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twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif

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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 2 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 3 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****


ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 4 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****


ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 5 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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xkdvkyfief;onf tao;pm;- tvwfpm; - aygufyg/xkda}umifh trdeKdifiHESifhygwfoufvmvSsif
t}uD;pm;&Sdonf/ xkdvkyfief;. &v'fonf aps; tcsdefukdaomf4if;-tiftm;ukdaomf4if;-OPm"e
a&mif;ovkdcsufjcif; tusKd;tjrwf txift&Sm; ukdaomf4if;- toufukdaomf4if;- pGef@v$wf&ef
rjywwfyg/ okd@aomfoG,f0kdufaom enf;tm;jzifh 0efrav;ygESifh ,if;okd@rpGef@v$wfeKdifvSsif tjcm;
tqaygif; ra&rwGufeKdifatmif rsm;jym;wwf eKdifiHweKdifiH. vufatmufcH-okd@r[kwf tjcm;
onf/ xkdy&[dwvkyfief;twGuf-tcsdefukdaomf vlrsKd;rsm;. vufatmufcH –okd@r[kwf ppftm
4if;/ tiftm;ukdaomf4if;- OPmukdaomf4if;- %m&Sif wpk. vufatmufrS vGwfajrmufeKdif
toufukdaomf4if; pGef@v$wf&wwfonf/ y&[d rnfr[kwfay?
wpdwfqkdonfrsm cGJpdwfukoaep&mrvkd-rdrd.
wukd,faumif;qefpdwfukd avSsmhvkdufvSsif (10) rdrd. todynm twwfynm ukdacwf
y&[dw pdwfykdIrsm;vmrnfjzpfonf/ tarSmif ESifhtnD zGH@jzKd;wkd;wufatmifjyKjyifyg/ vlwOD;.
ESifhtvif;yrm- tarSmifavsmhvSsif tvif;rsm; t&nftaoG;onf todynm-twwfynm
vmrnf/. tvif;rsm;vmvSsif tarSmifavsmh tay:wGifrlwnf. / wkH;aom'g;onf ckwfI
oGm;rnf/ vlwkdif;wukd,faumif;pdwfokd@r[kwf vSD;I r&ovkd todynm twwfynm eJol
ukd,fusKd;pdwftm;}uD;aomolrsm; pkaygif;aexkdif onf/ vl@tokdif;t0ef;wGif t&mr0ifjzpfwwf.
aom&yfuGufwGif aexkdif&jcif;onf pdwfnpfp xkdtodynm- twwfynm wkd;wufzkd@&efrSm
&mtaumif;qkH;jzpfeKdifonf? tjrJwef;&SmazGavhvm oif}um;qnf;yl;&efvkd
tyf./ pm;&if;- aomuf&if;-taysmftyg;vkduf
(8) OD;wnfcsufrsefuefvSsif ckdifjrJygap/ &if;/jzifh tcsdefukefaeI rjzpf/ aA'ifq&mac:ar;
OD;wnfcsufqkdonfum; eKdifiHa&; OD;wnfcsuf aeIr&? ukd,fh[mukd,ftm;xkwf&SmazG jznfh
ukdqkdvkdygonf? wif;&rnfomjzpfonf?
“eKdifiHa&;wGif OD;wnfcsuf-
bmoma&;wGif ,kH}unfcsuf- TESpfcsuf ckdifjrJ
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 6 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
Taz:jycJhygtcsuf -10- csufonf tkyfcsKyfoltpkd;&onf a&G;aumufyGJ
ta0;a&muf ausmif;om;rsm; jrefrmheKdifiHa&; rS teKdif&I wifajrSmufjcif;cH&aom tpkd;&yif
orm;rsm; rdrdukd,fukd –“jyefvnfjyKjyifa&;” jzpfaeygap jynfolvlxk. vGwfvyfrSKESifh vl@t
jyKvkyf&efvkdtyfa}umif; wifjyvkduf&jcif;jzpfyg cGifhta&; csKd;azgufrSK- zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccH
onf/ jrefrmeKdifiHwGif vkyf&efvkdtyfa}umif;wif Oya'. abmifausmfrSKrsm;jzpfvmygu jynfol
jyvkduf&jcif;jzpfygonf/ jrefrmeKdifiHwGif- vlxkwGif-(THE RIGHTS OF REVOLUTION)
REFORMATIOM- jyKvkyf&ef ta&;w}uD;vkd ukd aqmif&GufykdifcGifh&Sdonf/
tyffaeonf/ okd@aomf4if;jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyf (okH;oyfcsuf-jrefrmeKdifiHwGif jzpfyGg;cJh
rnfholrsm;ukd,fwkdifu ukd,fh[mukd,fjyKjyifrSK aom-62-ckESpfta&;tcif;-8-av;vkH; ta&;
rjyKvkyfxm;ygu-wjcm;rnfonfh[mrSs jyKjyifI tcif;rsm;onf- JOHN LOCKE-n$ef;qkdcJhaom
&rnfr[kwfa}umif;? (THE RIGHTS OF REVOLUTION) toGifokd@
(a&ShvwGifqufvufaz:jyygOD;rnf ) vkH;0 tusKH;0ifygonf/ xkda}umifh4if;ta&;tcif;
