Está en la página 1de 8

Wing Chun

For other uses, see Wing Chun (disambiguation).

2 Philosophy

Wing Chun (Chinese: ; pinyin: yng chn;


Jyutping: wing6 ceon1 ; literally: spring chant),
also romanised as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun, (and
sometimes substituted with the characters "eternal
springtime"* [4]); is a concept-based Chinese martial art
and form of self-defense utilising both striking and grappling while specialising in close-range combat.

He who excels as a warrior does not appear formidable.


One who excels in ghting is never aroused in anger. One
who excels in defeating his enemy does not join issues.
One who excels in employing others humbles himself
before them. This is the virtue of non-contention and
matching the sublimity of heaven.* [9]

The alternative characters eternal springare also


associated with some other southern Chinese martial arts,
including Weng Chun Kung Fu and Yong Chun .* [5]* [6]

3 Characteristics
3.1 Balance, structure and stance

Some Wing Chun practitioners believe that the person


with better body structure will win. A correct Wing Chun
stance is like a piece of bamboo, rm but exible, rooted
but yielding. This structure is used to either deect external forces or redirect them.

History

Balance is related to structure because a well-balanced


body recovers more quickly from stalled attacks and
structure is maintained. Wing Chun trains the awareness of one's own body movement derived from muscular, tendon, and articular sources. Performing Wing
Chun's forms such as Chum Kiu or the Wooden Dummy
form greatly improve proprioception. Wing Chun favours
a high, narrow stance with the elbows kept close to the
body. Within the stance, arms are positioned across the
vitals of the centerline. Shifting or turning within a stance
is carried out variantly on the heels, balls, or middle (K1
or Kidney 1 point) of the foot depending on lineage. All
attacks and counter-attacks are initiated from this rm,
stable base. Wing Chun rarely compromises structure for
more powerful attacks because this is believed to create
defensive openings which may be exploited.

Main article: History of Wing Chun


The earliest known mentions of Wing Chun date to the
period of Red Boat Opera.
The common legend as told by Yip Man* [7] involves the
young woman Yim Wing-chun during the period after
the destruction by the Qing government of the Southern
Shaolin and its associated temples.
Having rebued the local warlord's marriage oer, Yim
Wing-Chun said she'd reconsider the proposal if he could
beat her in a ght. She soon crossed paths with a Buddhist
nun named Ng Mui, who was one of the Shaolin Sect survivors, and asked the nun to teach her to ght. According
to legend Ng Mui taught Yim Wing-Chun a new system
of martial art that had been inspired by the nun's observations of a confrontation between a Snake and a Crane.
This then-still nameless style enabled Yim Wing-Chun to
beat the warlord in a one-on-one ght. Yim Wing-Chun
thereafter married Leung Bac-Chou and taught him the
style, which was later named after her.

Structure is viewed as important, not only for reasons


of defense, but also for attack. When the practitioner
is eectively rooted, or aligned so as to be braced
against the ground, the force of the hit is believed to be far
more devastating. Additionally, the practice ofsettling
one's opponent to brace them more eectively against the
ground aids in delivering as much force as possible to
Since the system was developed during the Shaolin and them.* [10]* [11]
Ming resistance to the Qing Dynasty, many legends, including the story of Yim Wing-Chun, were spread regarding the creation of Wing Chun in order to confuse ene- 3.2 Relaxation
mies. This is often given as a reason to explain the diculty in accurately determining the creator or creators of Softness (via relaxation) and performing techniques in a
relaxed manner, is fundamental to Wing Chun.
Wing Chun.* [8]
1

3
Tension reduces punching speed and power. Muscles act in pairs in opposition to each other (e.g. biceps and triceps). If the arm is tensed, maximum
punching speed cannot be achieved as the biceps
will be opposing the extension of the arm. In Wing
Chun, the arm should be relaxed before beginning
the punching motion.
Unnecessary muscle tension wastes energy and
causes fatigue.
Tense, sti arms are less uid and sensitive during
trapping and chi sao.
A tense, sti limb provides an easy handle for an opponent to push or pull with, whereas a relaxed limb
provides an opponent less to work with.

