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5.

Bernoullis Equation

The Energy Balance for a Steady Incompressible Flow


Assumptions:

Steady state

Incompressible flow (density = constant)


From mass balance, we have
dmin dmout dm
The energy balance gives

p
v2

0 u gz

p
v2

dm u gz

in

dm Q Wn .f .
out

Dividing by dm yields
p
v2
Wn .f .
Q

gz
u

2
dm
dm

in which
(out ) (in)

The Friction Heating Term


The friction heating term per unit mass is defined as
Q

F u

dm

Substituting for F gives Bernoullis equation (also called the mechanical energy
balance)
p
Wn .f .
v2

gz
F

2
dm

For incompressible flow, the internal energy can only change through friction
heating or external heating or cooling.

The Head Form


Dividing by g yields

p
v2
1 Wn .f . F

z

2g
g dm
g
g

Terminology: Pressure head, gravity head, velocity head, pump or turbine head,
and friction head loss
Diffusers and Sudden Expansions
In diffusers, there is gradual expansion.

The case of sudden expansion is shown in Fig. 5.5.


Fdiff . Fsudden exp.

Bernoullis equation gives


p v2
F

From mass balance, we have


v 2 v1

A1
A2

Substituting into Bernoullis equation yields


p 2 p1

2
A
v 12
1 1 F
2
A 2

2
A
v 12
1 1 = change in the kinetic energy per unit volume
2
A 2

1
For a sudden expansion in a tank: A 0
2

p 2 p1

v12
F
2

The flow is stopped by eddies.


Kinetic energy loss is converted to :

friction heating,

and increase in pressure.


Bernoullis Equation for Gases
It is practically correct for low-velocity gas flows
Torricellis Equation

If v1 0
v2 2 g h

To relax the approximation v1 0 , we use


v1 v 2

A2
A1

Prove its validity.

Bernoullis Equation for Fluid Flow Measurement


Equations are based on the frictionless form of Bernoullis equation (F=0).
Friction effects are taken into account by introducing empirical coefficients.

Pitot Tube for Open Channel


Point 2 is a stagnation point.
In the Pitot tube, the fluid is static.

F is negligible (less than 1%).


v1 2 g h 1

Pitot Static Tube

Neglecting F, we have
v1 2

Pitot tubes are used to measure local velocities.


To measure flow rates, the venturi meter and orifice meter are used.

Venturi Meter

Volumetric flow rate = v 2 A 2


From mass balance:
v1 v 2

A2
A1

Frictionless form of Bernoullis equation ( C v =1):

v2 Cv

2 p1 p 2

A
1 2

A1

in which C v is the discharge coefficient, taking into account friction effects and the
fact that flow is not uniform across any section.
C v can be estimated knowing the value of Reynolds number (Fig. 5.11):
Re1

v 1 D1

The solution procedure is a trial-and-error one.


Inclined Venturi Meter

The venturi meter causes little pressure loss but it is expensive. It is used for large

volumetric flow rates.


p 1 p 2 1 g z 1 z 2 2 1 g z 3 z 4

Orifice Meter
It is simpler than the Venturi meter, but causes more pressure drop. It is used for
small-size lines.

v2 Cv

2 p1 p 2

A
1 2

A1

C v can be estimated knowing the values of the ratio D 2 / D1 and Reynolds number

(Fig. 5.14): Re 2

v2 D2

Rotameters
Volumetric flow rate = v 2 A 2 ( z)
Approximations:

F is neglected.

p1 and p 3 are assumed uniform.

p2 p3

Result (see derivation in your textbook and in the momentum balance chapter):
F
v 2 B
F

1/ 2

Rotameters are treated as calibrated devices: using a calibration curve, the flow rate is
obtained knowing the float position reading.

Negative Absolute Pressures, Cavitation


Gases
p < 0 has no physical meaning. Velocities are too high in this case.
Liquids
p < 0 : flow is unreal physically in this case. There is two-phase flow with higher F
and lower Q.
Example 5.12
As z increases, p decreases, which can cause boiling if p becomes less than the vapor
pressure.
Example 5.13
As v increases, p decreases, which can cause boiling if p becomes less than the vapor
pressure.
Bubble flows can cause damage in pumps, turbines, and ships propellers.
This phenomenon of local boiling is called cavitation.
Unsteady Flows
Bernoullis equation can be applied if
v
max

g
x , y ,z

or

1 dp
if acceleration is due to pressure.
dL

Bernoullis equation can not be applied if the flow is suddenly opened or suddenly

stopped (

v
(large in fact)).
t

Example 5.14
Torricellis equation:
v2 2 g h

Mass balance:

A1

dh
A 2 2 g h
dt

2 h 11 / 2 h 12/ 2

A 2 / A1

2g

In Example 5.14, max

A
v
A
g 2 g for 2 1 (requirement for small v1 and
A1
t
A1

the quasi-steady-state approximation)


Non Uniform Flows
Example: flow over a weir
In this flow, we can not assume the velocity to be practically uniform.
Bernouillis equation:

v 2 g h v12

Q W

h1

2g h v 12 dh

QW 2g

h13/ 2
3/ 2

The actual flow rate is less than the theoretical one:


Q act 0.67 Q theor

Reasons:
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