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STRESS MANAGEMENT

By

…………………..
(Registration No: ……………….)
Of
……………………….

A project report submitted to

FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

ANNA UNIVERSITY
APRIL 2008
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report on the “…………………………”


is a bonafide project work done by Ms…………………, a full time student
of the Department of Management Studies, ………………………………..,
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Master of Business Administration of the Anna University during the year
…………………

………………. ……………………..
……………….
Project Guide Head of the Department Principal
Of Management Studies

Internal Examiner
External Examiner

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DECLARATION

I, ………………… hereby declare that the report on all fulfillments of the


requirements for the award of the degree in Masters in Business
Administration is a record of original work done by me during the period of
study 2006-2008, under the guidance and supervision of …………………

……………………… ……………………..
Signature of the Faculty Guide Signature of the Candidate

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I cordially thank Anna University for giving me the opportunity to undergo


my project work.

I thank the chairman ………………………….and the principal


……………. ………. for their full fledged support for having given me the
opportunity to study in this Institution.

I thank Mr. ………………………, Head of the Department of Management


Studies for his inspiration and providing me all the facilities to do my
project work.

I would also like to thank our faculty guide ………………………… who


guided me through out the project.

Sincere thanks are also to all the staff members of MBA department for their
valuable guidance and support.

I would also like to thank …………………., Deputy General Manager,


Personnel Department for permitting me to pursue the project in their
esteemed concern and ……………………, Asst. Manager, Personnel
Department for sparing his valuable time to guide me during the project
work and also to all the employees of Avtar Steels.

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Last but not the least I would like to thank the almighty, my family members
and friends for supporting me in hundred little ways that means a lot.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO CONTENTS PG. NO.

LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF CHARTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 INTRODUCTION 2

2 INDUSTRY PROFILE 7

3 COMPANY PROFILE 15

4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 25

5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 28

6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 30

7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 32

8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34

9 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS 39

10 FINDINGS 65

11 SUGGESTIONS 67

12 CONCLUSION 69

BIBLIOGRAPHY I

5
APPENDIX IV

6
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE
TITLE
NO. NO.

DEPARTMENTT WISE CLASSIFICATION OF


9.1 39
EMPLOYEES

9.2 AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES 40

9.3 GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES 41


CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL
9.4 42
QUALIFICATION
MANAGEMENT LEVEL CLASSIFICATION OF
9.5 43
EMPLOYEES

9.6 WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS 44

PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE


9.7 45
ORGANIZATION

PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE


9.8 46
ORGANIZATION

TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE


9.9 47
ORGANIZATION

9.10 PAY PACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION 48

9.11 NATURE OF JOB 49

9.12 COMPLETION OF WORK IN TIME 50

9.13 WORK OVERLOAD 51

9.14 STRESS IN JOB 52

KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE


9.15 53
GROUP

STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT


9.16 54
LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES

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9.17 LEVEL OF STRESS 55

9.18 KIND OF INCONVENIENCE 56

PREFERENCE FOR INDIVIDUAL COPING


9.19 57
STRATEGIES

9.20 KIND OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES 58

9.21 ORGANIZATION COPING STRATEGIES 59

9.22 AGE Vs LEVEL OF STRESS 60

9.23 AGE Vs PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE 61

9.24 EMPLOYEE LEVEL Vs STRESS LEVEL 62

WEIGHTED AVERAGES FOR THE LEVEL OF STRESS


9.25 AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF VARIOUS 63
DEPARTMENTS

LISTOF CHARTS

8
CHART PAGE
TITLE
NO. NO.
DEPARTMENT WISE CLASSIFICATION OF
9.1 39
EMPLOYEES

9.2 AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES 40

9.3 GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES 41

9.4 CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION 42

MANAGEMENT LEVEL CLASSIFICATION OF


9.5 43
EMPLOYEES

9.6 WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS 44

PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE


9.7 45
ORGANIZATION
PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE
9.8 46
ORGANIZATION
TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE
9.9 47
ORGANIZATION

9.10 PAY PACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION 48

9.11 NATURE OF JOB 49

9.12 COMPLETION OF WORK IN TIME 50

9.13 WORK OVERLOAD 51

9.14 STRESS IN JOB 52

KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE


9.15 53
GROUP
STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT
9.16 54
LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES

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9.17 LEVEL OF STRESS 55

9.18 KIND OF INCONVENIENCE 56

9.19 PREFERENCE FOR INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES 57

9.20 KIND OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES 58

9.21 ORGANIZATION COPING STRATEGIES 59

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ABSTARCT

The flagship company of Avtar Steel was a humble yet pioneering beginning made by
its founder and chairman Mr . B. B. JINDAL in the year 1996. He is very well supported
by his two sons Mr. AMIT JINDAL and Mr. SUMIT JINDAL and with the team of
professionals who are expert in their respective fields With his courage of conviction and
his undeterred pursuits for growth and excellence, the company has assumed its present
size and credence of global significance.
A strange new disease has found its way into lives of people of this
industrialized nation of the world. The most common disease is headache. Not only is
this, but diseases like heart attack, high Blood Pressure, stomach disorders, and skin
diseases very common to the people in the present world. These have become the effects
of stress and have become most common in many of the organizations, now-a-days.
Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human
life. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce
stress. We shall divide them into factors related to the organization or job factors related
to the person which include his experience or personality traits.

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1. INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

20TH century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in


human history. Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Peter
Drucker has called it “The Age of Discontinuity”, John Galbraith has called it “The Age
of Future Shock” and Hari Albrecht called it “The Age of Anxiety”.
Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate
echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants’ nurseries we find this world liberally used.
Stress is part of modern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of
a child and enduring with the death of a dear one.
Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are
some of the reasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic
complexity and to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can
no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out
of order, power is shut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school
etc, we feel frustrated and then stressed.
The word stress is derived from a Latin word “stringere”, meaning to draw
tight. From the view point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all
materials when they are subjected to “force, pressure, strain or strong-front”. Every
material steel, rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without
being damaged. Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress is
highly individualistic in nature. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for
stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact,
some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which
activates and energizes then to put forth their best results.
For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she
will perform to full capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the
individual gets bored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to
careless mistakes, forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during
work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the
other hand, stress experience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts

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with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may
experience insomnia, stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness.
The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands
at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individual’s
reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain
external factor or situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an
opportunity, constraint, or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In
short stress is a response to an external factor that results in physical, emotional,
behavioral deviations in a person.
Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human
life. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce
stress. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to
the person which include his experience and personality traits. Job related factors are
work overload, time pressures, poor quality of supervision, insecure political climate, role
conflict and ambiguity, difference between company values and employee values. Person
related factors are death of spouse, or of a close friend, family problems, change to a
different line of work, prolonged illness in the family, change in social activities, eating
habits, etc.,
Personality traits are ‘Type A’ personality. They are impatient, ambitious,
competitive, aggressive, and hardworking. They set high goals and demands of
themselves and others. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory
emotions such as anxiety.

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REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS
There are two major approaches to reduce stress. They are,
• Individual approaches
• Organizational approaches
INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES
An employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level.
Individual strategies that have proven effective include, implementing time management
techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social
support network.

 Time management
Many people manage their time very poorly. Some of well known time
management principles include,
o Making daily list of activities to be accomplished
o Scheduling activities according to the priorities set
o Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency
o Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your
job.
 Physical exercise
Practicing non-competitive physical exercises like aerobics, race
walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bi-cycle.
 Relaxation training
Relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and bio-feedback.
The objective is to reach in state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed,
somewhat from detached from the immediate environment. Fifteen or twenty minutes a
day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of
peacefulness.
 Social support
Having families, friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet,
when stress levels become excessive. So expand your social support network that helps
you with someone to hear your problems.
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ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES
Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and
organizations structure are controlled by management. As such they can be modified or
changed. Some of the strategies that management want to consider include improved
personal self section and job placement, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs,
improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate wellness
programmes.
Certain jobs are more stressful than others. Individual with little experience
or an external lower of control tend to be more proven to stress. Selection and placement
decisions should take these facts into consideration. Goal setting helps to reduce stress. It
also provides motivation. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility, more
meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress, because
these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen
dependence on others.
Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces
uncertainly by lessency role ambiguity and role conflict. Wellness program, say,
employee counseling form on the employee’s total physical and mental condition. They
typically proud work ships to help people quit smoking, control alcohol usage, eat better
and develop a regular exercise program.
Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. It involves
two step procedures. First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress
are identified. For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful
at everything they do. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with
more rational or reasonable ones.
One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep.
Research conducted on laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. Sleep
starved rats have developed stress syndrome. The amount of sleep one requires varies
from person to person and is dependent on one’s lifestyle. The American National Sleep
Foundation claims that a minimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health.
Generally studies shows that young adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. After the
age of 35, six hours of sleep is sufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need
three or four hours.