CHARACTERISTICS

as compromising the striker's position. Striking closer to


the center transmits more force directly into the body.

3.4 Punches
Due to the emphasis on the center line, the straight punch
is the most common strike in Wing Chun. However, the
principle of simultaneous attack and defense (Lin Sil Die
Dar) suggests that all movements in the Siu Nim Tau with
a forward execution ow into a strike if no eective resistance is met, without need for recomposure. Other
explicit examples of punches can be found in the Chum
Kiu and Bil Jee forms, although these punches may appear to be supercially dierent they are simply the result
of the punch beginning from a dierent origin position
while following the same fundamental idea, to punch in
a straight line following the shortest distance between the
st and the opponent.

A relaxed, but focused, limb aords the ability to


feelholesor weaknesses in the opponent's structure (see Sensitivity section). With the correct forwarding these holesgrant a path into attacking The punch is the most basic and fundamental in Wing
Chun and is usually thrown with the elbow down and in
the opponent.
front of the body. Depending on the lineage, the st is
Muscular struggle reduces a ght to who is stronger. held anywhere from vertical to horizontal (palm side up).
Minimum brute strength in all movement becomes The contact points also vary from the top two knuckles,
an equalizer in uneven strength confrontations. This to the middle two knuckles, to the bottom three knuckles.
is very much in the spirit of the tale of Ng Mui.
In some lineages of Wing Chun, the st is swiveled at the
wrist on point of impact so that the bottom three knuckles
are thrust forward adding power to the punch while it is
3.3 Centerline
at maximum extension.
While the existence of a central axisconcept is unied in Wing Chun, the interpretation of the centerline
concept itself is not. Many variations exist, with some
lineages dening anywhere from a singlecenterlineto
multiple lines of interaction and denition. Traditionally
the centerline is considered to be the vertical axis from
the top of a human's head to the groin. The human body's
prime striking targets are considered to be on or near this
line, including eyes, nose, throat, solar plexus, stomach,
pelvis and groin.

The punches may be thrown in quick succession in a


straight blastor chain punching. When executed
correctly, it can be used as a disorienting nisher.
When executing the punch, one must relax and use the
shoulders. The punch comes from the body and not the
arm. Like most other punches in martial arts, Wing Chun
punches with the body.
Wing Chun is often criticized for encouraging weaker
punches that do not utilize the whole body. However,
as per the formal name of the punch in Chinese (
), which is translated as The Sun-character Rushing Punch(orHammerin Cantonese), a practitioner
typically would thrust their full body weight towards their
opponent with the st as thenailand their body as the
hammer. With each successive punch, the practitioner
would step in closer and closer to the opponent, driving
the sts forward as a hammer drives a nail.

Wing Chun techniques are generallyclosed, with the


limbs drawn in to protect the central area and also to
maintain balance. In most circumstances, the hands do
not move beyond the vertical circle that is described by
swinging the arms in front, with the hands crossed at the
wrists. To reach outside this area, footwork is used. A
large emphasis and time investment in training Chi Sao
exercise emphasizes positioning to dominate this centerline. The stance and guard all point at or through the cen- Wing Chun favors the vertical punch for several reasons:
ter to concentrate physical and mental intent of the entire
Directness. The punch is notloadedby pulling the
body to the one target.
elbow behind the body. The punch travels straight
Wing Chun practitioners attack within this central area to
towards the target from the guard position (hands
transmit force more eectively, since it targets thecore
are held in front of the chest).
center(or mother line, another center dened in
Protection. The elbow is kept low to cover the front
some lineages and referring to the vertical axis of the humidsection of the body. It is more dicult for an
man body where the center of gravity lies). For example,
opponent to execute an elbow lock/break when the
striking an opponent's shoulder will twist the body, diselbow occupies this position. This aids in generating
pelling some of the force and weakening the strike, as well

3.6

Uncommitted techniques

power by use of the entire body structure rather than


only the arm to strike. Also with the elbow down, it
oers less opening for the body to be attacked while
the forearm and punch intercept space towards the
head and upper body.

