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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in EDLE & CUIN
Name: Serkan Turhan

Date: 06/16/2016

Topic Selected:
What does the research say about advantages and disadvantages of distance

What does the literature/research say about this issue/topic? By using NAU
Library or Online Search engines, conduct a literature review.

You need to include 5 different sources (book, journal article, web article
etc.) in your review. Try to use current sources as much as possible.

You need to summarize and synthesize your sources by discussing a

common theme or issue.

You don't need to critique your sources

You don't need to evaluate your sources (if the sources are trustworthy,
weather the author has a bias or not)

You need to provide background information such as history and


Brief Literature Review:

Distance learning and traditional learning are different in their nature.
Distance learning programs are generally designed to serve an off campus population.
These programs provide access to higher education for students who cannot attend
traditional courses due to employment, marital status, family responsibilities, distance,
and expenses incurred with traditional education. It also provides a cost-effective means
to serve large numbers of students in any area. Distance learning is not new in many
universities. Correspondence courses comprised the first generation of distance
learning, using traditional printed material and communication via post and telephone
(Southworth, Flanigan, Knezek, 1981). Second generation distance learning included
audio recordings and radio and television broadcasts (Southworth, et al., 1981).
Televised and taped classes for students whose classes were in large lecture halls were
offered by many major universities twenty years ago.
Distance learning is planned to provide learning and education opportunities to those
who cant afford time or money for traditional classes or who lived in remote areas far
from education environment.
Distance education is increasing its popularity due to expansion of the Internet in recent
years; the Internet has become the most important tool for delivering virtual learning.
Virtual education makes learning much easier for some students to complete a degree. It
is a great tool to help reach students who are in geographically remote areas.

Even though online education is more flexible it puts more responsibility on the part of
learner. If a learner is not easily self-motivated it would be very difficult for him/her to
catch up with assignments and due dates. Virtual learning requires independent work
without the constant guidance and monitoring of an instructor. With the popularity of
technology, distance learning is also gaining pace and becoming a growing vogue for
many students who pursue higher education.


What is your personal opinion on this issue? Do you agree with the
research? If you agree or disagree, please explain why?
Provide examples/experiences regarding this issue from school
perspective or If you are not working in a school, from your profession. Be
specific with your examples. You can mention software/hardware names,
specific methods that you plan to use, etc.
How would you implement this research in your career? (At least 1

I definitely agree with the research that distance learning comes with a host of pros and
Distance learning offers flexibility to meet our personal needs, strengths, and career
goals. As long as Internet skills are sharp, distance learning helps to get more
knowledge in a relatively short time. Unlike traditional classes virtual education promotes
availability and access to classes at any time. It is also possible to make an one`s own
schedule which helps to learn while working.
On the other hand not everyone has easy access to technology. Distance learning is
also complicated for people who are frightened of technology. It is expensive.
There is no face to face communication and no immediate feedback provided.
Therefore if a distance learning candidate has problems with motivation, procrastination
and need lots of individual attention from a facilitator, then he/she needs to think twice
about it. Most of my friends who are seeking for their master`s degree are now struggling
with online courses due to motivation and procrastination issues. Despite of above
disadvantages I am a strong supporter of distance education and currently part of it. I
believe that in 21st century traditional teaching methods are losing blood and eventually
traditional system will convert into distance learning systems. In a school setting now we
are using online tools as part of distance education.
Students and parents have readily available access to see current events, activities,
homework, and assignments. I will continue to support distance education as a part of it
by getting online courses, teaching Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 tools to my students. In our
daily life most of the technology tools are already part of distance education and we get
benefit from them.
Distance learning is so important in 21st century. As we know most of the students
supposed to attend some dual credit classes if they want to get some college credit. And
they need to be complete high school at the same time. So as you said distance learning
is just alternative way to learn new lessons.


Cite at least 5 References in APA.

You may use for citing
your sources in APA style.


1. Porter, L.R. (1997) Creating the virtual classroom: distance learning with the
Internet. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Bisciglia, M. & E. MonkTurner (2002). Differences in attitudes between onsite
and distance site students in group teleconference courses. The American
Journal of Distance Education, 16 (1), 37-52.
3. Katz, Y.J. (1998). The relationship between distance learning methods and
satisfaction and achievement of college students. In G. Davies (Ed.), Tele
teaching '98: Distance Learning, Training, and Education (pp 569-578).
Austrian Computer Society (OCG), Vienna.
4. Peruniak, G. (1983). Interactive perspectives in distance education: a case study.
Distance Education 4 (1): 63-79.

Sounder, W.E. (1993). The effectiveness of traditional v. satellite delivery in three

management of technology masters degree programs. The American Journal of
Distance Education: 7, 37-52.
5. Inman, E., Kerwin, M. & L. Mayes (1999). Instructor and student attitudes toward
distance learning. Community College Journal of Research & Practice: 23 (6),