Está en la página 1de 28




Zarzuela is a lyric dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the

latter incorporating operatic and popular song as well as dance. The themes that are usually used

involve love, traditions and political issues. Zarzuela is a Spanish word that was derived from a

royal hunting lodge in town near Madrid where this type of entertainment was first presented to

the court.1

Zarzuela started in Spain during the beginning of 1700 to give entertainment to the King

and his men. Zarzuela was loved by the Spaniards due to the reflection of their tradition which are

happy, sung, danced and accompanied by an orchestra. Juan del Encica was considered as the

father of the Spanish Zarzuela. His combination of song and verse were followed by Lucas

Fernandez and Gil Vicente. During the coming of Zarzuela, Nationalism was exercised by the

Filipinos.2 It was noted that Zarzuela was used by the Spaniards to spread Christianity in the

Philippines, it was also used by the Filipinos to express the grievances against the Spaniards and


When the Spanish-American War erupted, the Spanish Zarzuela troupe returned to Spain.

Hermogenes Ilagan, the father of Tagalog and Philippine Zarzuela pioneered in the production of

Zarzuelas. He had forty years involvement in this drama form. Philippine theater prospered, and

in the hands of dramatists, most especially Ilagan, Philippines obtained its blossoming into what

is now referred to as the Golden Age of Philippine Theater.3


With the spread of the Zarzuela all over the country, it reached Bicol. About the year

1892, the Zarzuela came to Naga. One of the outstanding productions that was warmly welcomed

by the people was the Boccaccio and Mascota, with the success of the production, another

production was organized by Jose Carvajal and it spread throughout the region. But all of the

information regarding this activity was lost during the war.4

While all of these things were happening in Naga, Legazpi always had comedia on its

patronal fiestas. In 1892, the Teniente-Mayor Don Hugo de la Torre was assigned to direct a

comedia. When news came to Legazpi that Zarzuela was presented in Naga, Spanish officials and

Leon Hugo travelled to Naga to watch the shows. Don Hugo invited the player to Legazpi.

Earlier in 1890, Don Hugo was able to see Zarzuela presented in the teatros of Manila, since he

was a musician by heart, he vowed to do the same thing in Legazpi. When he won the election as

the Gobernadorcillo, he materialized what he had been dreaming. He founded the compania

Zarzuela de la Torre and received honors all over the region.5

After this, Capitan Anacleto Solano of Camalig Albay founded, organized and managed

the Compania Zarzuela de Camalig. When Capitan Solano died, Spanish Zarzuela died with him.

Teofilia Obligacion took over as producer and formed a troupe later known as Compania Zarzuela

Bicol. The plays were written by several playwrights and director of these Bicol Zarzuela and

were regularly shown in Camaligs cockpit and in neighboring town.6

Zarzuela gave our fellow Filipinos the chance to express their grief against the Spanish

friars and at the same time, it gave our fellow Bicolanos the entertainment and information they

need for the enrichment of our culture. Since the researchers are Albayanos, they preferred to

choose Zarzeula in Camalig as their study. Since the Zarzuela in Camalig died many years ago,

the researchers made this study to help revive and preserve the Zarzuela traditions to the people of

Camalig and their fellow Bicolanos. It is important that this may be known so that the future

generations will appreciate and give importance to Zarzuela.

Since the Zarzuela plays a significant role in the Bicolano culture especially in Camalig,

the researchers will attempt to make a docu narrative and docu drama presentation so that this

may contribute to the body of knowledge of Bicolanos on what a Zarzuela is. This will also help

for the appreciation and promotion of the Bicol culture and arts to the Bicolanos especially the



This study aims to achieve the following objectives:

1. To present the life and works of Justino Nuyda

2. To present the cultural perspective of Zarzuela.

3. To produce Anti Cristo as an example of Zarzuela in Camalig.

Significance of the Study

This study shall contribute much to the society by way of creating awareness to the people

of the existence of the musical play. Specifically, the study will benefit the following:

Camaligueos. This study would help them gain more knowledge about the Zarzuela in

their place. This can also inspire them to contribute in protecting and preserving the said play. In

addition, this may motivate them to produce more Zarzuela that will preserve the tradition of the


Local Government Unit of Camalig. This study would help them create ways and

means of preserving indigenous local traditions and cultural practices of Zarzuela in Camalig. It

may also contribute to a better understanding of their Zarzuela and be reminded on the values,

tradition and culture which have already been gone due to modernization.