rsm;wGif yg0ifygwfoufolrsm;tm;vkH;onf
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w&m;aomawmfvSefa&;ukd qifE$J}uolrsm;om
,ciftygwfrStquf jzpfonf?ÐÐÐjynfolvlxkonf/rdrdwkd@ukd,fykdif
tajccH eKdifiHa&;ynm tcGifhta&;ukd umuG,fykdifcGifh&Sdonf/toufpGef@
b}uD;rSKH - &SmazGwifjyonf I-b0pGef@I aqmif&Guf&ef wm0efvnf;&Sdonf
jyD;cJhaomtygwfu –JOHN LOCKE-. ,if;wm0efra}ujyGefygu aemufxyfvmrnfh rsKd;
tawG;tac:rsm;rS tajccHokH;oyfcsuf rsm;ukd qufopfrsm; tay:wm0ef ra}u&m-
wifjycJhonfrSm tqkH;rowfao;ojzifh ,ck t a&mufayonf? ÐÐÐ
ygwfwGifqufvufzwf&SKavhvm}uapvkdygonf? ÐÐÐ vl@avmuokd@ t&ifa&mufESifhae
(7) tpkd;&ESifh jynfolvlxkt}um; -tkyfcsKyfol aom vl}uD;rsm;uaemufwufvmrnfh rsKd;quf
ESifhtkyfcsKyfcH&olwkd@ vkdufem&rnfh pnf;rsOf;rsm; opfw&yfwnfaqmuf ay;cJh&ef wm0ef&Sdonf/
pnf;urf;rsm; a&;qGJowfrSwfjcif;ukd“zGJpnf;tkyf xkdom,m0ajymaom vl@abmifopfukd rwnf
csKyfykHtajccHOya'-okd@r[kwf – aqmufay;eKdifcJhbJ'kQStwdom&Sdonfhvl@abmif
CONSTITUTION LAW-[k ac:qkdayonf/ xkd
npf}uD;ukd tarGray;oifhay/ xkda}umifh-
Oya'wGif tkyfcsKyfol twGufabmifcwfcsrSwf (THE RIGHTS OF REVOLUTION)-jyKvkyf&rnf
ay;xm;ouJhokd@ tkyfcsKyfcH&oltwGufvnf; jzpfjyD;xkd- REVOLUTION-awmfvSefa&;atmif
abmifcwfcsrSwfay;xm;ayonf? jrif&efrSm acgif;aqmifrSK ykdif;onf txl;ta&;
okd@aomf tkyfcsKyfoltpkd;&onf rdrd }uD;vSayonf/
vkyfykdifcGifh abmiftm;ausmfvGefjyD; w&m;rSsw jrefrmeKdifiHwGif “ta&S@uae0ef;xGuf
rSK r&SdbJtm%m&SifqefpGm tkyfcsKyfygu jynfol ovkd ajymifajrmufaom acgif;aqmifaumif; vkd
vlxkonf rdrdwkd@tcGifhta&;ukd umuG,feKdifcGifh aeygkonf”
&Sdayonf xkdumuG,frSKwGif omrefqüjyrSKrS ,ckacwf-,ae@OD;aqmif&rnfholonf
onf t}urf;zufawmfvSefa&;(THE RIGHTS vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif;-50-umvu acgif;aqmif
OF REVOLUTION) tqifhtxd vkyfykdifcGifh&Sd
rSKESifh rwlawmhay/ xkdtcsdefu jrefrmeKdifiHwGif
onf[k- JOHN LOCKE-un$ef;qkdcJhayonf/ vlOD;a&oef;-20- rjynfhao;aomumvjzpfjyD;
,ae@wGifrl oef;aygif;-50-ausmfaejyDjzpfojzifh
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 7 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
okd@r[kwf-21- &mpkokd@a&mufaejyD jzpfojzifh twGif;xkd;&rnfh csdef;yGJrSvmaomtpkd;&jzpfonf
acwfESifhtnD OD;aqmifeKdif&efrSm vG,fulaom xkdyGJwGif 'kdifvl}uD;uvnf; csefyD,efbufu 0if
tvkyfw&yfr[kwfygay/ okd@aomf tqkd;qkH; xm;jyD;jzpfojzifh teKdift&SKH;ukdyGJr0ifcifutajz
jy±emrSmum; acgif;aqmiftwkrsm; okd@r[kwf xGufaeonf/ ,if;uJhokd@aom pHepfjzifhwufvm
acgif;aqmifjzpfcsifolrsm; okd@r[kwf 'kwd, aom tpkd;&ukd ygvDreftm%m&Siftpkd;&-[kk
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; jzpfvkdolrsm; okd@r[kwf eKdifiHa&; tbd"gefwGif zGifhqkd}uayonf?)
jrefrmeKdifiH. 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;tmZmeDjzpfvkd (8) vlom;wkdif; yPnf;OPm ykdifqkdifcGifh&Sdjcif;/
olrsm; aygrsm;vGef;ojzifh jrefrmjynfolvlxku JOHN LOCKE- oabmxm;rSm vlwkdif;wGif
rnfol@ukd taz ac:&rnfrodawmhbJ jzpfae& vGwfvyfaom OPm"e &SmrSD;cGifh ESifh&&Sdvmaom
jcif; yifjzpfonf? OPm"eukd ykdifqkdifcGifh&&Sdjcif;ukdqkdvkdjcif;jzpfonf/
TonfrSm jrefrmhta&;tcif;ESifh xkda}umifhvlwOD;.ykdifqkdifaom yPnf;OPmukd
tvsif;oifhI JOHN LOCKE-. tjrifaygif;pyf tjcm;wOd;uaomf4if;/ wpkwzGJhuaomf4if;/
I a0zefokH;oyfrdjcif;omjzpfygonf? tpkd;&uaomf4if;/ twif;t}uyfvl,lcGifh –
trSefwu,fwGifrl ppfrSefaom 'Drkdu Oya' jzifh jyXmef;odrf;,lcGifh tp&Sdonfrsm;
a&pD pHepfwGif tkyfcsKyfa&; -w&m;Oya'jyKa&;- rjyKvkyf&[k qkdvkdjcif;jzpfonf?