A roundhouse kick is performed striking with the shin in


a similar manner to the Muay Thai version with most of
the power coming from the body pivot. This kick is usually used as a nisher at closer range, targeting anywhere
between the ribs and the back of the knee, this kick can
also become a knee at close range. Other kicks include
Strength and Impact. Wing Chun practitioners be- a stamping kick (Mook Jong) for very close range and a
lieve that because the elbow is behind the st dur- sweep performed with the heel in a circular fashion.
ing the strike, it is thereby supported by the strength
Every kick is both an attack and defence, with legs beof the entire body rather than just a swinging st,
ing used to check incoming kicks or to take the initiative
and therefore has more impact. A common analin striking through before a more circular kick can land.
ogy is a baseball bat being swung at someone's head
Kicks are delivered in one movement directly from the
(a round-house punch), as opposed to the butt end
stance without chambering/cocking.
of the bat being thrust forward into the opponent's
face (wing chun punch), which would cause far more
damage than a glancing hit and is not as easy to
evade. Many skilled practitioners pride themselves 3.6 Uncommitted techniques
on being able to generate short poweror large
amount of power in a short space. A common Wing Chun techniques are uncommitted. This means that
demonstration of this is the "one-inch punch", a if the technique fails to connect, the practitioner's posipunch that starts only an inch away from the target tion or balance is less aected. If the attack fails, the
practitioner is able tooweasily into a follow-up attack.
yet delivers an explosive amount of force.
All Wing Chun techniques permit this. Any punches or
Alignment & Structure. Because of Wing Chun's kicks can be strung together to form a chainof atusage of stance, the vertical punch is thus more suit- tacks. According to Wing Chun theory, these attacks, in
able. The limb directly in front of the chest, elbow contrast to one big attack, break down the opponent graddown, vertical nature of the punch allows a practi- ually causing internal damage. Chained vertical punches
tioner to absorb the rebound of the punch by direct- are a common Wing Chun identier.
ing it through the elbows and into the stance. This is
a desirable trait to a Wing Chun practitioner because
it promotes use of the entire body structure to gen- 3.7 Trapping skills and sensitivity
erate power. Whereas, the rebound of a horizontal
punch uses only the arm to strike. In this elbow-out The Wing Chun practitioner develops reexes within the
position the hinge-structure directs force outwards searching of unsecured defenses through use of sensitivalong the limb producing torque in the puncher's ity. Training through Chi Sao with a training partner, one
body.
practices the trapping of hands. When an opponent is
trapped, he or she becomes immobile.

3.5

Kicks

Chinese philosophy:

Kicks can be explicitly found in the Chum Kiu and Mook


Greet what arrives, escort
Jong forms, though some have made interpretations of
what leaves and rush upon loss of
small leg movements in the Siu Nim Tau and Bil Jee to
contact()"
contain information on kicking as well. Depending on
- Yip Man
lineage, a beginner is often introduced to basic kicking
before learning the appropriate form. Traditionally, kicks
are kept below the waist. This is characteristic of southern Chinese martial arts, in contrast to northern systems 3.8 Close range
which utilize many high kicks.
Wing Chun teaches practitioners to advance quickly and
Kicks in Wing Chun are mostly directed at the lower half strike at close range. While the Wing Chun forward kick
of the body. Wing Chun kicks are designed to knock can be considered a long range technique, many Wing
an opponent o balance, break their leg, or to bring an Chun practitioners practiceentry techniquesgetting
opponent on their knees.
past an opponent's kicks and punches to bring them within
Variations on a front kick are performed striking with the range of Wing Chun's close range repertoire. This means
heel. The body may be square and the knee and foot that theoretically, if the correct techniques are applied, a
are vertical on contact (Chum Kiu), or a pivot may be shorter person with a shorter range can defeat a larger
involved with the foot and knee on a plane at an angle person by getting inside their range and attacking them
(Mook Jong). At short distances this can become a knee. close to their body.

