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MNG THNG TIN DI NG

THEO CU TRC NGN (NGN-Mobile)

Mng thng tin di ng pht trin mnh m v rng khp trn ton th gii trong
mi nm va qua vi kh nng cung cp a dng cc loi hnh dch v. Hin nay,
nhu cu s dng dch v d liu ngy cng tng cao, cc dch v d liu chim mt
t trng ng k trong tng doanh thu ca nha khai thc mng thng tin di ng.
Trong vi nm ti cc dch v thng tin a phng tin da trn nn IP, s l ngun
doanh thu chnh khi doanh thu t cc dch v thoi ang tr nn bo ho. Xu hng
ny i hi mng thng tin di ng phi pht trin theo mt cu trc mi tin tin
hn, cu trc da trn nguyn tc ca mng NGN (Next Generation Network), vi
cc tiu ch c bn: a) S hi t dch v thoi v dch v d liu; b) S phn tch
lp iu khin khi lp truyn ti. Xu hng ny bt u t phin bn Release 4
(ca 3GPP) v c hon thin trong Release 5/6 v cng c mt nh x tng ng
i vi mng thng tin di ng ca 3GPP2.

Bi vit ny phn tch xu hng pht trin mng thng tin di ng theo cu trc
NGN da trn cc phin bn tiu chun ca t chc 3GPP/3GPP2.

1. M u

Khi nim cu trc mng NGN xut pht t mng thng tin c nh. Theo khuyn
ngh ca Lin minh Vin thng th gii (ITU), mng th h mi - Next Generation
Network (NGN) c coi l mng gi c kh nng cung cp cc dch v vin
thng, s dng bng tn rng v cc cng ngh truyn ti h tr QoS trong cc
chc nng lin quan n dch v khng ph thuc vo cng ngh truyn ti. H
thng h tr tnh di ng linh hot cho php cung cp dch v cho thu bao mt
cch n nh mi lc, mi ni.

NGN c hiu l mng da trn mng chuyn mch gi trong cc phn t thc
hin chc nng chuyn mch nh tuyn v cc phn t iu khin c phn tch
mt cch logic v vt l theo kh nng thng minh iu khin dch v hoc cuc
gi. Mng NGN h tr rt a dng cc loi hnh dch v da trn mt c s h tng
truyn dn chung, bao gm t cc dch v thoi c bn cho n cc dch v s liu,
video, a phng tin, dch v bng thng rng, v cc ng dng qun l mng
thng minh.

V c bn, m hnh chc nng ca mng NGN nh. Trong m hnh ny, mng
NGN c chia thnh cc phn lp c bn: lp truy nhp, lp truyn ti, lp iu
khin v lp ng dng. Mi phn lp c cha mt s phn t chc nng c bn
nh: My ch cuc gi (Call Sever) hay cn gi l Chuyn mch mm
(SoftSwitch), Cng truy nhp (Media Gateway), Cng bo hiu (Signalling
Gateway) v My ch dch v (Feature Server).

Vi yu cu cung cp cc dch v s liu, c bit l dch v truyn thng a


phng tin, mng thng tin di ng hin nay cng ang pht trin theo cu trc
NGN. C th ni, cc t chc tiu chun 3GPP v 3GPP2 ng vai tr ch yu
trong vic xy dng kin trc mng NGN-Mobile cho cc h thng thng tin di
ng da trn mng li GSM v CDMA. Xu hng pht trin theo cu trc NGN
ca mng li 3GPP bt u t Release 4 (R4), sau c hon thin bi Release
5 (R5) v Release 6 (R6) vi kh nng h tr cc dch v thng tin a phng tin.
V nguyn tc, c th xy dng mng thng tin di ng NGN-Mobile da trn cc
cu trc: mng li R4 hoc cu trc mng li R5&R6.

Hnh 1. Cu trc phn lp chc nng ca mng NGN

Cc nh khai thc mng GSM hin nay ch yu ang giai on R99. H c th


la chn cc gii php trin khai nng cp nh sau:
Mng li R99 -> Mng li R4

Mng li R99 -> Mng li R5

Mng li R99 -> Mng li R4 -> Mng li R5

Vic la chn gii php nng cp mng ca mi nh khai thc c th ph thuc vo


nhiu yu t khc nhau, nh hin trng mng hin ti; chin lc pht trin
mng/dch v; chi ph u t. iu ny cho php nh khai thc la chn phng n
trin khai mng ph hp.

