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PART 1 AND 2

A Di Pasquale, N Do and KL McAvaney

Le ar n f r om ye ste r d a y, l ive f o r to day, ho pe f o r to m o r r ow.

T h e i m p or ta nt th i ng is no t to sto p que stio ning.

Alber t Einstein

A u s t r a l i a n M a t h e ma t i c a l O l y m p i a d C omm i t t e e

A

department of the

A u s t r a l i a n M at h e mat i c s T r u s t

Published by

AMT Publishing

University of Canberra Locked Bag 1

Canberra GPO ACT 2601

Australia

Tel: 61 2 6201 5137

www.amt.edu.au

AMTT Limited

ACN 083 950 341

National Library of Australia Card Number

and ISSN 1323-6490

OLYMPIAD COMMITTEE TRAINING PROGRAM

The Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee Training Program is an activity of the Australian Mathematical

Olympiad Committee, a department of the Australian Mathematics Trust.

Trustee

The University of Canberra

Sponsors

The Mathematics/Informatics Olympiads are supported by the Australian Government Department of Education

and Training through the Mathematics and Science Participation Program.

The Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee (AMOC) also acknowledges the significant financial support

it has received from the Australian Government towards the training of our Olympiad candidates and the

participation of our team at the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO).

The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the

government.

Special Thanks

With special thanks to the Australian Mathematical Society, the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers

and all those schools, societies, families and friends who have contributed to the expense of sending the 2015

IMO team to Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee thanks sincerely all sponsors, teachers, mathematicians and

others who have contributed in one way or another to the continued success of its activities.

The editors thank sincerely those who have assisted in the compilation of this book, in particular the students

who have provided solutions to the 2015 IMO. Thanks also to members of AMOC and Challenge Problems

Committees, Adjunct Professor Mike Clapper, staff of the Australian Mathematics Trust and others who are

acknowledged elsewhere in the book.

PREFACE

After last year, there seemed little room for improvement, but 2015 has

been even better, marked particularly by our best ever result at an IMO,

where we were placed 6th out of the 104 competing countries, finishing

ahead of all European countries (including Russia) and many other

traditional powerhouses such as Singapore, Japan and Canada. For the

first time ever, all six team members obtained Silver or better, with two

team members (Alex Gunning and Seyoon Ragavan) claiming Gold.

Alex finished fourth in the world (after his equal first place last year, and

becomes Australias first triple Gold medallist in any academic Olympiad.

Seyoon, who finished 19th, now has three IMOs under his belt with a year

still to go. Once again, we had three Year 12 students in the team, so there

will certainly be opportunities for new team members next year. It was also

pleasing to, once again, see an Australian-authored question on the paper,

this year, the prestigious Question 6, which was devised by Ivan Guo and

Ross Atkins, based on the mathematics of juggling.

In the Mathematics Ashes we tied with the British team; however, we

finished comfortably ahead of them in the IMO competition proper. Director of Training and IMO Team Leader,

Dr Angelo Di Pasquale, along with his Deputy Andrew Elvey Price and their team of former Olympians continue

to innovate and keep the training alive, fresh and, above all, of high quality. The policy of tackling very hard

questions in training was daunting for team members at times but seems to have paid off.

The Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians (MCYA) also continues to attract strong entries, with the

Challenge continuing to grow, helped by the gathering momentum of the new Middle Primary Division, which

began in 2014. The Enrichment stage, containing course work, allows students to broaden their knowledge

base in the areas of mathematics associated with the Olympiad programs and more advanced problem-solving

techniques. We have continued running workshops for teachers to develop confidence in managing these

programs for their more able studentsthis seems to be paying off with strong numbers in both the Challenge

and Enrichment stages. The final stage of the MCYA program is the Australian Intermediate Mathematics

Olympiad (AIMO). It is a delight to record that over the last two years the number of entries to AIMO has

doubled. This has been partly due to wider promotion of the competition, but more specifically a result of

the policy of offering free entry to AMC prize winners. There were some concerns in 2014 that some of the

new contestants were under-prepared for AIMO and there were more zero scores than we would have liked.

However, this year, the number of zero scores was less than 1% and the quality of papers was much higher,

revealing some significant new talent, some of whom will be rewarded with an invitation to the December School

of Excellence.

There are many people who contribute to the success of the AMOC program. These include the Director of

Training and the ex-Olympians who train the students at camps; the AMOC State Directors; and the Challenge

Director, Dr Kevin McAvaney, and the various members of his Problems Committee, who develop such original

problems, solutions and discussions each year. The AMOC Senior Problems Committee is also a major

contributor and Norman Do is continuing with his good work. The invitational program saw some outstanding

results from Australian students, with a number of perfect scores. Details of these achievements are provided in

the appropriate section of this book. As was the case last year, we are producing Mathematics ContestsThe

Australian Scene in electronic form only and making it freely available through the website. We hope this will

provide greater access to the problems and section reports. This book is also available in two sections, one

containing the MCYA reports and papers and the other containing the Olympiad training program reports and

papers.

Mike Clapper

November 2015

CONTENTS

Support for the Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee Training Program

Acknowledgements 4

Preface 5

Background Notes on the IMO and AMOC

10

12

14

Activities of AMOC Senior Problems Committee

16

Challenge Problems

17

Challenge Solutions

26

Challenge Statistics

51

55

57

65

66

70

71

79

80

81

83

85

110

111

113

114

128

130

133

134

135

136

140

142

168

173

Honour Roll

174

The Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee

In 1980, a group of distinguished mathematicians formed the Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee

(AMOC) to coordinate an Australian entry in the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO).

Since then, AMOC has developed a comprehensive program to enable all students (not only the few who aspire

to national selection) to enrich and extend their knowledge of mathematics. The activities in this program are not

designed to accelerate students. Rather, the aim is to enable students to broaden their mathematical experience

and knowledge.

The largest of these activities is the MCYA Challenge, a problem-solving event held in second term, in which

thousands of young Australians explore carefully developed mathematical problems. Students who wish to

continue to extend their mathematical experience can then participate in the MCYA Enrichment Stage and pursue

further activities leading to the Australian Mathematical Olympiad and international events.

Originally AMOC was a subcommittee of the Australian Academy of Science. In 1992 it collaborated with the

Australian Mathematics Foundation (which organises the Australian Mathematics Competition) to form the

Australian Mathematics Trust. The Trust, a not-for-profit organisation under the trusteeship of the University

of Canberra, is governed by a Board which includes representatives from the Australian Academy of Science,

Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers and the Australian Mathematical Society.

The aims of AMOC include:

(1) giving leadership in developing sound mathematics programs in Australian schools

(2) identifying, challenging and motivating highly gifted young Australian school students in mathematics

(3) training and sending Australian teams to future International Mathematical Olympiads.

AMOC schedule from August until July for potential IMO team members

Each year hundreds of gifted young Australian school students are identified using the results from the

Australian Mathematics Competition sponsored by the Commonwealth Bank, the Mathematics Challenge for

Young Australians program and other smaller mathematics competitions. A network of dedicated mathematicians

and teachers has been organised to give these students support during the year either by correspondence sets

of problems and their solutions or by special teaching sessions.

It is these students who sit the Australian Intermediate Mathematics Olympiad, or who are invited to sit the

AMOC Senior Contest each August. Most states run extension or correspondence programs for talented

students who are invited to participate in the relevant programs. The 25 outstanding students in recent AMOC

programs and other mathematical competitions are identified and invited to attend the residential AMOC School

of Excellence held in December.

In February approximately 100 students are invited to attempt the Australian Mathematical Olympiad. The

best 20 or so of these students are then invited to represent Australia in the correspondence Asian Pacific

Mathematics Olympiad in March. About 12 students are selected for the AMOC Selection School in April and

about 13 younger students are also invited to this residential school. Here, the Australian team of six students

plus one reserve for the International Mathematical Olympiad, held in July each year, is selected. A personalised

support system for the Australian team operates during May and June.

It should be appreciated that the AMOC program is not meant to develop only future mathematicians.

Experience has shown that many talented students of mathematics choose careers in engineering, computing,

and the physical and life sciences, while others will study law or go into the business world. It is hoped that the

AMOC Mathematics Problem-Solving Program will help the students to think logically, creatively, deeply and with

dedication and perseverance; that it will prepare these talented students to be future leaders of Australia.

The IMO is the pinnacle of excellence and achievement for school students of mathematics throughout the

world. The concept of national mathematics competitions started with the Etvos Competition in Hungary during

1894. This idea was later extended to an international mathematics competition in 1959 when the first IMO was

8

(1) discovering, encouraging and challenging mathematically gifted school students

(2) fostering friendly international relations between students and their teachers

(3) sharing information on educational syllabi and practice throughout the world.

It was not until the mid-sixties that countries from the western world competed at the IMO. The United States of

America first entered in 1975. Australia has entered teams since 1981.

Students must be under 20 years of age at the time of the IMO and have not enrolled at a tertiary institution.

The Olympiad contest consists of two four-and-a-half hour papers, each with three questions.

Australia has achieved varying successes as the following summary of results indicate. HM (Honorable Mention)

is awarded for obtaining full marks in at least one question.

The IMO will be held in Hong Kong in 2016.

Year

City

Gold

Silver

Bronze

HM

Rank

1981

Washington

23 out of 27 teams

1982

Budapest

21 out of 30 teams

1983

Paris

19 out of 32 teams

1984

Prague

15 out of 34 teams

1985

Helsinki

11 out of 38 teams

1986

Warsaw

15 out of 37 teams

1987

Havana

1988

Canberra

1989

Braunschweig

22 out of 50 teams

1990

Beijing

15 out of 54 teams

1991

Sigtuna

1992

Moscow

1993

Istanbul

1994

3

1

15 out of 42 teams

1

17 out of 49 teams

20 out of 56 teams

19 out of 56 teams

Hong Kong

12 out of 69 teams

1995

Toronto

21 out of 73 teams

1996

Mumbai

23 out of 75 teams

1997

9 out of 82 teams

1998

Taipei

13 out of 76 teams

1999

Bucharest

2000

Taejon

16 out of 82 teams

2001

Washington D.C.

25 out of 83 teams

2002

Glasgow

2003

Tokyo

2004

Athens

2005

Merida

2006

Ljubljana

26 out of 90 teams

2007

Hanoi

22 out of 93 teams

2008

Madrid

2009

Bremen

2010

Astana

15 out of 96 teams

2011

Amsterdam

2012

2013

Santa Marta

15 out of 97 teams

2014

Cape Town

1

Perfect Score

by Alexander

Gunning

2015

Chiang Mai

13 out of 73 teams

15 out of 81 teams

26 out of 84 teams

26 out of 82 teams

27 out of 85 teams

10

25 out of 91 teams

19 out of 97 teams

The Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians (MCYA) started on a national scale in 1992. It was set up to

cater for the needs of the top 10 percent of secondary students in Years 710, especially in country schools and

schools where the number of students may be quite small. Teachers with a handful of talented students spread

over a number of classes and working in isolation can find it very difficult to cater for the needs of these students.

The MCYA provides materials and an organised structure designed to enable teachers to help talented students

reach their potential. At the same time, teachers in larger schools, where there are more of these students, are

able to use the materials to better assist the students in their care.

The aims of the Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians include:

encouraging and fostering

a greater interest in and awareness of the power of mathematics

a desire to succeed in solving interesting mathematical problems

the discovery of the joy of solving problems in mathematics

identifying talented young Australians, recognising their achievements nationally and providing support that will

enable them to reach their own levels of excellence

providing teachers with

interesting and accessible problems and solutions as well as detailed and motivating teaching discussion and

extension materials

comprehensive Australia-wide statistics of students achievements in the Challenge.

There are three independent stages in the Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians:

Challenge (three weeks during the period MarchJune)

Enrichment (AprilSeptember)

Australian Intermediate Mathematics Olympiad (September).

Challenge

Challenge now consists of four levels. Upper Primary (Years 56) and Middle Primary (Years 34) present

students with four problems each to be attempted over three weeks, students being allowed to work on the

problems in groups of up to three participants, but each to write their solutions individually. The Junior (Years

78) and Intermediate (Years 910) levels present students with six problems to be attempted over three weeks,

students being allowed to work on the problems with a partner but each must write their solutions individually.

There were 12692 entries (1166 Middle Primary, 3416 Upper Primary, 5006 Junior, 3104 Intermediate) for the

Challenge in 2015. The 2015 problems and solutions for the Challenge, together with some statistics, appear later

in this book.

Enrichment

This is a six-month program running from April to September, which consists of six different parallel stages of

comprehensive student and teacher support notes. Each student participates in only one of these stages.

The materials for all stages are designed to be a systematic structured course over a flexible 1214 week period

between April and September. This enables schools to timetable the program at convenient times during their

school year.

Enrichment is completely independent of the earlier Challenge; however, they have the common feature of

providing challenging mathematics problems for students, as well as accessible support materials for teachers.

Newton (years 56) includes polyominoes, fast arithmetic, polyhedra, pre-algebra concepts, patterns, divisibility

and specific problem-solving techniques. There were 1165 entries in 2015.

Dirichlet (years 67) includes mathematics concerned with tessellations, arithmetic in other bases, time/distance/

speed, patterns, recurring decimals and specific problem-solving techniques. There were 1181 entries in 2015.

Euler (years 78) includes primes and composites, least common multiples, highest common factors, arithmetic

12

sequences, figurate numbers, congruence, properties of angles and pigeonhole principle. There were 1708 entries

in 2015.

Gauss (years 89) includes parallels, similarity, Pythagoras Theorem, using spreadsheets, Diophantine

equations, counting techniques and congruence. Gauss builds on the Euler program. There were 1150 entries

in 2015.

Noether (top 10% years 910) includes expansion and factorisation, inequalities, sequences and series, number

bases, methods of proof, congruence, circles and tangents. There were 818 entries in 2015.

Polya (top 10% year 10) (currently under revision) Topics will include angle chasing, combinatorics, number

theory, graph theory and symmetric polynomials. There were 303 entries in 2015.

This four-hour competition for students up to Year 10 offers a range of challenging and interesting questions.

It is suitable for students who have performed well in the AMC (Distinction and above), and is designed as an

endpoint for students who have completed the Gauss or Noether stage. There were 1440 entries for 2015

and 19 perfect scores.

12

Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians Committee 2015

Director

Dr K McAvaney, Victoria

Challenge

Committee

Adj Prof M Clapper, Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Mrs B Denney, NSW

Mr A Edwards, Queensland Studies Authority

Mr B Henry, Victoria

Ms J McIntosh, AMSI, VIC

Mrs L Mottershead, New South Wales

Ms A Nakos, Temple Christian College, SA

Prof M Newman, Australian National University, ACT

Dr I Roberts, Northern Territory

Ms T Shaw, SCEGGS, NSW

Ms K Sims, New South Wales

Dr A Storozhev, Attorney Generals Department, ACT

Mr S Thornton, South Australia

Ms G Vardaro, Wesley College, VIC

Moderators

Mr W Akhurst, New South Wales

Mr R Blackman, Victoria

Ms J Breidahl, Victoria

Mr A Canning, Queensland

Dr E Casling, Australian Capital Territory

Mr B Darcy, South Australia

Mr J Dowsey, Victoria

Ms P Graham, MacKillop College, TAS

Ms J Hartnett, Queensland

Ms N Hill, Victoria

Dr N Hoffman, Edith Cowan University, WA

Ms R Jorgenson, Australian Capital Territory

Prof H Lausch, Victoria

Mr J Lawson, St Pius X School, NSW

Ms K McAsey, Victoria

Ms T McNamara, Victoria

Mr G Meiklejohn, Department of Education, QLD

Mr M OConnor, AMSI, VIC

Mr J Oliver, Northern Territory

Mr G Pointer, Marratville High School, SA

Dr H Sims, Victoria

Mrs M Spandler, New South Wales

Ms C Stanley, Queensland

Mr P Swain, Ivanhoe Girls Grammar School, VIC

Dr P Swedosh, The King David School, VIC

Mrs A Thomas, New South Wales

Ms K Trudgian, Queensland

14

Enrichment

Editors

Mr G R Ball, University of Sydney, NSW

Dr M Evans, International Centre of Excellence for Education in Mathematics, VIC

Mr K Hamann, South Australia

Mr B Henry, Victoria

Dr K McAvaney, Victoria

Dr A M Storozhev, Attorney Generals Department, ACT

Emeritus Prof P Taylor, Australian Capital Territory

Dr O Yevdokimov, University of Southern Queensland

Australian Intermediate Mathematics Olympiad Problems Committee

Dr K McAvaney, Victoria (Chair)

Adj Prof M Clapper, Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Mr J Dowsey, University of Melbourne, VIC

Dr M Evans, International Centre of Excellence for Education in Mathematics, VIC

Mr B Henry, Victoria

Assoc Prof H Lausch, Monash University, VIC

14

Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee 2015

Chair

Prof C Praeger, University of Western AustraliaDeputy Chair

Assoc Prof DHunt, University of New South Wales

Executive Director

Adj Prof Mike Clapper, Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Treasurer

Dr P Swedosh, The King David School, VIC

Dr N Do, Monash University, VIC

Chair, Challenge

Dr K McAvaney, Deakin University, VIC

Dr A Di Pasquale, University of Melbourne, VIC

Mr A Elvey Price, University of Melbourne, VIC

State Directors

Dr K Dharmadasa, University of Tasmania

Dr G Gamble, University of Western Australia

Dr Ian Roberts, Northern Territory

Dr W Palmer, University of Sydney, NSW

Mr D Martin, South Australia

Dr V Scharaschkin, University of Queensland

Dr P Swedosh, The King David School, VIC

Dr Chris Wetherell, Radford College, ACT

Representatives

Ms A Nakos, Challenge Committee

Prof M Newman, Challenge Committee

Mr H Reeves, Challenge Committee

15

2016 IMO

August 2015July 2016

Hundreds of students are involved in the AMOC programs which begin on a state basis. The students are given

problem-solving experience and notes on various IMO topics not normally taught in schools.

The students proceed through various programs with the top 25 students, including potential team members and

other identified students, participating in a ten-day residential school in December.

The selection program culminates with the April Selection School during which the team is selected.

Team members then receive individual coaching by mentors prior to assembling for last minute training before

the IMO.

Month

Activity

Outstanding students are identified from AMC results, MCYA, other competitions

and recommendations; and eligible students from previous training programs

August

Various state-based programs

AMOC Senior Contest

September

December

January

Excellence

February

March

April

MayJune

July

2016 IMO in Hong Kong.

16

This committee has been in existence for many years and carries out a number of roles. A central role is the

collection and moderation of problems for senior and exceptionally gifted intermediate and junior secondary school

students. Each year the Problems Committee provides examination papers for the AMOC Senior Contest and the

Australian Mathematical Olympiad. In addition, problems are submitted for consideration to the Problem Selection

Committees of the annual Asian Pacific Mathematics Olympiad and the International Mathematical Olympiad.

Dr A Di Pasquale, University of Melbourne, VIC

Dr N Do, Monash University, VIC, (Chair)

Dr M Evans, Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute, VIC

Dr I Guo, University of Sydney, NSW

Assoc Prof D Hunt, University of NSW

Dr J Kupka, Monash University, VIC

Assoc Prof H Lausch, Monash University, VIC

Dr K McAvaney, Deakin University, VIC

Dr D Mathews, Monash University, VIC

Dr A Offer, Queensland

Dr C Rao, NEC Australia, VIC

Dr B B Saad, Monash University, VIC

Assoc Prof J Simpson, Curtin University of Technology, WA

Emeritus Professor P J Taylor, Australian Capital Territory

Dr I Wanless, Monash University, VIC

The Australian Mathematical Olympiad (AMO) consists of two papers of four questions each and was sat on

10 and 11 February. There were 106 participants including 11 from New Zealand, seven more participants than

2014. Two students, Alexander Gunning and Seyoon Ragavan, achieved perfect scores and nine other students

were awarded Gold certificates,15 students were awarded Silver certificates and 26 students were awarded

Bronze certificates.

On Tuesday 10 March students from nations around the Asia-Pacific region were invited to write the Asian

Pacific Mathematics Olympiad (APMO). Of the top ten Australian students who participated, there were 1 Gold,

2 Silver, 4 Bronze and 3 HM certificates awarded. Australia finished in 9th place overall.

The IMO consists of two papers of three questions worth seven points each. They were attempted by teams of

six students from 104 countries on 8 and 9 July in Cape Town, South Africa. Australia was placed 6th of 104

countries, its most successful result since it began participating. The medals for Australia were two Gold and

four Silver.

Held on Tuesday 11 August, the Senior Contest was sat by 84 students (compared to 81 in 2014). There

were three students who obtained perfect scores and two other students who were also Prize winners. Three

studentent obtained High Distinctions and 14 students obtained Distinctions.

17

CHALLENGE

PROBLEMS

PRIMARY

2015 Challenge

Problems- MIDDLE

Middle Primary

Students may work on each of these four problems in groups of up to three, but must write their solutions individually.

MP1 e-Numbers

The digits on many electronic devices look like this:

), some of them become numbers and some dont. For

example, when 8 is rotated it remains the same, 125 becomes 521, and 14 does not become a number. Except for 0,

no number starts with 0.

a List all digits which rotate to the same digit.

b List all digits which rotate to a different digit.

c List all numbers from 10 to 50 whose rotations are numbers.

d List all numbers from 50 to 200 that stay the same when rotated.

Joy is making a rectangular patchwork quilt from square pieces of fabric. All the square pieces are the same size. She

starts by joining two black squares into a rectangle. Then she adds a border of grey squares.

a How many white squares does she need?

Joy continues to add borders of grey and borders of white squares alternately.

b How many grey squares and how many white squares does she need for the next two borders?

c Joy notices a pattern in the number of squares used for each border. Describe this pattern and explain why it

always works.

19

d There are 90 squares in the outside border of the completed quilt. How many borders have been added to Joys

starting black rectangle?

Zoe decided to investigate the number of different ways of placing identical eggs in clear rectangular cartons of various

sizes.

For example, there is only one way of placing six eggs in a 2 3 carton and only two different ways of placing five

eggs.

Reflections and rotations of arrangements are not considered different. For example, all of these arrangements are the

same:

b Draw six different ways of arranging two eggs in a 2 3 carton.

c Draw six different ways of arranging three eggs in a 2 3 carton.

d Draw all the different ways of arranging six eggs in a 2 4 carton.

MP4 Condates

On many forms, the date has to be written as DD/MM/YY. For example, 25 April 2013 is written 25/04/13. Dates

such as this that use all the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 will be called condates.

a Find two condates in 2015.

b Find the first condate after 2015.

c Find the last condate in any century.

d Explain why no date of the form DD/MM/YY can use all the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

19

CHALLENGE

PROBLEMS

PRIMARY

2015 Challenge

Problems- UPPER

Upper Primary

Students may work on each of these four problems in groups of up to three, but must write their solutions individually.

I have a large number of thin straight steel rods of lengths 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm and 4 cm. I can place the rods with their

ends touching to form polygons. For example, with four rods, two of length 1 cm and two of length 3 cm, I can form

a parallelogram which I refer to as (1, 3, 1, 3).

1c

m

1c

m

3 cm

3 cm

a List all the different equilateral triangles I can make using only three rods at a time.

b Using only three rods at a time, how many different isosceles triangles can I make which are not equilateral triangles?

List them all.

c List all the different scalene triangles I can make using only three rods at a time.

d Using only four rods at a time, none of which is 4 cm, how many different quadrilaterals can I make which have

exactly one pair of parallel sides and the other pair of sides equal in length? List them all.

Zoe decided to investigate the number of different ways of placing identical eggs in clear rectangular cartons of various

sizes.

For example, there is only one way of placing six eggs in a 2 3 carton and only two different ways of placing five

eggs.

Reflections and rotations of arrangements are not considered different. For example, all of these arrangements are the

same:

21

b Draw six different ways of arranging three eggs in a 2 3 carton.

c Draw all the different ways of arranging six eggs in a 2 4 carton.

d Zoe discovers that there are 55 ways of arranging three eggs in a 2 6 carton. Explain why there must also be 55

ways of arranging nine eggs in a 2 6 carton.

The coach at the Seahorse Swimming Club has four boys in his Under 10 squad. Their personal best (PB) times for

50 metres are:

Mack

Jack

Zac

Nick

55 seconds

1 minute 8 seconds

1 minute 16 seconds

1 minute 3 seconds

a The coach splits the swimmers into two pairs for a practice relay race. He wants the race to be as close as possible.

Based on the PB times, who should be in each pair?

b Chloes PB time is 1 minute 10 seconds and Sallys is 53 seconds. The coach arranges the two girls and four boys

into two teams of three with total PB times as close as possible.

i Why cant the total PB times be the same for the two teams?

ii Who are in each team?

c The swimmers ask the coach what his PB time was when he was 10 years old. The coach replied that if his PB

time was included with all theirs, then the average PB time would be exactly 1 minute. What was the coachs PB

time?

In Primelandia, the unit of currency is the Tao (T). The value of each Primelandian coin is a prime number of Taos.

So the coin with the smallest value is worth 2T. There are coins of every prime value less than 50. All payments in

Primelandia are an exact number of Taos.

a List all combinations of two coins whose sum is 50T.

b What is the smallest payment (without change) which requires at least three coins?

c Suppose you have one of each Primelandian coin with value less than 50T. What is the difference between the

largest even payment that can be made using four coins and the largest even payment that can be made using three

coins?

d A bag contains six different coins. Alice, Bob and Carol take two coins each from the bag and keep them. They

find that they have all taken the same amount of money. What is the smallest amount of money that could have

been in the bag? Explain your reasoning.

21

CHALLENGE

PROBLEMS

JUNIOR

2015 Challenge

Problems -Junior

Students may work on each of these six problems with a partner but each must write their solutions individually.

J1 Quirky Quadrilaterals

Robin and Toni were drawing quadrilaterals on square dot paper with their vertices on the dots but no other dots on

the edges. They decided to use I to represent the number of dots in the interior. Here are two examples:

I=1

I=6

a Toni said she could draw a rhombus with I = 2 and a kite that is not a rhombus with I = 2. Draw such quadrilaterals

on square dot paper.

b Toni drew squares with I = 4 and I = 9. Draw such squares on square dot paper.

c Robin drew a square with I = 12. Draw such a square on square dot paper.

d Toni exclaimed with excitement, I can draw rhombuses with any number of interior points. Explain how this could

be done.

J2 Indim Integers

Jim is a contestant on a TV game show called Indim. The compere spins a wheel that is divided into nine sectors

numbered 1 to 9. Jim has nine tiles numbered 1 to 9. When the wheel stops, he removes all tiles whose numbers are

factors or multiples of the spun number.

4

5

Jim then tries to use three of the remaining tiles to form a 3-digit number that is divisible by the number on the

wheel. If he can make such a number, he shouts Indim and wins a prize.

a Show that if 1, 2, or 5 is spun, then it is impossible for Jim to win.

b How many winning numbers can Jim make if 4 is spun?

c List all the winning numbers if 6 is spun.

d What is the largest possible winning number overall?

23

J3 Primelandia Money

In Primelandia, the unit of currency is the Tao (T). The value of each Primelandian coin is a prime number of Taos.

So the coin with the smallest value is worth 2T. There are coins of every prime value less than 50. All payments in

Primelandia are an exact number of Taos.

a What is the smallest payment (without change) which requires at least three coins?

b A bag contains six different coins. Alice, Bob and Carol take two coins each from the bag and keep them. They

find that they have all taken the same amount of money. What is the smallest amount of money that could have

been in the bag? Explain your reasoning.

c Find five Primelandian coins which, when placed in ascending order, form a sequence with equal gaps of 6T between

their values.

d The new King of Primelandia decides to mint coins of prime values greater than 50T. Show that no matter what

coins are made, there is only one set of five Primelandian coins which, when placed in ascending order, form a

sequence with equal gaps of 6T between their values.

J4 Condates

On many forms, the date has to be written as DD/MM/YYYY. For example, 25 April 1736 is written 25/04/1736.

Dates such as this that use eight consecutive digits (not necessarily in order) will be called condates.

a What is the first condate after the year 2015?

b Why must there be a 0 in every condate in the years 2000 to 2999?

c Why must every condate in the years 2000 to 2999 have 0 as the first digit of the month?

d How many condates are there in the years 2000 to 2999?

J5 Jogging

Theo is training for the annual Mt Killaman Joggin 10 km Torture Track. This fun run involves running east on a

flat track for 2 km to the base of Mt Killaman Joggin, then straight up its rather steep side a further 3 km to the top.

This is the halfway point where you turn around and run back the way you came. This simplified mudmap should

give you the general idea.

Top of Mt KJ

3k

Start/Finish

2 km

Base of Mt KJ

Theo can run at 12 km/h on the flat. Up the hill he reckons he can average 9 km/h and he is good for 15 km/h on the

downhill part of the course.

a Calculate Theos expected time to complete the course, assuming his estimates for his running speeds are correct.

The day before the race, Theo hears that windy conditions are expected. He knows from experience that this will

affect his speed out on the course. When the wind blows into his face, it will slow him down by 1 km/h, but when it is

at his back, he will speed up by the same amount. This applies to his speeds on the flat and on the slope. The wind

will either blow directly from the east or directly from the west.

b From which direction should he hope the wind blows if he wishes to minimise his time? Justify your answer.

c Theo would like to finish the race in 50 minutes. He decides to run either the uphill leg faster or the downhill leg

faster, but not both. Assuming there is no wind, how much faster would he have to run in each case?

23

J6 Tessellating Hexagons

Will read in his favourite maths book that this hexagon tessellates the plane.

D

E

C

To see if this was true, Will made 16 copies of the hexagon and glued them edge-to-edge onto a piece of paper, with

no overlaps and no gaps.

a Cut out 16 hexagons from the worksheet and glue them as Will might have done so they entirely cover the dashed

rectangle.

b Show that your block of 16 hexagons can be translated indefinitely to tessellate the entire plane.

c Find all points on the hexagon above that are points of symmetry of your tessellation.

d In your tessellation, select four hexagons that form one connected block which will tessellate the plane by translation

only. Indicate three such blocks on your tessellation that are not identical.

25

CHALLENGE

PROBLEMS

2015 Challenge

Problems- INTERMEDIATE

Intermediate

Students may work on each of these six problems with a partner but each must write their solutions individually.

I1 Indim Integers

See Junior Problem 2.

I2 Digital Sums

The digital sum of an integer is the sum of all its digits. For example, the digital sum of 259 is 2 + 5 + 9 = 16.

a Find the largest even and largest odd 3-digit multiples of 7 which have a digital sum that is also a multiple of 7.