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2. INDUSTRY PROFILE

Steel Industry

Because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic
development, the steel industry is often considered to be an indicator of economic
progress.
The economic boom in China and India has caused a massive increase in the
demand for steel in recent years. Between 2000 and 2005, world steel demand increased
by 6%. Since 2000, several Indian and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence like
Tata Steel (which bought Corus Group in 2007), Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation
and Shagang Group. ArcelorMittal is however the world's largest steel producer.
The British Geological Survey reports that in 2005, China was the top producer of
steel with about one-third world share followed by Japan, Russia, and the USA.
In 2008, steel started to be traded as a commodity in the London Metal Exchange. At the
end of 2008, the steel industry faced a sharp downturn that led to many cut-backs

Steel is the most widely recycled material in the United States. The steel industry
has been actively recycling for more than 150 years, in large part because it is
economically advantageous to do so. It is cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore
and manipulate it through the production process to form 'new' steel. Steel does not lose
any of its inherent physical properties during the recycling process, and has drastically
reduced energy and material requirements compared with refinement from iron ore. The
energy saved by recycling reduces the annual energy consumption of the industry by
about 75%, which is enough to power eighteen million homes for one year. Recycling
one ton of steel saves 1,100 kilograms of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal, and
55 kilograms of limestone. 76 million tons of steel were recycled in 2005.

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A pile of steel scrap in Brussels, waiting to be recycled.

In recent years, about three quarters of the steel produced annually has been recycled.
However, the numbers are much higher for certain types of products. For example, in
both 2004 and 2005, 97.5% of structural steel beams and plates were recycled. Other
steel construction elements such as reinforcement bars are recycled at a rate of about
65%. Indeed, structural steel typically contains around 95% recycled steel content,
whereas lighter gauge, flat rolled steel contains about 30% reused material.
Because steel beams are manufactured to standardized dimensions, there is often very
little waste produced during construction, and any waste that is produced may be
recycled. For a typical 2,000-square-foot (200 m2) two-story house, a steel frame is
equivalent to about six recycled cars, while a comparable wooden frame house may
require as many as 40–50 trees.

Global demand for steel continues to grow, and though there are large amounts of
steel existing, much of it is actively in use. As such, recycled steel must be augmented by
some first-use metal, derived from raw materials. Commonly recycled steel products
include cans, automobiles, appliances, and debris from demolished buildings. A typical
appliance is about 65% steel by weight and automobiles are about 66% steel and iron.
While some recycling takes place through the integrated steel mills and the basic oxygen
process, most of the recycled steel is melted electrically, either using an electric arc
furnace (for production of low-carbon steel) or an induction furnace (for production of
some highly-alloyed ferrous products).

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many
purposes. Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel
production.[1] High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight)
of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest
price increase. Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum,
manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the
harden ability of thick sections. Stainless steels and surgical stainless steels contain a
minimum of 10% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion (rust). Some
stainless steels are magnetic, while others are nonmagnetic.

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Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large
amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This
also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature
resistance.

Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp,
long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as
Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-
painted.

Many other high-strength alloys exist, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat
treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure for extra strength.
Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat
treatments to stabilize amounts of austentite at room temperature in normally austentite-
free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain to the metal, the austentite undergoes a
phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat. Maraging steel is alloyed with
nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains almost no carbon at all.

This creates a very strong but still malleable metal. Twinning Induced Plasticity
(TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening
on the alloy. Eglin Steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying
amounts to create a relatively low-cost metal for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield
steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which
when abraded forms an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include
tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life. A special class
of high-strength alloy, the superalloys, retain their mechanical properties at extreme
temperatures while minimizing creep. These are commonly used in applications such as
jet engine blades where temperatures can reach levels at which most other alloys would
become weak.

Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades
by standards organizations. For example, the Society of Automotive Engineers has a
series of grades defining many types of steel. The American Society for Testing and

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Materials has a separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the most
commonly used structural steel in the United States.

Though not an alloy, galvanized steel is a commonly used variety of steel which
has been hot-dipped or electroplated in zinc for protection against corrosion

Ministry of Steel (India)

The Ministry of Steel, a branch of Government of India, is the apex body for
formulating all policies regarding steel production, distribution and pricing in India. All
steel companies except Tata Steel are under the administrative control of the Government
of India. As of May 2008, The Ministry is headed by a Minister of Cabinet rank, Ram
Vilas Paswan, and is assisted by a Minister of State, Akhilesh Das

Steel industry reforms – particularly in 1991 and 1992 – have led to strong and
sustainable growth in India’s steel industry.

Since its independence, India has experienced steady growth in the steel industry, thanks
in part to the successive governments that have supported the industry and pushed for its
robust development.

Further illustrating this plan is the fact that a number of steel plants were established in
India, with technological assistance and investments by foreign countries.

In 1991, a substantial number of economic reforms were introduced by the Indian


government. These reforms boosted the development process of a number of industries –
the steel industry in India in particular – which has subsequently developed quite rapidly.

India continually posts phenomenal growth records in steel production. In 1992, India
produced 14.33 million tones of finished carbon steels and 1.59 million tones of pig iron.
Furthermore, the steel production capacity of the country has increased rapidly since

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1991 – in 2008, India produced nearly 46.575 million tones of finished steels and 4.393
million tones of pig iron.

Both primary and secondary producers contributed their share to this phenomenal
development, while these increases have pushed up the demand for finished steel at a
very stable rate.

In 1992, the total consumption of finished steel was 14.84 million tones. In 2008, the
total amount of domestic steel consumption was 43.925 million tones. With the increased
demand in the national market, a huge part of the international market is also served by
this industry. Today, India is in seventh position among all the crude steel producing
countries.

The 1991 reforms allowed for no licenses to be required for capacity creation, except for
some locations. Also, once India’s steel industry was moved from the listing of the
industries that were reserved exclusively for the public sector, huge foreign investments
were made in this industry.
Yet another reform for India’s steel industry came in 1992, when every type of control
over the pricing and distribution system was removed, making the modern Indian Steel
Industry extremely efficient, as well as competitive.
Additionally, a number of other government measures have stimulated the growth of the
steel industry, coming in the form of an unrestricted external trade, low import duties,
and an easy tax structure.

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STEEL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY

Countries Production Countries Production


CHINA 394.9 Mton FRANCE 19.5 Mton
JAPAN 112.5 Mton TAIWAN 18.6 Mton
UNITED 94.9 Mton SPAIN 17.8 Mton

STATES
RUSSIA 66.1 Mton MEXICO 16.2 Mton
SOUTH KOREA 47.8 Mton CANADA 15.3 Mton
GERMANY 44.5 Mton UK 13.2 Mton
UKRAINE 38.6 Mton BELGIUM 10.4 Mton

SWOT ANALYSIS
 Huge fund
Strength  Skilled employees
 Monopoly

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 expansion
Weakness  red tape
 rules and regulation
Opportunities  Modernization
 World class standard
Threats  Legal issues
 Security issues

Avtar Steels proposition


Through its large pool of professional experts in varied disciplines of civil
aviation, it offers consultancy services in following fields.
1. Feasibility study and master planning
2. Economic impact study.
3. Environment impact study.
4. Construction and operations steels terminals.
5. Communication and navigation
6. HR department
7. Commercial exploitation
8. R&D