Artists. This study would serve as their guide in the performance or choreography of the

musical play like the Zarzuela.

Bicolanos. Zarzuela would serve as an identity of Camalig, Albay and since the place is

part of Bicol Region therefore it may help them widen their knowledge and promote the Zarzuela

as part of Bicol arts and culture.

Professors of Literature Course. The audio-video output of this paper maybe used as an

instructional material in teaching literature course especially on Zarzuela.

National Commission on Theater and Arts. This study would enhance their knowledge

in theater as well as in presenting a Zarzuela.

Students. This study would help them broaden their knowledge about Zarzuela and its

importance to the Camalig culture.

Other Researchers. This study will serve as a related study to them who wish to conduct

studies on related topics. This will be a good avenue for a cultural appreciation.

Scope and Delimitation

The study will document the Zarzuela in Camalig, Albay. It will showcase a Zarzuela

entitled Anti Cristo written by Mr. Justino Nuyda, a native of Camalig, Albay. It will be

presented by the Speech and Theater Arts students. This research will discuss the historical and

traditional impact value of the Zarzuela. This study will use docu narrative and docu - drama as

its method in conducting and documenting the research.

This research will not aim to analyze or criticize its presentation.

Nicanor G. Tiongson, Pilipinas Circa 1907 a Contemporary Sarswela based on Severino
Reyes Filipinas para Los Filipinos, (Philippine Educational Theater Association, Quezon City,
Philippines, 1985) pp. 36
1, July 12, 2008

Consolacion P. Sauco, et. al., Sulyap sa Dulang Tagalog, (Navotas Press, Navotas
Metro Manila, 1987) pp. 2 - 7
Rustica C. Carpio,, October 4, 2008
From the clippings of Dr. Eden K. Nasayo, The Zarzuela in Bicol
Wenceslao N. Nuas, Justino N. Nuyda Sr.: His Ideals and Legacies to Education and

Culture, Unpublished Masters Thesis, (Graduate School University of Saint Anthony, Iriga, )




This chapter includes the review of related literature, studies and film, synthesis of the art,

thesis statement, theoretical framework, theoretical paradigm, production framework, production

paradigm, and the definition of terms.

Related Literature

Speech and music have been combined from the earliest time; music heightens the effect

of words, allowing them to be rendered with a projection and passion lacking in speech alone;

there are two kinds of Zarzuela: the Gnero Chico and the grande.1 When this was introduced in

the Philippines, a lot of people were attracted to this form of play, for Filipinos are talented and a

born artists. Most Filipino Zarzuelists made a Zarzuela in a form of Gnero Chico. As Zarzuela

developed, they also created in the form of Grande. Their works achieve great honor not only

during those times but until the present.

Zarzuela was also called as Sarsuela, Dulang Inawitan, Dulang Hinohinan, Dramatico and

Operetta. The complete Filipinization of Zarzuela unfolding the topics and concerns of the

Filipinos were in the Philippine language. Light was didactic but did not become real social

satire.2 Even though Zarzuela originated in Spain, Filipinos wrote and staged exceptional

Zarzuela. Little by little as it reach every region in the Philippines it became an original

Philippine made unfolding the values, customs, traditions and situation of the Filipinos. Their

works which is made in our own vernacular languages marks it Filipinianity.

Samson mentioned that the early Zarzuela in Pilipino echoed the old moro-moro theme

and spirit. The encounter were between Filipino-Spaniards or Filipino-Americans where in

Filipinos always come the winner.3 Zarzuela was used by the Filipinos as propaganda against the

abuses of the Spaniards and the Americans. Using the National dialect as the medium gave them

the freedom to express their grievances. Zarzuela of this time reflects the nationalism of the

Filipinos wherein Zarzuela awakened their spirit to fight for freedom.

The theater of the Zarzuela is patterned from the Spanish theater; provinces some use the

cockpit arena, some made of bamboo where in the stage is in the center. In terms of the program

they use an embroidered silk handkerchief printed with Zarzuela programs or playbills that were

given to the Zarzuela patron.4 This imply that the Filipinos are not just talented but also

resourceful. They made everything in order for their Zarzuela be presented well and to gain good

impression to their audience. They used the available resources and make good entertainment.

