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P. 1

Mechanical Vibration solved examples4.13

|Views: 44.797|Likes: 426Publicado porParas Thakur

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Mechanical Vibrations: 4600-431

Example Problems

December 20, 2006

Contents

1 Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems

1

2 Frictionally Damped Systems

33

3 Forced Single Degree-of-freedom Systems

42

4 Multi Degree-of-freedom Systems

69

1 Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems

Problem 1:

In the ﬁgure, the disk and the block have

mass m and the radius of the disk is r.

a) Find the equations of motion for this

system.

b) What are the natural frequency and

damping ratio of the system in terms

of m, c, and k?

c) If the block is displaced 18 cm to the

right and released from rest ﬁnd the re-

sulting angular displacement of the disk

with

m = 3 kg, r = 9 cm,

k = 21 N/m, c = 63 N** ·**s/m,

k

c

m

4k

k

(m,r)

1

Problem 2:

For the system shown to the right, the disk of

mass m rolls without slip and x measures the

displacement of the disk from the unstretched

position of the spring.

a) Find the equations of motion.

b) With

c = 16 N/(m/s), m = 2 kg,

r = 0.10 m

for what value of the spring stiﬀness k

is the damping ratio of the system one-

half of the critically damped value, so

that ζ = ζcr/2?

c) With these parameter values, ﬁnd the

displacement of the disk if it is rolled

20 cm to the right (from static equilib-

rium) and released from rest.

x

c

k

(m,r)

Problem 3:

From the ﬁgure shown to the right

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of

the angular rotation of the disk;

b) what are the damping ratio and natural

frequency of the system in terms of the

parameters m, b, k1, and k2;

c) can you draw an equivalent spring-

mass-damper system?

r

r

2

b

k1

k2

m

m

2

Problem 4:

For the mechanical system shown to the

right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and

pinned at point O. For this system:

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion;

b) Identify the damping ratio and natural

frequency in terms of the parameters

m, c, k, and ℓ.

c) For:

m = 1.50 kg, ℓ = 45 cm,

c = 0.125 N/(m/s), k = 250 N/m,

ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar

θ(t) for the following initial conditions:

θ(0) = 0, ˙

θ(0) = 10 rad/s.

Assume that in the horizontal position the

system is in static equilibrium and that all

angles remain small.

ℓ

2

ℓ

2

m

O

k

y

2m

k

c

x

θ

ˆı

ˆ

Solution:

a) In addition to the coordinate θ identiﬁed in

the original ﬁgure, we also deﬁne x and y as

the displacment of the block and end of the

bar respecively. The directions ˆı and ˆ are

deﬁned as shown in the ﬁgure.

A free body diagram for this system is

shown to the right. Note that the tension in

the cable between the bar and the block is

unknown and represented with T while the

reaction force FR is included, although both

its magnitude and direction are unspeciﬁed.

In terms of the identifed coordinates, the

angular acceleration of the bar αβ/*F* and the

linear acceleration of the block* F
*

aG are

αβ/*F* = ¨

θ ˆ

k,

*F
*

aG = ¨xˆ .

F

R

−kyˆ

−T ˆ

T ˆ

−kxˆ −c ˙xˆ

We can also relate the identiﬁed coordinates as

x = ℓ

2θ, y = ℓθ.

The equations of motion for this system can be obtained with linear momentum balance

applied to the block and angular momentum balance aout O on the bar. These can be

written as

F = m*F
*

aG* −→
*

T** −**kx

ˆ = 2m ¨xˆ ,

MO = IO

αβ/*F −→
*

** −**T ℓ

2** −**kyℓ

ˆ

k = mℓ2

3

¨

θ ˆ

k.

3

Solving the ﬁrst equation for T and substituting into the second equation yields

** −**(2m ¨x+kx+c ˙x) ℓ

2** −**kyℓ = mℓ2

3

¨

θ.

Using the coordinate relations we can obtain the equation of motion as

5mℓ2

6

¨

θ + cℓ2

4

˙

θ + 5kℓ2

4 θ = 0.

b) In the above equation the equivalent mass, damping, and stiﬀness are

meq = 5mℓ2

6 ,

beq = cℓ2

4 ,

keq = 5kℓ2

4 .

From these the damping ratio and natural frequency are

ζ = beq

2

keqmeq

=

cℓ2

4

2

5kℓ2

4

5mℓ2

6

=

** √**3c

2

** √**50km

,

ωn =

keq

meq

=

5kℓ2

4

5mℓ2

6

=

3k

2m

c) Evaluating the damping ratio and natural frequency we ﬁnd that for the given values

of the parameters

ωn = 15.8 rad/s, ζ = 7.91** ×**10−4

.

Therefore the system is underdamped and the general solution can be written as

θ(t) = e−ζ ωnt

a sin

ωn

1** −**ζ2

t

+b cos

ωn

1** −**ζ2

t

,

where a and b are arbitrary constants used to ﬁt the initial conditions. Evaluating θ(t)

and ˙

θ(t) at t = 0 yields

θ(0) = b = 0, ˙

θ(0) =** −**ζ ωnb+ωn

1** −**ζ2

a = 10 rad/s,

so that the general solution becomes

θ(t) = 0.632e−0.0125t

sin

15.8t

.

