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INGLS A1-A2

20122013
NEW MACEGOLD
&
CARPE VITAE
CARLOS TOMS MARTNEZ

ndice New Macegold


Pronombres Personales_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Artculos A, An, The_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To be_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Saludos, despedidas, introducciones_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Abreviaturas_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
This&That_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To have&To do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Present simple_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Adjetivos posesivos _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Franjas horarias, numeros, notas tiles_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Present simple negative - interrgative_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Present Continuous_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Past simple_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Pas simple negative - interrogative_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Orden de adjetivos_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Preposiciones_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Interrogative words_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Past continous_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Contables e incontables_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Plurales irregulares _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
There is&There are_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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ndice Carpe Vitae


Personal pronouns, Possessives, To be, Articles_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To be negative - interrogative_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
This/These, That/Those, Here/There, There is/There are_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Modal verbs_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
To have_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Cuantitivos_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Genitivo Sajn_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Hours_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Prepositions _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Object Pronouns_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Past simple_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
So do I, Neither do I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Adjectives_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Link Words_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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Vocabulario_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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CURSO INTRODUCCIN NEW MACEGOLD


16/02/2012

A ei B bi

C si

D di

Ei

F ef

G gi

J jei K kei L el

M em N en O ou P pi

S es T ti

V vi

U iu

W dubliu

H eich I ai
Q kiu

X ecs Y ui

R ar
Z sed

Pronombres Personales
I yo
You tu
He/She l/ella
It neutro
We nosotros/as
You vosotros/as
They ellos/as

Artculos A, An, The


A Si la palabra empieza por consonante.
An Si empieza por vocal, salvo U o EU.
(Ambos son artculos indefinidos)
The Artculo definido.

Verbo To Be
I am, You are, He is, She is, It is, We are, You are, They are.
I am a teacher.
You are an employer.
He is a police officer.
She is an office worker.
It is a pen/ It is the pen (Refirindose a un boli cualquiera o a uno en concreto)
We are people/ the people (Gente en general, o unas personas en concreto)
You are students.
They are secretaries.

20/02/2012

Greetings (Saludos)
Good Morning - Buenos Dias.
Good Afternoon- Para despus del medio da.
Good Evening A partir de las 5 o las 6.
Nice to see you again - Me allegro de volver a verte.

Saludos Informales
How you doing/How are you doing?
Whats going on?
Whats happening?
Whats up?
Whats new?

Introductions
-Hello, how are you?
-I am well/fine/o.k., thank you/thanks. And you?
-I am ok too.
Otras respuestas ms informales podran ser Not Bad, Not too bad, so so (as as), se
usan cuando yo se tiene confianza con el interlocutor. Una situacin ms formal
podra ser asi:
-How do you do? (Podra traducirse Cmo esta usted?)
-How do you do? (Se responde con la misma pregunta)
-My name is Benny.
-Nice to meet you.
-Nice to meet you too (forma corriente)/ Please to meet you (formal)
-What is your name?
-My name is

Despedidas
Good bye/ Bye Bye/ Bye.
See you later/tomorrow.
Good Night Buenas noches, solo se usa para despedidas.

Despedidas Informales
Take care Cuidate
Take it easy Podra traducirse como que vaya bien
Cheers (BE)- Tambin se usa para brindar y para decir gracias.

Abreviaturas en lenguaje coloquial


I am im
You are youre
He Is hes
She is shes
It is its
We are - were
You are youre
They are there
Para preguntar se invierte: Am i? Are you? Is He?

Abrevituras en Negativo
I am not/ im not
You are not/ you arent
He/she/it is not he/she/it isnt
We/you/they are not we/you/they arent

Abrevituras en Interrogativo
Whats my name? your name? his name? her name? its name? our name? your name?
their name?
Mr-seor, Mrs-seora casada, Mss-seorita, Ms-seora no se sabe si casada o no
-How old are you?/ is he/she?
-Iam 23 years old/ Im 23
Es importante recordar que los aos se son no se tienen.
21/02/2012

This/That
This Se utiliza para sealar algo cercano. Su forma plural es these.
That Se utiliza para sealar algo alejado, su plural es those.
What is this? -> Whats this?
What is that? -> Whats that?
What are these?/ What are those?
Para sealar a personas se utiliza who:
Who is that?/ Who is this? (Quien es ese? se ha de tener en cuenta que en ingls no
tiene matiz despectivo)
4

Tambin pude usarse con el pronombre personal, Who is he/she?