A digital sum sequence is a sequence of numbers that starts with any integer and has each number after the first

equal to the digital sum of the number before it. For example: 7598, 29, 11, 2. Any digital sum sequence ends in a

single-digit number and this is called the final digital sum or FDS of the first number in the sequence. Thus the FDS

of 7598 is 2.

b Find the three largest 3-digit multiples of 7 which have an FDS of 7.

c Find and justify a rule that produces all 3-digit multiples of 7 which have an FDS of 7.

d Find and justify a rule that produces all 3-digit multiples of 8 which have an FDS of 8.

I3 Coin Flips

I have several identical coins placed on a table. I play a game consisting of one or more moves. Each move consists of

flipping over some of the coins. The number of coins that are flipped stays the same for each game but may change

from game to game. A coin showing heads is represented by H. A coin showing tails is represented by T . So, when

a coin is flipped it changes from H to T or from T to H. The same coin may be selected on different moves. In each

game we start with all coins showing tails.

For example, in one game we might start with five coins and flip two at a time like this:

Start:

Move 1:

Move 2:

Move 3:

T

T

H

H

T

H

H

H

T

H

T

T

T

T

T

H

T

T

T

H

a Starting with 14 coins and flipping over four coins on each move, explain how to finish with exactly 10 coins heads

up in three moves.

b Starting with 154 coins and flipping over 52 coins on each move, explain how to finish with all coins heads up in

three moves.

c Starting with 26 coins and flipping over four coins on each move, what is the minimum number of moves needed to

finish with all coins heads up?

d Starting with 154 coins and flipping over a fixed odd number of coins on each move, explain why I cannot have all

154 coins heads up at the end of three moves.

I4 Jogging

See Junior Problem 5.

25

I5 Folding Fractions

A square piece of paper has side length 1 and is shaded on the front and white on the back. The bottom-right corner

is folded to a point P on the top edge as shown, creating triangles P QR, P T S and SU V .

T

S

U

V

a If P is the midpoint of the top edge of the square, find the length of QR.

b If P is the midpoint of the top edge of the square, find the side lengths of triangle SU V .

c Find all positions of P so that the ratio of the sides of triangle SU V is 7:24:25.

I6 Crumbling Cubes

A large cube is made of 1 1 1 small cubes. Small cubes are removed in a sequence of steps.

The first step consists of marking all small cubes that have at least 2 visible faces and then removing only those small

cubes.

In the second and subsequent steps, the same procedure is applied to what remains of the original large cube after the

previous step.

a Starting with a 10 10 10 cube, how many small cubes are removed at the first step?

b A different cube loses 200 small cubes at the first step. What are the dimensions of this cube?

c Beginning with a 9 9 9 cube, what is the surface area of the object that remains after the first step?

d Beginning with a 9 9 9 cube, how many small cubes are left after the third step?

27

CHALLENGE

SOLUTIONS

MIDDLE

PRIMARY

2015 Challenge

Solutions - Middle

Primary

MP1 e-Numbers

a The digits which rotate to the same digit are: 0, 1, 2, 5, 8.

b The digits which rotate to a different digit are 6 and 9.

c Only the digits in Parts a and b can be used to form numbers whose rotations are numbers. So the only numbers

from 10 to 50 whose rotations are numbers are: 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29.

d From Parts a and b, if a number and its rotation are the same, then the first and last digits of the number must

both be 1, 2, 5, 8, or the first digit is 6 and the last 9 or the first 9 and the last 6. So the numbers from 50 to 200

that stay the same when rotated are: 55, 69, 88, 96, 101, 111, 121, 151, 181.

a The quilt after adding one grey and one white border:

b The quilt after adding another grey and another white border:

c The table shows the number of squares in each border that we have counted so far.

Border

Squares

1

10

2

18

3

26

4

34

The number of squares from one border to the next appears to increase by 8. We now show this rule continues to

apply.

10

27

Except for the corner squares, each square on the previous border corresponds to a square in the new border. Each

of the corner squares C on the previous border corresponds to a corner square C in the new border. In addition,

there are two new squares next to each corner.

new border

C

C

previous border

previous border

new border

new border

previous border

previous border

new border

C

C

Thus the number of squares from one border to the next increases by 4 2 = 8.

d Alternative i

The first border has 2 + 8 squares.

The second border has 2 + 8 + 8 squares.

The third border has 2 + 8 + 8 + 8 squares.

And so on.

We want 2 + 8 + 8 + = 90.

Hence the number of 8s needed is 11.

So Joys completed quilt has 11 borders.

Alternative ii

From Part c we have the following table.

Border

Squares

1

10

2

18

3

26

4

34

5

42

6

50

7

58

8

66

9

74

10

82

11

90

a

b

11

29

d Each arrangement of six eggs in a 2 4 carton has two empty positions. By systematically locating the two empty

positions, we see that there are ten different ways to arrange six eggs in a 2 4 carton.

MP4 Condates

a Any condate in the year 2015 must be written as DD/MM/15. The remaining digits are 0, 2, 3, 4. So the month

must be 02, 03, or 04.

If the month is 02, then the day is 34 or 43, which are not allowed. If the month is 03, then the day must be 24. If

the month is 04, then the day must be 23. Thus the only condates in 2015 are 24/03/15 and 23/04/15.

b There are no condates in the years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 since their last digits are greater than 5.

In 2020, the remaining digits are 1, 3, 4, 5. No two of these form a month.

In 2021, the remaining digits are 0, 3, 4, 5. So the month must start with 0. Then the day must contain two of 3,

4, 5, which is impossible.

The year 2022 duplicates 2.

In 2023, the only digits remaining are 0, 1, 4, 5. The day cannot use both 4 and 5, so the month is 04 or 05. The

earliest of these is 04, in which case the day must be 15. So the first condate after 2015 is 15/04/23.

c The latest possible year ends with 54. The latest month in that year is 12. So the latest day is 30. Thus the last

condate in any century is 30/12/54.

d If DD/MM/YY contains all the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, then no digit can be repeated and no digit is 0. Hence the

month must be 12. So the day must contain two of the digits 3, 4, 5, 6. This is impossible.

12

29

CHALLENGE

SOLUTIONS

UPPER

PRIMARY

2015 Challenge

Solutions - Upper

Primary

UP1 Rod Shapes

a There are four equilateral triangles: (1, 1, 1), (2, 2, 2), (3, 3, 3), (4, 4, 4).

b To form an isosceles triangle that is not equilateral we need two rods of equal length and a third rod with a different

length. Thus we have only the following choices:

(1, 2, 2), (1, 3, 3), (1, 4, 4), (2, 1, 1), (2, 3, 3), (2, 4, 4), (3, 1, 1), (3, 2, 2), (3, 4, 4), (4, 1, 1), (4, 2, 2), (4, 3, 3).

To form a triangle, we must have each side smaller than the sum of the other two sides. This eliminates

(2, 1, 1), (3, 1, 1), (4, 1, 1), (4, 2, 2).

So there are only eight isosceles triangles that are not equilateral triangles:

(1, 2, 2), (1, 3, 3), (1, 4, 4), (2, 3, 3), (2, 4, 4), (3, 2, 2), (3, 4, 4), (4, 3, 3).

c A scalene triangle has three unequal sides. So there are four possibilities: (1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 3, 4), (2, 3, 4).

To form a triangle, we must have each side smaller than the sum of the other two sides. This eliminates

(1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 3, 4).

So there is only one scalene triangle: (2, 3, 4).

d If the pair of parallel sides have equal length, then the other pair of sides would be parallel. So the pair of parallel

sides must have unequal length.

The possible lengths for the parallel sides are (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3).

So we have only the following choices for the quadrilateral:

(1, 1, 2, 1), (1, 2, 2, 2), (1, 3, 2, 3), (1, 1, 3, 1), (1, 2, 3, 2), (1, 3, 3, 3), (2, 1, 3, 1), (2, 2, 3, 2), (2, 3, 3, 3).

To form a quadrilateral, we must have each side smaller than the sum of the other three sides.

This eliminates (1, 1, 3, 1). So there are just eight required quadrilaterals.

a Any four of the following arrangements.

b

c By systematically locating the two empty positions, we see that there are ten different ways to arrange six eggs in

a 2 4 carton.

13

31

d Each of Zoes arrangements in the 2 6 carton has 3 eggs and 9 empty places. Suppose the 3 eggs are white and fill

the empty places with 9 brown eggs. Then each placement of 3 white eggs corresponds to a placement of 9 brown

eggs. So the number of ways of arranging 3 eggs equals the number of ways of arranging 9 eggs.

a To compare times, first convert each PB time to seconds.

Mack

Jack

Zac

Nick

55 s

1 min 8 s = 68 s

1 min 16 s = 76 s

1 min 3 s = 63 s

Alternative i

The table shows the total PB times, in seconds, for all pairs that include Mack and for the corresponding pairs that

exclude Mack.

Pair with M

Total PB

Other pair

Total PB

MJ

123

ZN

139

MZ

131

JN

131

MN

118

JZ

144

Thus the pairs that have the same total PB time are Mack with Zac and Jack with Nick.

Alternative ii

The total PB time for the four swimmers is 55 + 68 + 76 + 63 = 262 seconds. It might be possible that the total

PB time for each pair is 262/2 = 131 seconds. To get the units digit 1 in the total we must pair 55 with 76 and 68

with 63. Each pair then totals 131 as required. Thus Mack is paired with Zac and Jack is paired with Nick.

14

31

i Chloes PB time is 70 seconds and Sallys is 53 seconds. So the total of all six PB times is 262 + 70 + 53 = 385

seconds. Since 385 is odd and cannot be divided into two equal amounts, the two teams cannot have the same

total PB times.

ii Alternative i

The total of all six PB times is 262 + 70 + 53 = 385 seconds. As explained in Part i, two teams cannot have

the same total PB times. The next closest would be 1 second apart, in which case the times would be 192 s and

193 s. To see if this is possible, we need to select three PB times and add them to see if they total 192 or 193.

It is easier to just add their units digits to see if we get 2 or 3. The swimmers PB times in increasing order

of their units digits are: 70, 53, 63, 55, 76, 68. The only three that give 3 in the units digit of their total are

70, 55, 68, and these do in fact total 193 s. Thus one team has Chloe, Mack, and Jack with a total PB time of

70 + 55 + 68 = 193 s. The other team has Sally, Nick, and Zac with a total PB time of 53 + 63 + 76 = 192 s.

Alternative ii

The table shows the total PB times, in seconds, for all teams that include Mack and for the corresponding

teams that exclude Mack.

Team with M

MJZ

MJN

MJC

MJS

MZN

MZC

MZS

MNC

MNS

MCS

Total PB

199

186

193

176

194

201

184

188

171

178

Other team

NCS

ZCS

ZNS

ZNC

JCS

JNS

JNC

JZS

JZC

JZN

Total PB

186

199

192

209

191

184

201

197

214

207

Thus the two teams that have the closest total PB time are Mack, Jack, Chloe with 193 seconds and Zac, Nick,

Sally with 192 seconds.

c If the average of seven PB times is 60 seconds, then the total of their PB times is 7 60 = 420 seconds. From Part

b, the total PB time for the six swimmers is 385 seconds. So the coachs PB time was 420 385 = 35 seconds.

a From 50, we subtract primes from 50 down to 25 and check if the difference is prime:

50 47 = 3,

50 37 = 13,

50 43 = 7,

50 31 = 19,

50 41 = 9,

50 29 = 21.

Since 9 and 21 are not prime, the only pairs of primes that total 50 are: (47,3), (43,7), (37,13), (31,19).

b We have the following amounts that can be paid with one or two coins:

2=2

3=3

4= 2+2

5=5

6= 3+3

7=7

8= 3+5

9= 2+7

10 = 3 + 7

11 = 11

12 = 5 + 7

13 = 13

14 = 3 + 11

15 = 2 + 13

16 = 3 + 13

17 = 17

18 = 5 + 13

19 = 19

20 = 3 + 17

21 = 2 + 19

22 = 3 + 19

23 = 23

24 = 5 + 19

25 = 2 + 23

26 = 3 + 23

Alternative i

From 27, we subtract primes from 27 down to 14 and check if the difference is prime:

27 23 = 4, 27 19 = 8, 27 17 = 10.

None of the differences is prime. Hence 27T is the smallest payment which requires at least three coins.

15

33

Alternative ii

The sum of two odd primes is even. So, if 27 is the sum of two primes, then one of those primes is 2, the only even

prime. Now 27 = 2 + 25 and 25 is not prime, so 27 cannot be the sum of two primes. Hence 27T is the smallest

payment which requires at least three coins.

c The four largest primes less than 50 are 47, 43, 41, and 37. So the largest even amount that can be made from four

coins is 47 + 43 + 41 + 37 = 168. If the sum of three primes is even, then one of those primes must be 2. So the

largest even amount that can be made from three coins is 47 + 43 + 2 = 92. The difference is 168 92 = 76.

d The bag cant contain a 2T coin. If it did, then the sum of the pair of coins that includes 2T would be odd and the

sum of each other pair of coins would be even.

Since all coins are odd, the sum of all six coins is even. Since the three pairs of coins have the same sum, the sum

of all six coins is divisible by 3. The sum of all six coins is at least 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13 + 17 = 56, which is not a

multiple of 6. The next multiple of 6 is 60. The following table lists all possibilities for each sum of six coins up to

72T.

Sum of six

60

66

72

Sum of pair

20

22

24

3 + 17, 7 + 13

3 + 19, 5 + 17

5 + 19, 7 + 17, 11 + 13

Thus the smallest amount that could have been in the bag is 72T.

16

33

CHALLENGE

SOLUTIONS

JUNIOR

2015 Challenge

Solutions -Junior

J1 Quirky Quadrilaterals

a

Kite

Rhombus

Another kite

I=4

I=9

I = 12

d If I is an odd number we can surround a column of I dots with a rhombus whose vertices are immediately above,

below and either side of the middle of the column as the following examples show. Thus one diagonal of the

rhombus lies on the line through the column of I dots and the other diagonal lies on the line perpendicular to the

first diagonal and passing through the middle dot.

I=1

I=3

17

I=5

35

If I is an even number we can surround a south-west/north-east diagonal of I dots with a rhombus whose vertices

are immediately south-west, north-east, and either side of the middle of the diagonal as the following examples

show. Thus one diagonal of the rhombus lies on the line through the I dots and the other diagonal lies on the line

perpendicular to the first diagonal and bisecting the distance between the two middle dots.

I =2

I =4

I=6

These rhombuses are not unique.

J2 Indim Integers

a Since 1 is a factor of every integer, no tile remains if 1 is spun.

If 2 is spun, then all remaining tiles have an odd number. Hence any 3-digit number made from the remaining tiles

would be odd and not divisible by 2. So there is no winning number if 2 is spun.

If 5 is spun, then tiles 1 and 5 are removed. No number made from the remaining tiles is a multiple of 5 since it

cannot end in 0 or 5. So there is no winning number if 5 is spun.

b The only digits remaining after spinning 4 are 3, 5, 6, 7, 9. A number made from these digits is divisible by 4 if

and only if it ends with a 2-digit number that is divisible by 4. The only such 2-digit multiples of 4 that can be

made are 36, 56, 76, and 96.

Alternative i

So there are 12 winning numbers: 536, 736, 936, 356, 756, 956, 376, 576, 976, 396, 596, 796.

Alternative ii

From each of 36, 56, 76, 96, we form a 3-digit number by choosing one of the remaining three digits as its first digit.

So the number of winning numbers is 3 4 = 12.

c The only digits remaining after spinning 6 are 4, 5, 7, 8, 9. A 3-digit number is divisible by 6 if and only if its last

digit is even and the sum of all its digits is divisible by 3. So the only winning numbers if 6 is spun are: 594, 954,

894, 984, 498, 948, 798, 978.

18

35

Alternative i

If 3 is spun, then tile 9 is excluded. So any winning number from spinning 3 must be less than 900.

From Part b, the largest winning number from spinning 4 is 976.

From Part c, the largest winning number from spinning 6 is 984.

The only 3-digit multiples of 7 larger than 984 are 987 and 994. If 7 is spun, then 987 is excluded. The multiple

994 is excluded because 9 is repeated.

All 3-different-digit numbers larger than 984 start with 98. So there are no winning numbers larger than 984 if 8

or 9 is spun.

So the largest winning number overall is 984.

Alternative ii

The largest number with three different digits is 987. This cannot be a winning number from spinning 9, 8, or 7.

Since 987 is not divisible by 6 or 4, it cannot be a winning number from spinning 6 or 4. It is divisible by 3 but

cannot be a winning number from spinning 3 since digit 9 would have been eliminated. So 987 is not a winning

number.

The next largest number is 986. This cannot be a winning number from spinning 9, 8, or 6. Since 986 is not divisible

by 7, 4, or 3, it is not a winning number from spinning 7, 4, or 3. So 986 is not a winning number.

The next largest number is 985. This cannot be a winning number from spinning 9, 8, or 5. Since 985 is not divisible

by 7, 6, 4, or 3, it is not a winning number from spinning 7, 6, 4, or 3. So 985 is not a winning number.

The next largest number is 984. This is divisible by 6 and none of its digits is a factor or multiple of 6. So it is a

winning number.

Thus the largest winning number overall is 984.

J3 Primelandia Money

a We have the following amounts that can be paid with one or two coins:

2=2

3=3

4= 2+2

5=5

6= 3+3

7=7

8= 3+5

9= 2+7

10 = 3 + 7

11 = 11

12 = 5 + 7

13 = 13

14 = 3 + 11

15 = 2 + 13

16 = 3 + 13

17 = 17

18 = 5 + 13

19 = 19

20 = 3 + 17

21 = 2 + 19

22 = 3 + 19

23 = 23

24 = 5 + 19

25 = 2 + 23

26 = 3 + 23

Alternative i

From 27, we subtract primes from 27 down to 14 and check if the difference is prime:

27 23 = 4, 27 19 = 8, 27 17 = 10.

None of the differences is prime. Hence 27T is the smallest payment which requires at least three coins.

Alternative ii

The sum of two odd primes is even. So, if 27 is the sum of two primes, then one of those primes is 2, the only even

prime. Now 27 = 2 + 25 and 25 is not prime, so 27 cannot be the sum of two primes. Hence 27T is the smallest

payment which requires at least three coins.

b The bag cant contain a 2T coin. If it did, then the sum of the pair of coins that includes 2T would be odd and the

sum of each other pair of coins would be even.

Since all coins are odd, the sum of all six coins is even. Since the three pairs of coins have the same sum, the sum

of all six coins is divisible by 3. The sum of all six coins is at least 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13 + 17 = 56, which is not a

multiple of 6. The next multiple of 6 is 60. The following table lists all possibilities for each sum of six coins up to

72T.

Sum of six Sum of pair

All possible pairs

60

20

3 + 17, 7 + 13

66

22

3 + 19, 5 + 17

72

24

5 + 19, 7 + 17, 11 + 13

Thus the smallest amount that could have been in the bag is 72T.

19

37

c Examining primes less than 50 for pairs that differ by 6 and starting with small primes, we quickly find the sequence

5, 11, 17, 23, 29.

d Alternative i

Suppose we have a sequence of five prime numbers in ascending order which are 6 apart. Since 6 is even and 2 is

the only even prime, all primes in the sequence must be odd. Hence they only end in 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9. The difference

between any two primes in the sequence is 6, 12, 18, or 24. So no two primes in the sequence can end in the same

digit. There are five primes in the sequence so all of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 must appear as last digits. The only prime whose

last digit is 5 is 5 itself. So the sequence must be 5, 11, 17, 23, 29.

Alternative ii

Suppose we have a sequence of five prime numbers in ascending order which are 6 apart. Since 6 is even and 2 is

the only even prime, all primes in the sequence must be odd. Hence they only end in 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9. The only

prime ending in 5 is 5 itself. Therefore, if the first prime in the sequence ends in 5, the sequence is 5, 11, 17, 23, 29.

If the first prime ends in 1, then the next four primes end in 7, 3, 9, 5. If the first prime ends in 3, then the next

four primes end in 9, 5, 1, 7. If the first prime ends in 7, then the next four primes end in 3, 9, 5, 1. If the first

prime ends in 9, then the next four primes end in 5, 1, 7, 3. In each of these four cases, the prime ending in 5 is at

least 1 + 6 = 7, 3 + 6 = 9, 7 + 6 = 13, and 9 + 6 = 15 respectively. This is impossible.

So the only sequence is 5, 11, 17, 23, 29.

Alternative iii

Suppose we have a sequence of five prime numbers in ascending order which are 6 apart. Replace each of the five

numbers in the sequence with its remainder when divided by 5.

If the first remainder is 0, then the sequence of remainders is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. If the first remainder is 1, then the

sequence of remainders is 1, 2, 3, 4, 0. If the first remainder is 2, then the sequence of remainders is 2, 3, 4, 0,

1. If the first remainder is 3, then the sequence of remainders is 3, 4, 0, 1, 2. If the first remainder is 4, then the

sequence of remainders is 4, 0, 1, 2, 3.

In all cases there is a remainder of 0, which represents a multiple of 5 in the original sequence. The only prime that

is divisible by 5 is 5 itself. Since there is no positive number that is 6 less than 5, 5 must be the first number in the

original sequence. Thus the original sequence is 5, 11, 17, 23, 29.

J4 Condates

a Any condate in a year starting with 20 must be DD/MM/20YY. So the month must be 1M. Then there is no

available digit for M. So there is no condate in the years 2000 to 2099.

Any condate in a year starting with 21 must be DD/MM/21YY. So the month must be 0M. Hence the day is 3D.

Then there is no available digit for D. So there is no condate in the years 2100 to 2199.

There is no condate in a year starting with 22, since 2 is repeated.

Any condate in a year starting with 23 must be DD/MM/23YY. So the month is 0M or 10. If the month is 10,

then there is no available digit for the first D in the day. So the month is 0M and the condate is 1D/0M/23YY.

The earliest year is 2345 and the earliest month in that year is 06. Hence the first condate after the year 2015 is

17/06/2345.

b In any year either 0 or 1 must appear in the month. If 0 is not in the month, then the month is 12. Hence the year

cannot start with 2. So in the years 2000 to 2999, 0 must be in the month for any condate.

c From Part b, 0 must be in the month for any condate from 2000 to 2999. If the 0 is not the first digit of the month,

then the month must be 10. Hence the remaining digits are 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, no two of which can represent a day. So

in the years 2000 to 2999, 0 must be the first digit in the month for any condate.

d From Part c, a condate in the years 2000 to 2999 has the form DD/0M/2YYY. So DD is either 1D or 3D.

If the condate is 1D/0M/2YYY, then each of the letters can be replaced by any one of the digits 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

without repeating a digit. There are 5 choices for D, then 4 choices for M, and so on. So the number of condates

is 5 4 3 2 1 = 120.

If the condate is 3D/0M/2YYY, then D is 1 and the month has 31 days. The remaining available digits are 4, 5,

6, 7. So M is 5 or 7. Thus there are 2 choices for M, then 3 choices for the first Y, and so on. So the number of

condates is 2 3 2 1 = 12.

Thus the number of condates in the years 2000 to 2999 is 120 + 12 = 132.

20

37

J5 Jogging

4

a On the flat, Theo will run a total of 4 km at 12 km/h and this will take 12

60 = 20 minutes. He will run 3 km

3

uphill at 9 km/h and this will take 9 60 = 20 minutes. He will run 3 km downhill at 15 km/h and this will take

3

60 = 12 minutes. So the total time taken for Theo to complete the course will be 20 + 20 + 12 = 52 minutes.

15

b Alternative i

If the wind blows from the west, then Theos speed and times for the various sections of the course will be:

Section

Distance

Speed

Flat east

Uphill

Downhill

Flat west

2 km

3 km

3 km

2 km

13 km/h

10 km/h

14 km/h

11 km/h

2

So the total time to complete the course would be ( 13

+

3

10

3

14

Time

2

13

3

10

3

14

2

11

2

11 )

h

h

h

h

60 51.0 minutes.

If the wind blows from the east, then Theos speed and times for the various sections of the course will be:

Section

Distance

Speed

Time

Flat east

Uphill

Downhill

Flat west

2 km

3 km

3 km

2 km

11 km/h

8 km/h

16 km/h

13 km/h

2

11 h

3

8 h

3

16 h

2

h

13

2

So the total time to complete the course would be ( 11

+

3

8

3

16

2

13 )

60 53.9 minutes.

So Theos time will be less if the wind blows from the west.

Alternative ii

Since Theo runs both ways on the flat, he gains no advantage on the flat from either wind direction.

3

3

+ 14

hours. If the wind blows from the east,

If the wind blows from the west, then his time on the hill will be 10

3

3

then his time on the hill will be 8 + 16 hours. To simplify comparison of these times we divide both by 3 and

1

1

12

multiply both by 2. So we want to compare 15 + 17 = 12

35 with 4 + 8 = 32 . Thus the first time is shorter.

So Theos time will be less if the wind blows from the west.

c Alternative i

From Part a, Theo has to gain 2 minutes.

From Part a, he ran 3 km uphill at 9 km/h in 20 minutes. So to gain 2 minutes uphill, he will need to run 3 km in

3

18 minutes. Therefore his speed needs to be 18

60 = 10 km/h, which is 1 km/h faster.

From Part a, he ran 3 km downhill at 15 km/h in 12 minutes. So to gain 2 minutes downhill, he will need to run

3

3 km in 10 minutes. Therefore his speed needs to be 10

60 = 18 km/h, which is 3 km/h faster.

Alternative ii

Theo wants to complete the course in 50 minutes. From Part a, the flat takes 20 minutes. This leaves 30 minutes

for the hill.

3

If Theos speed uphill is r km/h and downhill is 15 km/h, then the time taken for the hill in hours is r3 + 15

=

3

1

1

3

So r = 2 5 = 10 . Hence r = 10 km/h. This is 1 km/h faster.

If Theos speed downhill is r km/h and uphill is 9 km/h, then the time taken for the hill in hours is

So 3r = 12 13 = 16 . Hence r = 18 km/h. This is 3 km/h faster.

21

3

9

+ 3r =

30

60

= 12 .

30

60

= 12 .

39

J6 Tessellating Hexagons

a The flipped hexagons are shaded.

D

E

F

E

F

C

B

A

F

A C

D

B

F E

A C

D

B

D

C A

D

C A

F

E

F

A

F

E

C

F

A C

D

B

F E

A C

D

B

D

C A

D

C A

A

C

F

E

F

E

Alternative i

We see from the 16-block that AB = ED, BC = F A, the sum of the three interior angles A, C, D is 360 , and the

sum of the three interior angles B, E, F is also 360 .

Indicating a hexagon side with a dash, the bottom boundary of the 16-block is

A BF E D CA BF E D and the top boundary is

D E F B AC D E F B A.

So these boundaries are identical. Hence the 16-block can be translated vertically to form an infinite column without

gaps and without overlap.

The right boundary of this column is

DA F EB C DA F EB C DA repeated indefinitely.

The left boundary of the column is

C BE F AD C BE F AD C repeated indefinitely.

So these boundaries are identical. Hence the column can be translated horizontally to tessellate the plane.

Alternative ii

Make several photocopies of the 16-block. Place them side by side and top to bottom to show how they fit together.

22

39

c There is no point of symmetry for the tessellation inside a hexagon because the hexagon has no point of symmetry.

So all points of symmetry for the tessellation must be on the edges of the hexagons. If a point of symmetry for the

tessellation is on an edge of a hexagon, then it must be at the midpoint of that edge.

From the block of hexagons in Part a, we see that each of the edges AB, BC, DE, F A, has the smallest edge EF

attached at one end but not the other. So the midpoints of edges AB, BC, DE, F A are not points of symmetry

for the tessellation.

To check the midpoint of edge CD, trace a copy of the block and place it exactly over the original block. Then

place a pin through the midpoint of edge CD, rotate the traced copy of the block through 180 and notice that it

again fits exactly over the original block (except for overhang). Thus the midpoint of CD is a point of symmetry

for the tessellation. Similarly for the midpoint of EF .

So the only points of symmetry for the tessellation are the midpoints of edges CD and EF .

23

41

d The block of hexagons in Part a is reproduced below with hexagons labelled H1 , H2 , H3 , H4 , H1 , H2 , H3 , H4 , and

so on as shown.

D

E

F

C

B

H3

A

A C

D

H4

H4

H3

A C

D

B

F E

E

B

D

C A

H1

C A

H1

A

H2

F

E

F

E

H4

H3

A C

D

H4

B

F E

H3

A C

D

H1

D

C A

C A

A

C

H2

A

H2

H1

F

E

B

E

F

H2

F

E

F

E

F

E

Hexagons with the same subscript translate to one another. So there are several blocks of four hexagons that

tessellate by translation. Three such blocks are: {H1 , H2 , H3 , H4 }, {H1 , H2 , H3 , H4 }, {H1 , H2 , H3 , H4 }.

24

41

CHALLENGE

SOLUTIONS

INTERMEDIATE

2015 Challenge

Solutions - Intermediate

I1 Indim Integers

See Junior Problem 2.

I2 Digital Sums

a Alternative i

The table lists 3-digit numbers n in decreasing order whose digit sums s are multiples of 7.

n

993

984

975

966

957

950

948

941

939

932

923

914

s

21

21

21

21

21

14

21

14

21

14

14

14

7 divides n?

no

no

no

yes

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

n

905

894

885

876

867

860

858

851

849

842

833

s

14

21

21

21

21

14

21

14

21

14

14

7 divides n?

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

yes

So the largest even and odd n that are multiples of 7 and have a digital sum that is also a multiple of 7 are 966 and

833 respectively.

Alternative ii

The table lists 3-digit numbers n and their digital sums s. The n are multiples of 7 in decreasing order.

n

994

987

980

973

966

959

952

945

938

931

924

917

s

22

24

17

19

21

23

16

18

20

13

15

17

7 divides s?

no

no

no

no

yes

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

n

910

903

896

889

882

875

868

861

854

847

840

833

s

10

12

23

25

18

20

22

15

17

19

12

14

7 divides s?

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

yes

So the largest even and odd n that are multiples of 7 and have a digital sum that is also a multiple of 7 are 966 and

833 respectively.

b Alternative i

The largest 3-digit number with a digital sum of 7 is 700. The digital sum s of a 3-digit number is at most 39 = 27.

So, if the FDS of a 3-digit number n is 7 and n > 700, then the digital sum of n is 16 or 25. The table lists, in

decreasing order, the first few 3-digit numbers n with digital sum 16 or 25.

25

43

s

16

n

970

961

952

943

934

925

916

907

880

871

862

853

844

835

826

7 divides n?

no

no

yes

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

yes

s

25

n

997

988

979

898

889

799

7 divides n?

no

no

no

no

yes

no

So the three largest 3-digit multiples of 7 that have FDS 7 are: 952, 889, 826.