4
4.1

Curriculum
Forms and san sik

Forms are meditative, solitary exercises which develop


self-awareness, balance, relaxation and sensitivity. Forms
also train the practitioner in the fundamental movement
and the correct force generation of Wing Chun.
San Sik (translated as Separate Forms) are compact in
structure. They can be loosely grouped into three broad
categories: 1) focus on building body structure through
basic punching, standing, turning, and stepping drills; 2)
fundamental arm cycles and changes, rmly ingraining
the cardinal tools for interception and adaptation; and 3)
sensitivity training and combination techniques.

CURRICULUM

4.1.4 Weapons
Once correct force generation in the open-handed forms
is achieved, the student is ready to progress to weapons.
With the open hand forms delivering force to the end of
the nger tips, the idea is to be able to extend that force
further to the end of a weapon as an extension of the body,
using the same principles. Also, these weapons forms
can be used as an exercise to strengthen the forearms and
wrists even further.
The Yuen Kay Shan / Sum Nung branch also historically
trained throwing darts (Biu). According to Sum Nung,
his skill with them was not comparable enough to Yuen
Kay Shan's for him to include them in the current curriculum.

It is from the forms and san sik that all Wing Chun techniques are derived. Depending on lineage, the focus, content and intent of each form can have distinct dierences
which can therefore have far reaching implications. This
also means that there are a few dierent ideas concerning
what constitutes progression in the curriculum from form 4.2 Chi Sao
to form, so only a general description of overlap between
dierent schools of thought is possible here.
Chi Sao (Chinese , Cantonese chi1 sau, Mandarin
What's commonly seen are six Wing Chun forms:* [12]
chshu) orsticking handsis a term for the principle and
three empty hand forms, one wooden dummyform,
drills used for the development of automatic reexes upon
and two weapons forms.
contact and the idea of stickingto the opponent (also
known assensitivity training). In reality, the intention
is not to stickto your opponent at all costs, but rather
to protect your centerline while simultaneously attacking
4.1.1 Empty hand
your opponent's centerline.* [20] In Wing Chun, this is
practiced by two practitioners maintaining contact with
4.1.2 Wooden dummy
each other's forearms while executing techniques, thereby
training each other to sense changes in body mechanics,
pressure, momentum and feel. The increased sensi4.1.3 Forms
tivity gained from this drill helps a practitioner attack and
Both the Way Yan (Weng Chun) and Nguyn T-Cng counter an opponent's movements precisely, quickly, and
with appropriate techniques.
branches use dierent curricula of empty hand forms.
The Tam Yeung and Fung Sang lineages both trace their Chi Sao additionally refers to methods of rolling hands
origins to Leung Jan's retirement to his native village of drills (Luk Sao). Luk Sao participants push and roll
their forearms against each other in a single circle while
Gu Lao, where he taught a curriculum of San Sik.
The Siu Lien Tao (Little First Training) of Cho Ga Wing trying to remain in relaxed form. The aim is to feel force,
Chun is one long form that includes movements that are test resistance, and nd defensive gaps. Other branches
comparative to a combination of Siu Nim Tao, Chum have a version of this practice where each arm rolls in
Kiu, and Biu Jee of other families. The other major forms small, separate circles. Luk Sao is most notably taught
of the style are Sui Da (Random Striking), Chui Da within the Pan Nam branch of Wing Chun where both
(Chase Striking), Fa Kuen (Variegated Fist), Jin the larger rolling drills as well as the smaller, separateJeung (Arrow Palm), Jin Kuen (Arrow Fist), hand circle drills are taught.
Joy Kuen (Drunken Fist), Sup Saam Sao (Thirteen Hands), and Chi Sao Lung (Sticking Hands Set
). Also, a few family styles of Wing-Chun (especially
those coming from theHong Sun Hay Ban Tong(Red
Boat/Junk Opera Society) have a combination advanced
form called;Saam Baai Fut(3 Bows to Buddha) which
includes many ow/leak techniques from all of the rst
'standard' 6 forms.

