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Situación de la Competitividad de México 2006

Anexo estadístico
Índice de anexo estadístico

Sistema de derecho confiable y objetivo 579

Manejo sustentable del medio ambiente 581

Sociedad incluyente, preparada y sana 584

Macroeconomía estable 588

Sistema político, estable y funcional 590

Mercados de factores eficientes 594

Sectores precursores de clase mundial 598

Gobierno eficiente y eficaz 602

Relaciones internacionales benignas 606

Sectores económicos con potencial 609


Anexo estadístico

Sistema de derecho confiable y objetivo

Índice de Índice de
Libertad Índice de Índice del Estado
corrupción presencia de
para competir libertades civiles de derecho
y buen gobierno mercados informales

Más alto, Escala Más bajo, Escala Más alto, Escala Más bajo, Escala Más alto, Escala
mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100

Alemania 8.2 80.0 1.5 83.3 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.7 89.6
Argentina 2.5 4.0 4.0 0.0 3.0 50.0 2 80.0 -0.7 12.7
Australia 8.8 88.0 1.0 100.0 5.0 100.0 1 100.0 1.8 94.8
Austria 8.4 82.7 1.5 83.3 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.8 92.9
Bélgica 7.5 70.7 2.0 66.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.5 83.4
Bolivia 2.2 0.0 4.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3 60.0 -0.6 17.9
Brasil 3.9 22.7 3.5 16.7 4.0 75.0 3 60.0 -0.2 28.9
Canadá 8.5 84.0 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.8 92.5
Chile 7.4 69.3 1.5 83.3 5.0 100.0 1 100.0 1.2 73.4
China 3.4 16.0 3.5 16.7 3.0 50.0 6 0.0 -0.5 20.5
Colombia 3.8 21.3 3.5 16.7 4.0 75.0 4 40.0 -0.7 13.0
Corea del Sur 4.5 30.7 3.0 33.3 4.0 75.0 2 80.0 0.7 57.5
Costa Rica 4.9 36.0 3.0 33.3 3.0 50.0 1 100.0 0.6 54.2
Dinamarca 9.5 97.3 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.9 97.7
El Salvador 4.2 26.7 3.5 16.7 2.0 25.0 3 60.0 -0.3 24.7
España 7.1 65.3 2.0 66.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.1 72.1
EUA 7.5 70.7 1.5 83.3 5.0 100.0 1 100.0 1.6 87.0
Finlandia 9.7 100.0 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 2.0 99.7
Francia 7.1 65.3 2.0 66.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.3 78.9
Grecia 4.3 28.0 3.0 33.3 4.0 75.0 2 80.0 0.8 60.1
Guatemala 2.2 0.0 4.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 4 40.0 -1.0 4.5
Holanda 8.7 86.7 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.8 93.5
Honduras 2.3 1.3 4.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3 60.0 -0.6 15.9
Hungría 4.8 34.7 3.0 33.3 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 0.9 63.3
India 2.8 8.0 4.0 0.0 3.0 50.0 3 60.0 -0.1 32.8
Irlanda 7.5 70.7 2.0 66.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.6 88.3
Israel 6.4 56.0 1.5 83.3 4.0 75.0 3 60.0 0.8 60.7
Italia 4.8 34.7 2.5 50.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 0.7 59.7
Japón 6.9 62.7 2.0 66.7 4.0 75.0 2 80.0 1.4 80.8
Malasia 5.0 37.3 3.0 33.3 3.0 50.0 4 40.0 0.5 52.6
México 3.6 18.7 3.5 16.7 3.0 50.0 2 80.0 -0.3 27.3
Nicaragua 2.7 6.7 4.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3 60.0 -0.7 14.6
Noruega 8.9 89.3 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 2.0 99.0
Perú 3.5 17.3 3.5 16.7 3.0 50.0 3 60.0 -0.6 15.3
Polonia 3.5 17.3 3.5 16.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 0.5 52.3
Portugal 6.3 54.7 2.0 66.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.2 73.4
Reino Unido 8.6 85.3 1.0 100.0 5.0 100.0 1 100.0 1.7 91.2
República Checa 4.2 26.7 3.5 16.7 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 0.7 58.1
Rusia 2.8 8.0 4.0 0.0 2.0 25.0 5 20.0 -0.7 13.0
Sudáfrica 4.6 32.0 3.0 33.3 2.0 25.0 2 80.0 0.3 46.1
Suecia 9.2 93.3 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 1.9 95.8
Suiza 9.1 92.0 1.0 100.0 4.0 75.0 1 100.0 2.0 100.0
Tailandia 3.6 18.7 3.5 16.7 3.0 50.0 3 60.0 -0.1 34.1
Turquía 3.2 13.3 3.5 16.7 4.0 75.0 3 60.0 0.0 37.0
Venezuela 2.3 1.3 4.0 0.0 3.0 50.0 4 40.0 -1.1 0.0

Fuente International Transparency Heritage Institute EIU Freedom House Worldbank

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 579


Índice de Índice de
Índice de Índice de derechos Tiempo medio para
independencia imparcialidad
piratería informática de propiedad ejecutar contratos
del poder judicial de las Cortes

% Escala Más bajo, Escala Días Escala Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala
software 0-100 mejor 0-100 promedio 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100

Alemania 29 88.4 1 100.0 154 91.9 8.8 100.0 8.2 91.3


Argentina 75 21.7 4 0.0 300 81.6 2.0 19.9 2.6 18.9
Australia 32 84.1 1 100.0 320 80.2 8.4 95.7 7.6 83.4
Austria 25 94.2 1 100.0 434 72.2 8.0 90.7 7.8 86.2
Bélgica 29 88.4 1 100.0 365 77.1 6.9 77.8 6.0 62.4
Bolivia 80 14.5 4 0.0 464 70.1 2.0 19.8 2.4 16.6
Brasil 64 37.7 3 33.3 380 76.0 3.3 35.4 3.6 32.0
Canadá 36 78.3 1 100.0 425 72.8 7.6 85.5 6.9 74.7
Chile 64 37.7 1 100.0 200 88.7 5.2 57.9 5.6 57.8
China 90 0.0 4 0.0 180 90.1 3.9 42.4 4.3 40.4
Colombia 55 50.7 4 0.0 527 65.7 3.9 42.4 4.2 39.9
Corea del Sur 46 63.8 2 66.7 75 97.5 5.3 58.8 5.3 53.9
Costa Rica 67 33.3 3 33.3 370 76.7 6.7 74.8 5.5 56.3
Dinamarca 27 91.3 1 100.0 83 96.9 8.7 99.2 8.9 100.0
El Salvador 80 14.5 3 33.3 240 85.9 3.5 37.3 3.5 30.1
España 43 68.1 2 66.7 147 92.4 4.7 51.0 5.3 53.3
EUA 21 100.0 1 100.0 365 77.1 7.5 84.4 7.4 80.7
Finlandia 29 88.4 1 100.0 240 85.9 8.1 91.9 8.1 89.9
Francia 45 65.2 2 66.7 210 88.0 6.9 77.3 6.9 73.9
Grecia 62 40.6 3 33.3 315 80.6 5.2 57.8 4.8 46.9
Guatemala 78 17.4 4 0.0 1,460 0.0 2.5 25.4 2.1 13.0
Holanda 30 87.0 1 100.0 39 100.0 8.4 95.3 8.2 91.2
Honduras 75 21.7 4 0.0 225 86.9 2.3 22.7 2.8 21.8
Hungría 44 66.7 2 66.7 365 77.1 5.6 61.8 4.7 46.4
India 74 23.2 3 33.3 365 77.1 7.2 81.6 6.2 64.7
Irlanda 38 75.4 1 100.0 183 89.9 8.4 95.6 7.7 85.0
Israel 33 82.6 2 66.7 315 80.6 7.8 88.2 6.6 70.8
Italia 50 58.0 2 66.7 645 57.4 4.2 45.2 3.6 31.5
Japón 28 89.9 2 66.7 60 98.5 7.2 81.6 6.4 68.1
Malasia 61 42.0 3 33.3 270 83.7 7.3 82.1 7.5 81.6
México 65 36.2 3 33.3 325 79.9 4.2 45.1 4.1 37.8
Nicaragua 80 14.5 4 0.0 125 93.9 0.4 0.0 1.4 2.9
Noruega 31 85.5 1 100.0 87 96.6 8.3 94.6 7.7 85.0
Perú 73 24.6 4 0.0 441 71.7 1.7 16.1 2.3 14.4
Polonia 59 44.9 3 33.3 1,000 32.4 4.0 43.2 3.9 35.1
Portugal 40 72.5 2 66.7 420 73.2 7.7 86.6 5.1 50.9
Reino Unido 27 91.3 1 100.0 101 95.6 8.3 94.2 7.8 86.7
República Checa 41 71.0 2 66.7 270 83.7 5.6 61.8 4.4 42.1
Rusia 87 4.3 4 0.0 160 91.5 2.2 21.6 2.7 19.9
Sudáfrica 37 76.8 3 33.3 207 88.2 6.5 72.5 7.4 80.3
Suecia 26 92.8 1 100.0 190 89.4 6.3 70.8 7.2 78.4
Suiza 28 89.9 1 100.0 224 87.0 8.4 95.8 8.2 91.3
Tailandia 79 15.9 3 33.3 210 88.0 5.7 63.4 5.6 57.4
Turquía 66 34.8 3 33.3 105 95.4 4.3 46.8 3.9 36.2
Venezuela 79 15.9 4 0.0 360 77.4 0.5 2.0 1.1 0.0

Fuente Business Software Alliance Heritage Institute Doing Business Fraser Institute Fraser Institute

580 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Manejo sustentable del medio ambiente

Tasa de Degradación de Áreas naturales Terrenos


reforestación anual terrenos protegidas áridos y secos

CAGRúltimos Escala Escala % Escala Escala


% %
10 años 0-100 0-100 del total 0-100 0-100

Alemania 0.0 58.3 65.9 34.4 30.7 46.5 0.0 100.0


Argentina -0.4 49.7 62.6 37.7 6.3 8.7 11.8 87.0
Australia -0.1 56.0 45.3 55.2 16.9 25.2 16.5 81.9
Austria 0.1 60.6 100.0 0.0 28.5 43.1 22.7 75.0
Bélgica 0.0 58.3 90.0 10.1 3.3 4.1 0.0 100.0
Bolivia -0.5 49.6 36.9 63.6 19.5 29.1 12.4 86.4
Brasil -0.6 46.1 51.7 48.7 18.2 27.2 6.6 92.7
Canadá 0.0 58.3 6.4 94.4 7.5 10.5 40.0 56.0
Chile 0.4 65.1 48.2 52.2 13.9 20.5 13.7 84.9
China 2.2 100.0 63.5 36.8 15.2 22.5 18.6 79.5
Colombia -0.1 56.8 36.7 63.8 34.6 52.7 0.7 99.2
Corea del Sur -0.1 56.1 100.0 0.0 3.9 5.0 30.7 66.2
Costa Rica 0.1 60.7 100.0 0.0 23.3 35.1 0.0 100.0
Dinamarca 0.6 69.1 2.3 98.5 6.6 9.1 4.6 94.9
El Salvador -1.7 26.7 95.2 4.8 0.9 0.3 0.0 100.0
España 1.7 91.3 77.6 22.5 7.8 11.0 2.4 97.4
EUA 0.1 59.3 60.5 39.8 24.4 36.7 7.3 92.0
Finlandia 0.0 58.7 22.4 78.3 8.7 12.3 90.8 0.0
Francia 0.3 63.3 41.5 59.0 11.7 17.1 2.0 97.8
Grecia 0.8 74.0 100.0 0.0 2.9 3.3 25.0 72.5
Guatemala -1.3 33.2 73.6 26.6 22.3 33.5 0.0 100.0
Holanda 0.3 63.5 35.9 64.6 17.5 26.1 0.0 100.0
Honduras -3.1 0.0 87.0 13.1 17.5 26.1 0.0 100.0
Hungría 0.7 71.8 86.0 14.1 9.0 12.8 12.9 85.8
India 0.0 59.1 60.8 39.5 5.6 7.6 47.9 47.3
Irlanda 1.9 94.3 1.4 99.4 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0
Israel 0.8 74.2 4.8 96.0 16.5 24.5 31.6 65.2
Italia 1.1 79.2 100.0 0.0 12.8 18.8 2.7 97.1
Japón 0.0 58.1 0.8 100.0 8.8 12.6 3.4 96.2
Malasia -0.7 45.7 100.0 0.0 23.8 35.8 0.0 100.0
México -0.4 50.6 53.5 46.9 8.3 11.8 28.0 69.2
Nicaragua -1.3 33.6 80.2 20.0 19.5 29.1 0.0 100.0
Noruega 0.2 61.8 4.1 96.7 5.1 6.8 5.6 93.9
Perú -0.1 55.7 54.5 45.9 16.4 24.3 0.0 100.0
Polonia 0.3 63.8 83.9 16.2 27.7 41.8 0.0 100.0
Portugal 1.1 79.0 58.4 41.9 5.0 6.7 2.2 97.6
Reino Unido 0.4 65.3 59.6 40.7 18.1 27.0 0.0 100.0
República Checa 0.1 59.8 100.0 0.0 16.2 24.1 0.0 100.0
Rusia 0.0 58.0 32.3 68.3 9.2 13.1 39.5 56.5
Sudáfrica 0.0 58.3 70.4 29.9 6.1 8.4 17.6 80.7
Suecia 0.0 59.0 45.0 55.4 10.1 14.6 11.5 87.3
Suiza 0.4 65.2 70.7 29.5 29.6 44.9 0.0 100.0
Tailandia -0.4 50.6 98.1 2.0 19.1 28.5 0.4 99.6
Turquía 0.2 62.9 99.4 0.6 4.0 5.1 20.7 77.2
Venezuela -0.6 47.0 30.5 70.1 65.1 100.0 3.3 96.4

Fuente Worldbank FAO World Resources Institute FAO

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 581


Relación de producción
Territorios con Recarga de
y consumo de agua Emisiones de CO2
estrés de agua los acuíferos
en agricultura

Escala Escala m3 per cápita Escala Millones ton Escala


% m3 por Ton
0-100 0-100 por año 0-100 por USD (PIB) 0-100

Alemania 0.0 100.0 2.0 95.1 553.4 2.3 305.9 92.4


Argentina 42.3 58.2 23.8 42.2 3,220.5 15.1 881.5 69.4
Australia 47.4 53.1 10.2 75.1 3,552.4 16.7 522.1 83.7
Austria 25.0 75.3 0.1 99.9 2,716.0 12.7 219.9 95.8
Bélgica 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 86.7 0.1 356.8 90.3
Bolivia 22.8 77.5 3.7 91.0 13,969.5 66.6 1,367.3 50.0
Brasil 7.6 92.4 7.8 81.0 10,135.4 48.2 536.4 83.2
Canadá 91.4 9.7 4.9 88.1 11,491.8 54.8 519.7 83.8
Chile 23.5 76.8 14.8 64.0 8,550.7 40.6 581.7 81.4
China 40.7 59.8 2.8 93.2 622.6 2.6 1,784.2 33.3
Colombia 2.1 97.9 3.3 92.1 11,019.4 52.5 691.4 77.0
Corea del Sur 30.6 69.8 2.2 94.7 274.8 1.0 285.0 93.2
Costa Rica 0.0 100.0 5.0 87.9 8,469.6 40.3 299.1 92.7
Dinamarca 4.5 95.5 2.7 93.3 5,668.0 26.8 211.5 96.2
El Salvador 0.0 100.0 9.3 77.4 904.0 4.0 420.6 87.8
España 2.5 97.5 18.6 54.8 725.3 3.1 310.2 92.2
EUA 38.0 62.5 32.3 21.4 4,290.0 20.2 488.5 85.1
Finlandia 101.2 0.0 0.9 97.8 420.6 1.7 304.8 92.4
Francia 2.0 98.0 0.7 98.4 1,640.1 7.5 176.8 97.5
Grecia 25.0 75.3 41.1 0.0 937.9 4.1 465.4 86.0
Guatemala 0.0 100.0 5.7 86.2 2,534.6 11.8 377.1 89.5
Holanda 0.0 100.0 9.6 76.5 275.0 1.0 299.6 92.6
Honduras 0.0 100.0 6.7 83.8 5,260.3 24.9 661.4 78.2
Hungría 12.9 87.3 1.7 95.8 616.1 2.6 570.3 81.8
India 72.3 28.6 10.6 74.3 376.2 1.5 1,450.2 46.6
Irlanda 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 928.0 4.1 238.8 95.1
Israel 71.4 29.4 4.5 89.0 73.5 0.0 581.1 81.4
Italia 3.3 96.7 7.2 82.5 752.5 3.3 263.7 94.1
Japón 3.5 96.6 15.2 62.9 210.9 0.7 265.7 94.0
Malasia 0.0 100.0 7.5 81.8 2,483.4 11.6 1,085.7 61.2
México 48.0 52.6 25.2 38.7 1,289.2 5.8 541.4 83.0
Nicaragua 0.0 100.0 40.7 1.0 10,071.7 47.9 792.1 72.9
Noruega 20.7 79.6 12.4 69.8 20,928.7 100.0 141.2 99.0
Perú 0.0 100.0 15.5 62.4 10,679.5 50.9 405.3 88.4
Polonia 0.0 100.0 0.1 99.7 929.0 4.1 1,192.0 57.0
Portugal 2.2 97.8 12.5 69.5 396.6 1.5 384.1 89.3
Reino Unido 0.0 100.0 0.3 99.3 164.0 0.4 260.3 94.2
República Checa 0.0 100.0 0.1 99.7 140.1 0.3 1,149.2 58.7
Rusia 97.9 3.2 2.9 93.0 5,599.6 26.5 2,617.0 0.0
Sudáfrica 37.0 63.4 10.3 75.0 105.8 0.2 1,647.4 38.8
Suecia 26.4 74.0 0.7 98.4 2,246.2 10.4 140.6 99.0
Suiza 0.0 100.0 0.2 99.4 349.8 1.3 115.3 100.0
Tailandia 0.4 99.6 31.4 23.6 647.8 2.8 1,053.8 62.5
Turquía 85.3 15.7 20.6 49.9 300.0 1.1 761.3 74.2
Venezuela 5.1 95.0 9.6 76.7 8,374.2 39.8 1,278.2 53.5

Fuente FAO FAO World Resources Institute World Resources Institute

582 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Empresas certificadas
Energía de fuentes Especies en Tragedias ecológicas
como "limpias"
no contaminantes peligro de extinción por intervención humana
(ISO 14001)

% especies
Número Número.
Escala Escala mundiales Escala Escala
por PEA en % (Distintos a
0-100 0-100 en extinción 0-100 0-100
millones los naturales)
por superficie