According to Realubit, people from the earlier times gave so much importance for the

Zarzuela for this became part of their living.5 Some of the members of the community earned

their livelihood by being employed in the Zarzuela company where acting became honored

profession. This implies that Filipinos especially Bicolanos are really talented. Zarzuela became

the channel for the Filipinos to import their talents to the community and be the inspiration of the

succeeding generation. Most actors came from the family of performers.

Kamien envisioned music drama as a universal artwork in which all the arts- music,

drama, dance, painting are focused.6 Zarzuela is an art wherein it involves music, drama and

dance as its main focus. The combination of these three makes the zarzuela more interesting and

one of a kind. The painting or backdrop makes the set lively.

Likewise, Frye explain cultural studies that gain focus on mass media & consideration of

artifact outside the traditional units of high culture that have expanded the pool materials for

study. 7 It also focused attention on questions about the role of intellectuals in preserving cultural

standards or fostering cultural change.

From Rizals Zarzuela, Junto al Pasig, it showed Rizals grief against the Spanish

authority. The word used may not directly attack the Spaniards but if analyzed critically, it

ultimately attacks the colonizers. 8 In the past, political issue is used as theme or main subject of

the Zarzuela where people can freely express what they want to tell or say.

Another Zarzuela entitled Walang Sugat by Severino Reyes tells about love and

revenge. The story focused on lovers that were separated during the war. The girl was forced to

marry the guy she doesnt love. The girl told their friend to tell it to the man she loves, and

during their wedding, there came a soldier with a dying man that the only wish is to be married

with the girl. First, the mother refused but suddenly she agreed because the man will die soon.

After the wedding ceremony, the soldier told the man to stand up because he already did his job

then suddenly, the man stood up and the crowd was shocked and said walang sugat.9 The

Zarzuela that was presented is also related to the study for it also showed that the topic used to

deal with love issue, where in the past years, people also used this as a theme or subject of the


The native theater forms never died; they merely migrated from stage to screen,

Tiongson stated. Theater marks the Filipino culture where in identity could become the basis of

unity for Filipinos. The transformation of theater to cinema marked the development of

technology, but it is still better to preserve and continuously perform these in theater. 10 There are

Zarzuelas that were filmed like the Oraryong Ginto, but it is still better if performed on its

original form.

Related Studies

The study of Abocado, et al is a video documentary which presents a religious play

performed on stage.11 It is still observed in Bigao, Daraga and the people give importance to it.

Both the Cenaculo and Zarzuela are similar because they have the same methodology, using video

documentary. The difference is that Zarzuela is presented through spoken words. In addition,

Cenaculo deals with religiousity while Zarzuela deals with emotion.

A study about Dotoc by Dineros, et al found out that Dotoc is a religious play and still

observed in Sto. Domingo.12 the present study is related to their study in terms of the methodology

which is thru audio-video presentation and its objective that is to preserve the Dotoc and Zarzuela.

However, it differs in the subject matter, Dotoc being a religious play while Zarzuela dealt on

emotionsand is sung. Another thing, both studies differ from the place of presentation.

Mora, in her Aurora rituals, used ethnographic research. The data were gathered thru

observation, participation and interview. She analyzes the ritual especially its music being an

important element and the study dealt on the culture, tradition and religion of the place. 13 It is

similar on the present study in a way that both Aurora ritual and Zarzuela gave importance to the

society as well as both uses music as a medium of delivery. However, it differs on the

methodology since her study is an analysis while the present study is a video documentary.

The study of Gaid, et al about the sinarapan dance, showed the dance was connected in the

culture of Buhi. They found out that sinarapan dance was created in honor of Buhis patron saint

and every movement signifies value of Buhieo such as love for their family.14 It is similar to the

present study for both study are a form of art, both sinarapan dance and Zarzuela reflects the

culture, tradition and emotion of the Buhieos and Camaligueos, and both use music to express

their thoughts more effectively. On the other hand, their study differs from the present study for

the sinarapan dance is a dance while Zarzuela is a play. It also differs in the place of study.