w&m;pD&ifa&;-TXme}uD;-3-ck-taESmiftzGJ@ xkdt,ltqonf-INDIVIDUALISM-ac:
uif;rJhpGm oD;jcm;pD &yfwnfae&rnfjzpfjyD; 4if; yk~vdu vGwfvyfcGifh 0g'okd@ OD;wnfay;cJhjcif;jzpf
Xme }uD;wkdif;onf jynfolvlxkbufwGifom onf/ xkda}umifhvlwkdif;onf rdrd. pGrf;&nftm;
&yfwnfjyD; jynfol@tusKd;twGufom aqmif avsSmfpGm OPm"e &SmazGpkaqmif;cGifh&Sd&rnfjzpf
&Guf7rnfjzpfonf? aomfvnf; 4if;&SmazGrSK enf;vrf;wGif w&m;rSs
tu,fIom xkdXme}uD;-3-ck azguf wI wyg;olrsm;. tusKd;ukd xdckdufaprSK-
jyefjyD; jynfolukd ausmckdif;vSsif –TYRANNY- wjcm;olrsm;. tcGifhta&;ukd vufvGwfaprSK-
ac: tm%m&Sif tpkd;&ay:aygufvmrnfom wjcm;olrsm;. &yfwnfrSKukd xdckdufaprSK –
jzpfonf/ tp&Sdaom tcsuftvufrsm;uid;vGwfrSom
tm%m&Siftpkd;&[lonfrSm ESpfrsKd; w&m;aom OPm"e [kqkdtyfjyD;-xkdw&m;aom
ESpfpm;&Sdygonf/ yxr trsKd;tpm;rSm vuf&Sd OPm"eukd taESmuft,Suf r&SdykdifqkdifcGifh
jrefrmeKdifiHrS etz –ppftm%m&Siftpkd;&uJhokd@ jyK&rnf[k qkdvkdjcif;jzpfygonf?
ESKyfuygwf Oya'ac: yg;pyfu ajymorSs Oya' JOHN LOCKE- tawG;tac:rsm;rS
jzpf&jyD; - tm%m&Sifoabmawmftwkdif; pD&if onf Oya'toGifokd@ ajymif;vJcJh&onftxd
csufcsay;&aom w&m;ol}uD;rsm;jzifh tkyfcsKyf ,kH}unfrSK cH&jyD; 4if;Oya'rsm;wGif]vGwfvyfcGifh
aom tm%m&Sif tpkd;&jzpfonf? umuG,fjcif;]rsm;ukd umuG,fay;xm;cJh&m
'kwd, trsKd;tpm;rSm ,ck jrefrm t"dutusqkH;rSm]yk~vdu vGwfvyfcGifh]yifjzpf
eKdifiHrS –etz- ppftkyfpkjyKvkyfovkd zGJhpnf;ykH ygonf/ yk~vduvGwfvyfcGifhtm; Oya'jzifh
tajccHOya'ukd ukd,f}uKdufovkda&;qGJjyD; rdrdykH twnfjyKumuG,fay;jcif;onf/ 'Drkdua&pDpHepf.
pHoGif;xm;aom aumuf&kd;ajcaxmuf jrufajc tajccH tESpfom&yifjzpfygawmhonf/
axmuf ygwDjzifh a&G;aumufyGJtwGuf jyifqif xkda}umifhvnf; ,ckrsufarSmufacwf 'Drkdua&pD
xm;&kHru [JAGD; 0dwf vufa0S@ csefyD,efu tvif;a&miftm; nSdxGef;ay;cJholrsm;txJwGif
t&yfxJy qkdufum;orm;ukd pdefac:jhyD;}uKd;0kdif; JOHN LOCKE- onft"du yk~Kdvf}uD;wOD;yif
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 8 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
jzpfygonf/ vGwfvyfrSKukd wefzkd;xm;jcif;onf MONTESQUIEU-onf jyifopfvlrsKd;
'Drkdua&pDpHepfukd axmufcHjcif;-vkdufemaqmif Oya' ESifheKdifiHa&;tawG;tac: ynm&Sif wOD;
&Gufjcif;yifjzpfygonf? jzpfjyD; JOHN LOCKE-.t,ltqrsm;ukd quf
avmu}uD;wGif wyifvJvSsif wyifxl vuf &SifoefapcJholjzpfonf/ 4if;tjyif
qkdovkd ynm&Sif wOD;uG,fajymufvSsif rsufarSmufacwf 'Drkdua&pDukd vrf;cif;cJhol[k
aemufxyfynm&Sif wOD;ay:aygufpjrJyifjzpfyg vnf;qkdeKdifjyD; Oa&mywcGiftm; toGifajymif;
onf/ eKdifiHa&;ynm&Sif}uD;- JOHN LOCKE- apcJholjzpfonf/ ol@tawG;tac:rsm;ukd a&;om;
acwfukefqkH;aomtcg aemufxyfay:xGef;vm xkwfa0cJh&mwGif t"dutusqkH; pmtkyfrSm]
aom –POLITICAL PHILOSOPHER-eKdifiHa&; THE SPIRIT OF LAWS-[laompmtkyfjzpfonf
tbd"Rm tawG;tac:ynm&SifrSm jyifopfeKdifiH ol.t,ltq oabmw&m;rsm;ukd
om;-MONTESQUIEU-(rGefwufpDtm) qkdol tusOf;csKH;I okH;oyf&aomf?-
jzpfjyD; -1689-ckESpfwGif arG;zGg;jyD; -1&55-ckESpf (1) vlom;wkdif;onf obm0 Oya'ac:
wGif tedPa&mufcJhygonf? obm0 ed,mr. pDrHcef@cGJrSKatmufwGif wnf
JOHN LOCKE-onf -1&04-ckESpf &Sdonf/ okd@r[kwf bk&m;ocif. ynwfcsuf[k
wGif tedPa&mufcJh&m xkd-1&-&mpkacwf ausmf vnf;qkd}uonf/ rnfolrS a&Smifv$JIr&-vlom;
vGefcJhjyD; -18- &mpkcSpft0if umvrsm;ukd wkd@. oifhavSsmfaom tjyKtrltwkdif; obm0
Oa&my wcGifwGif –ENLIGHTENMENT-ac: "Ru qkH;jzwfcsufcsrSwfay;rnfomjzpfonf?
