Está en la página 1de 389
THREE BYZANTINE MILITARY TREATISES TEXT, TRANSLATION, AND NOTES by GEORGE T. DENNIS Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection Washington, D.C. 1985 CORPUS FONTIUM HISTORIAE BYZANTINAE CONSILIO SOCIETATIS INTERNATIONALIS STUDIIS BYZANTINIS PROVEHENDIS DESTINATAE EDITUM VOLUMEN XXV TRES TRACTATUS BYZANTINI DERE MILITARI EDIDIT, ANGLICE VERTIT, ET ADNOTAVIT GEORGE T. DENNIS SERIES WASHINGTONIENSIS EDIDIT IHOR SEVCENKO In aedibus Dumbarton Oaks Washingtoniae, D.C. MCMLXXXV © 1985 Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University Washington, D.C. In accordance with the rules adopted by the International Commiss for the Edition of Sources of Byzantine History, the text and translation of this volume have been verified by Ihor Sevéenko and John Duffy Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Three Byzantine military treatises (Dumbarton Oaks texts; 9) (Corpus fontium historiae Byzantinac; v. 25. Series Washingtoniensis) Translated from the Greek. Contents: The anonymous Byzantine treatise on strategy —Skirmishing—-Campaign organization and tactics. 1. Military art and science—Byzantine Empire— Addresses, essays, lectures. 2. Byzantine Empire— History, Military—Addresses, essays, lectures. 1, Dennis, George T. I. Anonymous Byzantine treatise on strategy. 1985. I. Skirmishing. 1985. IV. Campaign organization and tactics. 1985. V. Series. VI. Series. U37.T47 1985 355.4'09495 84-26053 ISBN 0-88402-140-8 CONTENTS Preface vii List of Abbreviations . xi List of Signs xiii EistotPigttes: 0 ee xv The Anonymous Byzantine Treatise on Strategy Tntroduchon ee i Text and Translation ........... 002. e cece ee eee eee eee ee Skirmishing Introduction . 137 Text and Translation .. 143 Campaign Organization and Tactics Introduction . . 241 Text and Translation . 245 Note on the Diagrams ... 329 Indices 1. Proper Names -. 337 2. Terms and Vocabulary -. 339 3. General . 378 PREFACE The people whom we call Byzantines are generally regarded as having been preoccupied with religion and rhetoric, and we expect this to be re- flected in the books which they read and which they wrote. They were, in- deed, deeply interested in theology and in classical Greek literature, as well as in other things. But for a thousand years their primary concern was with survival and security, and it must be admitted that, considering the times in which they lived and the adversaries they faced, they managed remarkably well. They did not, however, rely on rhetorical flourishes to drive the wild Pechenegs away or to repel an Arab razzia. It was their practical diplomatic and military skills that preserved the empire and their civilization. While always striving for peace, they knew they had to be prepared for war, and, when it came, they were determined to wage it as effectively as possible. For, just as the ancient Romans whose name they perpetuated, the Byzan- tines were an eminently practical people. Sure proof of this are their hand- books of diplomacy and tactics that have come down to us, unfortunately all too few. The three treatises presented here reflect the practical concerns of sol- diers entrusted with the tasks of going on campaign and defending the fron- tiers. The first, The Anonymous Byzantine Treatise on Strategy, seems to have been composed by a retired army engineer about the middle of the sixth century—a prosperous period and, in general, one of success on the battlefield. This booklet is more systematically organized and more theo- retical than the others. The writer is familiar with the military authorities of antiquity and cites passages from their writings, yet he has obviously been in combat and knows from experience how to construct fortifications and siege machinery. His compilation is an interesting mix of theory and practice. The second and third treatises were composed toward the end of the tenth century, also a period of prosperity and military successes. Both are brief and to the point, containing little of theory. The first of these, Skir- mishing, deals with the details of border warfare in the mountains of eastern Anatolia and was written by a man with years of experience in such fighting. Vii PREFACE The other, which I have titled Campaign Organization and Tactics, concen- trates on the progress of an army with the emperor himself in command and its setting up camp in hostile territory, namely, in Bulgaria. Numbers, de- tails, and precise measurements are provided by the author, who had ob- viously participated in such expeditions. In reading the more formal literature of the Byzantines with its often stilted and artificial prose we can see the Byzantines themselves only darkly, in a glass, ‘‘a distorted mirror.” These three treatises, however, written in a more down-to-earth language, introduce us to real people—the retired officer with his collection of books on strategy, the hardened veteran from the mountains far from the imperial capital, the efficient administrator who sees to every detail. They tell us of soldiers that are more interested in farm- ing and of others that are harassed by tax collectors. While explaining about tactics and weaponry, these writings also provide valuable information about Byzantine life and institutions, especially in the provinces. Not only do they discuss the practical measures taken to defend the empire, but they give us an insight into what motivated the men that stood guard on its borders. These treatises, in short, help us understand how the Byzantine Empire and its citizens survived so long and, in doing that, kept so much of what is basic to our