Si te preguntan por algo que esta cerca del interlocutor pero lejos de ti se adapta:
-What is this?
-This is a Blackboard
23/02/2012

To Have (Tener/tomar) To Do (verbo auxiliar/hacer)


I have a car
You Have a pen
He has a house
She has a book
It has a bone
We have a class
You have a teacher
They have a telephone
El verbo to do se utiliza como verbo auxiliar para formar frases negativas e
interrogativas.
I Do/ dont (Do not, esta forma complete se usa para negar con nfasis)
You do/dont
He does/doesnt (Do not)
She does/ doesnt
It does/ doesnt
We do/dont
You do/dont
They do/dont
I dont have an apple
-Do you have a car?
-Yes I do/ No I dont (Se utiliza el to do para la respuesta, no el verbo principal)
- Does she have a car?
-Yes she does/ No she doesnt
-What do you do? (A qu te dedicas?
-What does she do?
- I dont know (no lo se)
Do I have a date? Does he have a table? Does it have a name? Do whe have a clock?
Do you have a pencil? Do they have a radio?

27/02/2012

Verbos en present simple


Se debe tener en cuenta que la tercera personal del singular (he/she/it) cambia la
forma del verbo. Como se ha visto en la seccin anterior para la forma interrogativa de
la tercera persona del singular no se altera, pero lo har en su lugar el verbo auxiliar
do.

To Arrive
I arrive
You arrive
He/She/ It arrives
We arrive
You arrive
They arrive
-Do i arrive? -Yes i do/No I dont
-Do you arrive? Yes you do/ No you dont
-Does he/she/it arrive? Yes he does/ No he doesnt
-Do we arrive? Yes we do/No we dont
-Do you arrive? Yes you do/ No you dont
-Do they arrive? Yes they do/ No they dont

To Begin
I begin
You begin
He/She/ It begins
We begin
You begin
They begin

To Drink
I drink
You drink
He/She/ It drinks
We drink
You drink
They drink

To Come (Venir)
I come
You come
He/She/ It comes
We come
You come
They come

To Eat
I eat
You eat
He/She/ It eats
We eat
You eat
They eat

To Leave (Dejar)
I /You leave
He/She/ It leaves
We/You/They leave

To Like
I /You like
He/She/ It likes
We/You/They like

To Live
I /You live
He/She/ It lives
We/You/They live

To Practice
I /You practice
He/She/ It practices
We/You/They practice

To Pronounce
I /You pronounce
He/She/ It pronounces
We/You/They pronounce

To Speak
I /You speak
He/She/ It speaks
We/You/They speak
(Se usa para referirse a hablar un idioma, o a hablar a un grupo de gente, como dar
una conferencia)

To Talk
I /You talk
He/She/ It talks
We/You/They talk

To Discuss (Discutir, debatir)


I /You discuss
He/She/ It discusses
We/You/They discuss

To Argue
I /You argue
He/She/ It argues
We/You/They argue
Tener una discursion to have an argument.
No me gusta tener una discursion i dont like to have an argument.
No me gusta discutir- i dont like to argue.
To teach: teach, teaches. To undersantd (entender): understand, understands.
To work: Work, works. To read: read, reads. To write: write, writes.
To run: Run, runs. To send: send, sends. To play: play, plays.
To want: want, wants. To search: Search, sarchs. To go: go, goes.
To learn: learn, learns. To listen (escuchar): listen, listens. To hear (oir): hear, hears.
To open: open, opens. To close: close, closes. To walk: walk, walks.
To type (teclear): type, types. To wash (lavar): wash, washes. To catch: catch, catches.
To watch (mirar fijamente, observar): Watch, watches. To know: Know, Knows.
To need: need, needs. To Try (probar, intentar): Try, tries.
To taste (probar): Taste, tastes.

28/02/2012

Possessives
My Mio
Your Tuyo
His/Her Suyo
Its Suyo neutro
Our nuestro
Your vuestro
Their de ellos

Franjas horarias
In the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening.
At Noon/Midday (AE-BE) (Medio dia), At night, At Midnight

Numbers
0 zero/oh (00=double oh) 1 One, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five, 6 six, 7 seven, 8 eight, 9
nine, 10 ten.
11 eleven, 12 twelve, 13 thirteen, 14 fourteen, 15 fifteen, 16 sixteen, 17 seventeen, 18
eigteen, 19 nineteen, 20 twenty. (21 twenty one, 22 twenty two, etc)
30 thirty, 40 forty, 50 fifty, 60 sixty, 70 seventy, 80 eighty, 90 ninety, 100 one hundred/
a hundred.
1000 One thousand/ a thousand. 2012 two thousand and twelve/ twenty twelve
(20,12 se fracciona la cifra para agilizar pero solo para aos.)
I talk a lot with my sister. A lot/lots se usa tanto para cosas contables como no
contables.
05/03/2012 - 06/03/2012

Recodarotiro de estructura correcta: I arrive to clase late (que, donde, cuando)