Alemania 107.9 13.8 14.6 31.0 6.6 95.2 0.0 100.0


Argentina 37.9 4.8 8.9 18.9 2.1 98.6 2.0 94.6
Australia 186.0 23.8 1.7 3.5 2.3 98.4 2.0 94.6
Austria 139.4 17.8 11.9 25.3 24.7 81.6 0.0 100.0
Bélgica 155.3 19.9 23.0 48.8 35.7 73.3 1.0 97.3
Bolivia 5.6 0.7 5.0 10.6 4.0 97.2 2.0 94.6
Brasil 19.4 2.4 20.4 43.3 2.4 98.4 9.0 75.7
Canadá 86.8 11.1 18.4 39.1 0.2 100.0 1.0 97.3
Chile 49.1 6.2 7.6 16.2 5.0 96.5 1.0 97.3
China 12.0 1.5 2.6 5.6 2.4 98.4 37.0 0.0
Colombia 10.7 1.3 10.7 22.7 15.3 88.7 2.0 94.6
Corea del Sur 111.4 14.2 17.4 36.9 14.1 89.6 1.0 97.3
Costa Rica 29.4 3.7 35.9 76.3 133.3 0.0 0.0 100.0
Dinamarca 246.6 31.6 3.5 7.4 26.3 80.4 1.0 97.3
El Salvador 1.1 0.1 23.0 48.8 79.6 40.4 2.0 94.6
España 320.7 41.1 15.8 33.6 12.3 90.9 2.0 94.6
EUA 32.3 4.1 11.4 24.3 3.5 97.6 7.0 81.1
Finlandia 337.3 43.2 20.2 42.8 2.4 98.3 1.0 97.3
Francia 107.7 13.7 43.2 91.8 6.8 95.0 2.0 94.6
Grecia 43.8 5.6 2.9 6.1 23.9 82.2 3.0 91.9
Guatemala 0.6 0.0 2.5 5.2 57.1 57.3 3.0 91.9
Holanda 144.9 18.5 5.0 10.6 26.6 80.1 0.0 100.0
Honduras 1.9 0.2 6.0 12.7 53.7 59.8 2.0 94.6
Hungría 212.4 27.2 13.8 29.3 18.3 86.4 0.0 100.0
India 2.8 0.3 2.1 4.5 4.9 96.5 20.0 45.9
Irlanda 153.1 19.6 1.4 3.1 9.7 92.9 0.0 100.0
Israel 92.2 11.8 2.8 5.9 105.1 21.2 0.0 100.0
Italia 216.2 27.7 7.6 16.1 13.8 89.8 1.0 97.3
Japón 294.9 37.8 14.8 31.4 16.1 88.0 0.0 100.0
Malasia 57.4 7.3 0.8 1.8 78.9 40.9 0.0 100.0
México 11.3 1.4 6.2 13.1 11.2 91.8 0.0 100.0
Nicaragua 0.5 0.0 8.2 17.5 20.7 84.6 1.0 97.3
Noruega 185.1 23.7 36.9 78.4 3.2 97.7 1.0 97.3
Perú 10.9 1.3 14.1 29.9 11.6 91.5 6.0 83.8
Polonia 41.6 5.3 0.0 0.0 4.6 96.7 0.0 100.0
Portugal 78.8 10.0 7.5 15.9 51.5 61.5 1.0 97.3
Reino Unido 212.9 27.2 11.0 23.3 7.0 94.9 2.0 94.6
República Checa 250.9 32.1 13.0 27.6 18.0 86.7 0.0 100.0
Rusia 1.6 0.1 8.5 18.2 0.3 100.0 16.0 56.8
Sudáfrica 33.9 4.3 2.6 5.4 8.8 93.5 5.0 86.5
Suecia 780.0 100.0 47.1 100.0 2.6 98.2 0.0 100.0
Suiza 325.8 41.7 40.9 86.9 37.1 72.3 0.0 100.0
Tailandia 26.6 3.3 0.9 2.0 13.8 89.8 6.0 83.8
Turquía 13.9 1.7 5.5 11.6 4.5 96.8 10.0 73.0
Venezuela 1.8 0.2 9.8 20.9 7.2 94.7 2.0 94.6

Fuente ISO World Resources Institute IUCN International Disaster Database

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 583


Sociedad incluyente, preparada y sana

PEA en relación a
Mortalidad en Índice de Acceso a agua potable
Esperanza de vida dependientes de
menores de cinco años desarrollo humano por habitante
>65 y <15 años

% niños
Escala Escala % Escala Más alto, Escala m3 Escala
Años menores
0-100 0-100 PEA 0-100 mejor 0-100 por hab 0-100
a 5 años

Alemania 78.5 91.1 4.7 98.7 50.0 80.0 0.9 90.7 1,865.3 1.8
Argentina 74.6 80.7 18.2 82.1 60.0 60.0 0.9 71.2 20,706.7 22.6
Australia 79.9 95.0 5.5 97.7 50.0 80.0 1.0 97.7 24,487.4 26.8
Austria 79.9 94.9 4.9 98.4 40.0 100.0 0.9 94.1 9,569.0 10.3
Bélgica 78.9 92.2 4.9 98.4 60.0 60.0 0.9 94.4 1,766.6 1.7
Bolivia 64.5 53.5 69.0 19.9 80.0 20.0 0.7 22.9 68,125.5 75.0
Brasil 70.9 70.7 34.2 62.5 50.0 80.0 0.8 51.1 45,038.8 49.5
Canadá 79.8 94.5 5.7 97.4 50.0 80.0 1.0 95.8 90,766.9 100.0
Chile 78.0 89.8 8.4 94.1 50.0 80.0 0.9 70.1 56,966.3 62.7
China 71.4 72.1 31.0 66.4 40.0 100.0 0.8 44.4 2,127.2 2.1
Colombia 72.6 75.2 20.5 79.3 60.0 60.0 0.8 50.6 46,754.4 51.4
Corea del Sur 77.1 87.5 5.0 98.3 40.0 100.0 0.9 85.0 1,446.6 1.3
Costa Rica 78.7 91.6 12.6 89.0 50.0 80.0 0.8 65.0 25,976.4 28.4
Dinamarca 77.5 88.4 5.0 98.3 50.0 80.0 0.9 93.8 1,114.0 1.0
El Salvador 71.1 71.2 28.4 69.6 70.0 40.0 0.7 33.3 3,760.6 3.9
España 80.4 96.3 4.5 98.9 40.0 100.0 0.9 92.4 2,707.4 2.7
EUA 77.4 88.2 7.6 95.1 50.0 80.0 0.9 95.2 10,168.7 11.0
Finlandia 78.7 91.7 3.6 100.0 50.0 80.0 0.9 94.9 21,056.7 23.0
Francia 80.2 95.6 4.6 98.8 60.0 60.0 0.9 93.5 3,355.2 3.4
Grecia 78.9 92.3 4.9 98.4 50.0 80.0 0.9 87.6 6,763.5 7.2
Guatemala 67.6 61.7 45.0 49.3 90.0 0.0 0.7 17.5 8,573.7 9.2
Holanda 78.7 91.6 5.6 97.5 50.0 80.0 0.9 94.9 5,582.8 5.9
Honduras 68.2 63.5 40.6 54.7 80.0 20.0 0.7 20.3 13,218.8 14.3
Hungría 72.7 75.4 8.0 94.6 40.0 100.0 0.9 72.9 10,629.6 11.5
India 63.5 50.6 85.2 0.0 60.0 60.0 0.6 0.0 1,729.1 1.6
Irlanda 78.3 90.4 6.2 96.8 50.0 80.0 1.0 97.5 12,871.3 13.9
Israel 79.4 93.5 5.9 97.2 60.0 60.0 0.9 89.3 249.8 0.0
Italia 80.0 95.1 4.6 98.8 50.0 80.0 0.9 92.9 3,341.3 3.4
Japón 81.8 100.0 3.8 99.8 50.0 80.0 0.9 95.5 3,361.6 3.4
Malasia 73.5 77.6 12.4 89.2 60.0 60.0 0.8 54.8 22,902.3 25.0
México 75.1 81.9 27.6 70.6 60.0 60.0 0.8 59.3 4,297.8 4.5
Nicaragua 70.1 68.5 38.2 57.6 80.0 20.0 0.7 24.6 34,344.3 37.7
Noruega 79.8 94.7 4.2 99.3 50.0 80.0 1.0 100.0 83,588.6 92.1
Perú 70.4 69.3 29.2 68.6 60.0 60.0 0.8 44.1 68,399.6 75.3
Polonia 74.5 80.3 7.5 95.2 40.0 100.0 0.9 70.9 1,599.3 1.5
Portugal 77.4 88.2 5.3 97.9 50.0 80.0 0.9 82.8 6,815.5 7.3
Reino Unido 78.5 91.2 5.8 97.3 50.0 80.0 0.9 92.9 2,457.4 2.4
República Checa 75.7 83.6 4.4 99.0 40.0 100.0 0.9 77.4 1,287.2 1.1
Rusia 65.2 55.4 20.6 79.2 40.0 100.0 0.8 52.5 31,841.4 34.9
Sudáfrica 44.6 0.0 67.0 22.3 60.0 60.0 0.7 11.9 1,103.2 0.9
Suecia 80.5 96.5 3.7 99.9 60.0 60.0 1.0 96.0 19,561.6 21.3
Suiza 81.1 98.1 5.1 98.2 40.0 100.0 0.9 94.9 7,475.2 8.0
Tailandia 70.5 69.6 21.2 78.4 40.0 100.0 0.8 48.9 6,397.3 6.8
Turquía 69.9 68.0 32.0 65.2 60.0 60.0 0.8 41.2 2,913.3 2.9
Venezuela 73.7 78.1 18.5 81.7 60.0 60.0 0.8 48.9 46,290.2 50.9

Fuente Worldbank Worldbank Worldbank UNDP FAO

584 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Índice de GINI de
Esperanza de vida Cuota de ingreso de Mujeres
Desnutrición la distribución
saludable (HALE) los 20% más pobres en PEA
del ingreso

% Escala Escala Escala Más bajo, Escala Escala


Años % %
Población 0-100 0-100 0-100 mejor 0-100 0-100

Alemania 0.0 100.0 71.8 89.6 8.5 76.9 28.3 89.8 44.9 81.9
Argentina 2.0 92.6 65.3 68.4 3.2 18.7 52.8 20.6 42.4 70.8
Australia 0.0 100.0 72.6 92.2 5.9 48.4 35.2 70.3 45.3 83.6
Austria 0.0 100.0 71.4 88.3 8.6 78.0 29.1 87.6 44.4 79.6
Bélgica 0.0 100.0 71.1 87.3 8.5 76.9 33.0 76.6 43.2 74.3
Bolivia 23.0 14.8 54.4 32.9 1.5 0.0 60.1 0.0 43.5 75.7
Brasil 8.0 70.4 59.8 50.5 2.6 12.1 58.0 5.9 42.5 71.2
Canadá 0.0 100.0 72.0 90.2 7.2 62.6 32.6 77.7 46.2 87.6
Chile 4.0 85.2 67.3 74.9 3.3 19.8 57.1 8.5 34.6 36.3
China 12.0 55.6 64.1 64.5 4.7 35.2 44.7 43.5 44.6 80.5
Colombia 14.0 48.1 62.0 57.7 2.5 11.0 58.6 4.2 44.0 77.9
Corea del Sur 2.0 92.6 67.8 76.5 7.9 70.3 31.6 80.5 40.7 63.3
Costa Rica 4.0 85.2 67.2 74.6 3.9 26.4 49.9 28.8 34.5 35.8
Dinamarca 0.0 100.0 69.8 83.1 8.3 74.7 24.7 100.0 46.6 89.4
El Salvador 11.0 59.3 59.7 50.2 2.7 13.2 52.4 21.8 39.6 58.4
España 0.0 100.0 72.6 92.2 7.0 60.4 34.7 71.8 40.8 63.7
EUA 0.0 100.0 69.3 81.4 5.4 42.9 40.8 54.5 46.2 87.6
Finlandia 0.0 100.0 71.1 87.3 9.6 89.0 26.9 93.8 47.8 94.7
Francia 0.0 100.0 72.0 90.2 7.2 62.6 32.7 77.4 45.9 86.3
Grecia 0.0 100.0 71.0 87.0 6.7 57.1 34.3 72.9 40.5 62.4
Guatemala 23.0 14.8 57.4 42.7 2.9 15.4 55.1 14.1 31.1 20.8
Holanda 0.0 100.0 71.2 87.6 7.6 67.0 30.9 82.5 44.0 77.9
Honduras 22.0 18.5 58.4 45.9 3.4 20.9 53.8 17.8 36.9 46.5
Hungría 2.0 92.6 64.9 67.1 9.5 87.9 26.9 93.8 45.0 82.3
India 20.0 25.9 53.5 30.0 8.9 81.3 32.5 78.0 28.3 8.4
Irlanda 0.0 100.0 69.8 83.1 7.4 64.8 34.3 72.9 42.5 71.2
Israel 0.0 100.0 71.4 88.3 5.7 46.2 39.2 59.0 46.8 90.3
Italia 0.0 100.0 72.7 92.5 6.5 54.9 36.0 68.1 39.6 58.4
Japón 0.0 100.0 75.0 100.0 10.6 100.0 24.9 99.4 41.0 64.6
Malasia 3.0 88.9 63.2 61.6 4.4 31.9 49.2 30.8 35.6 40.7
México 5.0 81.5 65.4 68.7 4.3 30.8 49.5 29.9 34.7 36.7
Nicaragua 27.0 0.0 61.4 55.7 5.6 45.1 43.1 48.0 29.7 14.6
Noruega 0.0 100.0 72.0 90.2 9.6 89.0 25.8 96.9 47.2 92.0
Perú 12.0 55.6 61.0 54.4 3.2 18.7 54.6 15.5 41.6 67.3
Polonia 2.0 92.6 65.8 70.0 7.5 65.9 34.5 72.3 45.7 85.4
Portugal 0.0 100.0 69.2 81.1 5.8 47.3 38.5 61.0 46.2 87.6
Reino Unido 0.0 100.0 70.6 85.7 6.1 50.5 36.0 68.1 45.9 86.3
República Checa 2.0 92.6 68.4 78.5 10.3 96.7 25.4 98.0 44.9 81.9
Rusia 3.0 88.9 58.4 45.9 6.1 50.5 39.9 57.1 49.0 100.0
Sudáfrica 0.0 100.0 44.3 0.0 3.5 22.0 57.8 6.5 38.4 53.1
Suecia 0.0 100.0 73.3 94.5 9.1 83.5 25.0 99.2 47.4 92.9
Suiza 0.0 100.0 73.2 94.1 7.6 67.0 33.7 74.6 46.3 88.1
Tailandia 21.0 22.2 60.1 51.5 6.3 52.7 42.0 51.1 46.0 86.7
Turquía 3.0 88.9 62.0 57.7 5.3 41.8 43.6 46.6 26.4 0.0
Venezuela 18.0 33.3 64.2 64.8 4.7 35.2 44.1 45.2 40.3 61.5

Fuente UNDP Worldbank Worldbank UN Worldbank

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 585


Ingreso promedio Mujeres en Nivel de informatización
Analfabetismo
de la mujer el Parlamento de la población

% Escala Escala Computadoras Escala % de la Escala


%
del hombre 0-100 0-100 por 1,000 hab 0-100 población 0-100

Alemania 58.0 54.0 32.0 43.8 561.1 67.4 0.0 100.0


Argentina 53.0 44.0 31.0 42.2 96.0 10.3 2.8 92.8
Australia 70.0 78.0 25.0 32.8 682.2 82.3 0.0 100.0
Austria 44.0 26.0 34.0 46.9 418.4 49.9 0.0 100.0
Bélgica 63.0 64.0 35.0 48.4 348.0 41.3 0.0 100.0
Bolivia 57.0 52.0 19.0 23.4 35.5 2.9 13.3 65.9
Brasil 57.0 52.0 9.0 7.8 105.2 11.4 11.4 70.8
Canadá 63.0 64.0 21.0 26.6 700.3 84.5 0.0 100.0
Chile 39.0 16.0 13.0 14.1 132.6 14.8 4.3 89.0
China 64.0 66.0 20.0 25.0 40.9 3.5 9.1 76.7
Colombia 58.0 54.0 12.0 12.5 66.7 6.7 7.2 81.5
Corea del Sur 46.0 30.0 6.0 3.1 545.0 65.5 2.0 94.9
Costa Rica 46.0 30.0 35.0 48.4 238.4 27.8 5.1 86.9
Dinamarca 73.0 84.0 38.0 53.1 655.6 79.0 0.0 100.0
El Salvador 43.0 24.0 11.0 10.9 43.9 3.9 20.0 48.7
España 50.0 38.0 28.0 37.5 256.7 30.0 2.0 94.9
EUA 62.0 62.0 14.0 15.6 749.2 90.5 0.0 100.0
Finlandia 71.0 80.0 68.0 100.0 481.1 57.6 0.0 100.0
Francia 64.0 66.0 12.0 12.5 487.1 58.3 0.0 100.0
Grecia 55.0 48.0 9.0 7.8 89.2 9.5 4.0 89.7
Guatemala 32.0 2.0 8.0 6.3 18.8 0.8 30.9 20.8
Holanda 63.0 64.0 37.0 51.6 682.4 82.3 0.0 100.0
Honduras 45.0 28.0 6.0 3.1 15.6 0.4 20.0 48.7
Hungría 64.0 66.0 10.0 9.4 146.0 16.5 0.0 100.0
India 31.0 0.0 9.0 7.8 12.1 0.0 39.0 0.0
Irlanda 51.0 40.0 13.0 14.1 494.3 59.2 0.0 100.0
Israel 64.0 66.0 15.0 17.2 741.0 89.5 2.9 92.6
Italia 46.0 30.0 12.0 12.5 315.3 37.2 1.6 95.9
Japón 44.0 26.0 7.0 4.7 541.6 65.0 0.0 100.0
Malasia 36.0 10.0 11.0 10.9 196.8 22.7 11.3 71.0
México 39.0 16.0 23.0 29.7 108.0 11.8 9.0 76.9
Nicaragua 32.0 2.0 21.0 26.6 37.2 3.1 23.3 40.3
Noruega 75.0 88.0 36.0 50.0 572.9 68.9 0.0 100.0
Perú 41.0 20.0 18.0 21.9 97.6 10.5 12.3 68.5
Polonia 59.0 56.0 20.0 25.0 192.8 22.2 0.0 100.0
Portugal 59.0 56.0 19.0 23.4 133.0 14.9 8.0 79.5
Reino Unido 65.0 68.0 18.0 21.9 599.0 72.1 0.0 100.0
República Checa 51.0 40.0 17.0 20.3 239.8 28.0 0.0 100.0
Rusia 62.0 62.0 10.0 9.4 132.2 14.8 0.6 98.5
Sudáfrica 45.0 28.0 30.0 40.6 82.2 8.6 17.6 54.9
Suecia 81.0 100.0 45.0 64.1 763.0 92.2 0.0 100.0
Suiza 61.0 60.0 25.0 32.8 826.2 100.0 0.0 100.0
Tailandia 59.0 56.0 9.0 7.8 58.3 5.7 7.4 81.0
Turquía 35.0 8.0 4.0 0.0 51.6 4.9 12.6 67.7
Venezuela 51.0 40.0 10.0 9.4 82.1 8.6 7.0 82.1

Fuente UNDP UN Worldbank UNDP

586 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Relación mujeres
Esperanza Tiraje de PEA con
a hombres en
de escolaridad periódicos diarios licenciatura
primaria y secundaria