Alternative ii

The table lists, in decreasing order, multiples of 7 and their digital sum sequences (DSS).

n

994

987

980

973

966

959

952

945

938

931

924

917

910

DSS

22, 4

24, 6

17, 8

19, 10, 1

21, 3

23, 5

16, 7

18, 9

20, 2

13, 4

15, 6

17, 8

10, 1

n

903

896

889

882

875

868

861

854

847

840

833

826

DSS

12, 3

23, 5

25, 7

18, 9

20, 2

22, 4

15, 6

17, 8

19, 10, 1

12, 3

14, 5

16, 7

So the three largest 3-digit multiples of 7 that have FDS 7 are: 952, 889, 826.

c Alternative i

The table lists, in decreasing order, the 3-digit integers n that are multiples of 7 together with their FDSs (F).

26

43

n

994

987

980

973

966

959

952

945

938

931

924

917

910

903

F

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

n

896

889

882

875

868

861

854

847

840

833

826

819

812

805

F

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

497

490

483

476

469

462

455

448

441

434

427

420

413

406

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

399

392

385

378

371

364

357

350

343

336

329

322

315

308

301

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

n

798

791

784

777

770

763

756

749

742

735

728

721

714

707

700

294

287

280

273

266

259

252

245

238

231

224

217

210

203

F

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

n

693

686

679

672

665

658

651

644

637

630

623

616

609

602

F

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

196

189

182

175

168

161

154

147

140

133

126

119

112

105

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

n

595

588

581

574

567

560

553

546

539

532

525

518

511

504

F

1

3

5

7

9

2

4

6

8

1

3

5

7

9

Thus the only 3-digit multiples of 7 that have FDS 7 are: 133, 196, 259, 322, 385, 448, 511, 574, 637, 700, 763, 826,

889, 952. These have a common difference of 63. So the only 3-digit multiples of 7 that have FDS 7 are the integers

n = 7 + 63t where t = 2, 3, . . ., 15.

Alternative ii

The three numbers from Part b, 952, 889, 826, have a common difference of 63. This suggests that all 3-digit

multiples of 7 that have FDS 7 have the form 7 + 63m. These numbers are: 133, 196, 259, 322, 385, 448, 511, 574,

637, 700, 763, 826, 889, 952. Since 7 divides 7 and 63, all these numbers are multiples of 7. By direct calculation,

each has FDS 7. But are there any other 3-digit multiples of 7 that have FDS 7?

Extending the table in the first solution to Part b shows that there are no other n besides those of the form 7 + 63m

that have digital sum 16 or 25. The following table lists in decreasing order all 3-digit integers with digital sum 7.

n

700

610

601

520

511

502

430

421

412

403

7 divides n?

yes

no

no

no

yes

no

no

no

no

no

n

340

331

322

313

304

250

241

232

223

214

7 divides n?

no

no

yes

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

n

205

160

151

142

133

124

115

106

7 divides n?

no

no

no

no

yes

no

no

no

So there are no other 3-digit multiples of 7 with FDS 7 besides those of the form 7 + 63m.

27

45

Alternative iii

From the table in the first solution to Part b, it appears that integers with the same FDS differ by a multiple of

9. This is equivalent to saying they have the same remainder when divided by 9. We now show that this is always

true.

Any positive integer n can be written in the form

n = a + 10b + 100c +

where a, b, . . . are the digits of n. Thus

n =

=

a + (1 + 9)b + (1 + 99)c +

(a + b + c + ) + 9(b + 11c + )

So n and its digital sum have the same remainder when divided by 9. Therefore all digital sums in the digital sum

sequence for n, including its FDS, have the same remainder when divided by 9. Hence, if n is a multiple of 9, then

the FDS of n is 9, and if n is not a multiple of 9, then the FDS of n is the remainder when n is divided by 9.

So, the FDS of n is 7 if and only if n has the form n = 7 + 9r. Such an n is a multiple of 7 if and only if 7 divides

r. So n is a multiple of 7 and has FDS 7 if and only if n has the form n = 7 + 63t. Hence the only 3-digit multiples

of 7 that have FDS 7 are the integers n = 7 + 63t where t = 2, 3, . . ., 15. These are: 133, 196, 259, 322, 385, 448,

511, 574, 637, 700, 763, 826, 889, 952.

d Alternative i

The table lists, in decreasing order, the 3-digit integers n that are multiples of 8 together with their FDSs (F).

n

992

984

976

968

960

952

944

936

928

920

912

904

F

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

496

488

480

472

464

456

448

440

432

424

416

408

400

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

n

896

888

880

872

864

856

848

840

832

824

816

808

800

392

384

376

368

360

352

344

336

328

320

312

304

F

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

n

792

784

776

768

760

752

744

736

728

720

712

704

F

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

296

288

280

272

264

256

248

240

232

224

216

208

200

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

n

696

688

680

672

664

656

648

640

632

624

616

608

600

192

184

176

168

160

152

144

136

128

120

112

104

F

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

n

592

584

576

568

560

552

544

536

528

520

512

504

F

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Thus the only 3-digit multiples of 8 that have FDS 8 are: 152, 224, 296, 368, 440, 512, 584, 656, 728, 800, 872,

944. These have a common difference of 72. So the only 3-digit multiples of 8 that have FDS 8 are the integers

n = 8 + 72t where t = 2, 3, . . ., 13.

Alternative ii

From the third solution to Part c, the FDS of a positive integer n is 8 if and only if n has the form n = 8 + 9r.

Such an n is a multiple of 8 if and only if 8 divides r. So n is a multiple of 8 and has FDS 8 if and only if n has the

form n = 8 + 72t. Hence the only 3-digit multiples of 8 that have FDS 8 are the integers n = 8 + 72t where t = 2,

3, . . ., 13. These are: 152, 224, 296, 368, 440, 512, 584, 656, 728, 800, 872, 944.

28

45

I3 Coin Flips

a Here are three moves that leave exactly 10 coins heads up.

Start:

Move 1:

Move 2:

Move 3:

T T T T T T T T T T T

HHHHT T T T T T T

HHHHHHHHT T T

HHHHHHHT HHH

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

b Since there are 52 coins flipped in each move, the total number of coin flips is 3 52 = 156. We start with 154 T s

and want to finish with 154 Hs. We can achieve this by flipping 153 coins exactly once and flipping one coin three

times over the three moves. Here are three moves that leave all coins heads up.

154

Start:

T . . .T

52

102

Move 1: H . . . H T . . . T

51

51

51

H . . .H H T . . .T T . . .T

51

51

51

Move 2: H . . . H T H . . . H T . . . T

51

51

51

Move 3: H . . . H H H . . . H H . . . H

c Since there are 4 coins flipped in each move, the total number of coins flipped in 6 moves is at most 24. So it takes

at least 7 moves to finish with all coins heads up. We now show that this can actually be done in 7 moves.

After three moves, each flipping 4 Ts to 4 Hs, we get exactly 12 coins heads up. Then applying the three moves in

Part a to the 14 coins that are tails up, gives us exactly 12 + 10 = 22 coins heads up. One more move, flipping 4

Ts to 4 Hs, results in all coins heads up. Thus seven moves suffice to get all coins heads up.

So 7 is the minimum number of moves to get all coins heads up.

d Alternative i

Suppose m coins are flipped on each move where m is odd. Two moves give the following results.

154

Start:

T . . .T

m

154m

Move 1: H . . . H T . . . T

mn

mn

1542m+n

Move 2: H . . . H T . . . T H . . . H T . . . T

2m2n

1542m+2n

H . . .H

T . . .T

where 0 n m and

m n 154 m

To have all 154 coins with heads up after Move 3, we must have m = 154 2m + 2n. Thus 3m = 154 + 2n. But

3m is odd and 154 + 2n is even. So we cannot have 154 coins heads up after just three moves.

29

47

Alternative ii

Three moves give the following results. Note that in a move, an even number of coins may mean 0 coins.

154

Start:

T . . .T

odd

odd

Move 1: H . . . H T . . . T

even

odd

even

odd

Move 2: H . . . H T . . . T H . . . H T . . . T or

odd

even

odd

even

H . . . H T . . . T H . . . H T . . . T giving

even

even

H . . .H T . . .T

even

even

odd

odd

Move 3: H . . . H T . . . T H . . . H T . . . T or

odd

odd

even

even

H . . . H T . . . T H . . . H T . . . T giving

odd

odd

H . . .H T . . .T

Since 154 is even, we cannot have 154 coins heads up after just three moves.

I4 Jogging

See Junior Problem 5.

I5 Folding Fractions

a Let QR = x. Then P R = 1 x.

T

1

2

1

2

1x

1x

U

V

Hence 2x = 34 and x = 38 .

1

4

+ x2 = (1 x)2 = x2 2x + 1.

b Alternative i

From Part a, we have:

1

2

1

2

b

5

8

3

8

a

R

b

S

U

b

a

V

30

47

Since angles RQP , RP S, P T S, SU V are right angles, triangles RQP , P T S, V U S have the same angles as shown.

Hence they are similar and we have: V U :U S:SV = P T :T S:SP = RQ:QP :P R = 3:4:5.

Hence P S = 35 P T =

Then SV = 54 U S =

5

1

5

3 2 = 6 . So U S = U P SP

5

5

16 = 24

and V U = 34 U S = 34

4

5

1

6 = 6.

1

= 18 .

6

=1

Alternative ii

As in Alternative i, V U :U S:SV = P T :T S:SP = RQ:QP :P R = 3:4:5. So ST = 43 P T =

From the side of the square, we have: 1 = U V + V S + ST = 53 V S + V S +

5

So V S = 13 58 = 24

.

From V U S, we have: V U = 35 SV =

3

5

5

24

1

8

and U S = 45 SV =

4

5

2

3

5

24

4

3

1

2

= 23 .

= 85 V S + 23 .

= 16 .

Alternative iii

Draw RW perpendicular to T S and let T S = t and V U = r. From Part a, we have:

T

1

2

1

2

3

8

3

8

5

8

3

8

S

U

r

V r

In RW S, RS 2 = RW 2 + W S 2 = 1 + (t 38 )2 .

In RP S, RS 2 = RP 2 + P S 2 = ( 58 )2 + P S 2 .

In P T S, P S 2 = P T 2 + T S 2 = ( 12 )2 + t2 .

Hence

1 + (t 38 )2

9

1 + t2 + 64

34 t

3

t

4

t

( 58 )2 + ( 12 )2 + t2

25

+ 14 + t2

64

9

1 14 + 64

25

64

3

16

3

1

4

64

4

4 =

4

1

2

3 2 = 3

=

=

=

=

=

1

2

5

So P S 2 = ( 12 )2 + ( 23 )2 = 14 + 49 = 25

36 and P S = 6 .

5

1

Hence U S = U P SP = 1 6 = 6 .

Since 1 = T S + SV + r = 23 + SV + r, SV = 31 r.

1

9

Thus V U =

1

8

and SV =

1

3

1

8

( 31 r)2

+ r 2 23 r

2

3r

r

=

=

=

=

r 2 + ( 16 )2

1

r 2 + 36

1

1

9 36 =

3

1

2 12 =

3

36

1

8

1

12

5

24 .

31

49

c Since angles RQP , RP S, P T S, SU V are right angles, triangles RQP , P T S, V U S have the same angles as shown.

Hence they are similar and we have RQ:QP :P R = P T :T S:SP = V U :U S:SV = 7:24:25 or 24:7:25.

T

a

R

b

S

b

a

Alternative i

If P Q/QR = 7/24, let P Q = 7k. Then QR = 24k and P R = 25k. Since P R = 1 QR, we have 25k = 1 24k. So

1

49k = 1 and P Q = 7 49

= 17 .

If P Q/QR = 24/7, let P Q = 24k. Then QR = 7k and P R = 25k. Since P R = 1 QR, we have 25k = 1 7k. So

1

32k = 1 and P Q = 24 32

= 34 .

Alternative ii

If P Q/QR = 7/24, then P R/QR = 25/24. Since P R = 1 QR, we have 24 24QR = 25QR, QR = 24/49, and

P R = 25/49. From Pythagoras, P Q2 = P R2 QR2 = 1 2QR = 1 48/49 = 1/49. So P Q = 17 .

If P Q/QR = 24/7, then P R/QR = 25/7. Since P R = 1 QR, we have 7 7QR = 25QR, QR = 7/32, and

P R = 25/32. From Pythagoras, P Q2 = P R2 QR2 = 1 2QR = 1 7/16 = 9/16. So P Q = 34 .

Alternative iii

Let T P = x. If V U/U S = 7/24, let V U = 7k. Then U S = 24k and V S = 25k and we have:

T

1 32k

1 24k

R

24k

25k

7k

7k

Hence 25x = 7(1 24k) and 24x = 7(1 32k).

Subtracting gives x = 7(32 24)k = 56k.

Substituting gives 25(56k) = 7(1 24k).

Hence 1 = 224k and x = 56/224 = 8/32 = 1/4.

32

49

(1 24k)2

(24k)2 48k

16k

1

x

=

=

=

=

=

(1 32k)2 + (56k)2

(32k)2 64k + (56k)2

(562 + 322 242 )k 2

(142 + 82 62 )k = 224k

56/224 = 8/32 = 1/4

T

1 49k

1 7k

R

7k

25k

24k

24k

Hence 25x = 24(1 7k) and 7x = 24(1 49k).

Subtracting gives 18x = 24(49 7)k = 24(42)k, hence x = 56k.

Substituting gives 7(56k) = 24(1 49k).

Hence 49k = 3(1 49k), 4(49k) = 3, x = 56(3)/4(49) = 6/7.

Alternatively, in P T S, Pythagoras theorem gives

(1 7k)2

(7k)2 14k

84k

12

3

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

(1 49k)2 + (56k)2

(49k)2 98k + (56k)2

(562 + 492 72 )k 2

(82 + 72 12 )7k = (112)7k

(28)7k

6/7

I6 Crumbling Cubes

a The small cubes have at most three faces exposed. The only small cubes that have exactly three faces exposed

are the 8 on the corners of the 10 10 10 cube. The only small cubes that have exactly two faces exposed are

the 8 on each edge of the 10 10 10 cube that are not on its corners. All other cubes have less than two faces

exposed. There are 12 edges on the 10 10 10 cube, so the number of small cubes removed at the first step is

8 + (12 8) = 104.

b Alternative i

At the first step the 8 small cubes at the corners are removed. The other 192 cubes come equally from the 12 edges

but not from the corners. So the number of non-corner small cubes on each edge is 192/12 = 16. Hence each edge

in the original cube had a total of 18 small cubes.

Alternative ii

A cube with n small cubes along one edge will lose 8 + 12(n 2) small cubes at the first step. So 8 + 12(n 2) = 200,

12(n 2) = 192, n 2 = 16, n = 18. Thus the original cube was 18 18 18.

33

51

Alternative iii

From Part a, a 10 10 10 cube loses 104 small cubes at the first step. Increasing the cubes dimension by 1

increases the number of lost cubes by 12, one for each edge. Since 200 104 = 96 and 96/12 = 8, the cube that

loses 200 small cubes at the first step is 18 18 18.

c Alternative i

At the first step, each of the 6 faces of the 9 9 9 cube are converted to a 7 7 single layer of small cubes. The

exposed surface area of this layer is 7 7 small faces plus a ring of 4 7 small faces. So the surface area of the

remaining object is 6 (49 + 28) = 6 77 = 462.

Alternative ii

First remove the middle small cube on one edge of the 9 9 9 cube. This increases the surface area by 2 small

faces. Then remove the small cubes either side. This does not change the surface area. Continue until only the two

corner cubes remain. At this stage the surface area has increased by 2 small faces. Repeating this process on all

12 edges increases the surface area by 12 2 small faces. At this stage all 8 corner cubes have 6 exposed faces. So

removing the 8 corner cubes reduces the surface area by 8 6 small faces. The surface area of the original 9 9 9

cube was 6 81 = 486. Hence the surface area of the remaining object is 486 + 24 48 = 462.

d At the first step, the original 9 9 9 cube is reduced to a 7 7 7 cube with a 7 7 single layer of small cubes

placed centrally on each face. At this stage the number of small cubes removed is 8 + (12 7) = 92.

77

At the second step the only small cubes removed are the edge cubes in the 7 7 single layers. This leaves a 7 7 7

cube with a 5 5 single layer of small cubes placed centrally on each face. So in this step, the number of small

cubes removed is 6(4 + 4 5) = 144.

55

At the third step the only small cubes removed are the edge cubes in the 5 5 single layers and the edge cubes in

the 7 7 7 cube. So in this step, the number of small cubes removed is 6(4 + 4 3) + 8 + (12 5) = 164.

Thus the number of small cubes remaining is (9 9 9) 92 144 164 = 329.

34

51

MEAN SCORE/SCHOOL YEAR/PROBLEM

Mean

Year

Number of

Students

Overall

Problem

1

486

8.8

2.1

2.4

2.3

2.1

653

10.6

2.6

2.9

2.7

2.6

All Years*

1166

9.8

2.3

2.7

2.6

2.4

Please note:* This total includes students who did not provide their school year.

Challenge Problem

Score

1

e-Numbers

Quazy Quilts

Egg Cartons

Condates

0%

1%

2%

3%

7%

6%

10%

10%

15%

12%

11%

18%

29%

20%

18%

20%

32%

29%

33%

24%

16%

32%

26%

25%

Mean

2.3

2.7

2.6

2.4

Discrimination

Factor

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.6

Please note:

The discrimination factor for a particular problem is calculated as follows:

(1) The students are ranked in regard to their overall scores.

(2) The mean score for the top 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean top score.

(3) The mean score for the bottom 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean bottom score.

(4) The discrimination factor = mean top score mean bottom score

4

Thus the discrimination factor ranges from 1 to 1. A problem with a discrimination factor of 0.4 or higher is

considered to be a good discriminator.

53

MEAN SCORE/SCHOOL YEAR/PROBLEM

Mean

YEAR

Number of

Students

Overall

Problem

1

1363

8.6

1.8

2.8

2.4

1.7

1910

9.8

2.0

3.0

2.8

2.0

129

10.9

2.3

3.3

3.2

2.2

All Years*

3416

9.4

2.0

2.9

2.7

1.9

Please note:* This total includes students who did not provide their school year.

Challenge Problem

3

Egg Cartons

Seahorse

Swimmers

Primelandia

Money

1%

0%

1%

3%

3%

3%

5%

11%

40%

6%

14%

29%

24%

20%

20%

26%

21%

38%

29%

20%

11%

33%

31%

12%

Mean

2.0

2.9

2.7

1.9

Discrimination

Factor

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.6

Score

Rod Shapes

Did not attempt

Please note:

The discrimination factor for a particular problem is calculated as follows:

(1) The students are ranked in regard to their overall scores.

(2) The mean score for the top 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean top score.

(3) The mean score for the bottom 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean bottom score.

(4) The discrimination factor = mean top score mean bottom score

4

Thus the discrimination factor ranges from 1 to 1. A problem with a discrimination factor of 0.4 or higher is

considered to be a good discriminator.

53

MEAN SCORE/SCHOOL YEAR/PROBLEM

Mean

Year

Number of

Students

Problem

Overall

2607

11.0

2.6

2.3

1.9

2.0

2.2

1.1

2373

13.4

3.0

2.7

2.2

2.3

2.7

1.4

All Years*

5006

12.2

2.8

2.5

2.0

2.1

2.4

1.3

Please note:* This total includes students who did not provide their school year.

Challenge Problem

1

Quirky

Quadrilaterals

Indim

Integers

Did not

attempt

3%

Score

Primelandia

Money

Condates

Jogging

Tessellating

Hexagons

3%

7%

8%

9%

23%

7%

6%

8%

15%

10%

28%

8%

17%

24%

14%

18%

20%

15%

23%

30%

19%

16%

13%

36%

26%

22%

31%

21%

10%

31%

26%

10%

13%

27%

5%

Mean

2.8

2.5

2.0

2.1

2.4

1.3

Discrimination

Factor

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.5

Please note:

The discrimination factor for a particular problem is calculated as follows:

(1) The students are ranked in regard to their overall scores.

(2) The mean score for the top 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean top score.

(3) The mean score for the bottom 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean bottom score.

(4) The discrimination factor = mean top score mean bottom score

4

Thus the discrimination factor ranges from 1 to 1. A problem with a discrimination factor of 0.4 or higher is

considered to be a good discriminator.

55

MEAN SCORE/SCHOOL YEAR/PROBLEM

Mean

Year

Number of

Students

Problem

Overall

2038

15.2

3.1

2.6

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.5

10

1055

16.6

3.3

2.9

3.2

3.2

2.2

2.7

All Years*

3104

15.7

3.2

2.7

3.0

3.1

2.0

2.6

Please note:* This total includes students who did not provide their school year.

Challenge Problem

5

Jogging

Folding

Fractions

Crumbling

Cubes

5%

3%

14%

9%

6%

4%

4%

14%

11%

7%

11%

6%

9%

21%

7%

15%

26%

15%

12%

21%

21%

25%

16%

28%

22%

8%

25%

50%

38%

42%

49%

22%

27%

Mean

3.2

2.7

3.0

3.1

2.0

2.6

Discrimination

Factor

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.7

Score

1

Indim

Integers

Digital Sums

Coin Flips

Did not

attempt

1%

3%

2%

Please note:

The discrimination factor for a particular problem is calculated as follows:

(1) The students are ranked in regard to their overall scores.

(2) The mean score for the top 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean top score.

(3) The mean score for the bottom 25% of these overall ranked students is calculated for that particular problem

including no attempts. Call this mean score the mean bottom score.

(4) The discrimination factor = mean top score mean bottom score

4

Thus the discrimination factor ranges from 1 to 1. A problem with a discrimination factor of 0.4 or higher is

considered to be a good discriminator.

55

Intermediate Mathematics

Olympiad OLYMPIAD

- Questions

AUSTRALIAN

MATHEMATICS

Time allowed: 4 hours.

Questions 1 to 8 only require their numerical answers all of which are non-negative integers less than 1000.

Questions 9 and 10 require written solutions which may include proofs.

The bonus marks for the Investigation in Question 10 may be used to determine prize winners.

1. A number written in base a is 123a. The same number written in base b is 146b . What is the minimum value of

a + b?

[2 marks]

2. A circle is inscribed in a hexagon ABCDEF so that each side of the hexagon is tangent to the circle. Find the

perimeter of the hexagon if AB = 6, CD = 7, and EF = 8.

[2 marks]

3. A selection of 3 whatsits, 7 doovers and 1 thingy cost a total of $329. A selection of 4 whatsits, 10 doovers and 1

thingy cost a total of $441. What is the total cost, in dollars, of 1 whatsit, 1 doover and 1 thingy?

[3 marks]

a

2

1

, can also be written in the form + 2 , where n is a positive integer.

b

n n

If a + b = 1024, what is the value of a?

[3 marks]

5. Determine the smallest positive integer y for which there is a positive integer x satisfying the equation

213 + 210 + 2x = y2 .

[3 marks]

6. The large circle has radius 30/ . Two circles with diameter 30/ lie inside the large circle. Two more circles

lie inside the large circle so that the five circles touch each other as shown. Find the shaded area.

[4 marks]

7. Consider a shortest path along the edges of a 7 7 square grid from its bottom-left vertex to its top-right vertex.

How many such paths have no edge above the grid diagonal that joins these vertices?

[4 marks]

x

x

=

.

44

45

(Note: if r is any real number, then r denotes the largest integer less than or equal to r.)

[4 marks]

57

9. A sequence is formed by the following rules: s1 = a, s2 = b and sn+2 = sn+1 + (1)n sn for all n 1.

If a = 3 and b is an integer less than 1000, what is the largest value of b for which 2015 is a member of the sequence?

Justify your answer.

[5 marks]

10. X is a point inside an equilateral triangle ABC. Y is the foot of the perpendicular from X to AC, Z is the foot

of the perpendicular from X to AB, and W is the foot of the perpendicular from X to BC.

The ratio of the distances of X from the three sides of the triangle is 1 : 2 : 4 as shown in the diagram.

B

W

Z

2

X

1

If the area of AZXY is 13 cm2 , find the area of ABC. Justify your answer.

[5 marks]

Investigation

If XY : XZ : XW = a : b : c, find the ratio of the areas of AZXY and ABC.

[2 bonus marks]

57

2015 AustralianINTERMEDIATE

Intermediate Mathematics

OlympiadOLYMPIAD

- Solutions

AUSTRALIAN

MATHEMATICS

SOLUTIONS

1. Method 1

123a = 146b a2 + 2a + 3 = b2 + 4b + 6

(a + 1)2 + 2 = (b + 2)2 + 2

(a + 1)2 = (b + 2)2

a = b + 1

Since the minimum value for b is 7, the minimum value for a + b is 8 + 7 = 15.

Method 2

Since the digits in any number are less than the base, b 7.

We also have a > b, otherwise a2 + 2a + 3 < b2 + 4b + 6.

If b = 7 and a = 8, then a2 + 2a + 3 = 83 = b2 + 4b + 6.

So the minimum value for a + b is 8 + 7 = 15.

E

X

D

Y

F

C

Z

V

A

Since the two tangents from a point to a circle have equal length,

U B = BV , V C = CW , W D = DX, XE = EY , Y F = F Z, ZA = AU .

The perimeter of hexagon ABCDEF is

AU + U B + BV + V C + CW + W D + DX + XE + EY + Y F + F Z + ZA

= AU + U B + U B + CW + CW + W D + W D + EY + EY + Y F + Y F + AU

= 2(AU + U B + CW + W D + EY + Y F )

= 2(AB + CD + EF ) = 2(6 + 7 + 8) = 2(21) = 42.

3. Preamble

Let the required cost be x. Then, with obvious notation, we have:

3w + 7d + t = 329

4w + 10d + t = 441

w+d+t = x

(1)

(2)

(3)

Method 1

3 (1) 2 (2): w + d + t = 3 329 2 441 = 987 882 = 105.

59

Method 2

(2) (1): w + 3d = 112.

(1) (3): 2w + 6d = 329 x = 2 112 = 224.

Then x = 329 224 = 105.

Method 3

10 (1) 7 (2): w = (203 3t)/2

3 (2) 4 (1): d = (7 + t)/2

2

1

2n + 1

+

=

.

n n2

n2

Since 2n + 1 and n2 are coprime, a = 2n + 1 and b = n2 .

So 1024 = a + b = n2 + 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 , hence n + 1 = 32.

4. We have

5. Method 1

213 + 210 + 2x = y2

210 (23 + 1) + 2x = y2

(25 3)2 + 2x = y2

2x = y2 962

2x = (y + 96)(y 96).

Let y + 96 = 2m and y 96 = 2n . Then 2m 2n = 192 = 26 3.

Hence 2m6 2n6 = 3. So 2m6 = 4 and 2n6 = 1.

In particular, m = 8. Hence y = 28 96 = 256 96 = 160.

Method 2

We have y2 = 213 + 210 + 2x = 210(23 + 1 + 2x10 ) = 210 (9 + 2x10 ).

So we want the smallest value of 9 + 2x10 that is a perfect square.

Since 9 + 2x10 is odd and greater than 9, 9 + 2x10 25.

Comment

6. The centres Y and Y of the two medium circles lie on a diameter of the large circle. By symmetry about this

diameter, the two smaller circles are congruent. Let X be the centre of the large circle and Z the centre of a small

circle.

Y

X

Z

Y

Let R and r be the radii of a medium and small circle respectively. Then ZY = R + r = ZY . Since XY = XY ,

triangles XY Z and XY Z are congruent. Hence XZ XY .

59

Then R2 + 2Rr + r 2 = 5R2 4Rr + r 2 , which simplifies to 3r = 2R.

2

So the large circle has area (30/

) = 900,

each medium circle has area (15/

)2 = 225,

and each small circle has area (10/ )2 = 100.

Thus the shaded area is 900 2 225 2 100 = 250.

7. Method 1

Any path from the start vertex O to a vertex A must pass through either the vertex L left of A or the vertex U

underneath A. So the number of paths from O to A is the sum of the number of paths from O to L and the paths

from O to U .

There is only one path from O to any vertex on the bottom line of the grid.

So the number of paths from O to all other vertices can be progressively calculated from the second bottom row

upwards as indicated.

429

132 429

42

132 297

14

42

90

165

14

28

48

75

14

20

27

Method 2

To help understand the problem, consider some smaller grids.

Let p(n) equal the number of required paths on an n n grid and let p(0) = 1.

61

Starting with the bottom-left vertex, label the vertices of the diagonal 0, 1, 2, . . . , n.

i

1

0

Consider all the paths that touch the diagonal at vertex i but not at any of the vertices between vertex 0 and

vertex i. Each such path divides into two subpaths.

One subpath is from vertex 0 to vertex i and, except for the first and last edge, lies in the lower triangle of the

diagram above. Thus there are p(i 1) of these subpaths.

The other subpath is from vertex i to vertex n and lies in the upper triangle in the diagram above. Thus there are

p(n i) of these subpaths.

So the number of such paths is p(i 1) p(n i).

p(n) = p(n 1) + p(1)p(n 2) + p(2)p(n 3) + + p(n 2)p(1) + p(n 1)

We have p(1) = 1, p(2) = 2, p(3) = 5. So

p(4) = p(3) + p(1)p(2) + p(3)p(1) + p(3) = 14,

p(5) = p(4) + p(1)p(3) + p(2)p(2) + p(3)p(1) + p(4) = 42,

p(6) = p(5) + p(1)p(4) + p(2)p(3) + p(3)p(2) + p(1)p(4) + p(5) = 132, and

p(7) = p(6) + p(1)p(5) + p(2)p(4) + p(3)p(3) + p(4)p(2) + p(5)p(1) + p(6) = 429.

8. Method 1

x

x

Let

=

= n.

44

45

Since x is non-negative, n is also non-negative.

If n = 0, then x is any integer from 0 to 44 1 = 43: a total of 44 values.

If n = k, then x is any integer from 45k to 44(k + 1) 1 = 44k + 43: a total of (44k + 43) (45k 1) = 44 k

values.

Thus, increasing n by 1 decreases the number of values of x by 1. Also the largest value of n is 43, in which case

x has only 1 value.

Therefore the number of non-negative integer values of x is 44 + 43 + + 1 = 21 (44 45) = 990.

Method 2

x

x

Let n be a non-negative integer such that

=

= n.

44

45

x

x

= n 44n x < 44(n + 1) and

= n 45n x < 45(n + 1).

Then

44

45

x

x

=

= n 45n x < 44(n + 1) 44n + n x < 44n + 44.

So

44

45

This is the case if and only if n < 44, and then x can assume exactly 44 n different values.

61

Method 3

x

x

=

= n.

44

45

Then x = 44n + r where 0 r 43 and x = 45n + s where 0 s 44.

Let n be a non-negative integer such that

9. Working out the first few terms gives us an idea of how the given sequence develops:

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

s2n1

a

ba

b

2b a

3b a

5b 2a

8b 3a

s2n

b

2b a

3b a

5b 2a

8b 3a

13b 5a

21b 8a

It appears that the coefficients in the even terms form a Fibonacci sequence and, from the 5th term, every odd

term is a repeat of the third term before it.