I come to my house in the evening.
I practice english at home every day.
They lisen to the song on the radio (a lisen siempre le sigue to)
I walk in the country on monday (los das de la semana siempre precedidos de on)
(contry se traduce como campo o pais, campo de cultivo o de deporte se dice field)

Veces se traduce como times. Dos veces two times, tres veces three times, etc. Una
vez se dice once time.
I think about my problems. (About significa a cerca de)
Eso creo se puede traducir como: I think so, o i believe so.
From X -> To Y (Desde aqu hasta aqu, se usa para preguntar direcciones)

Negatives
I/you dont
He/she/it doesnt
We/you/they dont
I am not/ Im not
You are not/ you arent
He is not/ he isntt
She is not/she isnt
The students dont have a class
They
James doesnt speak spanish
He
Es importante observar que como el verbo ya esta conjugado en el auxiliar do al
principal no se le cambia la forma (se mantiene como speak, no cambia a speaks)
The students go to school on Sundays -> The students dont go to school on Sundays
I dont do any thing. I dont want to sing a song. I dont play any sports.
Nota: No es correcto poner dos negativos juntos en la misma frase.

Interrogative
To be: Am I?, Are you? Is he/she /it? Are we?, Are they?
Are you students? Am i a techaer? Whats your name? who are you?
Importante recordar que en interrogativo el verbo siempre va delante!
You are techer -> Are you teacher?
El resto de verbos necesitan del auxiliar do.
10

Do you like oranges? Does she speak spanish? Do you arrive to the train in time?
Wich hotel?
Where are you?
When do you come?
Where are you coming from?
Where are you from?/Where do you come from? (AE)
Interrogative + negative
Don't you like the pizza?
Doesn't he speak spanish?

Presente continuo
Se usa para hablar del momento actual o de planes a corto plazo. No confundir con el
presente simple, que se usa para rutinas o hechos.
To be + ing
Im speaking/ im not speaking
Youre listening / youre not listening
He/She is playing/ Isnt playing
Im sitting/Im not sitting
Youre listening/ you arent listening
-What are you doing tonight?
-Im coking, Im studing, Im eating at home, Im diner, etc.
Nota: No usar going to ya que es una forma de futuro, El verbo go se conjuga
directo. Im going home.
La estructura correcta de una frase es Sujeto-Verbo-Donde-Cuando. Si hay ms de un
elemento de lugar y/o tiempo se ordena de menor a mayor.
Im Sleeping at home tonight.
Im meeting whit some friends to have a drink in a pub in a central park this evening.
-What are you doing on the weekend?
-I dont know what Im doing on the weekend.
(En presente simple por que es un hecho, el resto en continuo por que es futuro)
1 persona = person, ms de una persona = people.

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Interrogativa negativa continua


Aren't you watching tv?
Isn't she drinking?
22/03/2012

Past Simple
To be
I Was
You Were
He/She/It Was
We Were
You Were
They Were
We were at the School in 1995.
The fridge was empty this morning.
Infinitive/Past (ver lista de verbos)
To be, Was/Were
To have, Had
To do, Did
To arrive, Arrived
To Live, Lived
I did the homework yesterday.
She arrived the last Monday.
It rained last night.

Past Negative
I Wasnt
You Werent
He/She/It Wasnt
We Werent
You Werent
They Werent
I wasnt good student.
You werent in your house.
Did -> Did Not (abreviado Didnt)
You didnt study yesterday.
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I didnt have plans for holidays.


(El verbo mantiene la forma porque se conjuga el auxiliar Did)

Past Interrogative
Was I? Where you? Was He/She It? Where We/You/They?
Where you in your house this morning? Was I a good singer?
Notese que en interrogativo el verso se pone delante.
I was a good Singer -> Was I a good Singer?
El resto de verbos necesitan el uxiliar Did.
Did she watch the film yesterday?
Did I lose the keys?
Did we pass the test?
(El verbo mantiene la forma porque se conjuga el auxiliar Did)
Past interrogative negative
Didn't you like the film?

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Adjectives Order

02/04/2012

El sufijo ish tras un color forma un nuevo adjetivo: reddish, bluish, greenish, yellowish, orangish... (rojizo, azulado,
verdoso, amarillento, anarajado). Siempre de pequeo a grande: the books is on the table in the room. I have a
test at 10 A.M. on Monday.

Prepositions

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Other Prepositions
From- A present from Jane.
Of- A page of the book, the picture of a palace.
By- A book by Mark Twain.
On- On foot on horseback, Get on the bus.
In- Get in the car.
Off- Get off the train.
Out of- Get out of the taxi.
By- Prices have risen by 10 percent. By car, by bus.
At- She learned Russian at 45.

Questions

10/04/2012 23/04/2012

What? - Qu? Cul? Cules? What is your fathers last name?