Moreover, Berangos study analyzes and reveals the traits, the personalities and the

cultural practices of the Bicolanos. The study looks forward to the collection and documentation
of legends. The work of Berango is similar to the present study for both studies reflect the

culture of the place. Likewise, both have the same objective that is to preserve the culture.

However her study differs from the present study because her study is an analysis and the present

study is a video documentary. Another thing, their study tackle legends while the present study is

a play.

Atutubo et al, in their study Sarung Banggi, attempted to mount a musical play

production focusing on musical experiences of the life of Potenciano V. Gregorio and his

contribution to music. The researchers emphasized the socio-cultural significance of Sarung

Banggi to the Bikolanos and most especially to the Domigueos. 16 It is related to the present study

because both study show socio - cultural significance to the Bikolanos. However, it differs on the

methodology since Sarung Banggi is an analysis and the present study is a video documentary.

Amisola et al, in their study about Cultural Traits of the Baaoeos as presented in the

Stage play: Amo Di A Baao: Pisari na Kita? described the values of Baaoeos in terms of

celebration, education and livelihood. It also presented their cultural traits and activities in terms

of social relationship.17 In relation with the present undertaking, both show cultural values and

present the significance of stage play for both local cultures. On the other hand, it differ because

their study did not used music in their presentation.


A study on Theater as a Vehicle for Social Awareness in Pioduran, Albay by Tolosa et

al, determined the role of theater for social awareness; its benefits, implications and influence to

the respondents when it comes to family life. In relation and contribution, theater serves its

purpose as giving awareness to the people of what is happening in the society.18 Given this

underlying situations, both presentations contributes to the social awareness that influence and

gives benefits to the respondents. However, it differ on the scope which is the place of study and

they focused on theater as a whole while the present study dealt only on Zarzuela.

Related Film

The musical play Miss Saigon, with Lea Salonga as the lead actress is a story about Kim a

Vietnamese and Simon Bowman as Chris, an American soldier who pledge their love for each

other before the fall of Saigon. It goes on to show that they were separated and have a son. It also

shows how faithful Kim was and how she loves her son Tam. She was hoping that Chris will be

back to rescue her. The play is related to the study because it deals with emotions and feelings the

characters and both are musical play. The difference is that Zarzuela focuses on culture.19

The musical comedy film Enchanted by Walt Disney Pictures, directed by Kevin Lima,

tells the story of a Lady named Giselle, a princess-to-be, to her life is a fairy tale until she was

banished from the animated land of Andalasia and thrust into the very non-magical, live-action

world of modern-day Manhattan. When a cynical, no nonsense divorce lawyer comes to her aid,

little by little he realize that the joyful, wide-eyed innocent Giselle is about to enchant him. And

fall in love with each other and live happily ever after.20 This musical comedy film is related to

the study because it shows their emotion and some part of it was sung. The difference is,

Enchanted is a musical comedy film while Zarzuela is a musical play.

The musical film Mouline Rouge, directed by Baz Luhrmann, tells the story of a British

writer/poet who fell in love with the star of Mouline Rouge. 21 This Musical film is related to the

study because it shows their emotion and they deliver the words through the way of singing, the

actions are well associated with the music. The difference is that Zarzeula is a film while Mouline

Rouge is a film.

The film High School Musical, directed by Kenny Ortega, shows the lives of the high

school students with their own likes and dislikes. As time goes by, two people cross their paths

with different personalities but the same character, they made up their mind to enter the world of

theatre to perform play and show their talents in singing.22 This film is related to the present study

because it also shows the emotions of the characters involve, some of the words were also

delivered through singing. Both differ in presentation, Zarzuela is classical while Highschool

Musical is modern.

Disneys animated musical film, Cinderella is about the struggles of Cinderella, finding

her Prince Charming. The film is similar to the study for both are musical and both deals with

emotion of love. On the other hand, Cinderella is a film while Zarzuela is a stage play and the

dialogues were delivered through singing.23

Synthesis of the State of the Art

Zarzuela is a combination of speech and music from the earliest time. It marks our

Filipinization by using our own vernacular languages. According to Kamien, zarzuela is an art

that involves music, drama and dance as its main elements. As Realubit stated, that zarzuela is

also a source of their income and part of their living. It is presented in a cockpit arena or in a stage

made of bamboo. Zarzuela is a good form of entertainment. In the writings of Severino Reyes

Walang Sugat , focused on love and revenged. As Frye explains, cultural studies and focused

more in preserving cultural standards and change

The studies of Abocado and Dineros focused on religious play and the importance of it in

the society. Gaid, Atutubo, Berango and Amisolas studies stated about the significance of

zarzuela as a cultural tradition that described values in terms of education and livelihood that

needs to be preserved. Tolosa discussed about the awareness of the people of what is happening in

the society.