Trn th trng th gii hin nay, cc hng sn xut thit b mng thng tin di ng
tung ra cc sn phm thit b mng li da trn tiu chun R4 v R5. Nhiu nh
khai thc ang c chin lc pht trin hng ti mt mng li theo cu trc NGN-
Mobile nhm xy dng mt c s h tng mng truyn ti chung cng nh kh
nng cung cp, qun l linh hot tt c cc loi hnh dch v/ng dng.

2. Xu hng pht trin mng thng tin di ng ca 3GPP/3GPP2 theo hng


NGN
T chc 3GPP thc hin chun ho cng ngh WCDMA cho h thng thng tin di
ng 3G UMTS. Cho n nay, mng li UMTS c pht trin theo 3 Release
c bn: R99, R4 v R5; ngoi ra, R6 ang trong qu trnh thc hin chun ho. Sau
y s phn tch nhng thay i trong qu trnh chuyn i cu trc mng li ca
3GPP theo hng NGN. Lu rng, mng thng tin di ng 3G-Cdma2000 ca
3GPP2 cng c s pht trin hng theo cu trc NGN, tng t nh mng li ca
3GPP, do vy bi vit ch tp trung phn tch mng li di ng do 3GPP chun ha.

2.1 Mng li 3GPP R99

M t kin trc phn tch theo loi hnh dch v (chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch
knh) ca mng li UMTS R99. Tiu ch ca cu trc theo R99 bao gm: tng
thch ngc vi GSM; h tr truy nhp cc dch v d liu tc cao; v qun l
c QoS. Nh ch ra trong Hnh 2, c hai loi mng truy nhp v tuyn c th
kt ni vi mng li (CN) ca 3GPP: h thng BSS ca GSM v RNS ca
UTRAN. Cc mng truy nhp v tuyn ny kt ni vi mng CN thng qua cc
giao din chun. C th, BSS ca GSM kt ni vi min CS qua giao din A v
min PS qua giao din Gb; UTRAN kt ni vi min CS qua giao din Iu-cs v ti
min PS qua giao din Iu-ps. Min CS (Circuit-Switched Domain) cung cp cc
dch v chuyn mch knh da trn tng i MSC (bao gm c GSM), trong khi
min PS (Packet-Switched Domain) cung cp kt ni IP gia Mobile v cc mng
IP (bao gm c GPRS).

Hnh 2. Cu trc tham chiu c bn ca 3GPP R99 (Ngun: 3GPP)

2.2 Mng li 3GPP R4/R5

C th ni cu trc mng li theo R00 pht trin tip sau R99, hay hin nay c
chia thnh hai pha R4 v R5, c gi l cu trc mng chuyn tip nhm tin ti
cu trc NGN ton IP trong tng lai. Cc tiu ch t ra cho cu trc R4/5 bao
gm: tng thch vi R99; b sung thm cc dch v a phng tin da trn IP; v
h tr hiu qu VoIP v tuyn i vi dch v a phng tin. im cn lu l
trong cu trc R4/5, vn tn ti hai min tch bit CS v PS, R5 chnh thc a ra
khi nim h thng IMS:

+ Min CS vn tn ti v h tr kh nng tng thch ngc hon ton i vi cc


dch v min CS R99, c th thc hin min ny bng cch nng cp MSC thnh
MSC Server v Media Gateway.

+ Min PS tip tc h tr cc kt ni IP, c nng cp thm h tr QoS i vi


cc dch v a phng tin da trn IP.

+ Phn h IMS cung cp cc dch v IP a phng tin mi b sung vo cc dch


v c cung cp bi min CS.

Mc d cc nhm tiu chun ca 3GPP chia R00 thnh R4 v R5 da trn tiu


ch pht trin h thng theo tng pha. y, vi quan im tng th v s pht
trin ca cu trc mng, cp n cc h thng R4 v R5 nh mt h thng R00
(). c c kh nng truy nhp c lp v m bo c s kt ni thng sut
cc thit b u cui hu tuyn thng qua Internet, R00 hng ti tng thch vi
cc tiu chun Internet ca IETF nhng ni s dng giao thc ny, chng hn
R00 h tr giao thc SIP. p ng VoIP, kin trc R00 cng h tr tp ti thiu
cc phng thc codec bt buc v cc tu chn giao thc bt buc i vi cc
dch v VoIP.