Which? - Qu? Cul? Cules? Which film is better? (refiriendose a dos)
Where? - Dnde? Adnde? Where is your new black coat?
When? - Cundo? When is your birthday?
Why? - Por qu? Why is this car so expensive?
Who? - Quin? Quines? Who are the guys playing with George?
How? - Cmo? Cun? How do you like the pizza?
Where do you have coffee? (Donde tomas caf?)
Where are you having coffee? (Dnde ests tomando caf?)
Where did you have coffee? (Dnde tomabas caf?

15

Past continuous

24/04/2012

Se forma con I was/were + ING. Se utiliza para una accin en un tiempo concreto.
-I was camping out in Easter.
-I was watching TV last night.
Para decir que una accin fue interrumpida se necesitan dos acciones, una larga
(was/were + ing) y la que se interrumpe.
-I was taking a shower when you arrived.
-I was watching tv when the kid cried.

Count Noncount

26/04/2012

Contables si podemos contarlo o si sabemos el numero exacto. Incontables si no se


pueden contar (por ejemplo agua). Algunas no coinciden con el espaol, por ejemplo
cake es incontable, el contble sera a piece of cake.
Some: Algunos (no sabemos numero exacto). Se usa en contables e incontables. Some
books, some apples, some cats. / Some water, some cake, some paper, some fish,
some money.
A lot: Mucho. Se usa en contables e incontables. A lot of books, a lot of money.
A few: Unos pocos, algunos. Se usa con contables. A few books.
Many: Muchos. Se usa en contables. Many books.
A little: Un poco. Se usa en incontables. A little money.
Much: Mucho. Se usa en incontables. Much money.

Excepciones al plural
Man-Men , Woman-Women, Tooth (diente) Teeth, Foot-Feet, Mouse-Mice, Shelf
(estante)- Shelves, Leaf- Leves, Loaf (barra)-Loaves.
Los no contables no usan el artculo:
A bread -> A loaf of bread
A water -> A glass of water

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There is/There Are


There is/There Are significa Hay. There is an apple on the table. There are four apples
on the table.
Las formas de pasado son There was y There were. (Haba).
En interrogativo: is there?, are there?, was there?, were there?,
En negativo: there isn't, there aren't, there wasn't, there weren't.
La forma futura es there will be (Habr).
07/05/2012

Para referirse a cosas que hacamos antes pero ya no se utiliza I used to.
I used to play videogames when I was 10.
Despus de like va ing: She likes buying clothes, She doesnt like buying food.

17

CURSO CARPE VITAE 2012-2013


17/10/2012

Personal Pronouns

Possessive Adjectives

I
You
He
She
It

I-My
You-Your
He-His
She-Her
It- Its

We
You
They

To be
I Am
You Are
He Is
She Is
It Is

We-Our
You-Your
They-Their

To be abreviado
We Are
You Are
They Are

Im
Youre
Hes
Shes
Its

Were
Youre
Theyre

Articles
A boy/ A girl. An Indian/ An eagle.
The house/ The car. The boys/ The Girls.
22/10/2012

To understand- Entender.
To mean- Querer decir, significar.
To know- Saber, Conocer.
Im Sorry- Lo siento.
Excuse me- Disculpeme.
29/10/2012

Todo lo que acaba en cin en espaol es tion en ingls: Constitution, Revelation,


Relation
El To delante de un verbo denota que est en infinitivo, es equivalente a las formas ar, er, ir del
espaol. To look, to speak, to walk para formar el imperativo se suprime el to.
Aadiendo el sufijo er a los verbos que son de accin se forma una palabra derivada:
Eat-Eater (comedor), Drin-ker, Wal-ker, Teach-er.

19

30/10/2012

To be (negative)
I am not - I'm not
You are not - You aren't
He is not - He isn't
She is not - She isn't
It is not - It isn't
Are you student?
Yes I'm student.
No I'm not a student.

We are not - We aren't


You are not - You aren't
They are not - They aren't

05/11/012 - 18/11/2012

So puede significar as, tan o asi que.


I don't think so (as).
That car is so expensive... (tan). Is not so rich -no es tan rico-.
I was ill so I stayed at home (as que).
What: Que, Qu...?, De qu?, etc.
What I think (lo que pienso).
What color is your car?
Verbo + ing para forar el gerundio: To come coming.
Solo el verbo, sin el to, es para formar un imperativo.
26/11/2012

Interrogative - Afirmative - Negative


To be + sujeto + ? Is the school cheap?
Sujeto + to be. The school is cheap.
Negativo + to be. The school is not cheap.
Is the car new? The car is new. The car is not new.
Is the hospital far? The hospital is far. The hospital is not far.
28/11/2012

The car is new (verb adj).


