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Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar

Department of Electrical Engineering

EE 402 Control System Lab.

EXPERIMENT 6: Process Measurements - Temperature

AIM
Temperature measurement plays a major role in control of industrial processes. The
important sensors that are used to measure the temperature are thermocouple,
RTD, Thermistor.
The primary aim of this experiment is to study and plot the characteristics of these
sensors with their signal conditioning and amplifiers circuits, understand their
application and learn to use them as process measurement devices in control
applications.
THERMOCOUPLE SENSORS
THEORY
The thermocouple is one of the simplest and most commonly used methods of
measuring process temperatures. The operation of a thermocouple is based upon
Seebeck effect which states that when heat is applied to junction (hot junction) of
two dissimilar metals, an emf is generated which can be measured at the other
junction (cold junction). The two dissimilar metals form an electric circuit, and
current flows as a result of the generated emf as shown in Fig. I

T1>T2
The emf produced is function of the difference in temperature of hot and cold
junctions and is given by:
E=

Where

REFERENCE JUNCTION COMPENSATION

A factor which is important in the use of thermocouple is the requirement of a
known reference temperature of the reference junction. This is because when the
reference junction is not held at OC, the observed value must be corrected by
adding to it a voltage that has resulted from a temperature difference equal to the
amount by which the reference junction is above OC. (This is because the
thermocouples are calibrated with temperature of reference junction as OC). Now
ET= Et + Eo where E T is the total emf at temperature T, Et is the emf on account of
temperature difference between detecting (hot) and the reference junction and Eo is
the emf due to temperature of the reference junction being above OC. Since, there
exists a non-linear relationship between the emf and the temperature, it is
important that temperatures are determined by the above process rather than
converting an emf to temperature and then adding it to ambient temperature.

i.

1. Thermocouples are cheaper than the resistance thermometers.

2. Thermocouples follow the temperature changes with a small time lag and as
such are suitable for recording comparatively rapid changes in temperature.
3. Thermocouples are very convenient for measuring the temperature at one
particular point in a piece of apparatus.

ii.

1. They have a lower accuracy and hence they cannot be used for precision
work.
2. To ensure long life on the thermocouple in their operating environments, they
should be protected in an open or closed end metal protecting tube. To
prevent contamination of the thermocouple, when precious metals like
platinum or its alloys are being used, the protecting tube has to be made
chemically inert and vacuum tight.
3. The thermocouple is placed remote from measuring devices. Connections are
thus made by means of wires called extension wires. Maximum accuracy of
measurement is assured only when compensating wires are of the same
materials as the thermocouple wires are used. The circuitry is, thus, very
complex.

THERMOCOUPLE CHARACTERISTICS TRAINER

FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
1. ITB - 05CE Unit

Working Temperature - 15C - 50C

Accuracy - 1.5% of Full scale division.
Linearity - 1875% of Full scale division.
Size - 370 280 90m
Cabinet - Mild Steel

2. Thermocouple

Type - J type
Material - Iron constantan
Tube Diameter - 6mm
Working Temperature - -200 to 760C
Tube Length - 120mm
Thermowell material - Stainless steel
Coating - Nickel, Chromium

AIM

PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Patch the two terminals of the thermocouple across T1 & T2.

Position the switch SW1' towards downwards.
Switch ON the unit and note the displayed temperature.
If there is any difference in displayed temperature at room temperature,
adjust the offset knob Zero to set 0C in display.
5. Insert the thermocouple and thermometer into the water bath.
6. Place the multimeter across T7 & T8
7. Position the switch SW1' towards the NC
8. Switch ON the water bath.
9. Note the actual temperature in thermometer, voltage in multimeter and
displayed temperature simultaneously.
10.Tabulate the reading and calculate %Error using the above formula.
Plot the graph for
i.
ii.

Actual Temperature Vs % Error.

Actual Temperature Vs signal conditioner output.

Tabular Column

%E =
MODEL GRAPH

Displayed Temperature Actual Temperature

X 10
Actual Temperature

TEMPERATURE Vs SIGNAL CONDITIONER OUTPUT VOLTAGE

RESULT
Thus the characteristics of thermocouple with compensation were studied and
graph is plotted.