4

Problem 5:

In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r,

and moment of inertia IG = mr2

2 about the

mass center G and is assumed to roll without

slip. The identiﬁed coordiante θ measures the

rotation of the disk with respect to the equi-

librium position.

a) Find the equations of motion for this

system.

b) If the disk is released from rest with

θ(0) =** −**π

2 rad, ﬁnd the resulting an-

gular displacement θ(t) for

m = 3 kg, r = 15 cm,

k = 36 N/m, c = 3 N** ·**s/m,

c) What is the force in the upper spring

during this motion?

k

c

k

(m,r)

G

g

Problem 6:

For the mechanical system shown to the

right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and

pinned at point O. For this system:

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion;

b) Identify the damping ratio and natural

frequency in terms of the parameters

m, c, k, and ℓ.

c) For:

m = 2 kg, ℓ = 25 cm,

c = 0.25 N/(m/s), k = 50 N/m,

ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar

θ(t) for the following initial conditions:

θ(0) = 0, ˙

θ(0) = 10 rad/s.

d) for this motion, ﬁnd the tension in the

cable connecting the rod and the block

as a function of time.

Assume that the system is in static equilib-

rium at θ = 0, and that all angles remain

small.

ℓ

2

ℓ

2

m

k

z

m

k

c

x

θ

ˆı

ˆ

Solution:

a) We identify the coordinates x and z as shown above, which are related to the angular

5

displacement θ as:

x = ℓ

2θ, z = ℓ

2θ.

An appropriate free-body diagram is

shown to the right. Applying linear mo-

mentum balance on the block yields

F = m*F
*

aG,

(T** −**kx

Likewise, angular momentum balance on

the bar provides

MO = IO

αβ/*F*,

** −**T ℓ

2** −**kz ℓ

2

ˆ

k = mℓ2

12

¨

θ ˆ

k.

FR

kz ˆ

** −**T ˆ

T ˆ

** −**c ˙x ˆ

** −**kx ˆ

Combining these equations and eliminating the tension, the equation of motion can be

written as

7m

6

¨

θ +c ˙

θ + 2k θ = 0.

b) For the above equation the equivalent mass, damping, and stiﬀness are

meq = 7m

6 , beq = b, keq = 2k,

and the natural frequency and damping ratio are

ωn =

keq

meq

=

12k

7m, ζ = beq

2

keqmeq

=

** √**3 b

.

Problem 7:

The block shown to the right rests on a fric-

tionless surface. Find the response of the sys-

tem if the block is displaced from its static

equilibrium position 15 cm to the right and

released from rest.

m = 4.0 kg, b = 0.25 N/(m/s),

k1 = 1.5 N/m, k2 = 0.50 N/(m/s).

x

k1

b

k2

m

ˆı

ˆ

Solution:

An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the

right. Notice that the two springs are eﬀectively in

parallel, as the displacement across each spring is

identical. Linear momentum balance on this block

provides

F = m* F
*

aG,

(** −**k1x

** −**k1x ˆı

** −**k2x ˆı

** −**b ˙x ˆı

6

or, writing this in standard form

m ¨x+b ˙x+ (k1 +k2)x = 0.

Further, the system is released from rest so that the initial conditions are

x(0) = x0 = 15 cm, ˙x(0) = 0 cm/s.

Problem 8:

For the system shown to the right, the disk of

mass m rolls without slip and x measures the

displacement of the disk from the unstretched

position of the spring. The surface is inclined

at an angle of φ with respect to vertical.

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. Do not

neglect gravity;

b) if the system is underdamped, what is

the frequency of the free vibrations of

this system in terms of the parameters

k, c, and m;

c) for what value of the damping constant

c is the system critically damped;

d) what is the static equilibrium displace-

ment of the disk?

x

c

k

(m,r)

φ

z

θ

C

ˆı

ˆ

ˆe

1

ˆe

2

Solution:

a) In addition to x, the displacement of the center of the disk, we identify the coordinates

z and θ, the displacement across the spring and the rotation of the disk respectively.

These additional coordinates are related to x as

z = 2x, x =** −**rθ.

An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the

right. We note that (ˆı,ˆ ) are related to the direc-

tions (ˆe1,ˆe2) as

ˆı = cosφ ˆe1 + sinφ ˆe2,

ˆ =** −**sinφ ˆe1 + cosφ ˆe2.

** −**kz ˆe1

** −**c ˙x ˆe1

fr ˆe1

N ˆe2

** −**mg ˆ

The moment produced by gravity about point C is

M

gravity = rGC** ×**(

= (r ˆe2)** ×**(

k.

Angular momentum balance about the contact point C yields

MC = IC

αD/*F*,

(2r)kz +rc ˙x** −**mgr sinφ

ˆ

k =

3mr2

2

¨

θ

ˆ

k.

7

Eliminating the coordinates z and θ, we can write the equation of motion in terms of x

as

3m

2 ¨x+c ˙x+ 4k x = mg sinφ.

Since the gravitational force has been included in the development of this equation of

motion, the coordinates are measured with respect to the unstretched position of the

spring.

b) Assuming the system is underdamped, the frequency of the free vibrations is ωd =

ωn

1** −**ζ2

, where

ωn =

keq

meq

=

8k

3m, ζ = beq

2

keqmeq

= c

2

** √**6km

,

so that

ωd =

8k

3m

1** −** c2

24km,

c) The system is critically damped when ζ = 1, which corresponds to a damping coeﬃcient

of

ccr = 2

** √**6km.

d) The system is stationary in static equilibrium, so that x** ≡**x0 = constant—both ˙x and

¨x vanish, and the equation of motion reduces to

4kx0 = mg sinφ.

Solving for x0, the equilibrium displacement is

x0 = mg sinφ

4k .

8

Problem 9:

In the ﬁgure shown to the right, in the ab-

sence of gravity the springs are unstretched

in the equilibrium position.

a) Determine the deﬂection of each spring

from its unstretched length when the

system shown is in equilibrium.

b) If the system is released from the un-

stretched position of the springs, what

is the maximum angular velocity of the

disk during the resulting motion?

r2

r1

k1

k2

m

I

ˆı

ˆ

x

z1

z2

θ

Solution:

a) We deﬁne the coordinates x, θ, z1, and z2

as shown in the ﬁgure, which are related

as

x =** −**r1θ, z1 = r1θ, z2 =

Notice that because of these coordinate

deﬁnitions, a rotation with positive θ

gives rise to a negative value in both x

and z2. Likewise, we see that x =** −**z1.