Hnh 3. Kin trc tham chiu R00 (R4 v R5) (Ngun: 3GPP)

M t kin trc tng qut ca R00. Trong kin trc ny, i vi min PS, xut hin
cc phn t mi so vi kin trc R99 thuc v Phn h IMS, n l phn t li ca
cu trc mng NGN-Mobile hin nay. Cu trc ca phn h a phng tin da
trn IP (Ip Multimedia Subsystem) nh.

IMS bao gm cc phn t sau: P-CSCF (Proxy Call Session Control Function); I-
CSCF (Interrogating CSCF); S-CSCF (Serving CSCF); SGW (Signalling
Gateway); MGW (Media Gateway); MGCF (Media Gateway Control Function);
BGCF (Breakout Gateway Control function); MRFP (Multimedia Resource
Function Processor); MRFC (Multimedia Resource Function Controller).

IMS vi giao thc nn l SIP, vi cc tnh nng khi to phin thi gian thc, cho
php cc nh khai thc pht trin v qun l cc dch v d liu di ng mt cch
linh hot v hiu qu. Cc nh khai thc lun mong mun mng ca h h tr cc
giao din chun kt ni ti IMS cho php h tr cc dch v lin mng v kh nng
kt ni ti cc nh cung cp ni dung/ng dng bn th ba. H thng tiu chun v
xut pht trin IMS ca 3GPP hin nay bt u c cng nghip vin thng
v tuyn v hu tuyn chp thun.

Hnh 4. Kin trc phn lp chc nng ca IMS

i vi cc mng di ng, IMS cho php cc nh khai thc gii thiu nhiu loi
hnh dch v hp dn, nh Push-to-Talk, mt cch hiu qu v linh hot. i vi
cc nh khai thc mng c nh, IMS s khi mo cho s pht trin bng n cc
ng dng VoIP v da trn SIP thng qua truy nhp bng rng. Mong mun chung
ca cc nh khai thc vin thng hin nay l h khng ch thu c li nhun t
vic truyn ti cc bt d liu m cn t vic cung cp a dng cc dch v tim
nng da trn IP v IMS chnh l cu tr li kh thi nht [1].

2.3 Kin trc tch hp theo m hnh NGN ca R00 (R4/R5)

Kin trc tch hp theo m hnh NGN ca R00 nhn quan im phn lp chc
nng c m t trong . Mng bao gm 4 lp chc nng: Lp truy nhp bao gm
cc phng thc truy nhp v tuyn, hu tuyn; Lp truyn ti gi ng trc da
trn nn IP; Lp iu khin vi phn t li l IMS; v Lp dch v bao gm cc
Server cung cp dch v. Lp dch v kt ni vi Lp iu khin thng qua cc
hm giao din lp trnh ng dng (API) cho php cung cp, pht trin, m rng
dch v mt cch mm do v linh hot. Kin trc ny cng cho thy xu hng hi
t cc phng thc truy nhp mng khc nhau ti mt mng li NGN duy nht.

So vi kin trc mng UMTS R99, kin trc mng R00 c nhng c im ni bt:

+ Mng li UMTS R00 c cu trc phn lp, bao gm 4 lp c bn: Lp truy nhp
vi nhiu phng thc truy nhp khc nhau (v tuyn v hu tuyn); Lp truyn ti
IP/ATM; Lp iu khin; v Lp ng dng. y chnh l kin trc hng ti mt
mng li NGN duy nht.

+ Bt u t R4, min CS tch phn iu khin MSC Server ra khi phn truyn
ti MGW (Media GateWay). R5 chnh thc a ra khi nim Phn h IP a phng
tin (IMS) cho php cung cp v qun l cc dch v truyn thng a phng tin
da trn nn IP ti u ngi s dng.

Hnh 5. Kin trc tch hp theo R00 (R4/R5).