Tat is a new car (adj sustan).
The students are intelligent.
The intelligent students are lazy.
This/These: Este/Estos. This is my car, These are my cars.
That/Those: Aquel/Aquellos (o Ese/Esos). That is my car, Those are my cars.
Here/There: Aqu/All.
There is/There are: hay (Individual/plural) There is a book, There are books.

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03/12/2012

To do present simple
I do do not (don't)
You do do not (don't)
He/She/It does does not (doesn't)
We/You/They do do not (don't)
-Do you like italian food?
-Yes I do/No I don't = Yes I like italian food/No I don't like italian food.
Cuando se usa la tercera persona se conjuga el auxiliar en lugar del verbo:
-Does she live in Paris?
-Yes she does/No she doesn't = Yes, she lives in Paris/ No, she doesn't live in Paris.

Modal verbs
No utilizan Do como auxiliar:
-To be (ser/estar).
-To have got (tener).
-Can (poder).
-Must (deber -de boligacin-).
-May (poder refieriendose a pedir permiso -May I help you?-).
You are not a good friend (nunca you don't are).
Have you got a gar?.
Can I help you?.
You must not go out.
May I open the door?.
10/12/2012

To have
I have, You have, He/She/It has, we/you/they/have.
Al contrario que have got, si admite auxiliares. To have to significa tener que, denota
obligacin.
Do you have a car?.
I have to study.
12/12/2012

Cuantitativos
Much mucho, Many Muchos.
A lot of un montn de.

21

07/01/2013

Genitivo Sajn (Posesivo)


Al poseedor/es se le aade un apostrofo y una ese:
Jose's car is Blue.
The women's books.
Si la palabra acaba en ese se aade solamente el apostrofo (').
Charles' house.
My brothers' room (la habitacn de mis hermanos).
Tambin se emplea con nombres de animales, nombres de pases, ciertas expresiones de tiempo,
espacio, distancia, peso, etc..
The cat's ears (Las orejas del gato).
France's cities (las ciudades de Francia).
Yesterday's meeting (La reunin de ayer).
A mile's walk (Un paseo de una milla).
El posesivo mediante la preposicin of se una normalmente cuando el poseedor no es una
persona.
The window of the house (La ventana de la casa).
Combinar el genetivo con of puede servir para distinguir el sentido de propiedad.
A photo of Peter's (Una foto de Pedro, la foto es de su propiedad).
A photo of Peter (Una foto de Pedro, de su persona).
Se debe tener en cuenta que el uso del genetivo puede cambiar el sentido de la frase.
John and Ann's cars (Los coches son de ambos).
John's and Ann's cars (Cada uno tiene su propio coche).
14/01/2013

El sufijo ly esquivale a mente: completely, honestly, boringly.


No se debe poner I don't go never, la forma correcta es I never go.
Plus se usa para sumas de numeros: six plus five equals eleven.
Tambin puede ser sinonimo de adems. I have a car and plus I have a motorbike.
16/01/2013

Hours
Seven o clock, Quarter to eight, Half past eight, Quarter past six, Ten past four.
X days/hours ago hace X horas/dias.

22

18/02/2013

Prepositions
To = a. To the = al, a la, a los, a las... To the cinema, to the church.
Of = de. The = El/la Los/las.
In: years, months, seasons, week, moring.
On: days, dates.
At: night, time (clock), festivals (christmas, easter, halloween...)
04/03/2013

Object Pronouns
I-Me
You-You
He-Him
She-Her
It- It

We-Us
You-You
They-Them

Se utilizan cuando se sustituye el sujeto por el objeto directo.


Can you help me?
I can help you.
Can you see him?
Give it to her.
Give it a kick.
Can you see us?
I see you.
He can help them.
25/03/2013

To be (past simple)
I was, You where, He/She/It was, You where, They where.
25/03/2013 - B1

Nota: going to como forma de futuro proximo, similar a voy a , va a, vamos a...
I'm going to watch a film. I'm going to go shopping on Saturday.
Are you going to go shopping? What are you going to buy?
He is going to leave his jobs.
We are going to boy a house near the beach.
So do I: Yo tambin. Neither do I: Yo tampoco. Oh, I do: yo s. Oh, I'm not/I don't: Yo no.
1)I love travelling. 2)I don't go out much. 3)I don't like cycling. 4)I'm a vegetarian.
El do cambia con la forma verbal: So does she, So do we... o con el tiempo:
They danced So did I.
We went out for a walk. So did we
El do se cambia por los vervos can y be: -I can't swim -Neihter can I. -She is tall -So am I.
DoTambin debe adaptarse a formas como will y woul:
-They would do it if they could. -So would we. (Ellos lo haran si pudieran. Nosotros tambin).
23