Escala Escala Número por Escala Escala


Años % %
0-100 0-100 1,000 hab 0-100 0-100

Alemania 16.0 63.6 98.9 99.0 304.8 53.4 25.1 41.7


Argentina 15.0 54.5 102.0 98.1 41.8 7.3 27.2 45.9
Australia 20.0 100.0 98.6 98.8 293.5 51.4 21.0 33.6
Austria 15.0 54.5 96.4 96.5 255.1 44.7 18.7 29.0
Bélgica 16.0 63.6 107.9 92.2 143.4 25.1 16.4 24.7
Bolivia 14.0 45.5 98.7 98.8 53.0 9.3 8.3 8.6
Brasil 14.0 45.5 103.1 97.0 38.2 6.7 21.9 35.4
Canadá 16.0 63.6 99.8 100.0 145.7 25.5 51.3 93.3
Chile 14.0 45.5 99.1 99.3 95.1 16.6 54.8 100.0
China 11.0 18.2 97.2 97.3 78.8 13.8 11.0 13.9
Colombia 12.0 27.3 103.2 96.9 33.8 5.9 3.9 0.0
Corea del Sur 16.0 63.6 99.6 99.8 462.3 80.9 31.2 53.6
Costa Rica 12.0 27.3 100.7 99.5 87.2 15.3 20.1 31.8
Dinamarca 17.0 72.7 102.7 97.5 275.0 48.1 15.3 22.5
El Salvador 12.0 27.3 96.9 97.0 38.9 6.8 7.4 6.9
España 16.0 63.6 102.2 98.0 106.8 18.7 29.2 49.7
EUA 16.0 63.6 100.4 99.8 201.9 35.3 27.4 46.2
Finlandia 17.0 72.7 107.1 93.0 404.7 70.9 33.2 57.6
Francia 16.0 63.6 100.2 99.9 215.3 37.7 24.0 39.6
Grecia 16.0 63.6 99.4 99.6 171.3 30.0 26.4 44.3
Guatemala 9.0 0.0 95.2 95.3 31.7 5.5 4.7 1.6
Holanda 17.0 72.7 98.3 98.5 319.4 55.9 28.3 48.0
Honduras 11.0 18.2 0.0 0.0 53.8 9.4 8.3 8.6
Hungría 15.0 54.5 100.2 99.9 419.0 73.4 20.0 31.6
India 10.0 9.1 82.6 82.7 53.8 9.4 7.3 6.7
Irlanda 18.0 81.8 104.8 95.4 141.4 24.7 40.6 72.1
Israel 15.0 54.5 99.0 99.1 297.3 52.1 44.0 78.8
Italia 16.0 63.6 94.6 94.7 101.5 17.8 13.3 18.6
Japón 15.0 54.5 100.2 99.9 570.5 99.9 21.7 34.9
Malasia 13.0 36.4 106.2 94.0 163.7 28.6 6.6 5.3
México 13.0 36.4 103.7 96.5 90.1 15.8 17.3 26.3
Nicaragua 11.0 18.2 104.0 96.1 20.5 3.6 13.5 18.8
Noruega 18.0 81.8 100.9 99.3 571.1 100.0 31.6 54.5
Perú 14.0 45.5 97.5 97.7 0.1 0.0 17.9 27.5
Polonia 15.0 54.5 100.3 99.9 89.4 15.6 17.4 26.6
Portugal 15.0 54.5 110.3 89.8 57.7 10.1 13.2 18.3
Reino Unido 17.0 72.7 122.1 78.0 306.3 53.6 26.5 44.5
República Checa 15.0 54.5 101.8 98.4 238.1 41.7 13.2 18.2
Rusia 13.0 36.4 100.4 99.8 121.0 21.2 51.5 93.6
Sudáfrica 13.0 36.4 99.8 100.0 30.8 5.4 16.0 23.8
Suecia 16.0 63.6 110.0 90.1 382.7 67.0 27.4 46.2
Suiza 15.0 54.5 96.9 97.1 325.3 56.9 27.1 45.6
Tailandia 13.0 36.4 95.4 95.5 38.3 6.7 7.6 7.2
Turquía 11.0 18.2 87.3 87.5 113.4 19.8 10.5 13.0
Venezuela 12.0 27.3 103.3 96.9 240.2 42.1 9.3 10.7

Fuente UNESCO Worldbank Worldbank ILO

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 587


Macroeconomía estable

Variabilidad
Crecimiento Variabilidad del Índice de precios
del crecimiento
promedio del PIB crecimiento del PIB al consumidor
de la inflación

CAGR CAGR
Escala Escala Escala Escala
últimos - últimos -
0-100 0-100 0-100 0-100
10 años 10 años

Alemania 1.4 24.4 0.7 95.1 1.4 97.4 0.3 99.3


Argentina 1.1 13.5 6.2 46.3 4.2 92.5 2.1 87.0
Australia 3.7 50.3 0.2 99.0 2.6 95.3 0.6 97.5
Austria 2.0 31.8 0.5 96.5 1.7 96.9 0.4 98.9
Bélgica 2.1 32.3 0.6 96.2 1.7 96.8 0.3 99.5
Bolivia 3.2 43.8 0.5 96.8 5.1 91.0 0.7 96.4
Brasil 2.3 32.2 0.8 94.1 13.0 77.2 1.4 91.4
Canadá 3.4 46.5 0.4 97.5 2.0 96.3 0.3 99.7
Chile 4.6 57.8 0.7 94.9 4.4 92.2 0.5 97.9
China 8.7 100.0 0.1 100.0 3.0 94.7 1.9 88.1
Colombia 2.2 30.5 1.2 90.1 12.4 78.1 0.5 98.1
Corea del Sur 5.0 62.8 1.0 92.7 3.9 93.1 0.5 98.4
Costa Rica 4.3 56.0 0.6 95.4 12.8 77.5 0.3 99.2
Dinamarca 2.1 33.1 0.4 97.6 2.2 96.1 0.2 100.0
El Salvador 2.9 42.6 0.5 96.6 4.1 92.7 0.8 96.0
España 3.2 44.9 0.3 98.7 3.0 94.6 0.3 99.7
EUA 3.3 44.5 0.4 97.8 2.5 95.5 0.2 99.9
Finlandia 3.6 48.2 0.4 97.3 1.4 97.5 0.7 96.6
Francia 2.1 32.7 0.5 96.5 1.6 97.2 0.4 99.0
Grecia 3.5 47.4 0.2 99.2 4.7 91.7 0.5 98.3
Guatemala 3.4 47.3 0.3 98.4 7.5 86.8 0.2 99.9
Holanda 2.3 36.6 0.8 94.2 2.4 95.7 0.4 98.8
Honduras 3.2 42.2 0.7 95.4 14.1 75.2 0.5 97.8
Hungría 3.7 47.9 0.4 97.8 12.8 77.5 0.6 97.2
India 6.3 73.9 0.3 98.5 6.4 88.7 0.5 97.9
Irlanda 8.1 98.6 0.3 98.3 3.0 94.6 0.5 98.1
Israel 3.3 44.1 0.9 93.6 4.9 91.3 0.8 95.6
Italia 1.6 28.2 0.6 95.9 2.7 95.1 0.4 98.8
Japón 1.5 24.4 1.1 91.5 -0.1 100.0 14.3 0.0
Malasia 5.0 61.2 1.0 91.9 2.4 95.6 0.6 97.7
México 2.6 36.6 1.5 87.9 14.8 74.0 0.8 96.1
Nicaragua 4.2 54.2 0.4 97.2 9.2 83.8 0.3 99.3
Noruega 3.0 42.0 0.5 96.5 2.1 96.3 0.5 98.4
Perú 3.4 45.1 0.8 93.6 5.3 90.5 0.7 96.4
Polonia 4.4 55.7 0.5 97.1 10.1 82.1 0.8 95.6
Portugal 2.5 39.1 0.8 94.3 3.0 94.6 0.3 99.8
Reino Unido 2.7 39.3 0.2 99.2 2.6 95.3 0.3 99.7
República Checa 2.5 34.5 0.9 92.9 5.2 90.8 0.7 96.6
Rusia 2.8 34.8 2.0 83.6 38.3 32.7 1.5 90.9
Sudáfrica 2.8 39.2 0.4 97.8 6.4 88.8 0.4 99.0
Suecia 2.9 39.7 0.5 96.9 1.1 97.9 0.9 95.2
Suiza 1.3 24.0 1.0 92.7 0.9 98.4 0.6 97.6
Tailandia 3.1 40.4 1.8 85.3 3.4 93.9 0.8 96.0
Turquía 4.1 48.4 1.4 88.8 57.0 0.0 0.5 98.3
Venezuela 0.7 0.0 11.4 0.0 35.3 38.0 0.8 96.3

Fuente Worldbank Worldbank Worldbank Worldbank

588 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Pasivos Reservas líquidas


Riesgo país Deuda externa
del gobierno / Activos totales

% Escala Más alto, Escala % Escala Escala


%
PIB 0-100 mejor 0-100 Reservas 0-100 0-100

Alemania 64.2 60.7 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 1.0 97.9


Argentina 126.7 22.4 2.1 42.9 870.7 0.0 16.7 50.0
Australia 16.2 90.1 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.8 98.7
Austria 64.4 60.5 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.9 98.2
Bélgica 96.1 41.1 4.8 96.2 0.0 100.0 1.1 97.5
Bolivia 79.5 51.3 2.1 42.9 479.4 44.9 6.8 80.3
Brasil 54.1 66.9 2.7 54.3 415.9 52.2 17.0 49.3
Canadá 73.6 54.9 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.4 99.7
Chile 10.8 93.4 4.0 81.0 270.6 68.9 5.1 85.4
China 25.1 84.6 3.7 73.3 40.2 95.4 16.6 50.3
Colombia 49.9 69.4 2.9 58.1 291.5 66.5 6.2 82.0
Corea del Sur 17.4 89.3 3.9 77.1 86.5 90.1 2.3 94.0
Costa Rica 59.4 63.6 2.9 58.1 202.1 76.8 11.2 66.8
Dinamarca 43.2 73.5 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.9 98.4
El Salvador 5.3 96.8 3.1 61.9 433.8 50.2 10.4 69.3
España 46.3 71.6 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 1.0 98.0
EUA 36.8 77.5 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 1.0 98.1
Finlandia 42.1 74.2 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 2.0 95.0
Francia 63.2 61.2 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 1.1 97.7
Grecia 108.1 33.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2.8 92.6
Guatemala 26.7 83.7 2.7 54.3 161.0 81.5 18.2 45.7
Holanda 54.2 66.8 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 1.0 98.0
Honduras 71.7 56.1 0.0 0.0 319.7 63.3 23.1 30.6
Hungría 58.2 64.4 3.9 77.1 471.6 45.8 5.2 85.3
India 55.8 65.8 2.9 58.1 94.1 89.2 6.3 81.8
Irlanda 29.4 82.0 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.9 98.3
Israel 102.9 36.9 3.9 77.1 0.0 100.0 4.9 86.2
Italia 106.1 35.0 4.4 88.6 0.0 100.0 0.9 98.4
Japón 163.2 0.0 4.4 88.6 0.0 100.0 4.8 86.4
Malasia 48.2 70.5 3.9 77.1 86.8 90.0 3.4 90.7
México 23.0 85.9 3.3 65.7 258.9 70.3 8.5 75.0
Nicaragua 129.9 20.4 0.0 0.0 770.0 11.6 24.4 26.7
Noruega 53.5 67.2 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 2.9 92.3
Perú 45.1 72.4 2.9 58.1 246.7 71.7 33.2 0.0
Polonia 44.8 72.5 3.7 73.3 348.8 59.9 4.3 88.0
Portugal 61.7 62.2 4.6 92.4 0.0 100.0 1.3 96.9
Reino Unido 39.9 75.5 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.3 100.0
República Checa 24.1 85.2 3.9 77.1 159.9 81.6 2.8 92.6
Rusia 21.3 87.0 3.1 61.9 172.2 80.2 14.6 56.6
Sudáfrica 37.5 77.0 3.5 69.5 294.4 66.2 2.3 94.0
Suecia 50.7 69.0 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.4 99.8
Suiza 54.0 66.9 5.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.9 98.5
Tailandia 48.1 70.5 3.7 73.3 103.0 88.2 6.4 81.6
Turquía 0.0 100.0 2.7 54.3 435.4 50.0 8.6 74.8
Venezuela 35.8 78.1 2.3 46.7 151.4 82.6 25.4 23.6

Fuente EIU Standard & Poor’s EIU y Worldbank Worldbank

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 589


Sistema político estable y funcional

Índice de Índice de Índice de


estabilidad política control de la corrupción reflejo de la voluntad del pueblo

Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala


mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100

Alemania 0.6 73.5 1.9 82.7 1.4 92.4


Argentina -0.3 46.3 -0.5 14.3 0.5 63.4
Australia 0.8 77.3 2.0 85.6 1.4 94.7
Austria 0.9 81.7 2.1 87.8 1.3 89.2
Bélgica 0.7 75.4 1.5 71.1 1.4 92.1
Bolivia -0.7 35.5 -0.9 3.9 0.0 48.0
Brasil -0.1 52.1 0.0 27.1 0.3 59.1
Canadá 0.9 81.7 2.0 83.9 1.4 92.4
Chile 0.7 75.8 1.4 67.8 1.0 82.2
China -0.2 51.5 -0.6 11.7 -1.5 0.0
Colombia -2.0 0.0 -0.3 20.4 -0.5 31.8
Corea del Sur 0.4 67.8 0.1 31.9 0.8 73.1
Costa Rica 0.8 78.7 0.5 43.8 1.1 84.7
Dinamarca 1.0 83.7 2.4 95.8 1.6 100.0
El Salvador -0.2 51.1 -0.3 19.5 0.3 57.2
España 0.1 58.3 1.1 60.7 1.1 85.3
EUA 0.1 59.1 1.8 78.8 1.2 87.7
Finlandia 1.6 100.0 2.5 100.0 1.5 97.3
Francia 0.3 63.5 1.4 69.1 1.2 88.6
Grecia 0.4 65.3 0.5 43.4 0.9 78.1
Guatemala -0.8 34.3 -0.7 8.6 -0.4 36.6
Holanda 0.9 80.9 2.0 86.1 1.5 96.9
Honduras -0.5 41.7 -0.8 6.8 -0.1 46.9
Hungría 0.8 78.5 0.6 46.2 1.2 85.8
India -1.1 25.8 -0.4 17.6 0.3 57.9
Irlanda 1.1 85.1 1.5 72.0 1.3 90.3
Israel -1.3 20.3 0.8 50.3 0.5 64.0
Italia 0.2 60.6 0.6 44.0 1.1 82.9
Japón 0.9 80.4 1.2 62.9 1.0 80.4
Malasia 0.4 66.1 0.3 36.6 -0.4 37.4
México -0.1 53.2 -0.3 20.5 0.3 58.6
Nicaragua -0.2 50.2 -0.4 17.8 0.0 49.9
Noruega 1.3 91.4 2.1 88.1 1.6 98.3
Perú -0.9 31.2 -0.4 17.7 -0.1 46.6
Polonia 0.3 63.5 0.2 32.6 1.1 84.8
Portugal 0.8 78.5 1.2 62.4 1.3 90.9
Reino Unido 0.4 65.6 2.0 85.8 1.4 92.5
República Checa 0.7 76.2 0.3 37.7 1.0 81.3
Rusia -1.0 27.6 -0.8 5.6 -0.8 23.4
Sudáfrica -0.2 49.1 0.4 40.0 0.8 75.5
Suecia 1.2 89.6 2.2 90.1 1.5 97.6
Suiza 1.3 91.1 2.1 88.7 1.5 96.7
Tailandia -0.4 45.3 -0.3 19.9 0.3 56.7
Turquía -0.8 34.2 -0.2 21.3 -0.1 45.3
Venezuela -1.1 24.5 -1.0 0.0 -0.5 33.4

Fuente Worldbank Worldbank Worldbank

590 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Índice de Índice de factibilidad de


Abstencionismo electoral
transferencia de poderes ataque terrorista

Más alto, Escala % Escala Más bajo, Escala


mejor 0-100 sufragio 0-100 mayor posibilidad 0-100

Alemania 5.0 100.0 24.7 81.4 4.0 75.0


Argentina 4.0 75.0 20.6 85.8 3.0 50.0
Australia 5.0 100.0 18.3 88.3 5.0 100.0
Austria 5.0 100.0 31.4 74.2 5.0 100.0
Bélgica 5.0 100.0 16.8 89.9 4.0 75.0
Bolivia 3.0 50.0 35.5 69.7 4.0 75.0
Brasil 4.0 75.0 19.0 87.6 4.0 75.0
Canadá 3.0 50.0 45.4 59.0 4.0 75.0
Chile 4.0 75.0 27.2 78.7 4.0 75.0
China 1.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 4.0 75.0
Colombia 3.0 50.0 59.5 43.8 2.0 25.0
Corea del Sur 3.0 50.0 7.5 100.0 4.0 75.0
Costa Rica 3.0 50.0 26.3 79.7 4.0 75.0
Dinamarca 5.0 100.0 16.9 89.8 4.0 75.0
El Salvador 3.0 50.0 61.9 41.2 4.0 75.0
España 4.0 75.0 26.2 79.8 3.0 50.0
EUA 5.0 100.0 50.7 53.3 3.0 50.0
Finlandia 5.0 100.0 23.2 83.0 5.0 100.0
Francia 5.0 100.0 27.7 78.2 4.0 75.0
Grecia 4.0 75.0 11.0 96.2 4.0 75.0
Guatemala 3.0 50.0 68.9 33.6 4.0 75.0
Holanda 5.0 100.0 30.0 75.7 4.0 75.0
Honduras 3.0 50.0 31.8 73.7 3.0 50.0
Hungría 4.0 75.0 41.0 63.8 4.0 75.0
India 4.0 75.0 34.5 70.8 3.0 50.0
Irlanda 5.0 100.0 52.3 51.6 4.0 75.0
Israel 5.0 100.0 15.5 91.4 1.0 0.0
Italia 4.0 75.0 15.1 91.8 4.0 75.0
Japón 5.0 100.0 41.0 63.8 5.0 100.0
Malasia 3.0 50.0 50.4 53.6 4.0 75.0
México 4.0 75.0 40.0 64.9 4.0 75.0
Nicaragua 2.0 25.0 24.4 81.7 4.0 75.0
Noruega 5.0 100.0 26.9 79.0 5.0 100.0
Perú 3.0 50.0 21.4 85.0 3.0 50.0
Polonia 4.0 75.0 37.4 67.7 4.0 75.0
Portugal 4.0 75.0 42.8 61.8 4.0 75.0
Reino Unido 5.0 100.0 42.4 62.3 2.0 25.0
República Checa 4.0 75.0 23.3 82.9 4.0 75.0
Rusia 3.0 50.0 31.2 74.4 2.0 25.0
Sudáfrica 3.0 50.0 36.1 69.1 2.0 25.0
Suecia 5.0 100.0 22.3 84.0 5.0 100.0
Suiza 5.0 100.0 65.1 37.7 5.0 100.0
Tailandia 3.0 50.0 29.9 75.8 5.0 100.0
Turquía 3.0 50.0 19.6 86.9 3.0 50.0
Venezuela 3.0 50.0 53.3 50.5 4.0 75.0

Fuente EIU Institute for Democracy and Electoral Asistance EIU

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 591


Índice de Originador de
Índice de interferencia militar
libertad de prensa refugiados políticos

