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tIcf F³.-Pn.

H Atkm-kn-tb-j³þ
]n¶n« \mgn-I-¡-Ãp-IÄ
sI. Ptb-{μ³, I®qÀ
(sk-{I-«-dn-tbäv AwKw)

tIcf kwØm\ cq]o-I-c-W-¯n\v ap¼v Xs¶ hnhn[ kÀÆokv


kwLS\-IÄ Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ, ae-_mÀ taJ-e-I-fn {]hÀ¯n-¨ncp-¶p.
XncphnXmwIqÀ F³.-Pn.H. Atkm-kn-tb-j³, sk³{SÂ tIcf F³.-Pn. H
Atkmkn-tb-j³, t\mÀ¯v tIcf F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ F¶nh CXnÂ
{][m-\-s¸-«-h-bm-bn-cp-¶p. sXmgn-emfn taJ-e-I-fn kwL-Sn-¡m\pw Iq«mbn
hne t]im-\p-apÅ Ah-Imi§Ä AwKo-I-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw hnhn[ sXmgnÂ
\nb- a - § fpw t£a- \ nb- a - § fpw( Welfare legislations ) D-m-b-tXmsS
sXmgnemfnIfpsS PohnX \nehm-c-¯n KWy-amb amä-§Ä D-mbn. F¶mÂ
kÀ¡mÀ kÀÆo-kn Poh-\¡ - mÀ¡v kwL\m kzmX-{´yhpw Iq«mbn hnet]in
Ah-Im-i§ - Ä t\Snsb-Sp-¡m-\pÅ Ah-kc - §
- fpw \ntj-[n-¡s- ¸-«n-cp-¶p. AXp-
sIm-v kÀ¡mÀ Poh\¡m-cpsS PohnX kml-Ncyw Gsd
]cnXm]Icambncp¶p. taeptZymKØcpsS CjvSm-\n-jvS§ - Ä¡v hg§n tPmen
sNt¿-n h¶Xv kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS ØnXn Zpcn-X-]qÀ®-am¡n. kwLS\m
{]hÀ¯\w \S-¯n-b-Xnsâ t]cn kÀÆo-kn \n¶pw ]ncn¨v hnSs¸-Sp¶
ØnXn hntijwhsc D- m bn.
1956 Â tIcf kwØm-\w cq]o-I-cn-¡-s¸-«-Xn-\p-ti-jhpw hnhn[ taJ-e-
I-fn sIm¨p-sIm¨p kwL-S-\-IÄ {]hÀ¯n¨p. F¶m t\m¬ Kk-äUv
hn`m--K-¯nÂs¸-« Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v kz´-ambn Hcp kwL-S\ F¶ B-i-bw cq]-
s¸Sp-Ibpw 1962 HIvtSm-_À amk-¯n F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ cq]o-I-cn-¡-s¸-
Sp- I bpw sNbv X p. aZ- \ - t am- l - \ ³ {]kn- U - p w, cm[m- I rjv W tat\m³
P\:sk{I- « - d n- b p- a mbn cq]o- I - c n- ¡ - s ¸« F³.- P n.H bqWn- b \v I£n- c m-
jv{Sob¯n\-Xo-X-ambn Poh-\-¡m-cpsS hnIm-c-apÄs¡m-v {]hÀ¯n-¡m³
BZy-Im-e-§-fn km[n¨p.
1967 se ]Wn-ap-S¡w :þ 1966 a²y-t¯mSv IqSn tI{μ-kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-
cpsS Un.F hÀ²n-¸n-¨p. `qcn-]£w kwØm\ kÀ¡m-cp-Ifpw Ah-cpsS Poh-\-
¡mÀ¡v tI{μw \ÂInb Un.F \ÂIm³ X¿m-dm-bn. F¶m tIc-f-¯nse
Poh\¡mÀ¡v Un.-F. \ÂIm³ kÀ¡mÀ X¿m-dm-bnà CXn {]Xn-tj-[n¨v
tI{μ Un.F tIc-f-¯nse Poh-\-¡mÀ¡pw e`n-¡-W-sa¶v Bh-iy-s¸«v
sIm-v F³.-Pn.H.-bq-Wn-bsâ t\-Xr-Xz-¯n 1967 P\p-hcn amkw 5 \v kqN\

1
]Wn-aq-S¡w Blzm\w sNbvXp. kqN\m ]Wn-ap-S¡w h¼n¨ hnP-b-am-b-
Xns\ XpSÀ¶v ]Wn-ap-S¡w A\nÝn-Xambn XpSÀ¶p. ]Wn-ap-S-¡s¯ iàn-
bmbn t\cn-Sm³ KhÀWÀ `Kh³ klmbn \nÀt±iw \ÂIn. `qcn-]£w hIp-
¸p-Ifpw Bh-iy-kÀÆo-kmbn {]Jym-]n-¡-s¸«p. ]Wn-ap-S-¡n-bm kÀÆo-knÂ
\n¶v ]pd-¯m-¡p-sa¶v hsc KhÀWÀ {]Jym-]n-¨p. 12 Znh-ks¯ ]Wn-ap-S-¡n-
\p-tijw 1967 P\p-hcn 16 \v ]Wn-ap-S¡w ]n³h-en¨p. tIc-f-¯n kÀ¡mÀ
Poh-\-¡m-cpsS kwL-SnX iàn hyà-am-¡p¶ ]Wn-ap-S-¡mbn CXv amdn.
1967 amÀ¨v 6 \v C.-Fw. i¦-c³ \¼q-Xn-cn-¸m-Snsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n k]vX
I£o a{´n k` h¼n¨ `qcn-]-£-t¯msS tIc-f-¯n A[n-Im-c-¯n h¶p.
1967 se kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS ]Wn-ap-S-¡n\v ]qÀ®-]n´pW \ÂIp-Ibpw
X§Ä A[n-Im-c-¯n h¶m tI{μ Un.F \ÂIp-sa¶pw {]Jym-]n¨ C.-
Fw.-Fkv A[n-Im-c-¯n-se-¯n-b-Xn-\p-tijw 7 amkw Ign-ª-Xn\v tijw-am-
{X-amWv Un.F \ÂIm³ X¿m-dm-b-Xv F¶v am{X-aà Ggv amks¯ IpSn-Èn-
Ibpw \jvS-am-¡n.
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw 1968 :þ
1959  tI{μ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v c-mw i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw \S-¸m¡n .
CXnsâ shfn-¨-¯n tIc-f-¯nse kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS i¼fhpw ]cn-
jv¡-cn¡Ww F¶ Bhiyw DbÀ¶p-sh-¦nepw AwKo-I-cn-¡-s¸--«n-Ã. 1965 Â
BÀ i¦À a{´n-k` XIÀ¶Xns\ XpSÀ¶v kwØm-\¯v KhÀWÀ `cWw
GÀs¸-Sp-¯n. KhÀW-dmbn Npa-X-e-tbä {]apJ t{SUv bqWn-b³ t\Xmhv {io.-
hn.-hn.Kncn Poh-\-¡m-cpsS Bhiyw AwKo-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw sI.Fw D®n-¯m³
sNbÀam-\mbn H¶mw i¼f I½o-j³ cq]o-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. D®n-
¯m³ I½o-j³ dnt¸mÀ«v Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v KpW-I-c-a-Ãm-¯-Xn-\m \ncm-I-c-
¡m³ F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. XpSÀ¶v D®n-¯m³ I½o-j-\nse
At\m--a-en-IÄ ]cn-l-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v th-n {io. tPmÀÖv tXmakv sF.-F.-Fkv
sNbÀ-\m-\mbn At\m-aen I½o-j³ cq]o-I-cn-¨p. I½o-j³ A]m-I-X-IÄ ]Tn¨v
hni-Z-amb dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n-¨p-sh-¦nepw ip]mÀi-IÄ kzoI-cn-¡m³ A¶v
A[n-Im-c-¯n-ep--m-bn-cp¶ apJy-a{´n k:C.-Fw-i-¦-c³ \¼q-Xn-cn-¸mSv X¿m-dm-
bn-Ã. XpSÀ¶v {io.]n.-sI. them-bp-[³ sNbÀam-\mbn c-mw i¼f I½o-js\
\nb-an-¨p. them-bp-[³ I½o-jsâ ip]mÀi-IÄ sa¨-s¸-«-Xm-bn-cp¶nÃ. C.-Fw.-
FÊv \S-¸m-¡nb Cu ]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯n-eqsS Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v 2 cq] , 3 cq]-bpsS
B\p-Iq-ey-§fmWv e`n¨-Xv. IqSmsX \ne-hn-- e p- - m - b n- c p¶ \nc- h [n B\p- I q- e y-
§Ä sh«n-¡p-d-¡p¶ ØnXn D-m-bn. saÊv Ae-h³kv, dnkvIv Ae-h³kv,
lbÀ Izmfn-^nt¡j³ Ae-h³kv, F¶nh sh«n-¡p-d-¡-s¸-«Xv Cu i¼f
]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯n-em-Wv.

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tPmbnâ v Iu¬-kn cq]o-I-cWw :þ
1968  \S-¸n-em-¡nb i¼f ]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯n B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä
sh«n-¡p-d-¡-s¸-«Xv Poh-\-¡m-cn ià-amb {]Xn-tj-[-¯n\v Imc-W-abn.
At\m--aen I½o-j³ dnt¸mÀ«v {]kn-²o-I-cn¨v \S-¸n-em-¡-W-sa¶pw Poh-\-
¡m-cpsS Ah-Im-i-§Ä \ne-\nÀ¯n-In-«p-¶-Xn\v ià-amb {]t£m-`-¯n\v
t\XrXzw \ÂI-W-sa¶pw Bh-iy-s¸«v AWn-IÄ F³.-Pn.bqWn-b³ t\Xr-
Xz-¯n k½À²w Bcw-`n-¨p. Poh-\-¡m-cpsS k½-À²w ià-am-b-t¸mÄ
Cu Bh-iy-§Ä D¶-bn¨v sIm-v k:C ]ß-\m-`sâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n F³.-
Pn.H bqWn-b³ hml\ PmY Bcw-`n-¨p. PmY A¦-am-en-bn F¯n-b-t¸mÄ
k:]ß-\m-`³ PmY Ah-km-\n-¸n¨v ]{X-k-t½-f-\w \S-¯n."" kacw bpàn-
k-l-aà sXmgn-em-fn hÀ¤-¯n\v {]map-Jy-apÅ \¼q-Xn-cn-¸m-Snsâ kÀ¡m-
dns\ Xm§n-\nÀt¯--Xv Poh-\-¡m-cp-sS Ncn-{X-]-c-amb IS-a-bmWv'' F¶v
{]Jym-]n-¨p. C ]ß-\m-`sâ Cu Ip{]kn²amb bpàn-k-l-kn-²m-´-t¯m-
sS-bmWv F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-tcmSv ImWn-¡p-¶- h©-
\¡v -Xp-S¡w Ipdn-¡p-¶-Xv.
1960 IfpsS Bcw-`-¯n Xs¶ kwL-S-\-I-fn \pg-ªp-I-b-dp-Ibpw
kwL-S\m t\Xr-Xz-§Ä ]nSn-¨-S-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pI F¶ I½yp-WnÌv ssien
cq]w sIm-n-cp-¶p. AXnsâ `mK-ambn P\m-[n-]Xy hnizm-kn-IÄ tNÀ¶v cq]o-
I-cn¨ F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b\nepw I½yq-WnÌv kl-bm-{Xn-IÀ AXo-h cl-ky-
ambn \pgªv Ibdn kwL-S\m t\XrXzw ]nSn-¨-S-¡p¶ ØnXn-bp--m-bn.
1964  I--½yq-Wn-Ìv ]mÀ«n-bn-ep--mb ]nfÀ¸v F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b\nepw {]Xn-
^-en-¨p. CSXv heXv I½yq-Wn-Ìp-IÄ kwLS\ ]nSn-s¨-Sp-¡m³ {ia-am-cw-`n-
¡p-Ibpw B {ia¯n CSXv I½yq-Wn-Ìp-IÄ hn-P-bn-¡p-Ibpw kwL-S\
t\XrXzw CSXv I½yqWn-Ìp-I-fpsS ssII-fn F¯n-t¨-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Poh-\-¡m-cpsS B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä sh«n-¡p-d-¨-t¸m-gpw, Ah-Imi ka-c-
§sf ASn-s¨m-Xp-¡m³ {ian-¨-t¸mgpw ""kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v hmcn-t¡mcn
sImSp-¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ JP-\mhv ]-m-c-hI kz¯Ã'' F¶v k : C.-Fw.-Fkv
{]Jym-]n-¨t¸mgpw {]Xn-I-cn-¡m³ X-¿mdmImXn-cp¶ F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³
t\Xr-Xz--¯n-s\-Xnsc kwL-S-\-bn hym]-I-amb {]Xn-tj[w Bfn-¸-SÀ¶p.
amÀIvkn-Ìv kl-bm-{Xn-I-\mb bqWn-b³ P\:sk{I-«dn k : C ]ß-\m-
`s\Xns\ kwL-S-\-bn Iem-]-s¡mSn DbÀ¶p. P\m-[n-]Xy hnizm-kn-
IÄ tNÀ¶v cq]w \ÂInb F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ F¶ -kw-L-S-\sb ]qÀ®-
ambpw amÀIvknÌv I½yq-WnÌv ]mÀ«n-bpsS ]mf-b-¯n Xf-¨n-«-t¸mÄ
amÀIvknÌv A\p-`m-hn-Isf amän \nÀ¯n-s¡m-p ]pXnb Hcp kwL-S\