Using the free-body diagram shown to

the right, linear momentum balance on

the block provides

F = m*F
*

aG,

(T** −**mg)ˆ = m ¨x ˆ ,

while angular momentum balance on the

disk yields

FR

k1z1 ˆ

** −**k2z2 ˆı

** −**T ˆ

T ˆ

** −**mg ˆ

MO = IO

αD/*F*,

(T r1** −**k1z1r1 +k2z2r2) ˆ

k = I ¨

θ ˆ

k.

Eliminating the unknown tension T from these equations and using the coordinate

relations, the equation of motion becomes

I +mr2

1

¨

θ +

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

θ = mgr1.

9

The equilibrium rotation of the disk thus is found to be

θeq = mgr1

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

.

With this, the equilibrium deﬂection of each spring is found to be

z1,eq = r1θeq = mgr2

1

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

,

z2,eq =** −**r2θeq =

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

.

b) The general free response of the disk can be expressed as

θ(t) = θeq +A sin(ωnt) +B cos(ωnt),

where θeq is given above, A and B are arbitrary constants, and

ωn =

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

I +mr2

1

.

The system is released with the initial conditions:

θ(0) = 0, ˙

θ(0) = 0,

so that solving for the arbitrary constants

A = 0, B =** −**θeq.

Therefore the solution is

θ(t) = θeq (1** −**cos(ωnt)) = mgr1

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

1** −**cos

k1r2

1 +k2r2

2

I +mr2

1

t

.

The angular velocity of the disk becomes

˙

θ(t) =

θeqωn

sin(ωnt),

which has amplitude

Ω = θeqωn =

mgr1

(k1r2

1 +k2r2

2)(I +mr2

1)

10

Problem 10: (Spring 2003)

For the spring-mass-damper system shown to

the right, x is measured from the static equi-

librium position. If the surface is assumed to

be frictionless:

a) determine the governing equations of

motion;

b) what is the frequency of oscillation of

the system;

c) what value of the damping coeﬃcient b

corresponds to critical damping?

d) if k = 2 N/m, b = 4 N/(m/s), and m =

3 kg, ﬁnd the displacement of the mass

x(t) when the system is started with the

initial conditions:

x(0) = 0.10 m, ˙x(0) = 0 m/s.

x

m

6 k

b

Problem 11: (Spring 2003)

For the mechanical system shown to the

right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and

pinned at point O. For this system:

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion;

b) what value of the damping constant c

gives rise to a critically damped sys-

tem?

ℓ

2

ℓ

2

m

k

c

z1

m

k

z2

θ

ˆ

ˆı

Solution:

a) In addition to θ, we deﬁne two additional coordinates, z1 and z2, to measure the deﬂec-

tion at the left and right ends of the bar.

11

These coordinates are related as:

z1 = ℓ

2 θ, z2 = ℓ

2 θ = z1.

A free-body diagram for this system is

shown to the right. Applying angular mo-

mentum balance on the bar eliminates the

appearance of the reaction force and leads

to:

MG = IG ¨

θ ˆ

k,

T** −**k z1

ℓ

2

ˆ

k = m ℓ2

12

¨

θ ˆ

k.

G

FR

k z1 ˆ

c ˙z1 ˆ

** −**k z2 ˆ

** −**T ˆ

T ˆ

Likewise, application of linear momentum balance on the block yields:

F = m* F
*

aG,

** −**k z2

ˆ = m¨z2 ˆ

Eliminating the unknown tension T and solving for z1 in terms of z2, the equation of

motion becomes:

m ℓ2

3

¨

θ + c ℓ2

4

˙

θ + k ℓ2

2 θ = 0.

b) A critically damped system occurs when ζ = 1. For this system:

ζ =

** √**3 c

.

Solving for ccr yields:

ccr =

32 k m

3 .

Problem 12: (Spring 2003)

Find the response of the system shown to the

right if the block is pulled down by 15 cm and

released form rest.

m = 2.0 kg, b = 0.5 N/(m/s),

k1 = 0.5 N/m, k2 = 0.25 N/(m/s).

x

k1

k2

b

m

ˆ

ˆı

Solution:

For this system, the two springs in series may be replaced by an equivalent spring, with

constant:

keq = 1

1

k1

+ 1

k2

= k1 k2

k1 +k2

.

12

Therefore, the free-body diagram is shown

to the right. Applying linear momentum

balance to the block yields:

F = m* F
*

aG,

keq x+b ˙x

ˆ =** −**m ¨x ˆ ,

which can ﬁnally be written as:

m ¨x+b ˙x+keq x = 0.

keq x ˆ b ˙x ˆ

With the numerical values given above, this becomes:

(2 kg) ¨x+

1

2

N

m/s

˙x+

1

6

N

m

x = 0, x(0) = 3

20 m, ˙x(0) = 0 m/s.

With this, the damping ratio and natural frequency are:

ωn =

1

12 s−1

,

ζ =

** √**3

4 .

Therefore, the system is underdamped and the general response can be written as:

x(t) = e−ζ ωn t

A cos(ωd t) +B sin(ωd t)

.

Using the initial conditions to solve for A and B, we ﬁnd:

x(t) = 3

20 e−t/8

cos

** √**13

8

** √**3

t

+

3

13 cos

** √**13

8

** √**3

t

.