own civilization from perishing. Each of the treatises is composed in a distinctive style and approaches its subject from a different perspective. Although each by itself is perhaps too short to fill a printed volume, the three comprise a characteristically By- zantine book on tactics, and they are found together in the same series of manuscripts. A list of abbreviations and one of signs follow this preface. Each treatise is then presented with its own introduction. The text and appa- ratus are accompanied by an English translation with a few notes. In producing this book I was not alone. A scholar is never alone. I have been aided by many | have never met—Graux, Kéchly, Riistow, Vari, Kulakovskij, Hase, Dain, Spaulding, Higgins, Erck. In return, I can only hope that my own efforts may be of some help to those who come after. In the meantime let me express my gratitude to those whose assistance has been more immediate. My thanks go first to Irene Vaslef, librarian at Dum- barton Oaks, for first apprising me of Erck’s work on the Anonymous and urging me to complete it. That it and the other treatises were completed and improved my thanks are due to Peter Topping, Alexander Kazhdan, John Duffy, and Frances Kianka. For consistent and prompt assistance I must also thank the staff at Dumbarton Oaks and at the Mullen Library of the Catholic University of America. I would never have identified most of the locations in the second treatise without the kind help of Robert Edwards. My thanks PREFACE ix are also due to Michael Dechert for his generosity in taking time to draw most of the diagrams given below. I am grateful that much of my research was done at Dumbarton Oaks during the tenure of Giles Constable as its director. In uncounted ways he made it a place in which scholarship could truly prosper and move forward. We are all in his debt. Finally, to all my colleagues and confreres who have supported me in one way or another my thanks. Washington, D.C. George T. Dennis, S.J. May 1984 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Ahrweiler, Etudes administratives: H. Ahrweiler, Etudes sur les structures administratives et sociales de Byzance (London, 1971) ByzF: Byzantinische Forschungen BZ: Byzantinische Zeitschrift Canard, Hamdanides: M. Canard, Histoire de la dynastie des Hamdanides (Paris, 1953) CFHB: Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae DAI Commentary: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De administrando imperio. Commentary, ed. R. Jenkins et al. (London, 1962) Dain, “‘Stratégistes”: A. Dain, “‘Les stratégistes byzantins,” TM, 2 (1967), 317-92 De administrando imperio: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De administrando imperio, ed. and trans. G. Moravesik and R. Jenkins (CFHB, 1; Washington, D.C., 1967) DOP: Dumbarton Oaks Papers GRBS: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Guilland, Recherches: R. Guilland, Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1967) Hunger, Hochsprachliche profane Literatur: H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Lite- ratur der Byzantiner, 2 vols. (Munich, 1978) Kekaumenos: Soviety i Raskazy Kekavmena, ed. G. Litavrin (Moscow, 1972) Leo, Tactical Constitutions: Leonis imperatoris Tactica, ed. R. Véri (Budapest, 1917-22); ed. J. Meursius and J. Lamy, PG, 107, 669-1120 Leo the Deacon: Leonis Diaconi Caloensis historiae libri decem, ed. C. B. Hase (Bonn, 1828) Listes de préséance: Les listes de préséance byzantine des IX* et X* siécles, ed. N. Oikono- midés (Paris, 1972) Maurice, Strategikon: Das Strategikon des Maurikios, ed. G. Dennis (CFHB, 17; Vienna, 1981) PG: Patrologiae cursus completus. Series graeca, ed. J.-P. Migne RE: Paulys Realencyclopédie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, new tev. ed. by G. Wissowa and W. Kroll (Stuttgart, 1893- ) REB: Revue des études byzantines Schilbach, Metrologie: E. Schilbach, Byzantinische Metrologie (Munich, 1970) ST: Studi e Testi TM: Travaux et Mémoires VizVrem: Vizantijskij Vremennik LIST OF SIGNS Codex Ambrosianus graecus 139 (B 119 sup.) = Codex Mediceo-Laurentianus graecus 55, 4 = Codex Vaticanus graecus 1164 Codex Scorialensis graecus 281 (Y-IH-11) = Codex Barberinianus graecus II 97 (276) Codex Parisinus graecus 2522 wwneZs> ] Erck = T, Erck, Anonymi Byzantini Peri Strategikes (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Ili- nois, 1937) K-R = H. Kéchly and W. Ristow, Byzantini anonymi Peri strategikes, in Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller (Leipzig, 1855), 2, 2 Hase = C.B. Hase, Leonis Diaconi Caloensis historiae libri decem et liber de Velitatione bellica Nicephori Augusti (Bonn, 1828), 179-258 H = paginae editionis Hase Graux = C. Graux, “Traité de Tactique .. . ,” Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Nationale, 36 (1899), 71-127 Vari = R. Vari, Incerti scriptoris Byzantini Liber de re militari (Leipzig, 1901) T = paginae editionis Vari De = G. Dennis = suppleta ab editore LIST OF FIGURES Treatise on Strategy 1. Plan of Towers; 2. Section of Wall; 3. Breach in Wall ......- 136 Treatise on Skirmishing 4. Map of Byzantine Empire in Tenth Century ........----+++> 142 Treatise on Campaign Organization and Tactics, Vat. gr. 1164 5. Fol. 236, PlanofaCamp . 6. Fol. 237, Another Camp Plan . . Fol. 237’, Another Camp Plan .. . Fol. 238, Another Camp Plan ..........- . Fol. 238", Sketch of War Machines and Animals . Diagrams of Expeditionary Camp: A. Measured and Directional Scheme .. . 