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F¶ Bibw ià-ambn 1969 sabv 15 \v C. sP. {^m³knkv sNbÀam\pw
sI.-F³.-cm-a³ P\:sk{I-«-dn-bpambn tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn Hm^v tÌäv
kÀhokv HmÀKss\tkj³kv F¶ kwLS\ cq]o-I-cn-¨p. Poh-\-¡m-cpsS
Xmev]-cy-§Ä¡Ä¡v A\p-kr-X-ambn {]hÀ¯n-¡m³ tPmbn³cv Iu¬kn-
en\v BZy-Im-e-§-fn km[n-¨p.
1967 amÀ¨v amk-¯n A[n-Im-c-¯n h¶ k]vX-I£n ap¶Wn a{´n-
k` A[n-I-Imew \ne-\n-¶n-Ã. a{´n-k-`-bv¡-I¯v Xs¶-bp--m-bn-cp¶ A`n{]mb-
hy-Xym-k-§fpw ]c-kv]-c-apÅ Agn-a-Xn-bm-tcm-]-W-§fpw a{´n-k-`-bpsS ]X-
\-¯n Iem-in-¨p. 1969 HIvtSm-_À 24 \v C.-Fw.-F-kv. a{´n-k` cmPn-sh-¨p.
XpSÀ¶v kn.-]n.-sF, BÀ.-F-kv.-]n, Fkv.-F-kv.-]n, apÉow-eo-Kv, tIcf tIm¬-
tIm¬{KÊv F¶o I£n-If - psS t\Xr-Xz-¯n tIm¬{K-Ênsâ ]pdsa \n¶pÅ
]n´p-W-tbmsS kn.-]n.-sF.-bpsS cmPy-k-`mw-K-ambncp¶ kn. ANypX tat\ms\
apJy-a-{´n-bm-¡n-s¡m-v tIc-f-¯n Hcp CS¡me a{´n-k` cq]oI-cn-¡-s¸-«p.
]n¶oSv \S¶ sXc-sª-Sp-¸n tIm¬{KÊv ap¶Wn h¼n¨ `qcn-]-£-t¯msS
A[n-Im-c-¯n hcn-Ibpw 1970 HIvtSm-_À amk-¯n A¨ypX tat\m³ ho-pw
apJy-a-{´n-bmbn sXc-sª-Sp-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
1960 Ifn C´y³ \mj-W tIm¬{KÊn BâWn, hb-emÀ chn,
D½³Nm--n XpS-§nb t\Xm-¡-fpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n bph-P-\-§-fpsS XÅn-¡-
bäw Xs¶ D- m-hp-Ibpw tIm¬{KÊv tIc-f-¯n Icp-¯mÀÖn-¡p-Ibpw
sNbvX Hcp Ime-L-«-am-bn-cp¶p. Cu amäw kÀÆokv kwL-S-\-I-fnepw Zriy-am-
bn. ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ apJy-a-{´n-bm-b-tXmsS Poh-\-¡m-cpsS Bh-iy-§Ä
DbÀ¯n--s¡m-v ià-amb {]t£m-`§Ä¡v t\XrXzw sImSp-¡m³ tPmbnâ v
Iu¬kn t\Xmhv k:C.-sP.-{^m³knkv hnap-JX ImWn-¨p. Cu \ne-]mSv
kwL-S-\-bnse P\m-[n-]-Xy-hn-izm-kn-I-fmb Poh-\-¡m-cn ISp¯ AaÀja-ap-
-m-¡n. I½yq-Wn-Ìp-I-fpsS ssI¿n \n¶pw kwL-S-\sb tamNn-¸n-¡-Ws - a¶
Nn´m-KXn ià-am-bn. 1972  \S¶ tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn hmÀjnI kt½-f-\-
¯n {io.-Sn.hn A¸p®n \mbsc sk{I-«d- n-bmbpw {io.-sI.-Ic - p-Wm-Ic
- ³ ]nÅsb
sshkv sNbÀam-\mbpw {io.-hn.-sI.-F³.-]W - n-¡sc {Sj-dd- mbpw sXcsª-Sp-¯p.
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw 1973 :þ
1973 Â ANypXt-at- \m³ apJy-a{- ´n-bm-bn-cp-¶t¸mÄ Poh-\¡
- m-cpsS i¼fw
]cn-jv¡-cn-¨Xv I½o-j-s\-h-¨p-sIm--m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. tI_n-\äv k_v I½n-än-bp-ambn
D`-b-I£n N-À¨-bn-eq-sS-bmWv i¼fw ]cn-jv¡-cn-¨-Xv. emÌv t{KUv Poh-\-¡m-
cpsS i¼f kvsIbnen\v BZy-ambn tI{μ Xp-eyX e`n¨Xv Cu ]cn-jv¡-c-W-
¯n-eq-sS-bm-bn-cp-¶p.

4
1973 Â F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ \S-¯nb ]Wn-ap-S¡w :þ
100 cq] CS-¡me Bizmkw A\p-h-Zn-¡pI, i¼f I½o-js\ \nb-
an¡pI XpS§nb Bh-iy-§Ä DbÀ¯n-s¡m-v F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ 1973
P\p-hcn 10 apXÂ 54 Znhkw \o-p-\n¶ ]Wn-ap-S¡w \S-¯n. ANyp-X-ta-
t\m³ kÀ¡mdns\ Xmsg Cd-¡m³ amÀIvknÌv I½yq-WnÌv ]mÀ«n \S-¯n-
s¡m- - n - c p¶ ka- c - ¯ n\v iàn ]Icp¶Xn\v th- n F³.- P n.H bqWn- b ³
\S-¯nb cmjv{Sob ka-cambn-cp¶p Cu ]Wn-ap-S¡w F¶ kXyw Poh-\-
¡mÀ Xncn-¨-dn-ªp. AtXm-Sp- Iq-Sn bqWnb³ t\XrXzw Poh-\-¡m-cn \n¶pw
Hä-s¸-«p. ]Wn-ap-S¡w ]cm-P-b-¯nte¡v \o§p¶ L«-sa-¯n-b-t¸mÄ bqWn-
b³ {]hÀ¯--IÀ A{I-a-k-à-cm-hp-Ibpw ]Wn-ap-S¡w hnP-bn-¸n-¡m³
GXv IpÂknX amÀ¤hpw kzoI-cn-¡m³ X¿m-dm-bn. Poh-\-¡msc A{I-an-
¡m\pw ssIt¿äw sN¿m\pw \S-¯nb {ia-§Ä knhn- kÀÆo-kns\
kwLÀj-`c-- n-X-am¡n Poh-\-¡mÀ ]c-kv]cw i{Xp-X-tbmsS ImWp¶ ØnXn-
bp--m-bn. X§-fpsS kÀ¡mÀ A[n-Im-c-¯n-se-¯n-bm ]Wn-ap-S¡v Znh-ks¯
]Ww-Xn-cn¨v \ÂIp-sa¶pw AXv t_¦v \nt£]w t]mse IW-¡m-¡m-sa-
¶pw ]dªv t\-XrXzw AWn-Isf Biz-kn-¸n-¡m³ {ian-¨p. F¦nepw ]Wn-
ap-S¡w Zb-\o-b-ambn ]cm-P-b-s¸-«p. 54 Znhkw \o-p-\n-¶pÅ Cu ]Wn-ap-
S¡w knhn kÀÆo-knsâ Ncn-{X¯nse Xs¶ Idp¯ A²ym-b-ambn
amdn. Cu ]Wn-ap-S-¡-t¯msS F³.-Pn.H bqWn-bsâ ka-c-tijn ]qÀ®ambpw
\jvS-s¸-Sp-Ibpw arX-{]m-b-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp.

F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ cq]o-I-cWw :þ


tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn t\Xmhv k:C.sP {^m³knkv Poh-\¡ - m-tcm-SpÅ
{]Xn-_-ÔX ad¶v ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ kÀ¡m-cn-t\mSv hnt[-b-Xzw ]peÀ¯m³
XpS§n. Ah-Imi ka-c-§Ä¡v t\XrXzw sImSp-¡m³ hnap-JX ImWn-¨p
F¶p-am-{X-aà kÀ¡m-cn-s\m¸w tNÀ¶v Poh-\-¡m-cpsS Ah-Im-i-§Ä \ntj-
[n-¡m³ Iq«p\n¡p¶ ØnXn-hn-ti-j-ap--m-bn. F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ t\Xmhv
k:C ]ß-\m`³ C.-Fw.-Fkv kÀ¡m-dn-t\mSv ImWn¨ kao-]-\-¯n \n¶pw
H«pw hn`n-¶-a-Ãm¯ \b-amWv C.-sP. {^m³knkv ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ kÀ¡mdn-
t\mSv ImWn-¨-Xv. Cu Ime-L-«-¯n `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS apJw t\m¡msX
Ah-Imi ka-c-§Ä¡v t\XrXzw sImSp-¡Ww F¶ Nn´m-KXn AWn-I-fnÂ
ià-am-bn. XpSÀ¶v \S¶ kwL-S\m sXc-sª-Sp-¸n kÀ¡m-dn-t\mSv AÔ-
amb hnt[-bXzw ]peÀ¯nb t\XrXzw {_m©v PnÃm Xe-§-fn Zb-\o-b-
ambn ]c-P-b-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. AWn-I-fn \ns¶m-ä-s¸« t\Xm-¡Ä¡v

5
kwØm\ t\XrXzw \jvS-s¸-Sp-sa¶v t_m²y-ambtXmSp IqSn kwØm\
sXc-sª-Sp¸v \S¯mXn-cn--¡m-\pÅ {iaw B-cw-`n-¨p. sXc--sª-Sp-¡-s¸«
I½nänIÄ¡v ]Icw kam-´c I½n-än-IÄ cq]o-I-cn-¡m\pw {iaw \S-¶p.
N«-{]-Imcw sXc-sª-Sp-¡-s¸« Iu¬kn AwK-§Ä¡v kwØm\ t\Xr-
Xzs¯ sXc-sª-Sp-¡m-\p-Å Ah-kcw \ntj-[n-¡-s¸-«-t¸mÄ ]pXnb
Iu¬kn hnfn¨v tNÀ¡m³ AwK-§Ä t\Xr-Xz-t¯mSv Bh-iy-s¸-«p.
F¶m kwØm\ t\XrXzw AXn-\p X¿m-dm-bn-Ã. ]pXp-Xm-bn sXc-sª-Sp-
¡- s ¸« `qcn- ] £w Iu¬kn- e Àam- c p- t Sbpw Bh- i y- { ]- I mcw tPmbnâ v
Iu¬kn sshkv sNbÀam³am-cn Hcm-fm-bn-cp¶ {io.sI Icp-Wm-I-c³
]nÅbpw sk{I--«-dn-am-cn Hcm-fm-bn-cp¶ {io.-Sn.hn A¸p-®n-\m-bcpw tNÀ¶v
]pXnb Iu¬kn hnfn¨v tNÀ¡p-¶-Xn\v t\m«okv \ÂIn. 1974 BKkvXv
25\v Gd-Wm-Ipfw amÊv HmUn-täm-dn-b-¯n tNÀ¶ Iu¬kn tbmKw
{io.Sn.hn A¸p®n \mbÀ sNÀam\pw {io.-sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³ ]nÅ P\:sk{I-
«-dn-bp-ambn tPmbnâ v Iu¬knensâ ]pXnb t\Xr-Xzs¯ sXc-sª-Sp-¯p.
tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn-ensâ ]pXnb t\XrXzw Poh-\-¡m-cpsS kp{]-[m-\-
amb Bh-iy-§Ä DbÀ¯n-s¡m-v apJy-a-{´n¡v Hcp `oa lÀPn kaÀ¸n-
¡m³ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. XpSÀ¶v kwØm-\-¯p-S-\ofw Poh-\-¡mÀ H¸p-ti-J-cWw
Bcw-`n-¨p.tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn-ensâ ]pXnb t\XrXzw kPo-h-amb kwL-S\m
{]hÀ¯\w Bcw-`n-¨Xv ]gb sNbÀam\pw P\-d sk{I-«-dn¡pw A¦-em-
¸p--m-¡n. AhÀ kwLS\m{]-hÀ¯\w XS-Ê-s¸-Sp-¯m³ tImS-Xnsb kao-
]n¨v D¯-c-hp-IÄ t\Sm³ {ian-¨p. tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn-ensâ `mc-hm-ln-IÄ
F¶ \n-e-bn {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶-Xn \n¶pw Sn.-hn. A¸p®n \mbÀ, sI. Icp-
Wm-I-c³ ]nÅn hn.-sI.-F³. ]Wn-¡À F¶n-hsc hne-¡n-sIm--pÅ tImSXn
D¯-chv t\Sm³ AhÀ¡v Ign-ªp. tImSXn D¯-chv {]hÀ¯-I-cpsS
Bthiw hÀ²n-¸n-¡p-hmt\ klm-bn-¨p-Åq. H¸v tiJ-cWw h¼n¨ hnP-b-
am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1974 HIvtSm-_À 11 \v 70,000t¯mfw Poh-\-¡mÀ H¸n«
Hcp `oa lcPn Xncph-\-´-]p-c¯v \S¶ h¼n¨ {]I-S-\-t¯msS apJy-a-
{´n¡v kaÀ¸n¨p.
P\m-[n-]Xy hnizm-kn-I-fmb kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ tNÀ¶v cq]o-I-cn¨
F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ F¶ kwL-S-\-sb amÀIvknÌv Iayq-WnÌv ]mÀ«n-bpsS
sNmev]Sn¡v hg§p¶ {]Øm-\a - mbn amäm³ {iaw \S-¶t- ¸mÄ AXns\Xnsc-
Nn-´n-¡p¶ {]hÀ¯-IÀ tNÀ¶v cq]o-I-cn-¡-s¸« kwL-S-\-bmWv tPmbnâ v
Iu¬knÂ. F¶m Cu kwL-S-\-tbbpw `c-Wm-[n-Imcn hÀ¤¯n\v ASn-
b-d-sh-¡m³ Iayq-WnÌv A\p-`m-hn-I-fmb t\Xm-¡Ä Xocp-am-\n-¡p-Ibpw

6
tImSXn D¯- c - h p- I Ä CXn- \ mbn D]- t bm- K - s ¸- S p- ¯ p- I bpw sNbv X
kmlNcy¯n tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn F¶ t]cv Dt]-£n-¡Ww F¶
Nn´m-KXn cq]w-sIm--p. kwØm-\-¯p-S-\ofw k©-cn¨v Poh-\-¡m-cpsS
hnImcw a\-Ên-em-¡nb t\Xm-¡Ä 1974 HIvtSm-_À 27 \v Gd-Wm-Ipfw lnμn
{]NmÀk`m lmfn tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn-ensâ k¼qÀ® kt½-f\w hnfn¨v
tNÀ¡pIbpw tPmbnâ v Iu¬-kn F¶ t]cv Dt]-£n-¡m\pw tIcf
F³.Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ F¶ ]pXnb Hcp kwL-S\ cq]o-I-cn-¡m³
Xocpam\n¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
""Poh-\-¡m-cpsS Ah-Im-i-§Ä¡v th-n ]S-s]m-cp-Xp-¶-tXm-sSm¸w kaq-
l-t¯m-Sp-ff _m²yX IqSn \nd-th-äp-sa¶pw A²zm-\n-¡p¶ _lp-`q-cn-]£w
\c-I-bm-X\ A\p-`-hn-¡p-Ibpw A²zm\ ^ew apgp-h\pw Hcp ]nSn k¼-¶À
I¿-S¡n sh¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ kmaqly hyh-ØnXn amän Hcp tkmjy-enÌv
kmaqly hyh-ØnXn sI«n-]-Sp-¡p¶Xn\v th-n A²zm-\n-¡p¶ P\-§-tfm-
sSm¸w kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mcpw AWn-\n-c-¡-W-sa¶'' {]Jym-]-\-hp-am-bn 1974
HIvtSm-_À 27 \v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-knt-b-j³ ]nd¶p hoWp. kwØm\ `mc-
hm-ln-I-fmbn Xmsg ]d-bp-¶-hsc sXcsªSp-¯p.

