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CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION

Most industries have smoke or dust problem of some kind. The smoke can be made up of solid or fluid particles suspended in the gas. Sometimes the particles are waste which must be removed for reasons of hygiene and comfort before the gas is released into the atmosphere. Equally, often, the materials may be useful products which must be recovered for the process to be profitable. For the control of dust, electrostatic precipitator is often used.

Tough theory of electrostatic precipitation was made known as early as in the early part of nineteenth century, its commercial application had to wait till the first decade of twentieth century when high voltage DC generator become commercial available.

CHAPTER

2

THERMAL POWER STATION

A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator ordoes some other work, like ship propulsion. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy.

Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal electric, and waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam, in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. Power plants burning coal, oil, or natural gas are often referred to collectively as fossil-fuel power plants. Some biomass-fueled thermal power plants have appeared also. Non-nuclear thermal power plants, particularly fossil-fueled plants, which do not use cogeneration are sometimes referred to as conventional power plants.

Commercial electric utility power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Electric power plants typically use three-phase electrical generators to produce alternating current (AC) electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz (Hertz, which is an AC sine wave per second) depending on its location in the world. Other large companies or institutions may have their own usually smaller power plants to supply heating or electricity to their facilities, especially if heat or steam is created anyway for other purposes. Shipboard steam-driven power plants have been used in various large ships in the

past, but these days are used most often in large naval ships. Such shipboard power plants are general lower power capacity than full-size electric company plants, but otherwise have many similarities except that typically the main steam turbines mechanically turn the propulsion propellers, either through reduction gears or directly by the same shaft. The steam power plants in such ships also provide steam to separate smaller turbines driving electric generators to supply electricity in the ship. Shipboard steam power plants can be either conventional or nuclear; the shipboard nuclear plants are mostly in the navy. There have been perhaps about a dozen turboelectric ships in which a steam-driven turbine drives an electric generator which powers an electric motor for propulsion.

In some industrial, large institutional facilities, or other populated areas, there are combined heatand power (CHP) plants, often called cogeneration plants, which produce both power and heat for facility or district heating or industrial applications. AC electrical power can be stepped up tovery high voltages for long distance transmission with minimal loss of power. Steam and hot water lose energy when piped over substantial distance, so carrying heat or energy by steam or hot water is often only worthwhile within a local area or facility, such as steam distribution for a ship or industrial facility or hot water distribution in a local municipality.

History
Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt. The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London, in 1882, also used reciprocating steam engines. As generator sizes increased,eventually turbines took over due to higher efficiency and lower cost of construction. By the 1920s any central station larger than a few thousand kilowatts would use a turbine prime mover.

Efficiency
Power is energy per time. The power output or capacity of an electric plant can be expressed in units of megawatts electric (MWe). The electric efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered as saleable energy (in MWe) produced at the plant busbars as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to 48% efficient. This efficiency is limited as all heat engines are governed by the laws of thermodynamics (See: Carnot cycle). The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat. This waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers. If the waste heat is instead utilized for e.g. district heating, it is called cogeneration. An important class of thermal power station are associated with desalination facilities; these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants, freshwater production and electricity are equally important co-products. Since the efficiency of the plant is fundamentally limited by the ratio of the absolute temperatures of the steam at turbine input and output, efficiency improvements require use of higher temperature, and therefore higher pressure, steam. Historically, other working fluids such as mercury have been experimentally used in a mercury vapour turbine power plant, since these can attain higher temperatures than water at lower working pressures. However, the obvious hazards of toxicity, and poor heat transfer properties, have ruled out mercury as a working fluid.

Diagram of a typical coal-fired thermal power station

Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station 1. Cooling tower 2. Cooling water pump 10. Steam Control valve 11. High pressure steam 19. Superheater 20. Forced draught (draft) fan 21. Reheater 22. Combustion air intake

turbine 3. transmission line (3-phase) 12. Deaerator 4. Step-up transformer(3phase) 5. Electrical generator (3phase) 6. Low pressure steam turbine 7. Condensate pump 8. Surface condenser 9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 16. Coal pulverizer 17. Boiler steam drum 18. Bottom ash hopper 15. Coal hopper 14. Coal conveyor 13. Feedwate heater

23. Economiser

24. Air preheater

25. Precipitator 26. Induced draught (draft) fan 27. Flue gas stack

Steam generator
Schematic diagram of typical coal-fired power plant steam generator highlighting the air preheater (APH) location. (For simplicity, any radiant section tubing is not shown.)