HUMAN RESOURCES OF AVTAR STEELS


Avtar Steels comprises of highly professional motivated and trained man power
which helped it emerge as a professional organization on the horizon of aviation sector.
High morale of employees continues to boost smooth operation of its steelss towards
accomplishing the objective of customer satisfaction. The authority has successfully used
the Human Resource Tools like Job Rotation, Redeployment etc to sustain employee's
interest in their job.
Avtar Steels has a strength of about 21,000 employees both executives and non-
executives the management of AVTAR STEELS firmly believes that through this
invaluable assets of human resources alone, it can achieve its goals utmost care is taken
in the employees welfare and various schemes have been introduced for the enlistment
and better living standards of the AVTAR STEELS Fraternity.
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HIERARCHY OF STAFF AT AVTAR STEELS (IAD)

1. GROUP ‘A’ 2 Levels of

2. GROUP ‘B; Management


3. GROUP ‘C’ 3
4. GROUP ‘D’
4

CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

EXECUTIVES NON-EXECUTIVES

Group “A” Group “B” Group “C” Group “D”

Exe. Director Superintendent


Gen. Manager Asst. Manager Supervisor Sr. Attendant
Dy. GM Junior Executive Sr. Assistant Attendant
Asst. GM Sr. Spdt. Assistant Jr. Attendant
Sr. Manager Jr. Assistant
Manager

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AVTAR STEELS has a professional consultancy
division comprising of competent designers, planners, architects, computer analysts and
research engineers. The construction division undertakes execution of projects strictly
according to schedule with the use of latest project management techniques and high-tech
construction equipment.

AVTAR STEELS MANAGEMENT:


In addition to technical services, AVTAR STEELS provides expertise in steels
management. AVTAR STEELS offers know-how and services in the fields of steels and
other industries .and financial management.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND SAFETY


Customer satisfaction and safety are the core priorities of AVTAR
STEELS. In its endeavor to provide world class passenger amenities and services, the
authority is developing move international steelss in the country and improving facilities
in Domestic steelss

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AVTAR STEELS IS REGISTERED WITH
• International Bank of reconstruction and development (world Bank)
• International civil aviation organization
• African development bank
• Asian development bank
• Kuwait fund for Arab development
• Government of Zambia
• Republic of Iraq

FOREIGN PROJECTS EXECUTED BY AVTAR STEELS


AVTAR STEELS has undertaken assignments, like
steels feasibility studies, steels design project implementation & project supervision,
manpower training, Steels mgt and operation on turnkey basics , providing manpower for
steels operation including air traffic services, ground navigation / surveillance facilities
etc. The AVTAR STEELS has undertaken consultancy projects in Libya, Algeria,
Yemen, Maldives, Nauru, Afghanistan, Iraq, Nepal, Nigeria, Zambia etc.

STEELS CLASSIFICATION
International steels
There are declared as international steels and are available for scheduled international
operations by Indian and foreign carriers. Presently, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Calcutta,
and Trivandrum are in this category.
Domestic steelss
 Customs steelss with limited international operations (Limited
international operations)

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 Model steelss-runway-7500 feet and terminal capacity is 400 and above,
320 type of air craft.
 Other domestic steelss -71
 Civil enclaves in defense steels-28
GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF STEELSS
 Northern region
 Southern region
 Eastern region
 Western region
 North eastern region

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3.
COMPANY PROFILE
AVTAR STEELS, CHENNAI DIVISION,

Avtar Steel Ltd. is a conglomerate of companies dealing in manufacturing and


exports ofa diverse range of Stainless Steel’s INGOTS, HOT ROLLED FLATS,
ROLLED ROUNDS, FORGED ROUNDS, BRIGHT BARS as well as ALLOY STEELS
also. With two of the companies being established houses – recognized by the
government of India as Pvt. Ltd Firms being reputed, High Profile, Independent, Yet
Interlinked Units, the picture of a professionally managed and growth oriented industrial
empire is complete.

The flagship company of Avtar Steel was a humble yet pioneering beginning made by its
founder and chairman Mr . B. B. JINDAL in the year 1996. He is very well supported by
his two sons Mr. AMIT JINDAL and Mr. SUMIT JINDAL and with the team of
professionals who are expert in their respective fields With his courage of conviction and
his undeterred pursuits for growth and excellence, the company has assumed its present
size and credence of global significance. The journey has been tedious and tiring, the
efforts – Herculean, The expectations of its Patrons-Nerve Wrecking and the never
receding competition in the global markets – Mind Boggling. Yet success at Avtar Steel
has never been an end in itself rather a motivation to outperform its previous accolades.
And all through this long, Tedious and soul and body wrecking process of evolution, the
beautiful melody of the words of learned David Frost has been its constant companion:

QUALITY POLICY
“To provide our passengers a safe smooth and enjoyable transit
through Chennai steels. Also to provide secured and speedy movement of international
steels through Chennai steels

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MISSION
To deliver superior value to our customers, employees and society at large. We will
follow this principle in evaluating and guiding our business activities.
We will to set an example of quality works and intend to contribute to build a flourishing
economy. We will achieve this by offering our clients a comprehensive portfolio of
commercially viable products coupled with the expertise and services required. We will
endeavour to create high quality products that enable the growth of our organization. At
Avtar Steel Ltd., the well-trained staff will achieve job satisfaction through security,
motivation and harmonious work environments.

VISION

We recognize that every organization is different with its own unique business objectives,
commercial approach and culture. That is why we have created flexibility and
pragmatism with in our service options enabling us to tailor services to meet specific
objectives

Our customers are our biggest asset and customer satisfaction ranks first on our business
priorities. Over the years, we have grown to diversify into various fields but never have
we let go off our roots. We lay stress on worker’s training, sensitization, orientation and
updating their skills for over all exposure as well as growth

VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN AVTAR STEELS CHENNAI


1. Human Resource department
2. Department of finance and Accounts
3. Department of Sales
4. Department of operations
5. Department of commercial
6. Department of Legal
7. Department of project

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1) HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT IN AVTAR STEELS CHENNAI
As like any other organization, HR department at AA1 also takes the
responsibility in maintaining its employee's welfare as well as its policy.
Main functions
 It identifies and meets the man power requirements of Chennai steels.
 It recruits and selects the Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ positions
 It implements welfare measures and carries out performance appraisal
techniques.
 It conducts training and development programmes
 It ensures discipline and maintains industrial relations.
STEELS DIRECTOR
Quality policy of the HR Department
"Select the right personnel for the Right job and provide him with the right
working at".
Manpower position at Chennai Steels::

Group Sanctioned strength Men in position Vacancy position


A 78 86 +8
B 143
DY. GENERAL MANAGER 151
(P&A) +8
C 668 557 111
D 549 479 82
TOTAL 1438 1273 165

Main activities
1) Recruitment and promotion cell.
2) Disciplinary cell.
3) Performance appraisal cell
4) Advances (HBA, Vehicle and other advance)
5) Leave cell
6) Training and welfare cell.
7) LTE and CEA cell.
8) Services records
9) Central dispatch
10) Central diary

32
STEELS D

ORGANISATION CHART OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT

Personal
Assistant

SR. PERSONNEL
MANAGER ASST. MANAGER
MANAGER
(PERSONNEL) (OFF. LANGUAGE)

Sr. Asst. (O)


Sr. Supdt.(O) Leave Cell Sr. Supdt. (Hindi
R & P Cell Translator)

Sr. Supdt.(O) Sr.Asst. (O) Sr. Asst. (Steno)


Disciplinary Cell LTC & ALTC Hindi

Sr. Supdt.(O) Sr. Asst. (O) Asst. (O) Service


Pay Fixation Advances Records

Sr. Asst. (O)


Performance Asst.(O) Asst.(O)
Training & Central Dispatch
Appraisal Welfare Cell & Diary
Cell

Daftry & ALL GROUP


DMO ‘D’ STAFF

33
DY. GENERAL MANAGER (P&A)

HUMAN RESOURCE POLICY &IRECTOR


RULES
Transfer policy
Generally, transfers are meant to utilize the individual skill/potential in areas in
which he/she has been trained /skilled. The transfer policy shall apply to all the
transferable posts in all discipline.
1. Normal transfer season: for both inter region and intra region.
Normal transfer season would be (April & May, each year)
2. Inter regional transfer.
3. Intra regional transfer
4. Home town
5. Transfer on promotion.
6. Transfer to tenure stations.
7. Transfer from tenure stations.
8. Exemptions from transfer.