331 . Ditch and Rampart around Camp Inside the Rampart . General Plan .... Center of Camp .. Detailed General Plan . ee mmoaw THE ANONYMOUS BYZANTINE TREATISE ON STRATEGY INTRODUCTION Treatises on the science and art of waging war, on strategy and tactics, were being written in Greek since at least the fourth century before our era. Some were composed by experienced battlefield commanders, others by theoreticians, arm- chair generals. Their books were copied, excerpted, and adapted through late antiq- uity. Partly in this tradition and partly as something new, the sixth century produced its own corpus of military writings, beginning with the pompous phrases of Ur- bikios and concluding with the more practical instructions offered by Maurice.’ About the middle of the century a book of modest proportions, professing to treat of the whole art of war, was published. It is here published again, accompanied by an English translation. In the manuscript which preserves most of the text, codex Mediceo-Lauren- tianus graecus 55, 4 (= M), the initial page of the treatise is missing. As a result, we do not know the name of the author or the title he gave to his work. It was com- posed according to a logical plan, beginning with some general observations about the body politic and quickly arriving at the part the author thought most deserving of his attention, the military, or strategy. This provided the first editors of this treatise, H. Kéchly and W. Riistow, with a title for the work: Peri strategikes, de re strategica. In lieu of a name, they and subsequent scholars have had to refer to its author as an “Anonymous Byzantine.”? Since Kéchly and Riistow published the work in 1855, along with an introduction and some notes, not much else has ap- peared about it in print.’ In the 1930s, however, two Americans, one a doctoral ‘See Hunger, Hochsprachliche profane Literatur, 323-40; Dain, “‘Stratégistes.” 2""Des byzantiner Anonymus Kriegswissenschaft,” in K-R. >This is noted by A. Cameron, Circus Factions; Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium (Ox- ford, 1976), 80. The work is, of course, mentioned by Dain (p. 343) and Hunger (pp. 327-28). There is also some discussion of the treatise in M, Jahns, Geschichte der Kriegswissenschaft, 1 (Munich— Leipzig, 1889), 146-51; F. Lammert, “Die alteste erhaltene Schrift Uber Seetaktik und ihre Be- 2 INTRODUCTION student in Classics and the other a colonel in the United States Army, independently devoted some time and energy to studying this treatise, the first preparing a new edition of the Greek text and the other an English translation. It seems that neither ever learned of the other's work. Theodore H. Erck completed a critical edition of the work with an introduc- tion as his doctoral dissertation under the direction of W. A. Oldfather at the Univer- sity of Illinois in 1937. Entitled Anonymi Byzantini Peri Strategikes (hereafter, Erck), it exists only in typewritten form and totals ninety-one pages.* Colonel, later General, Oliver Lyman Spaulding, Jr., began his study of the treatise while on active service with the field artillery in several western states, and completed it about 1935 while professor of military science at Harvard University. It too exists only in typescript, although it was intended, along with his translation of Maurice’s Strategikon, for publication.° After a very brief introduction, he presents his English translation alongside the Kéchly—Riistow text in parallel columns. This is followed by seventeen pages of notes, making a total of 129 typed pages. Both of these works, it must be clear, have greatly facilitated the preparation of the present edition and translation. Although he was dealing with a faulty Greek text, Spaulding generally seems to have had a good grasp of both the language and. the material. His translation, however, is a very loose one and should be used with caution. But his rendering of certain words and phrases is excellent, and some of it has been adopted in this translation. For reasons to be given below, the Greek text presented by Erck is also excel- lent, and is certainly a vast improvement over the one put together by Kéchly and Riistow (hereafter, KR). Although Erck’s typed text is not without a few errors and omissions, it is basically the same as the text presented below. Points of disagree- ment are indicated in the apparatus. Composition of the Treatise In their introduction Kéchly and Riistow established that the treatise was com- posed during the sixth century, more precisely and “with the fullest certainty,” in ziehungen 2um Anonymus Byzantinus des 6. Jahrhunderts,” Klio, 33 (1941), 277-88; N. V. Pigulev- skaja, Vizantija i fran na rubede VI i VII w. (Moscow, 1946), 114-33; A. Pertusi, “‘Ordinamenti mili- tari, guerre in Occidente e teoria di guerra dei bizantini (sec. vi-x),” Settimane di Studi sul!’ alto medioevo, \5 (Spoleto, 1968), 630-700. The most recent and detailed study is by V. Kuéma, ‘*Vizanti- jskij Anonim VI v.: osnovnye problemy istognikov i soderZanija,” VizVrem, 41 (1980), 68-91. “Dr. Erck subsequently taught at Vassar College and was president of Hood College in 1971-72 before retiring *On Col. Spauldit.,, who died in 1947, see G, Dennis, ed., Das Strategikon des Maurikios (CFHB, 17; Vienna, 1981), 25-27. Both of his translations were found among the papers of the late Rev. Martin Higgins, and are now in the archives of the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. Spaulding also published an article, “The Ancient Military Writers,” Classical Journal, 28 (1932-33), 657-69. STRATEGY 3 the reign of Justinian (527-65), and probably during the latter part of his reign (K-R, 37). This conclusion, which has been generally accepted by scholars, is based on internal evidence. Archery, for example, plays a prominent role in the work. Then, there is ‘‘our emperor,”” who has been stirring up his enemies against one another, which could easily refer to Justinian (6, 14—15; references are to chap- ter and line of the present edition). The comments about the celebration of a tri- umph (3, 90-91) may well have to do with that of Belisarius in 534, although sev- eral other triumphs were held in that period.