In fossil-fueled power plants, steam generator refers to a furnace that burns the fossil fuel to boil water to generate steam. In the nuclear plant field, steam generator refers to a specific type of large heat exchanger used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor plant) and secondary (steam plant) systems, which of course is used to generate steam. In a nuclear reactor called a

boiling water reactor (BWR), water in boiled to generate steam directly in the reactor itself and there are no units called steam generators. In some industrial settings, there can also be steam-producing heat exchangers called heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) which utilize heat from some industrial process. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. A fossil fuel steam generator includes an economizer, a steam drum, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either directly generating steam from the reactor (BWR) or else using an intermediate heat exchanger (PWR). For units over about 200 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may instead be provided.

Boiler furnace and steam drum
Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.

The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the downcomers to the lower inlet waterwall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the waterwalls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear waterwalls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the waterwalls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum. The steam/vapor is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the waterwalls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation.

The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a trip-out are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal.

The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial startup. The steam drum has internal devices that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils.

Superheater
Fossil fuel power plants can have a superheater and/or reheater section in the steam generating furnace. Nuclear-powered steam plants do not have such

sections but produce steam at essentially saturated conditions. In a fossil fuel plant, after the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the steam drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into tubes inside an area of the furnace known as the superheater, which has an elaborate set up of tubing where the steam vapor picks up more energy from hot flue gases outside the tubing and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves before the high pressure turbine.

Reheater
Power plant furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is rerouted to go inside the reheater tubes to pickup more energy to go drive intermediate or lower pressure turbines.

Fuel preparation system
In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles.

Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.

Air path
External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet, and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law, and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan.

Auxiliary systems
Fly ash collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.

Bottom ash collection and disposal At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down

from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blowdown and leakages have to be made up to maintain a desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. Impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water, and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion, and mixed bed exchangers. Any ions in the final water from this process consist essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which recombine to form pure water. Very pure DM water becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen.

The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by an air ejector attached to the condenser.

Steam turbine-driven electric generator
Rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power station Main article: Turbo generator The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimise the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.

Barring gear
Barring gear (or "turning gear") is the mechanism provided to rotate the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed after unit stoppages. Once the unit is "tripped" (i.e., the steam inlet valve is closed), the turbine coasts down towards standstill. When it stops completely, there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. This is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore could warp or bend by millionths of inches.

This small shaft deflection, only detectable by eccentricity meters, would be enough to cause damaging vibrations to the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. The shaft is therefore automatically turned at low speed (about one revolution per minute) by the barring gear until it has cooled sufficiently to permit a complete stop.

Condenser
Main article: Surface condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum.

For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 oC where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning.

The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or ocean.

Feedwater heater

Main article: Feedwater heater A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater. In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. The heat content in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feedwater heater. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine.

Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle.

Superheater
As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. The areas known as superheater and reheater. The steam vapor picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine.

Deaerator
Main article: Deaerator

Diagram of boiler feed water deaerator (with vertical, domed aeration section and horizontal water storage section) A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of the metal.Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. A deaerator typically includes a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feedwater storage tank. There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional trayed deaerator. If operated properly, most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm³/L).

Auxiliary systems
Oil system An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms.

At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.

Generator heat dissipation

The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air.

The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere.

The generator also uses water cooling. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV and water is conductive, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used.

Generator high voltage system The generator voltage ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up

transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 110 kV or 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Thus, the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. In smaller units, generating at 11 kV, a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 11 kV bus system.

Other systems
Monitoring and alarm system
Most of the power plant operational controls are automatic. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.

Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication
A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and emergency lighting. This is essential for a safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation.

Transport of coal fuel to site and to storage
Main article: Fossil fuel power plant Most thermal stations use coal as the main fuel. Raw coal is transported from coal mines to a power station site by trucks, barges, bulk cargo ships or railway cars. Generally, when shipped by railways, the coal cars are sent as a full train of cars. The coal received at site may be of different sizes. The railway cars are unloaded at site by rotary dumpers or side tilt dumpers to tip over onto conveyor belts below. The coal is generally conveyed to crushers which crush the coal to about ¾ inch (6 mm) size. The crushed coal is then sent by belt conveyors to a storage pile. Normally, the crushed coal is compacted by bulldozers, as compacting of highly volatile coal avoids spontaneous ignition.

The crushed coal is conveyed from the storage pile to silos or hoppers at the boilers by another belt conveyor system.