awmufyaomacwf- okd@r[kwfvif;a&mifjcnf rnfokd@yifjzpfap vlom;wkd@onf obm0
acwf[k qkd}uayonf/ ta}umif;&if;rSm tawG; "R. jyXmef;csufwckwnf;jzifh rvkHavmuf-xkd
tac:a[mif;rsm; -bmoma&;t,ltq a}umifh vlom;rsm;csrSwfaom vlom;Oya'
v$rf;rkd;rSKrsm;-avSeH'g;xpf tusKd;rJhta}umif;rJh w&yfukd a&;qGJjyD; vl@tokdif;t0ef;wnf
,kH}unfrSKrsm;ukd z,f&Sm;eKdifcJh}ujyD; vlom;rsm; jidrf;at;csrf;rSswrSK &Sd&efaqmif&Guf&ayrnf?
tuef@towfr&Sd awG;awmqifjcif –vGwfvyf (okH;oyfcsuf-Ak<bmom w&m;awmfuvnf;-
pGm}uHqeKdif}uaom- awmufyaom tvif; ywdoaý aejcif;/ arG;zGg;vmjcif;/ t&G,ftrsKd;rsKd;
a&mifatmufwGif 0WKyPnf;rsm; xif&Sm;pGmjrif tvkduf}uD;xGm;vmjcif;/ tkdjcif;/emjcif;/aojcif;/
&ouJhokd@ wkd;wufaom acwfokd@ajymif;vJcJh tp&Sdonfwkd@um; ocFg& ac:jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;
aom a}umifhyifjzpfygonf? w&m;jzpfonf/ xkdjyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;onf
xkda}umifh twdwfu pdwful;,Ofa[m obm0"R yifjzpfjyD; 4if;obm0"R. Oya'ukd
ajymrSKrsm; vufawG@prf;oyfI r&aom oabm vlom;rsm; ucsKd;azgufIr&-csKd;azgufoltm;
w&m;a&;&mrsm;ukd pGef@v$wf}ujyD; - oifhavSsmfrSswaom tpDpOfqkH;jzwfcsufcsavh&Sd
EMPIRICIST -ac: vufawGhukd,fawG@ 0g' onf/ vl@avmuOya'wGifa&S@aeac:jyD;umuG,f
xGef;um;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ xkdacwfwGif eKdifonf/ aiGay;vmbfxkd;jyD;vGwfajrmufeKdif
ay:xGef;vmcJhaom tawG;tac:ynm&Sif ESpfOD; onf/ okd@aomf obm0"R urlavSsmhjcif; ykdjcif;
&SdcJhjyD; xkdESpfOD;rSm- MONTESQUIEU- ESifh r&Sd wdusaom qkH;jzwfcsuf- rSefuefaom
JEAN-JACQUE ROUSSEAU-wkd@jzpf}uonf/ ta}umif;tusKd;ukdom csrSwfay;avh&Sdonf
ROUSSEAU-rSm- 1712- ckESpfwGif arG;zGg;ol vlom;rsm; owfrSwfaom Oya'onfum;jzpf
jzpfojzifh xkdyk~KdvfESpfOD;rSm a&S@qifhaemufqifh ay:vmaomta}umif;t&mtay:wGifrlwnffjyD;
yifjzpfayonf? oifhavSsmfonf-roifhavSsmfonf[laom cHpm;
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 9 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
csuf. &v'ftjzpfOya'jyXmef;avh&Sdonf? ta}umif;&if;rSm eKdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mukd
Ak<bk&m;&SifaomfrS jyXmef;awmfrlcJhaom ppftiftm;jzifh odrf;,lcJhjyD; ESpfaygif;-20-ausmf
0de, pnf;rsOf;rsm;ukd }uKdwifokH;oyfcsufjzifh zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya' r&SdbJ eKdifiHtkyf
jyXmef;cJhjcif;r[kwfbJ jzpfay:vmaom jy±em csKyfvmcJhaoma}umifh/ - DESPOTISM-tm
tay: a0zefokH;oyfjyD; roifhavSsmfaom %m&Sif pHepfwGif tusKH;0ifjyD; tqkd;&Gm;qkH; tkyf
ta}umif;&Sdonfh trSKudPrsm;ukd aemiftcgrjyK csKyfa&; pHepfjzpfonf?