28/03/2013 B1

Adjetivos
Towns/Cities

People

Weather

Food

Industrial, Polluted,
Touristy,
Cosmopolitan,
Crowded (concurrido)

Welcoming
(acogedor)

Wet, Freezing,
Changeable, Windy

Delicious, Spicy, Bland


(templado,poco
fuerte)

Helpful (Servicial)
Relaxed Reserved

Healthy, Salty

Bride significa novia y Groom novio pero solo durante la ceremonioa. Antes son boyfriend
y girlfriend, y despus Husband y Wife.
10/04/2013 B1

Let's + verbo = imperativo plural


Let's go = vamos, Let's drink = vevamos, Let's play = juguemos.
To get + adjetivo = verbo
To get old = envejecer, To get tired = cansarse, To get young = rejuvenecer, To get white =
blanquear.
To get + past participe = accin reflexiva
To get lost = perderse, to get corrupted = corromperse, to get exhausted = exhaustarse, to get
driven = ser conducido, to get married = casarse, to get divorced = divorciarse.
03/05/2013

Link words
In spite of a pesar de, no obstante. Although a pesar de que, aunque.
Instead of en vez de. But pero. While mientras. Then entonces.
After despues. Before antes. With con. Without sin. However sin embargo.
22/05/2013

Once time, twice time, three times, four times...


Get wet = mojarse.
No se puede usar launch como verbo, se dice to have a launch.

24

NACIONALIDADES E IDIOMAS
Countries
Spain
Austria
Australia
Russia
France
Portugal
Germany
Sweden (Suecia)
Switzerland (Suiza)
Italy
Belgium
Holland
USA
Canada
Ireland
The United Kingdom
-England
-Scotland
-Wales
-Northen Ireland

Nationalities
Spanish/Spaniard
Austrian
Australian
Russian
French
Portuguese
German
Swedish
Swiss
Italian
Belgian
Dutch
American
Canadian
Irish
British

Language
Spanish
German
English
Russian
French
Portuguese
German
Swedish
Italian, French, German
Italian
Dutch, French
Dutch
English
English, French
English
English

-Where are you from?/Where do you come from?


-Im from Spain/ I come from Russia
-What language do you speak?
-I speak Spanish
-What language does she speak?
-She speaks Russian

DIRECCIONES Y UBICACIONES
Go along: Seguir a lo largo. Go along this road.
Turn: Girar. Turn left, Turn right.
Over there: Por ah.
Near the cinema, Next to the cinema. Opposite the cinema. In this street/ on this.
On the left/right.

MEDIDAS DE TIEMPO
Das de la semana (Days of the week): Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday,
Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Los das se dicen siempre preceididos de on: On Sunday,
On Monday.
Meses del ao (Months of the year): January, February, March, April, May, June, July,
August, September, October, November, December. Los meses llevan delante in.
25

Estaciones del ao (Seasons of the year): Spring, Summer, Autumn/Fall, Winter

HOGAR Y MOBILIARIO
Air Conditioning - Aire acond.
Balcony - Balcon
Bath-Room - Cuarto de bao
Bed-Room - Dormitorio
Beed - Cama
Ceiling Techo Cellar sotano
Chair - Silla
Clock - Reloj
Closet - Armario grande
Cooker (BE) Cocina
(electrodomstico)
Cupboard - Armario superior
Desk - Escritorio
Dining-Room - Comedor
Door Puerta
Floor - Suelo
Hall - Vestibulo
Hallway - Pasillo
Heater - Calentador
Kitchen - Cocina
Living-Room - Sala de estar
Micro Wave oven Microhondas
Office - Despacho
Oven - Horno
Refrigerator - Nevera
Roof - Tejado
Room - Habitacin

Stove (AE) - Cocina


(electrodomstico)
Terrace - Terraza
Toilet - Servicio Publico
Upstairs/downstairs: Piso
de arriba, piso de abajo.
Wall - Muro
Wardrobe - Armario ropero
Window Ventana
Yard (BE) Terraza

26

VESTUARIO
Boots - Botas
Coat - Abrigo
Jacket - Chaqueta
Pants - Pantalones
Pullover - Jersey
Shirt - Camisa
Shoes - Zapatillas
Sweater - Jersey
Trousers - Pantalones
T-Shirt Camiseta
Vest: chaleco

FAMILIA
Aunt - Ta
Brother - Hermano
Cousin/e Primo/a
Childrens - Nios,
Hijos/as
Daugther - Hija
Father Padre
Grand Mother, Grand
Father Abuela/o
Grand Daugther,
Grand Son Nieta/o
Mother - Madre
Niece - Sobrina
Nephew - Sobrino
Parents - Padre y
Madre
Sibling: hermano/a
Sister - Hermana
Son - Hijo
Uncle - To