These observations are true for the entire sequence since, for m 1, we have:

s2m+2

s2m+3

s2m+4

=

=

=

s2m+1 + s2m

s2m+2 s2m+1

s2m+3 + s2m+2

=

=

s2m

s2m+2 + s2m

So, defining F1 = 1, F2 = 2, and Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 3, we have s2n = bFn aFn2 for n 3. Since a = 3

and b < 1000, none of the first five terms of the given sequence equal 2015. So we are looking for integer solutions

of bFn 3Fn2 = 2015 for n 3.

s8 = 5b 6 = 2015, has no solution.

s10 = 8b 9 = 2015 implies b = 253.

For n 6 we have b = 2015/Fn + 3Fn2 /Fn . Since Fn increases, we have Fn 13 and Fn2 /Fn < 1 for n 6.

Hence b < 2015/13 + 3 = 158. So the largest value of b is 253.

10. Method 1

We first show that X is uniquely defined for any given equilateral triangle ABC.

Let P be a point outside ABC such that its distances from AC and AB are in the ratio 1:2. By similar triangles,

any point on the line AP has the same property. Also any point between AP and AC has the distance ratio less

than 1:2 and any point between AP and AB has the distance ratio greater than 1:2.

B

P

Q

1

1

A

63

Let Q be a point outside ABC such that its distances from AC and BC are in the ratio 1:4. By an argument

similar to that in the previous paragraph, only the points on CQ have the distance ratio equal to 1:4.

Thus the only point whose distances to AC, AB, and BC are in the ratio 1:2:4 is the point X at which AP and

CQ intersect.

Scaling if necessary, we may assume that the actual distances of X to the sides of ABC are 1, 2, 4. Let h be the

height of ABC. Letting | | denote area, we have

|ABC| = 21 h AB and

|ABC| = |AXB| + |BXC| + |CXA| = 12 (2AB + 4BC + AC) = 12 AB 7.

So h = 7.

Draw a 7-layer grid of equilateral triangles each of height 1, starting with a single triangle in the top layer, then a

trapezium of 3 triangles in the next layer, a trapezium of 5 triangles in the next layer, and so on. The boundary

of the combined figure is ABC and X is one of the grid vertices as shown.

B

W

4

2

X

1

Y

There are 49 small triangles in ABC and 6.5 small triangles in AZXY . Hence, after rescaling so that the area of

AZXY is 13 cm2 , the area of ABC is 13 49/6.5 = 98 cm2 .

Method 2

Join AX, BX, CX. Since Y AZ = ZBW = 60, the quadrilaterals AZXY and BW XZ are similar. Let XY be

1 unit and AY be x. Then BZ = 2x.

B

2x

W

Z

X

1

Since AB = AC, Y C = x + x2 3.

and in XW C, W C 2 = 2x2 18 + 2x x2 3.

So 2x x2 3 = 2x2 18 + 2x x2 3.

63

5

Squaring again gives 9x4 + 90x2 + 225 = 36x4 108x2 . So 0 = 3x4 22x2 25 = (3x2 25)(x2 + 1), giving x = .

3

x 2

4

13

5

Hence, area AZXY = + x 3 = + = and

2

3

2 3

2 3

4 2

49

3

3 10

2

2

+

(2x + x 3) =

= .

area ABC =

4

4

3

3

3

13

49

Since the area of AZXY is 13 cm2 , the area of ABC is ( / ) 13 = 98 cm2 .

3 2 3

Method 3

Let DI be the line through X parallel to AC with D on AB and I on BC.

Let EG be the line through X parallel to BC with E on AB and G on AC.

Let F H be the line through X parallel to AB with F on AC and H on BC.

Let J be a point on AB so that HJ is parallel to AC.

Triangles XDE, XF G, XHI, BHJ are equilateral, and triangles XDE and BHJ are congruent.

B

E

Z

W

4

X

I

D

1

A

F Y G

The areas of the various equilateral triangles are proportional to the square of their heights. Let the area of

F XG = 1. Then, denoting area by | |, we have:

|AZXY | = |AEG| 12 (|F XG| + |DEX|) = 9 12 (1 + 4) = 6.5.

Method 4

Consider the general case where XY = a, XZ = b, and XW = c.

B

W

Z

60

A

c

b

120

65

line through ZX gives AY sin

60 a cos 60 = b.

Hence AY = (a + 2b)/ 3. Similarly, AZ = (b + 2a)/ 3.

|AZXY |

=

=

=

=

=

=

Similarly, |CY XW | =

Hence |ABC| =

3

(2a2

6

3 2

6 (a

|Y AZ| + |Y XZ|

1

1

3

4 ((AY )(AZ) + ab)

3

12 ((a + 2b)(b + 2a) +

3

2

2

12 (2a + 2b + 8ab)

3 2

(a + b2 + 4ab)

6

3 2

6 (b

3

(a

3

3ab)

+ c2 + 4bc).

+ b + c)2 .

Letting a = k, b = 2k, c = 4k, and |AZXY | = 13 cm2 , we have |ABC| = 26(49k 2)/(k 2 + 4k 2 + 8k 2 ) = 98 cm2 .

Investigation

Method 4 gives |ABC|/|AZXY | = 2(a + b + c)2 /(a2 + b2 + 4ab).

Alternatively, as in Method 3,

= (a + b)2 + (a + c)2 + (b + c)2 a2 b2 c2 = (a + b + c)2 .

= (a + b)2 12 (a2 + b2 )

= 2ab + 12 (a2 + b2 ).

10

65

STATISTICS

DISTRIBUTION OF AWARDS/SCHOOL YEAR

Number of Awards

Year

Number of

Students

Prize

High

Distinction

Distinction

Credit

Participation

341

17

39

86

196

414

45

61

99

201

10

462

11

52

89

139

171

Other

221

16

41

151

Total

1438

26

123

205

365

719

Year

Number Correct/Question

1

119

231

282

164

128

79

48

50

144

298

347

224

187

138

82

86

10

176

341

377

297

219

208

103

104

Other

66

132

176

81

75

34

33

21

Total

505

1002

1182

766

609

459

266

261

Mean Score

Year

Number of

Students

Question

Overall Mean

18

10

341

10.1

0.5

0.2

10.9

414

11.8

0.9

0.5

13.2

10

462

13.0

1.1

0.6

14.6

Other

221

8.6

0.4

0.2

9.3

All Years

1438

11.3

0.8

0.4

12.5

67

RESULTS

Name

School

Year

Score

Prize

Matthew Cheah

10

35

Puhua Cheng

35

Ariel Pratama

Junaidi

10

35

Evgeni Kayryakov

35

35

Jack Liu

35

Jerry Mao

35

Liao Meng

10

35

10

35

Aloysius Ng Yangyi

35

Kohsuke Sato

10

35

Yuelin Shen

Scotch College, WA

10

35

Chen Tan Xu

35

35

Jianzhi Wang

35

Zhe Xin

35

Austin Zhang

10

35

Yu Zhiqiu

10

35

Lin Zien

35

Bobby Dey

10

34

Goh Ethan

34

Yulong Guo

34

Edwin Winata

Hartanto

10

34

Hristo Papazov

10

34

Zhang Yansheng

34

Guowen Zhang

34

HIGH DISTINCTION

Ivan Ganev

10

33

Theodore Leebrant

33

Yu Peng Ng

33

Cheng Shi

33

33

Sharvil Kesarwani

32

Lee

10

32

67

Name

School

Year

Score

Chenxu Li

32

William Li

32

Han Yang

32

Stanley Zhu

32

Anand Bharadwaj

31

William Hu

31

Xianyi Huang

10

31

Wanzhang Jing

10

31

Yuhao Li

31

Steven Lim

31

John Min

31

Elliott Murphy

10

31

Longxuan Sun

31

Boyan Wang

31

Sean Zammit

10

31

Atul Barman

10

30

Atanas Dinev

30

Bill Hu

10

30

Phillip Huynh

10

30

10

30

30

Forbes Mailler

30

Moses Mayer

30

Zlatina Mileva

30

Kirill Saulov

10

30

Yuxuan Seah

30

10

30

10

30

Nicholas Tanvis

30

An Aloysius Wang

10

30

William Wang

Mathematics and Technology, QLD

10

30

Joshua Welling

30

10

30

Chen Yanbing

10

30

Guangxuan Zhang

10

30

Chi Zhang Yu

30

Keer Chen

10

29

Linus Cooper

29

Liam Coy

29

69

Name

School

Year

Score

29

10

29

Tianjie Huang

29

Ricky Huang

10

29

Tianjie Huang

29

Yu Jiahuan

29

Tony Jiang

10

29

Charles Li

29

Steven Liu

10

29

Hilton Nguyen

29

James Nguyen

10

29

Trung Nguyen

VIC

10

29

James Phillips

29

Ryan Stocks

29

Hadyn Tang

29

Stanve Avrilium

Widjaja

29

Wang Yihe

29

Sun Yue

29

Wang Beini

10

28

Chwa Channe

28

Keiran Hamley

10

28

28

Zhu Jiexiu

28

Jodie Lee

Seymour College, SA

10

28

Yu Hsin Lee

28

Phillip Liang

28

Anthony Ma

10

28

Dzaki Muhammad

28

Daniel Qin

10

28

Sang Ta

28

Ruiqian Tong

28

Hu Xing Yi

10

28

Zhao Yiyang

10

28

Claire Yung

10

28

27

Hantian Chen

10

27

10

27

Harry Dinh

10

27

10

27

69

Name

School

Year

Score

Daniel Jones

10

27

Winfred Kong

10

27

Adrian Law

10

27

Jason Leung

27

Sabrina Natashya

Liandra

27

27

Yi Shen Xin

27

Peter Tong

27

Jordan Truong

10

27

Andrew Virgona

27

Tommy Wei

27

Tianyi Xu

27

Wu Zhen

10

27

Gordon Zhuang

27

Zhou Zihan

27

Amit Ben-Harim

26

Hu Chen

10

26

26

Li Haocheng

26

William Hu

10

26

Laeeque Jamdar

26

Yasiru Jayasoora

26

Arun Jha

10

26

Tony Li

10

26

Zefeng Jeff Li

26

Adrian Lo

26

Lionel Maizels

26

Marcus Rees

26

Elva Ren

10

26

Aidan Smith

26

Jacob Smith

26

Keane Teo

10

26

Jeffrey Wang

10

26

Xinlu Xu

10

26

26

Shukai Zhang

10

26

Yanjun Zhang

26

Kevin Zhu

10

26

Jonathan Zuk

26

THE

2015SENIOR

AMOC SENIOR

CONTEST

AMOC

CONTEST

Tuesday, 11 August 2015

Time allowed: 4 hours

No calculators are to be used.

Each question is worth seven points.

1. A number is called k-addy if it can be written as the sum of k consecutive positive

integers. For example, the number 9 is 2-addy because 9 = 4 + 5 and it is also 3-addy

because 9 = 2 + 3 + 4.

(a) How many numbers in the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , 2015} are simultaneously 3-addy,

4-addy and 5-addy?

(b) Are there any positive integers that are simultaneously 3-addy, 4-addy, 5-addy

and 6-addy?

2. Consider the sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . defined by a1 = 1 and

am+1 =

am

for m 1.

3. A group of students entered a mathematics competition consisting of five problems.

Each student solved at least two problems and no student solved all five problems.

For each pair of problems, exactly two students solved them both.

Determine the minimum possible number of students in the group.

4. Let ABCD be a rectangle with AB > BC. Let E be the point on the diagonal AC

such that BE is perpendicular to AC. Let the circle through A and E whose centre

lies on the line AD meet the side CD at F .

Prove that BF bisects the angle AF C.

5. For a real number x, let x be the largest integer less than or equal to x.

Find all prime numbers p for which there exists an integer a such that

a

2a

3a

pa

+

+

+ +

= 100.

p

p

p

p

71

Solutions and cumulative marking scheme

c 2015 Australian

Mathematics

Trust

AMOC

SENIOR

CONTEST SOLUTIONS

1. A number is called k-addy if it can be written as the sum of k consecutive positive integers.

For example, the number 9 is 2-addy because 9 = 4 + 5 and it is also 3-addy because

9 = 2 + 3 + 4.

(a) How many numbers in the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , 2015} are simultaneously 3-addy, 4-addy

and 5-addy?

(b) Are there any positive integers that are simultaneously 3-addy, 4-addy, 5-addy and

6-addy?

Since (a 1) + a + (a + 1) = 3a, the 3-addy numbers are precisely those that are divisible

by 3 and greater than 3.

1

Since (a 2) + (a 1) + a + (a + 1) + (a + 2) = 5a, the 5-addy numbers are precisely those

that are divisible by 5 and greater than 10.

Since (a 1) + a + (a + 1) + (a + 2) = 4a + 2, the 4-addy numbers are precisely those that

are congruent to 2 modulo 4 and greater than 6.

2

(a) From the observations above, a positive integer is simultaneously 3-addy, 4-addy and

5-addy if and only if it is divisible by 3, divisible by 5, divisible by 2, and not divisible

by 4. Such numbers are of the form 30m, where m is a positive odd integer.

3

Since 67 30 = 2010, the number of elements of the given set that are simultaneously

3-addy, 4-addy and 5-addy is 68

4

2 = 34.

(b) Since (a 2) + (a 1) + a + (a + 1) + (a + 2) + (a + 3) = 6a + 3, all 6-addy numbers

are necessarily odd.

5

On the other hand, we have already deduced that all 4-addy numbers are even.

Therefore, there are no numbers that are simultaneously 4-addy and 6-addy.

72

am+1 =

am

for m 1.

First, we note that all terms of the sequence are positive rational numbers. Below, we

rewrite the defining equation for the sequence in both its original form and with the value

of m shifted by 1.

am am+1 = 1a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 + + mam

am+1 am+2 = 1a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 + + mam + (m + 1)am+1

am+1 am+2 am am+1 = (m + 1)am+1

am+2 am = m + 1,

for all m 1.

a2k+1 a1 = (a2k+1 a2k1 ) + (a2k1 a2k3 ) + + (a3 a1 )

= 2k + (2k 2) + + 2

= 2 [k + (k 1) + + 1]

= k(k + 1).

a2k a2 = (a2k a2k2 ) + (a2k2 a2k4 ) + + (a4 a2 )

= (2k 1) + (2k 3) + + 3

= k 2 1.

m2 ,

if m is even,

4

am =

2 +3

m

4 , if m is odd.

If m is odd, then

am+1 am =

2m 2

(m + 1)2 m2 + 3

=

,

4

4

4

am+1 am =

2m + 4

(m + 1)2 + 3 m2

=

.

4

4

4

6

In particular, it follows that a2 < a3 < a4 < . Since a2000 = 1 000 000, the largest

integer n such that an < 1 000 000 is 1999.

7

2

73

We will prove by induction that a2k1 = k 2 k + 1 and a2k = k 2 for each positive integer

k. The base case k = 1 is true since a1 = a2 = 1. Now assume that the two formulas hold

for k = 1, 2, . . . , n. We will show that they also hold for k = n + 1.

2

Consider the following sequence of equalities.

2n

iai =

i=1

=

=

n

i=1

n

i=1

n

i=1

n

(2i 1) a2i1 +

2i a2i

i=1

(2i 1) (i2 i + 1) +

n

(2i) (i2 )

i=1

4i3 3i2 + 3i 1

3i3 + (i 1)3

i=1

n

=3

=

n

i +

i=1

3n2 (n

+

4

n1

i3

i=1

1)2

(n 1)2 n2

4

= n (n + n + 1)

= (n2 + n + 1)a2n

n

n2 (n + 1)2

since

i3 =

4

i=1

It follows that

a2n+1 =

= n2 + n + 1.

a2n

Now consider the following sequence of equalities, which uses the facts derived above that

2 2

2

state that 2n

i=1 iai = n (n + n + 1) and a2n+1 = n + n + 1.

2n+1

i=1

= (n + 1)2 a2n+1

It follows that

a2n+2 =

= (n + 1)2 .

a2n+1

So we have shown that the two formulas a2k1 = k 2 k + 1 and a2k = k 2 hold for

k = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1. This completes the induction and the rest of the proof follows Solution

1.

7

3

74

student solved at least two problems and no student solved all five problems. For each

pair of problems, exactly two students solved them both.

Determine the minimum possible number of students in the group.

It is possible that the group comprised six students, as demonstrated by the following

example.

Student 1 solved problems 1, 2, 3, 4.

Suppose that a students solved 4 problems, b students solved 3 problems, and c students

solved 2 problems. Therefore, a students solved 42 = 6 pairs of problems, b students

solved 32 = 3 pairs of problems and c students solved 22 = 1 pair of problems. Since we

have shown an example in which the number of students in the group is 6, let us assume

that a + b + c 5.

There are 52 = 10 pairs of problems altogether and, for each pair of problems, exactly

two students solved them both, so we must have

6a + 3b + c = 20.

Reading the above equation modulo 3 yields c 2 (mod 3). If c 5, then we have

a + b + c 6, contradicting our assumption. Therefore, we must have c = 2 and 2a + b = 6.

For a + b + c 5, the only solution is given by (a, b, c) = (3, 0, 2).

5

However, it is impossible for 3 students to have solved 4 problems each. That would mean

that each of the 3 students did not solve exactly 1 problem. So there would exist a pair of

problems for which 3 students solved them both, contradicting the required conditions.

In conclusion, the minimum possible number of students in the group is 6.

75

4. Let ABCD be a rectangle with AB > BC. Let E be the point on the diagonal AC such

that BE is perpendicular to AC. Let the circle through A and E whose centre lies on the

line AD meet the side CD at F .

Prove that BF bisects the angle AF C.

Let the circle through A and E whose centre lies on AD meet the line AD again at H.

E

D

H

Since F D is the altitude of the right-angled triangle AF H, we have AF H ADF .

Since triangles AEH and ADC are right-angled with a common angle at A, we have

AEH ADC. Since BE is the altitude of the right-angled triangle ABC, we have

ABC AEB. These three pairs of similar triangles lead respectively to the three

pairs of equal ratios

AF

AH

=

AD

AF

AE

AH

=

AD

AC

AB

AC

=

.

AE

AB

AF 2 = AD AH = AC AE = AB 2 .

AF B = ABF = 90 CBF = CF B,

where the last equality uses the angle sum in triangle BCF . Since AF B = CF B, we

have proven that BF bisects the angle AF C.

7

First, note that the circumcircles of triangle AEF and triangle BEC are tangent to the

line AB at A and B, respectively. Considering the power of the point A with respect to

the circumcircle of triangle BEC, we have

AB 2 = AE AC.

5

76

Next, by the alternate segment theorem and the fact that AB CD, we have EF A =

EAB = ECF . Hence, by the alternate segment theorem again, the circumcircle of

triangle EF C is tangent to the line AF at F . Considering the power of the point A with

respect to the circumcircle of triangle EF C, we have

AF 2 = AE AC.

Let the circle through A and E whose centre lies on AD meet the line AD again at H.

Then AEB = AEH = 90 , so the points B, E and H are collinear. Consider the

inversion f with centre A and radius AF .

2

Note that the circumcircle of the cyclic quadrilateral AEF H must map to a line parallel

to AB through F . Thus,

f (circle AEF H) = line CD.

4

This immediately gives f (C) = E and f (H) = D. Now the circumcircle of ABCD must

map to a line passing through f (C) = E and f (D) = H. This implies that f (B) = B.

Hence, AB = AF .

6

Therefore, we have BF C = ABF = AF B.

Consider the following chain of equalities.

DF 2 = AD DH

= AD (AH AD)

AB 2

AD

= AD

BC

= AB 2 AD2

(ADF F DH)

(ABC HAB)

(AD = BC)

AF B = ABF = 90 CBF = CF B,

where the last equality uses the angle sum in triangle BCF . Since AF B = CF B, we

have proven that BF bisects the angle AF C.

7

77

5. For a real number x, let x be the largest integer less than or equal to x.

Find all prime numbers p for which there exists an integer a such that

2a

3a

pa

a

+

+

+ +

= 100.

p

p

p

p

Solution 1 (Norman Do)

The possible values for p are 2, 5, 17 and 197.

We divide the problem into the following two cases.

The number a is divisible by p.

If we write a = kp, the equation becomes

a(p + 1)

= 100

2

kp(p + 1) = 200.

So both p and p + 1 are positive divisors of 200. However, one can easily see that

there are no such primes p.

1

The number a is not divisible by p.

For a real number x, let {x} = x x. Then we may write the equation as

a 2a 3a

pa

a

2a

3a

pa

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ +

= 100.

p

p

p

p

p

p

p

p

Summing the terms of the arithmetic progression on the left-hand side yields

a

2a

3a

pa

a(p + 1)

+

+

+ +

= 100.

3

2

p

p

p

p

3a

pa

We will prove that the sequence of numbers ap , 2a

is a rearrangep , p ,..., p

p1

0 1 2

ment of the sequence of numbers p , p , p , . . . , p .

4

ka

p1

0 1 2

Observe that if k is a positive integer, then p is one of the numbers p , p , p , . . . , p .

3a

So it suffices to show that no two of the numbers ap , 2a

, p , . . . , pa

are equal.

p

p

ia ja

Suppose for the sake of contradiction that p = p , where 1 i < j p. Then

a(ji)

ia

must be an integer. It follows that either a is divisible by p or j i is

p =

p

divisible by p. However, since we have assumed that a is not divisible by p and that

1 i < j p, we obtain the desired contradiction. Hence, we may conclude that the

3a

pa

sequence of numbers ap , 2a

is a rearrangement of the sequence

p , p ,..., p

p1

0 1 2

of numbers p , p , p , . . . , p .

5

ja

p

a(p + 1) p 1

= 100

2

2

(a 1)(p + 1) = 198.

1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, 18, 22, 33, 66, 99, 198.

Since p is a prime, it follows that p must be equal to 2, 5, 17 or 197. This leads to

the possible solutions (p, a) = (2, 67), (5, 34), (17, 12), (197, 2). All four of these pairs

satisfy the given equation with a not divisible by p, so we obtain p = 2, 5, 17, 197. 7

7

78

The possible values for p are 2, 5, 17 and 197.

The case where a is divisible by p is handled in the same way as Solution 1.

Furthermore, one can check that the pair (p, a) = (2, 67) satisfies the conditions of the

problem. So assume that p is an odd prime and that a is not divisible by p.

For any integers 1 r, s p 1 with r + s = p, we have p ra and p sa. Therefore,

ar

as

ar

as

ar as

ar

as

1+

1<

+

<

+

a2<

+

< a.

p

p

p

p

p

p

p

p

as

But since ar

is an integer, we conclude that

p + p

as

ar

+

= a 1.

p

p

p1

2

3

pairs whose sum is p.

Using the equation above for each such pair and substituting into the original equation,

we obtain

p1

(a 1) + a = 100

(a 1)(p + 1) = 198.

6

2

Therefore, p + 1 is a positive divisor of 198 in other words, one of the numbers

1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, 18, 22, 33, 66, 99, 198.

Since p is a prime, it follows that p must be equal to 2, 5, 17 or 197. This leads to the

possible solutions (p, a) = (2, 67), (5, 34), (17, 12), (197, 2). All four of these pairs satisfy

the given equation with a not divisible by p, so we obtain p = 2, 5, 17, 197.

7

79

Name

School

Year

Score

Prize

Yong See Foo

11

35

Kevin Xian

11

35

11

35

Ilia Kucherov

11

34

Seyoon Ragavan

11

34

High Distinction

Jongmin Lim

11

32

Matthew Cheah

10

29

Jerry Mao

29

Distinction

Alexander Barber

11

28

Michelle Chen

11

28

Thomas Baker

11

27

Linus Cooper

27

Steven Lim

27

Eric Sheng

11

27

William Song

11

27

Jack Liu

26

Leo Li

11

25

Bobby Dey

10

24

Michael Robertson

11

24

Charles Li

22

Isabel Longbottom

10

22

Guowen Zhang

22

80

SCORE DISTRIBUTION/PROBLEM

Number of Students/Score

Problem

Number

46

31

6.2

16

15

25

4.1

25

11

25

3.5

54

13

15

1.5

65

1.2

81

Mean

SCHOOL

OF EXCELLENCE

2014 AMOCAMOC

School of

Excellence

The 2014 AMOC School of Excellence was held 110 December at Newman College,

University of Melbourne. The main qualifying exams to be invited to this are the AIMO

and the AMOC Senior Contest.

This year AMOC went ahead with a new initiative in an attempt to widen the net of

identification. In particular, any prize winner in the Australian Mathematics Competition

(AMC) would be given free entry into the AIMO. In this way we hoped to identify top

students from among schools that may not normally enter students in the AIMO. This

turned out to be quite successful and prompted us to increase the number of invitations

we normally make. Consequently, 28 students from around Australia attended the school.

A further student from New Zealand also attended.

The students are divided into a senior group and a junior group. There were 17 junior

students, 16 of whom were attending for the first time. There were 12 students making

up the senior group.

The program covered the four major areas of number theory, geometry, combinatorics

and algebra. Each day would start at 8am with lectures or an exam and go until 12

noon or 1pm. After a one-hour lunch break they would have a lecture at 2pm. At

4pm participants would usually have free time, followed by dinner at 6pm. Finally, each

evening would round out with a problem session, topic review, or exam review from 7pm

until 9pm.

Another new initiative we tried was to invite two of our more experienced senior students

to give a lecture. The rationale behind this is that teaching a subject is highly beneficial to the teacher because it can really solidify the foundations of the teachers own

understanding. A further fringe benefit is that they also get to hone their LATEX skills.

Alexander Gunning was assigned the senior inequalities lecture, and Seyoon Ragavan was

assigned the senior transformation geometry lecture. I did some trial runs with them

prior to the lectures so as to trouble shoot any problems, as well as to give them some

practice for the real thing. Overall it was successful, and I will likely try it again in the

future.

Many thanks to Andrew Elvey Price, Ivan Guo, Victor Khou, and Sampson Wong, who

served as live-in staff. Also my thanks go to Adrian Agisilaou, Norman Do, Patrick He,

Alfred Liang, Daniel Mathews, Konrad Pilch, Chaitanya Rao, and Mel Shu who assisted

in lecturing and marking.

Angelo Di Pasquale

Director of Training, AMOC

1

82

Name

School

Year

Seniors

Thomas Baker

10

Matthew Cheah

10

Alexander Gunning

11

Leo Li

10

Allen Lu

11

Seyoon Ragavan

10

Kevin Shen

St Kentigern College NZ

11*

Yang Song

11

Kevin Xian

10

Jeremy Yip

11

Henry Yoo

11

Juniors

Adam Bardrick

Rachel Hauenschild

William Hu

Shivasankaran Jayabalan

Tony Jiang

Sharvil Kesarwani

Ilia Kucherov

10

Adrian Law

Charles Li

Jack Liu

Isabel Longbottom

Hilton Nguyen

Madeline Nurcombe

10

Zoe Schwerkolt

10

Katrina Shen

Eric Sheng

10

Wen Zhang

83

OLYMPIAD

AUSTRALIAN

MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD

DAY 1

Tuesday, 10 February 2015

Time allowed: 4 hours

No calculators are to be used.

Each question is worth seven points.

1. Define the sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . by a1 = 4, a2 = 7, and

an+1 = 2an an1 + 2,

for n 2.

Prove that, for every positive integer m, the number am am+1 is a term of the sequence.

2. For each positive integer n, let s(n) be the sum of its digits. We call a number nifty if it

can be expressed as n s(n) for some positive integer n.

How many positive integers less than 10,000 are nifty?

3. Let S be the set of all two-digit numbers that do not contain the digit 0. Two numbers

in S are called friends if their largest digits are equal and the difference between their

smallest digits is 1. For example, the numbers 68 and 85 are friends, the numbers 78

and 88 are friends, but the numbers 58 and 75 are not friends.

Determine the size of the largest possible subset of S that contains no two numbers that

are friends.

4. Let be a fixed circle with centre O and radius r. Let B and C be distinct fixed points

on . Let A be a variable point on , distinct from B and C. Let P be the point such

that the midpoint of OP is A. The line through O parallel to AB intersects the line

through P parallel to AC at the point D.

(a) Prove that, as A varies over the points of the circle (other than B or C), D lies

on a fixed circle whose radius is greater than or equal to r.

(b) Prove that equality occurs in part (a) if and only if BC is a diameter of .

84

OLYMPIAD

DAY 2

Wednesday, 11 February 2015

Time allowed: 4 hours

No calculators are to be used.

Each question is worth seven points.

5. Let ABC be a triangle with ACB = 90 . The points D and Z lie on the side AB such

that CD is perpendicular to AB and AC = AZ. The line that bisects BAC meets CB

and CZ at X and Y , respectively.

Prove that the quadrilateral BXY D is cyclic.

6. Determine the number of distinct real solutions of the equation

(x 1) (x 3) (x 5) (x 2015) = (x 2) (x 4) (x 6) (x 2014).

7. For each integer n 2, let p(n) be the largest prime divisor of n.

Prove that there exist infinitely many positive integers n such that

p(n + 1) p(n) p(n) p(n 1) > 0.

8. Let n be a given integer greater than or equal to 3. Maryam draws n lines in the plane

such that no two are parallel.

For each equilateral triangle formed by three of the lines, Maryam receives three apples.

For each non-equilateral isosceles triangle formed by three of the lines, she receives one

apple.

What is the maximum number of apples that Maryam can obtain?

85

1. For reference, the sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . is given by a1 = 4, a2 = 7, and

an+1 = 2an an1 + 2,

for n 2.

Solution 1 (Linus Cooper, year 9, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

First we prove the following formula by induction.

an = n2 + 3,

for n 1.

We require two base cases to get started. The formula is true for n = 1 and n = 2

because a1 = 4 = 12 + 3 and a2 = 7 = 22 + 3.

For the inductive step, assume that the formula is true for n = k 1 and n = k.

Then for n = k + 1, we have

ak+1 = 2ak ak1 + 2

(given)

2

2

= 2(k + 3) ((k 1) + 3) + 2 (inductive assumption)

= k 2 + 2k + 4

= (k + 1)2 + 3.

Hence the formula is also true for n = k + 1. This completes the induction.

Using the formula, we calculate

am am+1 = (m2 + 3)((m + 1)2 + 3)

= (m2 + 3)(m2 + 2m + 4)

= m4 + 2m3 + 7m2 + 6m + 12

= (m2 + m + 3)2 + 3

= am2 +m+3 .

Hence am am+1 is a term of the sequence.

17

86

The given rule for determining an+1 from an and an1 can be rewritten as

an+1 an = an an1 + 2,

for n 2.

go up. Hence starting from a2 a1 = 3, we may write down the following.

a2 a1 = 3

a3 a2 = 5

a4 a3 = 7

..

.

am am1 = 2m 1

If we add all these equations together, we find that almost everything cancels on

the LHS, and we have

am a1 = 3 + 5 + + 2m 1.