* The description of what Belisarius himself was accustomed to do, that is, ravaging the countryside before a more powerful enemy (33, 30), sounds as though the writer was recalling recent events he had witnessed or heard about. Whether the verb in the sentence was originally in the present or the imperfect tense does not substantially alter the meaning. Opinions have varied slightly about the author, whose name, of course, is not known. A. Dain, while conceding some originality and contact with the realities of military life, places him among the theoreticians, ‘‘stratéges en chambre.”’ V. Kuéma thinks that the author was a military engineer and praises the originality of his plan and his success in carrying it out. While admitting that some elements have been borrowed, he considers the treatise to be unique in Greco-Roman-Byzantine military literature. It is a good mix of abstract theories and practical recommenda- tions. The treatise is, in his view, ‘‘a work of very high quality, composed by a contemporary of Justinian, a Byzantine of the middle level, socially, intellectually, and professionally.” * Presumably he was also a Christian, but, apart from one men- tion of the Apostles (3, 11), there is nothing specifically Christian in his writing. Spaulding (p. 2) believes he may have been a staff officer, perhaps an engineer. “On fortification and field engineering he is sound and practical. He speaks with confi- dence and authority, as one who has seen war, but not quite in the tone of a com- mander of troops.” Erck finds the sections on tactics more theoretical and derived from classical writers. But he admits that the author must have had some practical military experience, such as crossing streams under fire and pitching camp. Most probably, according to Erck (pp. 3-4), he was ‘‘a veteran army man who in his later years turned to writing.” His book appears to have been intended for the ordinary, educated citizen, and, while abounding in definitions and military terminology, much of it probably obsolete, it is composed in uncomplicated and matter-of-fact language. In his dis- sertation Erck succinctly describes the work (p. 4). “His treatise is a well planned, completely thought out piece of work. He made a detailed outline of the topics to be discussed and treated each in its proper place, carefully introducing each separate ®See Procopius, Bellum Vandalicum, 2, 9; also S.G. MacCormack, Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity (Berkeley~Los Angeles, 1981); M. McCormick, Eternal Victory. Triumphal Rulership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium, and the Early Medieval West (Cambridge, 1985), 64-68. "Dain, “Stratégistes,” 343, *«Vizantijskij Anonim," 73-74, 89-90. 4 INTRODUCTION part to show its relation to the whole, and recapitulating at its close. The whole he prefaced with an elaborate introduction which defines statecraft as a whole and neatly, if artificially, classifies, all of the elements of the state, and then passes from the general to that particular branch of statecraft which seems most important to him, namely strategike.” The treatise is divided into two parts (5, 1—5): defensive strategy and offen- sive strategy. Under the first heading Chapter 6 enumerates six topics to be dis- cussed. The first three are treated in Chapters 7 to 13, while the last three appear to be missing. Chapter 14 begins, as Erck notes, without the author’s usual summary and transition. In it he treats of tactics, which would belong to the second part, offensive strategy. Perhaps some sections have been lost from the text. The treatise moves along in an orderly fashion to Chapter 32. From this chapter to the end the transition passages are missing, and the treatment is unexpectedly brief, Kéchly— Riistow suggest, rightly, in Erck’s view, that these chapters represent an epitome and were not part of the original text. The final chapters (44—47) on archery seem out of place, and there is no proper ending to the whole work.? The Manuscripts Why did Erck believe that a new edition of the treatise was necessary? “A comparison of the Kéchly-Riistow text with the manuscript from which it was made showed that these scholars had been almost unbelievably careless in their examina- tion of the manuscript, and that they had misread it in literally several hundred places” (p. 5). The present editor found slightly less than two hundred such mis- readings of the manuscript by K-R, but Erck’s basic charge is certainly valid. The manuscript on which Kéchly and Riistow based their text was the codex Parisinus graecus 2522 (= P), a fifteenth-century copy of the Laurentian manu- script (M), to be discussed below. Even if the two scholars had been more conscien- tious in reading and transcribing the Parisian manuscript, their edition would still be a poor one, for it would not have utilized the earlier and better manuscripts. A. Dain, in studying the history of the text of Aelian the Tactician, showed clearly that there were three principal manuscript traditions, the ‘‘authentic,” the “interpolated,” and the one on which the writings of Leo VI were based." Subse- quent research on the