{]kn-U-v {io.Sn.-hn.-A-¸p-®n-\m-bÀ
sshkv {]kn-U -pamÀ {io.hn.- Sn.- tPmÀÖv
{io.-]n.-sI.-Ip-am-c-Zmkv
P\-sk-{I-«dn {io.-sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³ ]nÅ
sk{I«dn {io.-hn.-sI.-F³.-]-Wn-¡À
{io.-]n.-Fkv kXym-\-μ³
{io. sI.-]n.-cm-[m-Ir-jvW³
{Sj-dÀ {io.-kn.-sI.-kn. \¼ymÀ
sFIy-k-tμiw DbÀ¯n hml-\-PmY:þ
I£n--cm-jv{So-b-¯nsâ t]cn Poh-\-¡m-cpsS Xmev]-cy-§Ä ASn-b-d-
sh-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw Ah-cpsS Bh-iy-§Ä A[n-Im-c-hÀ¤-¯nsâ ap¼nÂ
DbÀ¯m³ Ign-bmXncn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX kml-N-cy-¯n ""A[n-Im-c-¯nÂ
Bcm-bmepw Ah-Im-i-¯n\v kacw sN¿p-sa¶'' kwL-S-\-bpsS {]Jym-]\w
Poh-\-¡m-cn {]Xo--£bpw Bth-i-hp-ap-WÀ¯n.1973  ANyp-X-ta-t\m³
kÀ¡m-dns\ Xmsg Cd-¡pI F¶ KqV Dt±-i-t¯msS \S¶ 54 Znh-ks¯
]Wn-ap-S¡w F³.-Pn.H bqWn-bs\ kwL-S-\m-]-c-ambn Gsd £oWn-¸n¨p
F¶p-am-{X-aà ]Wn-ap-S-¡nb Poh-\-¡mcpw ]Wn-ap-S-¡m¯ Poh-\-¡mcpw

7
X½n am\-ko-I-ambn henb AIÂ-¨bpw krjvSn-¨ncp-¶p. Poh-\-¡m-cpsS
]n´p-W- \jvS-s¸« tPmbnâ v Iu¬-knepw ""N¯-Xn-s\m-¡psa Pohn-¨n-cn-
¡nepw'' F¶ Ah-Ø-bn-em-bn-cp¶p. C¯-c-¯nepÅ {]tXy-I- kml-Ncyw
knhn kÀÆokv cwK¯v \ne-\n¡p-t¼m-gmWv hyXy-kvX cmjv{Sob Nn´m-
K-Xn-Ifpw ho£-W-§fpw sh¨p-]p-eÀ¯p¶ Poh-\-¡m-sc-sbÃmw Hcp-an-¸n-¡p-
hm-\pÅ {iaw Atkm-kn-tb-j³ Bcw-`n-¨-Xv. "Ah-Imi k¼m-Z-\-¯n\v
sFIy-thZn ' F¶ ]p¯-³ ap{Zm-hmIyw knhn kÀÆokv cwK¯v henb
Bth-ihpw Ne\§fp-ap--m-¡n. Ah-Im-i-§Ä t\Sn-sb-Sp--¡p-¶-Xn\v Poh-
\-¡m-cpsS sFIy-\nc F¶ ktμiw tIc-f-¯nse apgp-h³ Poh\-¡m-cnepw
F¯n-¡p¶Xn\p-th-n -hm-l-\-PmY \S-¯m³ kwL-S\ Xocp-am-\n-¨p.
1974 \hw-_À 25 \p ImkÀtKmUv aÃn-ImÀÖp\ t£{X\-S-bn \n¶v
Bcw-`n¨ hml-\-Pm-Ybv¡v Sn.hn A¸p®n \mbÀ, sI.Icp-Wm-Ic³ ]nÅ,
hn.sIF³ ]Wn-¡À, kn.sI kn. \¼ymÀ F¶n-hÀ t\XrXzw \ÂIn. ]nd¶v
hoWv Hcp-amkw t]mepw XnI-bp-¶-Xn\v ap¼v tIc-f-¯nse kakvX Poh-\-¡m-
-cp-tSbpw sFIy-\n-c-bp--m-¡p-¶-Xn-\mbn Atkm-kn-tb-j³ \S-¯nb hml-\-
Pm-Ybv¡v h¼n¨ kzoI-c-W-amWv Poh-\-¡m-cn \n¶pw e`n-¨-Xv. PmY I®qÀ,
tImgn-t¡m-Sv, ae-¸p-dw, ]me¡mSv, XrÈqÀ PnÃ-IÄ ]n¶n«v A¦-am-en-bnÂ
F¯nbt¸mÄ c- m bn ]ncnªv Hcp PmY {]kn- U - v Sn.hn A¸p®n \mbÀ,
sshkv {]kn-U-v ]n.-sI.-Ip-am-c-Zmkv, sk{I-«dn hn.-sI.-F³ ]Wn-¡À F¶n-h-
cpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n \mj-W sslsh hgnbpw asämcp PmY P\: sk{I-«dn
sI.-I-cp-Wm-I-c³ ]nÅ sshkv {]knU-v hn.Sn tPmÀÖv sk{I-«-dn-am-cmb
]n.-F-kv. kXym-\-μ³. sI.-]n. cm[m-Ir-jvW³ {Sj-dÀ kn.sI.-kn.\¼ymÀ F¶n-
h-cpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n Fw.kn tdmUv hgnbpw bm{X-bm-cw-`n-¨p. 1974 Unkw-_À
17 \v Xncp-h-\-´-]p-c¯v kam-]n¨ hml\ PmY Ah-Im-i-§Ä t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-
¶- X n\v Poh- \ - ¡ m- c psS sFIy\nc D- m - t I- - X nsâ Bh- i y- I X CX- c - kw-
LS\I-tfbpw t_m²y-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn\v klm-bn-¨p.
PmY kam-]n-¡p--¶X - n\v ap¼v Xs¶ 1974 Unkw_À 15 \v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-
kn-tb-j³ Gd-Wm-Ip-f¯v hnhn[ kwL-S\m t\Xm-¡fpsS tbmKw hnfn¨p
tNÀ¯p. FSETO, KAPTU, KGPTU, PGTA Class IV Fwt¹m-bokv bqWn-b³
F¶o kwL-S\ - I
- f
- nse t\Xm-¡Ä ]s¦-Sp-¯p. F¶m tPmbnâ v Iu¬knÂ
, kwbpà A²ym-]I kanXn F¶o kwL-S-\-IÄ ]s¦-Sp¯nà Ah-sc-¡qSn
]s¦-Sp-¸n-¡m\pÅ {iahpw hnP-bn-¨n-Ã. sFIy-thZn cq]o-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v th-n
1975 P\p-hcn 30 \v hnfn¨p tNÀ¯ aq¶m-as¯ tbmK-¯nÂsh¨v F³.-Pn.H
Atkm-kn-tb-j³ P\-d sk{I-«dn sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³ ]nÅ FSETOP\-

8
d sk{I-«dn C. ]ßm-\m-`³ F¶n-hÀ I¬ho-\Àam-cmbn F³.-Pn.H Atkm-
kn- t b- j \pw FSETObpw am{Xw DÄs¡m- Å p¶ bpssWäUv B£³
Iu¬kn Hm^v tÌäv Fwt¹m-bokv F¶ sFIy-thZn cq]o-I-cn-¨p. C´y³
\mj-W tIm¬{K-Ên\v apJy ]¦m-fn-¯-ap-ff Hcp sFIy-ap-¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ
tIcfw `cn-¡p-t¼mÄ `c-Ws¯ \h-in-Jm´w FXnÀ¡p-Ibp¶ kwL-S-
\-I-fp-ambn tNÀ¶v t]mhpI F¶Xv I£n-cm-jv{So-b-¯n-\-Xo-X-ambn Poh-\-
¡m-cpsS Xmev]-cy-§Ä¡v am{Xw ap³Xq¡w \ÂIp¶ F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-
tb-j\v am{Xsa km[n-¡p-am-bn-cp-¶p-Åq.
1975 se ]Wn-ap-S¡w ¡w::þ
aq¶mw tI{μ i¼f I½o-j³ ip]mÀi sNbvXXpw tI{μ kwØm\
kÀ¡m-cp-IÄ AwKo-I-cn--¨-Xp-amb am\-Z-WvU-a-\p-k-cn¨v PohnX kqNn-I-bn-
ep- m Ip¶ Hmtcm F«v t]mbnâ v hÀ²-\-hn\pw £ma-_¯ A\p-h-Zn-¡pI-,
t{]mhn-U-v hmbv]m \nb-{´-W-§Ä ]n³h-en-¡pI XpS-§nb Bh-iy-§Ä
D¶-bn-¨p-sIm-v 1975 s^{_p-hcn 5 apXÂ A\n-ÝnXIme ]Wn-ap-S-¡n\v F³.-
Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j\pw FSETObpw DÄs¡m-Åp¶ bqssW-äUv B£³
Iu¬kn Hm^v tÌäv Fwt¹m-bokv Blzm\w sNbvXp. tIm¬{K-Ên\v IqSn
]¦m-fn-¯-apÅ kÀ¡mÀ `cn-¡p-t¼mÄ {]Xn-]£ kÀÆokv kwL-S-\-I-fp-ambn
tNÀ¶v ]Wn-ap-S-¡p-¶Xv kwL-S\ XI-cp-¶-Xn\v Imc-W-amIpsa¶v ]ecpw `b-
s¸-«p. Cu ]Wn-ap-S-¡-t¯msS Atkm-kn-tb-j-\n \n¶pw AWn-IÄ
sImgnªv t]mIp-sa¶pw kwL-S\ ]pdw-tXm-Sp-am-{X-ambn Ah-ti-jn-¡p-sa¶v
{]Xn-]£ kwL-S-\-Ifpw {]Xo-£n-¨p. 1975 s^{_p-hcn 5 apXÂ Bcw`n¨
]Wn-ap-S-¡ns\ XIÀ¡m³ Ubnkv t\m¬, Un.-sF.-BÀ DÄs¸-sS-bpÅ Icn-
\n-b-a-§fpw apJy-a{´n ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ {]tbm-Kn-¨p. {]kn-U-v A¸p®n
\mbsc AdÌv sNbvXv Xncp-h\ - ´
- ]
- p-cs
- ¯-¯n-¡m³ apJy-a{´n ANyp-Xt- a-t\m³
t]meo-kn\v \nÀt±iw \ÂIp-Ibpw \nc-h[n t\Xm-¡sf AdÌv sNbvXv Pbn-en-
e-S-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.FÃm `oj-Wn-I-sfbpw AXn-Po-hn¨v Poh-\-¡mÀ kac cw-
K¯v Dd¨v \n¶-Xn-\m 1975 ^n{_p-hcn 11 \v kÀ¡mÀ NÀ¨bv¡v hnfn-¡p-
Ibpw £ma-_¯ A\p-h-Zn-¡m³ X¿m-dm-hp-I-bpw sNbvXp. F³.-Pn.H Atkm-
kn-tb-j³ Cu ]Wn-ap-St- ¡msS \mam-ht- i-ja- m-Ip-sa¶p Icp-Xnb FÃm-ht- cbpw
AÛpX-s¸-Sp-¯n-s¡m-v kwL-S\ ]qÀÆm-[nIw iàn-s¸-Sp-Ibpw Poh-\¡ -- mcpsS
AwKo-Imcw ]nSn¨v ]äp-Ibpw sN¿p¶ ImgvN-bmWv I--Xv. Cu ]Wn-ap-S-t¡msS
tI{μ-§-fn Un.F A\p-h-Zn-¨m AtX \nc¡nepw AtX Xo¿-Xn- apXepw
tIc-f-¯nse Poh-\-¡mÀ¡pw Un.-F.-e-`n-¡p¶ ØnXn \ne-hn h-¶p.

9
1974 s^{_p-hcn 5 apXÂ 7 Znhkw \o-p \n¶ Cu ]Wn-ap-S¡w F³.-Pn.-H.
Atkm-kn-tb-jsâ kwL-S\m Ncn-{X-¯nse Ahn-kva-c-Wo-b-amb aplqÀ¯-
ambn amdn.
t\XrXz Iym¼ Iym¼vv :þ 1974 HIvtSm-_À 27 \v cq]o-I-cn-¡-s¸« kwL-S-\bv¡v
sI«p-d¸pw kwL-S\m N«-¡qSpw D-m-¡p¶-Xn\v 1975 amÀ¨v 21, 22,23 Xo¿-Xn-I-
fn tIm«bw PnÃ-bnse ssh¡¯v sh¨v \S¶ kwØm\ Iym¼v klm-bn-¨p.
`mhn-bn kwL-S\ - sb \bn-¡p-¶X- n\v t\Xm-¡t- fbpw {]hÀ¯-It- cbpw {]m]vX-
am-¡p-¶-Xn\v DXInb Iym¼v Atkm-kn-tb-j³ Ncn-{X-¯nse Hcp \m-gn-I-
¡ÃmWv.
kwL-S\ - bv¡v AwKo-Imcw :þ kwL-S\ - bv¡v AwKo-Imcw \ÂIm³ apJy-
a{´n ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ X¿m-dm-bnà F¶m NnIn-ÕmÀ°w tkmhn-bäv bqWn-
b-\n-te¡v t]mtI--nh¶ ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ apJy-a-{´n-bpsS Npa-Xe B`y{´
a{´n sI.Icp-Wm-I-c\v \ÂIn. apJy-a{´nbmbn Npa-X-e-tbäv B`y-´-c a{´n
{io.-sI.-I-cpWm-I-c³ Go(MS) 242/76/PD/dtd 29.7.76 F¶ D¯-chv {]Imcw
kwL-S-\bv¡v AwKo-Imcw \ÂIn.
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw 1977 :þ 1977 Â apJy-a{´n G.-sI. BâWn ap³
No^v sk{I-«dn F³ N{μ-`m-\p-hnsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n aq¶mw i¼-f I½o-js\
\nb-an-¨p. I½o-j³ dnt¸mÀ«n Bh-iym-[n-jvTnX an\naw thX\w F¶ \b-
¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\¯ - n i¼f ]cn-jv¡c - Ww F¶ Bhiyw AwKo-Ic - n-¡s¸«n-
«nÃ. CXv dnt¸mÀ«ns\-Xnsc Poh-\-¡m-cn hym]-I-amb {]Xn-tj[w DbÀ¶p-
hcp-¶X -- n\v ImcW-am-sb-¦nepw kÀ¡mÀ GI-]-£o-b-ambn dnt¸mÀ«v \S-¸n-em-
¡m³ Xocp-am-\n-¨p.
t_mWÊv Bhiys¸«p. :þ
tIcf F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-jsâ H¶mw kwØm\ kt½-f-\w 1975
\hw-_À 15, 16, 17 Xo¿-Xn-I-fn Xncp-h-\-´-]p-c¯v sh¨pw c-mw kwØm\
kt½-f\w 1977 amÀ¨v 2, 3 Xo¿-Xn-I-fn-embn ]me-¡mSv sh¨pw \S¶p. ]me-
¡mSv kt½-f\w Atkm-kn-tb-jsâ Ncn-{X-¯nse Gsd {]m[m-\yapÅ
H¶m--bn-cp-¶p. kt½-f\w AwKo-I-cn¨ Ah-Imi ]{Xn-I-bn apJy-amb
Bhiyw amän-sh¨ thX-\-sa¶ \ne-bn kwØm\ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v t_mWÊv
A\p-h-Zn-¡-W-sa-¶-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v t_mWÊv \ÂI-W-
sa¶v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ BZy-ambn Bh-iy-s¸-«-t¸mÄ F³.-Pn.H
bqWn-b³, tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn XpS-§nb kÀÆokv kwL-S-\-IÄ ]cn-lm-
k-t¯m-sS-bmWv AXn-t\mSv {]Xn-I-cn-¨-Xv. t_mWÊv F¶Xv Hcp BImi Ipkp-
a-am-sW¶v tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn t\Xmhv C.-sP. {^m³knkv ]dªt¸mÄ

