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HANDLING,

INSTALLATION
AND
MAINTENANCE OF
LIQUID
IMMERSED
POWER

SCOPE
SUGGESTED FOR LIQUID
IMMERSED
POWER TRANSFORMER
RATED 500 KVA TO 10 MVA
< 69 KV

CONTENTS
INSPECTION & RECEIPT
HANDLING
ASSEMBLY
STORAGE
TESTING
ENERGIZATION
MAINTENANCE

INSPECTION AND
RECEIPT

CHECK FOR EVIDENCE OF DAMAGE


OR LEAKS
INTERNAL PRESSURE
Positive or negative pressure indicates tank
did not leak
Zero gauge pressure should be investigated

DE-ENERGIZED TAP CHANGER


SHOULD BE OPERATED to ensure that it
is functional

INSPECTION AND
RECEIPT

TRANSFORMER SHOULD BE
THOROUGHLY INSPECTED FOR
NICKS, DENTS, SCRATCHES
Any damage to weather resistant
finishes should be repaired promptly

CHECK CORE-GROUND
INSULATION
(if facilities for measuring core grounds
is provided)

INSPECTION AND
RECEIPT

CHECK ALL ACCESSORIES to ensure


they are operating properly

Liquid level gage


Pressure relief vent
Thermometer
Winding Temperature Indicator (if
provided)

If supplied separately CHECK HV


BUSHING for damage or leaks

INSPECTION AND
RECEIPT

INTERNAL INSPECTION

If there is evidence of damage, notify


the manufacturer.

HANDLING
HANDLE TRANSFORMER in accordance
with manufacturers instruction,
normally in an upright position
FOR SMALLER transformers, bolt/attach
to pallet for easy handling using FORKLIFT TRUCK
LARGER UNITS will have LIFTING LUGS
Cable lifting pull angles should not exceed 30
deg from vertical, otherwise use spreaders

HANDLING
JACKING FACILITIES
Use jacks only under the jack pads
Use at least two jacks, raise
simultaneously and evenly to adjacent
corners

When using ROLLERS, use as many


as necessary to distribute the weight
evenly

ASSEMBLY
Since transformers in this size are
normally shipped fully assembled and
ready for service, there is little field
assembly required
Transformers should be mounted on
LEVEL PAD that is strong enough to
support the total weight involved
The Transformer should be SECURED to
the pad, especially in SEISMIC ZONE 2 or
greater.

ASSEMBLY
Follow MANUFACTURERS
INSTRUCTIONS in the installation of
protective fuses, switches, surge
arresters and other accessory
equipment

STORAGE
Transformers should be stored
UPRIGHT
Completely assembled with INSULATING
FLUID at PROPER LEVEL

Gas space pressurized at approx 2 PSI at


ambient temperature
Conduct PERIODIC INSPECTION to
ensure PRESSURE GAUGE does not
return to zero & PROPER LIQUID LEVEL
maintained at all times

TESTING
Transformer Turns Ratio (TTR)
Winding Resistance Test
Insulation resistance test
Oil DBV
Core to Ground Insulation (if
facilities for testing provided)

TESTING
Transformer Turns Ratio
Used to diagnose problem in the minor
insulation system ( winding turn-to-turn and
section-to-section)
Measured ratios compared to calculated ratios
from nameplate voltage should be within .5%

Winding Resistance Test


Used to check proper connections and
determine if an open circuit or high
resistance exists
Field test results should be within 5% of
factory values.

TESTING
INSULATION RESISTANCE
Used to measure condition of major insulation
system (between winding and ground or
between windings)
Minimum value for 1 minute resistance
measurement, in Mega Ohms:
R = CE/(KVA)0.5
C= 1.5 for oil immersed transformers at 20 deg C
E = volts, phase to phase for delta connection;
phase to neutral for wye connection
KVA = rated capacity of windings being tested. (3
phase capacity for three phase transformers)

TESTING
Example: 5000 KVA, 13,800 volts
R = 1.5 x 13800/(5000).5
= 293 Mega Ohms

TESTING
OIL DBV
Low dielectric strength indicates
contamination such as water, carbon
and/or other foreign matter

CORE TO GROUND INSULATION


Value for new unit should be 1000 mega
ohms

ENERGIZATION
Prior to energization, check
Transformer is properly grounded
De-energized tap changer is at desired
position

MAINTENANCE
INSULATING LIQUID TEST
Frequently for the first few weeks,
check for gas or moisture
Thorough test after 3 months and after
6 months
Subsequently at one-year interval

MAINTENANCE
ACTIONS BASED ON Total Dissolved Combustible Gas
(TDCG)
TDCG Levels
(ppm)

Condition 4

>4630

Condition 3

1921-4630

Condition 2

721-1920

Condition 1

< 720

TDCG Rates
(ppm/day)
>30
10-30
<10
>30
10-30
<10
>30
10-30
<10
>30
10-30
<10

Sampling
Interval

Daily
Daily
Weekly
Weekly
Weekly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Quarterly
Monthly
Quarterly
Annual

Operating Procedure

Consider removal from service


Advise Manufacturer
Exercise Extreme Caution
Analyze for individual gases
Plan outage
Advise Manufacturer
Exercise Caution
Analyze for Individual Gases
Determine Load Dependence
Normal Operation

MAINTENANCE

MAINTENANCE

MAINTENANCE

MAINTENANCE

MAINTENANCE
TEST AND METHOD
Dielectric Strength
ASTM D1816-97
KV minimum
1mm gap
2 mm gap
Power Factor
ASTM D924-92
25 C, % max
Interfacial Tension
ASTM D971-99
mN/m minimum
Neutralization Number (acidity)
ASTM D974-97
Mg KOH/g maximum
Water content
ASTM D1533-96
Ppm maximum

New Oil Prior to


Energization

Service-aged oil for


continued use

25
45

23
40

.05

.5

38

25

.015

.2

20

35

MAINTENANCE
EXTERNAL INSPECTION
Check BUSHINGS for
Excessive dust, corrosive gases, salt deposits

RADIATORS
Check for obstructions, corrosion

Ventilation
Check for trapped insects, dirt accumulation

Accessories and alarm devices


Check annually

MAINTENANCE
Ground Connection
Check annually for continuity

Pressure-Vacuum Gage
Check daily for the 1st week, quarterly
for the 1st year, then annually

Liquid level (main tank and bushings)


check daily for the first week, quarterly
for the 1st year, then annually.

END OF PRESENTATION