Problem 13: (Spring 2003)

In the ﬁgure shown to the right, in the ab-

sence of gravity the springs are unstretched

in the equilibrium position.

a) Determine the deﬂection of each spring

from its unstretched length when the

system shown is in equilibrium.

b) If the system is released from the un-

stretched position of the springs, what

is the maximum angular velocity of the

disk during the resulting motion?

r2

r1

k1

k2

m

x2

θ

x1

ˆ

ˆı

13

Solution:

a) We deﬁne θ, x1, and x2 as indicated in the above ﬁgure. In particular, x1 and x2

represent the displacement in their respective springs as measured from their unstretched

position. These coordinates are related through the following transformations:

x1 =** −**r1 θ, x2 =

An appropriate free-body diagram for this

system is shown to the right. Notice that

the gravitational force must be included to

determine the equilibrium deﬂection in the

system. To eliminate the reaction force on

the disk, angular momentum balance is ap-

plied about the center, yielding:

MG = IG ¨

θ ˆ

k,

T r1 +k2 r2 x2

ˆ

k = IG ¨

θ ˆ

k.

Also, applying linear momentum balance to

the block yields:

F = m* F
*

aG,

T** −**k1 x1

ˆ = m ¨x1 ˆ .

FR

G

** −**m g ˆ

T ˆ

** −**T ˆ

** −**k2 x2 ˆı

** −**k1 x1 ˆ

Finally, eliminating the unknown tension from these equations and using the above

coordinate transformations, this single-degree-of-freedom system can be modeled with

the equation:

IG

+m r2

1

¨

θ +

k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2

θ = (m g r1).

This equation of motion determines the equilibrium position θeq (with ¨

θeq = 0) to be:

θeq = m g r1

k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2

.

Therefore, the equilibrium displacements in each spring are:

x1,eq =** −**r1 θeq = m g r2

1

k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2

, x2,eq =** −**r2 θeq = m g r1 r2

k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2

.

b) Deﬁne new coordinates z1 and z2, which measure the displacement in springs 1 and 2

with respect to the static equilibrium position, that is:

z1 = x1** −**x1,eq, z2 = x2

Likewise, let φ represent the angular displacement of the disk from the static equilibrium

position:

φ = θ** −**θeq.

14

Therefore, the potential energy of this system can be written as:

** V** = 1

2 k1 z2

1 + 1

2 k2 z2

2,

= 1

2

k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2

φ2

.

Also, the kinetic energy becomes:

** T** = 1

2 IG ˙

φ2

+ 1

2 m ˙z2

1,

= 1

2

IG

+m r2

1

˙

φ2

.

If the system is released from rest at the unstretched position of the springs, then:

φ(0) =** −**θeq =

k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2

, ˙

φ(0) = 0.

At this initial state, the potential and kinetic energies become:

** T**0 = 0,

2(k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2).

Because this system is conservative, the total energy,** E** =

Therefore, when the kinetic energy is maximal, the potential energy is minimal, that is:

** V**1 = 0,

2

IG

+m r2

1

˙

φ2

max.

Finally, conservation of energy implies that** V**0 =

φmax we ﬁnd that:

˙

φmax =

(m g r1)2

(IG

+m r2

1)(k1 r2

1 +k2 r2

2).

Problem 14: (Spring 2003)

For the system shown to the right, the disk of

mass m rolls without slip and x measures the

displacement of the disk from the unstretched

position of the spring.

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion;

b) if the system is underdamped, what is

the frequency of the free vibrations of

this system in terms of the parameters

k, c, and m;

k

3k

c

m

x

z

θ

ˆı

ˆ

Solution:

a) We deﬁne the three coordinates as shown as the ﬁgure, related as:

x =** −**r θ, z =

15

A free-body diagram for this system is

shown to the right. Notice that the force in

the upper spring depends on z, rather than

x, while the friction force has an unknown

magnitude f. Because the disk is assumed

to roll without slip, we are unable to specify

the value of f, but instead can relate the dis-

placement and rotation of the disk through

the coordinate relations above.

** −**k x ˆı

** −**3k z ˆı

** −**c ˙x ˆı

f ˆı

G

C

The equations of motions can be developed directly with angular momentum balance

about the contact point, so that:

MC = IC ¨

θ ˆ

k,

(3k z) 2r + (k x) r + (c ˙x) r

ˆ

k = 3 m r2

2

¨

θ ˆ

k.

Finally, writing this equation in terms of a single coordinate, we obtain:

3 m r2

2

¨

θ + (c r2

) ˙

θ +

13 k r2 θ = 0.

b) For an underdamped response, the frequency of oscillation is ωd = ωn

1** −**ζ2

. With

this system, we ﬁnd that:

ωn =

26 k

3 m, ζ = c

** √**78 k m

,

so that:

ωd =

26 k

3 m** −** 2 c2

9 m2.

Problem 15:

In the system shown to the right, the pulley

has mass m and radius r, so that the moment

of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr2

2 .

a) Find the governing equations of mo-

tion;

b) Find the frequency of oscillation for free

vibrations of the system;

c) For what value of the damping constant

is the system critically damped?

r

r

2

m

m

k

k

c

Solution:

16

a) We choose coordinates (x1,x2,θ), where x1 measures the displacement of the ﬁrst mass

in the** −**ˆ direction, x2 measures the displacement of the second mass in the ˆ direction,

and θ measures the angular rotation of the wheel in the ˆ

k direction. The kinetic and

potential energies for this system are:

** T** = 1

2 m ˙x2

1 + 1

2 m ˙x2

2 + 1

2

mr2

2

˙

θ2

,

** V** = 1

2 k x2

1 + 1

2 k x2

2.

However, these three coordinates are dependent through the transformations:

x1 = r

2 θ, x2 = r θ.

Therefore, the Lagrangian reduces to:

** L**=

2

7mr2

4

˙

θ2

** −** 1

2

5kr2

4

θ2

.