10
F³.Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ Hcp s]mbv shSn s]m«n-¨n-cn-¡p¶p F¶mWv F³.-
Pn.H bqWn-b³ t\Xmhv C. ]ßm-\m-`³ {]Xn-I-cn-¨-Xv. kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ
{]Xyp¸m-Z-\-]-c-amb tPmen-IÄ sN¿m-¯-Xn-\m t_mW-Ên\v AÀlXbnÃ
F¶ \ne-]m-Sm-bn-cp¶p cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n-I-fp-tS-Xv.
s^Ìn-h Ae-h³kv :þ

1978  {io. G.-sI. BâWn kÀ¡mÀ A[n-Im-c¯- n h¶-t¸mÄ kÀ¡mÀ


Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v 125 cq] s^Ìn-h Ae-h³kv A\p-h-Zn-¨p. a{´n-k`m Xocp-am\w
]pd¯v h¶ DSs\ Poh-\-¡m-tcmSv Btem-Nn-¡m-sX-bmWv Ae-h³kv {]Jym--]n-
¨-Xv F¶pw 125 cq] "" \¡m-]n¨'--bmsW¶pw Btcm-]n-¨p-sIm-v F³.-Pn.H bqWn-
b³ \mSv \osf ]´w-sIm-fp¯n {]S-I-\w \S-¯n. Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v A¶p-hsc CÃm-
Xn-cp¶ Hcp B\p-Iqeyw kÀ¡mÀ {]Jym-]n-¨-t¸mÄ AXns\ kzmKXw sN¿p-¶-
Xn\v ]Icw Bt£-]n-¡m³ X¿m-dm-b F³.-Pn. H bq--Wn-b³ \ne-]mSv XnI¨pw
cmjv{Sob t{]cn-X-am-bn-cp-¶p. 1987  BâWn kÀ¡mÀ \ÂInb s^Ìn-Â
Aeh³kv kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\¡ -- mÀ¡v t_mWÊv A\p-h-Zn-¡p-¶-Xnsâ XpS-¡-am-
bn-cp-¶p. 1984  sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³ kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v 15 Znh-ks¯
t_mWÊv {]Jym-]n-¨p. 1991  ho-pw A[n-Im-c-¯n h¶ sI.-I-cp-Wm-I-c³
kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v Hcp amks¯ i¼fw t_mW-Êmbn A\p-h-Zn-¨p.
A²ym-]I kÀÆokv kwL-S\m sFIy-kac k-anXn cq]o-I-c-Ww.
c-mw kwØm\ kt½-f\w AwKo-I-cn¨ Ah-Imi ]{Xn-I-bnse Bh-iy-
§Ä t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶X - n\v {]t£m-`]
- c
- n-]m-Sn-IÄ kwL-Sn-¸n-¡p-¶s - Xm-sSm¸w Xs¶
Poh-\-¡m-cpsS sFIy-\nc sI«n¸Sp¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ {ia-ahpw kwL-S\ Bcw-`n-
¨p. 1977 sabv 30 \v A²ym-]I þ kÀÆokv kwL-S\m t\Xm-¡-fpsS Hcp tbmKw
Atkm-kn-tb-j³ P\: sk{I-«dn sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³]nÅ hnfn¨p tNÀ¯p.
{]kvXpX tbmK-¯n kwL-S-\-I-fpsS hn]p-e-amb tbmKw hnfn¨p tNÀ¡p-
¶- X n\v Icp- W m- c ³ ]nf- f sb Xs¶ Npa- X - e - s ¸- S p- ¯ p- I bpw Pqembv 17\v
GdWmIp-f¯v tbmKw tNcp-Ibpw sNbvXp. B tbmKhpw Xocp-am-\-am-¡msX
]ncnªp. 1977 HIvtSm-_À 16 \v sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³ ]nÅbpw F³.-Pn.H bqWn-
b³ P\: sk{I-«dn ]n.-BÀ.cm-P\pw tNÀ¶v A²ym-]I kÀÆokv kwL-S\m
t\Xm-¡-fpsS tbmKw Gd-Wm-Ip-f¯v hnfn¨v tNÀ¯v A²ym-]I kÀÆokv
kwL-S\m sFIy kan-Xn¡v cq]w \ÂIn. I¬ho-\Àam-cmbn sI.Icp-Wm-I-c³
]nÅ, ]n.-BÀ cmP³, sI.-hn. tZh-Zmkv F¶n-hsc sXc-sª-Sp-¯p.1977 HIvtSm-
_À 30 \v Xncp-h-\-´-]p-c¯v hnhn[ kwL-S\m t\Xm-¡-fpsS tbmKw tNcp-
Ibpw A²ym- ] I kÀÆokv kwL- S - \ sFIykanXn¡v ]Icw A²ym- ] I

11
kÀÆokv kwL-S\ sFIy kac kanXn cq]oI-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. I¬ho-
\Àam-cmbn {io.Sn.hn A¸p®n \mbÀ, C. ]ß-\m-`³, sI.hn tZh-Zmkv
F¶n-hsc sXc-sª-Sp-¯p. tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn-epw, kwbpà A²ym-]I
kan-Xnbpw ka-c-k-an-Xn-bn tNcm³ X¿m-dm-bn-Ã.
1978 se ]-Wn-ap-S¡v :þ
1975 se ]Wn-ap-S¡n\v t\XrXzw \ÂIn-bXv F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-
j\pw FSETObpw DÄs¸« bpssW-äUv B£³ Iu¬kn Hm^v tÌäv
Fwt¹m-bokv Bbn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n 1978 se ]Wn-ap-S¡v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-
tb-j\pw F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b\pw DÄs¸« A²ym-]I kÀÆokv kwL-S\m
sF-Iy-k-ac kan-Xn-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n-em-bn-cp-¶p. {io. G.sI Bâ-Wn-bpsS
t\-Xr-Xz-¯n kn.-]n.sF DÄs¸« sFIy-ap-¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cn-¡p-¶Xn\v ap³ No^v sk{I-«dn {io.-F³.-N-{μ-`m-\p-hns\
I½oj-\mbn \nb-an-¨p. F¶m I½o-jsâ ]cn-K-W\m hnj-b-§-Ä Poh-\-
¡mÀ¡v kzoIm-cy-am-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. A²ym-]I kÀÆokv kwL-S-\-sFIy kac
kanXn hni-Z-amb NÀ¨-IÄ¡v tijw Xmsg ]d-bp¶ B-hiy§Ä t\Sn-sb-
Sp- ¡ p- ¶ - X n\v th- n 1977 Unkw- _ À 1 \v kqN\m ]Wn- a p- S ¡hpw 1978
P\phcn-bn A\n-Ýn-X-Ime ]Wn-ap-S-¡hpw {]Jym-]n-¨p.
1. Ahiym-[n-jvSnX an\naw thX\ X-Xz-¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\-¯n i¼fw
\nÀ®-bn-¡p-I.
2. 50 cq] CS-¡me Bizmkw A\p-h-Zn-¡p-I.
3. i¼f I½o-j-\n Poh-\-¡m-cpsS {]Xn-\n-[n-Isf DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-I
4. {]tam-j-\n-Ãm-¯-hÀ¡v t{KUvv A\p-h-Zn-¡p-I.
5. t_mWkv A\p-h-Zn-¡pI
6. ssUkv t\m¬ d±m-¡p-I.

Unkw-_À H¶nsâ kqN\m ]Wn-ap-S¡w h¼n¨ hnP-b-ambncp-¶p-sh-


¦nepw Bh-iy-§Ä AwKo-Ic - n-¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ X¿m-dm-Im¯ kml-Nc - y-¯nÂ
1978 P\p-hcn 11 apXÂ A\n-Ýn-X-Im-e-]-Wn-ap-S¡v \S-¯m³ ka-c-k-an-Xn Xocp-
am-\n-¨p. P\p-hcn 11 apX Bcw-`n¨ ]Wn-ap-S-¡ns\ t\cn-Sm³ kÀ¡mÀ
iàamb \S-]-Sn-IfmWv kzoI-cn-¨Xv tPmen¡v lmP-cm-Im¯ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v
ssUkv t\m¬ _m[-I-am-¡p-sa¶v kÀ¡mÀ {]Jym-]n-¨p. AXym-hiy
kÀÆokpI-fn ]Wn-ap-S¡v \ntcm-[n-¡p-Ibpw ]e hIp-¸p-Ifpw AXymhiy

12
kÀÆo- k mbn {]Jym- ] n- ¡ p- I bpw sNbv X p. ]Wn- a p- S - ¡ ns\ t\cn- S m³
t]meokns\ D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-Ibpw \nc-h[n Poh-\-¡msc AdÌv sNbvXv
PbneneS-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. FÃm {]Xn-_-Ô-§-sfbpw AXn-Po-hn¨v Poh-\-
¡mÀ ]Wn-ap-S-¡n ]s¦-Sp-¡p-¯p. Poh-\-¡mcp-am-bn NÀ¨bv¡v X¿m-dm-
bnà F¦nepw kÀ¡mÀ Nne B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä GI-]-£o-b-ambn {]Jym-
]n¨p. Poh-\-¡mÀ CXn Xr]vX-cm-bnà F¦nepw P\p-hcn 27 \v ka-c-k-anXn
tbmKw tNÀ¶v ]Wn-ap-S¡w \ncp-]m-[nIw ]n³h-en¨p. tIm¬{KÊv t\Xmhv
apJy-a-{´n-bm-bn-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ \S-¯nb 17 Znhkw
\o- p - \ n¶ c- m - a s¯ ]Wn- a p- S ¡w kwL- S - \ - b psS hnizm- k yX Gsd hÀ²n-
¸n¨p F¶p am{X-aà cq]o-I-c-W Ime¯v kwL-S\ DbÀ¯nb ap{Zm-hm-Iy-
¯n \n¶v Aev]w t]mepw ]nt¶m«v t]mbn-«nà F¶p hyà-am-¡n.
1978  kwLS- \ - b n- e p- - m b ]nfÀ¸v :þ
C´y³ \mj-W tIm¬--{ K- Ê n tZiob Xe- ¯ n- e p- - m b ]nfÀ¸v F³.-
Pn.H Atkm-kn--tb-\-j-s\bpw _m[n-¨p. {io. A¸p®n \mbÀ {]kn-U-pw
{io.-hn.-sI. F³. ]Wn-¡À P\:sk{I--«-dn-bp-ambn Hcp hn`m-Khpw {io. {io.
Icp-Wm-I-c³ tat\m³ {]kn-U-pw {io.-sI. Icp--Wm-I-c³ ]nÅ P\:sk{I-
«-- -dn-bp-ambn asämcp hn-`m-Khp-ambn kwL-S\ ]nfÀ¶p. hfsc thK¯nÂ
Poh-\-¡m-cpsS hnizmkw BÀÖn¨v hfÀ¶p-sIm--n-cp¶ kwL-S-\-bnÂ
s]s«-¶p--mb Cu ]nfÀ¸v kwL-S-\sb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-¨p. 1982 Â
tIm¬-{K-Ên ]p--\-tc-Io--I - c Ww D- m - ¡ p- I bpw {io.--F.-sI.-BâWnbpsS
t\Xr- X z- ¯ nepÅ tIm¬{KÊv amXr kwL- S - \ - b n ebn- ¡ p- I bpw
sNbvXtXmsS \nÀ`m-Ky-Ic - a
- mb kml-Nc- y-¯n thÀ]n-- c n- t b- - n h¶ Atkm-
kn-tb-j³ {]hÀ-¯-I-tcbpw H¶n-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn--\pÅ {iaw sI.-]n.-kn.kn
Bcw-`n-¨p.sI.-]n.-kn.kn \ntbm-Kn¨ kºv I-½nän Ccp-hn-`m-K-hp-ambn NÀ¨
sN-¿p-Ibpw `mc--hm-ln-IÄ 50:50 F¶ A-\p--]m-X-¯n-epÅ t^mÀape \S-
¸m¡n kwLS-\-bn ]p\tc-Io-IcWw D-m-bn. 1983 amÀ¨v 24 \v Xncp-h-\-´-
]pcw hn.-sP.Sn lmfn \S¶ I¬sh³j\n sh¨v {io.-sI. I-cp-Wm-I-
c³ ]nÅsb {]kn- U - p w {io.- h n.- s I.- F ³ ]Wn- ¡ sc P\:sk{I- « - d n- b p-
ambn sXc-sª-Sp-¯p. ]mÀ-«n-bn-ep--mb GIo-I-c-W-hp-ambn s]mcp-¯-s¸-
Sm³ Ign--bm-Xn-cp¶ {io. A¸p-®n \m-bÀ kwL-S-\-bpsS GIo-I-c-W-
¯nepw ]¦m-fn-I-fn-bm-ImsX amdn \n-¶p.
Poh-\-¡m-cpsS sFIy-th-Zn-bpsS XIÀ¨ :þ
tIm¬{KÊv cmjv{Sob-¯n D-mb Nne tNcn-Xn-cn-hp-Isf XpS-À¶v
{io.G.sI. BâWn apJy-a-{´n Øm\w cmPn sh¨p. XpSÀ¶v kn.-]n.sF
t\Xmhv k: ]n.sI hmkp-tZ-h³ \mbÀ tIc-f-¯nsâ apJy-a-{´n-bm-bn. Cu