Employee welfare measures in AVTAR STEELS


The employee welfare program at AVTAR STEELS in based on the
management policy, which is aimed shaping perfect employees. Therefore, the concept of
employee's welfare includes tow aspects, namely physical and mental welfare.
Welfare at AVTAR STEELS is,
1. Application of merit system or work performance system as the basis for
employee rewarding
2. Employee insurance program to provide the employees with better security.
3. Improvement in health security for one employees and their families, so that they
may work confidently and productively.
4. Receives on social psychology no reach a balance between physical and mental
well being.
5. Providing facilities for employees to make use of the allowance for housing,
vehicles etc.
6. Providing education allowance for employee's children for their studies.
7. Providing rest rooms to five the employees to relax after the light schedule.

34
Employee motivation schemes
1. Incentive scheme for acquiring professional/additional qualifications
2. Production linked incentive
3. Flexible complementing scheme (FCS): Staffs that have been waiting for
promotion for long years after completing the eligibility period.
4. Career progression scheme (CPS): As a one time measure Asst.
managers/managers in various disciplines are eligible for consideration for
promotion to the next higher post.

Combination of different kinds of leaves / holidays


• Regular leave - Saturday, Sundays
• Casual leave
• Restricted holiday
• Compensatory holiday
• Holidays
• Special casual leave

2) DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS


Functions
o Maintenance of a system of financial control, internal check and financial
scrutiny of all expenditure and revenue proposals.
o Disbursements to staff including retired persons
o Disbursements to outside agencies for supplies and services provided.
o Revenue billing, follow up and realization.
o Preparation of budget and maintenance of a proper system of budgetary
control.
o Maintenance of financial accounts in accordance with the directions of
Headquarters and preparations of financial statements.
o Management of info systems.

35
o Coordinating with internal and external audit and government audit for
smooth disposal of audit queries.
Different sections in accounts department
1. Revenue section.
2. Steels accounts section.
3. Budget and accounts section
4. Works section
5. Establishment sections
6. Contributory provident fund section (CPF)

3) DEPARTMENT OF STEELS
1. Export
2. Import
3. Transshipment
AVTAR STEELS air steels terminals provide for truck locks, strong
rooms, live animals sheds, hazardous steels go down and palletisation station, offices for
airlines, government regulatory agencies, multimodal steels operators, break bulk agents,
and consolidators for ease of operation and user convenience.

4) DEPARTMENT OF OPERATIONS
The entire function of the terminal building is been
controlled by the operations dept. The work has been divided and is controlled by various
sections according to their activities such as house keeping, electronic, material
management.

Functions:

 Receipt and disposal of complaints and possible action on comments and


suggestions from the passenger/user agencies.

 To maintain and look after terminal building, city side and baggage make up
and baggage breakup areas to ensure service ability of facilities provided.
Handling terminal building and air craft emergencies and bomb threats as per
laid down emergency procedure.

36
 Handling of VVIPS/VIPS and, up keep and allotment of retiring rooms.

 Lost and found property receipt, shortages are sent to the department after
expiry of 24 hours. Perishable item can be disposed off with in reasonable
time.

 Coordination with electrical, civil electronics departments for service ability


of terminal facilities.

 Coordination with airlines/agencies and regulatory authorities in the


steels.

 Endeavoring enjoyable transit for passengers.

 Carrying out terminal inspections, city side, toilet inspections and record
observations toilet cave provided.

5) DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCIAL
AVTAR STEELS has over last 10 years or so
developed a team of experts in the field of commercial aspects and based on the
experience gained, can provide assistance to other steels operators in improving the
financial viability of the steelss.
Functions:

 Management of all commercial revenue contracts

 All space allotment s in the steels area

 Insurance of AVTAR STEELS assets

 Allotment of residential quarters

 Allotment of community centre

 Recommendation of passes to concessionaires/agencies.

 Manage ground handling functions

 Administrative work.

6) DEPARTMENT OF LEGAL

37
Objectives:
o To minimize the cases against AVTAR STEELS
o Providing legal assistance/advice to other dept on the queries required.
o Speedy disposal of the files.
o Attending and making available facts oat the time of contingency
situations of AA1 and acting according to the contingency plan.
Documents maintained:
o Policy circular issued of the HQ.
o Regulation of AA1.
o Delegation of power.
o Judgment copies of the important cases.
o Notification files.

7) DEPARTMENT OF GROUND FLIGHT SAFETY


Functions:
 Issue of temporary/permanent vehicle permits.
 Arranging airfield environment management and aerodrome committee
meetings.
 Issue of airfield driving permit to drivers/operators.
 Arranging full scale aircraft crash mockup exercise.
 Arranging for disabled aircraft movement.
 Correspondence with air traffic services/ Hqrs/ airlines/ municipalities.
 Implement safety management systems and future developments

8) DEPARTMENT OF PROJECT
The project department handles with under taking of new projects for the
development or the expansion of the steels. There are two major sub divisions which
handle the project by the specific department. They are
1) Electrical division
2) Civil division

Electrical department:

38
As per the head of the department DGM shall be over all in charge for proper
administration of "Work contract" and shall ensure that all provisions of the contract
agreement are correctly implemented and installed of the same quality.

RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS:

• Over all proper admin of work contract and shall ensure that all
provisions of contract agreement are correctly implemented.
• To accord technical sanction and approval of draft NIT as per
• Delegation of power.
• To assist and guide engineer-in charge. In processing and defending
the arbitration proceedings.
• To exercise effective budgetary control.
• To issue completion certificates.
• To attend periodical HOD meetings conducted by APD.

Civil Department:
The main duty of civil department is to examine the details which are given
in the report as per the requirement. The total expenses for the completion of the project,
number of bricks required, and time required for the completion of the project and the
necessity of the product.
Duties and Responsibilities
o To project yearly budget for the maintenance and original works.
o Responsible for utilization of funds provided in the approved budget.

39
o To guide engineer in charge and approval of extra items/ substituted items.
o To finalize replies to CTE'S observations and submit the same with in the
stipulated time.
o Follow up observations of quality control and those raised by technical
and financial audit.
o To exercise effective budgetary control.
o The civil department is not only responsible for the construction works but
also take care of the environment of the steels through horticulture.

40
PRODUCT PROFILE
Avtar steels has a huge amount of products dealing with and it continues to produce more
for the welfare of the society. Following are some of the products of the company

1. INGOTS:

Ingots of all sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades are manufactured at
Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It covers the range
of both standard as well as special products. Ingots are manufactured confirming to ISO
standards.

Avtar Steel manufacture all types of :

INGOT SIZES WEIGHT OF THE


INGOT
In Inches In Millimeters
......In Kgs/piece
3X4X47 76X102X1194 65
4X5X39 102X127X991 90
4X5X47 102X127X1194 110
4X5X47 101X127X1194 135
41
5.5X6.5X46 140X165X1169 200
7X8X39 178X203X991 275
7X8X47 178X203X1194 325
7.25X8.25X47 184X210X1194 210
8X9X47 203X229X1194 400

2. BRIGHT BARS :

In Steel Industry we are known amongst the Best Bright Bar producers in INDIA. The
production range includes Rounds, Flats, Ingots, Strips up to 15000 tons per annum.

3. HOT ROLLED BLACK BARS:

Our Hot Rolled Bar is perfect product for the needof the forging companies, likewise
upsetting or Re-Rolling.

• While hot rolling by selection of the most appropriate Ingot/ Billet size optimum
reduction ratios are maintained. Which further ensure the complete breakage of as
cast product and afterwards resulting the good internal soundness in the rolled
products.
• At every step proper identification and traceability of the material is maintained
for the proper sorting of the material as per grade vise.

4. FLATS:

Flats of different sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades are
manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It
covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Flats are manufactured
confirming to ISO standards.

5. FORGED :

Heavy Forged rounds weighing are specially used in forging industry.


42
We at AVTAR STEEL offer forging rounds for the various application likewise forging
upsetting , ring rolling, production of bars, flats, and large sized flanges.

