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Globalization

Nixons Domestic Affairs


Moon Walk

Space programs pushed for many years


o Goal: putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade
Apollo 11- commanded ship for Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins
Eagle- Lunar Module
July 20th, 1969: Eagle lands on the moon
o Both Aldrin and Armstrong walked on the moon. Armstrong is the 1st man on the
moon

Domestic Policy

Cut costs of govt. and balance the budget


Made four Supreme Court appointments
Democrats in control of Congress; Nixon had trouble reaching his goals

Foreign Affairs during Nixons 1st Term

Vietnamization- slowly bring American troops home, and turn war over to the S.
Vietnamese
Anti-War protests: opposition mainly occurred mainly occurred at colleges and
universities
Kent St. University- 4 students killed by National Guard

My Lai Massacre (Vietnam)

US troops- killed 300 civilians in village of My Lai


Most of the killed were women and children
Military attempted to cover-up the crime

SALT 1 Agreement (1972)

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty


Limited nuclear arms development
Dtente- French term- Nixon used the word to describe the reduction of tensions between
the US and USSR

Election of 1972

Rep. Nom.: President Nixon


Dem. Nom.: George McGovern
Nixon wins landslide

Foreign Policy during Nixons 2nd Term

Secret Cambodian bombings (1965-1973)


o Bombed suspected Viet Cong bases in Cambodia (Operation Menu, 1969-70)
o Congress and public were not told
Vietnam bombing intensifies
o March 1972- thousands of N. Vietnamese invade S. Vietnam
o US response- bombing raids all across Indochina

US Aid to Israel, 1973

Oct. 1973- Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on Yom Kippur (Yom Kippur War)
Nixon aided the Israelis with various supplies

First Arab Oil Embargo, 1973

Arab response to US aid to Israel- embargoed oil shipments


US faced with gasoline shortages and higher prices

Domestic Affairs during Nixons 2nd Term


Watergate

A special investigations unit, Plumbers, broke into the Democratic Nat. Comm.
Headquarters in the Watergate office building
Caught- Nixon attempted to cover-up
Reporter Bob Woodward, Washington Post, broke the story

Nixon Under Pressure

Ervin Committee- investigated the Watergate situation


Nixon- fired two top aides
Tape recorded conversations- hurt Nixon

Resignation of Agnew

VP Agnew- accused of serious crimes


Resigned and pleaded no contest to tax evasion
Nixon- nominated Gerald R. Ford as VP

Resignation of Richard Nixon

Supreme Court Ruling: Nixon had to hand over tapes


Nixon knew he would be impeached
August 9th, 1974- Nixon resigned the office of the President

Domestic Problems of Gerald Ford


Nixon Pardon

Pres. Ford- granted a full pardon to Nixon


Pardoning Nixon lost Ford much public support

Problems with Congress

Ford- had problems dealing with Democratic Congress

Foreign Affairs during Ford Administration

S. Vietnam never took control of Vietnam War; US evacuates S. Vietnam in Oct. 1975
Arab Oil Embargo
o Lasting effects- OPEC, fuel efficiency, speed limit
o Alaskan Pipeline completed

Election of 1976

Rep. Nom.: President Ford


Dem. Nom.: Jimmy Carter- Gov. of Georgia
Carter wins close election

Carters Presidency
Foreign Policy

Main goal: promote human rights


SALT II- attempted, but never came

Domestic Policy

Energy crisis: Carter dealt with the problem by creating the Department of Energy
Three Mile Island Accident (1979)- feared radiation leak

International Problems

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan


US response- embargo of grain to Soviets, and boycott of 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Iran Hostage Crisis- Nov. 4th, 1979
Angry mob invaded US Embassy in Teheran, taking 52 American hostages
o Lasted 444 days
Middle East problems continued
Egypt and Israel met at Camp David to discuss peace

Result: Camp David Accords- established official diplomatic relations between Egypt &
Israel

Neo-Conservatism
Election of 1980

Rep. Nom.: Ronald Reagan- Gov. of Caifornia


Dem. Nom.: Carter
Reagan wins easily

Reagans Domestic Policy


The Economy

Took over during a time of stagflation- a combination of high employment and high
inflation
The solution: 1) cut many domestic programs; increased spending on military defense
2) dismantle the welfare state and shrink the size of the federal government 3) New
Federalism- shifting responsibility for many social programs to the states 4) supply-side
or Trickle-down economics- tax cuts to businesses and wealthy individuals
The results: By 1984:
o The biggest economic expansion in history up to that time
o Median income grew 15%
o 5 million new businesses formed
o 20 million new jobs created
o By 1989, the unemployment rate dropped to 5.5%

The Reagan Doctrine

A policy of supporting guerilla groups that were fighting to overthrow Communism or


pro-Soviet governments

Election of 1984

Reagan wins an overwhelming landslide over Walter Mondale

Sandra Day OConnor

Appointed to the Supreme Court by Reagan


1st woman to serve on the court

Troubles Abroad

Wanted to stop communism and saw the Soviet Union as the focus of evil in the modern
world
o Peace through strength

1983- Marine headquarters blown up in Lebanon


o 241 American Marines killed in the terrorist attack
o They were sent there on a peace-keeping mission
Oct. 1983- Grenada- after a military coup, a govt. sympathetic to Communist Cuba was
established
o US invades Grenada- did not want another communist country in Western
Hemisphere

Iran Contra

Iran Contra Scandal- US sold arms to Iran; Reagan wanted to free hostages being held in
the Middle East
The money went to help support contra rebels in Nicaragua

Election of 1988

Rep. Nom.: George H.W. Bush- Vice President under Reagan


Dem. Nom.: Michael Dukakis- Gov. of Massachusetts
Bush wins easily

Foreign Issues Under Bush

1989- Berlin Wall comes down


1991- the Soviet Unions Communist government collapses
The Cold War comes to an end

Persian Gulf War


Iraq seizes Kuwait

August 2nd, 1990- Iraq invades and takes Kuwait


US sent forces to protect Saudi Arabia

The Allies Attack

Operation Desert Storm- US and allies attack on Jan. 17th, 1991


Iraq- agreed to withdraw after 42 days of fighting

Clinton Presidency
Domestic Policy

Struggled with both health care and gays in the military


He and the Republican Congress passed legislation requiring a balanced budget
o Attempted to reduce deficit

Dec. 1998- impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice

Foreign Policy

NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement


Eliminated tariffs and other barriers to trade with Canada and Mexico

Election of 2000

Rep. Nom.: George Bush- Gov. of Texas


Dem. Nom.: Al Gore- VP under Clinton
Bush wins one of the closest elections in history
o Came down to Florida- Bush won by 537 votes

9/11

Al-Quada terrorist group- responsible for the attack


Coordinated attack- 4 US commercial planes hijacked
2 flown into the World Trade Centers (NYC), 1 into the Pentagon, 1 crashes in PA
2996 died