of vertebrates absorb oxygen from the air. Señalan que dos o más ideas o
(similarmente) Similarly, gills, the respiratory organs of many aquatic situaciones son similares.
animals, take in oxygen from water.

likewise If you study, you will probably do well in the exam.


(del mismo modo) Likewise, if you write in a journal every day, you will
probably become a better writer.

Learning to play a musical instrument well requires


in the same way practice. In the same way, learning to speak a
(del mismo modo) second language fluently cannot be accomplished
without practice.

DE CONTRASTE
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

however In some creation myths, the sun exists before people Muestran que dos ideas se
(sin embargo) do. In other, however, people create the sun. contraponen, o que la
segunda idea no es la
in contrast The characters in legends may be based on people who esperada en relación con lo
(en contraste) actually lived. In contrast, the characters in fables, expresado en la primera.
often animals, are fictional.
Otras conjunciones:
although, (si bien, aunque)
on the other hand The proposed new hotel complex will benefit our city. even though, (si bien,
(por otro lado) On the other hand, it will create serious problems aunque), whereas
with increased traffic. (mientras que)

though This lake is not very good for fishing. It’s great for
(sin embargo) swimming and water skiing, though.

no confundir con:
“through”: a través
(preposición),
“thought” (pensó,
pensamiento, pensado)
de “think”

in fact Early civilizations thought the Herat was the center of Señalan que la idea a
(de hecho) the Universe. In fact, the Earth revolves around the continuación es contraria a algo
sun. que se mencionó
anteriormente.
however Some people think that whales are fish. However,
(sin embargo) these animals are actually mammals.
Conjunciones y Conectores Lógicos

DE CONCESIÓN
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

even so New York has many urban problems. Even so, it still a Señalan una reserva acerca de
(aún así) great city. algo. La primera idea es cierta,
pero la segunda idea es
however Most of my meal was excellent. The vegetables, también verdad o debería
(sin embargo) however, were slightly overcooked. considerarse.

nevertheless Native Americans have often had difficulties preserving


(no obstante, con todo, their traditions. Nevertheless, they had been able to
sin embargo) pass down old stories about their cultures to the new
generations.

nonetheless I know mountain climbing can be dangerous. I would


(no obstante, con todo,
like to try it, nonetheless.
sin embargo)

Chifumi has to get up at five to get to school on time.


despite this
Despite this, she has never missed a class.
(a pesar de ésto)

in spite of The day was cold and rainy. In spite of the inclement
(a pesar de ) weather, we decided to take a hike.

on the other hand Learning a new language can be fun. On the other
(por otro lado) hand, it can be frustrating.

DE RESULTADO O EFECTO
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

accordingly Rain is an important theme in many African religions. Señalan que una idea es in
(así pues, por Accordingly, their rituals often focus on rain-making efecto o resultado de algo. Se
consiguiente) and rain stopping. diferencian entre sí
principalmente por sus grados
as a result English spelling rules can be confusing. As a result, de formalidad.
(como resultado) some have proposed simplified spelling.

as a result of (this) Some people suffer from acrophobia. As a result of


this phobia, they avoid heights.

because of (this),
Canvas is strong material. Because of its strength, it
(debido a (ésto))
is used for tents.
Introducción a la Lectura Comprensiva de Inglés Académico para Medicina Veterinaria

due to (this) A megaphone is a hollow cone. Due to its shape, it


(debido a (ésto)) can amplify sound.

consequently John couldn’t get to the library. Consequently, he


(en consecuencia) wasn´t able to finish his research.

therefore The plot of this book is not very original. The ending,
(por lo tanto) therefore, is easy to predict.

thus Spring water is filtered through permeable rock. Thus,


(así, de este modo) it is usually fairly clean.

hence Fluorocarbons have stable carbon-fluorine bonds;


(de aquí que) hence they are inert and heat resistant.

The ending of this book is easy to predict because the


plot is not very original.

DE PROPÓSITO
CONJUNCIÓN EJEMPLOS SIGNIFICADO
CONECTOR

in order to (do this) We will test your cholesterol levels tomorrow. In order Presentan el propósito de la
(para ésto) to check it, we must ask you not to eat anything for idea a continuación. También
four hours. expresan relación causal.

with this in mind Catherine needed to go to the market after work. With Otras conjunciones: so as to,
(con ésto en mente) this in mind, she took her grocery list with her. (de manera tal que), in
order that (para que)
for this purpose The candidate for mayor needed to increase her
(con este propósito) campaign funds. For this purpose, her manager
scheduled several fund-raising dinners.

Fuente: FRODESEN, J, EYRING, J: Grammar Dimensions 4, Heinle&Heinle, 2000, pág. 203-220. (adaptado, mi traducción).
Conjunciones y Conectores Lógicos