6. HOT ROLLED PATTI:

Flat strips of different sizesand lengths confirming to all standards and grades are
manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial applications It
covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Flats are manufactured
confirming to ISO standards.

7. FLAT (ACID BRIGHT):

Flats of acid bright of different sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades
are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial
applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products. Flats are
manufactured confirming to ISO standards.

Avtar Steel manufacture all types of Flats (Acid Bright):

THICKNES WIDTH
LENGTH in ( in inches)
5 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
6 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
8 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
10 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
12 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
16 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
20 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
25 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr
30 mm 160 mm & 170 mm up to 6 Mtr

8. COLD ROLLED PATTA:

Cold Rolled Patta of different sizes and lengths confirming to all standards and grades
are manufactured at Avtar Steel. The products are well-suited for all industrial
applications It covers the range of both standard as well as special products are
manufactured confirming to ISO standards.

43
Avtar Steel manufacture all types of Cold Rolled Flat (Bright Patta):

Thickness (In mm) Width (In mm)


Length (In inches)
3mm 500 mm 90"
4mm 400 mm 70"
5mm 400 mm 60"

44
4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is


necessary to know the areas already covered. This will help to find our new areas
uncovered and to study them in depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the
employees are briefly reviewed here.

The research study of Jamal. M* finds that job stressors were significantly
related to employees’ psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at the
job, and absenteeism. Type A behavior was found to be an important moderator of the
stress outcome relationship.

Brief. A. P. and J. M. Atieh*, argues that it is not safe to assume that job
conditions that have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a
negative impact on overall subjective well-being.

Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect


characterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension.

Recent research into the interaction between the mind body show that we
may place our body on stress ‘alert’ quite unconsciously, because of our psychological
and emotional attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and
anger can produce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a
concrete challenge. So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the
energy created by the body to challenge or learn how to “turn off”, the response using a
conscious relaxation technique.

* Jamal M. “Job stress-prone Type A behavior, personal and organizational


consequences”, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74.

45
Brief. A. P and J. M. Atieh, “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of
molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26.
Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation
Syndrome (GAS), for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to
emotional strives and strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in
three important stages. 1. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage.

Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are


brought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles
as a result of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic)

According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading
cause of loss of work time in U. S. industry.

Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal


individual and his environment. They designate the internal and external consultive
forces as ‘pressures’ or ‘stressors’ and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress.

* Stephen Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U.K, 1989 pp 499-501.


Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, “Understanding Executive Stress”, The McMillan Press
Ltd, 1978 p 4.

46
47
5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary objective:

• To undergo an in-depth study about the stress among the employees of


AVTAR STEELS.

Secondary objective:

• To identify the factors causing stress among the employees.


• To find out the level and kind of stress among the employees of different age
groups.
• To study about the effects of stress on employees in AVTAR STEELS.
• To identify the coping strategies to manage stress.

48
49
6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands
at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individual’s
reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Hence this study would help the
organization to know the factors of stress and to reduce the stress in employees. Since it
is a well known fact that healthy employee is a productive employee.

50
51
7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In spite of the precautions, vigilance and


scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make the study objective, it cannot be denied
that there are certain limitations.

 The employees were reluctant to give correct information.

 Even though the employees gave correct information during the


unstructured interview conducted, they gave positive answer while
answering the questionnaire.

 The investigator intended to cover only few areas of stress relevant to


the proposed study.

 As the study was done within a limited time, investigator could not
select a sufficiently large sample for the study.

52
53
8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the


investigation of matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering,
interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human
knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research
can use the scientific method, but need not do so.

Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of


curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of
the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications
possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations
and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided
into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The


research methodology in the present study deals with research design, data collection
methods, sampling methods, survey, analysis and interpretations.

APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. In this
approach, a problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule.
This approach enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation.

54
RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of
data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
procedure.
• A well structured questionnaire is framed.
• Data is collected from the employees in AVTAR STEELS.
• Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given.

55
DATA SOURCES
There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and
secondary data collection.
PRIMARY DATA
The primary data is defined as the data, which is collected for the first time and fresh in
nature, and happen to be original in character through field survey.
Primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews
and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and
your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it.

There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

• questionnaires

• interviews
• focus group interviews
• observation
• case-studies
• diaries
• critical incidents
• portfolios.

SECONDARY DATA
56
The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone
else and have been passed through statistical process. The secondary data for this study
are already available in the firm's internal records, annual report, broaches, and
company's website.

In research, Secondary data is collecting and possibly processing data by people other
than the researcher in question. Common sources of secondary data for social science
include censuses, large surveys, and organizational records (Mintel). In sociology
primary data is data you have collected yourself and secondary data is data you have
gathered from primary sources to create new research. In terms of historical research,
these two terms have different meanings. A primary source is a book or set of archival
records. A secondary source is a summary of a book or set of records.

Advantages to the secondary data collection method are - 1) it saves time that would
otherwise be spent collecting data, 2) provides a larger database (usually) than what
would be possible to collect on ones own However there are disadvantages to the fact that
the researcher cannot personally check the data so it's reliability may be questioned.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD


The data collection method used in this research is survey method. Here the
data are systematically recorded from the respondents.

57
RESEARCH TOOL
A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from
the respondents. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the
respondents for their despondence. The various types of questions used in this survey
are:
 Open ended questions
 Closed ended questions
 Multiple choice questions

SAMPLING-MEANING

58
Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual
observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially
for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more
properties (weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish
objects or individuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for
the sample design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to
guide practice.

The sampling process comprises several stages:

• Defining the population of concern


• Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure
• Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame
• Determining the sample size
• Implementing the sampling plan
• Sampling and data collecting
• Reviewing the sampling process

SAMPLE UNIT
The employees of AVTAR STEELS are the sample unit in the survey.

SAMPLE SIZE
The sample size chosen for this study is 100.
HR - 15
CIVIL - 10
ELECTRICAL - 10
STEELS - 35
ACCOUNTS - 25
COMMERCIAL - 5
----------
100
TYPE OF SAMPLING

59
The sampling type is non-probability which involves deliberating selections of
particular units constituting a sample, which represents the universe.
STRATIFIED SAMPLING:
Stratum means a layer population from which samples are to be selected
may contain a number of layers from each layer a few samples are selected that is why
this method is called stratified sampling.

STATISTICAL METHODS USED


 Percentage analysis
 Bars & charts
 Pie diagrams
STATISTICAL TOOLS USED
 Chi-square test
 Weighted average
PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS:
Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making
comparison between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relative
terms the distribution of two or more series of data.
No. of Respondents
Percentage of Respondents = ------------------------ X 100
Total Respondents

60
DEFINITION OF HYPOTHESIS:
According to Goode and Hatt, "Hypothesis is a proposition, which can be put to
test to determine validity".
A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two
or more variables expressed in the form of testable statement.
NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0):
Null hypothesis is formulated only to test whether there is any relationship
between variables related to the problem being studied. Usually the null hypothesis is
formed as a negative statement.
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS (H1):
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) is a statement, which is accepted after the null
hypothesis is rejected based on the test result. The alternate hypothesis usually is formed
as a positive statement
CHI-SQUARE TEST:
The Chi-Square test is one of the simplest and most
widely used non parametric tests in statistical work. The symbol X2 is the Greek letter
Chi. Karl Pearson first used the chi-square test in the year 1980. The quantity chi-square
describes the magnitude of the discrepancy between theory and observation.

In this Chi-square test Yates correction is used when the value of observed frequency in
less than 10. The formula is given as,

 X2  = (|Oi – Ei|)2


Ei
Power of Association Test:
If calculated value (cal) > X2  table value the Null
hypothesis is rejected and it is interpreted that the two variables are associated with each
other. This chi-square test is strong one for determining the existence of association
between two variables.

61
WEIGHTED AVERAGE:
It can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by
certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of
weights.
If x1, x2, x3 ...xn are n values and f1, f2, f3........fn are their weights (frequencies)
respectively then,
f1x1+f2x2+.....+fnxn
X = ---------------------------
f1+f2+.......+fn

PILOT STUDY (Tested with 10 samples initially):


Pilot study is defined as a study, which is done in the initial stage of the
project in order to find the reliability of the questionnaire and to restructure the
questionnaire on the respondent's suggestions.
IMPORTANCE OF PILOT STUDY:
 It will increase the reliability of the scheduler.
 It helps to restructure the scheduler.
 It identifies the defects in the scheduler.
 It helps to add or remove the questions in the scheduler.