In some lineages (such as the Yip Man and Jiu Wan


branches), Chi Sao drills begin with one-armed sets
called Dan Chi Sao which help the novice student to get
the feel of the exercise; each practitioner uses one hand
from the same side as they face each other. Chi Sao is a
sensitivity drill to train and obtain specic responses and
should not be confused with actual sparring or ghting
though it can be practiced or expressed in a combat form.

4.3

Chi Gerk

Chi Gerk orSticking-legs,is the lower-body equivalent


of the upper body's Chi Sao training, aimed on developing
awareness in the lower body and obtaining relaxation of
the legs.

4.4

Mook Wan

Wooden Ring, is another, somewhat rare training-tool


in some families of Wing Chun. An approximately 10
inch to 14 inch ring made of bamboo or rattan (some
schools use a metal ring), the Mook Wan is used for training the wrists and forearms, and to instruct the student in
owfrom technique to technique. Some schools set up
a form for this technique, while other schools train techniques and strategies without a formulated pattern.

Southern martial art

Donnie Yen (Chinese: ) learned from Sifu


Ip Chun
Jackie Chan (Chinese: ) learned from Sifu
Leung Ting * [28]
Stephen Chow (Chinese: ) learned from Sifu
Wong Shun Leung * [29]* [30]
Nicholas Tse (Chinese: ) learned from
Phillip Ng * [31]
Ti Lung (Chinese: )
Yuen Biao (Chinese: )
Robert Downey Jr. learned from Sifu Eric Oram
*
[32]
Christian Bale learned from Sifu Eric Oram * [33]

8 Branches

Main article: Southern Chinese martial art

Main article: Branches of Wing Chun

Wing Chun, together with Hung Gar and Choi Lei Fut, is
named as one of The Three Great Martial Art Schools
of the South, which originated and became popular in
Southern China.

Direct Lineage of Wing Chun as passed down from ip


man to the UK - Grand Master Ip Man, Grand Master Ip
Chun, Grand Master Michael Tse, Master Darryl Moy,
Sifu Sean Mann

9 See also

Global spread

Wing Chun is practiced globally in over 64 countries.* [21] It is the world's most popular form of Southern
Kung Fu.* [22]

6.1

In popular culture

Donnie Yen has caused impact in the martial arts world


through his various lms. Donnie Yen played the role of
Wing Chun Grandmaster Ip Man in the 2008 movie Ip
Man, which was a box oce success; and its sequels Ip
Man 2 and Ip Man 3.* [23]

Famous practitioners
Bruce Lee (Chinese: ) learned from Sifu Yip
Man & Wong Shun Leung * [24]* [25]* [26]* [27]
Brandon Lee (American) trained in Wing Chun as
well as Jeet Kune Do, Muay Thai, & Shaolin KungFu.
Sammo Hung (Chinese: )
Michelle Yeoh (Chinese: )

Chinese martial arts


List of movies featuring Wing Chun
Wing Chun terms

10 References
[1] Complete Wing Chun: The Denitive Guide to Wing
Chun's History and Traditions Robert Chu, Ren
Ritchie, Y. Wu Google Books. Books.google.com
(1998-06-15). Retrieved on 2012-01-14.
[2] Complete Wing Chun: The Denitive Guide to Wing
Chun's History and Traditions Robert Chu, Ren
Ritchie, Y. Wu Google Books. Books.google.com
(1998-06-15). Retrieved on 2012-01-14.
[3] Wing Chun Kung Fu: Traditional Chinese King Fu for
Self-Defense and Health Ip Chun, Michael Tse Google
Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-14.
[4] in usage : Leung Ting, Roots and Branches of Wing
Tsun and Robert Chu, Rene Ritchie, Y. Wu, Complete
Wing Chun: The Denitive Guide to Wing Chun's History
and Traditions and Ritchie, Rene, What's in a name?"