Más alto, Escala Más bajo, Escala Número por Escala


mejor 0-100 mayor 0-100 millones de hab 0-100

Alemania 10.0 100.0 16.0 90.4 0.0 100.0


Argentina 6.7 63.6 41.0 56.2 0.0 100.0
Australia 10.0 100.0 18.0 87.7 0.0 100.0
Austria 10.0 100.0 21.0 83.6 0.0 100.0
Bélgica 10.0 100.0 11.0 97.3 0.0 100.0
Bolivia 5.0 45.5 35.0 64.4 0.0 100.0
Brasil 6.7 63.6 40.0 57.5 0.0 100.0
Canadá 10.0 100.0 17.0 89.0 0.0 100.0
Chile 6.7 63.6 24.0 79.5 0.0 100.0
China 5.0 45.5 82.0 0.0 103.9 95.7
Colombia 3.3 27.3 63.0 26.0 1,054.4 56.7
Corea del Sur 6.9 66.6 29.0 72.6 0.0 100.0
Costa Rica 10.0 100.0 19.0 86.3 0.0 100.0
Dinamarca 10.0 100.0 10.0 98.6 0.0 100.0
El Salvador 5.0 45.5 41.0 56.2 0.0 100.0
España 8.3 81.8 22.0 82.2 0.0 100.0
EUA 6.9 66.6 17.0 89.0 0.0 100.0
Finlandia 10.0 100.0 9.0 100.0 0.0 100.0
Francia 8.3 81.8 20.0 84.9 0.0 100.0
Grecia 7.5 72.7 28.0 74.0 0.0 100.0
Guatemala 7.1 68.2 58.0 32.9 0.0 100.0
Holanda 10.0 100.0 11.0 97.3 0.0 100.0
Honduras 5.0 45.5 51.0 42.5 0.0 100.0
Hungría 10.0 100.0 21.0 83.6 0.0 100.0
India 6.7 63.6 38.0 60.3 12.4 99.5
Irlanda 10.0 100.0 15.0 91.8 0.0 100.0
Israel 4.2 36.4 28.0 74.0 0.0 100.0
Italia 10.0 100.0 35.0 64.4 0.0 100.0
Japón 8.5 83.3 20.0 84.9 0.0 100.0
Malasia 8.3 81.8 69.0 17.8 0.0 100.0
México 5.4 50.1 42.0 54.8 0.0 100.0
Nicaragua 3.3 27.3 42.0 54.8 0.0 100.0
Noruega 10.0 100.0 10.0 98.6 0.0 100.0
Perú 8.3 81.8 40.0 57.5 0.0 100.0
Polonia 10.0 100.0 20.0 84.9 0.0 100.0
Portugal 10.0 100.0 14.0 93.2 0.0 100.0
Reino Unido 10.0 100.0 18.0 87.7 0.0 100.0
República Checa 10.0 100.0 22.0 82.2 0.0 100.0
Rusia 7.5 72.7 68.0 19.2 750.6 69.2
Sudáfrica 8.3 81.8 26.0 76.7 0.0 100.0
Suecia 9.2 90.9 9.0 100.0 0.0 100.0
Suiza 10.0 100.0 11.0 97.3 0.0 100.0
Tailandia 6.7 63.6 42.0 54.8 0.0 100.0
Turquía 6.7 63.6 48.0 46.6 2,433.9 0.0
Venezuela 0.8 0.0 72.0 13.7 0.0 100.0

Fuente Fraser Institute Freedom House UNHCR

592 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Índice de facilidad
Fuerza electoral del Ejecutivo Índice de libertad política
de acuerdo en el Senado

Número
Escala % votos Escala Más bajo, Escala
de partidos
0-100 con el que ganó 0-100 mayor 0-100
representados

Alemania 5.0 91.3 50.7 34.9 1.0 100.0


Argentina 3.0 71.3 24.3 0.0 2.0 83.3
Australia 7.0 90.0 75.0 67.0 1.0 100.0
Austria 4.0 81.3 52.4 37.1 1.0 100.0
Bélgica 7.0 90.0 100.0 100.0 1.0 100.0
Bolivia 5.0 91.3 66.0 55.1 3.0 66.7
Brasil 11.0 50.0 61.3 48.9 2.0 83.3
Canadá 5.0 91.3 100.0 100.0 1.0 100.0
Chile 3.0 71.3 51.3 35.7 1.0 100.0
China 0.0 41.3 75.0 67.0 7.0 0.0
Colombia 3.0 71.3 53.0 37.9 4.0 50.0
Corea del Sur 5.0 91.3 48.9 32.5 2.0 83.3
Costa Rica 5.0 91.3 58.0 44.5 1.0 100.0
Dinamarca 8.0 80.0 100.0 100.0 1.0 100.0
El Salvador 5.0 91.3 57.7 44.1 2.0 83.3
España 6.0 100.0 52.3 37.0 1.0 100.0
EUA 3.0 71.3 50.9 35.1 1.0 100.0
Finlandia 7.0 90.0 51.6 36.1 1.0 100.0
Francia 7.0 90.0 82.0 76.2 1.0 100.0
Grecia 4.0 81.3 90.0 86.8 1.0 100.0
Guatemala 5.0 91.3 54.1 39.4 4.0 50.0
Holanda 7.0 90.0 75.0 67.0 1.0 100.0
Honduras 5.0 91.3 52.2 36.9 3.0 66.7
Hungría 4.0 81.3 75.0 67.0 1.0 100.0
India 3.0 71.3 89.6 86.3 2.0 83.3
Irlanda 5.0 91.3 44.8 27.1 1.0 100.0
Israel 16.0 0.0 50.0 33.9 1.0 100.0
Italia 12.0 40.0 70.0 60.4 1.0 100.0
Japón 8.0 80.0 75.0 67.0 1.0 100.0
Malasia 4.0 81.3 75.0 67.0 5.0 33.3
México 4.0 81.3 42.5 24.1 2.0 83.3
Nicaragua 7.0 90.0 56.3 42.3 3.0 66.7
Noruega 9.0 70.0 75.0 67.0 1.0 100.0
Perú 5.0 91.3 53.1 38.0 2.0 83.3
Polonia 9.0 70.0 53.9 39.1 1.0 100.0
Portugal 5.0 91.3 55.8 41.6 1.0 100.0
Reino Unido 4.0 81.3 75.0 67.0 1.0 100.0
República Checa 6.0 100.0 53.0 37.9 1.0 100.0
Rusia 9.0 70.0 71.2 62.0 5.0 33.3
Sudáfrica 8.0 80.0 100.0 100.0 1.0 100.0
Suecia 7.0 90.0 37.7 17.7 1.0 100.0
Suiza 5.0 91.3 70.7 61.3 1.0 100.0
Tailandia 6.0 100.0 75.0 67.0 2.0 83.3
Turquía 3.0 71.3 60.0 47.2 3.0 66.7
Venezuela 8.0 80.0 58.0 44.5 3.0 66.7

Fuente CIA World Factbook CIA World Factbook Freedom House

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 593


Mercados de factores eficientes

Costo medio de mano PEA cuyos salarios


Productividad Índice de flexibilidad
de obra por hora son negociados
de la mano de obra de las leyes laborales
(manufacturas) por sindicatos

USD
USD Escala Escala % Escala Más bajo, Escala
(PIB) por
por hora 0-100 0-100 PEA 0-100 mejor 0-100
trabajador

Alemania 35.6 0.0 68,433.4 64.7 3.0 91.5 55.0 23.6


Argentina 2.3 94.2 14,198.9 12.2 4.9 59.8 51.0 29.2
Australia 21.0 41.1 62,440.8 58.9 6.1 41.2 17.0 76.4
Austria 28.3 20.7 74,223.1 70.3 2.9 93.9 40.0 44.4
Bélgica 30.2 15.3 85,225.5 80.9 3.4 85.2 20.0 72.2
Bolivia 0.3 99.7 3,485.4 1.9 7.4 19.5 40.0 44.4
Brasil 2.1 94.7 6,504.1 4.8 5.2 55.8 72.0 0.0
Canadá 20.6 42.3 56,913.5 53.5 7.6 15.9 4.0 94.4
Chile 4.5 87.8 14,946.8 12.9 8.6 0.0 19.0 73.6
China 1.0 97.7 2,619.6 1.0 7.0 25.3 30.0 58.3
Colombia 2.6 93.1 4,778.1 3.1 7.6 16.5 51.0 29.2
Corea del Sur 3.4 91.0 34,214.5 31.6 7.4 18.6 34.0 52.8
Costa Rica 9.4 73.9 10,457.0 8.6 5.7 47.9 35.0 51.4
Dinamarca 31.0 13.0 83,754.8 79.5 5.3 54.0 17.0 76.4
El Salvador 0.6 98.8 5,837.7 4.1 7.6 16.7 52.0 27.8
España 17.0 52.5 51,521.1 48.3 6.4 36.1 69.0 4.2
EUA 22.9 35.7 79,455.6 75.3 8.4 2.3 3.0 95.8
Finlandia 29.9 16.1 71,098.5 67.2 2.5 100.0 44.0 38.9
Francia 24.9 30.2 74,566.1 70.6 6.1 41.1 66.0 8.3
Grecia 13.4 62.7 51,953.3 48.7 4.0 75.5 66.0 8.3
Guatemala 0.7 98.7 5,415.1 3.7 5.7 46.6 40.0 44.4
Holanda 28.0 21.4 72,965.3 69.0 3.5 83.1 43.0 40.3
Honduras 0.3 99.7 2,843.7 1.2 5.5 50.5 31.0 56.9
Hungría 4.3 88.5 24,242.2 21.9 7.8 12.2 45.3 37.1
India 0.8 98.2 1,568.2 0.0 7.3 20.7 48.0 33.3
Irlanda 20.4 42.8 94,580.4 89.9 3.7 80.0 29.0 59.7
Israel 13.0 63.9 43,635.9 40.7 6.9 28.3 33.0 54.2
Italia 22.0 38.5 75,806.9 71.8 3.9 77.9 50.0 30.6
Japón 21.0 41.3 69,599.1 65.8 8.2 6.0 24.0 66.7
Malasia 1.8 95.5 11,988.9 10.1 7.7 13.7 3.0 95.8
México 2.9 92.5 15,749.0 13.7 6.6 32.2 72.0 0.0
Nicaragua 0.2 100.0 2,366.1 0.8 7.4 18.4 51.0 29.2
Noruega 34.0 4.6 104,975.7 100.0 4.9 60.7 30.0 58.3
Perú 3.1 91.8 18,253.5 16.1 7.8 12.7 55.0 23.6
Polonia 3.7 90.0 14,823.5 12.8 6.7 30.1 34.0 52.8
Portugal 7.8 78.6 32,712.4 30.1 5.7 46.8 58.0 19.4
Reino Unido 22.5 36.9 72,333.3 68.4 8.2 6.3 20.0 72.2
República Checa 2.2 94.4 20,982.8 18.8 7.4 19.1 28.0 61.1
Rusia 1.4 96.5 8,097.3 6.3 7.6 15.3 27.0 62.5
Sudáfrica 4.8 87.1 18,515.0 16.4 4.0 74.8 52.0 27.8
Suecia 29.1 18.4 77,688.4 73.6 2.6 98.6 43.0 40.3
Suiza 30.9 13.3 86,416.9 82.1 8.0 8.7 17.0 76.4
Tailandia 1.2 97.2 4,455.3 2.8 6.2 38.7 42.0 41.7
Turquía 5.7 84.4 12,466.0 10.5 6.8 28.9 55.0 23.6
Venezuela 2.9 92.3 11,350.9 9.5 5.3 54.1 0.0 100.0

Fuente EIU ILO Fraser Institute Worldbank

594 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Horas de trabajo perdidas Costo unitario de la Infraestructura


Eficiencia eléctrica
por huelgas y similares energía eléctrica energética por persona

USD
Por millón de Escala Escala kWh Escala USD (PIB) por Escala
por miles
horas-hombre 0-100 0-100 per cápita 0-100 kWh 0-100
kWh

Alemania 4.2 99.9 76.9 60.0 6,602.3 24.0 5.0 62.0


Argentina 625.0 81.9 32.8 91.2 2,532.3 8.2 1.6 13.1
Australia 13.8 99.6 60.9 71.3 9,855.3 36.6 3.2 36.3
Austria 1.3 100.0 95.8 46.6 7,188.1 26.3 5.0 61.2
Bélgica 3.4 99.9 76.0 60.6 7,127.8 26.0 4.7 57.9
Bolivia 0.0 100.0 51.1 78.3 433.0 0.0 2.2 22.5
Brasil 0.0 100.0 46.9 81.3 1,746.5 5.1 1.9 17.5
Canadá 95.8 97.2 49.0 79.8 17,711.1 67.2 1.7 15.3
Chile 17.7 99.5 57.3 73.9 2,583.8 8.4 2.3 23.1
China 0.0 100.0 81.5 56.7 1,095.5 2.6 1.4 10.1
Colombia 0.0 100.0 80.9 57.1 957.1 2.0 2.3 22.7
Corea del Sur 25.1 99.3 52.6 77.2 12,987.1 48.8 2.8 29.8
Costa Rica 28.5 99.2 69.4 65.3 1,605.7 4.6 2.7 29.2
Dinamarca 36.5 98.9 95.9 46.5 6,563.1 23.8 6.8 87.1
El Salvador 14.6 99.6 120.0 29.4 551.4 0.5 4.2 50.9
España 133.1 96.2 59.9 72.0 5,212.0 18.6 4.7 57.0
EUA 2.4 99.9 52.5 77.3 12,664.5 47.5 3.1 35.4
Finlandia 15.6 99.5 72.0 63.5 13,618.6 51.3 2.6 27.8
Francia 13.7 99.6 49.8 79.2 8,613.7 31.8 3.9 46.5
Grecia 0.1 100.0 63.4 69.6 4,503.1 15.8 4.1 49.1
Guatemala 4.8 99.9 116.2 32.1 507.3 0.3 4.4 53.0
Holanda 0.0 100.0 73.0 62.7 5,424.5 19.4 6.6 83.6
Honduras 0.3 100.0 34.9 89.8 536.0 0.4 2.0 18.5
Hungría 3,462.1 0.0 92.5 48.9 3,402.6 11.5 2.9 32.3
India 0.0 100.0 91.9 49.3 493.9 0.2 1.3 9.3
Irlanda 421.2 87.8 95.7 46.7 5,783.8 20.8 7.7 100.0
Israel 986.3 71.5 103.0 41.5 6,213.9 22.5 2.8 30.0
Italia 0.3 100.0 161.5 0.0 4,495.1 15.8 6.5 82.5
Japón 0.0 100.0 127.2 24.3 8,273.0 30.5 4.4 52.7
Malasia 6.1 99.8 65.0 68.4 3,026.0 10.1 1.6 13.1
México 0.1 100.0 77.5 59.6 1,946.1 5.9 3.4 39.5
Nicaragua 43.1 98.8 128.2 23.6 472.5 0.2 1.8 15.9
Noruega 25.5 99.3 43.3 83.8 26,159.4 100.0 2.1 20.3
Perú 0.0 100.0 78.6 58.8 747.0 1.2 3.3 38.0
Polonia 3.4 99.9 60.1 71.9 3,535.7 12.1 1.9 17.3
Portugal 140.3 95.9 92.8 48.7 4,220.2 14.7 3.8 44.4
Reino Unido 0.3 100.0 66.7 67.2 6,028.4 21.7 5.9 74.1
República Checa 5.0 99.9 66.2 67.6 6,855.9 25.0 1.5 12.6
Rusia 28.6 99.2 27.1 95.3 6,360.8 23.0 0.6 0.0
Sudáfrica 0.0 100.0 20.5 100.0 4,298.0 15.0 1.1 6.4
Suecia 2.6 99.9 60.9 71.3 17,004.0 64.4 2.3 22.9
Suiza 0.8 100.0 85.4 54.0 9,294.2 34.4 5.2 64.5
Tailandia 4.3 99.9 72.1 63.4 1,532.3 4.3 1.7 14.3
Turquía 2.1 99.9 100.1 43.5 1,625.6 4.6 2.6 27.6
Venezuela 0.0 100.0 32.2 91.7 3,352.9 11.3 1.3 8.6

Fuente ILO DOE CIA World Factbook CIA World Factbook

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 595


Costo Tasa de préstamo Tasa de descuento
Liberación del Costo
del diesel a largo plazo para calcular
sector energético de vida
para maquinaria de la banca inversiones

Centavo % (PPP/USD)
Escala Índice de Escala Escala Escala Escala
de USD / % %
0-100 liberación 0-100 0-100 0-100 0-100
por lt (Loc/USD)

Alemania 129.0 19.6 3.0 100.0 117.3 20.6 8.8 86.2 0.0 100.0
Argentina 49.0 70.3 3.0 100.0 30.0 82.5 6.8 89.9 0.0 100.0
Australia 83.0 48.7 3.0 100.0 104.5 29.7 8.9 86.0 0.0 100.0
Austria 119.0 25.9 3.0 100.0 110.8 25.2 3.7 95.7 3.0 92.1
Bélgica 107.0 33.5 3.0 100.0 108.7 26.7 6.7 90.1 3.0 92.1
Bolivia 40.0 75.9 3.0 100.0 35.4 78.7 10.0 83.9 6.0 84.2
Brasil 49.0 70.3 3.0 100.0 40.1 75.3 54.9 0.0 24.6 35.3
Canadá 68.0 58.2 3.0 100.0 97.8 34.4 4.0 95.1 2.8 92.6
Chile 64.0 60.8 2.0 66.7 50.9 67.7 5.1 93.0 2.3 93.9
China 43.0 74.1 2.0 66.7 25.3 85.8 5.6 92.1 3.3 91.3
Colombia 36.0 78.5 2.0 66.7 29.5 82.8 15.1 74.4 12.8 66.3
Corea del Sur 95.0 41.1 3.0 100.0 69.1 54.8 5.9 91.5 2.0 94.7
Costa Rica 56.0 65.8 3.0 100.0 45.9 71.2 23.4 58.8 26.0 31.6
Dinamarca 135.0 15.8 3.0 100.0 140.0 4.5 5.2 92.9 2.0 94.7
El Salvador 58.0 64.6 3.0 100.0 5.3 100.0 6.3 90.8 0.0 100.0
España 110.0 31.6 3.0 100.0 97.5 34.7 3.7 95.7 3.0 92.1
EUA 57.0 65.2 3.0 100.0 100.5 32.5 4.3 94.5 3.2 91.6
Finlandia 121.0 24.7 3.0 100.0 118.7 19.6 3.7 95.7 3.0 92.1
Francia 125.0 22.2 3.0 100.0 115.7 21.8 6.6 90.2 3.0 92.1
Grecia 123.0 23.4 3.0 100.0 83.6 44.5 6.6 90.2 3.0 92.1
Guatemala 63.0 61.4 2.0 66.7 51.5 67.3 13.8 76.8 0.0 100.0
Holanda 123.0 23.4 3.0 100.0 111.9 24.5 2.8 97.4 3.0 92.1
Honduras 66.0 59.5 2.0 66.7 36.8 77.7 19.9 65.4 0.0 100.0
Hungría 122.0 24.1 3.0 100.0 59.2 61.8 12.8 78.6 9.5 75.0
India 62.0 62.0 2.0 66.7 20.2 89.4 10.9 82.2 6.0 84.2
Irlanda 129.0 19.6 3.0 100.0 115.0 22.3 2.6 97.8 3.0 92.1
Israel 80.0 50.6 0.0 0.0 70.5 53.8 7.4 88.7 3.9 89.7
Italia 131.0 18.4 3.0 100.0 103.4 30.5 5.5 92.3 3.0 92.1
Japón 95.0 41.1 3.0 100.0 123.7 16.1 1.4 100.0 0.1 99.7
Malasia 22.0 87.3 2.0 66.7 46.3 70.9 6.0 91.4 0.0 100.0
México 45.0 72.8 0.0 0.0 67.4 56.0 7.2 89.1 0.0 100.0
Nicaragua 64.0 60.8 3.0 100.0 22.9 87.5 13.5 77.4 0.0 100.0
Noruega 144.0 10.1 3.0 100.0 141.6 3.4 4.2 94.8 3.8 90.0
Perú 76.0 53.2 3.0 100.0 43.8 72.7 14.5 75.5 4.3 88.7
Polonia 109.0 32.3 3.0 100.0 49.6 68.6 7.6 88.4 7.0 81.6
Portugal 108.0 32.9 3.0 100.0 81.4 46.1 4.6 94.0 3.0 92.1
Reino Unido 160.0 0.0 3.0 100.0 115.1 22.2 4.8 93.7 0.0 100.0
República Checa 107.0 33.5 3.0 100.0 54.2 65.3 6.0 91.3 2.5 93.4
Rusia 45.0 72.8 2.0 66.7 41.5 74.3 11.4 81.3 13.0 65.8
Sudáfrica 80.0 50.6 3.0 100.0 41.4 74.4 11.3 81.5 7.5 80.3
Suecia 137.0 14.6 3.0 100.0 130.4 11.3 4.0 95.1 2.0 94.7
Suiza 137.0 14.6 3.0 100.0 146.4 0.0 3.2 96.6 0.5 98.7
Tailandia 37.0 77.8 3.0 100.0 31.4 81.5 5.5 92.3 3.5 90.8
Turquía 112.0 30.4 3.0 100.0 54.3 65.3 35.0 37.2 38.0 0.0
Venezuela 2.0 100.0 2.0 66.7 69.5 54.5 18.5 68.0 28.5 25.0