AREA AND PERIOD OF SURVEY:


The project is being done for a period for three months from January 7, 2008 to
April 7, 2008 and the survey was conducted in AVTAR STEELS, Chennai.

62
63
9. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

Table 9.2: AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

AGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


(21-30) YRS 69 23%
(31-40) YRS 75 25%
(41-50) YRS 72 24%
50 & ABOVE YRS 84 28%
Total 300 100%

CHART 9.2: AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
S
S

S
S

R
R

Y
Y

E
)
)

V
0
30

50
4

O
1-

1-

1-

B
(2

(3

(4

A
&
50

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that 25% of the respondents are
between (31-40) yrs, 24% of the respondents are between (41-50) yrs, 28% of the
respondents are above 50 years and 23% of the respondents are between (21-30) yrs.

64
TABLE 9.3: GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

GENDER NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


MALE 171 57%
FEMALE 129 43%
Total 300 100%

CHART 9. 1: GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

MALE
FEMALE

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 57% of the respondents are male and 43%
of the respondents are female.

65
TABLE 9.4: CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

QUALIFICATION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


SSLC 60 20%
UNDER GRADUATE 69 23%
POST GRADUATE 51 17%
TECHNICAL 51 17%
PROFESSIONAL 69 23%
Total 300 100%

CHART 9. 2: CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

SSLC

UNDER
GRADUATE
POST GRADUATE

TECHNICAL

PROFESSIONAL

Inference:
It is evident from the survey that 69% of the respondents are
professionally qualified,23% of the respondents have graduation, 17% of the respondents
have post graduation and technically qualified, 20% of the respondents have only done
finished SSLC.

66
TABLE 9.5: WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS

ATTRIBUTES NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


< 5 YRS 75 25%
(5-10) YRS 69 23%
(10-15) YRS 84 28%
> 15 YRS 72 24%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 5: WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
<5 (5-10) (10-15) > 15
YRS YRS YRS YRS

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 24% of the respondents have more
than 15 years of experience, 23% of the respondents have (5-10) yrs of experience and
28% of the respondents have their experience between (10-15)yrs remaining 24% of the
respondents have less than 5 years of experience.

TABLE 9.6: PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION


67
SATISFACTION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
HIGHLY SATISFIED 69 23%
SATISFIED 84 28%
NUETRAL 72 27%
HIGHLY DISSATISFIED 51 17%
DISSATISFIED 24 8%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.6: PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
DISSATISFIED
DISSATISFIED
SATISFIED

SATISFIED

NUETRAL
HIGHLY

HIGHLY

Inference:
It is found from the survey that more than half of the respondents (28%) are
satisfied with the physical working condition of the organization. 27% of the
respondents are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the physical working condition
of the organization, 23% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the physical
working condition of the organization, 17% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied
wth physical condition provided and 8% respondents are dissatisfied with physical
working condition of the organization.

68
TABLE 9.7: OPINION ABOUT THE PAYPACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE
ORGANIZATION

69
SATISFACTION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
HIGHLY SATISFIED 84 28%
SATISFIED 72 24%
NUETRAL 69 23%
HIGHLY DISSATISFIED 24 8%
DISSATISFIED 51 17%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 3 : OPINION ABOUT THE PAY PACKAGE

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
DISSATISFIED
DISSATISFIED
SATISFIED

SATISFIED

NUETRAL
HIGHLY

HIGHLY

Inference:
It is evident from the survey that 28% of the employees are highly
satisfied with the pay scale provided, 24% of the respondents are satisfied with their pay
scale, 23% of them are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 8% of them are highly
dissatisfied, and 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the pay scale provided.

TABLE 9.8: OPINION ABOUT THE JOB

70
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

CHALLENGING 24 8%
INTERESTING 84 28%
ROUTINE 51 17%
BORING 72 24%
MONOTOUS 69 23%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.4: OPINION ABOUT THE JOB

90
80
70
60
PARTICULARS
50
NO. OF
40
RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
RO NG
G

BO E

US
NO G
TE GIN

IN

N
I

TO
RI
UT
ST
N
RE
LE

O
AL

M
IN
CH

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that 28% of the respondents feel the job
interesting, 24% of them feel it boring, 17% of the respondent feel it routine, 23% of
them feel it boring and 8% of them feel it challenging.

TABLE 9.9: OPINION ABOUT THE COMPLETION OF THE WORK AT THE


SPECIFIED TIME

71
SATISFACTION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
STRONGLY AGREE 69 23%
AGREE 24 8%
UNDECIDED 72 24%
STRONGLY DISAGREE 84 28%
DISAGREE 51 17%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 9: PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADAPTED TO MANAGE STRESS

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
UNDECIDED
STRONGLY

DISAGREE
STRONGLY
AGREE

DISAGREE
AGREE

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 23% of them strongly agree that
they can complete the work at time, 8 % of them agree that they can complete work at
time, 24% of them have no idea, 28% of them strongly disagree that they cannot
complete the work in time, 17% of them disagree that they cannot finish the work in time.

TABLE 9.10: WORK OVERLOAD

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


STRONGLY AGREE 51 17%
AGREE 84 28%

72
UNDECIDED 72 24%
DISAGREE 69 23%
STRONGLY DISAGREE 24 8%
TOTAL 300 100

CHART 9. 10 : WORK OVERLOAD


STRONGLY
UNDECIDED DISAGREE

NO. OF
RESPONDENTS
STRONGLY
AGREE

0 50 100

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that 17% of the respondents are
overloaded with work, 24% left it undecided and 23% of the respondents say that they are
not overloaded with work.

TABLE 9.11: STRESS IN JOB

73
PREFERNCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
YES 183 61%
NO 117 39%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 11: STRESS IN JOB

YES
NO

Inference:
It is evident from the survey that 61% of the respondents suffer
stress and 31% of the respondents do not suffer stress.

TABLE 9. 12: STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF


EMPLOYEES

NO.OF
FACTORS PERCENTAGE
RESPONDENTS
ROLE OVERLOAD 40%
120
74
ROLE
31%
UNDERLOAD 93
INTERPERSONAL
29%
RELATIONSHIP 87

TOTAL 100%
300

CHART 9. 12: STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES

140
120
100
80 NO.OF
60 RESPONDENTS
40
20
0
L

IP
AD
AD

NA

SH
O
O

SO
RL

N
RL

O
ER
DE
VE

TI
RP

LA
UN
O

RE
LE

TE
LE
RO

IN
RO

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that for most of the respondents of all the
level of employees role overload is the major stress causing factor; the second place goes
to the role under load and then comes the inter personal relationship

TABLE 9.13: KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

NO.OF
PARTICULARS PERCENTAGE
RESPONDENTS

75
PHYSICAL 31%
93
MENTAL 29%
87

BOTH 40%
120

TOTAL 100%
300

CHART 9. 13: KIND OF STRESS AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

140
120
100
80 NO.OF
60 RESPONDENTS
40
20
0
TH
L
AL

TA
IC

BO
EN
YS

M
PH

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 31% of them suffer physical stress,
29% of them suffer mental stress and the remaining of them suffer from both the stress.

TABLE 9. 14: LEVEL OF STRESS

76
LEVEL OF STRESS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
VERY HIGH 72 24%
HIGH 69 23%
MODERATE 51 17%
LOW 72 24%
VERY LOW 36 12%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.14: LEVEL OF STRESS


W
LO

NO. OF
TE

RESPONDENTS
RA
DE
O
M

H
G
HI
H
G
HI

0 20 40 60 80
Y
R
VE

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 17% of the respondents have moderate level of
stress, 24% of the respondents have high level of stress, and only 12% of the respondents
have very low level of stress.

TABLE 9.15: PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE DUE TO STRESS

PREFERNCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


77
YES 156 52%
NO 144 48%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 15: PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE DUE TO STRESS

YES
NO

Inference:
It is evident from the survey that 52% of the respondents suffer
from physical inconvenience due to stress and 48% of the respondents do not suffer
stress.