[5] Weng Chun Kung Fu. Weng-chun.com. Retrieved


2013-02-10.
[6] Yong Chun White Crane Kung Fu. Yongchunbaihechuen.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[7] Translation of Ip Man's account of Wing Chun's History. Kwokwingchun.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[8] The Secret History of Wing Chun: The Truth Revealed,
By Benny Meng and Alfredo Delbrocco

11 SOURCES

[30] " ".


[31] " - ".
[32] ERIC ORAM THE SIFU BEHIND ROBERT
DOWNEY JR.S RETURN TO THE TOP.
[33] Famous People Who Study Wing Chun.

34. Wing Chun Gung Fu : The Explosive Art of Close


Range Combatby Randy Williams

[9]The Way of the Warrior. Howard Reid and Michael


Croucher. ISBN 0712600795
[10] Rediscovering the Roots of Wing Chun. Kung Fu
Magazine. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
[11] Integrative Wing Chun. Kung Fu Magazine. Retrieved
2010-02-06.
[12] Six Forms of Wing Chun. Wingchunlife.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[13] Michel Boulet. The Simple Basics of a Complex Art.
the Wing Chun Archive. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[14] Jim Fung (2009-02-23).
Wing Chun Stance.
Wingchun.com.au. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[15] Tsui Sheung Tin. The Hidden Power of Siu Nim Tau
. Tstvingtsun.bc.ca. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[16] martialarts2 Archived February 3, 2010 at the Wayback
Machine
[17] The Forms of Wing Chun Kuen Kung Fu | Reading
Academy Wing Chun & Kali. Teamwingchun.co.uk.
Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[18] Ving Tsun Martial Arts Studio Training. Tstvingtsun.bc.ca. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[19] City Wing Chun Training Notes Archived April 15,
2009 at the Wayback Machine
[20] Chi Sau: What's Behind Sticky Hand Training.
Wingchunlife.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[21] Orange County Wing Chun FAQ's. Ocwingchun.com.
2004-02-26. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[22] Kung Fu Magazine's Description of Wing Chun.
Ezine.kungfumagazine.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[23] 2008 Chinese Box Oce records. Boxocemojo.com.
Retrieved 2013-02-10.
[24] BRUCE LEE AND HIS FRIENDSHIP WITH WONG
SHUN LEUNG.
[25] Who Taught Bruce Lee?".
[26] Wong meet Bruce Lee.
[27] Wong Shun Leung The Logic Behind Wing Chun.
[28] Jackie Chan Wing Chun Practitioner.
[29] Sifu Li Heng Chang Ocial Website (Chinese:
)".

11 Sources
Chu, Robert; Ritchie, Rene; & Wu, Muthu Veeran
(india). (1998). Complete Wing Chun: The Denitive Guide to Wing Chun's History and Traditions.
Boston: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3141-6.
Leung Ting (1978). Wing Tsun Kuen. Hong Kong:
Leung's Publications. ISBN 962-7284-01-7.
Ritchie, Rene, Wing Chun Concepts.