THERMISTORS
THEORY
Thermistor is a contraction of a term "thermal resistors". Thermistors are generally
composed of semi-conductor materials. Although positive temperature co-efficient
of units (which exhibit an increase in the value of resistance with increase in
temperature) are available, most thermistors have a negative coefficient of
temperature resistance, i.e., their resistance decreases with increase in
temperature.
The negative temperature coefficient of resistance can be as large as several
percent per degree Celsius. This allows the thermistor circuit to detect very small
change in temperature which could not be observed with a RTD or a thermocouple.
In some cases the resistance of thermistor at room temperature may decrease as
much as 5 percent for each 1C rise in temperature. This high sensitivity of
temperature change makes thermistor extremely useful for precision temperature
measurements control and compensation. Thermistors are widely used in
applications which involve measurements in the range of -60C to 150C. The
resistance of thermistors ranges from
0.5 to 0.75 M. Thermistor is a highly
sensitive device. The price to be paid for the high sensitivity is in terms of linearity.
The thermistor exhibits high non-linear characteristic of resistance versus
temperature.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
Thermistor
Type - NTC
Probe Material - S.S
Diameter - 10mm
Lead Pitch - 5mm
Bead colour - Blue
Resistance at 25C - 5k
Temperature Range - -80C to 150 C
Tolerance (0 - 70C) - 0.2C
Dissipation constants - 1mw
Time constants
- 10s
TRAINER
FOR
THERMISTOR

RESISTANCE-TEMPERATURE

CHARACTERISTICS

Power ON/OFF
T1 & T2
SW

: Switch ON / OFF the unit.

: Provision to connect the thermistor terminals.
: Select either Resistance mode or Voltage mode.

OF

T3 & T4
Zero
mode
T5
GND
Seven segment display

: Measure the resistance value of thermistor.

: Adjust this potentiometer to set 5 Volt at 30 C in EXT
: Measure the signal conditioner output voltage.
: Common GND terminal
: For displaying the output voltage.

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The thermistor which senses the temperature from the water bath as resistance
This circuit consists of three amplifiers, two gain amplifiers and one inverting
amplifier. The thermistor is connected at the feedback of the first gain-amplifier
which gives constant voltage at initial stage. During the time of heating the
thermistor, the resistance of thermistor will be reduced. It converts the resistance
into millivolts. The output obtained from non inverting amplifier voltage is given as
input to the signal conditioner for further amplification where the output is tuned
with the range of -5 to -0 V using the trimpot TP1 Zero and TP2 gain. This output is

applied to inverting amplifier to convert the negative input into positive output of
range (0-5) VDC. This signal conditioner voltage can be displayed in the display
(voltage).
EXPERIMENT
THERMISTOR

RESISTANCE-TEMPERATURE

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

AIM
To study the Temperature Vs Resistance and Temperature Vs Voltage characteristics
of thermistor.
PROCEDURE : Temperature Vs Resistance
Interface the thermistor across T1 and T2 & switch ON the unit.
For resistance measurement, SW should be in resistance mode.
Connect the multimeter (in resistance mode) across T3 & T4.
Insert the thermometer and thermistor into the water bath.
Switch ON the water bath.
Note down the temperature in thermometer and corresponding
resistance output of the thermistor.
Plot the graph between temperature and resistance along X and Y axis
respectively.
PROCEDURE

: Temperature Vs Voltage

PROCEDURE
Interface the thermistor across T1 and T2 & switch ON the unit.
Switch SW is in INT mode.
Connect the multimeter (in DC -Volt mode) across T5 & T6.
The Zero POT is adjusted to 5V because thermistor is NTC type
Before conducting the experiment, SW should be in INT mode.
Insert the thermometer and thermistor into the water bath.
Switch ON the water bath.
Now note down the temperature of the thermometer and
corresponding voltage output.
Plot the graph between temperature and voltage along X and Y axis

respectively.