In the musical films, Cinderella, Enchanted, Mouline Rouge, High School Musical and

Miss Saigon are all musicals. Thus, they focused on the feelings and emotions of the characters.

Thesis Statement

This study will be presented through a video documentary, which will preserve the
Zarzuela in Camalig, Albay.

Theoretical Framework

Culture is defined as the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular group. It is a

part of everyday living and the way of life for an entire society.24

Zarzuela was once part of the Camalig culture, but with the constant change in the society,

this slowly became unknown. For it to be known again, one should be able to visualize, feel, and

hear it.

The present study lean is anchored on the performance theory by Dell Hymes and Dennis

Tedlock which states that Folklorists focus on the present realities of cultural forms and

processes using field work to attempt a perspective based on insider discourse and practice and

to provide a more complete context by which to understand the people and their cultural

productions daily.25 The researchers believe that the theory is appropriate to this method for it

will help them represent an affirmative understanding and learning of the subject and in achieving

greater context of their study.

The researchers were also guided by the Mass Communication Theory of Harold Laswell

and Charles Wright which states that media reflects our own beliefs, values, and norms.26 The

output of this production will be disseminated to a large number of people to create awareness

that the Zarzuela is part of our culture.

From cultural traditions, we chose Zarzuela in Camalig and it is supported by two theories

which are: Performance Theory of Dell Hymes and Dennis Tedlock, and Mass Communication

theory of Harold Laswell and Charles Wright. We chose these theories because we believe that it

is related in our study. Performers have their primary existence in their roots in cultural life.

Mass Communication functions as a part of our society. People can use media for more than one

function at different times. Media calls for greater awareness.

This study will be presented through docu-narrative to gain more knowledge about

Zarzuela and its history.

Presenting a docu-narrative helps the people recall the Zarzuela and remind them to

preserve Zarzuela in Camalig because it is one of our cultural traditions that should remain in our

mind and our heart.


Culture Perform

a in
Camalig Mass

To Recall and
Preserve the
Zarzuela in
Figure 1 Theoretical Paradigm

Production Framework

The study about Zarzuela will involve three phases, namely pre-production, production,

and post-production phases. The Pre-Production is the preliminary or preparatory stage; where

conceptualizing, planning, and organizing the things needed in the actual production takes place.

The Pre-Production phase will involve number of tasks from adequate brainstorming and

formulation of the thesis concept to production mechanics. This is the stage where the foundation

of the study will be built. Pre-production includes the research production proposal; attached are

the proposed script and storyboard that contains the vital information of the research.

Production is the realization of everything that are conceptualized and prepared in the pre-

production. It involves the revision of script, actual and location shooting, and interviews. In the

production phase the researchers will film a Zarzuela where in the actors and actresses will act

according to their roles from the script. The documented materials will be gathered in preparation

for editing that will be under post-production.

Post-production also includes sequencing of the captured videos and files guided by the

script. It also includes assigning of effects and transitions, assembling of shots that will be taken,

and music scoring.

The production paradigm on the next page will further illustrate the framework of this






Figure 2 Production Paradigm

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined for clearer understanding between the researchers and the


Actor - is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television,

theatre, or radio in that capacity.


Aurora Ritual in this study, it is a religious activity through song prayers that is

influenced by the Spanish friars. It is performed by the people of Bariw, Camalig, Albay as a

devotion and offering in honor of Nuestra Seora de Salvacion, the barrio patroness.

Cenaculo comes from the Greek word cenaculum which means dinning room;

especially the room in which Christ held the last supper. It is a stage play in which various

incidents of the passion from the last supper to the crucifixion is re-enacted during Holy week.

Culture - generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that

give such activities significance and importance.