Further, the generalized force resulting from the viscous damper becomes:

Qθ =** −**cr2

4

˙

θ,

so that the equation of motion for this system can be reduced to:

(7m) ¨

θ +c ˙

θ + (5k) θ = 0.

b) For this system the natural frequency and damping ratio are:

ωn =

5k

7m,

ζ = c

2

** √**35 km

.

Therefore, the damped natural frequency becomes:

ωd = ωn

1** −**ζ2

=

5k

7m

1** −** c2

140 km.

c) For a critically damped system, ζ = 1, so that we may solve for c = ccr to yield:

ccr = 2

** √**35 km.

Problem 16:

In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r,

and moment of inertia IG = mr2

2 about the

mass center G, and is attached to a block of

mass m which rolls across the surface. If the

disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large),

while the block moves without friction:

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion for this

system;

b) for m = 2 kg, b = 0.5 (N** ·**s)/m, and

k = 8 N/m, ﬁnd the frequency of oscil-

lation for the system.

m

b

k

G

17

Solution:

a) Let x denote the translational displacement of G in the ˆı direction, while θ denotes the

angular displacement of the disk in the ˆ

k direction. If T is the tension between the disk

and the mass and f is the frictional force acting on the disk, the equations of motion

on the disk and the mass are:

(** −**kx

(rf) ˆ

k = mr2

2

¨

θ ˆ

k,

(** −**T) ˆı = m¨x ˆı.

In addition, x and θ are related through the kinematic constraint:

x =** −**rθ.

Eliminating (θ,T,f) we obtain a single degree-of-freedom system on x of the form:

5m

2 ¨x+b˙x+kx = 0.

b) From the above equation we identify the undamped natural frequency and damping

ratio as:

ωn =

2k

5m, ξ = b

** √**10km

.

Thus, the damped natural frequency is:

ωd = ωn

1** −**ξ2

=

10km** −**b2

25m2 .

For the given values of the parameters, this reduces to ωd = 1.264 rad/s.

Problem 17:

We model a nonuniform beam as a single-

degree-of-freedom system in the form:

m¨x+b˙x+kx = 0,

and experimentally measure the mass as m =

kg. In free vibration we experimentally de-

termine the equivalent spring constant to be

k = 4 N/m, and we measure the response as

shown.

a) Determine the equivalent damping con-

stant.

b) What is the exponential decay rate of

the transient solution?

x1 = 1.00 m

x2 = 0.75 m

Solution:

18

a) We use the logarithmic decrement so that:

ζ = δ1

4π2

+δ2

1

, δ1 =** −**ln

x1

x0

=** −**ln

0.75 m

1.00 m

= 0.288,

and we ﬁnd that ζ = 0.0457. With m = 1 kg, the damping constant b is given as:

b = 2ζ

** √**km = 0.183 N/(m/s).

We note that with m given, we can also ﬁnd the period of the oscillations to be:

T = 2π

ωd

=

2π

ωn

1** −**ζ2

,

=

** √**m

4π2

+δ2

1

** √**k

= 3.145 s.

b) The exponential decay rate is σ = ζωn, which is found to be σ = 0.0914 s−1

.

Problem 18:

The rigid beam (mass m = 2 kg, length l =

1.5 m) is supported by an elastic spring (k =

4 N/m) and damper (b = 2 N/(m/s)), and is

pinned to the ground.

a) Find the linearized equations of motion

in terms of z, the relative displacement

between the end of the beam and the

ground;

b) what is the frequency of the resulting

motion;

c) if the mass of the spring is taken to be

mspring = 1 kg, ﬁnd the new frequency

of the oscillations.

z

k

b

(m,l)

Solution:

a) We will deﬁne the inclination of the bar from the horizontal position as θ, so that the

angular acceleration is ¨

θ ˆ

k. Therefore, using angular momentum balance about the

point of rotation, we ﬁnd:

mbar l2

3

¨

θ +bl ˙z +kl z = 0.

We assume that the coordinates θ and z are related by z = lsinθ, which for small

rotations reduces to z = lθ. Using this constraint to eliminate θ, the equation of motion

reduces to:

mbar

3 ¨z +b ˙z +k z = 0.

For the parameter values given above, this becomes:

2

3 kg

¨z +

2 N/(m/s)

˙z +

4 N/m

z = 0.

19

For this system, the damping ratio and natural frequency can be expressed as:

ωn =

3k

mbar

,

ζ =

** √**3 b

2

** √**kmbar

=

** √**6 rad/s

=

3

8.

b) The frequency of oscillation, ωd = ωn

1** −**ζ2

, reduces to:

ωd =

3k

mbar

*−
*

3b

2mbar

2

=

** √**15

2 rad/s = 1.94 rad/s.

c) If the mass of the spring is considered, it is treated as an additional equivalent mass

meq = mspring/3 located at the end of the bar. Therefore the new moment of inertia of

the bar about the point of rotation is:

IO

= mbar l2

3 +meq l2

,

= mbar l2

3 +

mspring

3

l2

,

= (mbar +mspring) l2

3

.

Therefore, the new frequency of oscillation is:

ωd =

3k

(mbar +mspring)* −
*

3b

2(mbar +mspring)

2

=

** √**3 rad/s = 1.73 rad/s.

Problem 19:

The non-uniform beam supports an end-mass

of m = 10 kg. If the response of the system

is such that:

x1 = 0.25 m

x2 = 0.20 m,

t1 = 1.00 s

t2 = 4.00 s,

as shown in the ﬁgure, ﬁnd the equivalent

stiﬀness and equivalent damping of the beam

(assume that the beam is massless).

m

(t1,x1)

(t2,x2)

Solution:

20

a) The logarithmic decrement is deﬁned as δ = ln** |**x2/x1

the period of oscillation T, the damping ratio and natural frequency are deﬁned as:

ωn =

(2π)2

+δ2

T ,

ζ =

δ

(2π)2

+δ2

.