textual history of the Strategikon of Maurice confirmed Dain’s analysis.'' The main corpus (or corpora) of classical and Byzantine military writ- ings is found, with a few exceptions, in the same series of manuscripts. The Anony- “Much of this material came to form part of the Apparatus bellicus of Julius Africanus: Dain, “*Stratégistes,” 335-36, 359-61; R. Vieillefond, Jules Africain, Fragments des Cestes provenants de la collection des tacticiens grecs (Paris, 1932). The chapters on archery have been edited and translated by O. Schissel von Fleschenberg, “Spatantike Anleitung zum Bogenschiessen,” Wiener Studien, 59 (1941), 110-24; 60 (1942), 43-70. "Histoire du texte d' Elien le tacticien (Paris, 1946). "Dennis, Strategikon, 28-41 STRATEGY 5 mous fits into the same general pattem as Aelian, Maurice, and other such writings, with some important differences. The first, “‘authentic,” tradition is represented by the codex Mediceo-Lauren- tianus graecus 55, 4 (= M; L in Erck’s nomenclature). It is the most important and complete collection of Greek strategists, copied under the direction of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus sometime before 959, and has been the subject of several detailed studies.'? The Anonymous is found on fols. 104-130°. The title page, as noted, including the author’s introductory remarks, and the last chapter are missing. The recapitulation at the beginning of Chapter 4 makes it clear that the missing part of the first chapter defined politeia or politike and started to list its components, and was probably not very long. The text, written in a clear minus- cule, is otherwise in good condition. The second tradition, “interpolated,” in Dain’s terminology, was, in tracing the textual history of Maurice’s Strategikon, represented by three very closely re- lated manuscripts, designated in the edition as VNP.” The first, codex Vaticanus graecus 1164 (= V), a clearly written book which can be dated to around the year 1020, has been severely mutilated. Only three folios of the Anonymous remain: 173-173", 175*- 176%. In editing the Strategikon, N stood for the codex Neapolitanus graecus 284 (IH-C-26). Originally this formed part of one parchment book with the codex Scorialensis graecus 281 (Y-III-ll) (= S). This manuscript in the Escorial consists of 308 folios with works of ancient and Byzantine tacticians. The incomplete text of the Anonymous is found on fols. 101-111". The manuscript can probably best be dated to the third or fourth decade of the eleventh century, and is almost certainly a copy of V. The third manuscript in the family (Parisinus graecus 2442, = P) can be traced to the same scriptorium, that of Ephrem in Constantinople, at about the same time as V. It too is only part of what had been one large manuscript together with the codex Barberinianus graecus II 97 (276) (= B). It is in the latter that the incomplete text of the Anonymous is found on fols. 81-91. The VSB text for much of the Anonymous, Chapters 7 to 16, does not repre- sent the original text, but is a summary or paraphrase. From Chapters 33 to 47 the full text, at least in SB, is given. These three manuscripts, VSB, clearly derive from a common exemplar. S is, as mentioned, a copy of V. B contains far more errors than the other two, so that it is reasonable to postulate one or more copies (@) be- tween it and the exemplar. As in the case of Maurice’s Strategikon, the relationship between these manuscripts can be sketched as follows."* "See Dain, “*Stratégistes,”” 382-85; Dennis, Strategikon, 19-20. "Dain, “Stratégistes,” 386-88; Dennis, Strategikon, 20-21; on the scriptorium and the dating see J, Irigoin, “Pour une étude des centres de copie byzantins,” Seriprorium, 12 (1958), 208-27; 13 (1959), 177-209. “Dennis, Strategiton, 33-36. 6 INTRODUCTION ex oN v o Id SB The third recension found by Dain, the one used by Leo VI which, designated as A, was important in reconstituting the text of Maurice, has not preserved the Anonymous. '* In preparing the text of the Strategikon, it was noted that one other manuscript was of some importance, although it did not fit clearly into the tradition. This was the codex Ambrosianus graecus B 119 sup. (139) (= A), which contains a number of military treatises and was written about the year 959.'* In several instances the Teadings and diagrams found in this manuscript were more accurate than those in any of the others. Yet it was essentially a paraphrase of the Strategikon in tenth- century Greek. It also contains paraphrases of other authors which appear in M. But it does not do so for the Anonymous. Rather, A presents the same version of the text as M, and not a paraphrase. Although A has been gravely mutilated, enough re- mains (fols. 8-21") to prove, as Erck has done (pp. 10-14), that A and M are closely related. Each has passages omitted in the other, and it is clear that neither was copied from the other. Erck believes that ‘A represents merely a less corrupt tradition of the text than L [M].” After drawing up a list of differences between the two, he shows that in more than two-thirds of the cases A has the better reading. He concludes that they are two branches of the same tradition, with M containing a larger number of scribal errors and A generally being a better copy of the text. Probably A and M were copied from the same manuscript, or at least collateral ones."’ Erck thinks that the marginal comment on Hannibal in M (18, 48), which he finds flippant and not in the author's style, must be an interpolation, and he postu- lates at least one manuscript between M and the point of departure from the com- mon tradition with A. There are no clear errors stemming from the misreading of uncial script, so that their common parent (or grandparent) must have been written in minuscule. Later copies need not detain us. The Paris. gr. 2522 (P), on which the K-R text was based, is a fairly exact copy of M. Also copied from M are Vossianus gr. 34 of the sixteenth century and Barberin. gr. 59 of the seventeenth. There are a few sixteenth-century copies of A: Ambrosian. gr. C 265 inf. (905), Marcian. gr. XI 30e (coll. 976, 1), and Chapters 31-32 copied in the cod. Sinaiticus gr. 1889 and at- "Ibid. , 36-39. °C. M. Mazzucchi, “Dagli anni di Basilio Parakimomenos (cod. Ambr. B 119 sup.),” Aevum, 52 (1978), 267-316. In my edition of the Strategikon, 39—41, 1 thought that such was the case, but did not have the more convincing arguments which Erck has produced. STRATEGY 7 tributed to Emperor Maurice. The many copies of VSB have been listed by R. Vieillefond."* The Present Edition For the reasons given above, the present text is based on A; for the sections missing in A, it is based on M, and for the last chapter, which is not in M, on S. Sometimes the differences between A and M are insignificant, and one cannot be preferred to the other. In such cases this edition has not followed a consistent pat- tern. Alternate readings, in any event, are given in the apparatus. The numbering of the chapters is taken from M or supplied by the editor. They are numbered incorrectly in A, and not at all in VSB or in P (it did not seem neces- sary to note this in the apparatus each time). Some chapter titles and other phrases, missing in the manuscripts, have been supplied from the body of the text or else- where by one of the editors, past or present. While Erck’s criticism of K-R is justi- fied, some of their readings and emendations are good and have been retained. Their errors are generally not listed, as they would unduly clutter the apparatus. "Jules Africain, Fragments des Cestes, xliii—xlvi, TEXT and TRANSLATION Mf, 104 10 15 25 (epi Xzparnyias. a’, Ti dorw wodureia Kai mé0a pépn adriis.) «+ YpappariKoi, pHTopEs, latpoi, yewpyoi, kai 6oot ravovroL. Trp 8é ye ieporixny ddgete wév dv Tis iows TExv AV Elvan, Hui 56 ov rovTo Soxei, GAN’ ov5E Emornuny, ered) Oeidv Te xpd Ear kai Tov Ka? has pooeuv bimdétepor, ei wr) TIS GMOs EmoThNY THY yaow Karst. doavbras 56 Kai THY VomLKTY, Ott py dei doavTWs Exer, viv wév obras TEpi Tov adbrav, viv bé Erépws, Tpds TAS StabET ELS TOV vopoberoupéver mpoodmur, dmopawopévav Tav VoLaV. “Epropixév 88, olov orom@Aan, oivoT@hcu, kpsom@dan. Hhekv 86, 76 Exdorov eidovs TapeKTiKdv, olov atSnporedeis, xaAKorEheis. danperxéy 86, 76 Uanpsrodv Tois ywouévors mpos THY TY KoWaY émpéderav, olov Evdogdpor, ABoydpor. &xenoror 6, 76 wndorvody owv7ehsiv Svvdpevov mpos Tv Tav Kowav xpsiav, olov dobeveis, yépovres, Traibss. Kai rohireias pév pépn rooadra. sizror 8 dv T1s Kal WEpos TrO- Aizeias, Smep ded rob undév avepysiv tows apydv dvoudcet, AAN’ od mavTws Kai hpiv &ppocer pépos ToAcTEias ToLdTov. domEp yap émi Toi évOpwrivoy caparos ovK Eve pépos evpeiv waoNS xpeias anyA- aypévor, obrw kai Todureias dpiorns obk dv sor pépos Elva ToLod- tov, 6 diverau pév ourteneiv émi Avotteheig THs ToAtTELas, OUK evEp- yei 88, GAAa TavTWs Kai atts Kad’ Ev 7. Tv eipnpéven Terd€eTou, ive 1) dpyeiv Suvdpevov mpos dxohacioy Kai Kom Kai THY EAANY Ka- kiav doKXivor. MP 4: K-R 42, Eck 22. 1: 1-3 epi... . aairiig De: inc. mut, codd. || 4 arpoi M: om. P || 19 rovadrov De: rocob- ov MP (STRATEGY. 1. Statecraft and Its Divisions.} . Writers, public speakers, physicians, farmers, and those in like professions. Priestly service might also be classed as a profession, but I do not think it should be, nor should it be listed as a science, unless the simple possession of spe- cial knowledge qualifies as a science. It is, after all, something sacred and far above our natural capabilities. Neither should the legal profession be called a science. It does not always deal with cases in the same manner, but handles the same subject now in one way, now in another. Application of the law varies according to the cir- cumstances of the persons who are covered by the law. Next comes the mercantile class, which includes dealers in grain, in wine, in meat. There are those who provide products fashioned of various materials, such as iron and copper. Then come those who hire out their services to the directors of public works, the bearers of lumber and stone. Finally, there is the unproductive class which is unable to contribute anything at all to the needs of the community; this would include the infirm, the elderly, and children. These, then, are the various classes of citizens. Someone might want to add another group, which I suppose could be called the leisure class, since it is not en- gaged in any activity. But I am reluctant to admit such a class of citizens. Just as in the human body you cannot find a part which has absolutely no function, so in a well-ordered commonwealth there should be no group of citizens which, although able to contribute to the public welfare, in fact does nothing. But every individual should by all means take his place in one of the classes enumerated above. Otherwise, idleness may lead him into licentiousness, thievery, and other forms of wickedness. Mf. 104° w 20 25 B'. (Tivo xapw étevonOnoar r& ris TohiTEias LEPN.) “Emevor6n dé 76 wév ieparixdy did TH Tod Ocob Oeparreiay, Ths mporns yerikardrns &pxiis, map’ ob kai 8’ ob mavra yéyove Kai oiKo- vopeiran, ols pdvos éxeivos éricrarat Tpdros Ths &yadornros. To 62 vopixdr did 76 Sikavoy, uddora 56 dia Tas OTaO ELS. TTA aus 56 Ear TAHBOUS Suopthwr Kara yrouny Sidcracts piKpais dvop- pois Os re TOAAG Expt oven ddevovea. Te yap GAMAWY KaT’ aPXas GvbédKovtes évOpwrot, Elza Tpds THY BAGBY tov yeuTovor Empée- vovres, mpos ordow émpiduov Kai pany Gavatnpspor Sinywvilovro. érrei 66 TavTEhf Tod yévous dvaipeow Hreiher 76 Tpaypa, Sid radTa émevorOnoar vopor Kai Sixacrrai, iv’ bard robTw ré TATION KpWowEva ociroi mpos GAN} AOUs eiptyny d&yoter. Té 86 cUpPovdrcurixdr bid 76 GUUpépor. 