Fuente International fuel prices IMCO Worldbank EIU Finland Statistics

596 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Índice de
Densidad de las Productividad
Productividad Mecanización transparencia y
tierras agrícolas agropecuaria
del capital fijo del campo regulación de
por trabajador por Ha
propiedad privada

Núm.
CAGR PIB / Escala tractores Escala Más bajo, Escala Has por Escala Hg de Escala
CAGR FBCF 0-100 por 1,000 0-100 mejor 0-100 trabajador 0-100 cereal/Ha 0-100
has

Alemania 1.5 15.2 55.5 14.1 1.6 88.0 20.2 1.9 70,929.0 72.3
Argentina 0.2 0.0 2.3 0.6 3.8 24.6 88.5 8.7 36,554.0 28.1
Australia 2.2 23.2 0.7 0.1 1.2 100.0 1,008.0 100.0 17,833.0 4.0
Austria 2.2 23.3 97.1 24.7 2.1 73.9 21.0 2.0 63,349.0 62.6
Bélgica 2.3 25.1 63.3 16.1 1.9 78.6 22.6 2.2 92,445.0 100.0
Bolivia 1.9 19.9 0.2 0.0 4.0 17.6 22.9 2.2 17,874.0 4.1
Brasil 0.5 4.3 3.1 0.7 3.6 28.7 21.7 2.1 31,514.0 21.6
Canadá 0.7 6.0 10.9 2.7 1.4 94.7 191.2 18.9 31,117.0 21.1
Chile 0.4 3.0 3.5 0.9 3.2 39.9 15.4 1.5 56,611.0 53.9
China 0.8 7.8 1.8 0.4 3.7 26.1 1.1 0.0 51,416.0 47.2
Colombia 0.6 5.1 0.5 0.1 4.1 14.7 12.5 1.2 35,462.0 26.7
Corea del Sur 1.3 13.6 111.2 28.3 3.4 36.4 1.0 0.0 64,986.0 64.7
Costa Rica 0.8 7.7 2.4 0.6 4.0 17.6 8.8 0.8 38,031.0 30.0
Dinamarca 2.3 24.7 46.3 11.7 2.0 76.0 28.6 2.8 60,131.0 58.4
El Salvador 0.7 5.6 2.0 0.5 4.0 17.6 2.2 0.2 24,847.0 13.0
España 3.5 38.8 31.3 7.9 2.2 70.7 27.1 2.6 37,532.0 29.3
EUA 2.5 27.1 11.6 2.9 1.2 98.5 146.6 14.5 68,494.0 69.2
Finlandia 3.9 43.7 86.4 22.0 1.6 86.8 19.0 1.8 32,117.0 22.4
Francia 2.2 24.2 42.6 10.8 1.6 87.4 39.9 3.9 75,446.0 78.1
Grecia 3.8 42.9 30.2 7.7 3.3 37.8 11.9 1.1 35,934.0 27.3
Guatemala 0.6 4.9 0.9 0.2 4.1 14.7 2.2 0.2 17,595.0 3.7
Holanda 2.5 27.2 77.5 19.7 1.4 94.7 8.7 0.8 79,945.0 83.9
Honduras 0.3 2.0 1.8 0.4 4.3 8.8 3.7 0.3 14,720.0 0.0
Hungría 4.0 44.7 19.3 4.9 2.9 50.4 13.4 1.3 56,004.0 53.1
India 2.3 24.6 14.0 3.5 3.9 20.5 0.7 0.0 24,341.0 12.4
Irlanda 8.7 100.0 35.5 9.0 1.8 81.5 28.6 2.8 71,676.0 73.3
Israel 1.5 15.6 43.0 10.9 3.2 40.8 8.6 0.8 35,673.0 27.0
Italia 1.7 18.0 111.5 28.3 2.7 54.8 13.7 1.3 53,454.0 49.8
Japón 0.5 4.3 392.7 100.0 3.1 44.6 2.4 0.2 59,497.0 57.6
Malasia 2.2 23.2 5.5 1.4 2.3 67.4 4.5 0.4 32,499.0 22.9
México 0.5 4.3 3.0 0.7 3.1 42.8 12.7 1.2 27,550.0 16.5
Nicaragua 1.3 12.9 0.4 0.1 4.2 11.7 17.8 1.7 16,827.0 2.7
Noruega 1.9 20.8 125.5 31.9 2.2 71.8 10.9 1.0 42,179.0 35.3
Perú 0.6 4.6 0.6 0.1 4.1 14.7 6.9 0.6 33,102.0 23.7
Polonia 4.7 53.2 84.8 21.6 3.1 43.4 4.1 0.3 32,365.0 22.7
Portugal 2.7 29.9 45.1 11.4 2.9 51.3 6.6 0.6 28,411.0 17.6
Reino Unido 3.0 32.7 29.5 7.5 1.2 98.5 34.3 3.3 71,413.0 72.9
República Checa 2.7 30.0 21.5 5.4 2.9 50.4 10.3 1.0 54,481.0 51.2
Rusia 0.9 8.1 2.7 0.6 3.6 28.2 29.3 2.8 18,826.0 5.3
Sudáfrica 2.1 22.8 0.7 0.1 2.4 65.4 63.5 6.2 28,102.0 17.2
Suecia 3.1 34.4 52.1 13.2 1.5 90.6 24.2 2.3 47,761.0 42.5
Suiza 1.4 14.7 70.7 18.0 1.7 85.6 10.7 1.0 62,144.0 61.0
Tailandia 0.7 6.7 11.9 3.0 3.4 34.0 0.9 0.0 28,171.0 17.3
Turquía 0.8 7.1 25.5 6.4 4.5 2.9 2.6 0.2 24,269.0 12.3
Venezuela 0.2 0.3 2.3 0.5 4.6 0.0 28.1 2.7 33,418.0 24.1

Fuente Worldbank FAO La Salle Investment Mgmt. FAO FAO

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 597


Sectores precursores de clase mundial

Costo promedio Costo promedio


Líneas telefónicas Usuarios
de una llamada local de una llamada local
fijas y celulares de Internet
para empresas para residencias

USD USD
Número
Escala (base 300 Escala (base 300 Escala Por Escala
por 1,000
0-100 llamadas de 0-100 llamadas de 0-100 familia 0-100
familias
3.5 minutos) 3.5 minutos)

Alemania 3.2 58.3 0.2 65.8 0.5 25.6 1.1 49.0


Argentina 2.2 36.7 0.1 88.6 0.1 94.9 0.5 20.0
Australia 3.6 65.8 0.3 24.3 0.4 37.2 1.7 82.7
Austria 3.5 63.8 0.3 22.7 0.6 0.0 1.1 54.1
Bélgica 3.0 54.6 0.3 19.1 0.5 24.8 0.9 42.0
Bolivia 1.3 16.8 0.2 67.5 0.3 62.7 0.2 3.1
Brasil 2.2 36.1 0.1 92.3 0.1 93.6 0.4 16.5
Canadá 2.9 51.6 0.2 67.1 0.2 81.7 1.6 78.9
Chile 3.2 57.1 0.1 85.3 0.2 82.2 1.0 48.7
China 1.9 31.4 0.1 80.0 0.1 89.5 0.3 8.0
Colombia 2.1 34.5 0.2 64.5 0.2 79.3 0.4 14.1
Corea del Sur 1.9 30.2 0.1 79.1 0.2 83.3 2.0 100.0
Costa Rica 2.3 39.4 0.1 96.5 0.1 99.3 1.0 47.0
Dinamarca 3.5 63.7 0.3 26.6 0.5 28.6 1.5 73.1
El Salvador 1.8 27.8 0.2 59.4 0.4 48.7 0.4 13.6
España 3.9 72.9 0.2 50.9 0.4 47.7 1.0 45.8
EUA 3.1 56.1 0.1 70.9 0.2 72.2 1.6 77.6
Finlandia 3.1 55.5 0.3 24.3 0.4 32.0 1.4 66.0
Francia 3.1 56.8 0.2 55.9 0.3 52.6 1.0 46.2
Grecia 4.5 85.8 0.2 45.0 0.3 49.9 0.5 22.1
Guatemala 1.6 24.7 0.1 78.1 0.1 92.3 0.3 8.5
Holanda 3.2 57.8 0.3 27.6 0.5 31.4 1.4 67.5
Honduras 0.7 4.1 0.1 83.2 0.1 99.5 0.1 0.7
Hungría 3.1 55.9 0.3 27.4 0.5 30.8 0.7 29.3
India 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.1 100.0 0.2 2.8
Irlanda 4.5 85.6 0.4 5.7 0.6 2.6 0.8 37.6
Israel 5.2 100.0 0.2 64.8 0.2 70.1 1.6 79.1
Italia 4.1 76.9 0.3 33.5 0.4 39.0 1.3 63.4
Japón 3.1 56.4 0.2 53.8 0.4 46.4 1.6 75.5
Malasia 3.5 65.3 0.1 85.8 0.1 91.1 1.8 89.8
México 2.2 36.7 0.3 39.8 0.2 79.0 0.5 21.8
Nicaragua 0.9 9.9 0.1 76.1 0.1 87.8 0.1 0.0
Noruega 3.5 63.4 0.3 21.9 0.5 21.8 0.9 39.9
Perú 1.0 11.7 0.2 56.8 0.3 60.6 0.5 21.1
Polonia 2.4 40.0 0.3 33.7 0.3 53.1 0.7 28.2
Portugal 4.0 75.6 0.3 25.0 0.5 28.3 0.8 36.5
Reino Unido 3.9 72.1 0.4 0.0 0.4 32.1 1.5 74.2
República Checa 3.7 69.0 0.3 15.5 0.4 35.3 1.3 59.5
Rusia 1.7 26.0 0.1 87.9 0.1 95.9 0.3 9.8
Sudáfrica 1.5 22.4 0.2 42.9 0.3 57.2 0.3 9.1
Suecia 3.6 66.5 0.2 43.4 0.4 38.8 1.6 75.8
Suiza 3.8 70.1 0.3 18.2 0.5 23.4 1.1 53.7
Tailandia 2.1 35.6 0.1 82.2 0.1 88.8 0.4 16.4
Turquía 3.5 65.1 0.3 27.3 0.3 51.4 0.7 28.8
Venezuela 2.3 38.5 0.1 71.4 0.2 84.1 0.4 16.9

Fuente Worldbank Tarifica Tarifica Worldbank

598 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Distancia al Número de
Calidad de servicios Productividad de las Longitud de la red
principal mercado aeropuertos con
de telecomunicaciones telecomunicaciones carretera asfaltada
de exportación pistas asfaltadas

PIB
per cápita Número
% líneas Escala Escala Escala Km Escala Escala
/ gasto por Km por
digitalizadas 0-100 0-100 0-100 per cápita 0-100 0-100
suscriptor 10,000 km2
en telecom

Alemania 100.0 100.0 50.3 59.8 1,050.0 96.5 9.3 28.5 9.3 67.3
Argentina 100.0 100.0 18.4 20.9 1,986.0 92.3 1.6 4.3 0.5 2.7
Australia 100.0 100.0 45.1 53.5 8,331.0 63.5 14.4 44.6 0.4 1.8
Austria 100.0 100.0 45.5 53.9 521.0 99.0 32.1 100.0 2.9 20.0
Bélgica 100.0 100.0 43.5 51.5 641.0 98.4 11.2 34.5 7.7 55.6
Bolivia 99.5 99.2 2.5 1.5 2,382.0 90.5 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.0
Brasil 99.0 98.5 13.1 14.4 8,541.0 62.5 0.3 0.2 0.8 5.0
Canadá 99.9 99.8 36.7 43.3 1,202.0 95.9 20.9 65.0 0.5 2.6
Chile 100.0 100.0 18.7 21.2 8,594.0 62.3 1.2 3.0 0.9 5.8
China 100.0 100.0 17.6 19.9 11,170.0 50.6 0.3 0.0 0.4 1.9
Colombia 99.9 99.8 7.2 7.2 4,371.0 81.5 0.6 1.0 0.9 5.5
Corea del Sur 100.0 100.0 81.9 98.3 13,446.0 40.3 2.9 8.2 7.3 52.7
Costa Rica 93.0 89.4 27.5 31.9 4,740.0 79.8 1.9 5.0 5.9 42.2
Dinamarca 100.0 100.0 53.7 63.9 460.0 99.2 14.0 43.2 6.5 46.8
El Salvador 99.9 99.9 3.1 2.1 3,069.0 87.4 0.3 0.1 1.9 12.9
España 87.1 80.4 34.9 41.0 1,050.0 96.5 23.7 73.8 1.9 12.8
EUA 98.0 97.0 59.6 71.2 1,202.0 95.9 9.9 30.3 5.3 38.2
Finlandia 100.0 100.0 47.9 56.9 396.0 99.5 9.7 29.6 2.2 15.3
Francia 100.0 100.0 64.4 77.0 874.0 97.3 14.8 45.8 5.1 36.8
Grecia 99.6 99.4 37.8 44.5 1,815.0 93.1 9.7 29.7 5.0 35.8
Guatemala 100.0 100.0 2.9 1.9 2,922.0 88.0 0.4 0.5 1.0 6.4
Holanda 100.0 100.0 46.0 54.5 624.0 98.5 6.1 18.4 5.3 38.0
Honduras 97.0 95.4 2.0 0.8 3,284.0 86.4 0.4 0.3 1.2 7.5
Hungría 91.0 86.3 33.4 39.2 698.0 98.1 8.1 24.6 1.9 13.2
India 100.0 100.0 4.4 3.8 22,310.0 0.0 1.4 3.6 0.7 4.2
Irlanda 100.0 100.0 47.0 55.8 470.0 99.2 21.4 66.5 2.4 16.8
Israel 100.0 100.0 29.4 34.2 10,892.0 51.9 2.4 6.8 12.6 92.2
Italia 100.0 100.0 36.7 43.1 1,184.0 95.9 6.8 20.5 3.2 22.4
Japón 100.0 100.0 39.8 47.0 11,249.0 50.2 3.0 8.7 3.8 26.8
Malasia 100.0 100.0 18.0 20.4 16,702.0 25.5 2.0 5.6 1.2 7.4
México 100.0 100.0 17.4 19.6 3,259.0 86.5 1.1 2.8 1.2 7.7
Nicaragua 99.0 98.5 1.3 0.0 4,881.0 79.2 0.4 0.5 0.8 5.2
Noruega 100.0 100.0 82.6 99.2 1,126.0 96.2 15.4 47.6 2.0 13.7
Perú 96.2 94.2 6.8 6.7 7,930.0 65.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 1.9
Polonia 93.2 89.7 30.7 35.8 524.0 98.9 6.5 19.6 3.0 21.1
Portugal 100.0 100.0 27.2 31.6 501.0 99.0 5.6 16.9 4.6 32.6
Reino Unido 100.0 100.0 36.1 42.4 5,913.0 74.5 6.2 18.7 13.7 100.0
República Checa 100.0 100.0 36.5 43.0 290.0 100.0 5.4 16.2 5.6 40.1
Rusia 34.1 0.0 22.5 25.9 2,146.0 91.6 2.5 7.0 0.3 1.4
Sudáfrica 99.8 99.7 7.6 7.7 13,060.0 42.0 1.9 5.0 1.2 7.6
Suecia 100.0 100.0 83.2 100.0 6,641.0 71.2 18.8 58.3 3.4 24.1
Suiza 100.0 100.0 40.6 48.0 876.0 97.3 9.6 29.4 10.2 73.9
Tailandia 100.0 100.0 15.1 16.9 14,167.0 37.0 1.0 2.3 1.3 8.3
Turquía 90.2 85.1 24.0 27.7 2,039.0 92.1 2.1 5.8 1.1 7.1
Venezuela 81.1 71.3 12.9 14.2 4,593.0 80.5 1.2 3.0 1.4 9.2

Fuente ITU ITU CIA World Factbook CIA World Factbook CIA World Factbook

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 599


Capacidad de Longitud
Número Infraestructura Transporte
carga de la de la red
de vuelos portuaria intraurbano
flota marítima ferroviaria

%
Número
GRT por (ciudades
Por Escala Escala por Escala Escala Km por Escala
millones con metro/
1,000 hab 0-100 0-100 1,000 km 0-100 0-100 1,000 km2 0-100
USD PIB ciudades ›
de litoral
350,000 hab)