12
12.1

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Wing Chun Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wing_Chun?oldid=695765450 Contributors: Tobias Hoevekamp, Mav, Bryan Derksen,
Kowloonese, Danny, Vaganyik, Olivier, Dominus, Liftarn, Gabbe, Sam Francis, Menchi, ZIM, Sannse, Frank Shearar, Miciah, Wintran,
Ellywa, HarmonicSphere, Angela, Ottawakungfu, Aarchiba, Habj, Jiang, Ghewgill, Tpbradbury, Cjrother, Fvw, Yuenkitmun, Sverdrup,
Academic Challenger, DHN, Cyrius, GreatWhiteNortherner, DocWatson42, Kim Bruning, Spencer195, Bradeos Graphon, Leonard G.,
Mboverload, Lucky 6.9, Utcursch, LiDaobing, Quadell, Aikibum, Huaiwei, MementoVivere, Richardsargent, Discospinster, Helohe, Randomuser0101, Dbachmann, Mani1, Aardark, Chalst, Kwamikagami, Spoon!, Bobo192, Stesmo, Cmdrjameson, (aeropagitica), HasharBot~enwiki, Me2hero, SineSwiper, Lightdarkness, Malo, Instantnood, HenryLi, Bookandcoee, Saxifrage, RyanGerbil10, Woohookitty,
TigerShark, Camw, Alanmak, Madchester, Pacobob, GregorB, Jksusi, Graham87, Magister Mathematicae, Ligulem, Hathawayc, Wragge,
Harcalion, Amccarri, Moroboshi, RockOfVictory, Kedadi, Lemuel Gulliver, Sherool, Design, Bgwhite, YurikBot, NTBot~enwiki, Shelper,
Pigman, Benekos, Chensiyuan, David Woodward, Gaius Cornelius, Wgungfu, Rsrikanth05, SEWilcoBot, Frostbyte, Medains, Publius314,
JFD, Frogular, Nate1481, Aaron Schulz, Furio~enwiki, Sekabin, Glenn Magus Harvey, CLW, Shawnc, Tarkovsky~enwiki, Fram, DarkCryst, PRehse, Dralithi, That Guy, From That Show!, JJL, SmackBot, WilliamThweatt, Bobet, Reedy, Lawrencekhoo, Dwanyewest,
Delldot, JoeMarce, Vugluskr, Ohnoitsjamie, Kaiwanxiao, Da Vynci, Tamfang, Graphik, Khackenbeck, Rpf, Cwidhelm, DaiBakLung,
Ohconfucius, ArglebargleIV, John, Euchiasmus, Autodidaktor~enwiki, BillFlis, Beetstra, JoeBot, WT guy, Igoldste, Coee Atoms, VNAF
Ace, Mellery, CmdrObot, Leopheard, Dycedarg, Megaboz, Harej bot, Asc85, Bluez4u2, Myasuda, Rudjek, Womble bee, Martialedge,
Beastmouth, Clovis Sangrail, Dblanchard, Ghostexorcist, Utheran, PamD, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Zickzack, DanielBne, RevolverOcelotX,
Missvain, Esemono, Chinmoku~enwiki, Aureliano, Nick Number, Matthew Proctor, Heroeswithmetaphors, Thadius856, AntiVandalBot,
BokicaK, Ngmuisi, Seaphoto, WingChunSifuARV, WWB, Krist Rea, JAnDbot, Issovia, Takunr3, Hewinsj, Aeontech, HSL, Photodude,
Magioladitis, JNW, Steven Walling, Catgut, IanBreen, Animum, Yunfeng, EagleFan, Mkdw, MitsuSC, .V., Jolenine, Claim1~enwiki,
Scottalter, MartinBot, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Gurokevin, Xargque, Philbeer, DarKnEs5 WaRr0r, Martialarm, Samurai1882, RaGnaRoK SepHr0tH, Tarotcards, Belovedfreak, Morinae, Pundit, Apocalyptic Destroyer, Tonytypoon, Wikieditor06, Je G., Guardian Tiger,
Rossen3, Vyvial, Jazzwick, Finerion, Ampers&Amper&, Lglvtkf, Kmhkmh, Billinghurst, Jason Leach, Cantonwingchun, Dazed But Not
Confused, Sevela.p, Master of the Orchalcos, Nettlehead, Arnold777, Splarn crixpen, 14p mkaef, Onessun, Ponyo, Mariachi50, SieBot,
Dragondreams, Jfjkdc, RJaguar3, Smsarmad, BakFuSifuARV, Maghypman, Happysailor, FrankNave, Janggeom, Ksfkay, ImageRemovalBot, PseudointelLexual, Cinco Terro, Martarius, ClueBot, GeoWingChun, Wingchun2, TheOldJacobite, Blanchardb, Tingsiuli, Mparsonteacher, Excirial, Topsaint, Sun Creator, Subdolous, Jonjames1986, DeltaQuad, LonerXL, Mikhailov Kusserow, Lau Kar-Yung, MelonBot,
Liberal Humanist, Koonleg50, DumZiBoT, Templarion, Black Knight takes White Queen, XLinkBot, Fastily, Gnowor, Drhouse17, Sifu