2.4 Kin trc mng li 3GPP tng lai

Sau giai on chuyn tip vi kin trc R00 (bao gm R4 v R5), dch v a
phng tin da trn IP tr nn ph bin, 3GPP hng ti mt h tng tch hp
hon ton da trn mt h thng li chuyn mch gi, nh . Cc tiu ch dch v
i vi kin trc ny bao gm: chuyn cc dch v c bn thnh dch v a phng
tin da trn nn IP v s pht trin rng khp ca cc dch v IP a phng tin
bn ngoi mng UMTS.

n lc ny, c th gi thit rng, phn h IMS pht trin ti mc c th ng vai


tr thay th vic cung cp dch v trc y vn c min CS thc hin. Chng ta
thy rng, min PS vn tip tc c gi li trong khi min CS b loi b. Mt
vn ln s gp phi vi h thng ny chnh l vic tch hp dch v v cc vn
bo mt vn ang trong tin trnh chun ho ca 3GPP/3GPP2 [2].

Hnh 6. Kin trc mng UMTS trong tng lai

3. u im ca mng NGN-Mobile

Xu hng hi t v tch hp v cng ngh ln dch v ang din ra rt mnh m


trong mng vin thng ngy nay. Gii php mng NGN s cho php chng ta thc
hin thnh cng cuc cch mng ny. Cc li ch chnh ca mng NGN-Mobile
khng nm ngoi kh nng cung cp mm do v a dng nhiu loi hnh dch v,
c bit l dch v thng tin a phng tin thi gian thc, cc dch v d liu
phong ph. Sau y l mt s u im c bn ca mng NGN-Mobile [3]:

+ Mt mng li duy nht: mng li da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, cho php
ti u kh nng s dng ti nguyn.

+ Tnh hi t: cho php nhiu loi hnh a truy nhp mng bao gm c v tuyn ln
hu tuyn.
+ Kin trc m: cc nh pht trin dch v/ng dng bn th ba d dng tham gia
vo vic cung cp dch v bng cch s dng cc hm m API (Application
Programming Interface) do mng cung cp.

+ Dch v a dng: cho php pht trin cc loi hnh dch v gia tng c bit l
cc loi hnh dch v truyn thng a phng tin IP.

Tuy c rt nhiu u im nh trn, nhng cng cn gii quyt nhiu vn lin


quan n cu trc mng NGN-Mobile, bao gm:

+ Vn bo mt, tnh tin cy, v kh nng thc thi: NGN-Mobile l mng c cu


trc m h tr nhiu loi ng dng vi nhiu mc cht lng khc nhau do vy vn
bo mt, m bo cht lng dch v s cng kh khn hn.

+ Vn pht trin phn mm: mng NGN-Mobile l c hi rt ln cho cc nh


pht trin phn mm ng dng, s c rt nhiu phn mm c s dng li. Vic
tch hp cc ng dng s dng cc thnh phn phn mm trung gian do nhiu nh
cung cp lm phc tp mng cung cp dch v.

+ Vn tiu chun kt ni mng: mng NGN-Mobile h tr rt nhiu giao thc


kt ni mng. Do vic phi hp hot ng sun s gia cc giao thc ang l
mt vn cn gii quyt.

4. Kt lun

S pht trin bng n ca mng Internet, nhu cu s dng cc dch v d liu


chuyn mch gi di ng ngy cng tng, c bit l cc dch v truyn thng a
phng tin da trn nn IP chnh l ng lc thc y s pht trin ca cng ngh
mng thng tin di ng theo mt kin trc mi tin tin, mm do v linh hot hn,
cu trc NGN. C th ni rng trong cu trc NGN-Mobile, phn h IP a phng
tin chnh l phn t li ca h thng c vai tr nh mt h tng chung h tr cc
ng dng a phng tin v hin nay, c rt nhiu nh khai thc mng thng tin
di ng trn th gii trin khai nng cp mng ca h theo cu trc mng NGN-
Mobile.

Ti liu tham kho chnh:


[1]. JJYH-CHENG CHEN, TAO ZHANG, IP-Based Next-Generation Wireless
Networks, 2004, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[2]. MIIKKA POIKSELKA, GEORG MAYER, HISHAM KHARTABIL and AKI


NIEMI, The IMS IP Multimedia Concepts and Services in the Mobile Domain,
2004, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[3]. DR. JONATHAN P. CASTRO, The UMTS Network and Radio Access
Technology, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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