76 yap BT TreLdver dvepevviopevor éroorepor sis Katadyn. nd€0n 5é Kai 14@ddov dud rods TOAELODS, obs TYMparian Kai yuOpOL YerveoL TOAD, Ka- rop | Bobot 88 of &pioror ray dvbpav. To 58 xpnpuarucdy sore pév Gre Kai &hdwv Evexev Kowwpedhav Tpayperav ETwevdnTat, olov vavTnyias, TetxoToLias, wadALaTa bE bud Te dvaddpora Tay oTparwray. rv yap Kar’ Eros Sypooiwy sioddiev évratda ra mheiora KaTavahioKeTa. To 5é Texvixdy 51d 76 Hdov Kai ds av SEL yiyverOau Ta yrvdpEva Kai S.apKeiv 7@ xpdry. 76 yap TEXLN TEAOLpEVOY Ob pdvoY fadias, BAA Kai dopards yiverar. Ts 86 éumopixéy Sta Tv xpeiav. ob yap Tavres TavTa ExoVTL 80’ Sy 86 Exacros evtopet 5d Tis Eumopias 76 Aetmov avamAnpoi THs xpeias. To 88 UduKdy Frow 76 elSous TapeKTiK6Y, ive wr} TAS xpEias Ka- ovens émdimy Te Mpaywara. TOEKLS Yep XPNMETOY LEV edropod- bev, rav eis xpeiav 88 mpayycran drodevtopebe, Kei 61d robTO of wér oidnpor, of 5é vba, of 88 &dO TL TAY avayKaiwy dvri xpvrod ij apyipou hiv mpooropilovaew. To 88 danpetixdy Sud THY TOV KEheVvOMEvwD daNpecian Te Kai oupmdipwow. 76 56 &xpnorov TpoBEBANTAL pév br6 Te THS gioEwS Kau Ths Toys, Deporreverat 5é Taps THs KEXPEWOTNULEYNS YLLavOpa- Tov yrauns, %j Kai airy dapov gor PiTeWS Kai Oot TpoTEpor. 2: K-R 44, Erck 23. 2: 2 river . . . wépn De: om. codd. STRATEGY 13 2 [The Reasons for the Various Classes in the State.] Holy orders have been established for the worship of God, the first and univer- sal cause, by whom and through whom all things came into being and are governed in the ways of goodness known to him alone. Legal institutions are established to bring about justice, especially in the case of disputes. A dispute is a difference of opinion among a number of fellow citizens, and from small beginnings may often lead to loss of life. Men will begin by con- tending about one another's property, then find themselves causing injury to their neighbors, and soon become involved in civil strife, fighting, and killing. Since such a situation threatens the very survival of our people, laws and judges have been established to pronounce judgment in such cases and to aid people in living together in peace. Deliberative assemblies serve a good purpose. What has been thought through by a number of people is more likely to be carried out successfully. They are par- ticularly needed in time of war, which is declared by the consensus of many minds but can be conducted effectively only by selected leaders. The financial system was set up to take care of matters of public importance that arise on occasion, such as the building of ships and of walls. But it is princi- pally concerned with paying the soldiers. Each year most of the public revenues are spent for this purpose. Technicians make sure that projects will be carried out with a minimum of effort, in the proper manner, and with due regard for durability. Work done in a professional manner will be more easily completed and prove more solid. Commerce provides for necessities. No one has everything he needs. But commercial activity enables each person to provide himself with the things he lacks. Wholesalers provide us with materials, so that projects do not have to be abandoned because of a shortage of material. Often enough we may have plenty of money, but may be without any of the goods we need. Various people, then, furnish us with iron, naphtha, or whatever we need in exchange for gold or silver. The serving class is to perform the services that they are ordered to do. The unproductive class comes into being both by nature and by accident. Its members are justly entitled to protection out of humanitarian feelings, which are themselves a gift of nature and, even more so, of God. 4 Mf. 105 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 y. (epi dpxsvzw.) Ti pév ody 071 TodtTEla Kai TTR pEpn TadTNS TYyXavEL Kai river xépw érevoiOnoar, sipnrar bua TaY GOacdvrwv. Emei 5é dvery- kn Exdore Tov cipnuévev pepav sy" yeuore TETaXOaL, avaryKaiov mepi dpxévrov eireiv mpérepor, Sroiovs avrous eivat xpr KaO6AOU TE kai kar’ eldos, kai rive kegadaiwr dei yportilerv, ai Srotovs elvar xpH Tous Urnperoupévous adrois. Tlepi yap iepéwv éroiovs kai avrous elvar xp7), 571 dei gumeipous elvar vopwv Qeod Kai ra HON XpnoTovs, Kai TOs DTNpETOUpEVOUS adzois Ste xph Kai avrovs Kabapors elvan kai mpedrnTt wet’ evKOT Bias BETEPXOMEVOUS adrovs Ta Hd THY apxLepéwy Kai iepswy ByKEdEvO- pera, odx érepor, droaTéAww 5é Kai Tv Kar’ éxeivovs BEBLaKTwr. “Amavras 8é &pxovras elvat dor gpovipovs Thy platy, &yabods Tov TpOT0v, sumeipovs Tov UroKEéver cdrois mpaypdtar, Bvpod bE padre Kai XeIpss Spoiws Kperoivras, Kai obdEév UAAAOV EavTOY 7 tay b16 xeipa ppovrilovras. Tovs 88 cvpBovdovs eivar xpi) yovipovs trois svOvuT}pwaoL Kai StaxpuriKods rod cvpyéportos, girovs 7a Kowwd, SuTeipovs Te Tro- Aiteké, uhpoves Tar TehovpEvar, EvBeias Kai ToYPAS tows dméxor- tas. 76 psy 816 Thy ioxdr | 709 odparos, iv’ dnperaor Kai SiapKoor Tois Noyropois Sarravapsvor, 76 5 51d Tév KOpOV, KOpOS yap TOhELLOS oyiopav. Kai pire dave poxp Katapépeabar, Kai yap “od xp mavniixiov Kabeiderr Bovdngopoy avipa,” pr7” &dars gporticr ovvexousvous karadarravay Tip gv Tois Aoyirpois Svvapuy. elvan 5é Tip Hruxiaw