Using the standard formula11 for summing an arithmetic progression, we find

(2m + 2)(m 1)

2

2

= m 1.

am a1 =

= m4 + 2m3 + 7m2 + 6m + 12

= (m2 + m + 3)2 + 3.

Hence am am+1 = an , where n = m2 + m + 3. Therefore, am am+1 is a term of the

sequence.

1

1

a = 3, d = 2 and k = m 2.

18

87

(2a+kd)(k+1)

.

2

In our case

Starting from am and am+1 , let us compute the next few terms of the sequence in

terms of am and am+1 .

am+2 = 2am+1 am + 2

= 2(am+1 + 1) am

am+3 = 2am+2 am+1 + 2

= 2((2am+1 + 1) am ) am+1 + 2

= 3(am+1 + 2) 2am

Similarly, am+4 = 4(am+1 + 3) 3am .

am+k = k(am+1 + k 1) (k 1)am ,

for k = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

(1)

For the inductive step, assume that formula (1) is true for k = r 1 and k = r.

Then for k = r + 1, we have

am+r+1 = 2am+r am+r1 + 2

= 2(r(am+1 + r 1) (r 1)am )

((r 1)(am+1 + r 2) (r 2)am ) + 2

= (r + 1)(am+1 + r) ram .

Hence the formula is also true for k = r + 1. This completes the induction.

Let us substitute k = am into formula (1). We have

am+am = am (am+1 + am 1) (am 1)am

= am am+1 .

Hence am am+1 = ak , where k = m + am . Therefore, am am+1 is a term of the

sequence.

Comment This proof shows that the conclusion of the problem remains true for

any starting values a1 and a2 of the sequence, provided that m + am 0 for all m.

This is certainly true whenever a2 a1 0.

19

88

2. Solution 1 (Yang Song, year 12, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

Answer: 1000

For each positive integer n, let f (n) = n s(n). We seek the number of different

values that f (n) takes in the range from 1 up to 9999.

Lemma The function f has the following two properties.

(i) f (n + 1) = f (n) if the last digit of n is not a 9.

(ii) f (n + 1) > f (n) if the last digit of n is a 9.

Proof If the last digit of n is not a 9, then s(n + 1) = s(n) + 1. From this it easily

follows that f (n + 1) = f (n).

If the last digit of n is a 9, then suppose that the first k (k 1) digits from the

right-hand end of n are 9s, but the (k + 1)th digit from the right-hand end of n

is not a 9. In going from n to n + 1, the rightmost k digits all change from 9

to 0, and the (k + 1)th digit from the right-hand end of n increases by 1. Hence

s(n + 1) = s(n) 9k + 1, and so

f (n + 1) = n + 1 s(n + 1)

= n + 1 (s(n) 9k + 1)

= n s(n) + 9k

= f (n) + 9k

> f (n).

f (1) = f (2) = = f (9) < f (10) = f (11) = = f (19)

< f (20) = f (21) = = f (29)

..

.

< f (10000) = f (10001) = = f (10009)

< f (10010).

Since, f (9) = 0, f (10) = 9, f (10000) = 9999 and f (10010) = 10008, the required

number of different values of f in the range from 1 up to 9999 is simply equal

to the number of multiples of 10 from 10 up to 10000. The number of these is

10000 10 = 1000.

20

89

Suppose that the decimal representation of n is ak ak1 . . . a1 a0 where ak = 0. Then

we have the following.

s(n) = ak + ak1 + + a1 + a0

If k 4, then n s(n) (10k 1)ak 9999. Note that 9999 is nifty, because if

n = 10000 then n s(n) = 9999. So it only remains to deal with positive integers

that are less than 9999.

If k 3, then n s(n) = 999a3 + 99a2 + 9a1 . It follows that the nifty numbers

less than 999 are precisely those numbers of the form 999a3 + 99a2 + 9a1 , where

a1 , a2 , a3 {0, 1, 2, . . . , 9}.

Lemma If 999a + 99b + 9c = 999d + 99e + 9f where a, b, c, d, e, f {0, 1, 2, . . . , 9},

then a = d, b = e and c = f .

Proof If 999a + 99b + 9c = 999d + 99e + 9f , then this can be rearranged as

111(a d) + 11(b e) + (c f ) = 0.

(1)

A similar contradiction is reached if a < d. Hence a = d and equation (1) becomes

11(b e) + (c f ) = 0.

(2)

is reached if b < e. Hence b = e, from which c = f immediately follows.

Returning to the problem, the number of combinations of a1 , a2 , a3 is 103 = 1000.

The lemma guarantees that each of these combinations leads to a different nifty

number. However, we exclude the combination a1 = a2 = a3 = 0 because although

0 is nifty, it is not positive.

In summary, there are 999 nifty numbers from the case k 3, and one nifty number

from the case k 4. This yields a total of 1000 nifty numbers.

21

90

3. Solution 1 (Alexander Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley Secondary College, VIC)

Answer: 45

Call a subset T of S friendless if no two numbers in T are friends. We visualise a

friendless subset T as follows. Draw a 9 9 square grid. If the number 10a + b is in

T we shade in the square that lies in the ath row and bth column.

First we exhibit a friendless subset T of size 45.

Let T consist of all two-digit numbers whose smaller digit is odd, as depicted in the

first diagram below. No two numbers in T are friends because their smaller digits

are both odd and hence cannot differ by 1. Since there are 45 shaded squares, we

have shown that |T | = 45 is possible.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

To see this we pair up some of the squares in the 9 9 square grid as shown in the

second diagram above. Observe that the numbers in each pair are friends. Hence T

can have at most one number from each pair. Since there are 9 unpaired numbers

in the top row and 36 pairs, this shows that T has at most 45 numbers.

22

91

Consider the following nine lines of numbers.

11

21, 22, 12

31, 32, 33, 23, 13

41, 42, 43, 44, 34, 24, 14

51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 45, 35, 25, 15

61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 56, 46, 36, 26, 16

71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 67, 57, 47, 37, 27, 17

81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 78, 68, 58, 48, 38, 28, 28

91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 89, 79, 69, 59, 49, 39, 29, 19

Each pair of neighbouring numbers on any given line are friends. So a subset T of S

that contains no friends cannot include consecutive numbers on any of these lines.

On the ith line there are exactly 2i 1 integers. The maximum number of integers

we can choose from the ith line without choosing neighbours is i. This shows that

T contains at most 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 45 integers.

Furthermore, |T | = 45 only if we choose exactly i numbers from the ith line without

choosing neighbours. There is only one way to do this, namely take every second

number starting from the left of each line.

It is still necessary to verify that T contains no friends because even some nonadjacent numbers from the same line, such as 31 and 23, can be friends. To do this,

note that the smaller digit of each number in T is odd. Thus for any pair of integers

in T , the difference between their smaller digits is even, and thus cannot be equal

to 1. Hence T contains no friends.

Comment This proof shows that there is exactly one subset of S of maximal size

that contains no friends.

23

92

4. Comment All solutions that were dependent on how the diagram was drawn received a penalty deduction of 1 point. The easiest way to avoid diagram dependence

was to use directed angles as in the three solutions we present here.

For any two lines m and n, the directed angle between them is denoted by (m, n).

This is the angle by which one may rotate m anticlockwise to obtain a line parallel

to n.22

Solution 1 (Yang Song, year 12, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

Let Q be the intersection of lines OC and P D. Since AC P Q and A is the

midpoint of OP , it follows that C is the midpoint of OQ.

P

D

A

O

B

(a) We know OD BA and DQ AC. It follows that (OD, DQ) = (BA, AC),

which is fixed because A lies on . This implies D lies on a fixed circle, say,

through O and Q.

Let s be the radius of . Since the diameter is the largest chord length in a

circle, we have 2s OQ. Since OQ = 2OC = 2r we have s r, as desired.

. This is achieved if and only if OD DQ, which is equivalent to BA AC.

But the chords BA and AC of are perpendicular if and only if BC is a

diameter of .

22 For

more details on how to work with directed angles, see the section Directed angles in chapter 17 of

Problem Solving Tactics published by the AMT.

24

93

Let E be the intersection of lines AC and OD. Since AC P D and A is the

midpoint of OP , it follows that E is the midpoint of OD.

P

O

B

C

Q

Since OE BA, we have (OE, EC) = (BA, AC), which is fixed because

A lies on . This implies that E lies on a fixed circle, say, through O and

C. Since E is the midpoint of OD, the point D is the image of E under the

dilation centred at O and of enlargement factor 2. The image of under the

dilation is a circle that is twice as large as . Thus D lies on .

Let s be the radius of . Then has radius 2s . But OC is a chord of ,

hence its length r is less than or equal to the diameter s of . Hence s r, as

required.

(b) From the preceding analysis we have s = r if and only if OC is a diameter of

. This is achieved if and only if OE EC, which is equivalent to BA AC.

But the chords BA and AC of are perpendicular if and only if BC is a

diameter of .

25

94

Solution 3 (Kevin Xian, year 11, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

The motivation for this solution comes from considering a couple of special positions

for A.

If A is diametrically opposite C, then D = O. If A is diametrically opposite B, then

this gives a second position for D. With this in mind, let X be the point on that

is diametrically opposite B, and let Y be the point such that X is the midpoint of

OY .

P

Y

X

O

B

(OY, OD) = (BO, BA) (OD BA)

= (AB, AO) (OB = OA)

= (OD, OP ). (BA OD)

We also have OY = 2OX = 2OA = OP . Therefore, Y and P are symmetric

in the line OD. It follows that

(Y D, OD) = (OD, P D)

= (OD, OP ) + (OP, P D)

= (BA, OA) + (OA, AC)

(OD BA and P D AC)

= (BA, AC).

Hence (Y D, OD) is fixed because B, C and are fixed.

Since O and Y are also fixed points, it follows that D lies on a fixed circle,

say, that passes through O and Y .

Let s be the radius of . Then by the extended sine rule applied to ODY

26

95

we have

OY

sin (Y D, OD)

2r

=

sin (BA, AC)

2r.

2s =

Therefore s r, as required.

sin(BA, AC) = 1.

This is equivalent to BA AC, which occurs if and only if BC is the diameter

of .

27

96

5. This was the easiest problem of the competition. Of the 106 students who sat the

AMO, 77 found a complete solution. There were many different routes to a solution,

and we present some of them here.

Solution 1 (Zoe Schwerkolt, year 11, Fintona Girls School, VIC)

We are given ACZ is isosceles with AC = AZ. By symmetry, the angle bisector

at A is also the altitude from A, and so AX CZ. Thus CY A = 90 = CDA.

It follows that ADY C is a cyclic quadrilateral.

C

X

Y

x

A

x

D

BDY = 90 x.

(1)

But from the exterior angle sum in CAX, we have AXB = 90 + x, and so

Y XB = 90 + x.

(2)

BDY + Y XB = 180 ,

28

97

Solution 2 (Alan Guo, year 12, Penleigh and Essendon Grammar School, VIC)

We deduce that ADY C is cyclic as in solution 1.

It follows that

AY D = ACD

= 90 DAC

= 90 BAC

= CBA.

(ADY C cyclic)

(angle sum CAD)

(angle sum ABC)

C

X

Y

29

98

We are given ACZ is isosceles with AC = AZ. Hence by symmetry, the angle

bisector at A is both the median and the altitude from A. Thus Y is the midpoint

of CZ.

Since CDZ is right-angled at D, the point Y is the circumcentre of CDZ. Hence

we have Y C = Y D = Y Z.

Let CBA = XBD = 2x. We now compute some other angles in the diagram.

BAC = 90 2x

ZAY = 45 x

Y ZA = 45 + x

ZDY = 45 + x

DY Z = 90 2x

DY X = 180 2x

(AY bisects BAC)

(angle sum AZY )

(Y D = Y Z)

(angle sum Y DZ)

(AX CZ)

C

X

Y

2x

A

30

99

As in solution 1, we deduce that AY CZ.

H is the orthocentre of CAZ. Hence ZH AC. But since AC BC, we have

ZH BC. Observe also that HDZY is cyclic because ZDH = 90 = HY Z.

We now have

CXH = ZHX

= ZHY

= ZDY.

(BC ZH)

(HDZY cyclic)

C

X

Y

H

31

100

Solution 5 (Kevin Xian, year 11, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

As in solution 1, we deduce that AY CZ. Hence using the angle sums in CAY

and CAX, we have

ACY = 90 XAC = CXY.

Hence by the alternate segment theorem, line AC is tangent to circle CY X at C.

Using the power of point A with respect to circle CY X, we have

AC 2 = AY AX.

(1)

In a similar way we may use the angle sums in CAD and ABC to find

ACD = 90 BAC = CBD.

Hence by the alternate segment theorem, line AC is tangent to circle CDB at C.

Using the power of point A with respect to circle CDB, we have

AC 2 = AD AB.

(2)

AY AX = AD AB,

and so BXY D is cyclic.

C

X

Y

32

101

Answer: 1008

Let f (x) = p(x) q(x), where

p(x) = (x 1)(x 3)(x 5) (x 2015),

q(x) = (x 2)(x 4)(x 6) (x 2014).

We seek the number of distinct real solutions to the equation f (x) = 0. Note that

f (x) is a polynomial of degree 1008 because p(x) has degree 1008 while q(x) has

degree 1007.

Observe that p(x) is the product of an even number of brackets and q(x) is the

product of an odd number of brackets. Therefore,

f (0) = (1) (3) (2015)

(2) (4) (2014)

= 1 3 2015 + 2 4 2014

> 0.

We also have

f (2016) = 2015 2013 1 2014 2012 2

> 0,

where the last line is true because 2015 > 2014, 2013 > 2012, and so on down to

3 > 2.

Next, for x = 2, 4, 6, . . . , 2014, we have q(x) = 0, and so f (x) = p(x). Hence

f (2) = 1 (1) (3) (2013) < 0.

Note that by increasing the value of x from x = 2 to x = 4, we reduce the number

of negative brackets in the product for q(x) by 1. This has the effect of changing

the sign of f (x). In general, each time we increase x by 2 up to a maximum of

x = 2014, we change the sign of f (x). Therefore, we have the following inequalities.

f (0) > 0

f (2) < 0

f (4) > 0

f (6) < 0

..

.

f (2014) < 0

f (2016) > 0

Since f (x) is a polynomial it is a continuous function. Hence, by the intermediate value theorem, f (x) = 0 has at least one solution in each of the intervals

(0, 2), (2, 4), (4, 6), . . . , (2014, 2016). Therefore, there are at least 1008 different solutions to f (x) = 0.

Finally, since f (x) is a polynomial of degree 1008, the equation f (x) = 0 has at

most 1008 roots. Hence we may conclude that f (x) = 0 has exactly 1008 distinct

real solutions.

33

102

Solution 2 (Yong See Foo, year 11, Nossal High School, VIC)

The polynomials p(x), q(x) and f (x) are defined as in solution 1. We also deduce

f (2016) > 0, as in solution 1.

For any x {1, 3, 5, . . . , 2015}, we have p(x) = 0, and so f (x) = q(x). Therefore,

for any x {1, 3, 5, . . . , 2015}, we have

f (x) = (x 2)(x 4) (x (x 1)) (x (x + 1)) (x 2014).

All bracketed terms to the left of are positive while the remaining bracketed terms

to the right of are negative. Hence the total number of bracketed terms that are

negative is equal to 2014(x+1)

+ 1 = 2015x

.33 Taking into account the minus sign at

2

2

the front, it follows that for each x {1, 3, 5, . . . , 2015}, we have

f (x) > 0 for x 1 (mod 4)

and

f (1) > 0

f (3) < 0

f (5) > 0

..

.

f (2013) > 0

f (2015) < 0

f (2016) > 0

Since f (x) is a polynomial, it is a continuous function. Hence by the intermediate value theorem, f (x) = 0 has at least one solution in each of the intervals

(1, 3), (3, 5), . . . , (2013, 2015), (2015, 2016). Therefore, there are at least 1008 different solutions to the equation f (x) = 0.

However, as in solution 1, f (x) is a polynomial of degree 1008, and so f (x) = 0 has

at most 1008 roots. Thus we may conclude that f (x) = 0 has exactly 1008 distinct

real solutions.

Comment Some contestants found it helpful to do a rough sketch of p(x) and q(x).

This helps to determine the signs of p(x), q(x) and f (x) for x = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 2016.

From this one can further narrow down the location of the solutions to f (x) = 0.

They are found in the intervals (1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6), . . . , (2013, 2014), (2015, 2016).

y

y = p(x)

y = q(x)

...

1

3

3

This is all still true in the extreme cases x = 1 and x = 2015. The case x = 1 corresponds to putting the

to the left of the first term (x 2) but to the right of the negative sign. The case x = 2015 corresponds

to putting the to the right of the last term (x 2014).

34

103

7. There are many different ways to solve this problem. Over 10 different methods of

solution were found among the 24 contestants who completely solved the problem.

Some of these are presented here.

Solution 1 (Charles Li, year 9, Camberwell Grammar School, VIC)

We proceed by contradiction. Assume that only finitely many integers n satisfy

p(n + 1) p(n) p(n) p(n 1) > 0.

Observe that p(n) = p(n + 1) for all positive integers n 2 because adjacent

numbers cannot be divisible by the same prime. Hence there is a positive integer N

such that

p(n + 1) p(n) p(n) p(n 1) < 0 for all integers n > N .

(*)

Thus p(n) > p(n 1) if and only if p(n + 1) < p(n) for all n > N . It follows that

the graph of p(n) versus n alternates between peaks and valleys once n > N . This

can be schematically visualised as follows.

p(n)

n

Consider the number 2m where m > 1 is large enough so that 2m > N . Note that

p(2m ) = 2. Since 2m 1 and 2m +1 are odd we have p(2m +1) > 2 and p(2m 1) > 2.

Hence the above graph has a valley at 2m . Since peaks and valleys alternate for

every n > N , it follows that there is a valley at every even number and a peak at

every odd number once we pass N .

Consider the number 3m . Note that p(3m ) = 3. However, from the preceding

paragraph, there is a peak at 3m because it is odd and greater than N . Hence

p(3m 1) = 2 and p(3m + 1) = 2. This is possible if and only if 3m 1 and 3m + 1

are powers of 2. But the only powers of 2 that differ by 2 are 21 and 22 . This implies

m = 1, which is a contradiction.

Comment 1 Some contestants found a second way to deduce that the graph of

p(n) versus n (for n > N ) has peaks at odd n and valleys at even n.

They observed that if q > 3 is a prime number greater than N , then there is a peak

at q. This is because p(q) = q, while p(q + 1) q+1

< q and p(q 1) q1

< q.

2

2

Comment 2 All solutions used the method of indirect proof.44 They all established

that the graph of p(n) versus n (for n > N ) has peaks at odd values of n and valleys

4

4

35

104

derive a contradiction from this point on.

Variation 1 (Isabel Longbottom, year 10, Rossmoyne Senior High School, WA)

Consider the number 32m+1 , where m 1 satisfies 32m+1 > N .

Since m > 1, the number 32m+1 1 is a power of 2 which is greater than 2. Hence

32m+1 1 (mod 4).

Consider the number 34m , where m 1 is large enough so that 34m > N .

Since 34m is odd and p(34m ) = 3, it follows that 34m 1 is a power of 2.

By Dirichlets theorem there are infinitely many primes of the form q = 6k + 1.

Choose any such prime q > N .

There is a valley at 2q because it is even. Hence p(2q + 1) > p(2q) = q.

But 2q + 1 = 2(6k + 1) + 1 = 3(4k + 1), and so 2q + 1 is a multiple of 3.

Hence p(2q + 1)

2q+1

3

Consider the number 2q, where q > 3 is prime greater than N . Note that p(2q) = q.

There is a valley at 2q because it is even.

However, 2q 1, 2q and 2q + 1 are three consecutive numbers, and so one of them

is a multiple of 3. Since q > 3 we know 3 2q.

If 3 | 2q 1, then p(2q 1)

2q1

3

2q+1

3

< q.

Let q > N be any prime. There is a valley at 2q because it is even.

So we have p(2q 1) > p(2q) = q. This implies that p(2q 1) = 2q 1.

Thus 2q1 is prime whenever q is prime. Therefore, we also have 2(2q1)1 = 4q3

is prime.

A simple induction shows that 2r (q 1) + 1 is prime for r = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

In particular 2q1 (q 1) + 1 is prime.

2q1 (q 1) + 1 is prime.

5

5

36

105

Let q1 < q2 < be the list of all odd primes in order starting from q1 = 3.

may choose j > 3 such that qj > N and such that the list q1 , q2 , . . . , qj contains an

odd number of primes of the form of 4k + 3.

Consider the number m = q1 q2 qj . Note that p(m) = qj . Furthermore, there is a

peak at m because it is odd.

Note m 3 (mod 4). Thus m 1 = 2r for some odd number r.

that is greater than pj . Thus p(m 1) > p(m), which contradicts that there is a

peak at m.

37

106

We shall prove that p(n 1) < p(n) < p(n + 1) for infinitely many n. In particular,

for each odd prime q, we show there exists a positive integer k such that

k

Lemma 1

1 a < b.

(1)

b

a

Proof Let d = gcd(q 2 + 1, q 2 + 1). Using the difference of perfect squares factorisation we know x 1 | x2 1 and x + 1 | x2 1. From this we deduce the following

chain of divisibility.

a

a+1

2a+1

2a+2

2a+2

q2 + 1 | q2

q2

a

b1

1|q

1|q

..

.

2a+3

1

1

1 | q2 1

a

b

yields d | 2. Since q 2 + 1 and q 2 + 1 are even, we conclude that d = 2.

Lemma 2

k

p(q 2 1) < q

for k = 1, 2, . . . .

. Hence

For the base case k = 1, since q is odd we have q 2 1 = 2(q 1) q+1

2

2

2

p(q 1) < q. However, since (1) is false for k = 2, we also have p(q + 1) < q.

For the inductive step, suppose we know that

j

p(q 2 1) < q

j+1

j+1

j+1

p(q 2 1) < q. However, since (1) is false for k = j+1, we also have p(q 2 +1) < q.

This completes the induction.

To complete the proof of the problem, let us focus on the following list of numbers.

L = p(q 2 + 1), p(q 4 + 1), p(q 8 + 1), . . .

From lemma 1, q 2 + 1, q 4 + 1, q 8 + 1, . . . all have pairwise greatest common divisor

equal to 2. Hence at most one of the numbers in L is equal to 2, while the others

are distinct odd primes. This means that L contains infinitely many different prime

numbers. This is a contradiction because lemma 2 implies that L contains only

finitely many different numbers.

38

107

stronger result than what was required. The AMO problem only required a proof

that at least one of p(n 1) < p(n) < p(n + 1) and p(n 1) > p(n) > p(n + 1)

occurs infinitely often, but without pinning down which of the two alternatives does

occur infinitely often. Jeremys proof establishes that p(n 1) < p(n) < p(n + 1)

definitely occurs infinitely often.66

66 Erd

os

and Pomerance proved this result in their 1978 research paper On the largest prime factors of n

and n + 1. The question of whether p(n 1) > p(n) > p(n + 1) could occur infinitely often was finally

resolved in the positive by Balog in his 2001 research paper On triplets with descending largest prime

factors.

39

108

8. This was the most difficult problem of the 2015 AMO. Just four contestants managed

to solve it completely.

Solution (Seyoon Ragavan, year 11, Knox Grammar School, NSW)

Answer: n n1

2

Note that if ABC is equilateral then it is isosceles with base AB, isosceles with

base BC, and isosceles with base AC. In this way an equilateral triangle counts as

three isosceles triangles depending on which side is considered the base. Thus the

number of apples Maryam receives is equal to the number of base-specified isosceles

triangles.

Let S denote the set of lines that Maryam draws. Consider a line a S. We

determine how many ways a can be the base of an isosceles triangle. Observe that

if a, b, c and a, d, e both form isosceles triangles with base a, then since no two lines

are parallel,

the pairs {b, c} and {d, e} are either equal or disjoint. Thus there are at

most n1

pairs {b, c} from S such that a, b, c forms an isosceles triangle with base

2

a. Since there are n possibilities

fora, we conclude that the number of base-specified

isosceles triangle is at most n n1

.

2

It remains to show that this is attainable. Take n equally spaced lines passing

through the origin so that the angle between consecutive lines is 180

. Next translate

n

each of the lines so that

no

three

of

them

are

concurrent.

We

claim

this

configuration

n1

of lines results in n 2 base-specified isosceles triangles.

For any line x, let x denote the line after it has been translated. Consider any

triangle bounded by lines a , b , c . It is isosceles with base a if and only if before the

translations, the lines b and c were symmetric in a. There

are n ways of choosing

n1

a. Once a is chosen, then by our construction there are 2 pairs b, c such that

they are symmetric in a. Indeed, if n is odd, all the other lines are involved in

a symmetric pair about a. If n is even then exactly one line is not involved in a

symmetric pair about a because it is perpendicular to a. Thus

the total number of

base specified isosceles triangles for this construction is n n1

, as desired.

2

The following diagram illustrates the construction for n = 6. Each line is a base for

two isosceles triangles, one of which is equilateral. In total there are two equilateral

triangles and six isosceles triangles, making twelve base-specified isosceles triangles

in all.

40

109

are possible. The

Comment Other constructions that achieve the bound n n1

2

following one is by Andrew Elvey Price, Deputy Leader of the 2015 Australian IMO

team.

If n is odd, Maryam can achieve this by drawing the lines to form the sides of a

regular polygon with n sides. If n is even, Maryam can achieve this by drawing the

lines to form all but one of the sides of a regular polygon with n + 1 sides.

41

110

SCORE DISTRIBUTION/PROBLEM

Problem Number

Number of

Students/Score

10

14

29

80

17

60

47

86

30

18

10

13

10

11

17

26

11

50

28

23

77

25

24

5.2

4.6

3.4

1.2

5.4

2.5

2.0

0.6

Average Mark

111

Name

School

Year

Perfect Score and Gold

Alexander Gunning

12

Seyoon Ragavan

11

Gold

Jeremy Yip

12

11

Ilia Kucherov

11

Yang Song

12

Allen Lu

12

Alan Guo

12

Thomas Baker

11

Richard Gong

10

Henry Yoo

12

Silver

Matthew Cheah

10

Kevin Xian

11

Kevin Shen

12 NZ

George Han

13 NZ

Wilson Zhao

11

Michelle Chen

11

Leo Li

11

Jack Liu

Charles Li

Anthony Pisani

Ivan Zelich

12

Michael Robertson

11

Edward Chen

William Hu

Martin Luk

King's College NZ

11 NZ

9

13 NZ

112

Name

School

Year

Bronze

Jerry Mao

Zoe Schwerkolt

11

Harish Suresh

11

Justin Wu

11

Austin Zhang

10

Isabel Longbottom

10

Anand Bharadwaj

Devin He

11

Bobby Dey

10

Tony Jiang

10

Nitin Niranjan

12

William Song

11

Wen Zhang

Michael Chen

William Wang

King's College NZ

12 NZ

Xuzhi Zhang

13 NZ

Keiran Lewellen

Home Schooled NZ

10 NZ

Eryuan Sheng

11

Linus Cooper

David Steketee

Hale School WA

12

Alexander Barber

11

Matthew Jones

12

Madeline Nurcombe

11

Steven Lim

12 NZ

13 NZ

12

113

March, 2015

Time allowed: 4 hours

No calculators are to be used

Each problem is worth 7 points

Problem 1. Let ABC be a triangle, and let D be a point on side BC. A line

through D intersects side AB at X and ray AC at Y . The circumcircle of triangle

BXD intersects the circumcircle of triangle ABC again at point Z = B. The lines

ZD and ZY intersect again at V and W , respectively. Prove that AB = V W .

Problem 2. Let S = {2, 3, 4, . . .} denote the set of integers that are greater than or

equal to 2. Does there exist a function f : S S such that

f (a)f (b) = f (a2 b2 ) for all a, b S with a = b?

three conditions hold.

(i) The value of a0 is a positive integer.

(ii) For each non-negative integer i we have ai+1 = 2ai + 1 or ai+1 =

ai

.

ai + 2

Find the smallest positive integer n such that there exists a good sequence a0 , a1 , . . .

of real numbers with the property that an = 2014.

Problem 4. Let n be a positive integer. Consider 2n distinct lines on the plane, no

two of which are parallel. Of the 2n lines, n are colored blue, the other n are colored

red. Let B be the set of all points on the plane that lie on at least one blue line,

and R the set of all points on the plane that lie on at least one red line. Prove that

there exists a circle that intersects B in exactly 2n 1 points, and also intersects R

in exactly 2n 1 points.

Problem 5. Determine all sequences a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . of positive integers with a0 2015

such that for all integers n 1:

(i) an+2 is divisible by an ;

(ii) |sn+1 (n + 1)an | = 1, where sn+1 = an+1 an + an1 + (1)n+1 a0 .

114

SOLUTIONS

1. Solution

(Alan Guo, year 12, Penleigh and Essendon Grammar School, VIC)

Applying the Pivot theorem to AXY we see that circles ABC, XBD and CDY

are concurrent at point Z.11 Hence CDZY is cyclic.

A

V

X

Let (m, n) denote the directed angle between any two lines m and n.22 We have

(W Z, V Z) = (Y Z, DZ)

= (Y C, DC) (CDZY cyclic)

= (AC, BC).

Therefore V W and AB subtend equal or supplementary angles in . It follows that

V W = AB.

Comment All solutions that were dependent on how the diagram was drawn received a penalty deduction of 1 point. The easiest way to avoid diagram dependence

was to use directed angles as in the solution presented above.

11

The point Z is also the Miquel point of the four lines AB, AY , BC and XY . It is the common point of

the circumcircles of ABC, AXY , BDX and CDY . See the sections entitled Pivot theorem and

Four lines and four circles found in chapter 5 of Problem Solving Tactics published by the AMT.

22

This is the angle by which one may rotate m anticlockwise to obtain a line parallel to n. For more

details, see the section Directed angles in chapter 17 of Problem Solving Tactics published by the AMT.

43

115

Answer: No

Assume such a function exists. For any positive integer n we have

f (2n )f (2n+4 ) = f 22(2n+4) = f (2n+1 )f (2n+3 ),

and so

Similarly,

and so

f (2n+3 )

f (2n )

=

.

f (2n+1 )

f (2n+4 )

(1)

f (2n+1 )f (2n+4 ) = f 22(2n+5) = f (2n+2 )f (2n+3 ),

f (2n+3 )

f (2n+1 )

=

.

f (2n+2 )

f (2n+4 )

(2)

f (2n+1 )

f (2n )

=

.

f (2n+1 )

f (2n+2 )

(3)

f (21 ), f (22 ), f (23 ), . . .

is a geometric sequence. Thus f (2n ) = arn1 for some positive rational numbers a

and r.

Since f (2)f (22 ) = f (26 ) we have

a ar = ar5

a = r4 .

