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Position Paper

Country: Italy
Committee: UNICEF
Delegate: Elizabeth Aispuro Samaniego
First Section: Introduction
Children are vulnerable, and more likely to risk themselves to diseases and malnutrition and physical injury. They also need
adult support for psychological and social well being. Refugee children face more dangers than the average child by being
separated from their families which affects the child's physical and psychological well being. Children end up in refugee camps
because of natural disasters and conflicts that force children and their families from their homes. Which leaves the child orphan
because in these situations one or both parents of the child end up being killed. When the child with their parents survive these
disasters they end up in refugee camps. Often, the refugee camps are overflowed, and overflowing camps cause rape and sexual
abuse within the refugees mostly harming children and women. If the mother is the head of the family and she is unable to
protect her children from the abuse, she marries off the daughter to prevent her from being less likely to be bait to other male
refugees.
Second Section: National Actions
In autumn 2013, Italy launched the Mare Nostrum operation that saved more than 100,000 refugees in 2013-2014. But stopped
because of expenses that Italy couldnt afford. Later on this operation was replaced by European Triton which was more secure
and was launched by the EU. 13 thousand unaccompanied minors have reached Italy just this year, 5,110 untraceable children
among them. In 2015, 153,842 arrivals of refugees occurred by sea, and as of January 1, 2016, there has been 27,267 arrivals of
refugees by sea in Italy. Most of these children in their teens and some as young as nine years old. In the company children are
the greatest risk from people traffickers, some are forced into manual labor, domestic work, drug smuggling, and prostitution
British charity Save the Children. When Children are making the tretorous journey to cross mediterranean sea to their
destinations in Europe, they are exposed to harsh situations. Italy hasnt found the solution that is fit for this issue. But, when
the children do arrive in Italy, they are placed in centers for migrant children. These centers are cramped and Italy hasnt found
the solution to resolve this. Because the centers are cramped the children often go missing and when they escape the centers
they fall into the hand of criminals. . On the other hand, Save the Children southern borders of Italy since 2008, addressing the
needs of children from across the Mediterranean Sea. Their compounds are child friendly to play, talk with staff about stress
etc. They are currently intensifying activities at government processing sites. As for the rape and sexual abuse in refugee camps
amongst children, there has been no official report of these incidents in Italy.
Third Section: UN Actions:
In 2005, the security council enacted resolution 1612, which established monitoring and reporting mechanism. MRM seeks to
gain reliable information, and put a stop to the six grave children's rights violations such as killing or maiming a child, using
children by armed forces, attacks on schools or hospitals, rape or sexual abuse in children. Abduction of children, and denial of
humanitarianism to children, MRM is led by UNICEF. War and civil strife have left an estimated 1 million children orphaned
or separated from their parents.12 million children have been made homeless and 10 million have been severely traumatized.
UNICEF has supplied children with food, safe water, medicine and shelter. UNICEF wants to develop education in refugee
camps for children. Special programmes assist traumatized children and help unaccompanied children to reunite with parents or
extended families. In 2016, UNICEF hopes to vaccinate 15.4 million Syrian refugee children, enroll 854,000 in formal
education, and provide child protection to 548,000 to Syrian children refugees in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq.
UNHCR has been concerned about the protection and safety for women and children they want to provide adequate and safe
reception facilities. UNHCR and partners are working to find alternatives for the detention of children. They are also working
on ensuring the safety of women and children in safe spaces, and enhance the recognition of of people that have special needs
including unaccompanied children so they can be served with the help they need.
Fourth Section: Recommendation for Action (Resolution Ideas):
Building more refugee centers with the help of countries who are taking in refugees would prevent the likeliness of sexual
abuse and rape in refugee camps against children. In the already existing camps that are overcrowded and at night there is very
little supervision of refugees also increases the chances of sexual violence amongst them. Tightening the security day and night

would be a perfect solution that would decrease these issues. To solve the issues of orphaned children refugees there needs to
be a different facility built especially for children to meet there needs to develop adequately. The children need to find homes
that they need to be safe in, by making this happen the right solution for this is to first trace down any members of the childs
family, if they are not safe with them the other alternative is to have children be adopted to their best interest.
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