Dotoc in this study, Dotoc literally means, to come together. A religious play

accompanied by a song participated by the town folks of Sto. Domingo.

Folklorists scholars specializing in folkloristics.

Performing Arts - are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the

former uses the artist's own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials

such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art


Zarzuela - a lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the

latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance.

The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 2, p. 11

CCP Encyclopedia Philippine Theater, (Manila, 1994), Vol. VII, p. 118-120
Filipino Herritage The Making of a Nation, (Manila,1648), Vol. 6 p.1642-1648
CCP Encyclopedia Philippine Theater, (Manila, 1994), Vol. VII, p. 139

From the compilation of Mrs. Dehlia Napay Rebustillo, Maria Lilia Realubit, Bikol
Dramatic Tradition, (University of the Philippines, 1976) p. 46
Roger Kamien, Music an Appreciation, (Mc Graw-Hill Book Co. 2000), 7th ed
Northrop Frye, et al, The Harper Handbook to Literature, (Addisson: Verly Educational
Publisher Inc. Int.)
Jose Rizal National Centennial Commission Rizals Poem, (Manila,1962) pp. 115-131
Lucila A. Salasar et al, Panitikang Filipino, (Katha Publishing Co. Inc., 1995) Third
Edition, pp. 135-162
Nicanor G. Tiongson, Pilipinas Circa 1907 a Contemporary Sarswela based on
Severino Reyes Filipinas para Los Filipinos, (Philippine Educational Theater Association,
Quezon City, Philippines, 1985) pp. 34-35

Mailyn A. Abocado et al, Cenaculo in Bigao, Daraga, Albay, Unpublished
Undergraduate Thesis, (Bicol University College of Arts and Letters, 2007)
Karl Dineros et al, dotoc of Sto. Domingo, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, (Bicol
University College of Arts and Letters, 2001)
Maria Salve Mora, Aurora Ritual and its Music in Bariw, Camalig, Albay,
Unpublished Masters Thesis, (Bicol University Graduates School, 1995)
Gretelle Gaid et al, Sinarapan Dance, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, (Bicol
University College of Arts and Letters, 2007)
Ma. Christina Berango, Bikol Drama in English as a Vehicle for Teaching Social
Awareness, Unpublished Masters Thesis, (Bicol University Graduates School, 1995)
Atutubo et al, Sarung Banggi, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, (Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters, 2008)
Amisola et al, Cultural Traits of the Baaoeos as Presented in Stage Play: Amo Di A
Baao: Pisari na Kita, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, (Bicol University College of Arts and
Letters, 2007)
Tolosa et al, Theater as a Vehicle for Social Awareness in Pioduran, Albay,
Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, (Bicol University College of Arts and Letters, 2007)
19, August 11, 2008
Kevin Lima, Walt Disney Pictures Presents Enchanted, (Viva Video Inc., 2008)
21!#Plot, August 11, 2008

22, September 26, 2008
23, October 7, 2008




This chapter focuses on the methodology that the researchers will use to come up with a

video documentary. It will mainly discuss the design and process that will be utilized to complete

the objectives.

Research Design

The study is a docu-narrative of Zarzuela in Camalig. It will showcase how the Zarzuela

affected the everyday lives of the Camaligueos. This will include the history of Zarzuela that

will help the viewers and the readers to deeply understand what a Zarzuela is. Other clips that

will be shown will focus on its general objectives that is to be able to preserve the authenticity of

Zarzuela through a video documentary. The researchers will conduct a screening with the help of

the Speech and Theater Arts students who will perform the Zarzuela. The researchers will film the

Zarzuela Anti Cristo by Justino Nuyda. The production will be using, music, light, and other

production technicalities.

Research Process

The study begins with the selection of group members to constitute the research group.

Brainstorming intended to arrive at a suitable topic for documentation followed. During the

brainstorming many topics were suggested until the group had finally decided on which topic will

be chosen were the research will focus on. The researchers choice was based on its significance

to the community, the impact that it will generate to the society and the interest of the researchers.

After choosing the topic, gathering data by means of library research and community visit

followed. The researcher went to Mrs. Rebustillo, a well-known art lover. During the visit, the

researchers together with Mrs. Rebustillo talked about some matters regarding Zarzuela.