TABULATIONS(temperature Vs Resistance)

MODEL GRAPH

TABULATION ( Temperature vs Voltage)

MODEL GRAPH

RESULT
Thus the Temperature Vs Resistance and Voltage characteristics of thermistor was
studied and the graph has been plotted.
[NOTE]
The type of thermistor sensor is NTC, so the output will be in reverse condition.
i.e.
30C
- 5V
100C
- 0V

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS

THEORY
Resistance Temperature Detectors or RTDs for short, are wire wound and thin film
devices that measure temperature because of the physical principle of the positive
temperature coefficient of electrical resistance of metals. The hotter they become,

the larger their resistance. They, in the case of Platinum known variously as PRTs
and PRT100s, are the most popular RTD type, nearly linear over a wide range of
temperatures and some small enough to have response times of a fraction of a
second. They are among the most precise temperature sensors available with
resolution and measurement uncertainties or 0.1 C or better possible in special
designs. Usually they are provided encapsulated in probes for temperature sensing
and measurement with an external indicator, controller or transmitter, or enclosed
inside other devices where they measure temperature as a part of the device's
function, such as a temperature controller or precision thermostat. The advantages
of RTDs include stable output for long period of time, ease of recalibration and
accurate readings over relatively narrow temperature spans. They are active
devices requiring an electrical current to produce a voltage drop across the sensor
that can be then measured by a calibrated read-out device.
The requirements of a conductor material to be used in RTDs are:
1. The change in resistance of material per unit change in temperature should be as
large as possible.
2. The material should have a high value of resistivity so that minimum volume of
material is used for the construction of RTD.
3. The resistance of materials should have a continuous and stable relationship with
temperature.
The most common RTDs are made of either platinum nickel or nickel allows. The
economical nickel wires are used over a limited temperature range. They are quite
non-linear and tend to drift with time. For measurement integrity, platinum is the
obvious choice.
Before an RTD can be used for measurement or control, this change in resistance
must be converted to a change in voltage or current. The electrical power dissipated
in the RTD for this conversion must be strictly limited to avoid errors due to I2R
heating of the sensor. Typically 10mW dissipation will cause the temperature rise of
0.3C, which implies low values current (less than 10mA) and voltage (below 1V).
The commonest circuits, however are based on Wheatstone bridge of Figure-4. If the
measuring circuit has high impedance (so that it does not load the bridge), simple
circuit analysis shows that:

The Figure above shows the non-linear output from the bridge is processed by a
suitable linearising circuit to give an output voltage which is linearly related to the
temperature. The linearising can be performed by an op-amp circuit .
EXPERIMENT
AIM
To study the characteristics of temperature Vs Resistance and temperature Vs
voltage and the accuracy of the signal conditioning circuits

PROCEDURE - TEMPERATURE VS RESISTANCE

1. Patch the wires of RTD to the T1 and T2 terminals of the RTD input block and
switch ON the unit.
2. Place the RTD and thermometer into the holes provides in the water bath.

3. Keep the switch SW1 in right direction.

4. Place the multimeter in the resistance mode across T3 and T4 terminals.
5. Heat the water bath and note the temperature in thermometer and
corresponding resistance value in multimeter.
6. Repeat step 5 for different values of temperature and tabulate the readings.
7. Plot the temperature Vs resistance graph.
This gives the characteristic curve of the RTD. Refer to the model graph.

1. TABULAR COLUMN

PROCEDURE - TEMPERATURE VS VOLTAGE

2.
3.
4.
5.

Patch the wires of RTD to the T1 and T2 terminals of the RTD input block.
Switch ON the ITB -006CE Unit.
Keep the switch in left direction and switch SW2 in external mode.
Now adjust the Zero Potentiometer to read 0C at the display. This is
done for initial setup of the unit and this adjustment should be left
undisturbed.
6. Insert the RTD into the water bath and note the temperature without any
heating at ambient condition.
7. Keep the switch SW1 in left direction and switch SW2 in internal mode.

8. Place the multimeter in voltage mode across the T6 and T7 terminals.

9. Now, gradually start heating the water bath and note down the actual
temperature, output voltage of the unit and the displayed temperature
simultaneously.
10.Repeat step 8 for different values of temperatures and tabulate the
11.Plot the graph for Temperature Vs Voltage.
12.Calculate the % error and plot the graph for Temperature Vs %Error
The first graph measures the linearity of the signal conditioning unit and the second
graph measures the accuracy.

13. TABULAR COLUMN

MODEL GRAPH
1. The graph between temperature and voltage are drawn.
2. The graph between temperature and % Error are drawn

RESULT
Thus the study of Temperature Vs Voltage and the accuracy of signal conditioning
board was
studied and the graph is drawn