13
Ime-L-«-¯n CSXv]£ P\m-[n-]Xy ap¶Wn F¶ Bibw k: C.Fw.
i¦c³ \¼q-Xn-cn-¸mSv apt¶m«v sh¨p . ap¶Wn cq]o-I-c-W-¯n\v apJyXSÊw
]n.-sI.hnbpsS apJy-a{´n Øm\hpw ASn-b-´-cm-h-Øsb ]n´p-W¨ kn.-
]n.sF \ne-]m-Sp-am-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m ""¢o³ tÉänÂ'' XpS§pI F¶ kn.-
]n.Fw X{´-¯n hoW kn.-]n.Fw apJy-a-{´n-Øm\w XyPn¨v CS-Xv]£w
Pm[n-]-Xyap¶Wnbn ]¦m-fn-bmbn. 1980 P\p-hcn 25 CS-Xv]£ P\m-[n-
]Xy ap¶Wn A[n-Im-c-¯n hcn-Ibpw k : C.sI \mb-\m³ apJy-a-{´n-
bmbn Npa-X-e-tb¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
1975 epw 1978 epw ]Wn-ap-S-¡n \n¶pw hn«p-\n-¶ tPmbnâ v Iu¬knÂ
1979  sFIy-th-Zn-bn AwK-am-Im³ X¿m-dm-bn. tPmbnâ v Iu¬-kn-en-t\bpw
DÄs¸-Sp¯n A²ym-]I kÀÆokv kwLS sFIy-k-ac kanXn Agn-¨p-]-Wn-
bp-Ibpw sFIy-k-ac kan-Xn-bmbn t]cv amäp-Ibpw sNbvXp. {io. sI.hn
tZh-Zmkv sNbÀam-\mb sFIy-ka-c-k-anXn 1981 s^{_p-hcn 17 apXÂ Xmsg
]d-bp¶ Bh-iy-§Ä D¶-bn¨v ]Wn-ap-S¡v {]Jym-]n-¨p.
1. Ah-iym-[n-jvTnX an\naw thX\ XXzw AwKo-I-cn-¡pI
2. ssUkv t\m¬ ]qÀÆ-Ime {]m_-ey-t¯msS ]n³h-en-¡pI
3. XS-ªp-sh¨ i¼f Xncn¨v \ÂIpI
4. t_mWÊv A\p-h-Zn-¡pI
5. Hmtcm A©v hÀj-¯n\pw t{KUv A\p-h-Zn-¡pI

\mb-\mÀ apJy-a{- ´n-bm-bt- XmsS CSXv]£ kwL-S\ - I


- Ä kÀ¡m-dn-t\mSv
hnt[-bXzw ImWn-¡m³ XpS-§n. s^{_p-hcn 17 \v {]Jym-]n¨ ]Wn-ap-S-¡nÂ
D¶-bn¨ Hcm-h-iy-hpw AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ \mb-\mÀ kÀ¡mÀ X¿-dm-bn-sÃ-¦nepw
]Wn--ap-S¡v ]n³h-en-¡m³ kac kanXn Xocp-am-\n-¨p.
`c-Wm-\p-Iqe kwL-S-\-I-fpsS h©-\-bn {]Xn-tj-[n¨v F³.-Pn.H
Atkm-kn-tb-j³ sFIy-kac k-anXn _ln-jv¡c - n-¡m³ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. . F³.-
Pn.H Atkm- k n- t b- j ³ s^{_p- h cn 17 \v {]Xn-- t j[ Zn\- a mbn
BNcn¨p.CSXv]£ kwL-S\ - I
- f - psS cmjv{Sob hnt[bXzhpw h©-\bpw aqew
1975 apX 7 hÀj-¡mew kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS taJ-e-bnep--m-bn-cp¶
sFIyw XI˦p.
]XmI amäw :þ
cq]o-I-cW L«-¯n Nph-¶ \nd-¯n-epÅ ]Xm-I-bmWv kwL-S\
kzoIcn-¨-Xv. F¶m 1982  I®q-cn sh¨v \S¶ 7þmw kwØm\ kt½-
f\w Nph¶ sImSn amän {XnhÀ® ]XmI Atkm-kn-tb-jsâ ]Xm-I-bmbn
kzoI-cn-¡m³ Xocp--am-\n-¨p.

14
eohv kd- - À kacw:þ
kacw:þ Ccp- ] ¯n c- v amkw \o- p \n¶ CSXv ]£
P\m-[-]Xy ap¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ 1981 Unkw-_dn XI-cp-Ibpw sI.Icp-Wm-I-
csâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n-epÅ CS-¡me a{´n-k` A[n-Im-c-¯n hcn-Ibpw sNbvXp.
XpSÀ¶v \S¶ sXc-ª-Sp-¸n sFIy-P-\m-[n--]Xy ap¶Wn A[n-Im-c-¯n hcn-
Ibpw 1982 tabv amk-¯n sI. Icp-Wm-I-c³ apJy-a-{´n-bmbn Npa-Xe
G¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. A[n-Im-c-¯ntednb sFIy P\m-[n-]Xy ap¶Wn
kÀ¡mÀ kwØm-\-¯nsâ km¼-¯nI {]Xn-kÔn ]cn-l-cn-¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ
Poh- \ - ¡ m- c psS kd- À B\p- I qeyw c- v amk- t ¯¡v XS- ª p- s h- ¡ m³ Xocp-
am--\n-¨p. 15 hÀj-ambn Poh-\-¡mÀ A\p-`-hn¨ph¶ B\p-Iqeyw XS-ªp-sh¨
kÀ¡mÀ \S-]Sn AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ X¿m-dm-bn-cp-
¶n-Ã. {]tIm-]n-X-cmb Atkm-kn-tb-j³ {]hÀ¯-IÀ sk{I-«-dn-tb-än\v AI-
t¯¡pw a{´n-am-cpsS Hm^o-knte¡pw {]I-S\w \S-¯nbpw ap{Zm-hm-Iyw
hnfn¨pw {]Xn-tj-[-¯nsâ sImSp-¦mäv DbÀ¯n. {io.-hn.-sI.-F³ ]Wn-¡À
DÄs¸-sS-bpÅ kwL-S\m t\Xm-¡sf sk{I-«-dn-tb-än-\-I¯v sh¨v Xs¶
t]meokv AdÌv sN-¿p-Ibpw Pbn-en-e-S-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. F³.-Pn.H Atkm-
kn-tb-j³ {]hÀ¯-I-cpsS {]Xn-tj[w AW-s]m-«n-sbm-gp-In-bXv a\-Ên-em-
¡nb kÀ¡mÀ 1983 s^{_p-hcn 9 \v NÀ¨bv¡v X¿m-dmbn . NÀ¨-bn ¢mkv
t^mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v kd--À i¼fw ]qÀ®-ambn \ÂIm\pw ¢mkv {Xo
Poh-\-¡mcpsS i¼fw A¼Xv iX-am\w DS³ \ÂIm\pw Xocp-am-\n-¨tXmsS-
kacw Ah-km-\n-¸n¨p.
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw 1983 :-þ apJy-a{´n {io.-sI.-I-cp-Wm-I-c³, PÌnkv
hn. tKm]m-e³ \¼ymÀ sNbÀam-\m-bn \memw i¼f I½o-js\ \nb-an-¨p. sFIy-
P-\m-[n-]Xy ap¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ \S-¸n-em-¡nb Cu i¼f ]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯n-eqsS
Ht«sd B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v e`n-¨p. Poh-\-¡m-cpsS tkh-\-th-X\
hyh-Ø-IÄ ka-{Kambn ]cn-jv¡cn¨-Xv. Cu I½oj\neqsSbmbn-cp¶p.
FÂ.Un. bp.Un ¢mÀ¡v-am-cpsS A\p-]mXw 1:1 Dw sP.-F-kv ¢mÀ¡v A\p]mXw
1:6Dw B¡n- 10, 20, 25 hÀ§Ä¡v t{KUv , B{inX \nba hyhØ DZm-c-
am¡n XpS-§n-bh I½o-j-\nse {i²-tb-amb ip]mÀiIfm-bn--cp-¶p..

sktäm (SETO) cq]o-I-cWw:þ 1983 Pq¬amk-¯n P\m-[n-]Xy hnizm-


kn-I-fmb kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-tcbpw A²ym-]-I-cptSbpw kwL-S-\-IÄ tNÀ¶v
tÌäv Fwt¹m-bokv Bâ v Sot¨Àkv HmÀK-ss\-tk-j³(SETO) F¶ Iq«mbva
cq]o-I-cn-¨p. ]n¶o-S-t§m«v A²ym-]-I-cp-tSbpw Poh-\-¡m-cp-tSbpw AhImi
ka-c-§Ä¡v iàn ]I-cm³ Cu sFIy-thZn Gsd {]tbm-P-\-s¸-«p.

15
t_mWkv A\p-hZn¨p :- þ 1984 BKkvXv amk-¯n apJy-a{´n sI. Icp-
Wm- I - c ³ t_mWkv F¶ Ah- I miw AwKo- I - c n- ¡ - I bpw tIc- f - ¯ nse
kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v 15 Znh-ks¯ i¼fw t_mWÊmbn A\p-h-Zn-¡p-
Ibpw sNbvXp.
1985 se ]Wn-ap-S¡w:þ 1968 apX A©v hÀj-§Ä Ign-bp-t¼mÄ tIc-f-
¯nse kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\¡ - m-cp-tSbpw A²ym-]I
- c
- p-tSbpw i¼fw ]cn-jv¡c - n-¡pI
F¶ Iogv hg¡w \ne-hn h¶n-cp-¶p. 1982  A[n-Im-c-¯n h¶ sFIy
P\m-[n-]Xy ap¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ i¼f I½o-js\ \nb-an-¡p-Ibpw I½o-j³ ]¯v
amkw sIm-v Xs¶ dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n-¡p-I-bp-w sNbvXp.F¶m i¼f ]cn-
jv¡-c-Ww \S-¸n-em-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ Xocp-am\w \o-p-t]m-bn. hcĨbpw km¼-
¯nI {]XnkÔnbpamWv kÀ¡mÀ CXn\v Imc-W-ambn ]d-ª-Xv. i¼f ]cn--
jvI-cWw A\-´-ambn \o-p-t]m-Ip-¶Xv AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ Poh-\-¡m-tcmSv {]Xn-
_-Ô-X-bpÅ kwL-S\ F¶ \ne-bn F³.Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j\v km[n-
¡p-am-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. kwL-S\ i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw \S-¸m-¡p-¶-Xn\v th-n-bpÅ
{]t£m` ]cn-]m-Sn-If- p-ambn apt¶m«v t]mbn H¸w SETOkwL-S\ - I
- t- fbpw kac
cwK-t¯¡v sIm-p-h-cm-\p-Åf {iaw Bcw-`n-¡pIbpw BIvj³ Iu¬knÂ
cq]o-I-cp-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1985 BKkvXv 7 apXÂ A\n-ÝnX Ime ]Wn-ap-
S¡w \S¯m³ SETOB£³ Iu¬kn Blzm\w sNbvXp. SETOB£³
Iu¬kn ]Wn-ap-S¡v {]Jym-]n-¨-t¸mÄ sI.hn tZh-Zmkv \bn-¡p¶ sFIy-
k-ac kan-Xnbpw ]Wn-ap-S¡v {]Jym-]-\-hp-ambn cwK¯v h¶p. X§-fpsS bP-
am-\·
- mÀ `cn-¡p-t¼mÄ Poh-\¡ - m-cpsS Bh-iy-§Ä ASn-bd sh¨v kac cwK¯v
\n¶v Hfn-t¨m-Sp-Ibpw sFIy P\m--[n-]Xy ap¶Wn `c-W-¯n hcp-t¼mÄ hÀ-
²nX hocy-t¯msS ka-c-hp-ambn cwK¯v hcpIbpw sN¿p¶ CSXv kwLS\I-
fpambn sFIy-thZn ]¦n-Sm³ SETO kwLS\IÄ X¿m-dm-bn-cp-¶nà Poh-\-
¡m-cpsS s]mXphmb Bh-iy-¯n\v th-nbpÅ {]t£m`w F¶ \ne-bnÂ
hyXykvX kac kanXnIfn \n¶p-sIm-p Xs¶ Htc Xo¿Xn apX ]Wn--ap-
S¡v Bcw-`n-¡m³ sFIy-k-ac kanXnbpambn SETO B£³ Iu¬knÂ
[mcWbnse-¯n. 1985 BKkvXv 7 apXÂ Bcw-`n¨ ]Wn-ap-S¡w 11 Znhkw \o-p
\n¶p. 1985 BKkvXv 17 \v kÀ¡mÀ i¼-f ]cn-jv¡-cWw {]Jym-]n-¨p.
i¼f ]cn-jvI-c-W-¯n\v 1983 Pqembn H¶p-ap-XÂ {]m_eyw \ÂIp-I-
bpw 1985 G{]n H¶p apX sdm¡w ]W-ambpw \ÂIp-sa¶p kÀ¡mÀ hyà-
am-¡n-b-tXmsS Ccp-k-ac kan-Xn-Ifpw ]Wn-ap-S¡v ]n³h-en-¨p. C´y³ \mj-
WÂ tIm¬{K-Ênsâ BZ-c-Wo-b-\mb t\Xmhv {io.sI.Icp-Wm-I-c³ apJy-a-
{´n-bm-bn-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³ \S-¯nb Cu ]Wn-ap-S¡v
kwLS\ Ncn-{X-¯nse Ahn-kva-c-Wo-b-amb asämcp A²ym-b-am-Wv.