(4)

a ar2 = ar7

a = r5 .

(5)

Comparing (4) and (5) we have r4 = r5 . Since r > 0, we have r = 1. But then from

(4) we have a = 1. Thus f (2) = 1 S, a contradiction. Hence there are no such

functions.

44

116

Solution 2 (Linus Cooper, year 9, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

Suppose such a function exists. Then for any integer b > 2 we have

f (8b)f (b) = f (64b4 ) = f (2)f (4b2 ) = f (2)f (2)f (b),

and so

f (8b) = f (2)2 .

Thus f (c) = f (2)2 whenever c 24 and c is a multiple of 8.

Next we have

f (2)4 = f (2)2 .

Since f (2) > 0, we have f (2) = 1 S. This contradiction shows that no such

function exists.

45

117

Suppose such a function exists. Let a < b < c be positive integers. We work with

the quantity f (2a )f (2b )f (2c ) in two different ways.

a

f (2 )f (2c ) f (2b ) = f (22a+2c )f (2b ) (since c > a)

= f (24a+2b+4c )

(since 2a + 2c > b)

(1)

= f (22a+4b+4c )

(since 2b + 2c > a)

f (2a )f (2b ) f (2c ) = f (22a+2b )f (2c ) (since b > a)

= f (24a+4b+2c )

(if c = 2a + 2b)

(2)

(3)

f (42a+2b+c ) = f (42a+b+2c ) = f (4a+2b+2c ),

(4)

(a, b, c) = (1, 2, 3)

(a, b, c) = (1, 2, 4)

(a, b, c) = (1, 3, 5)

(a, b, c) = (1, 4, 7)

f (410 ) = f (412 ) = f (413 )

f (413 ) = f (415 ) = f (417 )

f (417 ) = f (420 ) = f (423 )

However, f (49 )f (4) = f (420 ), and so f (4) = 1 S. This contradiction shows that

no such function exists.

46

118

For any a, b S, choose an integer c > a, b. Then since bc > a and c > b, we have

f (a4 b4 c4 ) = f (a2 )f (b2 c2 ) = f (a2 )f (b)f (c).

Furthermore, since ac > b and c > a, we have

f (a4 b4 c4 ) = f (b2 )f (a2 c2 ) = f (b2 )f (a)f (c).

Comparing these two equations, we find that for all a, b S,

2

f (a )f (b) = f (b )f (a)

f (b2 )

f (a2 )

=

.

f (a)

f (b)

f (a2 ) = kf (a),

for all a S.

(1)

f (ab) =

f (a)f (b)

,

k

(2)

Now combine the functional equation with (1) and (2) to obtain for all a S,

f (a)f (a2 ) = f (a6 ) =

f (a)f (a5 )

f (a)f (a)f (a2 )

=

.

=

k

k2

k

Putting this into the functional equation yields k 2 = k. But 0, 1 S and hence

there is no solution.

47

119

3. Solution 1 (Alexander Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley Secondary College, VIC)

Answer: n = 60

Clearly all members of the sequence are positive rational numbers. For each nonnegative integer i let ai = pqii where pi and qi are positive integers with gcd(pi , qi ) = 1.

Therefore,

pi+1

2pi + qi

pi+1

pi

=

or

=

.

(1)

qi+1

qi

qi+1

pi + 2qi

If each of pi and qi are odd, then so are 2pi + qi , qi , pi , and pi + 2qi . Thus when the

RHSs of (1) are reduced to lowest terms, the numerators and denominators are still

odd. Hence pi+1 and qi+1 are odd. It follows inductively that if pi and qi are odd,

then pk and qk are odd for all k i. Since pqnn = 2014 we cannot have pi and qi both

being odd for any i n. Since gcd(pi , qi ) = 1, it follows that

pi and qi are of opposite parity for i = 0, 1, . . . , n.

(2)

Suppose pi is odd for some i < n. We cannot have the second option in (1) because

that implies pi+1 and qi+1 are both odd, which contradicts (2). So we must have

i+1

i

the first option in (1), namely, pqi+1

= 2piq+q

. From (2), qi is even, and so we have

i

gcd(2pi + qi , qi ) = gcd(2pi , qi ) = 2. Hence

pi odd

pi+1 = pi +

qi

2

and qi+1 =

qi

2

for i < n.

(3)

On the other hand, a similar argument shows that if pi is even for some i < n, then

pi

i+1

we must take the second option in (1), namely pqi+1

= pi +2q

, and gcd(pi , pi +2qi ) = 1.

i

Hence

pi even

pi+1 =

pi

2

and qi+1 =

pi

+ qi

2

for i < n.

(4)

In both (3) and (4), we have pi+1 + qi+1 = pi + qi . Since pn + qn = 2015, we have

pi + qi = 2015 for i 2015.

If pi is odd, we may combine (3) and (5) to find

qi qi

(pi+1 , qi+1 ) = pi + ,

2 2

p q

i

i

,

(mod 2015).

2 2

(5)

(6)

A very similar calculation using (4) and (5) shows that (6) is also true if pi is even.

A simple induction on (6) yields,

(pn , qn )

p

2

0

n,

q0

2n

(mod 2015).

qn 1 (mod 2015).

48

120

(7)

2n 1 (mod 2015).

Since 2015 = 3 13 31, we require 5, 13, 31 | 2n 1. Computing powers of 2, we see

that

5 | 2n 1 4 | n

13 | 2n 1 12 | n

31 | 2n 1 5 | n.

Since 60 = lcm(4, 12, 5) we conclude that 2015 | 2n 1 if and only if 60 | n. The

smallest such positive integer is n = 60.

49

121

Clearly all members of the sequence are positive rational numbers. For each positive

ai+1 1

2ai+1

or ai =

. Since ai > 0 we deduce that

integer i, we have ai =

2

1 ai+1

ai+1 1

if ai+1 > 1

2

ai =

(1)

2ai+1

if ai+1 < 1.

1 ai+1

Thus ai is uniquely determined from ai+1 . Hence we may start from an = 2014 and

simply run the sequence backwards until we reach a positive integer.

From (1), if ai+1 = uv , then

uv

2v

ai =

2u

vu

if u > v

if u < v.

(u0 , v0 ) = (2014, 1) and

(ui vi , 2vi ) if ui > vi

(2)

(ui+1 , vi+1 ) =

(2ui , vi ui ) if ui < vi ,

then ani =

ui

vi

for i = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

Observe from (2) that ui+1 + vi+1 = ui + vi . So since u0 = 2014 and v0 = 1, we have

ui + vi = 2015 for i = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

(3)

Suppose that d is a common factor of ui+1 and vi+1 . Then (3) implies d | 2015, and

so d is odd. If ui > vi , then from (2) we have d | ui vi and d | 2vi . This easily

implies d | ui and d | vi . If ui < vi , we similarly conclude from (2) that d | ui and

d | vi . This inductively cascades back to give d | u0 and d | v0 . Since gcd(u0 , v0 ) = 1,

we deduce that d | 1. Therefore,

gcd(ui , vi ) = 1 for i = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

(4)

From (3) and (4), we have ui = vi . Hence (2) yields ui+1 , vi+1 > 0, and so from (3)

we have

ui , vi {1, 2, . . . , 2014} for i = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

(5)

Next we prove by induction that

(ui , vi ) (2i , 2i ) (mod 2015) for i = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

(6)

The base case is immediate. Also, if (ui , vi ) (2i , 2i ) (mod 2015), then using (2)

we have

ui > vi

i+1

(2

50

122

,2

i+1

(mod 2015)

(mod 2015)

and

ui < vi

(2i+1 , 2i+1 )

(mod 2015).

We are given that a0 = uvnn is a positive integer. We know that un and vn are positive

integers with gcd(un , vn ) = 1. Thus we seek n such that vn = 1. From (5) and (6),

this occurs if and only if

2n 1 (mod 2015).

an = 2014 until a positive integer is reached, the result would be

2014

,

1

1918

,

97

666

,

1349

122

,

1893

2013

,

2

1821

,

194

1332

,

683

244

,

1771

2011

,

4

1627

,

388

649

,

1366

488

,

1527

2007

,

8

1239

,

776

1298

,

717

976

,

1039

1999

,

16

463

,

1552

581

,

1434

1952

,

63

1983

,

32

926

,

1089

1162

,

853

1889

,

126

1951

,

64

1852

,

163

309

,

1706

1763

,

252

1887

,

128

1689

,

326

618

,

1397

1511

,

504

1759

,

256

1363

,

652

1236

,

779

1007

,

1008

1503

,

512

711

,

1304

457

,

1558

2014

.

1

991

,

1024

1422

,

593

914

,

1101

1982

,

33

829

,

1186

1828

,

187

1949

,

66

1658

,

357

1641

,

374

1883

,

132

1301

,

714

1267

,

748

1751

,

264

587

,

1428

519

,

1496

1487

,

528

1174

,

841

1038

,

977

959

,

1056

333

,

1682

61

,

1954

Since there are 61 terms in the above list, this also shows that n = 60.

Comment 2 A corollary of both solutions is that the only value of a0 which yields

a good sequence is a0 = 2014.

51

123

Let be the maximal angle that occurs between a red line and a blue line. Let r

be a red line and b be a blue line such that the non-acute angle between them is .

Note that r and b divide the plane into four regions.

In the following diagrams, the two regions that lie within the angular areas defined

by are shaded. Also we orient our configuration so that the x-axis is the angle

bisector of r and b that passes through the two shaded regions. Let O be the

intersection of lines r and b.

Let be another line in the configuration. Four options arise that need to be

considered.

In the first two diagrams, does not pass through O. Observe that , r and b enclose

a triangle which is either completely shaded or completely unshaded. If the triangle

is completely shaded, as in the first diagram, then 1 = + > and 2 = + > .

But this is impossible because it implies that cannot be blue or red. Hence the

triangle is completely unshaded, as in the second diagram.

In the last two diagrams, passes through O. Observe that apart from the point O,

either all of lies in the unshaded regions, or all of lies in the shaded regions. If

were to lie in the unshaded regions, as in the third diagram, then since + >

and + > , it would follow that could not be red or blue. Hence lies in the

shaded regions, as in the fourth diagram.

Let S be the set of intersection points of lines in the configuration that lie on r or b.

Consider any circle that lies to the right of all points of S and is tangent to r and

b in the right-hand shaded region. We claim that has the required property. It

suffices to show that every line in the configuration, apart from r and b, intersects

in two distinct points.

Let R and B be the points of tangency of with r and b, respectively, and let T be

the union of the segments OB and OR.

52

124

If ( = r, b) is any line of the configuration, then the part of lying in the right

shaded region is an infinite ray .

Let F be the figure enclosed by T and the minor arc RB of . Then passes into

the interior of F , and so intersects the boundary of F at least twice. Since cannot

intersect T twice, it must intersect the minor arc RB.

Finally, cannot be tangent to because that would imply that intersects both

OB and OR (not at O). It follows that intersects at two distinct points, as

desired.

53

125

Solution 2 (Yang Song, year 12, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW)

We may rotate the plane so that no red line or blue line is vertical. Let 1 , 2 , . . . , 2n

be the lines listed in order of increasing gradient. Then there is a k such that lines

k and k+1 are oppositely coloured. By rotating our coordinate system and cyclicly

relabelling our lines we can ensure that 1 , 2 , . . . , 2n are listed in order of increasing

gradient, 1 and 2n are oppositely coloured, and no line is vertical. Without loss of

generality 1 is red and 2n is blue. Let O = 1 2n .

Let (not one of the 2n lines) be a variable vertical line to the right of O. Let

R = 1 and B = 2n . Since the lines 2 , 3 , . . . , 2n1 have gradients lying

in between those of 1 and 2n , we can move far enough to the right so that all

the intersection points of 2 , 3 , . . . , 2n1 with lie between R and B. Let be the

excircle of ORB opposite A. We claim that has the required properties. To

prove this, it suffices to show that each line i (2 i 2n 1) intersects twice.

B

O

R

R

Let be the vertical line which is tangent to and lying to the right of . Let

R = 1 and B = 2n . Then is the incircle of BRR B . The result now

follows because any line that intersects the opposite sides of a quadrilateral having

an incircle, must also intersect the incircle twice.

54

126

There are two families of answers.

an = c(n + 2)n! for all n 1 and a0 = c + 1 for some integer c 2014.

Let a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . be a sequence of positive integers satisfying the given conditions.

We can rewrite (ii) as

sn+1 = (n + 1)an + hn ,

where hn {1, 1} . Substituting n with n 1 yields

sn = (n 1)an + hn1 ,

for n 2. Adding together the two equations we find

an+1 = (n + 1)an + nan1 + n

(1)

We also have |s2 2a1 | = 1, which yields a0 = 3a1 a2 1 3a1 , and therefore

a1 a30 671. Substituting n = 2 in (1), we find that a3 = 3a2 + 2a1 + 2 . Since

a1 | a3 , we have a1 | 3a2 + 2 , and therefore a2 223. Using (1), we obtain that

an 223 for all n 0.

Lemma 1

an = nan1 + (n 1)an2 + n1

> nan1 + 3.

(2)

an = nan1 + (n 1)an2 + n1

< nan1 + (an1 3) + n1

< (n + 1)an1 .

(3)

Using (1) to write an+2 in terms of an and an1 along with (2), we have for n 3,

an+2 = (n + 3)(n + 1)an + (n + 2)nan1 + (n + 2)n + n+1

< (n + 3)(n + 1)an + (n + 2)nan1 + 3(n + 2)

< (n2 + 5n + 5)an .

Also for n 4,

an+2 = (n + 3)(n + 1)an + (n + 2)nan1 + (n + 2)n + n+1

> (n + 3)(n + 1)an + nan

= (n2 + 5n + 3)an .

Since an | an+2 , we have an+2 = (n2 + 5n + 4)an = (n + 1)(n + 4)an , as desired.

Lemma 2

(n+1)(n+3)

an .

n+2

55

127

Proof Using the recurrence an+3 = (n + 3)an+2 + (n + 2)an+1 + n+2 and writing

an+3 , an+2 in terms of an+1 , an according to lemma 1 we obtain

(n + 2)(n + 4)an+1 = (n + 3)(n + 1)(n + 4)an + n+2 .

Hence n + 4 | n+2 , which yields n+2 = 0 and an+1 =

Lemma 3

(n+1)(n+3)

an ,

n+2

as desired.

(n+1)(n+3)

an .

n+2

an . By lemma 2, there

Proof Suppose there exists n 1 such that an+1 = (n+1)(n+3)

n+2

is a greatest integer 1 m 3 with this property. Then am+2 = (m+2)(m+4)

am+1 .

m+3

If m+1 = 0, then am+1 =

m+1 = 0.

(m+1)(m+3)

am ,

m+2

for some positive integer k. Then

(m + 1)am + m+1 = am+2 (m + 2)am+1 = (m + 2)k.

So, am | (m + 2)k m+1 . But am also divides am+2 = (m + 2)(m + 4)k. Combining

the two divisibility conditions, we obtain am | (m + 4)m+1 .

that an 223 for all non-negative integers n.

So, an+1 = (n+1)(n+3)

n+2

we have by induction that an = n!(n + 2)c for n 1. Since |s2 2a1 | = 1, we then

get a0 = c 1, yielding the two families of solutions.

Finally, since (n+2)n! = n!+(n+1)!, it follows that sn+1 = c(n+2)!+(1)n (ca0 ).

Hence both families of solutions satisfy the given conditions.

56

128

TOP 10 AUSTRALIAN SCORES

Name

School

Year

Total

Award

Jeremy Yip

12

28

Gold

Alexander Gunning

12

28

Silver

Yang Song

12

23

Silver

Henry Yoo

12

20

Bronze

Thomas Baker

11

20

Bronze

Allen Lu

12

20

Bronze

Ilia Kucherov

11

19

Bronze

Seyoon Ragavan

11

17

11

16

Alan Guo

12

14

COUNTRY SCORES

Rank

Country

Number of

Contestants

Score

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Hon.Men

USA

10

298

Korea

10

279

Russia

10

266

Singapore

10

259

Japan

10

256

Canada

10

237

Thailand

10

228

Taiwan

10

222

Australia

10

205

10

Brazil

10

202

11

Peru

10

185

12

Mexico

10

169

13

Hong Kong

10

167

14

Kazakhstan

10

163

15

Indonesia

10

161

16

Malaysia

10

134

17

India

10

127

129

Rank

Country

Number of

Contestants

Score

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Hon.Men

17

Tajikistan

10

127

19

Bangladesh

10

122

20

Philippines

10

105

21

Turkmenistan

10

99

22

Saudi Arabia

10

94

23

New Zealand

10

86

24

Argentina

10

73

24

Colombia

10

73

26

Syria

52

27

Sri Lanka

48

28

El Salvador

47

29

Trinidad and

Tobago

10

31

30

Ecuador

10

27

31

Costa Rica

20

32

Panama

12

33

Cambodia

299

4583

11

42

102

81

Total

130

AMOC SELECTION

SCHOOL

2015 IMO Team Selection

School

The 2015 IMO Selection School was held 514 April at Robert Menzies College, Macquarie

University, Sydney. The main qualifying exams are the AMO and the APMO from which

25 students are selected for the school.

The routine is similar to that for the December School of Excellence; however, there is

the added interest of the actual selection of the Australian IMO team. This year the IMO

would be held in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

The students are divided into a junior group and a senior group. This year there were 10

juniors and 15 seniors. It is from the seniors that the team of six for the IMO plus one

reserve team member is selected. The AMO, the APMO and the final three senior exams

at the school are the official selection criteria.

My thanks go to Andrew Elvey Price, Ivan Guo, Victor Khou, and Konrad Pilch, who

assisted me as live-in staff members. Also to Peter Brown, Vaishnavi Calisa, Mike Clapper,

Nancy Fu, Declan Gorey, David Hunt, Vickie Lee, Peter McNamara, John Papantoniou,

Christopher Ryba, Andy Tran, Gareth White, Rachel Wong, Sampson Wong, Jonathan

Zheng, and Damon Zhong, all of whom came in to give lectures or help with the marking

of exams.

Angelo Di Pasquale

Director of Training, AMOC

Name

Alexander Gunning

Ilia Kucherov

Seyoon Ragavan

Yang Song

Kevin Xian

Jeremy Yip

Reserve

Yong See Foo

Year

12

11

11

12

11

12

11

School

State

Glen Waverley Secondary College

VIC

Westall Secondary College

VIC

Knox Grammar School

NSW

James Ruse Agricultural High School NSW

James Ruse Agricultural High School NSW

Trinity Grammar School

VIC

Nossal High School

3

131

VIC

Name

School

Year

Alexander Gunning

12

Ilia Kucherov

11

Seyoon Ragavan

11

Yang Song

12

Kevin Xian

11

Jeremy Yip

12

11

Reserve

Yong See Foo

2015 Australian IMO Team, from left, Jeremy Yip, Alexander Gunning, Yang Song, Kevin Xian, Ilia

Kucherov and Seyoon Ragavan.

132

Name

School

Year

Seniors

Thomas Baker

11

Matthew Cheah

10

Michelle Chen

11

11

Alexander Gunning

12

Alan Guo

12

Ilia Kucherov

11

Leo Li

11

Allen Lu

12

Seyoon Ragavan

11

Kevin Xian

11

Jeremy Yip

12

Henry Yoo

12

Wilson Zhao

11

Juniors

Bobby Dey

10

Rachel Hauenschild

10

William Hu

Tony Jiang

10

Charles Li

Jack Liu

Isabel Longbottom

10

Hilton Nguyen

Tommy Wei

Wen Zhang

133

TEAM School

PREPARATION SCHOOL

IMO Team IMO

Preparation

The pre-IMO July school is always a great reality check when it comes to our perception

of the teams ability. This is of course because we train with the UK team. Our joint

training school was held 28 July at Nexus International School, Singapore.

The routine for the teams each day consisted of an IMO trial exam in the morning, free

time in the afternoon while their papers were being assessed, a short debrief of the exam

late in the afternoon followed by going out to dinner each evening. The results of training

showed that both teams were quite strong, with the UK having the edge.

The final exam also doubles as the annual Mathematics Ashes contest. Australia won

the Ashes in its inaugural year, lost them the next year, and have not been able to win

them back since. There have been a few close calls, and even a tie in 2011. In another

heart-breaking nail biter, the UK again retained the Ashes after both teams tied on 84

points apiece.

Angelo Di Pasquale

IMO Team Leader

1

134

THE MATHEMATICS

ASHES

The 2015 Mathematical

Ashes: AUS v UK

Exam

1. Does there exist a 2015 2015 array of distinct positive integers such that the sums

of the entries on each row and on each column yield 4030 distinct perfect squares?

2. Let and O be the circumcircle and the circumcentre of an acute-angled triangle

ABC with AB > BC. The angle bisector of ABC intersects at M = B. Let

be the circle with diameter BM . The angle bisectors of AOB and BOC intersect

at points P and Q, respectively. The point R is chosen on the line P Q so that

BR = M R.

Prove that BR AC.

3. We are given an infinite deck of cards, each with a real number on it. For every

real number x, there is exactly one card in the deck that has x written on it. Now

two players draw disjoint sets A and B of 100 cards each from this deck. We would

like to define a rule that declares one of them a winner. This rule should satisfy the

following conditions:

1. The winner only depends on the relative order of the 200 cards: if the cards are

laid down in increasing order face down and we are told which card belongs to

which player, but not what numbers are written on them, we can still decide

the winner.

2. If we write the elements of both sets in increasing order as A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 }

and B = {b1 , b2 , . . . , b100 }, and ai > bi for all i, then A beats B.

3. If three players draw three disjoint sets A, B, C from the deck, A beats B and

B beats C, then A also beats C.

How many ways are there to define such a rule?

(In this problem, we consider two rules as different if there exist two sets A and B

such that A beats B according to one rule, but B beats A according to the other.)

Results

AUS

AUS

AUS

AUS

AUS

AUS

1

2

3

4

5

6

Q1

7

7

7

7

3

6

37

Q2

7

0

7

5

6

7

32

Q3

7

7

0

0

1

0

15

21

14

14

12

10

13

84

UNK

UNK

UNK

UNK

UNK

UNK

2

135

1

2

3

4

5

6

Q1

7

7

5

3

7

7

36

Q2

7

2

0

7

6

7

29

Q3

5

0

0

7

7

0

19

19

9

5

17

20

14

84

The 8th Mathematics Ashes competition at the joint pre-IMO training camp in Putrajaya, was tied; the results for

the two teams were as follows, with each team scoring a total of 84:

AUSTRALIA

Code

Name

Q1

Q2

Q3

Total

AUS1

Alexander Gunning

21

AUS2

Ilia Kucherov

14

AUS3

Seyoon Ragavan

14

AUS4

Yang Song

12

AUS5

Kevin Xian

10

AUS6

Jeremy Yip

13

37

32

15

84

Q1

Q2

Q3

Total

TOTAL

UNITED KINGDOM

Code

Name

UNK1

Joe Benton

19

UNK2

Lawrence Hollom

UNK3

Samuel Kittle

UNK4

Warren Li

17

UNK5

Neel Nanda

20

UNK6

Harvey Yau

14

36

29

19

84

TOTAL

136

IMO TEAM LEADERS

REPORT

Thailand

The 56th International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) was held 416 July in Chiang Mai,

Thailand.

This was the largest IMO in history with a record number of 577 high school students

from 104 countries participating. Of these, 52 were girls.

Each participating country may send a team of up to six students, a Team Leader and a

Deputy Team Leader. At the IMO the Team Leaders, as an international collective, form

what is called the Jury. This Jury was chaired by Soontorn Oraintara.

The first major task facing the Jury is to set the two competition papers. During this

period the Leaders and their observers are trusted to keep all information about the contest

problems completely confidential. The local Problem Selection Committee had already

shortlisted 29 problems from 155 problem proposals submitted by 53 of the participating

countries from around the world. During the Jury meetings one of the shortlisted problems

had to be discarded from consideration due to being too similar to material already in

the public domain. Eventually, the Jury finalised the exam questions and then made

translations into the more than 50 languages required by the contestants. Unfortunately,

due to an accidental security breach, the second days paper had to be changed on the

night before that exam was scheduled. This probably resulted in a harder than intended

second day.

The six questions that ultimately appeared on the IMO contest are described as follows.

1. A relatively easy two-part problem in combinatorial geometry proposed by the

Netherlands. It concerns finite sets of points in the plane in which the perpendicular bisector of any pair of points in such a set also contains another point of the

set.

2. A medium classical number theory problem proposed by Serbia.

3. A difficult classical geometry problem in which one is asked to prove that a certain

two circles are mutually tangent. It was proposed by Ukraine.

4. A relatively easy classical geometry problem proposed by Greece.

5. A medium to difficult functional equation proposed by Albania.

6. A difficult problem in which one is asked to prove an inequality about a sequence

of integers. Although it does not seem so at first sight, the problem is much more

combinatorial than algebraic. It was inspired by a notation used to describe juggling.

The problem was proposed by Australia.

These six questions were posed in two exam papers held on Friday 10 July and Saturday

11 July. Each paper had three problems. The contestants worked individually. They were

allowed four and a half hours per paper to write their attempted proofs. Each problem

was scored out of a maximum of seven points.

For many years now there has been an opening ceremony prior to the first day of competition. HRH Crown Princess Sirindhorn presided over the opening ceremony. Following

the formal speeches there was the parade of the teams and the 2015 IMO was declared

open.

5

137

After the exams the Leaders and their Deputies spent about two days assessing the work

of the students from their own countries, guided by marking schemes, which had been

discussed earlier. A local team of markers called Coordinators also assessed the papers.

They too were guided by the marking schemes but are allowed some flexibility if, for

example, a Leader brought something to their attention in a contestants exam script

that is not covered by the marking scheme. The Team Leader and Coordinators have to

agree on scores for each student of the Leaders country in order to finalise scores. Any

disagreements that cannot be resolved in this way are ultimately referred to the Jury.

The IMO paper turned out to be quite difficult. While the easier problems 1 and 4

were quite accessible, the other four problems 2, 3, 5 and 6 were found to be the most

difficult combination of medium and difficult problems ever seen at the IMO. There were

only around 30 complete solutions to each of problems 2, 3 and 5. Problem 6 was very

difficult, averaging just 0.4 points. Only 11 students scored full marks on it.

The medal cuts were set at 26 for gold, 19 for silver and 14 for bronze.11 Consequently,

there were 282 (=48.9%) medals awarded. The medal distributions22 were 39 (=6.8%)

gold, 100 (=17.3%) silver and 143 (=24.8%) bronze. These awards were presented at the

closing ceremony. Of those who did not get a medal, a further 126 contestants received

an honourable mention for solving at least one question perfectly.

Alex Song of Canada was the sole contestant who achieved the most excellent feat of

a perfect score of 42. He now leads the IMO hall of fame, being the most decorated

contestant in IMO history. He is the only person to have won five IMO gold medals.33 He

was given a standing ovation during the presentation of medals at the closing ceremony.

Congratulations to the Australian IMO team on an absolutely spectacular performance

this year. They smashed our record rank44 to come 6th, and they also smashed our record

medal haul, bringing home two Gold and four Silver medals.55 This is the first time that

each team member has achieved Silver or better. The team finished ahead of many of

the traditionally stronger teams. In particular, they finished ahead of Russia, whom we

would have considered as untouchable.

Congratulations to Gold medallist Alexander Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley Secondary

College. He is now the most decorated Australian at the IMO, being the only Australian

to have won three Gold medals at the IMO. On each of these occasions he also finished

in the top 10 in individual rankings.66 He is now equal 17th on the IMOs all-time hall of

fame.

Congratulations also to Gold medallist Seyoon Ragavan, year 11, Knox Grammar School.

Seyoon solved four problems perfectly and was comfortably above the Gold medal cut.

He was individually ranked 19th.

11

This was the lowest ever cut for gold, and the equal lowest ever cut for silver. (This was indicative of

the difficulty of the exam, not the standard of the contestants.)

2

2 The total number of medals must be approved by the Jury and should not normally exceed half the

total number of contestants. The numbers of gold, silver and bronze medals must be approximately in

the ratio 1:2:3.

3

3

In his six appearances at the IMO, Alex Song won a bronze medal in 2010, and followed up with gold

medals in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015.

4

4 The ranking of countries is not officially part of the IMO general regulations. However, countries are

ranked each year on the IMOs official website according to the sum of the individual student scores

from each country.

5

5

Australias best performance prior to this was the dream team of 1997. They came 9th, with a medal

tally of two Gold, three Silver and one Bronze.

6

6

In his four appearances at the IMO, Alexander won a bronze medal in 2012, and followed up with gold

medals in 2013 (8th), 2014 (1st) and 2015 (4th).

6

138

And congratulations to our four Silver medallists: Ilia Kucherov, year 11, Westall Secondary College; Yang Song, year 12, James Ruse Agricultural High School; Kevin Xian,

year 11, James Ruse Agricultural High School; and Jeremy Yip, year 12, Trinity Grammar

School.

Three members of this years team are eligible for selection to the 2016 IMO team. So

while it is unlikely we will be able to repeat this years stellar performance, the outlook

seems promising.

Congratulations also to Ross Atkins and Ivan Guo, who were IMO medallists with the

Australian team when they were students.77 They were the authors of the juggling-inspired

IMO problem number six. In fact Ross is a proficient juggler.

The 2015 IMO was organised by: The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science

and Technology, Chiang Mai University, The Mathematical Association of Thailand under

the Patronage of His Majesty the King, and The Promotion of Academic Olympiad and

Development of Science Education Foundation.

The 2016 IMO is scheduled to be held July 6-16 in Hong Kong. Venues for future IMOs

have been secured up to 2019 as follows.

2017

2018

2019

Brazil

Romania

United Kingdom

Much of the statistical information found in this report can also be found at the official

website of the IMO.

www.imo-official.org

Angelo Di Pasquale

IMO Team Leader, Australia

7

7

Ross and Ivan won Bronze at the 2003 IMO, and Ivan won Gold at the 2004 IMO.

7

139

Ross Atkins demonstrates his juggling skills. (Photo credit: Gillian Bolsover)

84

140

IMO Papers

Language:

English

Day: 1

Day: 1

IMO Papers

Problem 1. We say that a finite set S of points in the plane is balanced if, for any two

different points A and B in S, there is a point C in S such that AC = BC. We say that

Day:P 1in

S is centre-free if for any three different points A, B and C in S, there is no point

S such that P A = P B = P C.

Friday, July 10, 2015

(a) Show that for all integers n 3, there exists a balanced set consisting of n points.

S set S of points in the plane is balanced if, for any two

Problem 1. We say that a finite

(b) Determine

integers

n C

3 for

balanced

set that

conA

B points

S Aalland

Sis which

=

S We say

different

B in S,

there

a pointthere

CAC

in exists

S BC

sucha that

AC =centre-free

BC.

sisting

of

n

points.