TABLE 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

INCONVENIENCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


HEADACHE 72 24%
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE 36 12%
78
DIGESTIVE PROBLEM 69 23%
HYPERTENSION 72 24%
NERVOUSNESS 51 17%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

80
70
60
50
NO. OF
40
30 RESPONDENTS
20
10
0
DIGESTIVE

HYPERTENSION
HIGH BLOOD

NERVOUSNESS
HEADACHE

PROBLEM
PRESSURE

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 24% suffer
from headache and hypertension and second comes the digestive problem due to stress,
then comes the nervousness and only less % of the respondents suffer from nervousness
and digestive problems.

TABLE 9.17: ORGANIZATION STEPS TO MANAGE STRESS

79
PREFERENCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
YES 153 51%
NO 147 49%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.17: ORGANIZATION STEPS TO MANAGE STRESS

YES
NO

Inference:
It is evident from the survey that 51% of the respondents agrees that their
organization is helping them in overcoming stress, and the 49% of them are not satisfied
with the help provided by the organization to overcome stress.

TABLE 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

INCONVENIENCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


HEADACHE 72 24%
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE 36 12%
80
DIGESTIVE PROBLEM 69 23%
HYPERTENSION 72 24%
NERVOUSNESS 51 17%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.16: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

80
70
60
50
NO. OF
40
30 RESPONDENTS
20
10
0
DIGESTIVE

HYPERTENSION
HIGH BLOOD

NERVOUSNESS
HEADACHE

PROBLEM
PRESSURE

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 24% suffer
from headache and hypertension and second comes the digestive problem due to stress,
then comes the nervousness and only less % of the respondents suffer from nervousness
and digestive problems.

TABLE 9.18 PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADABTED TO MANAGE STRESS

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


EMPLOYEE 72
24%
COUNSELING
EFFECTIVE & TRAINING 36 12%
81
DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAM
WORK GROUPS 69 23%
HEALTH CLUBS 72 24%
AUTONOMOUS 0 0%
TRANSPORT SUBSIDY 51 17%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9.18: PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADABTED TO MANAGE STRESS

80
70
60
50
NO. OF
40
30 RESPONDENTS
20
10
0
COUNSELING

AUTONOMOUS
WORK GROUPS
EMPLOYEE

Inference:
It is observed from the survey 24% of them recommend employee
counseling,12% of them need effective training, 23% need work groups, 24% need health
groups, and the remaining need transport subsidy.

TABLE 9.19: OPINION ABOUT COUNSELING TO REDUCE THE STRESS

82
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
STRONGLY AGREE 51 17%
AGREE 84 28%
NEUTRAL 72 24%
DISAGREE 69 23%
STRONGLY DISAGREE 24 8%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 19 : OPINION ABOUT COUNSELING TO REDUCE THE STRESS

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
NEUTRAL
STRONGLY

STRONGLY
DISAGREE
AGREE

DISAGREE
AGREE

Inference:
From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that
counseling can overcome stress, 28% of them agree that they can over come stress
through counseling, 24% of them don’t have any idea, 28% disagree and the remaining
disagree.

TABLE 9.20: ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE STRESS


FREE

83
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
HIGHLY ACCEPTED 51 17%
ACCEPTED 84 28%
NOT ACCEPTED 72 24%
HIGHLY NOT
31%
ACCEPTED 93
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 20: ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE STRESS FREE

100
90
80
70
60
NO. OF
50
RESPONDENTS
40
30
20
10
0
ACCEPTED

ACCEPTED
HIGHLY

NOT

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents accept that the
companies policies are stress free, 28% of them have accepted that organization policies
are stress free, 24% of them have not accepted it, 31% of them have not accepted that
their organization policy is full of stress.

TABLE 9.21: BEST INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STRESS

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


RELAXATION
31%
TECHNIQUES 93
TIME MANAGEMENT 84 28%
TRAINING AND
24%
DEVELOPMENT 72
84
WORKING 51 17%
TOTAL 300 100%

CHART 9. 21: BEST INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STRESS

100
90
80
70
60 NO. OF
50
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0 MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENT

WORKING
techniques

TRAINING AND
Relaxation

TIME

Inference:
It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 31% says that
relaxation techniques, 28% of them need time management,24% says that training is the
best intervention,17% says working intervention is the best thing to overcome stress.

TABLE 9.22: OPINION ABOUT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


STRONGLY AGREE 51 17%
AGREE 84 28%
NEUTRAL 72 24%
85
DISAGREE 69 23%
STRONGLY DISAGREE 24 8%
TOTAL 300 100

CHART 9. 22 : OPINION ABOUT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
NEUTRAL
STRONGLY

STRONGLY
DISAGREE
AGREE

DISAGREE
AGREE

Inference:
From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that
they have strained interpersonal relationship, 28% of them agree that they have strained
interpersonal relationship stress , 24% of them don’t have any idea, 28% disagree that
they do not have strained interpersonal relationship.

TABLE 9.23: OPINION ABOUT STRESS LEVEL IN NIGHT SHIFT


COMPARED TO DAY SHIFT

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


VERY HIGH 51 17%
HIGH 84 28%
86
MODERATE 72 24%
LOW 69 23%
VERY LOW 24 8%
TOTAL 300 100

CHART 9. 22 : OPINION ABOUT STRESS LEVEL IN NIGHT SHIFT COMPARED TO DAY


SHIFT

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
H
H

TE

W
G
G

LO

LO
RA
HI
HI

DE
Y

Y
R

R
O
VE

VE
M

Inference:
From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that
they have stress in night shift, 28% of them agree that they have stress in night
shifts,24% of them don’t have any idea, 28% disagree that they do not have any stress in
night shift.

TABLE 9.24: SPENDING THE WEEKEND

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


GOING TO MOVIES 84 28%
GET TOGETHER 51 17%
VISIT 72 24%

87
FRIENDS/RELATIVES
MUSIC CLASSES 69 23%
ANY OTHER (SPECIFY) 24 8%
TOTAL 300 100

CHART 9.24: SPENDING THE WEEKEND

90
80
70
60
50 NO. OF
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
GET TOGETHER

FRIENDS/RELATIV
GOING TO

ANY OTHER
MUSIC CLASSES

(SPECIFY)
MOVIES

VISIT

ES

Inference:
From the above we can find that 28% of them would like to go to
movies, 17% would like a get together,24% would like to visit friends/relatives, and23%
would like to go to music class and the remaining prefer any other thing.

TABLE 9.25: FAMILY FACTOR WHICH INFLUENCE STRESS

NO.OF
PARTICULARS PERCENTAGE
RESPONDENTS
DEPENDENT 31%
93

88
ILLNESS 29%
87
FINANACIAL
20%
POSITION 60
OTHER
20%
PROBLEMS 60

TOTAL 100%
300

TABLE 9.25: FAMILY FACTOR WHICH INFLUENCE STRESS

100
90
80
70
60 NO.OF
50
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
FINANACIAL
DEPENDENT

ILLNESS

PROBLEMS
POSITION

OTHER

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 31% of them says dependency
influence stress, 29% says that illness influence stress, 20% of them says that financial as
well as other problem influence stress.

TABLE 9.26: PERSONAL FACTOR INFLUENCING STRESS

NO.OF
PARTICULARS PERCENTAGE
RESPONDENTS
PERCEPTION 20%
60

89
ATTITUDE 29%
87
HEALTH
20%
CONDITION 60

PERSONALITY 31%
93

TOTAL 100%
300

TABLE 9.26:PERSONAL FACTOR INFLUENCING STRESS

100
90
80
70
60 NO.OF
50
40 RESPONDENTS
30
20
10
0
ATTITUDE

CONDITION
PERCEPTION

PERSONALITY
HEALTH

Inference:
It is found from the survey that 20% of them says perception
influence stress, 29% says that attitude influence stress, 20% of them says that health
condition influence stress, and the remaining says that personality influence stress.