16
t_mWkv hÀ²n-¸n-¨p. :þ 1986 BKkvXv amk¯n t_mWÊv 21 Znh-
ks¯ i¼fambn apJy-a{´n {io.-sI.Icp-Wm-I-c³ hÀ²n-¸n-¨p.
1986 se ]nfÀ¸v :þ 1978  kwL-S-\-bn-ep--mb `n¶n¸n\p Im-cWw
tZiob Xe-¯n tIm¬{KÊv ]mÀ«n-bn-ep--mb ]nfÀ¸m-bn-cp¶psh¦n 1986
se ]nfÀ¸n\p Imc-W-am-b-Xv, F¬]-Xp-I-fn tIc-f-¯nse tIm¬{K-Ên-\-I-
¯p--mb Xo{h-amb {Kq¸v cmjv{So-b-am-bn-cp¶p kwL-S-\-bp-sS P\: sk{I-
«dn {io.-hn.-sI.-F³.]-Wn-¡À Kk-äUv XkvXn-I-bn-te¡v {]tam-j³ e`n¨p
t]mb-tXm-sS- `m-c-hm-ln-IfpsS F®-¯n sI.-]n.-kn.-kn. \nÀt±-in¨ 50:50
F¶ A\p-]mXw ew-Ln-¡-s¸-«p. CXv kwL-S-\-bn asämcp ]nfÀ¸n\p Imc-
W-am-bn. {io.-sI. IcpWmI-c³ ]nÅ {]kn-U-mbn Hcp hn`m-Khpw {io.-
BÀ.-sI. s]mXp-hmÄ {]kn-U-pw {io.-Un. Ac-hn-μm-£³ P\: sk{I-«-dn-
bmbpw asäm-cp-hn-`m-K-hp-ambn thÀ]n-cnªv c-v kwL-S-\-bmbn {]hÀ¯\w
XpS§n. CXv kwL-S-\-bpsS hfÀ¨sb ho-pw ]nt¶m«v hen-¡p-¶-Xn\p
Imc-W-am-bn. 1988 Â ho-pw kwL-S-\-I-fpsS GIo-I-cWw \S-¡p-Ibpw {io.-
Un. Ac-hn-μm-£³ {]kn-U-pw I¼d \mcm-b-W³ P\: sk{I-«n-bp-amb hn-
-`mKw \ncp-]m-[nIw amXr kwL-S-\-bn ebn-¨p.
Atkm-kntbj\v BØm\ aμncw -:þ 1978 Â `n¶n¨p t]mb kwL-
S\bn 1983  tbmPn-¸p--m-bn. sFIy-t¯msS apt¶m«v t]mIm³ Ign-ª-Xn-
\m Cu Ime-L-«-¯n Xncp-h-\-´] -- pcw t_¡dn PwKvj-\n Hcp ]gb
sI«n-Shpw 18½ skâ v Øehpw kz´-am-¡m³ Ign-ªp. 1986 Â ho-pw
]nfÀ¸v t\cn-tS-n h¶ kwL-S-\bv¡v BØm\ aμncw bmYmÀ°y-am-¡m³
Ign- ª nà 1988  kwL- S - \ - b n ho- p w sFIy- a p- - m - b - t ¸m- g mWv sI«nS
]Wn-bp-ambn apt¶m«v t]mIm³ km[n-¨-Xv. Poh-\-¡m-cnÂ\n¶pw ]Ww
]ncn¨v 1989 emWv sI«nS \nÀ½mW {]hÀ¯\w Bcw-`n-¨Xpw C¶s¯ \ne-bn-
epÅ Hm^okv aμncw ]qÀ¯n-bm-¡n-X-bpw.
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw 1988 :þ 1988 Â k : C.sI \mb-\mÀ apJy-a-{´n-bm-
bn-cp-¶t- ¸mÄ PÌnkv N{μ-ti-Jc - at\m³ sNbÀam-\mbn 5þmw i¼f I½oj³
cq]o-I-cn-¨p. AÀl-X-s¸-«-Xnepw IqSp-X B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä 1985 se ]cn-jv-
¡cW-¯n Xs¶ \S--¸m¡n F¶p Nq-n-¡m«n IqSp-X {]tam-j³ B\p-
Iq-ey-§Ä \ntj-[n-¡m-\mWv N{μ-ti-Jc tat\m³ I½o-j³ X¿m-dm-b-Xv.
1986  tI{μ-¯n i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw \S-¸n-em-¡nb kml-N-cy-¯n tI{μ
XpeyX F¶ kwØm\ Poh- \ - ¡ m- c psS Bhiyw AwKo- I - c n- ¡ - s ¸- « n- Ã .
1973apXÂ 1986 hsc tI{μ Xpey-Xbv¡pw Xpey tPmen¡v Xpey thX\w
F¶ \ne-]mSnepw Dd¨v \n¶ F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ \mb-\mÀ apJy-a-{´n

17
Bbt¸mÄ \ne-]mSv amäp-Ibpw tI{μ ]cn-jv¡-c-W-aà AXnepw sa¨-s¸«
s]mXp-ta-Jem Øm]-\-§-fnse thX-\-amWv th--sX¶pw B-h-iy-s¸-«p.
Poh- \ - ¡ m- c n c- v A`n- { ]mbw D- m - ¡ p- I bpw tI{μ thX\w \ntj- [ n- ¡ p-
¶-Xn\v kÀ¡m-dn-\v kuIcyw Hcp¡n sImSp-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. F³.-Pn.H
bqWn-bsâ Cu h©\m ]c-amb \ne-]mSvaqew tI{μ-\n-c-¡nepw hfsc
Ipdª i¼-f kvsIbn-en-emWv Cu ]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯n-eqsS \S¸nem-¡n-b-
Xv. AXphsc \ne-hn--ep--m-bn-cp¶ 50% s]³j³ I½yqt«-j³ 33.3% B¡n
Ipd-¡pI ]n¶oSv 40% Bbn DbÀ¯n henb Hcp ZuXyw Im«n-b-Xmbn {]N-
cn-¸n-¡pIbpw sNbvXp..
1988 se ]Wn-ap-S¡w :þ (1988 \hw-_À 17-þ22)
tI{μ Poh-\-¡mÀ ¡v 4þmw i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw \S-¸m-¡nb kml-N-
cy-¯n tIc-f¯- nse kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\¡ - m-cp-tSbpw A²ym-]I
- c
- ptSbpw i¼fw
tI{μ \nc-¡n ]cn-jv¡-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v tI{μ [\-Im-cy I½o-j³ 513.27 tImSn
cq] A\p-h-Zn-¨p. F¶m XpI hI amän Nne-h-gn-¡p-Ibpw tIc-f-¯nse
Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v tI{μ \nc-¡n-epÅ i¼fw \ntj-[n-¡m\pamWv CSXv ap¶Wn
kÀ¡mÀ X¿m-dm-b-Xv. kÀ¡m-dnsâ Cu \ne-]m-Sn-s\-Xnsc Poh-\-¡m-cpsS
{]Xn-tj[w Aeb-Sn-¨p. 1988 \hw_À 17 apXÂ A\n-ÝnX Ime ]Wn-ap-S-¡n\v
F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j\pw sktäm kwL-S-\-Ifpw Blzm\w sNbvXp.
]Wn-ap-S¡w \hw-_À 22 hsc \o-p \ns¶-¦nepw tI{μ \nc¡v A\p-h-Zn-
¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ X¿m-dm-bnà C-SXv ap¶Wn kÀ¡mdnsâ h©-\m-]-c-amb \ne-
]mSv Xpd¶v ImWn-¡m³ Cu ]WnapS¡v klm-bn-¨p.
Hcp amks¯ i¼fw t_mWÊv :- þ 1991 Pq¬ 24\v sFIy- P\m-[n-
]Xy ap¶Wn ho- p w A[n- I m- c - ¯ n F¯p- I bpw {io. Icp- W m- I - c ³
apJya{´nbmbn Npa-X-e-tb¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1991 B-KkvXv amk-¯nÂ
kÀ¡mÀ Poh- \ - ¡ mÀ¡pw A²ym- ] - I À¡pw Hcp amks¯ i¼fw
t_mWÊmbn A\phZn-¨p.
i¼f ]cnjv¡-cWw 1992
1992 Â {io.sI. Ic-Wm-I-c³ apJy-a-{´n-bmbn ho-pw A[n-Im-c-¯n-se-
¯p-Ibpw ap³No^v sk{I-«dn {io. tKm]m-e-Ir-jW ]nÅ sNbÀam-\mbn
t]CuIzsse-tk-jy³ I½nän ( PEC ) cq]n-I-cn-¨p. 1986 tI{μ-¯n \S-
¸m-¡nb i_f \nc¡v kwØm\ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡pw._m[Iam-¡-W-sa¶ XXz-
¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\-¯n-emWv I½nän co]n-I-cn¨Xv. tI{μ XpeyX ]qÀ®-

18
ambn e`n-¨n-sÃ-¦nepw tImc-f-¯nse Poh-\-¡mÀ hÀj-§-fmbn DbÀ¯nb
Bhiyw e£y-¯n-se-¯n-se-¯p-¶X - nsâ BZy-]S- n-bm-bncp¶p t]Cu Izsse-
tk-j³ I½n-än-bpsS ip]mÀi-IÄ. an\n-Ìn-cn-b Poh-\-¡mÀ¡pw emÌv
t{KUv Poh\¡mÀ¡pw tI{μ XpeyX e`n-s¨-¦nepw ^oÂUv sS-Iv\n-¡³
Poh-\-¡mÀ¡pw þ A²ym-]-IÀ¡pw tI{μ-Xp-eyX e`n-¨n--Ã.
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw 1997
1997-þÂ apJy-a-{´nbmb \mb-\mÀ {io. ]n. Fw. A{_lmw sNbÀam-
\mbn s]dn-hn-j³ I½nän cq]n-I-cn-¨p. ( PRC) 1996- P\p-hcn 1 {]m_eyw
\ÂIn. sI- v tI{μ- ¯ n \S¸m¡nb A©mw i¼- ] - c n- j - ¡ - c W¯nsâ
(]mWvUy³ I½n-j³) ]Ým-¯-e-¯n tI{μ-Xp-ey-\-S-¸m-¡n-s¡-v i¼fw
]cn-jvIc- n-¡Ww F¶m-bn-cp¶p \nÀt±iw F¶m Cu I½n-änbpw tI{μ Poh-
\-¡mÀ¡v Xpey-amb thX\w kwØm\ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v iq]mÀÈ sN¿m³
X¿m-dm-bn-Ã. tIc-f-¯nse Poh-\-¡mÀ 1970\v tijw I-n-«pÅXn sh¨v
Gähpw {]Xn-tem-aI- c
- a
- mb dnt¸mÀ«v F¶mWv tPmbnâ v Iu¬kn Cu i¼f
]cn-jv¡-c-Ws¯ hnti-jn-¸n-¨-Xv.

1998 se ]Wn-ap-S¡w :þ tI{μ \nc-¡n-epÅ i¼fw Bh-iy-s¸«v 1998


\hw-_À 18 ap--XÂ A\n-ÝnX Ime ]Wn-ap-S-¡n\v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn--tb-
j³ Blzm\w sNbvXp. ]WnapS-¡nsâ iàn Ipd-¡m³ 12.11.98 \v Xs¶
\mb-\mÀ kÀ¡mÀ i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw {]-Jym-]n-¨p. F¶m tI{μ XpeyX
F¶ kwØm\ Poh-\-¡m-csâ kz]v\w XIÀ¯p Ifª {]Jym-]-\-am-bn-
cp¶p AXv. tI{μ i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw \ntj-[n--¨-Xn {]Xn-tj-[n¨v kwØm-
\-¯p-S\- ofw Poh--\¡
- mÀ {]Xn-tj[ {]IS-\§ - fpw s]mXp-tbm-K§
- fpw kwL-
Sn¸n¨p. 1998 \hw-_À 18 apXÂ \S-¯p-sa¶v {]Jym-]n¨ A\n-Ýn-X-Ime ]Wn-
ap-S¡w IqSp-X kwL-S-\I -- sf ]Wn- a p- S¡v cwK- t¯¡v sIm- p - h - cp--¶-Xn-
\mbn Hcp Znh-ks¯ {]Xn-tj[ ]Wn-ap-S-¡m¡n amän. Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v Gsd
t{Zml-I-c-amb i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cW dnt¸mÀ-«ns\ ]S¡w s]m«n¨pw a[pc-]-e-
lm-c-§Ä hnX-cWw sNbvXp-amWv F³.-Pn.H bqWn-b³ kzmKXw sNbv-X - -Xv.
Poh-\-¡m-tcm-SpÅ {]Xn--_-ÔX ad¶v X§-fpsS cm-jv{Sob bP-am-\-·mÀ¡v
]mZ tkh sN¿p¶ F³.-Pn.H bq-Wn-bsâ ap³-\n-e-]m-Snsâ BhÀ-¯-\-am-
bn-cp¶p AXv.