In this stage, everything will be carefully planned so that production (shooting) and post

production (editing) will progress smoothly. The primary step is the brainstorming where the

members of the group presented their suggested topic. After a series of discussion, the group will

divide on the topic to be studied. Each member will be assigned to have his or her task

assignment. The group formulates the thesis concept to production and it was decided that the

study is a docu-narrative of the topic. The group will gather the needed data through an intensive

reading of books, magazines, journals, dissertations and surfing the internet browsing. The

researchers will conduct ocular visits for interviews to obtain the necessary information that can

be used in the actual production. After the sufficient data are gathered, the group will start

writing the script and the storyboard. The information will be filtered and organized into a

systematic format to come up with the final script. After the script is formulated, the group will

study it and enumerate the characters who are needed in the production. The group will conduct a

screening with the help of the STA students. Budgetary proposal was made to prepare the

members pocket for the upcoming expenses. The researchers will prepare the needed equipment

and materials for the production. The researchers will also design and prepare the props and

costumes needed in the actual production.


After the preparations in the pre-production stage, application of the planned activities will

be done. The shooting of Anti Cristo will took place in Camalig. Interviews to some people who

have been part and have enough knowledge about the topic will be done as part of the shooting.

During this production, cameras, lighting equipment, costumes, props, and musical instrument

that will accompany the presentation.

Post Production

In this stage, the researchers will go to an editing shop to have the footages captured for

editing. Applying of the effects, sound, and other techniques will be done for much better output.

Compilation of the documents used will be done for reference purposes.



De Leon, Hector. Textbook on the Philippine Constitution. 6th edition. Philippines:

Navotas Press, 1987.

Frye, Northrop, et al. The Harper Handbook to Literature. Addisson: Verly Educational
Publisher Inc., 1980.

Jose Rizal National Centennial Commision. Rizals Poem. Manila: Jose Rizal National
Centennial Commission Publishing Inc., 1962.

Kamien, Roger. Music an Appreciation. 7th edition. Philippines: Mc Graw Hill Book Co.,

Salasar, Lucila, et al. Panitikang Filipino. Manila: Katha Publishing Co. Inc., 1995

Sauco, Consolacion, et al. Sulyap sa Dulang Tagalog. Navotas, Philippines: Navotas


Press, 1987

Tiongson, Nicanor G. Pilipinas Circa 1907 a Contemporary Sarswela based on Severino

Reyes Filipinas para Los Filipinos. Philippines: Philippine Educational Theater
Association, 1985

Walson, James. Media Communication an Introduction to Theory and Process. New

York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edition, 2003

Unpublished Thesis

Abocado, Mailyn, et al. Cenaculo in Bigao, Daraga, Albay. Undergraduate thesis: Bicol
University College of Arts and Letters, 2007.

Amisola, et al. Cultural Traits of the Baaoeos as Presentedin Stage Play: Amo Di A
Baao: Pisari na Kita. Undergraduate thesis: Bicol University College of Arts and
Letters, 2007.

Atutubo, et al. Sarung Banggi. Undergraduate thesis: Bicol University College of Arts and
Letters, 2008.

Berango, Ma. Christina, et al. Bikol Drama in English as a Vehicle for Teaching Social
Awareness. Masters thesis: Bicol University Graduate School, 1993.

Dineros, Karl, et al. Dotoc of Sto. Domingo. Undergraduate thesis: Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters, 2001.

Gaid, Gretelle, et al. Sinarapan Dance. Undergraduate thesis: Bicol University College of
Arts and Letters, 2007.

Mora, Ma. Salve. Aurora Ritual and its Music in Bariw, Camalig Albay. Masters thesis:
Bicol University Graduate School, 1995.

Tolosa, et al. Theater as a Vehicle for Social Awareness in Pioduran Albay.

Undergraduate thesis: Bicol University College of Arts and Letters, 2007.


Zarzuela. CCP Encyclopedia Philippine Theater. 1994.

Zarzuela. Filipino Heritage The Making of a Nation.

Zarzuela. New Encyclopedia Britanica.



Realubit, Ma. Lilia. Bikol Dramatic Tradition. UP, 1976. From the compilation of Mrs.
Dehlia Napay Rebustillo.

The Zarzuela in Bicol, From the clippings of Dr. Eden K. Nasayao.