vkyf&[k jyXmef;cJhjcif;rsm;om jzpfonf? okd@aomf jrefrmhta&;um; TrSsjzifh
xkda}umifhOya'[lonf arG;uxJuyg rjyD;qkH;ao;bJ ,ckwzef- REPUBLIC- toGif
vmaomobm0 w&m;. pDrHcsufOya'ESifh vl@ okd@ul;ajymif;&ef eD;uyfvmaejyDjzpfygonf/ okd@
jy±emrsm; tay:rlwnfI jyXmef;cJhaom vl@ aomf- DEMOCRACY -ykHpHokd@ra&mufbJ/
Oya'[k - MONTESQUIEU-uokH;oyf az:jy ARISTOCRACY-ykHpHokd@om ajymif;oGm;&ef&Sday
cJhjcif;jzpfayonf?) onf/ta}umif;&if;rSm vuf&SdjyXmef;xm;aom
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(u) DESPOTISM-tm%m&SifpHepfokd@r[kwf refwGifvnf; ppfwyfrS jynfol@qürJjzifh a&G;jc,ff
rw&m;aom tkyfcsKyfrSK/ Oya'rJhtkyfcsKyfrSK/ jcif;r&Sdaom ukd,fpm;vS,fwrwfom; yg0if&kH
(c ) MONARCHY-bk&iftkyfcsKyfaompHepf/ ru ppfAkdvfcsKyfrsm;ukd,fwkdifa&G;aumufyGJ 0ifI
(*) REPUBLIC- jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; eKdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;ukd&,l&ef }uKd;pm;ae}uaom
a&G;aumufwifajrSmufI tkyfcsKyfaompHepf/ a}umifhjzpfygonf/ xkda}umifh jrefrmeKdifiH.
REPUBLIC- tkyfcsKyfa&;ukdyif ykHpHESpfckcGJ r}umrSD umvtwGif;ay:aygufvmawmhrnfh
Ijyqkdxm;onfrSm-ARISTOCRACY- ESifh- tkyfcsKyfa&;rSm –vltrsm;pkqürJjzifh a&G;jc,f
DEMOCRACY-wkd@jzpfonf/ ARISTOCRACY- wifajrSmufvkdufonfhukd,fpm;vS,fwpku
qkdonfrSm vlwpku tkyfcsKyfaom pHepfukdqkdvkd tkyfcsKyfaom –'Drkdua&pDpHepftkyfcsKyfa&;r[kwf
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t& tkyfcsKyfaom pHepfukdqkdvkdjcif;jzpfonf/ vufyg;aptkyfpk wpku qufvuftkyfcsKyfrnfh
xkdpHepfESpfckwGif/ DEMOCRACY- rSm eKdifiHa&; -- DESPOTISMš ARISTOCRACY-pHepfom
tm%monf jynfolvlxk. qürJtay:rlwnf jzpfvmrnf[k okH;oyfvkdufygonf?)
ojzifhtaumif;qkHh; pHepfjzpfonf[k –
MONTESQUIEU-uaxmufjycJhonf/ okd@aomf }}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}
vnf; 'Drkdua&pDwnfwef@ckdifjrJa&;rSm pD;yGg;a&; ,ciftygwfrStquf-
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cJhonf/
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tm%mukd rw&m;&,lxm;jyD; tkyfcsKyfa&;ykdif; armifarmifoPm wifjyonf
wGif rdrdpdwfxifovkd tkyfcsKyfaom pHepfwrsKd;
jyD;cJhaomtygwfwGif tESpfom& tvGefjynfh
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wom;wnf;wlnDaeonfukd awG@&rnfjzpfonf
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 10 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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jzpfaomfvnf; o<gw&m;ESifhjynfpkHoltjzpfukd “uBm”}uD;ESifh wuGp}um0Vmwkd@ jzpfay:vmykH
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jycJhjyD;jzpfygonf/,cktygwfwGif vltjzpfukd& jcm;w&yfukd “wuBm” [kac:qkdygonf/
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&rnfjzpfygonf? onfoufwef;ukefaomtcg rD;avmifysufpD;&
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oabmw&m;twkdif; wnf&Sdygonf Ttcsuf
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 11 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****


ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 12 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 13 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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PDP
Information Department
onfyif usaemhb0twGuf tvGefwefbkd;&SdvS
Parliamentary  Democracy  Party 
aya}umif;/ ,cktcsdefwGif jyefvnftrSwf&ae (Burma)
ayonf? GHQ (Liberated Area)
wcsKd@vli,fvl&G,frsm; xkdif;eKdifiH
E-mail: pdp_office@yahoo.com,
bufokd@a&muf&SdcJh }ujyD;uHraumif;ta}umif;r