19
2000 kwL- S - \ - b n- e p- - m b ]nfÀ¸v :þ
1997  I®qcn sh¨v \S¶ kwØm\ k-t½-f-\-t¯m-S-\p-_-Ôn¨v
kwLS\bn A`n-{]m-b- hy-Xym-k§ - Ä XpS-§n. P\:sk{I«dn {io. I¼d \mcm-
-b-Ws\ ]p-d-¯m-¡m\pw kwL\ ssI¸n-Sn-bn HXp-¡m\pw Hcp hn-`mKw {ia-
am-cw-`n-¨p. 2000 Pq¬ 11 \v tNÀ¶ kwØm\ I½n-än-bn AkzØ P\-I-amb
NÀ¨-IÄ \S-¡p-Ibpw tNcn-Xn-cnªv ]c-kv]cw ]pd-¯m-¡Â \S¯pIbpw
sNbvXp. {io. a§m«v cmtP-{μs\ {]kn-U-v Øm\¯v \n¶v \o¡w sNbvXv
{io.-Fw.]n th-em-bp-[\v {]kn--U-nsâ XmÂ-¡m-enI Npa-Xe \ÂIn. 2000 HIvtSm-
_À 8 \v Gd-Wm-Ipfw "Pn' HmUn-täm-dn-b-¯n tNÀ¶ kwØm\ Iu¬knÂ
am§m«v cmtP-{μs\ {]-kn-U-v Øm\¯p \n¶v \o¡w sNbvX \S-]-Snbpw
{]kn-U- nsâ Npa-Xe Fw.-]n. them-bp-[\\v \ÂInb Xocp-am-\hpw icn-sh-
¡p-Ibpw kwØm\ I½nän ]p\:kwL-Sn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbv-Xp. {]kn-U- mbn
{io.-Fw.-]n.-th-em--bp-[-t\bpw P\:sk{I-«-dn-bmbn {io. I-¼d \mcm--bW-- -s\bpw
sX--c-sª-Sp-¯p.
2000 Â \S¶ ]nfÀt¸msS kwL-S-\-bpsS FÃm Xe--§-fnepw ]pXnb
t\Xm--¡ fpw ]pXnb {]hÀ¯Icpw D- m - b n. CXv kwLS- \ bv ¡ v IqSp- X Â
DuÀÖ-kz-e-Xbpw Icp¯pw ]IÀ¶p. ]p¯³ ]cn-]m--Sn-Ifpw Bi-b-§-fp-am-bn
kw-L-S\ Poh--\-¡m-cpsS CS-bn-te¡v Cd§n AhcpsS hn-izm-k-amÀÖn-¨p.
FÃm hÀjhpw kwØm\ Xe-§-fnepw PnÃm Xe-§-fnepw t\XrXz Iym--¼p-
Ifpw inev]-im-e-Ifpw \S¯n ]pXnb t\-Xm-¡Ä¡pw {]hÀ-¯-IÀ¡pw
]cnioe\w \ÂIm³ Xp-S-§n-b-tXmSp IqSn kwL-S\ IqSp-XÂ IqSp-XÂ Icp-
¯mÀÖn¨p. apS-§n-t¸mb knhn kÀÆokv amknI Zn.kn-hn kÀÆokv F¶p
]p\À-\m-a-I-cWw sNbvXv {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡m³ XpS-§n-bXv kwL-S-\-bpsS \ne-
]m--Sp-Ifpw ImgvN-¸m--Sp-Ifpw Poh-\-¡m-cn F-¯n-¡m³ km[n-¨p.
Nn«-bmbpw Zn-im-t_m[t¯m-sS-bpÅ kwL\m {]hÀ¯-\-hpw Poh-\-
¡m-cpsS {]iv\-§-fn kwL-S\ \S-¯nb CS-s]-S-ep-Ifpw kwL-S-\-bn-
te¡v IqSp-XÂ Poh-\-¡msc BIÀjn-¡p--¶-Xn\p Imc-W-ambn
{Kq¸v C³jq-d³kv ]²Xn :þ
1998  Be-¸p-g-bn \S¶ 22þmw kwØm\ k-t½-f-\-amWv Atkm-kn-
tb-j³ AwK-§sf C³jqÀ sN¿m³ Xo--cp--am--\n-¨-Xv. kwL-S\ Bcw--`n¨
\ho-\-amb ]²-Xn-bm-bn-cp¶p {Kq¸v C³jq-d³kv ]²-Xn. kwL-S-\-bnse
apgp- h ³ Aw- K - § - s fbpw C³jqÀ - s N- ¿ p- I bpw A]- I S acWw

20
kw`hn¡pIbmsW¦n Hcp e£w cq] B{in--XÀ¡v \ÂIp¶ ]-²Xn
Poh-\-¡msc BIÀjn-¨p. A]I-S-§-fn s]«v a-cWw kw-`-hn¨ \nch[n
t]cpsS B{in-XÀ¡v Cu ]²Xn sIm-v KpWw e`n-¨p. BZyw Cu ]²-
Xnsb A]e]n¨ F³.-Pn-.H bqWn-b³ ]n¶oSv C³jq-d³kp-ambn cwK¯v
h¶Xv Cu ]²-Xn¡v Poh-\-¡m-cn \n¶pw In«nb AwKo-I-cmaqeam-Wv.
^ - v t i J c W w : þ kwL- S - \ - b psS ^- p-ti--J-c-W-¯n\v ]pX¯³
ssien Bcw-`n-¨Xv kwL-S\
- b
- psS km¼-¯nI ASn-¯d sa¨-s¸-Sp-¯p¶Xn\p
klm- b n- ¨ p. kwØm\ t\Xm- ¡ Ä {_m©p- I - f n sN¶p hn]p- e - a mb
{]hÀ¯I tbmKw hnfn¨v - t NÀ¯v ^- v kzoIcn--¡p¶ \S-]Sn {_m©v
PnÃm Xe-§-fn kwLS\m {]hÀ¯\w IqSp-X Imcy-£a-- -am-¡n.
`n¶n¨v t]mb--hÀ Xncn¨v h¶p.
2000  kwL-S-\-bn-ep--mb ]nfÀ¸ns\ XpSÀ¶p kw-L-S\ hn«p-t]mb {]hÀ¯-
I-scÃmw hnhn[ L«-§-fn-embn amXr-kw-LS-- -\-bn-te¡v Xncn¨p h¶p. Xpd¶
a\-tÊmsS kwLS\ FÃm-h-tcbpw kzoI-cn--¨Xv kwL-S-\bv¡v IqSp-XÂ i-
ànbpw NSpX-ebpw ]I-cm³ klm--bn-¨p.
2002 s^{_-hcn 6 apXÂ \S¶ A\n-ÝnX Ime ]Wn-ap-S¡v
2001 sabv amkw 10 \v \S¶ sXc-sª-Sp-¸n CS-Xv]£ P\m-[n-]Xy
ap¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ A[n-Im-c-¯n \n¶pw ]pd-¯m-hp-Ibpw {io F.sI
BâWnbpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n-epÅ sFIy P\m-[n-]Xy ap¶Wn kÀ¡mÀ sabv
17 \v kXy{]XnÚ sNbvXv A-Qn--Im-ct- a¡p--Ibpw sNbvXp. A©v hÀjs¯
ZpÀ`-cWw hgn Xmdp-am-dm-¡nb tIc-f-¯nsâ km¼-¯nI ØnXn sa¨-s¸-Sp-
¯m-\pÅ D¯-ch - m-ZnXzw BâWn kÀ¡m-dnsâ Npa-en h¶p tNÀ¶p. km¼-
¯nI {]Xn-kÔn ]cn-lcn-¡m-\pÅ Ffp-¸a - mÀ¤w A©c e£-t¯mfw hcp¶
kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\¡ - m-cp-tSbpw A²ym-]I
- c - p-tSbpw B\q-Ip-ey-§Ä sh«n-Ip-d¡ - p-
I-bmWv F¶ DtZym-KØ ta[m-hn-IÄ D]-tZiw \ÂIn. 2002 P\p-hcn amkw
8\v tImh- f ¯v tNÀ¶ bpUn. F^v D¶- X m- [ n- I mc kanXn kÀ¡mÀ
Pnh¡mcpsS B\p-Ip-ey-§Ä sh«n-Ip-d-¡m³ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. F³.Pn.-H.-A-
tkkntb-j³ ià-amb {]Xntj[w DbÀ¯n-sb-¦nepw AXv hI-sh-¡msX
P\p-hcn 9 \v tNÀ¶ a{´n k`m tbmKw bp.Un F^v Xocp-am\w AtX-]Sn
AwKo-I-cn-¨p. Poh-\-¡m-cpsS B\p-Ipey§Ä sh«n-Ip-d-¡m-\pÅ Xocp-am-\-
¯n {]Xn-tj-[n¨ Poh-\-¡mÀ H¶-S¦w 2002 P\p-hcn 10\v kqN-\m-]-Wn-
ap- S ¡w \S- ¯ n. F¶m ]Wn- a p- S - ¡ n³ DbÀ¶ {]Xn- t j[w I- n - s öp
\Sn¨v 2002 P\p-hcn 16\v B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä sh«n-Ip-d¨ D¯-chv ]pd¯n-d§n

21
. Poh-\-¡m-cpsS s]³j³ I½yq-t«-j³ sh«n-Ip-d¨v, kd--À B\p-Iqeyw,
`h\ hmbv] F¶nh \nÀ¯-em-¡m\pw A\m-Zm-b-I-c-amb kvIqfp-IÄ AS¨p
]q«m\pw Xocp-am-\n-¨p. ]pXp-Xmbn kÀhokn hcp¶ Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v ASn-
Øm\ i_vfw am{Xta \evIp-I-bpÅp XpS-§n-b-h-bm-bn-cp¶ D¯-c-hnse
t{Zml-I-c-amb \nÀtZ-i-§-Ä sh«n-Ip-d¨ B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä ]p\: Øm]n-¡p-
¶nsæn 2002 s^{_phcn 6 apX A\n-Ýn-X-Imew ]Wn-ap-S¡v Bcw-`n-
¡psa¶v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-j\pw SETO kwL-S-\-Ifpw {]-Jym-]n-¨p. aäv
kwLS-If - pw hyXykvX ka-ck
- a- n-Xn-If- mbn s^{_p-hcn 6\v ]WnapS¡v {]Jym-
]n¨p s^{_p-hcn 6 \v Bcw-`n¨ ]Wn-ap-S¡v kwØm-\¯v k¼qÀ®-ambn
amdn hntÃPv Hm^okv apX sk{I«-dn-tbäv htcbpw, ss{]adn hnZym-e-b§Ä
apX Iem-im-eI - Ä htcbpw ASªv InS¶p. ka-cs¯ XIÀ¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ
FÃm amÀ¤-§fpw D]-tbm-Kn¨p. Fkva t]mepÅ Icn-\n-b-a-§Ä D]-tbm-
Kn¨v AdÌv sN¿p-sa¶ {]Jym-]\w t]mepw Poh-\m-¡mÀ hI-sh-¨n-Ã. Fkva
{]Imcw \nc-h[n Poh-\-¡mÀ AdÌv sNbvXv Pbn-en-e-S-¡-s¸-«p.s^{_p-hcn
21 sk{I-«-dn-tbäv IhmSw ]n¡äv sNbvX F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-tb-j³
kwØm\ {]kn-Uâ v I¼-d- \m-cm-b-W³ DÄs]-sSbpÅ t\Xm-¡Ä AdÌv
sN¿-s¸«p. t\Xm-¡Ä Itâm¬aâ v t]meokv tÌj-\n Ip¯n-bn-cn¸v kXy-
{Klw \S-¯n ]nsä -Zn-hkw sshIp-t¶cw 7 aWn-tbmsS t\Xm-¡sf hn«-b-
¨p. ]Wn-ap-S¡v Htcm Znhkw Ign-bp-t´m-dpw IqSpXÂ iàn-s¸Sp¶ ImgvN-
bmWv I- X v . kacw 31 Znhkw \o- p - \ n- ¶ - t ¸mÄ Poh\¡m- c p- a mbn NÀ¨bnÃ
F¶v {]Jym-]n¨ apJy-a{´n \ne-]mSv amäp-Ibpw NÀ¨-bv¡v X¿m-dm-hp-I-bpw
sNbvXXv F³.-Pn.H Atkkn-tb-jsâ CS-s]-S-ep-IÄ aqe-am-bn-cp-¶p. 2002
amÀ¨v 9 \v Poh-\-¡m-cpsS kwL-S-\-Ifpambn NÀ¨ \S-¯p-Ibpw ap³Im-e-
§-fn \n¶pw hyXy-kvX-ambn NÀ¨m thZn-bn sh¨v Xs¶ kÀ¡mÀ Xocp-
am\w {]Jym-]n-¡pIbpw sNbv-Np. 16.1.2002 se D¯-chv {]Imcw sh«n-¡p-d-
¡-s¸« apgp-h³ B\p-Iq-ey-§fpw ASp¯ Hcp hÀj-¯n\pÅn ]p\Øm-
]n-¡p-sa¶v kÀ¡mÀ Dd¸v \evIn. Cu Dd-¸nsâ ]Ým-¯-e-¯n FÃm
kwL-S-\-Ifpw Htc Znhkw ]Wn-ap-S¡v ]n³h-en-¨p. Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v \evInb
Dd¸v ]qÀ®-ambpw ]men¨v sIm-v. sh«n-Ip-d¨ apgp-h³ B\p-Ip-ey-§fpw
]p\:Øm]n¨v sIm-mWv {io. F.sI BâWn ]n¶oSv A[n-Im-cw-hn-s«m-
gnª-Xv. tIc-f-¯nse knhn kÀhn-knsâ ,Ncn-{X-¯n CXn-lmk kam-
\-sa¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡m-hp¶ ]Wn-ap-S-¡-bn-cp¶p CXv.

22
\thm-°m-\ -bm{X
2002 s^{_p- h cn 6 ap- X  amÀ¨v 9 hsc 31 Znhkw \o- p \n¶
kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS ]Wn--ap-S¡w ]pXnb Hcm-\p-Iq-eyw t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-
¶-Xn\p th-n-bm-bn-cp-¶nà adn¨v \ne-hn-epÅ B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä \ne-\nÀ¯n
In«p-¶-Xn\p th-nbpÅ t]mcm-«-am-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m ]Wn-ap-S-¡-¯n\v _lp-
P-\-§-fn \n¶pw ]n´pW e`n-¨nà F¶ am{X-a-Ã. C³^mw, hym]m-cn-hy-h-
kmbn GtIm-]\ kanXn XpS-§nb kwL-S-\-IÄ ka-c-¯n-s\Xnsc ià-
ambn cwK¯v h¶p. CXv Atkm-kn-tb-j³ t\Xr-Xzs¯ Ccp¯n Nn´n-¸n-
¨p. Poh-\-¡m-cn Hcp \yq\-]-£-¯nsâ Agn-a-Xnbpw s]cp-amäZqjy-hp-
amWv CXn-\v Imc-W-sa¶v kwL-S\ hne-bn-cp-¯n. Cu Xncn-¨-dn-hmWp kwL-
S-\sb \thm-°m-\-bm{X \S-¯p-¶-Xn\v t{]cn-¸n-¨Xv. Agn-a-Xn-c-ln-Xhpw
kwXr-]vXhpw Imcy-£-a-hp-amb Hcp knhn kÀhokv F¶ ktμ-i-hp-
ambn P\-§f - n-te¡v Cd-§m³ kwLS\ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. F³.-Pn.H. Atkmkntb-
j³ kwØm\ {]knU-v I¼d-\m-cm-b-Wsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n. \thm-°m\
bm{X kwL-Sn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp KmÔn-P-b´n Zn\amb HIvtSm_À 2\p
ImkÀtImUv PnÃ-bnse slmk³Kp-Un-bn \n¶p Bcw`n¨ \thm-°m\
bm{X \K-c-þ-{Kma {]tZ-i-§-fn-epsS 44 Znhkw k©-cn¨v s\lvdp Pb´n Zn\-
amb 2002 \h-_À 14 \v Xncp-h-´-]pcw KmÔn ]mÀ¡v ssaXm-\n-bn kam-]n-
¨p. Agn-aXn cln-Xhpw kwip-²-amb knhn kÀho-kn\p th-n asämcp
kÀhokv kwLS-\bpw \S-¯n-bn-«n-Ãm¯ ]cn-]m-Sn-sb¶ \ne-bn \thm-
°m\ bm{Xsb kaq-l-¯nâ hyXykvX Xe-§-fn-epÅ P\-§Ä Gsd aXn-
t¸m-sS-bmWv ho£n-¨-Xv. Atkm-kn-tb-j³ Ncn-{X-¯n t{]mP-Pz-e-amb Hcp
A²ymbw Fgp-Xn-tNÀ¡m³ \thm°m\ bm{X¡v Ign-ªp.