PROFESIONES/ TRABAJO

Aide: Ayudante
Attendant/Dependent/Shop assitant: Dependiente
Clerk: Secretario, administrativo
Clerical work: Trabajo de oficina.
Civil Servant: Funcionario
Daycare: Guardera
Engineer: Ingeniero
Firefigther: Bombero
Housewife: Ama de casa
Mason: Albail

27

CUERPO
Cheek: mejilla. Shoulder: hombro. Elbow: codo. Navel: ombligo. Wrist: mueca. Nail: ua.
Knee: rodilla. Ankle: tobillo. Heel: taln. Waist: cintura. Toe: dedo del pie. Forehead: frente.
Chin: barbilla. Bottom: trasero.
Head, hair, face, nose, mouth, eye, ear, neck, arm, palm, finger, chest, leg, foot/feet, tooth,
tongue, back, hand, nose.

EXPRESSIONS

28

of course not

por supuesto que no

that's fine

est bien; no pasa nada

that's right

es verdad

sure

claro

certainly

seguramente

definitely

definitivamente

absolutely

absolutamente

as soon as possible

tan pronto como sea posible

that's enough

es suficiente

it doesn't matter

no importa

it's not important

no es importante

it's not serious

no es nada serio

it's not worth it


To mind
I don't mind

no vale la pena
Tener en cuenta, importar
No me importa

I'm in a hurry

tengo prisa

I've got to go

tengo que irme

I'm going out

voy a salir

sleep well

qu duermas bien

same to you!

lo mismo te digo!

not bad
To be fed up
Had in
Force of habit
By the way

no est mal
estar harto
Entregado en mano
Fuerza de la costumbre
Por cierto, a propsito

what shall we do?

Qu podramos/deberamos hacer?

Where shall we meet?


What time shall we meet?

Shall funciona igual do. Es un futuro.


Shall = tener que o deber de

Top up.
Can I get you a top-up?
To fire up.

Rellenar una copa, pero cuando ya se ha


tomado al menos una. Es similar a
ofrecer otra copa.
Encender, arrancar.

To patch it up.

Hacer las paces, arreglar una relacin.

I'll drink to that

Estar de acuerdo con algo. Tambin es


un brindis.

I'm growing bored


it's up to you

Tu decides.

- Have a bun in the oven. Literalmente dejar un bollo en el horno, significa dejar embarazada a
una chica.
- Have you ever es una frase hecha que se usa como Alguna vez has...?.
Have you ever drive a car?
- Have you heard? Has oido?/Te has enterado?
- Bide one's time: Esperar el momento oportuno.
- Take it Easy: Tomalo con calma.
- I'm rooting for you: Te estoy apoyando.
- Free will: libre albedro
- My own free will: Mi propia voluntad

Phrasal Verbs

find out: averiguar


get up: levantarse
go up: subir
look after: cuidar
look at: mirar de reojo
look for: buscar
see to: vigiliar
show off: presumir, pavonearse, mostrar
stand up: levantarse

SUSTANTIVOS

Aim: Objetivo.
ATM: Cajero automtico (ei-ti-em), tambin llamado cash point.
Behavior: Comportamiento.
Burden: Carga.
Burial: Entierro, sepultura.
Bystander: Espectador.
Commitment: Compromiso.
Copper: Cobre.
Country : Campo, Pas.
Demise: Muerte, fallecimiento.
29

Expenses: gastos.
Farwell: despedida.
Fiance & Fiancee: Prometido y prometida (en matrimonio).
Field ; Campo de cultivo, deporte o profesin
Fluke: casualidad.
Folks: gente.
Fright: susto.
Kind: tipo.
Kindness: amabilidad.
Half: Media, mitad.
Light: Luz, fuego mechero.
Lighter: Mechero.
Motorway: autopista
Output: Salida, produccin
Parcel: paquete.
Pickpocket: carterista
Pineapple: pia.
Rubbish: comida.
Sightseeing: turismo.
Sorrow: dolor, tristeza, pena, pesar.
Spark: chispazo
Square: Plaza
Token: Ficha, simbolo
vow: voto
Warm: Calido
Wit: Ingenio
Whole: todo, entero
Witness: Testigo
Youth: juventud

ADJETIVOS
Adamant: firme
Awful: Horrible
Both: ambos, los dos
Burdened: Agobiado
Comfy: confortable, cmodo.
Engaged: Comprometido/a (de matrimonio). Ocupado.
Damp: hmedo, mojado
Dependable: Digno de confianza
Frail: fragil
Frightening: Aterrador.
Hooked: Enganchado
Kind: amable
Light: Ligero
Loud: ruidoso
Mild: templado (temperatura y carcter), apacible.
Odd: Impar, raro
Prone: propenso
Self-centred: Egosta.
30