Therefore, the stiﬀness and damping constants reduce to:

k = m ω2

n = m (2π)2

+δ2

T2 ,

b = m 2ζωn = m 2δ

T .

For this system, we ﬁnd that T = 4 s and δ = 0.223, and the stiﬀness and damping

constant reduce to:

k = 24.7 N/m,

b = 1.12 N/(m/s).

Problem 20:

For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical

system shown in the ﬁgure:

a) determine the governing equations of

motion;

b) what are the damping ratio and un-

damped natural frequency of this sys-

tem;

c) ﬁnd the response of the system x(t)

subject to the initial conditions x(0) =

x0, ˙x(0) = 0,

when m = 1 kg, b = 12 (N** ·**s)/m, and k =

9 N/m. Assume the pulley is massless and

neglect the eﬀects of gravity.

2r

r

m

k

c

Solution:

a) Let x represent the displacement of mass m in the vertical direction and θ measure the

angular displacement of the pulley, both measured from the static equilibrium position.

If T represents the tension in the cable supporting mass m, then T = kr

2 θ, where θ is

the angular displacement of the massless pulley from static equilibrium. In addition,

we ﬁnd that θ is related to the linear displacement of mass m as θ = x

2r. As a result, in

the ˆ direction, the equation governing the motion of the mass is:

m¨x+b˙x+ k

4x = 0.

As a result, we ﬁnd that the the equivalent spring constant is keq = k

4.

b) The damping ratio and natural frequency are simply:

ζ = b

2

keqm

= b

** √**km

, ωn =

keq

m =

** √**k

2** √**m.

21

In terms of the given parameters, we ﬁnd ζ = 4.0 and ωn = 3 rad/s. We note that the

damping ratio has no units.

c) For an overdamped system, the general solution is:

x(t) = exp(** −**ζωnt)

c1 exp

(ωn

ζ2

** −**1)t

+c2 exp

** −**(ωn

ζ2

** −**1)t

,

and with these initial conditions this reduces to:

x(t) = x0 exp(** −**ζωnt)

ζ +

ζ2

** −**1

2

ζ2

** −**1

exp

(ωn

ζ2

** −**1)t

+

ζ*−
*

ζ2

** −**1

2

ζ2

** −**1

exp

** −**(ωn

ζ2

** −**1)t

,

= x0e−6t

4 +

** √**15

2

** √**15

e3

2

√15t

+ 4*−
*

** √**15

2

** √**15

e−3

2

√15t

,

= x0e−6.0t 1.016e5.81t

+ 0.01640e−5.81t .

Problem 21:

For the spring-mass-damper system shown to

the right, x is measured from the static equi-

librium position, and the surface is friction-

less.

a) Determine the governing equations of

motion.

b) What is the period of each oscilla-

tion in terms of the system parameters

(m,k,c)?

c) For what value of c is the system criti-

cally damped?

d) If the system is released with the initial

conditions:

x(0) = 0.0 m, ˙x(0) = 5.0 m/s,

ﬁnd the resulting solution x(t) if m =

2 kg, k = 48 N/m and c = 4 N/(m/s).

x

m

6 k

2 c

Solution:

a) In terms of x, the spring and damping forces can be written as:

Fspring =** −**6k x ˆı, Fdamper =

Using linear momentum balance on the block, we ﬁnd that:

F = (** −**6k x

aG,

22

and the equation of motion can be written in standard form as:

¨x+ (2ζωn) ˙x+ (ω2

n) x = 0,

with ωn =

6k

m,

ζ = c

** √**6km

.

b) In terms of ζ and ωn, the period of oscillation is simply T = (2π)/ωd, where ωd =

ωn

1** −**ζ2

. Therefore, for this system, the period reduces to:

T =

2π

6k

m

1*−
*

c

** √**6km

2

= 2π m

** √**6km

,

provided c2

< 6km.

c) For a critically damped system, ζ = 1, and solving for c, yields:

ccritical =

** √**6km.

d) With these parameter values, the equation of motion reduces to:

¨x+ 4 ˙x+ 144 x = 0,

so that ωn = 12 rad/s, and ζ = 1/6. For these values, the general solution can be

written as:

x(t) = A e−2 t

sin

2

** √**35 t+φ

,

where A and φ are arbitrary constants used to ﬁt the initial conditions. Solving for A

and φ, we ﬁnd:

A =

5

28 m,

φ = 0 rad,

so that the general solution can be written as:

x(t) =

5

28 e−2 t

sin

2

** √**35 t

m.

23

Problem 22:

For the system shown to the right, x is mea-

sured from the unstretched position of the

spring. Each block has mass m and the disk

has moment of inertia I and radius r. If the

gravitational constant is g:

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion which de-

termine x(t);

b) what is the period of the free oscilla-

tions?

x

m

m

(I,r)

k

Problem 23:

For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical

system shown in the ﬁgure:

a) determine the governing equations of

motion;

b) what are the damping ratio and un-

damped natural frequency of this sys-

tem;

c) what is the stretch in the spring when

the system is in equilibrium?

k

2 k

b

m

g

Solution:

We assume that the ˆı and ˆ directions are standard orthonormal basis in the horizontal

and vertical directions respectively.

a) The forces due to the springs in parallel and damping are:

Felastic = 3k** ·**xˆ ,

Fdamping = b** ·** ˙xˆ .

With the inclusion of the gravitational force, the equation of motion for this system can

be written:

F = m(** −**¨xˆ ),

3k

Taking components in the ˆ direction, we obtain the governing equation of motion:

m¨x+b˙x+ 3kx = mg.