i¼f ]cn-jvI-cWwþ2004
A©v hÀj- ¯ n- s em- c n- ¡ Â i¼f ]cn- j - I - c Ww F¶ Iogv h -
g¡a\pkcn¨v 2002- Â Poh-\-¡m-cpsS i¼fw ]cn-j-I-cn-t¡-- Xm-bn-cp-¶p.
F¶m 2001-þ A[n-Im-c¯ - n h¶ F.-sI. BâWn kÀ¡mÀ ap³ kÀ¡mÀ
D-m¡n sh¨ km¼-¯nI {]XnkÔn ]cn-l-cn-¡m³ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS B\p-
Iq-ey-§Ä XS-ªp-sh-¡p¶ ØnXn-bmbn-cp-¶p. i¼-f- I-½o-js\ \nb-an-¡-
W-sa¶ Bhiyw D¶-bn-¡m³ `cW {]Xn-]£ kwL-S-\-IÄ X¿m-dm-Im-
Xn-cp¶ kml-N-cy-am-bn-cp¶p. 2004 Â BÀ. \mcm-b-W³ sNbÀam-\mbn i¼f

23
-I-½ojs\ \nb-an-¨p. i¼f I½n-j³ dnt¸mÀ«v 2006 ^n{_-hcn amkw aq¶mw-
hm-c-¯n Xs¶ kaÀ¸n-¡-s¸-«p. F¶m i¼f ]cn-jvI-cW B\p-Iq-ey-
§Ä amÀ¨v amk¯ i¼-f-t¯m-S¸w \evIm-\pÅ kÀ¡mÀ Xocp-am\w \nb-a-
k`m sXc-sª-Sp¸v Ign-bp-¶-Xphsc amän-sh-¡-W-sa-¶pÅ sXc-ª-Sp¸v
I½o-jsâ \nÀt±iw Poh-\-¡m-cpsS {]Xo-£-IÄ¡v a§-te¸n¨p. Po-h-\-
¡mÀ¡v i¼-f -]-cn-jvI-cWw t\Sn sImSp-¡m³ Iq«mb {ia-¯n-eqsS Ce-£³
I½o-j-\n k½ÀZw sNe-¯p¶Xn\p ]-Icw Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v i¼fw ]cn-j-I-
cWw Xs¶ \jvS-s¸«p F¶- coXn--bn-ep-ff {]N-cWw \S¯m\mWv F³.-Pn. H
bqWn-b³ X¿m-dm-b-Xv. Fs´Ãmw {]Xn-k-Ôn-IÄ D-m-bm-ebpw tIc-f-¯nse
Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v i¼f ]cnj-¡-cWw \S-¸m-¡n-sIm-Sp-¡Ww F¶ Dd¨ \ne-]m-
Sm-Wp apJy-a{´n {io. D½³ Nm-n kzoI-cn-¨-Xv. i¼f ]cn-jvI-cWw \S-
¸m¡m\pÅ tI_n\äv Xocpam\¯n\v AwKo-Imcw \ÂIm³ Ce-£³ I½o-
j³ X¿m-dm-bn-Ã.-tI-cf \nb-a-k` GI IWvT-ambn i¼f ]cnjvWw \S-¸m-¡m-
\pÅ {]tabw ]mÊm-¡nbXv sNhn-sIm-Åm\pw I½o-j³ X¿m-dm-bn-Ã.
Cu kml-N-cy-¯n-emWv ]cn-jvI-cWw \S-¸m¡n In«m³ F³.-Pn. H Atk-
kn-tb-j³ \nb-a-bp-²-¯n\p X¿m-sd-Sp-¯-Xv. \nb-a-bp-²-¯n hnPbw t\Sn
Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v i¼f ]cn-jvI-cWw t\Sn-sIm-Sq-¡m³ kwL-S-\¡v km[n-¨p.
Atkm-kn-tb-j³ Ncn-{X-§-fn X¦-en-]n-I-fn FgpXntNÀ¡m-hp¶ t\«-ambn
CXns\ IW-¡m¡mw i¼f ]cn-jv-I-cWw. ASn-a-dn-¡³ {ian-¡p-Ibpw i¼-f-
]-cn-jvIc
- Ww bmYmÀ°y-am-ImsX t]mIp-¶X - n BËm-Zw sImÅpIbpw sNbvX
CSXv ]£ kwL-S\ - I- Ä¡v ssltIm-SXn Xocp-am\w I\¯ Xncn-¨S- n-bm-bn. i¼f
]cn-jv-I-cWw cmjv{Sob Bbp-[-am¡n sXc-sª-Sp-¸n sFIy P\m-[n-]Xy ap¶-
Wnsb {]l-cn-¡W-sa¶ Ah-cpsS KqtVm-t±-i-amWv XIÀ¶-t]m-b-Xv.
2004 Pqsse-bn {]m_eyw \evIn-sIm-v \S-¸m-¡nb i¼fw ]cn-jv¡c-
W-¯n Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v Gsd km¼-¯oI B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä e`n¨p. tIc-f-¯nÂ
\S-¸m-¡nb i¼f ]cn-jv-I-c-W-§-fn Gähpw anI-¨-Xn H¶mbn D½-³ Nm-n
kÀ¡mÀ \S-¸m-¡nb Cu ]cn-j-I-cWw IW-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. 1600 tImSn-tbmfw
cq]-bpsS km¼-¯oI B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä \-e-Inb ]cn-jvI-c-W-¯nse {][m\
t\«§Ä Xmsg ]d-bp-¶-h-bm-bn-cp¶p
1 amÌÀ skI-bn-ep-IÄ A\ph-Zn-¨p.
2 i¼f skI-bn-ep-IÄ 27-þÂ \n¶p 24 B¡n
3. 59 % Un.- F . ebn- ¸ n¨v kv s I- b n D- m ¡n

24
4. 6 % ^nävsaâ v s_\n-^näv A\p-h-Zn¨v an\naw s_\n-^näv 350 cq] Dd¸v
hcp-¯n
5. t{KUnsâ Ime ssZÀLyw 8.16,23 B¡n-Ip-d¨v
6. ]qÀ¯n-bm-¡nb Htcm 4 hÀj-¯n\pw ]pXp-¡n-b -td-än Htcm C³{Io-saâ v
A\p-h-Zn--¨p.
7. kd- - À B\p- I qeyw 30 Znh- k - a m- ¡ n.
8. s]³j³ I½yq-t«-j³ 331/3 -Â \n¶p 40%B¡n.
9. DCRG.2.8 e£w cq]-bn \n¶pw 3.30 e£-am¡n hÀ²n-¸n¨p.
10 ]pXp-¡nb skI-bn-en 50% DAA\p-h-Zn¨p
11. h¬ dm¦v h¬ s]³j³ A\p-Zn¨p
12. ]yq¬am-cpsS {]tamj³ Izm« 10 % B¡n DbÀ¯n.
\nb-a-k`m sXc-sª-Sp-¸nsâ {]--Jym-]-\s¯ XpSÀ¶v s]cp-amä N«w \n-e-
hn h\¶-Xn-\m F«mw i¼f I½o-j³ dnt¸mÀ«v AtX]Sn \S-¸n-em-¡m³
bp.-Un.-F^v kÀ-¡mÀ \nÀ_-Ôn-X-am-bn. dn-- t ¸mÀ«n- e p- - m - b n--cp¶ A]m-I-X-IÄ
]cn-lc- n--¡W
- s
- a¶v ]n-¶oSv A[n-Im-c¯- n h¶ apJy-a{´n {io. hn.--Fkv ANypXm-
\-μ\v kwL-S\ \n--th-Z\w \Â-In-sb-¦nepw A]m-I-X-IÄ H-¶p-t]mepw ]cn-l-
cn¡-s¸-«n-«n-Ã. XpSÀ¶t§m«v \nc-h[n {]t£m` ]cn-]m-Sn-IÄ¡v F³.Pn.H
Atkm-kn-tb-j³ t\XrXzw \ÂIn-sb-¦nepw FÃmw I-n-söp \-Sn-¡m-\mWv
kÀ-¡mÀ X--¿m-dm-b-Xv.
H¼Xmw i-¼f I½o-js\ \nban-¡-W-sa¶ B-hiyw :-þ
1968 apXÂ A¿©m-v IqSp-t¼mÄ i-¼fw ]cn-jv¡-cn-¡p¶ kwØm-\-
a
- mWv tIc-fw. 1.3.2002 ap--XÂ \S-¸m-t¡--n-bn-cn-¡p¶ i¼f ]cn-jv¡c-W-¯nsâ
{]m_eyw 1.7.2004 apXÂ \ÂIm-\mWv BÀ. \mcm-b-W³ I½o-j³ X¿m-dm-
bXv . sXc- s ª- S p¸v I½o- j sâ ià- a mb CS- s ]- S Âaqew D½³Nm- n
kÀ¡mdn\p Cu A]m-IX ]cn-lc - n-¡m³ km[n-¨n-Ã. 1.7 2003 sâ 59% £ma_¯
ASnØm\ i¼-f¯ - n ebn-¸n-¨mWv i¼fw ]cn-jv¡c - n-- ¨ Xv A- X p- s Im- p Xs¶
1.7.2008 apXÂ asämcp i-¼f ]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯n\v Poh-\-¡mÀ AÀlX t\Sn-bn-
cp¶p. F¶m i¼f I½o-js\ \nb-an-¡mt\m i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cn-¡mt\m
ANyp-Xm-\μ³ kÀ¡mÀ X¿-dm-bn-Ã. i¼f I½o-js\ \nb-an-¡-W-sa¶v
Bhiys¸«v \nc-h[n {]t£m-`-§-fmWv ]n¶o-S-t§m«v F³.-Pn.H Atkm-kn-
tb-j\pw SETO kwL-S-\-Ifpw \S-¯n-b-Xv.

25
2009 s^{_p-hcn 17sâ ]Wn-ap-S¡w :þ
i¼f ]cn- j v ¡ - c - W - ¯ n\v th- n Atkm- k n- t b- j ³ \S- ¯ nb
{]t£m`§-sf-sbÃmw I-n-söp \Sn-¨ kÀ¡m-dn-s\-Xnsc 2009 s^{_p-hcn
17 \v ]Wn-ap-S¡w \S-¯m³ kwL-S\ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. tI{μm-\q-Iq-ey-§Ä Dd¸v
hcp¯n kwØm\ Poh-\-¡m-cpsS i¼f ]cn-jv¡p-I, s]³j³ {]mbw 60
hb-Êmbn DbÀ¯pI XpS-§n-b-h-bm-bn-cp¶p {][m\ Bh-iy-§Ä v Ubvkv
t\mWpw Icn-\n-b-a-§fpw D]-tbm-Kn¨v ]Wn-ap-S-¡s¯ t\cn-Sm³ kÀ¡mÀ
{ian-s¨-¦nepw i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ tIc-f-¯nse
kakvX Poh-\-¡m-cp-tSbpw hnImcw {]Xn-^-en-¡p-¶-Xm-bn- amdn. s^{_p-hcn
17 sâ ]Wn-ap-S-¡w.
s]³j³ Xo¿Xn GIo-I-cWw:þ
i¼f ]cn-jv¡-c-Whpw s]³j³ {]mb-hÀ²-\hpw \ntj-[n-¡-s¸« Poh-\-
¡mÀ¡v \ÂInb asämcp Xncn-¨-Sn-bm-bn-cp¶p s]³j³ Xo¿Xn GIo-I-c-Ww.
Poh-\¡ -- m-cpsS hnc-an-¡Â Xo¿Xn amÀ¨v 31 Bbn \nP-s¸Sp¯n-bXv h¼n¨
\jvSamWv Poh-\-¡mÀ¡v hcp-¯n-sh-¨-Xv. {]tam-j³ \jvS-s¸-Sp¯n F¶p
am{X-aà s]³j³ B\qIq--ey-§-fn h¼n¨ Ipd-hmWp D-m-¡n-b-Xv. kÀ¡m-
dnsâ t{Zml-Ic - a
- mb \S-]S- n-s¡-Xnsc ià-amb ka-c§- Ä¡v t\XrXzw sImSp-
¡m³ Atkm-kn-tb-j\v km[n-¨p. s]³j³ Xo¿Xn GIo-I-cWw ]n³h-
en¨v s]³j³ {]mbw DbÀ¯-Ws - a¶pw i¼f ]cn-jv¡c
- W \-S]
- S- n-IÄ Bcw-
`n-¡-W-sa¶pw Bh-iy-s¸«v 2009 sabv 13 \p SETObpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n \S¶
apJy-a{- ´n-bpsS HutZym-KnI hk-Xn-bmb ¢n^v lukn-te¡v \S¯nb amÀ¨nÂ
Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\p Poh-\-¡mÀ ]s¦-Sp-¯p-sh-¦nepw Xocp-am\w ]n³h-en-¡m³
kÀ¡mÀ X¿m-dm-bn-Ã.
9þmw i¼f I½o-js\ \nb-an-¨p. :þ
PÌnkv BÀ.-cm-tP{μ _m_p A²y-£\pw tUm.-]n. taml-\³]nÅ ,
{io.-th-Wp-tKm-]m-e³ \mbÀ AwK-§-fp-ambn 9mw i¼f I½o-js\ kÀ¡mÀ
\nb-an-¨p. F¶m i¼f I½o-jsâ ]cn-K-W\m hnj-b-§-fn tI{μ B\p-
Iq-ey-§Ä Dd¸v hcp¯n i¼f ]cn-jv¡-cWw F¶ \nÀt±iw DÄs¸-Sp-¯n-
bn-«n-Ã. AXp-sIm--p-Xs¶ tIc-f-¯nse kÀ¡mÀ Poh-\-¡mÀ Zi-I-§-fmbn
Bhiys¸-Sp¶ tI{μ-Xp-eyX Cu ]cn-jv¡-c-W-¯nepw e`n-¡nà F¶p-d-¸mbn.
tI{μ- X p- e yX Dd- ¸ p- h - c p- ¯ m\pw CS- ¡ memizmkw e`n- ¡ p- ¶ - X n\pw th- n
iàamb {]t£m-`-hp-ambn apt¶m«v t]mIm³ F³.-Pn. H Atkm-kn-tb-j³
Xocp-am-\saSp-¯p.

26