Alemania 11.4 17.6 2.1 1.4 7.1 5.2 94.1 23.5 128.9 100.0
Argentina 2.6 3.8 1.0 0.7 2.2 1.6 5.6 1.4 12.6 9.8
Australia 16.2 24.9 2.4 1.6 0.5 0.3 100.0 25.0 5.7 4.4
Austria 16.8 25.9 0.1 0.1 -0.1 100.0 25.0 74.2 57.5
Bélgica 14.8 22.8 3.3 2.2 136.4 100.0 100.0 25.0 108.1 83.8
Bolivia 3.2 4.7 47.4 32.3 -0.1 0.0 0.0 3.6 2.7
Brasil 2.6 3.9 4.9 3.3 1.9 1.3 14.5 3.6 4.6 3.6
Canadá 9.0 13.8 1.8 1.2 0.1 0.0 30.8 7.7 5.9 4.5
Chile 5.3 8.1 7.6 5.2 1.7 1.2 66.7 16.7 9.2 7.1
China 0.9 1.3 9.7 6.6 1.4 1.0 5.0 1.2 7.5 5.8
Colombia 3.5 5.2 0.4 0.2 3.1 2.2 4.3 1.1 3.1 2.4
Corea del Sur 10.4 16.0 7.5 5.1 4.1 3.0 23.1 5.8 25.9 20.1
Costa Rica 8.0 12.2 0.1 0.1 4.7 3.4 100.0 25.0 18.6 14.4
Dinamarca 18.5 28.5 28.8 19.6 1.6 1.1 100.0 25.0 74.3 57.6
El Salvador 3.8 5.8 0.0 0.0 19.5 14.3 0.0 0.0 28.7 22.2
España 12.9 19.8 1.7 1.1 3.8 2.7 57.1 14.3 35.2 27.3
EUA 32.6 50.5 1.1 0.7 1.1 0.7 33.3 8.3 23.7 18.4
Finlandia 21.4 33.1 6.2 4.2 8.8 6.4 100.0 25.0 18.5 14.3
Francia 11.3 17.4 0.3 0.2 5.0 3.6 225.0 56.3 60.2 46.6
Grecia 12.5 19.2 147.1 100.0 0.9 0.6 100.0 25.0 20.2 15.7
Guatemala 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 12.5 9.1 0.0 0.0 8.1 6.3
Holanda 15.3 23.7 8.3 5.6 26.6 19.5 66.7 16.7 67.6 52.4
Honduras 2.4 3.5 81.2 55.2 7.3 5.3 0.0 0.0 6.2 4.8
Hungría 4.6 7.0 0.1 0.1 -0.1 100.0 25.0 85.3 66.2
India 0.3 0.2 9.4 6.4 1.0 0.7 1.9 0.5 19.8 15.3
Irlanda 64.4 100.0 1.6 1.1 6.2 4.5 50.0 12.5 47.1 36.5
Israel 5.0 7.6 6.4 4.4 22.0 16.1 50.0 12.5 28.9 22.4
Italia 6.7 10.2 5.3 3.6 2.2 1.6 85.7 21.4 71.4 55.3
Japón 5.1 7.7 2.2 1.5 0.7 0.5 23.1 5.8 62.7 48.6
Malasia 6.9 10.5 45.6 31.0 3.9 2.8 16.7 4.2 7.3 5.7
México 3.3 4.9 1.0 0.6 2.0 1.4 6.8 1.7 10.0 7.7
Nicaragua 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.7 5.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Noruega 56.7 88.0 75.3 51.2 0.6 0.4 100.0 25.0 12.6 9.7
Perú 1.6 2.2 0.2 0.1 5.0 3.6 16.7 4.2 2.7 2.1
Polonia 2.0 3.0 0.6 0.4 18.3 13.4 11.1 2.8 76.3 59.1
Portugal 12.1 18.6 5.2 3.5 6.1 4.4 200.0 50.0 31.0 24.0
Reino Unido 16.2 25.0 4.3 2.9 1.9 1.4 30.0 7.5 70.5 54.7
República Checa 6.5 9.9 0.0 0.0 -0.1 50.0 12.5 120.7 93.6
Rusia 2.8 4.1 7.7 5.2 0.9 0.6 20.4 5.1 5.1 3.9
Sudáfrica 2.9 4.4 0.1 0.1 2.5 1.8 0.0 0.0 18.3 14.2
Suecia 21.3 32.9 7.8 5.3 3.7 2.7 50.0 12.5 29.9 23.2
Suiza 19.4 30.0 1.7 1.2 -0.1 400.0 100.0 109.8 85.2
Tailandia 2.0 3.0 12.6 8.6 2.2 1.5 16.7 4.2 7.9 6.1
Turquía 1.5 2.2 15.4 10.5 1.3 0.9 21.1 5.3 11.1 8.5
Venezuela 4.9 7.5 6.7 4.6 4.6 3.3 10.0 2.5 0.7 0.5

Fuente Worldbank CIA World Factbook CIA World Factbook www.reed.edu CIA World Factbook

600 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Penetración Competencia entre Liquidez


Índice de calidad Competencia
del sistema Banca doméstica de la Bolsa
de la Banca y finanzas en la Banca
financiero privado y Banca extranjera de Valores

% PIB
% (spread % (Valor
(créditos sin
Escala Más bajo, Escala de tasas Escala Más alto, Escala operado/ Escala
garantía de
0-100 mejor 0-100 indexado a 0-100 mejor 0-100 capitaliza- 0-100
gob. menos
la inflación) ción)
bonos intls.)

Alemania 138.0 62.1 3.0 33.3 1.8 6.5 8.0 74.8 129.0 37.0
Argentina 45.4 16.9 4.0 0.0 0.9 6.9 8.0 74.8 11.9 2.3
Australia 109.0 47.9 1.0 100.0 2.1 6.3 8.0 74.8 67.4 18.7
Austria 121.9 54.2 2.0 66.7 1.5 6.6 5.7 46.2 27.5 6.9
Bélgica 104.9 45.9 2.0 66.7 1.4 6.7 8.0 74.8 150.9 43.4
Bolivia 52.9 20.5 2.0 66.7 1.6 6.6 5.1 37.8 24.7 6.1
Brasil 98.8 42.9 3.0 33.3 6.1 4.5 6.0 49.6 31.5 8.1
Canadá 97.0 42.1 2.0 66.7 1.6 6.6 8.0 74.8 74.6 20.9
Chile 69.5 28.6 2.0 66.7 2.9 6.0 6.0 49.0 10.4 1.8
China 142.6 64.3 4.0 0.0 0.8 7.0 2.3 2.9 102.7 29.2
Colombia 42.3 15.3 2.0 66.7 1.2 6.8 5.6 44.3 8.2 1.2
Corea del Sur 100.9 43.9 3.0 33.3 0.6 7.1 8.0 74.8 160.5 46.3
Costa Rica 42.3 15.3 3.0 33.3 1.1 6.8 6.2 51.5 4.1 0.0
Dinamarca 167.0 76.3 1.0 100.0 2.6 6.1 8.2 77.8 275.2 80.2
El Salvador 49.3 18.7 2.0 66.7 0.7 7.0 4.6 31.9 4.1 0.0
España 140.6 63.4 2.0 66.7 1.0 6.9 6.0 49.6 127.9 36.6
EUA 215.6 100.0 1.0 100.0 1.1 6.8 8.0 74.8 91.4 25.8
Finlandia 70.7 29.2 2.0 66.7 15.8 0.0 8.1 76.5 121.7 34.8
Francia 106.4 46.6 3.0 33.3 1.9 6.4 6.7 58.0 91.4 25.8
Grecia 106.0 46.4 3.0 33.3 1.0 6.8 6.0 49.6 36.4 9.6
Guatemala 16.2 2.6 2.0 66.7 1.4 6.7 5.6 44.5 174.5 50.4
Holanda 178.8 82.0 1.0 100.0 0.4 7.1 8.0 74.8 170.4 49.2
Honduras 45.1 16.7 3.0 33.3 1.1 6.8 8.0 74.8 18.7 4.3
Hungría 59.0 23.5 2.0 66.7 0.6 7.0 6.9 60.3 45.9 12.4
India 59.8 23.9 4.0 0.0 1.7 6.5 6.4 54.0 71.7 20.0
Irlanda 137.0 61.6 1.0 100.0 1.4 6.7 8.0 74.8 39.6 10.5
Israel 83.3 35.4 3.0 33.3 -9.8 11.8 6.0 49.6 36.7 9.6
Italia 106.5 46.7 2.0 66.7 1.4 6.7 6.0 49.6 122.8 35.1
Japón 154.9 70.4 4.0 0.0 -200.0 100.0 8.0 74.8 90.5 25.6
Malasia 138.7 62.4 4.0 0.0 2.1 6.4 2.1 0.0 33.9 8.8
México 38.1 13.2 2.0 66.7 1.1 6.8 5.9 47.9 26.4 6.6
Nicaragua 86.3 36.8 2.0 66.7 1.1 6.8 5.5 43.5 26.4 6.6
Noruega 11.1 0.1 3.0 33.3 6.4 4.4 8.0 74.8 95.2 27.0
Perú 17.4 3.1 2.0 66.7 3.3 5.8 6.6 56.9 8.7 1.3
Polonia 33.2 10.9 2.0 66.7 1.1 6.8 9.0 87.4 22.7 5.5
Portugal 153.9 69.9 3.0 33.3 1.3 6.7 6.0 49.6 54.3 14.9
Reino Unido 159.1 72.4 1.0 100.0 1.0 6.8 7.4 67.5 180.4 52.2
República Checa 45.5 16.9 1.0 100.0 1.8 6.5 10.0 100.0 342.0 100.0
Rusia 25.6 7.1 4.0 0.0 0.7 7.0 6.0 49.6 75.0 21.0
Sudáfrica 86.0 36.7 2.0 66.7 3.6 5.7 8.0 74.8 36.4 9.6
Suecia 113.1 49.9 1.0 100.0 8.1 3.6 8.0 74.8 122.8 35.1
Suiza 176.1 80.7 1.0 100.0 3.8 5.6 8.0 74.8 95.9 27.2
Tailandia 105.3 46.1 3.0 33.3 1.8 6.5 3.8 21.2 115.0 32.8
Turquía 54.9 21.5 3.0 33.3 1.0 6.9 6.0 49.6 149.1 42.9
Venezuela 11.0 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.3 7.2 6.2 51.5 16.5 3.7

Fuente Worldbank Heritage Institute EIU Fraser Institute World Federation of Exchanges

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 601


Gobierno eficiente y eficaz

Índice de facilidad Contribución de las Tiempo de altos Pagos adicionales/


Costos visibles
para abrir políticas públicas ejecutivos a temas irregulares asociados
de importación
una empresa a la competitividad burocráticos con trámites

Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala
más sencillo 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100

Alemania 2.8 25.8 51.0 55.3 6.6 66.7 8.5 86.2 9.3 95.5
Argentina 2.3 14.1 4.4 4.8 6.4 64.8 5.6 24.4 6.5 30.5
Australia 3.3 36.0 89.9 97.3 7.1 72.3 8.8 93.3 8.6 78.7
Austria 3.9 50.0 64.9 70.3 8.1 82.4 8.7 90.8 9.1 90.6
Bélgica 2.0 6.1 34.5 37.4 8.2 83.9 7.3 61.7 9.1 91.2
Bolivia 2.3 13.4 4.0 4.3 5.3 53.0 4.5 2.0 5.4 4.6
Brasil 1.7 0.0 36.5 39.5 5.4 53.7 5.7 26.8 5.2 0.0
Canadá 4.0 53.2 76.8 83.2 7.7 77.8 8.4 84.1 8.7 82.4
Chile 4.4 62.7 66.4 71.9 7.9 80.1 8.0 76.6 8.1 68.9
China 4.0 52.7 70.0 75.8 0.4 0.0 6.4 42.0 7.3 49.7
Colombia 3.0 29.2 52.3 56.7 6.3 63.5 7.4 62.7 5.9 17.8
Corea del Sur 4.6 67.4 35.0 37.9 6.6 66.6 6.5 44.1 8.3 73.5
Costa Rica 2.7 21.6 7.0 7.6 4.7 46.7 5.8 28.5 6.3 25.4
Dinamarca 4.9 74.9 75.9 82.2 7.0 70.6 9.1 98.6 9.5 99.3
El Salvador 3.5 40.6 3.0 3.2 6.7 67.6 6.2 37.1 6.1 22.1
España 4.1 55.7 63.3 68.5 7.4 74.7 7.7 68.9 8.9 85.5
EUA 4.3 60.5 78.2 84.7 7.1 71.5 8.5 87.1 8.9 85.5
Finlandia 5.8 94.9 92.4 100.0 9.7 99.8 9.1 100.0 9.4 96.8
Francia 3.1 30.7 50.1 54.3 7.4 74.8 8.2 80.2 7.9 62.5
Grecia 3.0 29.3 17.6 19.0 6.5 65.9 6.2 38.4 7.4 50.7
Guatemala 2.6 20.6 3.0 3.2 6.3 63.5 4.5 1.0 7.2 46.6
Holanda 3.4 39.6 53.3 57.7 5.8 57.6 8.4 84.7 9.0 89.8
Honduras 3.0 29.2 3.0 3.2 3.2 30.5 5.1 13.2 6.0 18.7
Hungría 3.2 34.7 33.3 36.1 9.7 100.0 7.3 60.7 7.8 59.9
India 2.9 26.7 41.5 44.9 5.9 58.8 5.5 22.6 5.7 11.8
Irlanda 4.6 67.2 67.4 73.0 8.3 84.5 8.5 87.1 8.6 80.6
Israel 3.7 46.0 21.7 23.5 6.0 60.4 7.6 67.2 8.6 80.4
Italia 1.8 2.4 33.9 36.6 8.0 80.9 7.5 64.1 7.1 45.1
Japón 4.0 52.5 43.7 47.3 9.0 92.4 8.7 89.9 8.9 86.2
Malasia 6.0 100.0 78.0 84.5 3.1 28.9 7.2 58.7 7.7 59.8
México 2.4 16.1 43.7 47.3 3.1 28.8 5.6 24.7 7.6 55.4
Nicaragua 3.1 32.6 3.0 3.2 3.3 31.1 5.0 11.6 6.2 24.5
Noruega 4.2 58.5 59.1 64.0 7.6 77.0 9.0 96.9 9.0 89.2
Perú 1.8 0.9 5.0 5.4 6.1 61.2 6.3 39.8 6.9 40.4
Polonia 2.8 25.6 15.0 16.2 7.0 70.4 5.5 23.0 7.2 47.7
Portugal 4.0 53.6 46.8 50.6 4.6 45.4 8.3 82.8 8.5 76.3
Reino Unido 3.3 36.5 61.5 66.6 8.0 81.3 8.8 92.5 8.6 80.6
República Checa 3.1 31.3 39.7 43.0 8.8 90.1 6.3 39.4 7.9 62.9
Rusia 2.0 4.9 23.2 25.2 4.1 40.3 5.1 12.8 6.5 32.1
Sudáfrica 3.1 31.2 49.3 53.4 5.4 53.4 6.5 43.6 7.1 45.0
Suecia 4.1 56.0 62.8 68.0 9.2 93.9 8.7 90.4 9.5 100.0
Suiza 4.6 67.9 74.4 80.6 8.1 83.0 8.6 88.1 7.9 64.4
Tailandia 4.7 69.7 70.9 76.7 4.0 38.2 6.8 51.0 7.2 47.9
Turquía 3.1 31.2 17.0 18.4 4.8 47.2 5.6 24.1 7.2 46.1
Venezuela 2.0 4.9 0.0 0.0 1.4 11.3 4.5 0.0 5.7 12.5

Fuente Fraser Institute UN Fraser Institute Fraser Institute Fraser Institute

602 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Índice de
Impuesto sobre Índice de Índice de
ISR (Empresas) intervencionismo
la renta personal presión fiscal calidad regulatoria
del gobierno

% (tasa
Escala máxima* Escala Más bajo, Escala Más bajo, Escala Más alto, Escala
%
0-100 % PEA que 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100
la paga)

Alemania 25.0 41.5 2.6 24.3 3.8 36.4 2.0 85.7 1.3 83.5
Argentina 35.0 6.0 2.5 33.3 3.8 36.4 2.0 85.7 -0.8 14.2
Australia 30.0 23.8 1.4 82.9 3.8 36.4 2.0 85.7 1.6 94.4
Austria 34.0 9.6 2.0 54.8 4.3 13.6 2.0 85.7 1.4 87.5
Bélgica 33.0 13.1 1.1 100.0 4.4 9.1 2.5 71.4 1.3 82.2
Bolivia 25.0 41.5 1.3 88.1 2.9 77.3 2.0 85.7 0.1 42.6
Brasil 15.0 77.0 2.2 43.3 2.5 95.5 4.0 28.6 0.2 47.2
Canadá 21.0 55.7 2.2 45.2 2.8 81.8 3.0 57.1 1.6 92.7
Chile 16.5 71.6 2.0 54.8 2.6 90.9 2.0 85.7 1.6 94.4
China 30.0 23.8 2.7 21.4 4.4 9.1 3.5 42.9 -0.5 26.1
Colombia 36.7 0.0 2.5 33.3 4.3 13.6 3.5 42.9 -0.1 37.0
Corea del Sur 27.0 34.4 2.4 35.7 3.4 54.5 2.5 71.4 0.7 63.7
Costa Rica 30.0 23.8 2.2 47.1 3.1 68.2 2.0 85.7 0.7 63.0
Dinamarca 30.0 23.8 1.2 93.8 4.0 27.3 3.0 57.1 1.8 99.0
El Salvador 25.0 41.5 2.4 35.7 3.4 54.5 1.5 100.0 0.6 59.4
España 35.0 6.0 2.4 35.7 4.1 22.7 2.0 85.7 1.1 78.2
EUA 35.0 6.0 3.1 3.3 4.0 27.3 2.0 85.7 1.2 81.2
Finlandia 29.0 27.3 1.6 74.3 3.5 50.0 3.0 57.1 1.8 100.0
Francia 33.3 12.1 1.9 58.6 4.3 13.6 5.0 0.0 0.9 71.0
Grecia 35.0 6.0 2.0 54.8 4.0 27.3 2.0 85.7 0.9 69.0
Guatemala 31.0 20.2 2.2 46.7 3.6 45.5 2.0 85.7 -0.1 38.6
Holanda 34.5 7.8 1.6 75.7 4.4 9.1 3.0 57.1 1.7 96.0
Honduras 25.0 41.5 2.3 42.9 3.3 59.1 4.0 28.6 -0.3 30.0
Hungría 16.0 73.4 1.9 59.5 3.0 72.7 2.0 85.7 1.2 81.2
India 35.9 2.9 2.3 40.0 3.8 36.4 3.5 42.9 0.6 60.4
Irlanda 12.5 85.8 2.1 50.0 2.4 100.0 2.0 85.7 1.6 94.7
Israel 36.0 2.5 2.0 56.7 4.6 0.0 2.5 71.4 0.7 63.7
Italia 33.0 13.1 1.9 60.5 4.1 22.7 2.0 85.7 1.0 72.9
Japón 30.0 23.8 2.5 31.0 4.3 13.6 2.0 85.7 1.0 75.2
Malasia 28.0 30.9 2.2 43.3 3.6 45.5 4.0 28.6 0.4 55.4
México 33.0 13.1 2.2 43.3 4.0 27.3 3.5 42.9 0.6 59.1
Nicaragua 25.0 41.5 2.3 42.9 2.9 77.3 2.5 71.4 -0.2 36.0
Noruega 28.0 30.9 2.4 35.7 4.0 27.3 3.5 42.9 1.3 84.8
Perú 30.0 23.8 2.4 35.7 3.3 59.1 2.5 71.4 0.2 46.5
Polonia 19.0 62.8 2.0 54.8 3.6 45.5 2.0 85.7 0.6 62.0
Portugal 25.0 41.5 2.4 35.7 3.8 36.4 2.0 85.7 1.1 78.5
Reino Unido 30.0 23.8 2.4 35.7 3.9 31.8 2.0 85.7 1.6 94.4
República Checa 28.0 30.9 2.2 43.3 3.9 31.8 2.5 71.4 1.0 72.9
Rusia 24.0 45.0 1.3 88.1 2.6 90.9 2.0 85.7 -0.5 24.1
Sudáfrica 30.0 23.8 2.0 54.8 3.9 31.8 2.0 85.7 0.4 55.4
Suecia 28.0 30.9 1.2 94.8 4.0 27.3 3.0 57.1 1.5 91.7
Suiza 8.5 100.0 3.2 0.0 3.4 54.5 2.0 85.7 1.6 92.1
Tailandia 30.0 23.8 2.6 26.7 3.6 45.5 2.5 71.4 0.0 40.6
Turquía 30.0 23.8 2.8 16.7 3.9 31.8 2.5 71.4 -0.1 38.6
Venezuela 34.0 9.6 2.7 20.5 4.3 13.6 3.5 42.9 -1.2 0.0