24

b) Dividing through by the mass m, we ﬁnd:

¨x+ b

m ˙x+ 3k

mx = g,

so that:

2ζωn = b

m,

ω2

n = 3k

m,

which can be solved to yield:

ωn =

3k

m,

ζ = b

2

** √**3mk

.

c) In equilibrium, the system is stationary, so that ˙xeq = 0 and ¨xeq = 0. Substitution into

the governing equations yields:

3kxeq = mg,** →**xeq = mg

3k .

Problem 24:

For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical

system shown in the ﬁgure:

a) ﬁnd the linearized governing equations

of motion for small θ;

b) ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the

response;

c) if the initial velocity is zero, and θ(0) =

θ0, determine the time response of the

system.

k

4 k

(m,l)

G

θ

Solution:

a) The displacement of each end of the bar in the ˆ direction is:

x± =** ±**lsinθ

2 .

As a result, the total moment produced by the springs about the center of mass G is:

MG =** −**l2

4 (4ksinθ +ksinθ) ˆ

k,

=** −**5kl2

4 sinθˆ

k.

Thus angular momentum balance about G provides:

MG = IG¨

θˆ

k,

** −**5kl2

4 sinθˆ

k = ml2

12

¨

θˆ

k.

25

For small angular displacements sinθ** ∼** θ, and the governing equations of motion are

therefore:

¨

θ + 15k

m θ = 0.

b) This system is undamped. Therefore the frequency of the oscillation is equal to the

undamped natural frequency:

ω = ωn =

15k

m .

c) This system possesses the general solution:

θ(t) = c1 sinωt+c2 cosωt,

which, for the initial conditions given above, yields the solution:

θ(t) = θ0 cos

15k

m t.

Problem 25:

We obtain the diﬀerential equation:

m¨x+b˙x+kx = 0,

as a model for a spring-mass-damper system with:

m = 2, k = 18.

a) Identify the damping constant b that gives rise to critical damping;

b) If, instead, b = 24, approximately how long will it take for the the amplitude of free vibration

to be reduced to within 2% of zero?

Solution:

a) Written in nondimensional form, the equations of motion are:

¨x+ b

m ˙x+ k

mx = 0,

and so we identify the damping ratio and natural frequency as:

ζ = b

2

** √**km

,

ωn =

k

m.

ζ = 1 corresponds to critical damping, so that:

bcritical = 2

** √**km = 12.

b) For b = 24 we ﬁnd:

ζ = b

2

** √**km

= 2,

ωn =

k

m = 3.

26

Therefore the eigenvalues of this system are:

λ1,2 = ωn

ζ*±
*

ζ2

** −**1

= 3(** −**2

** √**3).

The dominant eigenvalue is λ =** −**6 + 3

** √**3, and so the time t = τ required for the

amplitude of the free vibration to be reduced to within 2% of zero is:

τ** ∼ −**4

** √**3

** ∼**5.0

Problem 26:

For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical

system shown in the ﬁgure, the bar has mass

m and length l (so that IO = ml2

3 ). If the

spring is unstretched when θ = 0:

a) ﬁnd the linearized governing equations

of motion for small θ;

b) ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the

free response;

Neglect gravity.

ℓ

2

ℓ

2

k

c

(m,l)

θ

Solution:

a) Using angular momentum balance about the ﬁxed point O, we ﬁnd:

MO = IOαβ/*F F*,

** −**kl2

sinθ** −**cl2

4

˙

θcosθ

ˆ

k = ml2

3

¨

θˆ

k,

so that the equation of motion can be written as:

ml2

3

¨

θ +c l2

4

˙

θcosθ +k l2

sinθ = 0.

Linearizing this equation about θ = 0, we obtain:

¨

θ + 3c

4m

˙

θ + 3k

mθ = 0.

b) The frequency of oscillation, that is, the damped natural frequency, is given as:

ωd = ωn

1** −**ζ2

,

where ωn is the undamped natural frequency and ζ is the damping ratio. For this system

we ﬁnd:

ωn =

3k

m, ζ =

** √**3 c

8

** √**km

,

27

so that the damped natural frequency is:

ωd =

3k

m* −
*

3c

8m

2

.

Problem 27:

In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r,

and moment of inertia IG = mr2

2 about the

mass center G.

a) Find the equations of motion for this

system assuming that the disk rolls

without slip.

b) If the disk is released from rest with

initial displacement x(0) = x0, ﬁnd the

minimum value of the coeﬃcient of fric-

tion for which the disk does not slip.

(m,r)

G

x

k

c

g

Problem 28:

For the spring-mass-damper system shown to

the right, x is measured from the static equi-

librium position. If the surface is assumed to

be frictionless:

a) determine the governing equations of

motion;

b) what is the period of each oscillation;

c) what value of the damping coeﬃcient b

corresponds to critical damping?

d) if k = 1 N/m and m = 4 kg, ﬁnd the

displacement of the mass x(t) if the sys-

tem is critically damped and started

with the initial conditions x(0) = 0,

˙x(0) = ˙x0;

x

m

6 k

b

Problem 29:

For the system shown to the right, x is mea-

sured from the unstretched position of the

spring. Each block has mass m and the disk

has moment of inertia I. If the gravitational

constant is g:

a) what is the displacement of the spring

at static equilibrium;

b) ﬁnd the kinetic energy of the system in

terms of the coordinate x (and/or its

velocity).

x

m

m

(I,r)

k

28

Problem 30:

In the system shown to the right, the pulley

has mass m and radius r, so that the moment

of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr2

2 .

a) Find the governing equations of mo-

tion;

b) What is the equivalent mass of the sys-

tem;

c) Find the frequency of oscillation for free

vibrations of the system?

r

2

r

m

m

k

k

c

Solution:

a) Deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the disk in the** −**ˆ

k direction (clockwise), and

x1 and x2 as the displacements of the two blocks so that:

x1 = r

2θ, x2 = rθ.