d, Addbot, JBsupreme, Consultfchun, Freakmighty, Simonm223, Arraes.daniel, GD 6041, Lim-yc, NotoriousSIG, Ming Dak Ka Mat,
OlEnglish, Vasi, Stevecook777, RaktaGauraKalevara, Luckas-bot, TaBOT-zerem, Kungfu05, Ilovecake2008, Bigtophat, Irnie, Carleas,
THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Wildmanfan, Aamb5512, Kaiser jkd, AnomieBOT, Redrebel108, Kachaitam, Piano non troppo, Materialscientist, A123a, Citation bot, Thamesbank, Engchunkun, Xqbot, The Banner, JimVC3, Capricorn42, Millahnna, LondonWingChun,
Laserai, Wiki bloodaxe, GrouchoBot, N419BH, Us441, Pecoc, Clam61, AdamWilliss, Gary Lee Stewart, Recognizance, Lancswingchun,
Elk949, Soangry, Staringispolite, KnowledgeAndVision, PierreLafond, Allanzhang10, I dream of horses, RedBot, MastiBot, Donkeydonkeydonkeydonkey, LightOfWisom, Kaplan Wing Chun, Yunshui, Vrenator, Dswong, ZhBot, Amir3dmax, Kungkang, Tbhotch, Reach Out
to the Truth, TheMesquito, TjBot, Pethol~enwiki, Regancy42, Juan De Lemos, DASHBot, EmausBot, RA0808, GoatGod, Wikipelli, Neofuzzy, Leptonoggin, Liquidmetalrob, Josve05a, Anir1uph, Veikk0.ma, Far7anR, WikiTuxedo, EWikist, SporkBot, LordJohn VII, Stevenprica, Donner60, Cforrester101, Damirgrati, DanAkins, Shaharris, ClueBot NG, Constantinosports, Peteryeung~enwiki, Eric Douglas
Statzer, Mohd. Toukir Hamid, Ronstar111, Helpful Pixie Bot, FrenchTime, BG19bot, LesnarMMA, Terrence528, Tarvindergill, Sara yeung, 1101agaoj, Webitnow, , Phil Winstanley, Cyberbot II, Yaolanrajesh, Khazar2, Daisijo, Rollinghands, Sketco, Makecat-bot,
SFK2, Graphium, Shinzo Asura, Kevin12xd, MisterShiney, Asura Shinzo, Blackbird65, , IndependenceOne, T949,
, Andrewsemail22, Toilethead101, Bigal22ofgrand1, Blackwell420, Birhanb, Yunchen Ma, Pagkration, Marnetmar, Lotannz, Luxure, Shane Romeo,
UkSifu, Ipjake, Lordink, Azgungfu, CesarAKG, Chinese Martial Arts, Tears And Treachery, Warriorhabits, DuContt, Jonczt, KasparBot,
Asif.islam.arsenal.373, User778326198, Marley Crowley and Anonymous: 764

12.2

Images

File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original


artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_People'{}s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_the_
People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/eng/n_flag/
design.html Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
File:Mu_ren_zhuang_(Chinese_martial_arts_training_dummy).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/
67/Mu_ren_zhuang_%28Chinese_martial_arts_training_dummy%29.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Own work; transferred from
en.wikipedia. Original artist: DarkCryst at en.wikipedia.
File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007
File:Shi_DeRu_and_Shi_DeYang.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9f/Shi_DeRu_and_Shi_DeYang.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
http://www.free-press-release.com/news-summer-camp-with-24-7-residence-kungfu-life-style-excellence-like-training-at-the-shaolin-temple-1335901927.
html Original artist:
Shi Deru (a.k.a. Shawn Xiangyang Liu)
File:Ting_pole.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8d/Ting_pole.jpg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

12

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Wing_Chun_Hybrid_Blade_Style_Butterfly_Swords.JPG Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/
Wing_Chun_Hybrid_Blade_Style_Butterfly_Swords.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Modell Design
LLC

12.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0