Fuente Worldbank Fraser Institute Heritage Institute Heritage Institute Worldbank

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 603


Índice de efectividad Promoción de la Superávit del
Costo de la nómina Gasto en salud
del gobierno competencia gobierno

%
Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala Escala Escala Escala
gasto del % PIB % PIB
mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 0-100 0-100 0-100
gobierno

Alemania 1.4 74.2 4.0 75.0 5.0 100.0 -3.7 18.0 8.7 100.0
Argentina -0.2 22.7 3.0 50.0 12.0 81.6 2.6 51.6 4.3 41.9
Australia 2.0 90.5 5.0 100.0 10.0 86.8 1.3 44.7 6.4 69.7
Austria 1.8 84.0 3.0 50.0 13.0 78.9 -1.3 30.7 5.1 51.8
Bélgica 1.8 84.4 4.0 75.0 7.0 94.7 -0.1 37.2 6.3 68.5
Bolivia -0.5 14.1 1.0 0.0 24.0 50.0 -5.6 7.8 4.3 41.4
Brasil 0.1 32.5 3.0 50.0 18.0 65.8 -2.7 23.4 3.4 30.0
Canadá 2.0 91.7 5.0 100.0 11.0 84.2 0.5 40.3 6.9 76.5
Chile 1.3 69.9 5.0 100.0 22.0 55.3 2.1 49.0 3.0 23.9
China 0.1 31.6 2.0 25.0 22.0 55.3 -1.3 30.7 2.0 11.2
Colombia -0.1 26.1 3.0 50.0 14.0 76.3 -0.6 34.2 6.4 69.4
Corea del Sur 0.9 58.3 4.0 75.0 11.0 84.2 -2.5 24.4 2.8 21.1
Costa Rica 0.5 46.0 1.0 0.0 43.0 0.0 1.7 46.7 5.8 60.9
Dinamarca 2.2 97.9 5.0 100.0 13.0 78.9 -0.7 34.2 7.5 83.8
El Salvador -0.3 22.4 1.0 0.0 42.0 2.6 -0.2 36.8 3.7 33.9
España 1.4 71.5 3.0 50.0 17.0 68.4 -3.6 18.6 5.5 57.4
EUA 1.8 85.0 5.0 100.0 13.0 78.9 1.3 44.5 6.8 74.6
Finlandia 2.1 93.3 5.0 100.0 10.0 86.8 -3.7 17.8 5.7 59.7
Francia 1.5 75.8 4.0 75.0 22.0 55.3 -6.9 0.7 7.7 87.0
Grecia 0.8 54.6 3.0 50.0 24.0 50.0 -1.1 31.8 5.1 51.9
Guatemala -0.8 4.3 1.0 0.0 28.0 39.5 -2.1 26.5 2.1 12.7
Holanda 2.1 93.3 4.0 75.0 8.0 92.1 -3.4 19.2 6.1 65.8
Honduras -0.7 10.1 1.0 0.0 30.0 34.2 -5.5 8.2 4.0 37.7
Hungría 0.7 51.5 3.0 50.0 14.0 76.3 -4.0 16.2 6.1 65.3
India 0.0 29.1 3.0 50.0 10.0 86.8 1.6 46.0 1.2 0.0
Irlanda 1.6 77.9 4.0 75.0 12.0 81.6 -3.7 17.8 5.8 61.0
Israel 1.1 64.4 4.0 75.0 24.0 50.0 -3.5 18.9 6.1 65.2
Italia 0.7 50.3 3.0 50.0 16.0 71.1 -6.3 4.1 6.3 68.4
Japón 1.2 66.0 3.0 50.0 10.0 86.8 0.7 41.5 6.4 69.6
Malasia 1.0 59.2 2.0 25.0 30.0 34.2 -4.3 14.5 2.2 13.6
México 0.1 32.2 3.0 50.0 17.0 68.4 -0.3 36.2 2.9 22.6
Nicaragua -0.7 9.5 1.0 0.0 30.0 34.2 -5.5 8.2 3.7 33.9
Noruega 2.1 94.8 4.0 75.0 16.0 71.1 11.7 100.0 8.6 99.2
Perú -0.5 15.6 3.0 50.0 21.0 57.9 -1.1 31.7 2.1 12.6
Polonia 0.6 48.5 3.0 50.0 12.0 81.6 -4.5 13.6 4.5 44.7
Portugal 1.1 62.3 3.0 50.0 32.0 28.9 -3.2 20.4 6.7 73.4
Reino Unido 1.9 89.0 4.0 75.0 13.0 78.9 -3.3 20.1 6.9 75.7
República Checa 0.7 52.5 3.0 50.0 8.0 92.1 -3.2 20.5 6.8 74.2
Rusia -0.4 18.7 1.0 0.0 18.0 65.8 4.9 63.7 3.3 28.2
Sudáfrica 0.7 52.8 2.0 25.0 14.0 76.3 -2.5 24.1 3.2 27.4
Suecia 2.0 91.1 4.0 75.0 11.0 84.2 1.6 46.2 8.0 91.1
Suiza 2.3 100.0 4.0 75.0 7.0 94.7 -1.2 31.1 6.7 74.0
Tailandia 0.4 41.4 2.0 25.0 32.0 28.9 2.0 48.4 2.0 11.2
Turquía 0.1 32.2 2.0 25.0 15.0 73.7 -7.0 0.0 5.4 56.7
Venezuela -1.0 0.0 2.0 25.0 19.0 63.2 -1.9 27.2 2.0 10.7

Fuente Worldbank EIU Worldbank EIU Worldbank

604 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Autonomía
Nivel de subsidio Índice de calidad de Transferencias
Gasto en educación del gobierno
de la salud e-government y subsidios
de grupos de interés

%
Escala % Escala Más alto, Escala Más alto, Escala % Escala
gasto que
0-100 PIB 0-100 mejor 0-100 mejor 0-100 PIB 0-100
es público

Alemania 78.2 81.9 4.6 45.1 4.0 100.0 52.6 64.4 2.3 25.6
Argentina 48.7 36.6 4.0 36.7 3.0 66.7 41.8 30.6 8.3 65.8
Australia 67.5 65.5 4.9 49.3 3.0 66.7 58.3 82.2 6.7 96.8
Austria 67.6 65.6 5.7 60.6 4.0 100.0 47.4 48.1 2.6 30.5
Bélgica 67.2 65.1 6.3 69.0 4.0 100.0 45.3 41.6 3.3 43.3
Bolivia 64.0 60.2 6.3 69.0 1.0 0.0 32.0 0.0 8.7 58.6
Brasil 45.3 31.4 4.2 39.5 2.0 33.3 41.8 30.6 6.0 94.6
Canadá 69.9 69.2 5.2 53.6 3.0 66.7 61.1 90.9 7.3 85.1
Chile 48.9 36.9 4.2 39.5 4.0 100.0 60.0 87.5 7.5 80.0
China 36.3 17.6 2.6 16.9 2.0 33.3 56.3 75.9 10.0 33.0
Colombia 84.1 90.9 5.2 53.6 2.0 33.3 48.0 50.0 8.7 57.6
Corea del Sur 49.5 37.8 4.2 39.5 3.0 66.7 64.0 100.0 7.3 84.5
Costa Rica 78.8 82.8 5.1 52.2 1.0 0.0 40.7 27.2 8.8 55.7
Dinamarca 83.0 89.3 8.5 100.0 4.0 100.0 47.0 46.9 3.9 55.7
El Salvador 46.0 32.6 2.9 21.2 1.0 0.0 47.0 46.9 10.0 33.0
España 71.3 71.3 4.5 43.7 4.0 100.0 44.9 40.3 6.1 97.1
EUA 44.6 30.4 5.7 60.6 3.0 66.7 60.1 87.8 6.7 95.6
Finlandia 76.5 79.3 6.4 70.5 4.0 100.0 48.8 52.5 4.3 63.0
Francia 76.3 79.0 5.6 59.2 4.0 100.0 50.9 59.1 3.3 43.5
Grecia 51.3 40.7 4.0 36.7 2.0 33.3 41.5 29.7 5.1 77.7
Guatemala 39.6 22.8 1.4 0.0 1.0 0.0 38.7 20.9 9.4 43.6
Holanda 62.4 57.7 5.1 52.2 4.0 100.0 44.0 37.5 4.0 57.1
Honduras 56.5 48.6 4.0 36.9 1.0 0.0 36.0 12.5 1.0 0.0
Hungría 72.4 73.0 5.5 57.8 3.0 66.7 42.3 32.2 4.9 73.4
India 24.8 0.0 4.1 38.1 2.0 33.3 45.1 40.9 8.6 59.8
Irlanda 78.9 83.0 5.5 57.8 4.0 100.0 48.0 50.0 4.2 61.0
Israel 68.2 66.6 7.5 85.9 3.0 66.7 50.9 59.1 7.0 91.0
Italia 75.1 77.2 4.7 46.5 2.0 33.3 48.3 50.9 4.2 61.0
Japón 81.0 86.2 3.6 31.1 2.0 33.3 52.0 62.5 6.6 96.9
Malasia 58.2 51.2 8.1 94.4 3.0 66.7 51.5 60.9 8.4 63.4
México 46.5 33.2 5.3 55.0 2.0 33.3 52.0 62.5 7.9 72.6
Nicaragua 48.4 36.3 3.1 24.0 1.0 0.0 32.0 0.0 9.5 41.7
Noruega 83.7 90.3 7.6 87.3 4.0 100.0 47.7 49.1 4.6 68.7
Perú 48.4 36.2 3.0 22.6 3.0 66.7 36.0 12.5 9.2 47.4
Polonia 69.8 69.1 5.6 59.2 3.0 66.7 45.1 40.9 4.9 75.3
Portugal 69.7 68.8 5.8 62.0 3.0 66.7 36.4 13.8 5.2 79.4
Reino Unido 85.8 93.5 5.3 55.0 4.0 100.0 54.8 71.3 6.2 100.0
República Checa 90.0 100.0 4.4 42.3 3.0 66.7 44.6 39.4 2.9 37.1
Rusia 58.9 52.4 3.8 33.9 1.0 0.0 36.8 15.0 6.7 95.3
Sudáfrica 38.6 21.1 5.3 55.0 2.0 33.3 42.0 31.3 8.7 57.3
Suecia 85.2 92.7 7.7 88.7 4.0 100.0 49.1 53.4 3.7 52.3
Suiza 58.5 51.7 5.8 62.0 4.0 100.0 55.4 73.1 6.5 99.0
Tailandia 61.5 56.3 5.2 53.6 2.0 33.3 44.0 37.5 9.1 50.0
Turquía 71.6 71.8 3.7 32.5 2.0 33.3 46.0 43.8 9.4 44.8
Venezuela 44.2 29.8 2.0 8.5 2.0 33.3 48.0 50.0 6.5 99.5

Fuente Worldbank Worldbank EIU Brown University Fraser Institute

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 605


Relaciones internacionales benignas

Ingresos Índice de Dependencia


Llegadas de turistas
por turismo comercio exterior Importaciones

Número
Escala % Escala Escala Escala
por cada (I+X) / PIB (%) Número
0-100 PIB 0-100 0-100 0-100
1,000 hab

Alemania 244.0 10.2 1.3 12.0 66.9 24.1 8.0 77.8


Argentina 90.1 3.7 2.0 19.9 40.5 10.2 2.0 11.1
Australia 237.4 9.9 2.8 30.3 41.6 10.8 5.0 44.4
Austria 2,370.3 100.0 6.3 72.5 92.2 37.4 2.0 11.1
Bélgica 643.9 27.1 2.9 30.8 162.9 74.7 4.0 33.3
Bolivia 45.0 1.8 3.0 33.1 49.6 15.0 3.0 22.2
Brasil 26.1 1.0 0.6 3.0 28.9 4.1 6.0 55.6
Canadá 598.8 25.2 1.5 14.7 79.4 30.7 1.0 0.0
Chile 110.7 4.5 1.6 16.0 65.7 23.4 4.0 33.3
China 32.2 1.2 1.4 13.6 47.7 14.0 5.0 44.4
Colombia 17.6 0.6 1.4 13.0 40.1 10.0 5.0 44.4
Corea del Sur 259.9 10.8 1.0 8.1 84.0 33.1 4.0 33.3
Costa Rica 341.6 14.3 8.6 100.0 90.0 36.3 3.0 22.2
Dinamarca 677.8 28.5 2.4 25.2 83.5 32.8 4.0 33.3
El Salvador 142.8 5.9 4.0 44.6 67.5 24.4 1.0 0.0
España 1,228.1 51.7 4.9 55.8 56.6 18.7 5.0 44.4
EUA 156.9 6.5 1.0 7.9 23.3 1.2 5.0 44.4
Finlandia 543.2 22.8 1.5 14.9 68.8 25.1 5.0 44.4
Francia 1,244.1 52.4 2.0 20.4 52.5 16.5 5.0 44.4
Grecia 1,204.1 50.7 6.2 71.8 50.1 15.3 7.0 66.7
Guatemala 96.1 3.9 2.9 31.9 46.6 13.4 3.0 22.2
Holanda 592.4 24.9 3.6 39.8 120.5 52.3 6.0 55.6
Honduras 95.3 3.9 5.5 62.4 90.1 36.3 1.0 0.0
Hungría 1,208.3 50.9 4.1 45.4 130.6 57.7 5.0 44.4
India 3.2 0.0 0.5 1.8 30.0 4.7 10.0 100.0
Irlanda 1,716.2 72.4 3.3 36.0 170.5 78.6 2.0 11.1
Israel 221.5 9.2 2.4 25.4 83.0 32.6 7.0 66.7
Italia 643.9 27.1 2.3 23.6 53.0 16.8 7.0 66.7
Japón 48.0 1.9 0.3 0.0 21.1 0.0 6.0 55.6
Malasia 630.8 26.5 7.1 81.7 211.0 100.0 4.0 33.3
México 202.0 8.4 1.7 16.7 55.5 18.1 1.0 0.0
Nicaragua 114.4 4.7 4.2 47.7 71.1 26.3 4.0 33.3
Noruega 790.2 33.2 1.4 12.7 68.5 25.0 6.0 55.6
Perú 46.3 1.8 1.7 16.9 33.8 6.7 4.0 33.3
Polonia 374.3 15.7 2.6 27.4 60.7 20.9 5.0 44.4
Portugal 1,106.2 46.6 5.3 60.7 67.9 24.6 3.0 22.2
Reino Unido 463.6 19.4 1.8 17.4 55.4 18.0 7.0 66.7
República Checa 593.3 24.9 4.6 52.0 125.1 54.7 5.0 44.4
Rusia 138.3 5.7 1.2 10.5 59.6 20.3 7.0 66.7
Sudáfrica 149.7 6.2 3.1 34.2 61.2 21.1 6.0 55.6
Suecia 334.0 14.0 1.9 19.1 81.6 31.8 5.0 44.4
Suiza 924.1 38.9 3.4 37.6 81.4 31.7 3.0 22.2
Tailandia 184.3 7.6 8.1 94.0 121.7 53.0 5.0 44.4
Turquía 234.6 9.8 3.5 38.6 59.9 20.4 7.0 66.7
Venezuela 18.6 0.7 0.5 2.1 48.6 14.4 5.0 44.4

Fuente Findland Statistics Worldbank Worldbank CIA World Factbook

606 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Acceso a mercados
Barreras ocultas Dependencia Inversión extranjera
de capitales extranjeros
a la importación Exportaciones directa (neta)
y domésticos

Más alto, Escala Escala % Escala Más alto, Escala


Número
mejor 0-100 0-100 PIB 0-100 mejor 0-100

Alemania 8.8 87.7 7.0 75.0 -1.3 15.8 8.0 79.6


Argentina 5.7 23.5 5.0 50.0 2.7 42.0 7.1 59.1
Australia 8.7 86.0 5.0 50.0 6.7 68.6 8.2 83.0
Austria 8.8 89.5 4.0 37.5 1.4 33.4 8.1 81.8
Bélgica 8.7 86.0 4.0 37.5 11.4 100.0 7.8 74.2
Bolivia 5.8 26.3 2.0 12.5 1.3 33.2 5.5 23.8
Brasil 5.5 19.3 6.0 62.5 3.0 44.3 6.4 44.2
Canadá 8.2 75.4 1.0 0.0 0.6 28.6 7.7 72.6
Chile 9.1 94.7 7.0 75.0 8.0 77.5 8.6 91.7
China 6.4 38.6 3.0 25.0 2.8 43.2 6.2 38.8
Colombia 6.4 38.6 2.0 12.5 3.2 45.3 6.4 43.2
Corea del Sur 7.2 54.4 4.0 37.5 1.0 31.1 6.7 50.1
Costa Rica 6.8 47.4 3.0 25.0 3.4 46.6 7.9 76.7
Dinamarca 9.0 93.0 5.0 50.0 -3.6 0.0 7.7 73.2
El Salvador 7.6 63.2 1.0 0.0 2.9 43.9 7.1 58.6
España 8.3 77.2 4.0 37.5 1.6 34.9 7.6 70.6
EUA 8.2 75.4 5.0 50.0 0.9 30.3 8.1 81.9
Finlandia 9.3 100.0 6.0 62.5 1.7 35.3 8.7 94.1
Francia 8.0 71.9 5.0 50.0 1.2 32.2 7.4 65.1
Grecia 8.3 78.9 7.0 75.0 0.7 28.7 7.1 60.6
Guatemala 6.0 29.8 1.0 0.0 0.6 28.0 5.5 24.9
Holanda 8.8 89.5 4.0 37.5 0.1 24.7 7.8 75.5
Honduras 6.8 45.6 1.0 0.0 4.0 50.7 6.5 47.4
Hungría 7.6 63.2 4.0 37.5 4.6 54.7 8.5 89.7
India 7.0 50.9 7.0 75.0 0.8 29.4 7.4 66.9
Irlanda 8.4 80.7 3.0 25.0 6.1 64.7 8.9 100.0
Israel 8.3 78.9 3.0 25.0 1.4 33.8 7.6 69.9
Italia 7.7 64.9 6.0 62.5 1.0 30.9 5.5 25.5
Japón 7.6 63.2 4.0 37.5 0.2 25.4 6.2 39.3
Malasia 7.3 56.1 4.0 37.5 3.9 50.3 7.4 66.0
México 7.3 56.1 1.0 0.0 2.5 41.2 7.2 61.9
Nicaragua 5.9 28.1 2.0 12.5 5.6 61.3 6.3 41.4
Noruega 8.6 84.2 4.0 37.5 0.2 25.6 7.4 66.9
Perú 7.1 52.6 4.0 37.5 2.6 41.9 6.9 54.2
Polonia 6.3 36.8 5.0 50.0 5.0 57.5 6.8 53.2
Portugal 8.8 89.5 3.0 25.0 0.5 27.5 7.3 63.4
Reino Unido 9.0 93.0 6.0 62.5 3.4 47.0 8.8 96.4
República Checa 7.3 57.9 3.0 25.0 4.1 51.8 7.8 75.3
Rusia 5.6 21.1 9.0 100.0 2.1 38.3 4.4 0.0
Sudáfrica 7.7 64.9 6.0 62.5 0.3 26.1 7.6 71.0
Suecia 9.3 100.0 7.0 75.0 -0.2 23.1 8.2 83.3
Suiza 8.2 75.4 5.0 50.0 -0.2 22.8 7.6 71.5
Tailandia 6.7 43.9 5.0 50.0 0.9 30.1 6.5 46.1
Turquía 6.9 49.1 6.0 62.5 0.9 30.3 6.1 36.6
Venezuela 4.6 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.4 33.5 5.6 27.6