A

B

C

S

P

S

P

A

=

P

B

=

S is centre-free if for any three different points A, B and C in S, there is no point PP Cin

S such that P A = P B = P C.

n3

n

Problem 2. Determine all triples (a, b, c) of positive integers such that each of the

(a) Show that for all

integers

n 3, there exists a balanced set consisting of n points.n

n

3

numbers

c, which

bc there

a, ca

b a balanced centre-free set con(b) Determine all integers n ab3for

exists

sisting

is a power

of of

2. n points.

(a, b, c)

(A power of 2 is an integer of the form 2n , where n is a non-negative integer.)

c, bc

ca positive

b

Problem 2. Determine allabtriples

(a,b,a,c) of

integers such that each of the

Problem

3.

Let

ABC

be

an

acute

triangle

with

AB

>

AC. Let be its circumcircle,

numbers

2

H its orthocentre, and F the foot

abof

the

c, altitude

bc a, from

ca A.

b Let M be the midpoint of BC.

n

n

2

2

Let Q be the point on such that HQA = 90 , and let K be the point on such that

is a power of 2.

HKQ = 90 . Assume that the points A, B, C, K and Q are all different, and lie on

(A

power

of ABC

2 is an integer of the form 2n , where

is a non-negative

integer.)

AB >nAC

H

in this

order.

F

A

M

BC

Q

Prove that the circumcircles

of triangles KQH and F KM are tangent to each other.

= 90be

K triangle with AB > AC. LetHKQ

= circumcircle,

90

Problem

3. HQA

Let ABC

an acute

be its

A

B

C

K

Q

H its orthocentre, and F the foot of the altitude from A. Let M be the midpoint of BC.

Let Q be the point on such that

HQA F

=KM

90 , and let K be the point on such that

KQH

HKQ = 90 . Assume that the points A, B, C, K and Q are all different, and lie on

in this order.

Prove that the circumcircles of triangles KQH and F KM are tangent to each other.

Language: English

Each problem is worth 7 points

141

Language: English

Day: Day:

2

Saturday, July 11, 2015

Day: 2

centre A intersects the segment BC at points D and E, such thatSaturday,

B, D, E July

and C

all

11,are

2015

different and lie on line BC in this order. Let F and G be the points of intersection of

and , such that

A, F , B, C and G lie

this order.OLet K be the

second point

ABC

on in

A

Problem 4. Triangle

ABC has circumcircle

and circumcentre

O.

A circle with

of intersection ofBC

the circumcircle

triangle BDFB and

the

AB. Let L be the

D BCofat

E

D such

E segment

C B, D,

centre A intersects the segment

points D and E,

that

E and C are all

second

of intersection of the circumcircle of triangle CGE and the segment CA.

BC point

A F

different

and lie on lineFBC inGthis order. Let F and G be thepointsof intersection

of

B C Suppose

G

K

that

the

lines

F

K

and

GL

are

different

and

intersect

at

the

point

X.

Prove

that

and , such that A, F , B, C and G lie on in this order. Let K be the second point

AB

L of triangle BDF and the segment AB. Let L be the

X

lies on the line

AO.circumcircle

ofBDF

intersection

of the

CGE point of intersection

CA of the circumcircle of triangle CGE and the segment CA.

second

Problem 5. Let

R denote the set of real numbers. Determine all

functions f :XR R

X point

Suppose that theF K

lines F GL

K and GL are different and intersect at the

X. Prove that

satisfying

the equation

AO

X lies on the line AO.

f (x + f (x + y)) + f (xy) = x + f (x + y) + yf (x)

R f: R R

Problem 5.R Let R denote the set of real numbers. Determine fall: R

functions

satisfying

equation

x and y.

for all realthe

numbers

f x + f (x + y) + f (xy) = x + f (x + y) + yf (x)

f (x + f (xa+, ay)), .+

= x +satisfies

f (x + y)

+ following

yf (x)

Problem 6. x The ysequence

. . fof(xy)

integers

the

conditions:

1

a1 ,all

a2 ,j. .

. 1;

(i) 1 aj 2015 for

The jsequence

a1 , a2 , . . . of integers satisfies the following conditions:

1

1Problem

aj k+2015

(ii)

a6.

k = + a for all 1 k < .

+

a

1 all

k<

1;

k +(i)

ak =

2015 for

j

ajthere

Prove1that

exist two

positive

integers b and N such that

b

N

(ii) k + ak = + a for all 1 k <

n .

n

(a

b)

10072

j

2

(aj b)b and

1007

j=m+1

Prove that there exist two positive

integers

N such that

j=m+1

n

for all integers m and n satisfying

n > m N .

m

n

n > m N (aj b) 10072

j=m+1

Language: English

Language: English

Each problem is worth 7 points

142

SOLUTIONS

1. Solution (All members of the 2015 Australian IMO team solved this problem using

similar methods. Here we present the solution by Yang Song, year 12, James Ruse

Agricultural High School, NSW. Yang was Silver medallist with the 2015 Australian

IMO team.)

(a) For n odd, we may take S to be the set of vertices of a regular n-gon P.

It seems obvious that S is balanced but we shall prove it anyway. Let A and

B be any two vertices of P. Since n is odd, one side of the line AB contains an

odd number of vertices of P. Thus if we enumerate the vertices of P in order

from A around to B on that side of AB, one of them will be the middle one,

and hence be equidistant from A and B.

For n even, say n = 2k we may take S to be the set of vertices of a collection

of k unit equilateral triangles, all of which have a common vertex, O say, and

exactly one pair of them has a second common vertex. Note that apart from

O, all of the vertices lie on the unit circle centred at O.

The reason why this works is as follows. Let A and B be any two points in S.

If they are both on the circumference of the circle, then OA = OB and O S.

If one of them is not on the circumference, say B = O, then by construction

there is a third point C S such that ABC is equilateral, and so AC = BC.

The cases for n = 11 and n = 12 are illustrated below.

(b) We claim that a balanced centre-free set of n points exists if and only if n is

odd.

Note that the construction used in the solution to part (a) is centre-free. We

shall show that there is no balanced centre-free set of n points if n is even.

For any three points A, X, Y S, let us write A {X, Y } to mean AX = AY .

We shall estimate the number of instances of A {X, Y } in two different ways.

First, note that if A {X, Y } and A {X, Z} where Y = Z, then S cannot

be centre-free

n1 because AX = AY = AZ. Hence for a given point A, there are

at most 2 pairs {X, Y } such that A {X, Y }. Since there are

n choices

for A, the total number of instances of A {X, Y } is at most n n1

.

2

On the other hand, since S is balanced, for each pair of points X, Y S, there

is at leastone

point A such that A {X, Y }. Since the number ofnpairs

n

{X, Y } is 2 , the total number of instances of A {X, Y } is at least 2 .

n2 , which simplifies to

If

we combine our estimates, we obtain n n1

2

n1

n1

. This final inequality is impossible if n is even.

2

2

58

143

Comment 1 A nice graph theoretical interpretation of the solution to part (b) was

given by Kevin Xian, year 11, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW. Kevin

was a Silver medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.

Let S denote the set of unordered pairs of elements of S. Form a directed bipartite

graph G as follows. The vertex set of G is S S . The directed edges of G are

simply all the instances of A {X, Y} asper the solution to part (b) above. Then

n1

the

total outdegree of G is at most n 2 , while the total indegree of G is at least

n

. The inequality found in the solution to part (b) is simply a consequence of the

2

total indegree being equal to the total outdegree.

Comment 2 Alternative constructions for n odd in part (a) were found by Yang

Song, year 12, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW, and Jeremy Yip, year

12, Trinity Grammar School, VIC. Yang and Jeremy were Silver medallists with the

2015 Australian IMO team.

For n = 2k + 1, let S be the set of vertices of a collection of k unit equilateral

triangles, all of which have exactly a common vertex, O say, and no two of which

have any other common vertices besides O. Note that apart from O, all of the

vertices lie on the unit circle centred at O. The case for n = 13 is illustrated below.

problem. From the foregoing, we see that for n odd there are two infinite families of

balanced sets, and for n even there is one infinite family. It is unknown if there are

any other infinite families which do not fit into this scheme. Note however, there

are sporadic constructions which do not fit into either of these families. Some of

these are shown below. (All drawn segments are of unit length.)

59

144

2. Solution 1 (Jeremy Yip, year 12, Trinity Grammar School, VIC. Jeremy was a

Silver medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

The answers are (a, b, c) = (2, 2, 2), (2, 2, 3), (2, 6, 11), (3, 5, 7) and their permutations. It is straightforward to verify that they all work.

Note that ab c = bc a (b + 1)(a c) = 0 a = c.

Case 1 At least two of a, b, c are equal.

Case 3 All of a, b, c are different and one of them is even.

Case 4 All of a, b, c are different and two of them are even.

Case 5 All of a, b, c are different and all three of them are even.

Case 1 Without loss of generality a = b. Then b2 c and bc b are powers of 2.

That is,

b2 c = 2x

b(c 1) = 2y

(1)

(2)

for some non-negative integers x and y. Equation (2) implies that b = 2p and

c 1 = 2q for some non-negative integers p and q. Putting these into (1) we find

22p = 2x + 2q + 1.

(3)

If q = 0, then (3) becomes 22p 2x = 2. The only powers of two that differ by 2 are

2 and 4. Hence x = p = 1, which quickly leads to (a, b, c) = (2, 2, 2).

(a, b, c) = (2, 2, 3).

Finally, if q, x 1, then (3) cannot hold because the LHS is even while the RHS is

odd.

Case 2 Without loss of generality we may suppose that a > b > c, where a, b, c

are all odd.

It follows that ab c > ac b and a 3. Since ab c and ac b are powers of two,

the smaller divides the larger. Therefore,

ab c 0 (mod ac b)

a(ac) c 0 (mod ac b)

(a 1)(a + 1) 0 (mod ac b). (c is odd)

Since a 1 and a + 1 are consecutive even positive integers, exactly one of them is

divisible by 4, while the other is even but not divisible by 4. Since ac b is a power

of two, it follows that either ac b | 2(a 1) or ac b | 2(a + 1). Either way, we

have

ac b 2(a + 1).

Since a > b, we have ac a < 2(a + 1), which can be rearranged as

(c 3)a < 2.

60

145

(4)

a > b > c 1.

If c > 3 then (4) implies a < 2. This contradicts a 5.

sum to zero.

If c = 3, then 3b a and 3a b are powers of two. Since 3b a < 3a b, we have

3a b 0 (mod 3b a)

3(3b) b 0 (mod 3b a)

Hence 3b a {1, 2, 4, 8}.

and b = 1. But this impossible because b > c 1.

8b 12 = 4, and b = 2, which contradicts that b is odd.

two. Thus b = 3 + 2k for some positive integer k. Also

ab c = b(3b 8) 3

= (3b + 1)(b 3)

is a power of two. Hence 3b+1 = 32k +10 is also a power of two. This is impossible

for k 2 because 3 2k + 10 2 (mod 4) and 3 2k + 10 = 2. However, for k = 1,

we find 3b + 1 = 16. Thus b = 5 and a = 3b 8 = 7, and we have found the solution

(a, b, c) = (3, 5, 7).

Case 3 Without loss of generality a is even, while b and c are odd.

Then ab c and ac b are both odd. Hence ab c = ac b = 1. This implies b = c,

which is a contradiction. So this case does not occur.

Case 4 Without loss of generality c is odd, while a and b are even with a > b.

This immediately implies that a 4. Also, since ab c is odd, we have ab c = 1.

Thus c = ab 1 3 (mod 4). Hence c 3.

Let 2k (note k 1) be the greatest power of two dividing both a and b. Then

a = 2k m and b = 2k n for some integers m > n 1.

the same parity because otherwise mc n would be an odd number that is greater

than 1. From the choice of k, this implies that m and n are both odd.

Since a > b we have bc a < ac b. Because they are both powers of two, the

smaller divides the larger. Therefore,

ac b 0 (mod bc a)

(bc)c b 0 (mod bc a)

(c 1)(c + 1) 0 (mod nc m).

(n is odd)

61

146

(5)

(6)

c + 1 are consecutive even positive integers, we deduce that

nc m 2(c + 1)

n(4 mn 1) m 2 4k mn (c = ab 1 = 4k mn 1)

n

4k (n2 2n)

m

< 1.

(m > n)

Since n is odd, this implies n = 1. Putting this into (6), we find

(c 1)(c + 1) 0 (mod c m)

(m 1)(m + 1) 0 (mod c m).

Using similar reasoning as in case 2, since c m is a power of two, and m 1 and

m + 1 are consecutive even positive integers, we deduce that

c m 2(m + 1)

4k m m 2m + 2

4k m < 3m + 2

k = 1.

(c=4k m 1)

Putting this into (5) we find,

a(2a 1) 2 0 (mod 3a 2)

3a(6a 3) 18 (mod 3a 2)

2 18 (mod 3a 2).

Hence 3a 2 | 16. Since a 4, we have 3a 2 = 16. Thus a = 6, and so

(a, b, c) = (6, 2, 11).

Case 5 Without loss of generality we may suppose that a = 2 A, b = 2 B and

c = 2 C, where 1, and A, B and C are odd positive integers. It

follows that

ab c = 2 (2+ AB C) and ac b = 2 (2+ AC B).

Since 1, we have that 2+ AB C and 2+ AC B are odd.

But since ab c and ac b are powers of two, it follows that

ab c = 2

and ac b = 2 .

ab 2c and ac 2b.

(7)

a2 bc 4bc.

Hence a 2, and thus a = 2 because a is even. But now the two inequalities in

(7) become 2b 2c and 2c 2b. Hence b = c, which contradicts that a, b, c are all

different. So this case does not occur, and the proof is complete.

62

147

Solution 2 (Alex Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley Secondary College, VIC. Alex

was a Gold medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

The case where two of the variables are equal is handled in the same way as in

solution 1.

Without loss of generality we may assume that a > b > c. If c = 1, then we would

require both a b and b a to be powers of two. But this is impossible because

their sum is zero.

Hence a > b > c 2.

divides a larger power of two, we have

bc a | ca b | ab c.

Thus ca b | (a(ab c) (ca b)), that is, ca b | (a + 1)(a 1)b.

have ca b | b. Thus ca 2b < 2a, which yields the contradiction c < 2. Henceforth

we may assume that a is odd. Also a > b > c 2 implies a 4, and hence a 5.

by 4, we have

ca b | 2(a 1)b

ca b | 2(a 1)b 2(ab c) (ca b | ab c)

ca b | 2(b c)

ca b 2(b c).

(b = c)

If 4 | a + 1, then since a 1 is divisible by 2 but not by 4, we have

ca b | 2(a + 1)b

ca b | 2(a + 1)b 2(ab c) (ca b | ab c)

ca b | 2(b + c)

ca b 2(b + c).

Thus whatever odd number a is, we can be sure that ca b 2(b + c). That is,

ca 3b + 2c.

Since b, c < a, we have ca < 3a + 2a = 5a, and so c < 5.

If c = 4, then 4a < 3a + 8. Thus a < 8. But a > b > c = 4 implies a 6. Thus

a = 7 because a is odd. But since cb a = 4b 7 is a power of two and it is odd,

we must have 4b 7 = 1. Thus b = 2, which contradicts b > c.

If c = 3, then 3a 3b + 6 < 3a + 6. Thus a b + 2 < a + 2.

it is odd and greater than 1.

are two powers of two that differ by 8. The only such powers of two are 8 and

16. This quickly yields a = 7 and implies (a, b, c) = (7, 5, 3).

63

148

But

ca b | ab c

3b 2 | (2b 1)b 2

(a = 2b 1, c = 2)

3b 2 | 3((2b 1)b 2) 2b(3b 2)

3b 2 | b 6.

Since 3b 2 > b 6 > 0 for b 7, we must have b 6.

implies (a, b, c) = (11, 6, 2).

64

149

3. Solution 1 (Alex Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley Secondary College, VIC. Alex

was a Gold medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

Let A be the point diametrically opposite A on and let E be the second point of

intersection of the line AHF with .

Lemma The points A , M , H and Q are collinear.

Proof First note that QA QA because AA is a diameter of . Also since

QA QH, it follows that QHA is a straight line. Thus Q lies on the line A H.

A

Q

A

Since AA is a diameter of we have AE A E. However AE BC. Thus

BC A E. Since A EBC is cyclic, it follows that A ECB is an isosceles trapezium

with CE = A B. Thus

BCA = EBC

= EAC

= 90 ACB

= CBH.

(A B = CE)

(ECAB cyclic)

(AE BC)

(BH AC)

parallelogram.

Finally, since the diagonals of any parallelogram bisect each other, and M is the

midpoint of BC, it follows that M is also the midpoint of A H. Thus M lies on the

line A H. Since we already know that Q lies on the line A H, it follows that A , M ,

H and Q are collinear.

Let R be the intersection of the line A E with the line through H that is perpendicular to A Q. Observe that RH is tangent to circles KQH, F HM and EHA . This

is because each of these circles has a diameter which lies on the line A Q. Applying

the radical axis theorem to the three circles , KQH and EHA , we deduce that

lines RH, A E and QK are concurrent. Hence R lies on QK.

65

150

A

Q

S

B

A

say, of RH lies on the line BC. Since HK KR we have that S is the centre of

circle RKH, and so SH = SK. But since SH is tangent to circle KQH at H and

SH = SK, it follows that SK is tangent to circle KQH at K. Considering the

power of point S with respect to circle F HM , we have

SF SM = SH 2 = SK 2 .

It follows that SK is tangent to circle F KM at K. Since circle KQH is also tangent

to SK at K, we conclude that circles KQH and F KM are tangent to each other

at K.

66

151

Solution 2 (Andrew Elvey Price, Deputy Leader of the 2015 Australian IMO

team)

Point A is defined as in solution 1. Furthermore, as in solution 1, we establish that

M is the midpoint of A H, and A , M , H and Q are collinear.

Since A AK = A QK = HQK and AKA = 90 = QKH, we have

KAA KQH. Hence there is a spiral symmetry, f say, centred at K, such

that f (A ) = A and f (H) = Q. Note that f is the composition of a 90 rotation

KA

about K with a dilation of factor KA

about K.

Let M and F be the respective images of M and F under f . Thus M F M F .

But since AH M F , it follows that M F AH.

M F AH, it follows that M F passes through the midpoint, S say, of HQ. Note

that S is the centre of circle KQH.

A

M

Q

F

S

H

M

B

A

Let S be the preimage of S under f . (Note that S happens to lie on the line M F ,

as shown in the diagram, because S lies on line M F . But we will not need this

fact.)

Since S F Q S QM (AA), we have

S Q

S F

=

.

S Q

S M

It follows that

S F S M = S Q2 = S K 2 .

S is the preimage of S under f , we also have S KS = 90 , and so SK is tangent

to circle KQH. Hence circles F KM and KQH are tangent at K.

67

152

Points A and E are defined as in solution 1. Moreover, as in solution 1, we establish

that M is the midpoint of A H, and A , M , H and Q are collinear. Note that since

M F A E, it follows that F is the midpoint of EH.

Let Q be the point diametrically opposite Q on . Then KQ KQ because QQ

is a diameter of . Also since KQ KH, it follows that KHQ is a straight line.

Let T be a point on the tangent to circle KQH at K, such that T and Q lie

on the same side of the line KH. By the alternate segment theorem we have

T KQ = KHQ.

By the alternate segment theorem, it is sufficient to prove that

KF M = T KM.

We have

KF M = T KM

90 + KF A = T KQ + 90 + HKM

KF A = Q HA + HKM.

(1)

Let J be the midpoint of HQ . Observe that triangles KHE and AHQ are similar

with F and J being the midpoints of corresponding sides. Hence KF A = HJA.

Q

B

A

Observe also that triangles KHA and QHQ are similar with M and J being the

midpoints of corresponding sides. Hence HKM = JQH.

Thus our task is reduced to proving

HJA = Q HA + JQH.

Let us draw a new diagram that will help us focus on the task at hand.

68

153

O

J

Q

A

Note that QAQ A is a rectangle. Let O be its centre. We also know that H lies

on side A Q and that J is the midpoint of Q H. Thus J and O both lie on the

mid-parallel of QA and Q A. Hence

HJA = HJO + OJA

= Q HA + Q AJ. (A Q JO Q A)

Thus it suffices to prove that JQH = Q AJ. However, this is an immediate

consequence of the fact that JO a line of reflective symmetry of the rectangle.

69

154

Points A , E and Q are defined as in solution 3. Furthermore, as in solution 3, we

have M is the midpoint of A H; points A , M , H and Q are collinear; points Q , H

and K are collinear; and F is the midpoint of HE.

Since the three chords AE, QA and KQ are concurrent we have

HA HE = HQ HA = HK HQ = r2 ,

for some positive real number r. Let f be the inversion with centre H and radius

1 1 in H. Let A and Q be the reflections of H in A and

r, followed by the reflection

Q, respectively. Then f has the effect of exchanging the following pairs of points.

AE

A F

Q A

Q M

K Q

A

A

Q

Q

K

H

Q

B

M

A

into circle A Q Q . So it suffices to show that Q A is tangent to circle A Q Q . Since

Q A AQ A Q , it suffices to show that A Q Q is isosceles with Q A = Q Q .

centre of circle A HQ because it is the midpoint of A H and A Q H = 90 . Thus

Q A is the perpendicular bisector of A Q . From this it follows that Q A = A Q ,

as desired.

70

155

Comment Solutions 1 and 3 first establish that Q, H, M and A are collinear, and

that M and F are the respective midpoints of A H and EH. After this the points

B and C are no longer relevant to the solution. The crux of matter boils down to

the following.

Let AQA Q be a rectangle inscribed in a circle . Let H be any point on

the line A Q. Let E and K be the respective second points of intersection

of the lines AH and Q H with . Let M and F be the midpoints of A H

and EH, respectively. Then circles KQH and KM F are tangent to each

other.

H

Q

M

A

71

156

Let A EKQ be a cyclic quadrilateral. Let H be a point on the line A Q

such that HEA = QKH = 90 . Let M and F be the midpoints of

A H and EH, respectively. Then circles KQH and KM F are tangent to

each other. (*)

A

72

157

It is sufficient to prove statement (*) found in the comments on the previous page.

Let T be a point on the tangent to circle KQH at K, such that T and Q lie on the

same side of the line KH. Let W be the midpoint of QH. Since QKH = 90 , it

follows that W is the centre of circle KQH. Hence W H = W K, and we may let

W KH = KHW = .

From the angle sum in KQH, we have HKQ = 90 . Since A EKQ is cyclic,

we have AEK = 90 + , and so KEH = . Thus by the alternate segment

theorem, circle HEK is tangent to line A Q at H. Then since M H = M E, it

follows by symmetry that M H and M E are the common tangents from M to circle

HEK.

W

K

M

F

A

HEK, is a standard one. In particular it yields an alternative characterisation of

the symmedian.22 Thus we may let

HKM = F KE = .

From the exterior angle sum in EKF , we have

KF H = + = W KM.

(1)

both sides of (1) yields

KF M = T KM.

Hence from the alternate segment theorem, T K is tangent to circle F KM at K.

Thus circles F KM and KQH are tangent at K.

2

2

For more details see the section Alternative characterisations of symmedian found in chapter 5 of Problem

Solving Tactics published by the AMT.

73

158

4. Solution 1 (Kevin Xian, year 11, James Ruse Agricultural High School, NSW.

Kevin was a Silver medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

X

K

L

G are symmetric in AO. Thus lines F K and GL intersect on AO if and only if

KF A = AGL. We have,

KF A = F KB F AB

= F DB F GB

= F GE F GB

= BGE

= CEG CBG

= CLG CAG

= AGL.

(BDKF and AF BG cyclic)

(F DEG cyclic)

(exterior angle GEB)

(ECGL and ABCG cyclic)

(exterior angle GLA)

Comment A careful analysis of this solution shows that the result is still true if

we only assume that the centre of lies on the line AO.

74

159

College, VIC, and Jeremy Yip, year 12, Trinity Grammar School, VIC. Ilia and

Jeremy were Silver medallists with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

As in solution 1 it suffices to show that KF A = AGL.

Let the lines DF and EG intersect for a second time at points P and Q, respectively. Then

P DE = F GQ (F DEG cyclic)

= F P Q. (F QP G cyclic)

Thus BC QP . Since BQP C is cyclic, it follows that BQP C is an isosceles

trapezium with BQ = P C. Hence BGQ = P F C, that is,

BGE = DF C.

(1)

F

G

75

160

X

K

L

Since ABCG is cyclic, we have LAG = CAG = CBG = EBG. Since ECGL

is cyclic, CLG = CEG, and so GLA = GEB. Thus GAL GBE (AA).

Hence

AGL = BGE.

(2)

Similarly

KF A = DF C.

(3)

KF A = AGL.

Comment There are two pairs of similar triangles associated with circles ECGL

and . They are GAL GBE and GLE GAB. This is a standard

configuration which can help fast track the route to a solution.33

3

3

For more details see the section Similar Switch found in chapter 5 of Problem Solving Tactics published

by the AMT.

76

161

5. Solution 1 (Seyoon Ragavan, year 11, Knox Grammar School, NSW. Seyoon was

a Gold medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

We show that the only answers are: f (x) = x for all x R and f (x) = 2 x for all

x R.

f (x + f (x + y)) + f (xy) = x + f (x + y) + yf (x).

(1)

x + f (x + 1) is a fixed point of f .

(2)

With (2) in mind, set x = 0 and y = z + f (z + 1) in (1) to find that for all z R,

f (0) = f (0)(z + f (z + 1)).

(3)

Case 1 f (0) = 0

rearranged to f (x) = 2 x for all x R. We verify this is a solution.

LHS = 2 (x + 2 (x + y)) + 2 xy = 2 + y xy

RHS = x + 2 (x + y) + y(2 x) = 2 + y xy = LHS

Case 2 f (0) = 0

Set x = 0 in (1) to find that for all y R,

f (f (y)) = f (y).

(4)

x + f (x) is a fixed point of f .

(5)

Let S denote the set of fixed points of f . Suppose that u S. Then (5) with x = u

tells us that 2u S. And (2) with x = u 1 tells us that 2u 1 S. Hence

u S 2u, 2u 1 S.

(6)

Since 0 S, applying (6) tells us that 1 S. Applying (6) again tells us that

2, 3 S. Continuing inductively, we find that all negative integers are in S.

On the other hand, if x is any positive integer, choose an integer y such that y < 0,

x + y < 0, 2x + y < 0 and xy < 0 (any y < 2x will do). Using these values in (1)

yields f (x) = x. Hence

Z S.

(7)

Since f (1) = 1, we may set x = 1 in (1) to find that for all y R,

f (1 + f (y + 1)) + f (y) = y + 1 + f (y + 1).

(8)

setting y = u 1 in (8) tells us that u 1 S. An immediate corollary of this is

u, u + 1 S u + n S

77

162

for any n Z.

(9)

Let y R. Then from (2) with x = y 1 we have y + f (y) 1 S, and from (5) we

have y + f (y) S. Hence with u = y + f (y) 1 in (7), we find that for each n Z,

y + f (y) + n S.

(10)

x R,

x + f (x + m) S.

(11)

If we set y = m in (1) and use (11), then for each m Z and x R we have,

f (mx) = mf (x).

(12)

If we replace y with f (y) in (10) and remember that f (f (y)) = f (y) from (4), we

find

2f (y) + n S.

(13)

Let y R and let y = 2x. Then applying (12) and (13), we are able to deduce that

f (y) + 1 = f (2x) + 1 = 2f (x) + 1 S. Hence for all y R we have

f (y) + 1 S.

(14)

f (1) = 1 from (7), we deduce that f (y) = y for all y R. This is easily seen to be

a solution.

78

163

Solution 2 (Based on the presentation by Alex Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley

Secondary College, VIC. Alex was a Gold medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO

team.)

We are asked to find all functions f : R R such that for all x, y R,

f (x + f (x + y)) + f (xy) = x + f (x + y) + yf (x).

(1)

It remains to deal with the case f (0) = 0. All equations that follow will hold true

for all z R.

Replacing x with y and y with x in (1) yields

(2)

f (x + f (x + y)) f (y + f (x + y)) = x y + yf (x) xf (y).

(3)

f (x) f (x) = 2x xf (x) xf (x).

(4)

(x 1)(f (x) + x)) = 0.

If x = 1, then f (x) = x. If x = 1, then putting (x, y) = (1, 1) in (1), yields

f (1) = 1. Hence if S is the set of fixed points of f , we have shown that

x S x S.

(5)

z + f (z) S.

(6)

f (z) S.

(7)

2f (z) S.

(8)

Put (x, y) = (z + f (z), f (z)) in (3). The LHS of (3) is f (z + 2f (z)). We also

have x = z + f (z) S from (6). And y = f (z) S from (7) and (5). Thus

yf (x) xf (y) = yx xy = 0, and so the RHS of (3) is just x y = z + 2f (z).

Hence

z + 2f (z) S.

(9)

79

164

Put (x, y) = (z, z f (z)) in (3). Note that y = z f (z) S from (6) and (5).

And x + y = f (z) S from (7) and (5). Thus (3) simplifies to

f (2x + y) f (x + 2y) = x y + yf (x) xy.

However, x + 2y = z 2f (z) S from (9) and (5). So (3) simplifies further to

f (2x + y) = 2x + y + yf (x) xy.

Writing x and y in term of z, and tidying up yields

f (z f (z)) = z f (z) + z 2 f (z)2 .

(10)

Put (x, y) = (z f (z), f (z)) in (3). The LHS of (3) equals f (z) f (2f (z)) = f (z)

from (8). Hence

f (z) = x y + yf (x) xf (y)

= z 2f (z) + yf (x) xy

f (z) z = f (z)(f (x) x)

= f (z)(z 2 f (z)2 ).

(since y = f (z) S)

(y = f (z))

(by (10) as x = z f (z))

(f (z) z)(f (z)2 + zf (z) + 1) = 0.

(11)

2

2

Solving for f (z) in (11), we find f (z) z, z+ 2 z 4 , z 2 z 4 . Since f (z) R,

we have f (z) = z for all |z| < 2. Hence (2, 2) S. Finally, from (8) we see that

z S implies 2z S. This allows us to deduce that (2k , 2k ) S for all positive

integers k. Hence S = R, and f (x) = x for all x R.

165

80

6. This was the hardest problem of the 2015 IMO. Only 11 of the 577 contestants were

able to solve this problem completely.

The authors of this problem were Ross Atkins and Ivan Guo of Australia. Ross and

Ivan were Bronze medallists with the 2003 Australian IMO Team and Ivan was a

Gold medallist with the 2004 Australian IMO Team. The problem was inspired by a

notation for juggling (Ross is also a juggler) in which each ai represents the airtime

of a ball thrown at time i, and b is the total number of balls.