CHAPTER

3

3.1 PRINCIPLE

An electrostatic precipitator is electrical equipment where a DC voltage is imparted, through emitting electrode creating an electrical field around it. Dust particles carried by the gas, while passing through the field is charged to saturation and migrate towards the collecting electrodes, usually in the form of plate curtain, where they are deposited in layers. By suitable rapping dust is dislodged into the hopper.

The principle of operation of an electrostatic precipitator may be explained through a simple model as shown in figure.

The dust laden gas enters the precipitator at “A” and the cleaned gas leaves at “B”. The electrodes “E” usually known as emitting electrode and “C” usually known as collecting electrode from a large number of gas passages. The C electrodes are usually “curtains” of vertically hung plates. The E electrodes usually metal wires mounted in a framework _ are placed in the space between C-electrodes curtains. A Rectifier impresses suitable dc voltage between the electrodes depending on the particular process due to the high electrical field around the E _electrodes the gas around the electrode is ionised and the region is filled with negative and positive ions. This is called corona formation.

The dust particles carried by the gas between the electrodes are charged to saturation immediately after entering the space. The charged particles are then pulled toward the collecting electrodes. Movement of particles is opposed by viscous drag and a resultant velocity, called migration or drift velocity is attained by the particles, the dust is then precipitated onto the plate electrode. Hence a deposit of dust is formed on the plate. when the is sufficiently thick and agglomerated it is dislodged from the plates by rapping. the dust cakes slide along the plates into the storage hoppers.

It is, thus, seen that the principle of electrostatic precipitation has four phases:

Corona formation or ionisation

Charging of particles

Migration and precipitation of particles

Removal of deposited dust.

Due to the manifold advantages likes low pressure drop, low sensitivity to high temperature and aggressive gases, high collecting efficiency well in excess of 99.5%, low maintenance etc, electrostatic precipitator has gained its popularity over other dust collectors

3.2 PARAMETAERS AFFECTING PRECIPITATOR

Electrostatic precipitator is designed for a set of inlet parameters. Variation of one or many of these may lead to unsatisfactory performance of the precipitator. A brief discussions on the effect of such parameters are given below.

The performance of an electrostatic is largely influenced by the following parameters;

o Temperature of gas o Gas volume o Moisture content o Gas velocity within the ESP

o Inlet dust concentration o Dust particles size distribution o Dust receptivity o Dust composition

3.2.1 TEMPERATURE OF GAS

Temperature has great influence on the ESP performance either directly or indirectly through receptivity. The electrical properties deteriorate with increase in temperature, flash over limit decreases thereby operating voltage has to be brought down to avoid back corona. This weakens field strength and consequent force on the particles. Moreover gas viscosity increases at higher temperature thereby increasing drag on the particles which impairs the precipitation rate. Consequent to the above phenomenon particle migration velocity decreases and thus ESP performance deteriorates. An ESP thus designed for particular temperature may not perform well higher operating temperature.The strength of ESP structural may be sufficient enough at higher operating temperature. then at which it has been designed.

A lower temperature also in determination if falls below acid dew point when corrosion occurs giving rise to every possible of structural and mechanical aspects of ESP.

3.2.2 GAS VOLUME

Increase in gas volume decreases specific collecting area, for witch a precipitator is sized. Specific collecting area is the ratio between effective collecting area and the gas volume to be handled. Thus an increase in gas volume over the designed value reduces the precipitator size, decreasing the ultimate collection efficiency.

3.2.3 MOISTURE CONTENT

Moisture content has a large influence on the performance. It directly influence the voltage current characteristics and also indirectly through risistivity. Increases in moisture improve the precipitator performance.

It has been seen in number of occasions that lower operating moisture content then at witch ESP was designed was the single largest contributor towards they bad performance of ESP.

3.2.4 GASVELOCITY IN THE ESP

Gas velocity within a precipitator is varying important factor. It affects the migration velocity on hand and re- entrainment on the other. Fall of migration velocity at is due to re-entrainment and that at lower gas velocity is due to gas stratification meaning hot gas passes through the upper zone while the lower zone while the lower zone is relatively cool.

3.2.5 INLET DUST CONCECTRATION

Increase in inlet dust burden increases outlet emission level even after maintaining same efficiency.

3.2.6 DUST PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

Theoretically precipitator performance should increase with increase in partially precipitator size for the simple for the simple reason that larger partial receive change more quickly and attains migration velocity which according to stake’s law is proportional to the diameter of the particle.