Fuente Fraser Institute CIA World Factbook Worldbank Fraser Institute

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 607


Organizaciones
Llamadas internacionales
Militares Gasto militar internacionales
por suscriptor (dos vías)
a las que pertenece

Escala % Escala % Escala Escala


Minutos Número
0-100 PEA 0-100 PIB 0-100 0-100

Alemania 142.7 24.7 0.7 90.8 1.4 83.9 74.0 71.1


Argentina 65.6 9.4 0.6 92.7 1.1 87.4 63.0 46.7
Australia 275.6 51.1 0.5 93.6 1.9 78.2 58.0 35.6
Austria 170.2 30.1 1.0 86.3 0.8 90.8 72.0 66.7
Bélgica 271.4 50.3 0.8 89.1 1.3 85.1 71.0 64.4
Bolivia 135.1 23.2 1.7 75.5 2.0 77.0 52.0 22.2
Brasil 33.9 3.1 0.8 89.7 1.5 82.8 60.0 40.0
Canadá 521.7 100.0 0.4 95.2 1.1 87.4 72.0 66.7
Chile 74.1 11.0 1.8 73.7 3.9 55.2 54.0 26.7
China 18.5 0.0 0.5 93.9 2.4 72.4 58.0 35.6
Colombia 96.9 15.6 1.5 77.7 3.8 56.3 52.0 22.2
Corea del Sur 35.0 3.3 3.0 55.3 2.4 72.4 59.0 37.8
Costa Rica 122.4 20.6 1.0 86.1 0.0 100.0 46.0 8.9
Dinamarca 206.9 37.4 0.7 90.1 1.5 82.8 71.0 64.4
El Salvador 136.6 23.5 0.6 93.0 0.7 92.0 44.0 4.4
España 152.6 26.6 1.1 84.8 1.1 87.4 66.0 53.3
EUA 490.8 93.9 1.0 86.7 4.0 54.0 73.0 68.9
Finlandia 139.9 24.1 1.2 83.4 1.2 86.2 70.0 62.2
Francia 154.7 27.1 1.3 81.0 2.6 70.1 87.0 100.0
Grecia 119.1 20.0 3.3 50.8 4.1 52.9 63.0 46.7
Guatemala 174.1 30.9 1.2 82.8 0.7 92.0 48.0 13.3
Holanda 239.8 44.0 0.6 91.9 1.7 80.5 66.0 53.3
Honduras 123.8 20.9 0.7 91.2 0.7 92.0 46.0 8.9
Hungría 67.9 9.8 1.1 84.7 1.5 82.8 62.0 44.4
India 74.1 11.0 0.6 92.0 3.0 65.5 61.0 42.2
Irlanda 469.8 89.7 0.5 93.8 0.7 92.0 62.0 44.4
Israel 179.9 32.1 6.6 0.0 8.7 0.0 42.0 0.0
Italia 132.4 22.6 1.9 72.9 2.0 77.0 74.0 71.1
Japón 340.9 64.1 0.4 95.7 1.0 88.5 69.0 60.0
Malasia 127.3 21.6 1.2 82.8 2.3 73.6 56.0 31.1
México 214.8 39.0 0.5 94.1 0.4 95.4 61.0 42.2
Nicaragua 495.4 94.8 0.7 90.5 0.7 92.0 44.0 4.4
Noruega 355.6 67.0 1.0 86.1 2.0 77.0 63.0 46.7
Perú 196.9 35.5 1.2 82.9 1.2 86.2 56.0 31.1
Polonia 83.0 12.8 0.9 87.1 2.0 77.0 67.0 55.6
Portugal 126.9 21.5 1.7 76.0 2.3 73.6 64.0 48.9
Reino Unido 183.6 32.8 0.7 91.1 2.8 67.8 76.0 75.6
República Checa 76.8 11.6 0.5 93.4 1.8 79.3 62.0 44.4
Rusia 47.9 5.8 2.0 70.9 3.9 55.2 71.0 64.4
Sudáfrica 64.2 9.1 0.3 97.0 1.4 83.9 55.0 28.9
Suecia 189.2 33.9 0.6 92.4 1.6 81.6 75.0 73.3
Suiza 470.3 89.8 0.1 100.0 1.0 88.5 66.0 53.3
Tailandia 39.8 4.2 1.2 83.2 1.2 86.2 51.0 20.0
Turquía 47.8 5.8 2.3 65.7 3.1 64.4 60.0 40.0
Venezuela 73.1 10.8 0.7 91.3 1.2 86.2 52.0 22.2

Fuente Worldbank Worldbank Worldbank CIA World Factbook

608 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Sectores económicos con potencial

Agricultura Coeficiente Ingresos por


Servicios
y ganadería de invención royalties y licencias

Número
% Escala % Escala patentes Escala USD Escala
PIB 0-100 PIB 0-100 por millones 0-100 per cápita 0-100
de hab

Alemania 1.1 99.7 69.8 80.8 156.0 17.8 63.4 9.9


Argentina 10.4 57.0 54.0 37.7 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.1
Australia 3.5 88.6 70.7 83.1 26.0 3.0 5.7 0.9
Austria 1.9 96.0 67.0 73.1 95.0 10.9 2.1 0.3
Bélgica 1.4 98.0 73.2 89.9 0.0 0.0 12.3 1.9
Bolivia 15.7 33.0 53.4 36.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brasil 10.4 57.3 49.6 26.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.2
Canadá 2.0 95.3 71.1 84.4 35.0 4.0 36.6 5.7
Chile 5.8 78.0 49.6 25.8 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.1
China 13.1 44.8 40.7 1.6 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.4
Colombia 12.6 47.1 53.6 36.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0
Corea del Sur 3.7 87.7 55.5 41.9 738.0 84.4 21.7 3.4
Costa Rica 8.5 65.8 62.6 61.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dinamarca 2.3 94.3 73.1 89.7 28.0 3.2 0.0 0.0
El Salvador 9.5 61.1 59.6 53.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
España 3.5 88.8 67.3 74.0 39.0 4.5 6.1 0.9
EUA 1.7 97.0 76.9 100.0 281.0 32.2 638.0 100.0
Finlandia 3.2 90.1 65.9 70.2 222.0 25.4 10.3 1.6
Francia 2.5 93.3 75.8 96.9 156.0 17.8 61.4 9.6
Grecia 6.6 74.5 70.4 82.2 29.0 3.3 0.4 0.1
Guatemala 22.9 0.0 58.2 49.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Holanda 2.4 93.5 72.0 86.6 116.0 13.3 51.0 8.0
Honduras 13.4 43.3 56.0 43.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hungría 3.8 87.1 65.0 67.8 15.0 1.7 6.5 1.0
India 19.6 15.3 53.2 35.5 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
Irlanda 4.0 86.2 54.6 39.6 80.0 9.2 2.7 0.4
Israel 2.6 92.8 61.2 57.4 0.0 0.0 6.1 1.0
Italia 2.6 92.6 69.6 80.1 0.0 0.0 9.3 1.5
Japón 1.4 98.0 68.1 76.1 874.0 100.0 190.3 29.8
Malasia 9.5 61.3 40.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1
México 3.9 86.8 69.8 80.8 2.0 0.2 1.1 0.2
Nicaragua 19.5 15.6 56.1 43.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Noruega 1.6 97.6 59.0 51.5 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.5
Perú 10.1 58.6 60.0 54.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Polonia 5.1 81.3 64.0 64.9 20.0 2.3 0.4 0.1
Portugal 3.7 87.9 69.6 80.2 10.0 1.1 0.5 0.1
Reino Unido 1.0 100.0 72.7 88.6 64.0 7.3 142.8 22.4
República Checa 3.4 89.3 58.0 48.7 29.0 3.3 0.7 0.1
Rusia 5.1 81.4 59.4 52.5 133.0 15.2 2.8 0.4
Sudáfrica 3.1 90.7 66.1 70.8 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.1
Suecia 1.8 96.3 69.4 79.8 275.0 31.5 41.9 6.6
Suiza 2.0 95.5 65.8 69.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Tailandia 10.1 58.6 46.4 17.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0
Turquía 12.9 45.7 64.7 66.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Venezuela 4.1 85.8 59.1 51.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Fuente Worldbank Worldbank UNDP Worldbank

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 609


Recursos básicos,
Número de empresas Eficiencia en
Número de investigadores tecnológicos, científicos
con ISO 9000 consumo de agua
y humanos

Número
Por 100,000 Escala Escala Litros por Escala Más alto, Escala
por PEA en
PEA 0-100 0-100 USD (PIB) 0-100 mejor 0-100
millones

Alemania 8.1 2.7 665.6 17.4 17.2 98.6 70.4 71.0


Argentina 6.8 2.3 385.0 10.0 190.8 79.9 31.3 25.5
Australia 33.2 11.1 1,701.3 44.5 37.5 96.4 65.0 64.7
Austria 59.3 19.8 974.7 25.5 7.2 99.7 60.9 59.8
Bélgica 74.2 24.7 1,081.6 28.3 24.8 97.8 64.8 64.4
Bolivia 6.2 2.1 35.2 0.8 165.1 82.6 9.3 0.0
Brasil 0.4 0.1 65.9 1.6 98.2 89.9 27.1 20.7
Canadá 17.6 5.9 540.4 14.1 47.0 95.4 72.4 73.2
Chile 6.0 2.0 145.3 3.7 132.1 86.2 33.6 28.2
China 0.1 0.0 180.3 4.6 326.3 65.2 37.0 32.1
Colombia 0.3 0.1 203.4 5.2 110.7 88.5 30.3 24.3
Corea del Sur 13.6 4.5 530.2 13.8 23.2 98.0 59.9 58.7
Costa Rica 32.0 10.7 59.4 1.5 144.9 84.8 13.1 4.3
Dinamarca 174.0 58.1 364.2 9.5 5.3 99.9 74.0 75.1
El Salvador 1.8 0.6 12.5 0.2 80.9 91.7 11.2 2.2
España 9.9 3.3 2,029.9 53.1 34.3 96.8 47.0 43.7
EUA 0.2 0.0 252.9 6.5 40.9 96.1 95.5 100.0
Finlandia 299.5 100.0 682.2 17.8 13.3 99.0 75.1 76.4
Francia 12.1 4.0 987.4 25.8 19.5 98.4 64.0 63.4
Grecia 35.8 11.9 651.1 17.0 37.9 96.4 41.1 36.9
Guatemala 0.5 0.2 4.9 0.0 73.4 92.6 10.3 1.1
Holanda 31.3 10.4 806.8 21.1 13.7 99.0 69.2 69.5
Honduras 61.7 20.6 3.5 0.0 116.7 87.9 11.2 2.2
Hungría 35.4 11.8 2,457.6 64.3 75.9 92.3 49.6 46.8
India 0.0 0.0 28.3 0.7 929.6 0.0 25.4 18.6
Irlanda 139.3 46.5 876.4 22.9 6.2 99.8 49.4 46.5
Israel 59.3 19.8 2,717.9 71.2 17.5 98.6 63.9 63.3
Italia 23.2 7.7 3,817.2 100.0 26.4 97.6 41.6 37.5
Japón 5.2 1.7 737.6 19.2 19.1 98.4 75.2 76.5
Malasia 1.6 0.5 439.5 11.4 76.2 92.2 43.7 39.9
México 0.5 0.2 78.1 2.0 114.4 88.1 15.3 6.9
Nicaragua 3.8 1.2 14.7 0.3 289.2 69.2 11.2 2.2
Noruega 173.7 58.0 574.3 15.0 8.8 99.5 71.9 72.6
Perú 39.8 13.3 54.5 1.3 293.2 68.8 13.1 4.3
Polonia 9.3 3.1 337.9 8.8 64.2 93.5 30.1 24.1
Portugal 67.9 22.7 923.2 24.1 67.1 93.2 42.2 38.1
Reino Unido 9.2 3.0 1,732.6 45.3 4.5 100.0 57.7 56.2
República Checa 31.0 10.4 2,100.5 55.0 24.0 97.9 49.5 46.6
Rusia 4.6 1.5 52.3 1.3 129.9 86.4 31.6 25.8
Sudáfrica 19.8 6.6 214.4 5.5 58.2 94.2 19.6 11.9
Suecia 121.5 40.5 1,051.1 27.5 8.5 99.6 72.5 73.3
Suiza 87.3 29.1 2,791.4 73.1 7.2 99.7 77.5 79.1
Tailandia 1.0 0.3 164.1 4.2 538.4 42.3 31.5 25.7
Turquía 1.3 0.4 206.2 5.3 123.9 87.1 27.6 21.3
Venezuela 2.0 0.7 30.8 0.7 76.0 92.3 22.2 14.9

Fuente Worldbank ISO FAO IMD Internacional

610 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C.


Anexo estadístico

Generación de Gasto en
Exportaciones Empresas nacionales
riqueza sin investigación
de alta tecnología en Forbes World 500
contaminación y desarrollo

Número por
Emisiones de Escala % Escala % de las Escala Escala
10 millones
CO2/USD (PIB) 0-100 PIB 0-100 exportaciones 0-100 0-100
hab

Alemania 1.2 79.6 2.6 43.4 17.0 28.3 2.4 22.4


Argentina 0.8 90.7 0.4 5.6 8.0 11.3 0.0 0.0
Australia 2.1 53.2 1.5 25.7 14.0 22.6 4.0 36.7
Austria 0.9 88.3 2.3 38.5 12.0 18.9 3.7 33.9
Bélgica 1.1 82.3 2.4 39.8 8.0 11.3 4.8 44.3
Bolivia 1.8 62.5 0.3 3.9 9.0 13.2 0.0 0.0
Brasil 0.7 94.0 1.8 29.4 12.0 18.9 0.4 3.5
Canadá 1.7 64.6 2.0 33.9 14.0 22.6 5.0 46.2
Chile 1.3 77.5 0.6 9.1 5.0 5.7 0.6 5.7
China 2.0 54.4 1.4 23.2 30.0 52.8 0.0 0.1
Colombia 0.8 92.8 0.1 0.7 6.0 7.5 0.0 0.0
Corea del Sur 1.5 70.0 2.7 46.0 33.0 58.5 4.0 37.1
Costa Rica 0.5 100.0 0.6 9.7 37.0 66.0 0.0 0.0
Dinamarca 1.1 82.9 2.6 44.8 20.0 34.0 5.6 51.3
El Salvador 0.7 95.8 0.3 4.3 4.0 3.8 0.0 0.0
España 1.0 85.3 1.1 17.6 7.0 9.4 2.3 21.6
EUA 1.8 62.2 2.7 45.8 32.0 56.6 4.8 44.4
Finlandia 1.3 76.9 3.5 60.4 21.0 35.8 5.7 53.0
Francia 0.8 91.9 2.3 38.6 19.0 32.1 3.1 29.1
Grecia 1.5 70.0 0.6 10.0 11.0 17.0 2.7 25.1
Guatemala 0.7 94.9 0.4 6.0 7.0 9.4 0.0 0.0
Holanda 1.2 78.4 1.7 29.2 29.0 50.9 5.5 51.1
Honduras 0.9 87.4 0.1 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hungría 1.5 71.2 1.2 19.9 29.0 50.9 2.0 18.3
India 1.4 73.6 1.1 17.7 5.0 5.7 0.1 0.7
Irlanda 1.2 78.4 1.1 17.7 34.0 60.4 7.4 68.1
Israel 1.5 70.0 5.8 100.0 19.0 32.1 1.5 13.6
Italia 0.9 88.0 1.2 19.6 8.0 11.3 2.1 19.3
Japón 1.0 85.3 3.2 54.1 24.0 41.5 2.3 21.7
Malasia 1.9 57.7 0.8 12.5 55.0 100.0 0.4 3.7
México 1.3 75.4 0.4 5.1 21.0 35.8 0.2 1.8
Nicaragua 0.9 88.0 0.1 0.8 6.0 7.5 0.0 0.0
Noruega 0.7 93.1 1.6 27.6 18.0 30.2 8.7 80.5
Perú 0.7 95.2 0.1 1.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Polonia 2.8 30.0 0.6 8.7 3.0 1.9 0.0 0.0
Portugal 1.0 86.2 1.0 16.1 9.0 13.2 1.0 8.8
Reino Unido 1.2 80.2 1.9 31.4 24.0 41.5 5.3 49.4
República Checa 2.4 42.3 1.3 20.8 13.0 20.8 0.0 0.0
Rusia 3.8 0.0 1.4 22.5 9.0 13.2 0.1 1.3
Sudáfrica 2.6 38.4 0.6 9.2 6.0 7.5 2.0 18.3
Suecia 0.7 94.3 4.9 83.3 17.0 28.3 3.3 30.8
Suiza 0.6 97.0 2.6 43.5 22.0 37.7 10.8 100.0
Tailandia 1.5 70.3 0.3 3.5 30.0 52.8 0.3 2.9
Turquía 1.3 76.0 0.7 11.4 2.0 0.0 0.3 2.6
Venezuela 3.0 24.0 0.6 8.7 3.0 1.9 0.0 0.0

Fuente CDIAC Worldbank UNDP Forbes

Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. 611


©
Punto de inflexión

Primera edición, 2007. La edición consta de 3,000 ejemplares.


©
Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. (IMCO).
ISBN en trámite. Derechos reservados bajo la Dirección General de Derechos de Autor.

No se permite la reproducción o transmisión parcial o total del libro, sin la previa autorización por escrito del Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad A.C. (IMCO).
Se terminó de imprimir en la Ciudad de México en el mes de marzo de 2007. La dirección y el cuidado de esta edición estuvieron a cargo de Armando
Chacón Villar y Ana Fabiola Quintana. La formación, el diseño y la producción estuvieron a cargo de Fenómena (www.fenomena.com.mx) Karla del Rio,
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de 350 grs. para la portada. Para su formación tipográfica se utilizaron tipos de las familias Din, Helvetica y Tarzana.