Selfish: egosta
Side trip: Excursin
Square: cuadrado
Tough: duro, difcil
Weary: Cansado, fatigado
Worthy: Digno

VERBOS

Annoy: Molestar
Bide: Permanecer
Commission: Encargar
Conceive: Concebir
Encompass: Abarcar
Erode: Erosionar
Facing: Enfrentar
Hesitate: Dudar, vacilar
Inherit: Heredar
Overdo: Exagerar
Pronate: Poner boca abajo
Reach: alcanzar
Regard: Considerar
Release: Liberar. Tambin lanzamiento (en el sentido de lanzar al mercado) o estreno.
Settle: Resolver, establecerse
Sort: Ordenar, clasificar
Squeeze: Exprimir, apretar
Struggle: luchar, esforzarse
Suit: Acoplar, convenir
Swap: Intercambiar
Trace: Rastrear
Unleash: liberar, desatar, soltar
Vexing: Fastidiar, irritar
Witness: Testifar
Warn: Advertir
Wonder: Preguntase (a uno mismo), maravillarse. I wonder if I did right.
Yell: Gritar.

ADVERBIOS

Already: ya
Quite: bastante
Likewise: Igualmente
Perhaps: quizs
Twice: dos veces

OTROS

Indeed: En efecto / Indeed yes!: Claro que s!


Should: Debera
So that: para que
Though: Aunque
Won't (will not)
31

ABOUT GET
When we use 'get' with a direct object (non our pronoun) it often -a menudo- means
recive, obtain, fetch, catch, give or something similar.
Alice got a Valentine form a secret admirer (Recibi).
Can I get you a refill -recambio-? (Ofrecer).
He gets the train to work (Atrap en el sentido de que alcanz ).
Would you mind getting the kids after school? I have to wor late tonight.
(Cuidar, hacerse cargo)
When

we use 'get' before an adjective, it often means become.


Even after she took the medicine, her cold just got worse and worse.
He got rellay angry when she was late for the tird time this week.
She doesn't want to get old. She wants to stay a teenage forever.

When we use 'get' with and object + adjective, it means make someone o something
become.
Let's get this show stated.
You need to get this room tidy before you go out.
Get often means travel and when we use get before a word like up, out, away, etc. it
usually means movement of some kind. For example:
What time do you get thome usually?.
We need to get off the bus the next stop. (Bajarse)
When she gets back from work, she likes to wath tv for a bit. (Return, come back)
Do you know how to get to the cinema from here? (Arrive)
When we use get with a past participle (driven, eatem spoken) it often has a reflexive
meaning (something that we di to ourselves -nosotros mismos-).
They are getting married next month. (Van a casarse).
She gets dressed really quickly in the morning. (Se viste).
You need to get washed before you go to bed. (Lavarte).

ABOUT SUCH
Such como adjetivo puede significar tal, semejante o parecido. Tambin tanto.
This material is of such importance that it has a powerful bearing on the case.
(Este material es de tal importancia que tiene una influencia poderosa sobre el caso.)
There is no such thing as a free lunch.
(no hay tal cosa como un almuerzo gratis)
Como adverbio es equivalente a tan:
I am so lucky. I have such wonderful friends! (Tengo tanta suerte. Tengo amigos tan
maravillosos!)
That is such a pretty dress! You should wear it more often. (Este vestido es tan bonito!
Debera llevarlo ms a menudo.) It is such a beautiful day (Que da tan bonito!)
32

ABOUT INFINITIVE
El infinitivo va normalmente precedido de la partcula 'to' (To be, to run, to eat..). El
infinitivo expresa el significado del verbo de una manera general, sin referencia a
tiempo alguno.
Hay varios tipos de infinitivo:
Infinitive Simple (to speak, hablar)
Continuous Infinitive (to be speaking, estar hablando),
Perfect Infinitive (to have spoken, haber hablado)
Perfect Continous Infnitive (to have been speaking, haber estado hablando)
Passives infinites(to be spoken, to be being spoken, have been being spoken. Estar
hablado, Estar siendo hablen, Haber estado siendo hablado)
El infinitivo puede ser usado solo (suele ser imperativo) o como parte de una frase de
infinitivo.
Run! / We began to run.
Puede expresar un deber u obligacin cuando sigue al verbo to be
You are not to smoke here (No debe fumar aqu).
Puede expresar propsito o el motivo por el que alguien hace la accin
He went to England to learn English.
She went to the supermarket to buy some chocolate.
Puede ser usado sin 'to' despus de 'do' o de un verbo modal auxiliar como 'must',
'may', 'might', etc.
I might go to the pub after dinner.

33

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