Migration velocity is proportional to diameter when d>1um and is independent when d<1um.

In practical precipitator encounters partial size more than 1um and thus it may be concluded that more proportion of finance in dust will determination the ESP perforce.

3.2.7 DUST RESISTEVITY Resistively is an electrical characteristic of the dust partial which determines the amount of change, partical may gather under the specific charging condition of

the dust particles. Receptivity is very much dependent on the composition and morphology of the dust particles

There are two condition mechanisms which determination the resistively of the dust.

-volume condition which is related to the composition of the dust

- Surface condition which depends on absorbed film on the particles surface which is related to the composition of gas and dust surface.

The effect of temperature (thermal excitation) on receptivity is worth noting. In absence of moisture (done dry condition) the receptivity would continue to increase with decreasing temperature because of less electron exitation. conversely increases in temperature increases electron flow resulting into lower resistivity. This phenomenon is related to volume conduction which occurs by means of electron carrier within the material and is depends on thermal excitation.

At gas temperature below 150 – 200c, surface condition becomes important mode of condition provided ample moisture and conditioning agents are present in the gas. Surface condition is dependent on the presence of a conductive film of absorbed material on the surface of the particulate. This film of absorbed material provides the transfer of the electrical charge along the surface

Worst effect of high resistevity is the formation of back corona. When there is dust layer on the collecting electrodes a voltage drop across the layer on the collecting electrode a voltage drop occurs the layer. If the dust resistivity is high voltage drop across the layer becomes so high to cause electrical break down of interstitial gas and thus breakdown of the layer and spark over between the discharge electrode and the collecting electrodes occur. This phenomena is called back corona. To prevent such sparking from becoming excessive it is necessary to lower the operating voltage and current from becoming with consequence loss in collection efficiency.

3.2.8 DUST COMPOSITION

Performance of ESP is largely influenced by the composition and morphology of the dust. A brief description of the effect of some of the major, power composition of dust as normally encountered like cement, power etc are given as follows;

Oxide of Sulphur

SO3 produced during a combination procedure condenses with moisture on the surface of the partial and thus reduced the resistively. It may be noted that only free SO3 with water to from H2SO4 has this effect.

-

high oxide of sulpher normally produced low resistive dust.

-

Sometimes a large portion of sulpher in combination material, say coal, May as caso4 which is resistive and so in such case dust may have high resistive despite high sulphur

content.

-

Formation of SO3 from high sulphur content sometimes raises the dew point so high that the dust is wetted sulohuric acid clogging very low hence ESP performance determination despised very low dust resistivety.

Alkali metal

Sodium, lithium, potassium in the of heating zone, evaporates and later condense, oxide and sulphatize SO3 the alkali sulphates thus formed is deposited and increase the moisture absorption capacity of dust and the dust and thus lower the resistivety.

High alkali metal concentration, particularly sodium, lithium and iron reduce the surface resistivety. A reduction in sodium content from 3% to 1%,50% decrease in effective migration velocity occurs which means fifty percent increase in precipitator size.

Phosphorous Presence of high level phosphorous in the dust exerts a strong detrimental effect on precipitation electrical operation and plum opacity.

Calcium and magnesium oxides

Presence of calcium and magnesium oxide in very high amount results in to a possibility of discharge electrode fouling problems when can suppress corona and thus make precipitator less efficient

3.3 OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCE PRECIPITATOR PREFORMANCE

3.3.1 GAS DISTRIBUTION

The purpose of gas distribution is to achieve uniform is to gas flow and there by distribute eventually over the whole cross section of the field, without under utilities or over burdening a particular zone. Also to stop gas sneak age, no gas should by – pass the electrostatic field either in roof or through hopper region. In practice, a perfectly at upper and lower excitations, a permissible limit of variation in the distribution, calculated as co-efficient of variation is kept within 20% to archive the desired performance.

3.3.2 RAPPING FREQUENCY

Every time collected dust electrode surface is subjected to rapping shock, reentertainment of partials takes place in the main flow path and carried a way by the gas. This phenomenon increases the emission level each time the rapping is done. It is necessary to reduce the re-entertainment to a minimum level. Hence, first of dust of significant thickness must be allowed for form so that when it is dislodged by rapping, the layer breaks into agglomerate masses, sufficiently large to fall in to the hopper before, being careened out by the moving gas out let duct. Secondly rapping frequency is to be to optimum levels for each field in accordance with the concentration type of entering the fired to minimize penetration

CHAPTER

4

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