Webpage: www.pdpburma.net,
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vkyf}u&olrsm; twGufrl txl;0rf;eJ bG,f&m
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 14 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
26-6-10- &ufae@xkwfa';vD;e,l;pf tJ'Dawmh tjypf&Sdolcsif; twlwl
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okd@aomfvnf; tar&duefawG[m ukdtokH;csaom tp&Sdaom tcsufrsm;
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oabmusp&mrvkdygbl;/ r}umao;rSDumvu aps;wef;- pmoifausmif;-aq;&kH- bmoma&;
tar&dueft&Sl;waumif tif;,m;uefukd jzwf taqmuftOD;rsm;ESifhvnf; reD;uyfap&vkd@
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udPrSm tar&duef txufv$wfawmftrwf rnfokd@yifjzpfap eKdifiHa&;a0zef
*sif0ufAf u tJ'Dt&SL;ukd axmifxJu qGJxkwf olawGu awmhjrefrmeKdifiHrSm r}umrSD umv
cJhjyD;awmh atmifqef;pk}unfukdawmh wESpfeJ@&Spf twGif;usif;y rJh a&G;aumufyGJqkdwm rsufvSnfh
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 15 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
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ausmif;q&mav; wOD;om jzpfjyD; b0&yfwnf

*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****


ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 16 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
rSK ckdifjrJolr[kwfay okd@aomf ol@b0woufwm r[m csefau&Sdwf}uD;ukd tvJxkd;eKdifolum;
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*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 17 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
ျ မန္ မ ာျပည္ မ ွ ႏ် ဴကလီ း ယား အႏၲ ရ ာယ္ တပါတည္း ယူေဆာင္ခဲ့သည္။ ထိုအခ်က္
အလက္မ်ားထဲတြင္ ေျမာက္ကိုရီးယား၏ အကူအညီျဖင့္
Monday, June 28, 2010
ယူေရနီယမ္ သန္႔စင္ျခင္း၊ တာေဝးပစ္ဒံုးက်ည္မ်ား
ျ မန္ မ ာျပည္ မ ွ ႏ် ဴကလီ း ယား အႏၲ ရ ာယ္ တည္ေဆာက္ျခင္း တုိ႔လည္း ပါဝင္သည္။
ျမန္မာစစ္အစိုးရသည္ ႏိုင္ငံ အႏွံ႔အျပားတြင္ လွ်ိဳ႕ဝွက္
ရဲနည္ Monday, June 28, 2010
လုိဏ္ေခါင္းမ်ား၊ ဘန္ကာမ်ားကို ကြန္ရက္သဖြယ္
ျမန္မာ အစိုးရ၏ ႏ်ဴကလီးယား ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ႏွင့္
တည္ေဆာက္ ေနသည္ဟုလည္း ဗိုလ္မႉး စိုင္းသိန္းဝင္း
ေျမေအာက္ လိုဏ္ဂူမ်ား တည္ေဆာက္ေရး စီမံကိန္း
သယ္ေဆာင္ လာသည့္ ထုိအခ်က္ အလက္မ်ားကုိ
သတင္း မွတ္တမ္းကား တခုေၾကာင့္ ေျမာက္ကိုရီးယား -
ကုိးကားၿပီး DVB က ဆိုထားသည္။
ျမန္မာ စစ္ေရး ဆက္ႏြယ္မႈ
ေလေၾကာင္းမွ တိုက္ခိုက္ခံလာရပါက ဘန္ကာမ်ားတြင္
အေၾကာင္းကုိေဒသတြင္းျပန္လည္သတိထားလာေစေရး
စစ္လက္နက္ ပစၥည္းမ်ား သိုေလွာင္ၿပီး စစ္ဆင္ေရး
လႈပ္ႏိႈးလိုက္သလို ျဖစ္သြားသည္။
ကြပ္ကဲမႈ စခန္းမ်ားအျဖစ္လည္း အသံုးျပဳမည္ဟု သူႏွင့္
အျခား ထြက္ေျပးလာေသာ အရာရွိမ်ားက
ျပသခ်ိန္တနာရီခန္႔ၾကာျမင့္သည့္ထိုမွတ္တမ္းကားကုိ
ေျပာဆုိၾကသည္။ ေျမေအာက္ဥမင္ တခ်ဳိ႕တြင္ ဖိုင္ဘာ
ေနာ္ေဝႏိုင္ငံ အေျခစိုက္ ဒီမိုကရက္တစ္ ျမန္မာ့အသံ
ေကဘယ္ၾကိဳးမ်ား သြယ္တန္းမည္ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊
(DVB) သတင္းဌာနက႐ိုက္ကူး
ျမန္မာ့တပ္မေတာ္၏ ႏုိင္ငံတဝန္း လံုျခံဳ စိတ္ခ်ရေသာ
ထားၿပီးအယ္လ္ဂ်ာဇီးယား႐ုပ္ျမင္သံၾကားလုိင္းတြင္
သတင္းကြန္ရက္ တည္ေဆာက္ေရး အစီအစဥ္
မၾကာေသးခင္က ထုတ္လႊင့္ခဲ့သည္။
ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ထုိမွတ္တမ္းကားတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။

သတင္းမွတ္တမ္းကားတြင္ ပါရွိသည့္
ႏ်ဴကလီးယားစီမံကိန္း လွ်ိဳ႕ဝွက္ လိုဏ္ေခါင္းႏွင့္
အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားေၾကာင့္အာဆီယံႏိုင္ငံမ်ားအတြင္း
ဒံုးက်ည္တည္ေဆာက္ေရး အစီအစဥ္မ်ားအတြက္
စိုးရိမ္ ပူပန္လာၾကသည္။ အေၾကာင္းမွာ
ေဒၚလာ ဘီလီယံႏွင့္ခ်ီ၍ ကုန္က်လိမ့္မည္ဟု ကြ်မ္းက်င္
အာဆီယံႏိုင္ငံမ်ားကအေရွ႕ေတာင္အာရွေဒသကို
သူမ်ားက ခန္႔မွန္းထားသည္။ စစ္အစိုးရသည္ စြမ္းအင္