Solution 1 (Alex Gunning, year 12, Glen Waverley Secondary College, VIC. Alex

was a Gold medallist with the 2015 Australian IMO team.)

Let S be the set of positive integers which are not of the form n + an for some

positive integer n. Note that S is nonempty because 1 S. Let s1 < s2 < be

the elements of S listed in increasing order.

Lemma |S| 2015.

Proof Assume that |S| 2016. Choose n so that an + n s2016 . Since an 2015,

this implies that s1 , s2 , . . . , s2016 {1, 2, . . . , n + 2015}. However, the n numbers

1 + a1 , 2 + a2 , . . . , n + an are not equal to any si and are also members of the set

{1, 2, . . . , n + 2015}. Hence {1, 2, . . . , n + 2015} contains at least n + 2016 different

numbers, contradiction.

We claim that if b = |S| and if N is larger than all members of S, then the inequality

posed in the problem statement is true.

n

Let n be any integer

satisfying

n

N

.

We

shall

find

bounds

for

j=1 (j + aj ) and

hence also for nj=1 (aj b). In what follows, let L be the following list of n + b

distinct positive integers.

1 + a1 , 2 + a2 , . . . , n + an , s1 , s2 , . . . , sb

For the lower bound,

n+bsince the n + b numbers in L are distinct, their sum is greater

than or equal to j=1 j. Hence we have

n

b

(j + aj ) +

j=1

j=1

n

j=1

sj

aj

n+b

j=1

n+b

j=n+1

b

sj

j=1

b(2n + b + 1)

s

2

n

b2 + b

s,

(aj b)

2

j=1

=

where s =

b

j=1

(1)

sj .

For the upper bound, observe that s1 , s2 , . . . , sb are b members belonging to the set

T = {1, 2, . . . , n + 1}. The remaining n + 1 b members of T must be of the form

j + aj where j n, and so are in L. The sum of these n + 1 b numbers is exactly

n+1

j=1

81

166

b

j=1

sb .

All together there are exactly n numbers of the form j + aj in L and so far we have

accounted for n + 1 b of them.

Consider the remaining b1 numbers of the form j +aj which are in L. When listed

in decreasing order, they can be no larger than

b1n+2015, n+2014, . . . , n+2015b+2,

respectively. Hence their sum is at most j=1 (n + 2016 j). Thus

n

j=1

(j + aj )

n

j=1

n

j=1

n+1

j=1

aj n + 1 +

(aj b)

b

sb +

j=1

b1

j=1

(n + 2016 j)

(b 1)(2n + 4032 b)

s

2

4033b b2 4030

s.

2

(2)

Summarising (1) and (2), we have established the following bounds for any n N .

n

4033b b2 4030

b2 + b

s

s.

(aj b)

2

2

j=1

(3)

Now let m, n be any two integers satisfying n > m N . Since also m N , (3) is

also satisfied if n is replaced by m. Thus

n

n

m

(aj b) = (aj b)

(aj b)

j=m+1

j=1

j=1

2

b +b

4033b b2 4030

s

s

2

2

= (b 1)(2015 b)

2

(b 1) + (2015 b)

(AMGM)

= 10072 .

82

167

Ivan Guo)

Suppose you are juggling several balls using only one hand. At the ith second, if a

ball lands in your hand, it is thrown up immediately. If no ball lands, you instead

reach for an unused ball (that is, a ball that has not been thrown yet) and throw it

up. In both cases, a ball is thrown so that it will stay in the air for ai seconds. The

condition ai + i = aj + j ensures that no two balls land at the same time.

Let b be the total number of balls used. If b > 2015, then eventually a ball must

stay in the air for more than 2015 seconds, contradicting ai 2015. So b is finite

and bounded by 2015.

Select N so that all b balls have been introduced by the N th second. For all i N ,

denote by Ti the total remaining airtime of the current balls, immediately after the

ith throw is made. (That is, we calculate the remaining airtime for each current

ball, and add these values together.) Consider what happens during the next second.

The airtime of each of the b balls is reduced by 1. At the same time a ball is thrown,

increasing its airtime by ai+1 . Thus we have the equality Ti+1 Ti = ai+1 b. This

gives a nice representation of the required sum,

n

i=m+1

(ai b) = Tn Tm .

To complete the problem, it suffices to identify the maximal and minimal possible

values of the total remaining airtime Ti . Since no two balls can land at the same

time, the minimal value is 1 + 2 + + b. On the other hand, the maximal value

is 1 + 2015 + 2014 + + (2015 b + 2). (Note that there must be a ball with a

remaining airtime of 1 since something must be caught and thrown every second.)

Taking the difference between these two sums, we find that

(4032 b)(b 1) (b + 2)(b 1)

2

2

= (2015 b)(b 1)

10072

(GM AM)

|Tn Tm |

as required.

83

168

RESULTS

MARK DISTRIBUTION BY QUESTION

Mark

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

93

256

408

91

153

521

89

151

122

36

255

11

77

12

61

34

15

21

27

18

90

72

11

12

13

20

14

265

31

30

351

30

11

Total

577

577

577

577

577

577

Mean

4.3

1.4

0.7

4.8

1.5

0.4

Name

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Score

Alex Gunning

36

Gold

Ilia Kucherov

19

Silver

Seyoon Ragavan

29

Gold

Yang Song

20

Silver

Kevin Xian

21

Silver

Jeremy Yip

23

Silver

Totals

42

26

11

42

20

148

Australian average

7.0

4.3

1.8

7.0

3.3

1.2

24.7

IMO average

4.3

1.4

0.7

4.8

1.5

0.4

13.0

The medal cuts were set at 26 for Gold, 19 for Silver and 14 for Bronze.

169

Award

Rank

Country

Total

185

China

181

South Korea

161

North Korea

156

Vietnam

151

Australia

148

Iran

145

Russia

141

Canada

140

10

Singapore

139

11

Ukraine

135

12

Thailand

134

13

Romania

132

14

France

120

15

Croatia

119

16

Peru

118

17

Poland

117

18

Taiwan

115

19

Mexico

114

20

Hungary

113

20

Turkey

113

22

Brazil

109

22

Japan

109

22

United Kingdom

109

25

Kazakhstan

105

26

Armenia

104

27

Germany

102

28

Hong Kong

101

29

Bulgaria

100

29

Indonesia

100

29

Italy

100

29

Serbia

100

170

Country

Total

Gold

Silver

Bronze

HM

Albania

37

Algeria

60

Argentina

70

Armenia

104

Australia

148

Austria

63

Azerbaijan

73

Bangladesh

97

Belarus

84

Belgium

67

Bolivia

76

Botswana

Brazil

109

Bulgaria

100

Cambodia

24

Canada

140

Chile

12

China

181

Colombia

72

Costa Rica

53

Croatia

119

Cuba

15

Cyprus

58

Czech Republic

74

Denmark

52

Ecuador

27

El Salvador

14

Estonia

51

Finland

26

France

120

Georgia

80

Germany

102

Ghana

Greece

71

171

Country

Total

Gold

Silver

Bronze

HM

Hong Kong

101

Hungary

113

Iceland

41

India

86

Indonesia

100

Iran

145

Ireland

37

Israel

83

Italy

100

Japan

109

Kazakhstan

105

Kosovo

24

Kyrgyzstan

17

Latvia

36

Liechtenstein

18

Lithuania

54

Luxembourg

12

Macau

88

Macedonia (FYR)

45

Malaysia

66

Mexico

114

Moldova

85

Mongolia

74

Montenegro

19

Morocco

27

Netherlands

76

New Zealand

72

Nicaragua

26

Nigeria

22

North Korea

156

Norway

54

Pakistan

25

Panama

Paraguay

53

Peru

118

Philippines

87

Poland

117

172

Country

Total

Gold

Silver

Bronze

HM

Portugal

70

Puerto Rico

18

Romania

132

Russia

141

Saudi Arabia

81

Serbia

100

Singapore

139

Slovakia

97

Slovenia

46

South Africa

68

South Korea

161

Spain

47

Sri Lanka

51

Sweden

63

Switzerland

74

Syria

69

Taiwan

115

Tajikistan

57

Tanzania

Thailand

134

26

Tunisia

41

Turkey

113

Turkmenistan

64

Uganda

Ukraine

135

United Kingdom

109

185

Uruguay

16

Uzbekistan

64

Venezuela

13

Vietnam

151

39

100

143

126

173

Senior Contest

Question 1 was submitted by Angelo Di Pasquale.

Questions 2, 3 and 5 were submitted by Norman Do.

Question 4 was submitted by Alan Offer.

Australian Mathematical Olympiad

Questions 1, 2, 5 and 6 were submitted by Norman Do.

Question 3 was submitted by Andrei Storozhev.

Questions 4 and 7 were submitted by Angelo Di Pasquale.

Question 8 was submitted by Andrew Elvey Price.

Asian Pacific Mathematical Olympiad 2015

Question 2 was composed by Angelo Di Pasquale and submitted by the AMOC Senior Problems Committee.

International Mathematical Olympiad 2015

Question 6 was composed by Ross Atkins and Ivan Guo, and submitted by the AMOC Senior Problems

Committee. Ivan provided the following background information on the problem.

The original idea for this problem came about while Ross was reading the paper Positroid

Varieties: Juggling and Geometry by Knutson, Lam and Speyer, in which the excitation

number of a periodic juggling sequence was discovered. It seemed obvious that this was

similar to some specific elementary result that could be proven using elementary methods.

We had some difficulties in phrasing the problem in a concise self-contained way. Intuitively,

each term ai in the sequence corresponds to throwing a ball at the ith second with an air time

of ai . The inequality condition ensures that no two balls land simultaneously.

The first formulation of the problem was to show that the long-term average of the sequence

converges to an integer b, which is the total number of balls. However, the usage of limits was

inappropriate for an olympiad problem. We then came up with three more versions which

involved bounding the partial

sums. Eventually we settled on the most difficult version, with

the explicit bound of | (ai b)| 10072 . Interestingly, the term ai b can be interpreted

as the change in the total air time on the ith second, while 10072 is the difference between

maximal and minimal possible total air times, after the introduction of all b balls. The final

wording may be a little difficult for students who are unfamiliar with the construct: there

exists an N such that for all m > n > N .

It is possible to solve the problem combinatorially without invoking any physical interpretations, juggling or otherwise. Furthermore, as demonstrated by some at the IMO, the problem

can also be tackled using purely algebraic approaches. Overall, we are very happy with the

problem and we hope everyone enjoyed it.

It is worth noting that one of the authors of the paper that inspired this problem was Thomas Lam, a

member of the 1997 Australian IMO team and recipient of an IMO gold medal.

174

HONOUR ROLL

Because of changing titles and affiliations, the most senior title achieved and later affiliations are generally used,

except for the Interim committee, where they are listed as they were at the time.

Mr P J OHalloran

Prof A L Blakers

Dr J M Gani

Prof B H Neumann

Prof G E Wall

Mr J L Williams

University of Western Australia

Australian Mathematical Society, ACT,

Australian National University, ACT,

University of Sydney, NSW

University of Sydney, NSW

Problems Committee for Challenge

Dr K McAvaney

Victoria, (Director)

Mr B Henry

Victoria (Director)

Prof P J OHalloran

University of Canberra, ACT

Dr R A Bryce

Australian National University, ACT

Adj Prof M Clapper

Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Ms L Corcoran

Australian Capital Territory

Ms B Denney

New South Wales

Mr J Dowsey

University of Melbourne, VIC

Mr A R Edwards

Department of Education, QLD

Dr M Evans

Scotch College, VIC

Assoc Prof H Lausch Monash University, VIC

Ms J McIntosh

AMSI, VIC

Mrs L Mottershead

New South Wales

Miss A Nakos

Temple Christian College, SA

Dr M Newman

Australian National University, ACT

Ms F Peel

St Peters College, SA

Dr I Roberts

Northern Territory

Ms T Shaw

SCEGGS, NSW

Ms K Sims

New South Wales

Dr A Storozhev

Attorney Generals Department, ACT

Prof P Taylor

Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Mrs A Thomas

New South Wales

Dr S Thornton

South Australia

Miss G Vardaro

Wesley College, VIC

Visiting members

Prof E Barbeau

University of Toronto, Canada

Prof G Berzsenyi

Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, USA

Dr L Burjan

Department of Education, Slovakia

Dr V Burjan

Institute for Educational Research, Slovakia

Mrs A Ferguson

Canada

Prof B Ferguson

University of Waterloo, Canada

Dr D Fomin

St Petersburg State University, Russia

Prof F Holland

University College, Ireland

Dr A Liu

University of Alberta, Canada

Prof Q Zhonghu

Academy of Science, China

175

9 years; 20062015;

Member

1 year 20052006

17 years; 19902006;

Member

9 years 20072015

5 years; 19901994

23 years; 19902012

3 years; 20132015

3 years; 19901992

6 years; 20102015

8 years; 19952002

26 years; 19902015

6 years; 19901995

24 years; 19902013

14 years; 20022015

24 years; 19922015

23 years; 19932015

26 years; 19902015

2 years; 1999, 2000

3 years; 20132015

3 years; 20132015

17 years; 19992015

22 years; 19942015

20 years; 19952014

18 years; 19902007

18 years; 19982015

22 years: 19932006,

20082015

1991,

1993,

1993

1993

1992

1992,

1994

1994

1995,

1995

2004, 2008

2002

2005

2006, 2009

Dr A Gardiner

University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Prof P H Cheung

Hong Kong

Prof R Dunkley

University of Waterloo, Canada

Dr S Shirali

India

Mr M Starck

New Caledonia

Dr R Geretschlager

Austria

Dr A Soifer

United States of America

Prof M Falk de Losada Colombia

Mr H Groves

United Kingdom

Prof J Tabov

Bulgaria

Prof A Andzans

Latvia

Prof Dr H-D Gronau

University of Rostock, Germany

Prof J Webb

University of Cape Town, South Africa

Mr A Parris

Lynwood High School, New Zealand

Dr A McBride

University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom

Prof P Vaderlind

Stockholm University, Sweden

Prof A Jobbings

United Kingdom

Assoc Prof D Wells

United States of America

Mr W Akhurst

Ms N Andrews

Prof E Barbeau

Mr R Blackman

Ms J Breidahl

Ms S Brink

Prof J C Burns

Mr A. Canning

Mrs F Cannon

Mr J Carty

Dr E Casling

Mr B Darcy

Ms B Denney

Mr J Dowsey

Br K Friel

Dr D Fomin

Mrs P Forster

Mr T Freiberg

Mr W Galvin

Mr M Gardner

Ms P Graham

Mr B Harridge

Ms J Hartnett

Mr G Harvey

Ms I Hill

Ms N Hill

Dr N Hoffman

Prof F Holland

Mr D Jones

Ms R Jorgenson

Assoc Prof H Lausch

Mr J Lawson

Mr R Longmuir

Ms K McAsey

ACER, Camberwell, VIC

University of Toronto, Canada

Victoria

St Pauls Woodleigh, VIC

Glen Iris, VIC

Australian Defence Force Academy, ACT

Queensland

New South Wales

ACT Department of Education, ACT

Australian Capital Territory

South Australia

New South Wales

Victoria

Trinity Catholic College, NSW

St Petersburg University, Russia

Penrhos College, WA

Queensland

University of Newcastle, NSW

North Virginia, USA

Tasmania

University of Melbourne, VIC

Queensland

Australian Capital Territory

South Australia

Victoria

Edith Cowan University, WA

University College, Ireland

Coffs Harbour High School, NSW

Australian Capital Territory

Victoria

St Pius X School, NSW

China

Victoria

176

1996

1997

1997

1998

1999

1999,

2000

2000

2001

2001,

2002

2003

2003,

2004

2007

2009,

2014

2015

2013

2010

2011

2012

Dr K McAvaney

Ms J McIntosh

Ms N McKinnon

Ms T McNamara

Mr G Meiklejohn

Mr M OConnor

Mr J Oliver

Mr S Palmer

Dr W Palmer

Mr G Pointer

Prof H Reiter

Mr M Richardson

Mr G Samson

Mr J Sattler

Mr A Saunder

Mr W Scott

Mr R Shaw

Ms T Shaw

Dr B Sims

Dr H Sims

Ms K Sims

Prof J Smit

Mrs M Spandler

Mr G Spyker

Ms C Stanley

Dr E Strzelecki

Mr P Swain

Dr P Swedosh

Prof J Tabov

Mrs A Thomas

Ms K Trudgian

Prof J Webb

Ms J Vincent

Victoria

AMSI, VIC

Victoria

Victoria

Queensland School Curriculum Council, QLD

AMSI, VIC

Northern Territory

New South Wales

University of Sydney, NSW

South Australia

University of North Carolina, USA

Yarraville Primary School, VIC

Nedlands Primary School, WA

Parramatta High School, NSW

Victoria

Seven Hills West Public School, NSW

Hale School, WA

New South Wales

University of Newcastle, NSW

Victoria

New South Wales

The Netherlands

New South Wales

Curtin University, WA

Queensland

Monash University, VIC

Ivanhoe Girls Grammar School, VIC

The King David School, VIC

Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

New South Wales

Queensland

University of Capetown, South Africa

Melbourne Girls Grammar School, VIC

Enrichment Committee Development Team (19921995)

Mr B Henry

Victoria (Chairman)

Prof P OHalloran

University of Canberra, ACT (Director)

Mr G Ball

University of Sydney, NSW

Dr M Evans

Scotch College, VIC

Mr K Hamann

South Australia

Assoc Prof H Lausch Monash University, VIC

Dr A Storozhev

Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Polya Development Team (19921995)

Mr G Ball

University of Sydney, NSW (Editor)

Mr K Hamann

South Australia (Editor)

Prof J Burns

Australian Defence Force Academy, ACT

Mr J Carty

Merici College, ACT

Dr H Gastineau-Hill

University of Sydney, NSW

Mr B Henry

Victoria

Assoc Prof H Lausch Monash University, VIC

Prof P OHalloran

University of Canberra, ACT

177

Dr A Storozhev

Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

Euler Development Team (19921995)

Dr M Evans

Scotch College, VIC (Editor)

Mr B Henry

Victoria (Editor)

Mr L Doolan

Melbourne Grammar School, VIC

Mr K Hamann

South Australia

Assoc Prof H Lausch Monash University, VIC

Prof P OHalloran

University of Canberra, ACT

Mrs A Thomas

Meriden School, NSW

Gauss Development Team (19931995)

Dr M Evans

Scotch College, VIC (Editor)

Mr B Henry

Victoria (Editor)

Mr W Atkins

University of Canberra, ACT

Mr G Ball

University of Sydney, NSW

Prof J Burns

Australian Defence Force Academy, ACT

Mr L Doolan

Melbourne Grammar School, VIC

Mr A Edwards

Mildura High School, VIC

Mr N Gale

Hornby High School, New Zealand

Dr N Hoffman

Edith Cowan University, WA

Prof P OHalloran

University of Canberra, ACT

Dr W Pender

Sydney Grammar School, NSW

Mr R Vardas

Dulwich Hill High School, NSW

Noether Development Team (19941995)

Dr M Evans

Scotch College, VIC (Editor)

Dr A Storozhev

Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT (Editor)

Mr B Henry

Victoria

Dr D Fomin

St Petersburg University, Russia

Mr G Harvey

New South Wales

Newton Development Team (20012002)

Mr B Henry

Victoria (Editor)

Mr J Dowsey

University of Melbourne, VIC

Mrs L Mottershead

New South Wales

Ms G Vardaro

Annesley College, SA

Ms A Nakos

Temple Christian College, SA

Mrs A Thomas

New South Wales

Dirichlet Development Team (20012003)

Mr B Henry

Victoria (Editor)

Mr A Edwards

Ormiston College, QLD

Ms A Nakos

Temple Christian College, SA

Mrs L Mottershead

New South Wales

The Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee was founded at a meeting of the Australian Academy of

Science at its meeting of 23 April 1980.

* denotes Executive Position

Chair*

Prof B H Neumann

Prof G B Preston

Prof A P Street

Prof C Praeger

Deputy Chair*

Prof P J OHalloran

Prof A P Street

Prof C Praeger,

Monash University, VIC

University of Queensland

University of Western Australia

7 years; 19801986

10 years; 19861995

6 years; 19962001

14 years; 20022015

University of Queensland

University of Western Australia

15 years; 19801994

1 year; 1995

6 years; 19962001

178

Executive Director*

Prof P J OHalloran

Prof P J Taylor

Adj Prof M G Clapper

14 years; 20022015

University of Canberra, ACT

University of Canberra, ACT

15 years; 19801994

18 years; 19942012

3 years; 20132015

Victorian Chamber of Mines, VIC

9 years; 19801988

4 years; 19891992

6 years; 19931998

University of Canberra, ACT

CPA

Monash University, VIC

Australian National University, ACT

The King David School, VIC

8

2

5

8

6

7

Secretary

Prof J C Burns

Vacant

Mrs K Doolan

Treasurer*

Prof J C Burns

Prof P J OHalloran

Ms J Downes

Dr P Edwards

Prof M Newman

Dr P Swedosh

years;

years;

years;

years;

years;

years;

19811988

19891990

19911995

19952002

20032008

20092015

Mr J B Henry

Dr K McAvaney

Deakin University, VIC

17 years; 19902006

10 years; 20062015

Prof B C Rennie

Mr J L Williams

Assoc Prof H Lausch

Dr N Do

University of Sydney, NSW

Monash University, VIC

Monash University, VIC

1 year; 1980

6 years; 19811986

27 years; 19872013

2 years; 20142015

Director of Training*

Mr J L Williams

Mr G Ball

Dr D Paget

Dr M Evans

Assoc Prof D Hunt

Dr A Di Pasquale

University of Sydney, NSW

University of Tasmania

Scotch College, VIC

University of New South Wales

University of Melbourne, VIC

7 years; 19801986

3 years; 19871989

6 years; 19901995

3 months; 1995

5 years; 19962000

15 years; 20012015

University of New South Wales

5 years; 19811985

9 years; 1986, 1989, 1990, 1996

University of Tasmania

University of Melbourne, VIC

University of New South Wales

5 years; 19911995

13 years; 20022010, 20122015

1 year; 2011

Team Leader

Mr J L Williams

Assoc Prof D Hunt

2001

Dr E Strzelecki

Dr D Paget

Dr A Di Pasquale

Dr I Guo

Prof G Szekeres

Mr G Ball

Dr D Paget

Dr J Graham

Dr M Evans

Dr A Di Pasquale

Dr D Mathews

Dr N Do

Dr I Guo

University of Sydney, NSW

University of Tasmania

University of Sydney, NSW

Scotch College, VIC

University of Melbourne, VIC

University of Melbourne, VIC

University of Melbourne, VIC

University of New South Wales

179

2

7

1

3

3

5

3

4

4

years; 19811982

years; 19831989

year; 1990

years; 19911993

years; 19941996

years; 19972001

years; 20022004

years; 20052008

years; 200910, 20122013

Mr G White

Mr A Elvey Price

Melbourne University, VIC

1 year; 2011

2 years; 20142015

State Directors

Australian Capital Territory

Prof M Newman

Australian National University

Mr D Thorpe

ACT Department of Education

Dr R A Bryce

Australian National University

Mr R Welsh

Canberra Grammar School

Mrs J Kain

Canberra Grammar School

Mr J Carty

ACT Department of Education

Mr J Hassall

Burgmann Anglican School

Dr C Wetherell

Radford College

New South Wales

Dr M Hirschhorn

University of New South Wales

Mr G Ball

University of Sydney, NSW

Dr W Palmer

University of Sydney, NSW

Northern Territory

Dr I Roberts

Charles Darwin University

Queensland

Dr N H Williams

University of Queensland

Dr G Carter

Queensland University of Technology

Dr V Scharaschkin

University of Queensland

Dr A Offer

Queensland

South Australia/Northern Territory

Mr K Hamann

SA Department of Education

2013

Mr V Treilibs

SA Department of Education

Dr M Peake

Adelaide

Dr D Martin

Adelaide

Tasmania

Mr J Kelly

Tasmanian Department of Education

Dr D Paget

University of Tasmania

Mr W Evers

St Michaels Collegiate School

Dr K Dharmadasa

University of Tasmania

Victoria

Dr D Holton

University of Melbourne

Mr B Harridge

Melbourne High School

Ms J Downes

CPA

Mr L Doolan

Melbourne Grammar School

Dr P Swedosh

The King David School

Western Australia

Dr N Hoffman

WA Department of Education

Assoc Prof P Schultz University of Western Australia

19961999

Assoc Prof W Bloom Murdoch University

Dr E Stoyanova

WA Department of Education

Dr G Gamble

University of Western Australia

1 year; 1980

2 years; 19811982

7 years; 19831989

1 year; 1990

5 years; 19911995

17 years; 19952011

2 years; 20122013

2 years; 20142015

1 year; 1980

16 years; 19811996

19 years; 19972015

2 years; 20142015

21 years; 19802000

10 years; 20012010

4 years; 20112014

1 year; 2015

19 years; 19801982, 19912005,

8 years; 19831990

8 years; 20062013

2 years; 20142015

8 years; 19801987

8 years; 19881995

9 years; 19952003

12 years; 20042015

3 years; 19801982

1 year; 1982

6 years; 19831988

9 years; 19891998

18 years; 19982015

3 years; 19801982

14 years; 19831988, 19911994,

2 years; 19891990

7 years; 1995, 20002005

10 years; 20062015

Editor

Prof P J OHalloran

Dr A W Plank

Dr A Storozhev

Editorial Consultant

Dr O Yevdokimov

University of Southern Queensland

Australian Mathematics Trust, ACT

1 year; 1983

11 years; 19841994

15 years; 19942008

7 years; 20092015

180

Mr W J Atkins

Dr S Britton

Prof G Brown

Dr R A Bryce

Mr G Cristofani

Ms L Davis

Dr W Franzsen

Dr J Gani

Assoc Prof T Gagen

Ms P Gould

Prof G M Kelly

Prof R B Mitchell

Ms Anna Nakos

Mr S Neal

Prof M Newman

Prof R B Potts

Mr H Reeves

Mr N Reid

Mr R Smith

Prof P J Taylor

Prof N S Trudinger

Assoc Prof I F Vivian

Dr M W White

University of Sydney, NSW

Australian Academy of Science, ACT

Australian Mathematical Society, ACT

Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians

Department of Education and Training

IBM Australia

Australian Catholic University, ACT

Australian Mathematical Society, ACT

ANU AAMT Summer School

Department of Education and Training

University of Sydney, NSW

University of Canberra, ACT

Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians

Department of Education and Training

Australian National University, ACT

Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians

(Treasurer during the interim)

University of Adelaide, SA

Australian Association of Maths Teachers

Australian Mathematics Foundation

IBM Australia

Telecom Australia

Australian Mathematics Foundation

Australian Mathematical Society, ACT

University of Canberra, ACT

IBM Australia

18 years; 19952012

8 years; 19901998

10 years; 1980, 19861994

10 years; 19911998

13 years; 19992012

2 years; 19931994

4 years; 19911994

9 years; 19901998

1980

6 years; 19931998

2 years; 19951996

6 years; 19821987

5 years; 19911995

13 years; 20032015

4 years; 19901993

15 years; 19861998

10 years; 19992002,

20092014

1 year; 1980

11 years; 19881998

20142015

3 years; 19881990

5 years; 19901994

6 years; 19901994, 2013

3 years; 19861988

1 year; 1990

9 years; 19801988

Ms S Britton

Dr M Evans

Dr W Franzsen

Prof T Gagen

Mr H Reeves

Mr G Ball

16

16

16

16

16

16

years;

years;

years;

years;

years;

years;

20002015

20002015

20002015

20002015

20002015

20002015

Current members

Dr N Do

M Clapper

Dr A Di Pasquale

Dr M Evans

Dr I Guo

Dr J Kupka

Dr K McAvaney

Dr D Mathews

Dr A Offer

Dr C Rao

Dr B B Saad

Dr J Simpson

Dr I Wanless

(member)

Australian Mathematics Trust

University of Melbourne, VIC

Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute, VIC

University of Sydney, NSW

Monash University, VIC

Deakin University, VIC

Monash University, VIC

Queensland

IBM Australia

Monash University, VIC

Curtin University, WA

Monash University, VIC

181

2 years; 20142015

11 years; 20032013

3 years; 2013-2015

15 years; 20012015

26 years; 19902015

8 years; 20082015

13 years; 20032015

20 years; 19962015

15 years; 20012015

4 years; 20122015

16 years; 20002015

22 years; 19942015

17 years; 19992015

16 years; 20002015

Previous members

Mr G Ball

Mr M Brazil

Dr M S Brooks

Dr G Carter

Dr J Graham

Dr M Herzberg

Assoc Prof D Hunt

Dr L Kovacs

Assoc Prof H Lausch

Dr D Paget

Prof P Schultz

Dr L Stoyanov

Dr E Strzelecki

Dr E Szekeres

Prof G Szekeres

Em Prof P J Taylor

Dr N H Williams

LaTrobe University, VIC

University of Canberra, ACT

Queensland University of Technology

University of Sydney, NSW

Telecom Australia

University of New South Wales

Australian National University, ACT

Monash University, VIC (Chair)

(member)

University of Tasmania

University of Western Australia

University of Western Australia

Monash University, VIC

University of New South Wales

University of New South Wales

Australian Capital Territory

University of Queensland

16 years; 19821997

5 years; 19901994

8 years; 19831990

10 years; 20012010

1 year; 1992

1 year; 1990

29 years; 19862014

5 years; 19811985

27 years; 19872013

2 years; 2014-2015

7 years; 19891995

8 years; 19932000

5 years; 20012005

5 years; 19861990

7 years; 19811987

7 years; 19811987

1 year; 2013

20 years; 19812000

Dr S Britton

Mr L Doolan

Mr W Franzsen

Dr D Paget

Dr M Evans

Assoc Prof D Hunt

Dr A Di Pasquale

Melbourne Grammar, VIC (Coordinator)

Australian Catholic University, ACT (Coordinator)

University of Tasmania (Director)

Scotch College, VIC

University of New South Wales (Director)

University of Melbourne, VIC (Director)

2 years; 19901991

6 years; 1992, 19931997

2 years; 19901991

5 years; 19901994

1 year; 1995

4 years; 19961999

16 years; 20002015

Mr J L Williams

Mr G Ball

Mr L Doolan

Dr S Britton

Mr W Franzsen

Dr D Paget

Assoc Prof D Hunt

Dr A Di Pasquale

University of Sydney, NSW (Director)

Melbourne Grammar, VIC (Coordinator)

University of Sydney, NSW (Coordinator)

Australian Catholic University, ACT (Coordinator)

University of Tasmania (Director)

University of New South Wales (Director)

University of Melbourne, VIC (Director)

182

2 years; 19821983

6 years; 19841989

3 years; 19891991

7 years; 19921998

8 years; 19921996, 19992001

6 years; 19901995

5 years; 19962000

15 years; 20012015

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