We deﬁne the tension in the left and right cable as T1 and T2 respectively. Thus, linear

momentum balance on the two blocks, and angular momentum balance on the disk

yield:

T1

r

2** −**T2r =

2

¨

θ,

T1** −**kx1

T2 +kx2 =** −**m¨x2.

Eliminating the two unknown tensions from these three equations, we ﬁnd that the

equation of motion (on θ) can be reduced to:

7mr2

4

¨

θ +

cr2

4

˙

θ +

5kr2

4

θ = 0.

b) Examination of the above equation shows that meq = 7mr2

4 . Note that this answer is

not unique, but depends on the equation of motion. For example, if we had written the

equation of motion as 7m ¨

θ +c ˙

θ +k θ = 0, the equivalent mass would be meq = 7m.

c) The frequency of oscillation is given by ωd, which reduces to:

ωd = ωn

1** −**ζ2

=

5k

7m

1** −** c2

140km.

29

Problem 31:

In the spring-mass-damper system shown,

the block slides with no friction. With m =

2 kg, k = 18 N/m, b = 13 (N** ·**s)/m:

a) Find the resulting solution if the sys-

tem is released from the unstretched

position with initial velocity ˙x(0) =

** −**10.0 m/s

b) Identify the damping constant b that

gives rise to critical damping;

x

m

k

b

Solution:

For this system the diﬀerential equation of motion can be written as:

m¨x+b˙x+kx = 0,

¨x+ b

m ˙x+ k

mx = 0,

subject to speciﬁed initial conditions.

a) With the given values for the mass, stiﬀness, and damping coeﬃcient, the above equation

becomes:

¨x+ (6.5 kg/s)˙x+ (9 kg/s2

)x = 0,

whose characteristic equation reduces to:

λ2

+ 13

2 λ+ 9 = 0,

which has two real solutions of the form:

λ =** −**13

4 .

Thus the system has two purely real eigenvalues and the resulting system is overdamped

and decays exponentially with no sustained oscillations. The general solution is given

as:

x(t) = c1 e−9

2t

+c2 e−2t

.

For the initial conditions x(0) = 0 m, ˙x(0) = 10.0 m/s, we ﬁnd that:

c1 = 4 m, c2 =** −**4 m,

and the general solution to this equation, subject to these initial conditions, becomes:

x(t) =

4 m

e−(9/2 s*−*1

)t

** −**e−(2 s

)t

.

b) For this system, the damping ratio is:

ζ = b

2

** √**km

.

30

Thus, for a critically damped system ζ = 1, and solving for b with m = 2 kg and

k = 18 N/m, we ﬁnd:

bcr = 12 (N** ·**s)/m.

Problem 32:

In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r,

and moment of inertia IG = mr2

2 about the

mass center G.

a) Find the equations of motion for this

system assuming that the disk rolls

without slip.

b) What value of b correspond to critical

damping?

c) Find the displacement of the center of

the disk when the system is critically

damped and released from rest with

x(0) = x0.

(m,r)

G

x

k

b

g

Solution:

We deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the disk in the ˆ

k direction as measured

from the equilibrium position of the disk (when the spring is unstretched). Assuming

that the disk rolls without slip, the rotation and translation of the disk can be related

through the constraint equation:

x =** −**rθ.

a) The frictional force, which is unknown, is deﬁned as f = fˆı, while the forces due to the

spring and damper are:

Fspring =** −**kx ˆı, Fdamper =

Using linear and angular momentum balance on the disk, we ﬁnd that:

F = (f** −**kx

aG,

MG = (fr) ˆ

k = mr2

2

¨

θ ˆ

k = IG αβ/*F F*.

Eliminating the unknown frictional force, and using the kinematic constraint, we ﬁnd

the equation of motion is:

3m

2

¨x+b˙x+kx = 0.

b) We can write this diﬀerential equation in standard form, that is:

¨x+ (2ζωn)˙x+ (ω2

n)x = 0,

with ωn =

2k

3m,

ζ = b

** √**6km

.

31

If the system is critically damped, then this implies that the damping ratio is unity.

Therefore, solving for b when ζ = 1, we ﬁnd:

bcritical =

** √**6km.

c) When the system is critically damped, the general solution takes the form:

x(t) =

c1 +c2 t

e−ωn t

,

while this can be diﬀerentiated with respect to time to obtain the velocity:

˙x(t) =

(c2** −**ωnc1)

e−ωn t

.

If the system is released from rest when a known initial displacement, then the initial

conditions are (x(0), ˙x) = (x0,0). Thus, returning these to the general solution, we ﬁnd:

x0 = x(0) = c1,

0 = ˙x(0) = c2** −**ωnc1.

Solving for c1 and c2, the solution to these initial conditions becomes:

x(t) = x0

1 +ωn t

e−ωn t

,

where recall that ωn =

(2k)/(3m).

Problem 33:

In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r,

and moment of inertiaIG about the mass cen-

ter, and the applied moment has a constant

magnitude M ˆ

k. If the disk rolls without slip

(µ is suﬃciently large):

a) determine the governing equations of

motion;

b) what are the equivalent mass, stiﬀness,

and damping of the system;

c) what is the stretch in the spring when

the system is in equilibrium?

(m,r)

G

M ˆ

k

x

k

c

g

Solution:

a) The governing equations of motion are:

m+ I

r2

¨x+c˙x+kx =** −**M

r .

b) The equivalent mass, damping, and stiﬀness are:

meq = m+ I

r2, ceq = c, keq = k.

32

c) When the system is in equilibrium, the displacement of the disk is:

xeq =** −**M

kr.

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