TABLE 9.27: STRATERGY TO REDUCE STRESS

FACTORS HIGHLY SATISFIED NEUTRA DISSATI HIGHLY TOTA PERCENTAGE


SATISFIED L SFIED DISSATISF L
IED

90
YOGA 10 10 10 10 11 50 17
MEDITATIO 10 11 11 17 20 69 23
N
MOTIVATIO 11 11 10 20 20 72 24
N
COUNSELIN 0 0 0 9 0 9 3%
G
INDOOR 11 20 20 11 11 72 23
GAMES
OHTERS 2 10 6 10 0 28 6%

CHART 9.27: STRATERGY TO REDUCE STRESS

80
70 YOGA
60 meditation
50 MOTIVATION
40
30 COUNSELING
20 INDOOR GAMES
10 OHTERS
0
Ne d

l
at d
d
Sa ied

g h is s utra

ta
fie

e
ie
To
i
Di tisf
f

isf
tis
tis

a
Sa

ss
ly

D
gh

ly
Hi

Hi

Inference:
It is found from the above table that 17% prefer yoga, majority
prefer indoor games, and the next majority prefer motivation.

91
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON SPENDING WEEKEND Vs STRATEGY TO
REDUCE STRESS

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant relation between spending weekend and
strategy to reduce stress
Alternate Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant relation between spending weekend
and strategy to reduce stress

TABLE 9.22: CROSS TABULATION FOR SPENDING WEEKEND Vs

STRATEGY TO REDUCE STRESS

STRATEGY

MEDITA MOTIV COUNS ROW


YOGA INDOOR
TION ATION ELING GAMES OTHER TOTAL
SPENDING
WEEKEND
GOING TO
- - 4 - 4
MOVIES
GET
4 16 8 2 28
TOGETHER
VISIT TO
FRIENDS/ 8 22 10 10 48
RELATIVES
MUSIC
- 4 4 2 12
CLASSES
ANY
- - 6 - 8
OTHER
COLUMN
12 42 32 14 100
TOTAL

Degrees of freedom = 12
Calculated value = 27.497
For 12 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance, the chi-square table value is 5.226.

Inference:
92
Calculated value > Tabulated value.
Hence H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted.

Conclusion:
There is a significant relation between the spending weekend and strategy to reduce
stress

93
94
FINDINGS

• Out of the total sample most of the respondents are male and many are between
50 and above. Most of the respondents are under graduate and have professional
qualification.
• Most of the respondents have 10-15 years of long association with the
organization.
• Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the physical and psychological
working condition of the organization, and only fewer respondents are dissatisfied
with the psychological working condition of the organization.
• The opinion about the training programs conducted by the organization is almost
better, according to majority of the respondents.
• Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the pay package provided by the
organization and nearly half of the respondents feel that they do a routine job.
• Most of the respondents agree that they can complete their work within the
specified time and some of the respondents are undecided.
• Nearly half of the respondents agree that they are overloaded with work.
• More than half of the respondents suffer stress in their job.
• Among all other factors, role overload cause more stress according to most of
the respondents.
• Most of the respondents from steels department suffer from physical stress; most
of the respondents from accounts department suffer from mental stress, and most
of the respondents from civil department suffer from both physical and mental
stress.
• Most of the respondents feel only moderate level of stress and some of the
respondents feel high level of stress in their job.
• More than half of the respondents have physical inconvenience due to stress and
most of the respondents suffer from headache and high blood pressure.
• Almost all the respondents prefer to follow coping strategies personally, to
manage stress and they prefer to do meditation and yoga to reduce stress.
• Most of the respondents say that the organization does not take suitable steps to
manage stress.

95
• Employee counseling and effective training & development programs are the
company wide programs that could be adapted to manage stress.

96
10. SUGGESTIONS

 The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by


they can complete their work within the specified time.

 Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that


we can reduce the overload of work.

 Adopt the work to home transition strategy. It means instead of carrying the
pressures of the work to home, the suggestion is to start the unwinding process
during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind.

 Giving counseling to the employees when they face problems, because counseling
is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an
employee in order to help the employee cope within better.

 The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and


stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees, because there is a
strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes
counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug
abuse, managing personal finances, handling conflicts at the work place, dealing
with marital and other family problems, and coping with health problems.

 Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise, because it stimulates the brain
and the body. Also the employee must do meditation and yoga in their daily life.

97
11. CONCLUSION

Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century.
Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but
also by lack of rewards and praise, and more importantly, by not providing individuals
with the autonomy to do their work as they would like. Most of the employees were not
satisfied with the grievance handling procedure of the organization which was found by
the unstructured interview.

Organization must begin to manage people at work differently, treating


them with respect and valuing their contribution. If we enhance the psychological well
being and health of the employees, in the coming future the organization would make
more revenue as well as employee retention. Because it is said that,

“A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee”

98
99
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

1. Ahuja. K.K- “Industrial psychology and organizational behavior”,


Khanna publishers, New Delhi, 1991.
2. Biswanath Ghosh- “A new look organizational behavior”, Himalaya Publishing
House New Delhi, 1994.
3. Finemann- “A Psychological Model of Stress and its application to managerial
unemployment”, Human relations, 1979.
4. Ghosh P.K. and Ghorpade M.B. - “Industrial and Organizational Psychology”,
Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay 1991.
5. Kapur S.K, Punia B.K.-“Organizational Behavior and Management”,
S.K.Publishers, New Delhi.
6. Laurie J. Mullins – “Organizational Behavior”, Pitman’s publishing Ltd,
London, 1990.
7. PaulHersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson –“Organizational
Behavior”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1998.
8. Srivastava.A.K, “A study of Roll Stress Mental health relationship a moderator
by adopted coping strategies, psychological studies”, 1991.
9. Stephen P. Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U .K. 1999.

JOURNALS AND MAGAZINES

1. Business line, “The stress is beginning to show”, Financial Express published by


Hindu, Trivandrum, 1989.
2. Brief A.P. and Atieth J.M., “Studying Job Stress: Are we making mountains out
of mole Hills?” Journal of occupational behavior, 1987.
3. Jamal M., “Job Stress-Prone Type A behavior and personal and organizational
consequences”, Canadian Journal of Administrative.
4. Dr.Satish Chandra Pandy, “Indian ways of winning Stress”, The Journal of
Indian Management and Strategy, 1997.
100
101
QUESTIONNAIRE

PERSONAL PROFILE
Kindly provide your valuable personal information.
: _______________________ Dept:
_______

1. Name:
1. Age group (2 (21-30) yrs (31-40) yrs
(41-50) yrs 50 & above yrs
2. Sex :Male / Female
3. Educational Qualification: SSLC/UG/PG/Technical/Professional
5. Experience : < 5 yrs (5-15)
yrs > 15 yrs

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


6. How do you feel about the physical working condition of the organization?
Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Highly dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
7. How do you feel about the psychological working condition of the organization?
Highly Amicable Cordial Neutral Strained Very poor
8. What is your opinion about the training programs conducted in the organization?
Excellent Good Better Bad Worse
9. How do you feel about the pay package provided by the organization?
Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Highly
dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
10. How do you feel about your job?
Challenging Interesting Routine Monotonous
Boring
11. Do you agree that you can complete your work within the specified time?

102
Strongly agree Agree Undecided Strongly Disagree
Disagree
12. Do you agree that you are overloaded with work?
Strongly agree Agree Undecided Strongly Disagree
Disagree

13. Do you suffer any stress in your job? Yes No

FACTORS AND EFFECTS OF STRESS


14. In your accordance which of the following factors cause more stress?
Role overload Role under load Interpersonal relationship
15. What kind of stress do you suffer in your job?
Physical Mental Both
16. What is the level of stress that you feel in your job?
Very high High Moderate Low Very
low
17. Do you suffer any physical inconvenience due to stress in your job?
Yes No
18. If yes, what kind of inconvenience?
Headache High blood pressure Digestive problem
Hypertension Nervousness

COPING STRATEGIES
19. Have you taken any coping strategies personally to manage stress?
Yes No
20. What kind of strategies of the following have you taken?
Exercise Meditation Listening music Take a
walk Spend time with children
21. Does this organization take any suitable steps to manage stress?
Yes No
22. What type of company-wide programs that are/could be adapted to manage
stress?
103
Employee counseling Effective Training & Development program
Autonomous work groups Health clubs
Transport subsidy
23. Kindly give your suggestions to reduce stress………………………………

104