ႏ်ဴကလီးယား လက္နက္ ကင္းမဲ့ဇုန္အျဖစ္ ထားရွိရန္
တင္ပို႔ ေရာင္းခ်ျခင္းကို ပိုမို ျမႇင့္တင္ျခင္းျဖင့္ ထိုႀကီးမား
သေဘာတူၿပီးေသာေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္သည္။
လွေသာ စရိတ္ကုိ ေထမိႏိုင္သည္ဟုလည္း သိရသည္။

သို႔ရာတြင္ စစ္အစိုးရက ႏ်ဴကလီးယားပိုင္ဆိုင္ေရး


လာမည့္ ၅ ႏွစ္အတြင္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွ ျပည္ပတင္ပို႔သည့္
ႀကိဳးပမ္းမႈသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံႏွင့္ အလြန္ အလွမ္း ေဝးလြန္း
စြမ္းအင္ပမာဏမွ ရရွိလာမည့္ ဝင္ေငြသည္ ၂ ဆ တက္
သည့္အတြက္ေအာင္ျမင္ရန္ခက္ခဲလြန္းလွသည္ဟု ကုလ
လာဖြယ္ ရွိသည္ဟု ဝါရွင္တန္အေျခစိုက္ ေလ့လာေရး
သမဂၢ ႏ်ဴကလီးယား စစ္ေဆးေရး အၿငိမ္းစား အရာရွိ
အဖြဲ႔တခု ျဖစ္ေသာ အေမရိကန္ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္း
ေရာဘတ္ ကယ္လီက ဆိုထားသည္။ “အဓိပၸာယ္မဲ့ေသာ
ေရး အဖြဲ႔က ခန္႔မွန္းထားသည္။ ေရနံႏွင့္ သဘာဝဓာတ္
ၾကိဳးပမ္းခ်က္” ျဖစ္သည္ဟုလည္းသူကေျပာသည္။သို႔
ေငြ႔ကို တ႐ုတ္ျပည္သို႔ တင္ပို႔မည့္ ပိုက္လိုင္း တည္
ေသာ္လည္း သူက “ႏ်ဴကလီးယား ဆုိင္ရာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ
ေဆာက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္း ၿပီးစီးသြားပါက ထိုဝင္ေငြ ရလာ
သေဘာတူညီခ်က္မ်ားကို အေႏွာက္အယွက္ ေပးသလို
မည္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ၂ဝဝ၈ ခုႏွစ္က ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ စုစုေပါင္း
ျဖစ္ေနတာကေတာ့ အမွန္ပါပဲ”ဟုေကာက္ခ်က္ခ်ခဲ့သည္။
ဝင္ေငြမွာ ေဒၚလာ ၆ ဒႆမ ၆ ဘီလီယံ ျဖစ္ရာ ထုိအထ
ဲတြင္ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႔ တင္ပို႔ေရာင္းခ်ရာမွ ရရွိသည့္
DVB ၏ မွတ္တမ္းကားတြင္ ပါဝင္သူ အဓိက
ဝင္ေငြမွာ အနည္းဆုံး ၄၅ ရာခုိင္ႏႈန္း ရိွခ့ဲသည္။
မ်က္ျမင္သက္ေသသည္ ျမန္မာ့တပ္မေတာ္မွ ဗိုလ္မႉးတဦး
ျဖစ္၍ ဒံုးပ်ံတည္ေဆာက္ေရး အင္ဂ်င္နီယာလည္း
ေနျပည္ေတာ္ စစ္အစိုးရသည္ ႏုိငင
္ ံ၏ အသုံးစရိတ္
ျဖစ္သည္။ သူသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွ ေဖေဖာ္ဝါရီလက
အမ်ားစုကို စစ္တပ္ တည္ေဆာက္ေရး အတြက္သာ
ထြက္ခြာခဲ့စဥ္ ႏ်ဴကလီးယား အစီအစဥ္၌ လိုအပ္ေသာ
အသံုးျပဳသည္မွာ အမ်ားသိေသာ အခ်က္ျဖစ္သည္။ပညာ
နည္းပညာႏွင့္ ပစၥည္းမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကို
*************************************************************************** **** ********************************** ****
ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 18 June ,30 ,2010
twGJ 4– trSwfpOf 9 ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************
ေရး၊ က်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ အျခားေသာလူထုလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားတြင္ သူတို႔အေပၚ သစၥာ ရွိမရွိ ဆိုသည္ကို သံသယ
သံုးစြဲေသာ ေငြပမာဏမွာ မဆိုသေလာက္သာ ရွိသည္။ ဝင္ေနေသာေၾကာင့္လည္း ျဖစ္သည္။
စစ္ဘက္ဆိုင္ရာအတြက္အသံုးျပဳမႈမွာႏုိင္ငံဘတ္ဂ်က္္၏; တခ်ိန္တည္းတြင္လည္း ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးသိန္းစိန္ႏွင့္
၄ဝ မွ ၆ဝ ရာခုိင္ႏႈန္း အထိ ရိွေနခ်ိန္တြင္ ျမန္မာျပည္ ဝန္ႀကီး အမ်ားအျပားသည္ စစ္ဘက္ရာထူးမ်ားမွ
သူမ်ားက ေန႔စဥ္ ဘဝရပ္တည္မႈအတြက္ အျပင္းအထန္ အနားယူ၍ ႏိုင္ငံေရးပါတီတခု တည္ေထာင္လုိက္သည္။
႐ုန္းကန္ေနၾကရသည္။ ၎တို႔ တည္ေထာင္ေသာ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ႀကံ့ခိုင္ေရးႏွင့္
ဥပမာ ဆုိရလွ်င္ႏိုင္ငံ၏စီးပြားေရးအသက္ေသြးေၾကာျဖစ္ ဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးေရးပါတီသည္စစ္အစိုးရခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္မည့္ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ
ေသာ ရန္ကန
ု ္မွ မႏၲေလး ေဒသတေၾကာလံုးတြင္ တြင္ စိန္ေခၚမည့္ ၿပိဳင္ဘက္မရွိ ယွဥ္ျပိဳင္မည္ ျဖစ္သည္။
လွ်ပ္စစ္မီး ျပတ္ေတာက္သည့္ ျပႆနာကို ဆိုးဆိုးဝါးဝါး
ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရသည္။ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ စက္႐ံုမ်ားတြင္ ထိုသို႔ ထိပ္တန္းစစ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားက အာဏာ
လိုအပ္သည့္ ေရပမာဏ မရသျဖင့္ အာဏာပိုင္မ်ားက လက္မလြတ္ေရး ၾကိဳးစားေနခ်ိန္တြင္ ျမန္မာ့အေရး
စက္မႈ လုပ္ငန္းရွင္မ်ားကိုလွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အားျဖတ္လုိက္ ကြ်မ္းက်င္သူဟု ဆိုသူမ်ားက ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲအၿပီး
ေသာေၾကာင့္ လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ရပ္ဆိုင္းရေတာ့မည့္ အေျခ ျမန္မာျပည္၏ႏိုင္ငံေရးျမင္ကြင္းေျပာင္းလဲလာလိမ့္မည္ဟု
အေနႏွင့္ ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရသည္။ ပင္ မုိက္မုိက္မဲမဲ ယုံၾကည္ေနၾကသည္။

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွ ထြက္ရွိေသာ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႔ အပါအဝင္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ပဋိပကၡ ေလ့လာေရးအဖြဲ႔ (ICG) က


သယံဇာတ ထြက္ရွိမႈ ပမာဏသည္ႀကီးမားလွေသာ္လည္း ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲသည္ ႏိုင္ငံ၏အနာဂတ္ အေျပာင္း
ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသည္ ယခုအထိ ကမာၻ႔အဆင္းရဲဆံုး ႏိုင္ငံမ်ား အလဲအတြက္ အေကာင္းဆံုးေသာ အခြင့္အလမ္းျဖစ္
ထဲတြင္ ပါဝင္ေနေသးသည္။ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ႏွစ္စဥ္တိုးတက သည္ဟု မၾကာေသးခင္က သုံးသပ္ထားသည္။
္မႈ ႏႈန္းထားသည္ ၂ ဒႆမ ၉ ရာခုိင္ႏႈန္းသာ ရိွ၍ မဲေခါင္
ေဒသတြင္ အနိမ့္ဆံုး ျဖစ္ေနသည္။ ICG သည္ ၁၉၉ဝ ျပည့္ႏွစ္ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲတြင္ အမ်ိဳးသား
ဒီမိုကေရစီ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္ကို မဲပံုေပးခဲ့ၾကေသာ တပ္မေတာ္
ထိုကဲ့သို႔ ဆိုးရြားရက္စက္သည့္ စစ္အာဏာရွင္ အၾကပ္တပ္သားမ်ား အပါအဝင္ မဲဆႏၵရွင္မ်ားကို
အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈေအာက္တြင္ ဘဝရပ္တည္မႈ ခက္ခဲ လာမည့္ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲတြင္ လြတ္လပ္စြာ
ျပင္းထန္လြန္းေသာေၾကာင့္ ဗိုလ္မႉး စိုင္းသိန္းဝင္းကဲ့သို႔ မဲေပးႏိုင္ပါမည္လားဟု ေမးၾကည့္သင့္သည္။
တပ္မေတာ္သားမ်ား ျပင္ပသို႔ မၾကာခဏ ဆိုသလို
ထြက္ေျပးေနၾကပံုရသည္။ ဗိုလ္မႉး စိုင္းသိန္းဝင္းကမူ ျပတ္ျပတ္သားသား
ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲက်င္းပရန္ စီစဥ္ေနစဥ္ မၾကာေသးခင္က အေျဖေပးခဲ့ၿပီး ျဖစ္သည္။ အႏၲရာယ္ ႀကီးမားၿပီး ေငြေၾကး
ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ေသာ ေနျပည္ေတာ္ ေလးလပတ္ အစည္းအေဝး အလြန္အမင္း ျဖဳန္းတီးပစ္ရာ ေရာက္သည္ဟု သူ
အၿပီးတြင္ တပ္မေတာ္ အတြင္း ရာထူးႀကီးေနရာမ်ား ယူဆေသာ ျမန္မာ့ ႏ်ဴကလီးယား အစီအစဥ္
အေျပာင္းအလဲ ျဖစ္ခဲ့သည္ကိုလည္း မေတြရ
႔ ေပ။ ရပ္တန္႔ေစေရးအတြက္ ယခုကဲ့သို႔ လွ်ဳိ႕ဝွက္ခ်က္မ်ားကုိ
ဖြင့္ခ်လုိက္ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္ဟု သူက ဆိုသည္။
တပ္တြင္း ေခါင္းေဆာင္မႈကို ေျပာင္းလဲမႈ မျပဳသည့္
အဓိပၸာယ္မွာ အသက္ ၇၇ ႏွစ္ အရြယ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မႉးႀကီး ရဲနည္ ေရးသားသည့္ Alarm Bells Ring Over New
သန္းေရႊ၊ အသက္ ၇၂ ႏွစ္ ရိွၿပီ ျဖစ္ေသာ ဒုဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မႉးႀကီး Nuclear Evidence ကုိ ဆီေလ်ာ္ေအာင္
ေမာင္ေအးႏွင့္ အသက္အရြယ္ႀကီးေနၿပီျဖစ္သည့္ ဘာသာျပန္ဆုိပါသည္။
အျခားေသာ တပ္မေတာ္ ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား အနားယူရန္ http://www.irrawaddy.org/bur/index.php/editoria
အစီအစဥ္ မရွိေသးသည့္ သေဘာဟု ဆိုႏိုင္သည္။ Posted in ေဆာင္းပး by ရဲရင့္(ကေနဒါ)
လက္ရွိစစ္ရာထူးမ်ားမွ အနားမယူႏိုင္ေသးသည္မွာ
အာဏာကို ငန္းဖမ္းေန႐ံုသာမက အကယ္၍ အာဏာ
လက္လႊတ္လိုက္ၿပီးေနာက္ ေအာက္ေျခအရာရွိမ်ား

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ZGefv (30 ) 2010 ckeSpf 19 June ,30 ,2010
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twGJ 4?trSwf 9 / 30 ZGefv2010 ckeSpf?

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