ynpanods, “Bovdy yap Kai wiO0s 76 yépas éori yepsvtwy,” i} Kai Tpos yipas épvras dia Tas EmiTovwTépas KWHTELS TOD THpa- ros, Kai pire Bid ovyyéverar 7} xojware Hj EXOpav Tw4s 7 prdiav Bov- Aevecbat, MOvor 8& Evexa 700 TH TOATEIa TYUyEpOrTOS. Tos 88 duacras elvar Kai avrovs KpuTiKods Thy gdaw—roAXoi yap &vOvpnudrav wév edropodar, mpos 88 Ti Exdoyiy Tod KpEiT- rovs épapravovow—émorhpovas 8& ob pdvov rev vépwy TeEpi obs Karayivovtat, adhd Kai Tov dAhwv 6oa GvvTEhobat Tpés THY TaY pépwr dxpoacw, Kai xeipds WE Kai Ovpod Kai Hors Suoiws Kpa- TowvTas, Kai pte POBY KaranThoGEW pITE prria xapilecOat wHTE BxOpq@ viKdoGor pire xphuaoe SereclecGat, Kai Err poBepods mév Tols Karappovnrais, Tpoonvets dé rois evTEléowy. Taw 88 epi re Xphwara Terarypévu Xp) Tods wév TIBEVTAS TODS gopous dixaious sivat Tév rpémov, pweTpiKAs 88 wddurra Kai ‘yewro- Vics, mpos bé Kai Loyirructs peréxew. al yap Oéceis Tov Snooiwy redecpdrav yivovrat wav Kara TOTSY THS YAS, dvaddyws 56 Kai Kara STRATEGY is 3. {Officials.} The preceding chapters have explained the nature of the state and enumerated the classes of citizens and the reasons for their existence. But, since each of these classes must be organized under a leader, we have to say something about such of- ficials. First of all, what should be their qualifications, in general and in particular? What should be their principal concerns? What sort of assistants might they require? As far as the qualifications expected of the priests are concerned, it is clear that they ought to be experienced in the laws of God and be of excellent character. Their assistants must also be pure and should carry out the duties imposed on them by the bishops and priests in a meek and dignified manner. Such matters, however, lie outside our competence and belong rather to the Apostles and those who observe their way of life. All persons in authority should possess natural intelligence, be upright in their way of life, experienced in the matters committed to them, in contro} of their actions and especially of their emotions, and not be more concerned about themselves than about their subjects. The counselors should be noted for their ability to think clearly and to form judgments about what is advantageous. They should be devoted to the common good, experienced in statecraft, and familiar with precedent. They should be re- moved alike from want and from luxury. Want would affect their bodily strength, and so they should receive enough provisions to enable them to carry out their men- tal labors. Luxury, on the other hand, leads to satiety, which is the enemy of reason- ing. They should not indulge themselves in too much sleep. ‘‘A man who is to give counsel ought not sleep the whole night through.” ' The energy needed for their de- liberations should not be dissipated on other concerns. They should be of mature age. ‘Counsel and speaking in public are the prerogatives of age.””? But they should not be too advanced in years because of the strenuous physical activity required of them. Their counsel should not be influenced by family ties, money, or any enmity or friendship, but only by the best interests of the state. Judges must possess a good judicial temperament. Many men are full of good ideas but are incapable of deciding which one is best. Judges should know not only the laws, with which they are directly concerned, but also the other factors which may have some bearing upon the explanation of the laws. They should have control over their actions, their emotions, and their pleasures. They must not be terrified by fear. Friendship must not make them lenient, nor should enmity make them over- bearing. Money should not make them waver. They ought to be stern with those who contemn the laws and gentle with those who observe them. Coming now to the officials assigned to financial matters, those who assess the taxes must be just in the way they go about it; they should have some knowledge of surveying, of agricultural methods, and of accounting. For the amounts assessed for tax purposes are based upon the area of land, and upon its quality as well, and its 16 45 50 Mf. 105" 55 65 70 75 80 3 THY ToLéTHTE cars Sus ExN TPs Edpopiay KapTay 7 yéveow pe- Todo. dpay 5é Sei Kai Kpdoets Gépwv Kai ToTMD, TOEDY TE Kai TO- Tapav vavoimépwv Kai Gardcons yeiviacw Kai mnyav devdwr xopnyiav, don re &€ Emimodns Kat Gon 81a Baus, GoTe TAdTA TéVTA Bdérovras rods Tepi TabTa Terarypévous Tovs Popous TIBET Bar. Tovs 8& gopoddyous xpnarovs pév rév Biov Kai THv oaiay To- covrov ebmdpous elvan, Gore, ei Tore oUUBain KeKas adros 5t- wxnévat Tov Kavdve, un) éropeiy oikobev KaTaBareiv TH SnLooi 76 ixavov. et 88 drodjwews pév ciow ayabhs, xenudtor 5é &mopobar, Mi Gv GAdws aiirois yiverBar 7 Tv paprypotvTaY adrois eimopwr KaBecTnkorwr Koi oikeLovpévar Ti ToD Kavévos TOTéTHTA. Elvat 5é adrois Eueipous xpuaod kai apyipov Kai TaV EmuKeypsver adrois XApAKTTpwv, Kai Mpos LEV TOUS EvTOpoUS DEpmoTEpors Elvat Tpds THY Graimnow, pos 5& Tovs amépous | peTa TAS Eyxwpobons avrois dvoxhs TpoagépEe Gat, Tots 8& kar& Twas xpovous EmiaKkeTTOU“EeVvoUs Tas TE GOYOUS obtjoets Kai dmoKxomas Kai peTadécers TOY Snuooiwy gopwr Kai mpocért Tous Te adeamérous &ypous, dv xdsimer Ta TEAET BATA, Koi Tas brocTacEls THY LETEPXOMEVaY adbToUS, UaALOTA WEV anBEias épav Kai rovrn cepriverbor Kai bid Tairny TYaoOar EdmiLovras, &€etaotiKods 5€ sivar Kai SepevynTiKods mpcyudTar Kai oiKoVvdLous ayadous, ds pi)Te 76 Snudotov Aumeiv, wre rods BeoTéTUs THY dypav GdiKeiv. Tots 58 Siavépovras ré xpiyata drepiépyous elvow Kail dhods tov TpdTOV, padOTA 5& MOTOUS, EK THs Kat’ ddéyov SoKimacias paprupndévtas Thy Tictw, GAN od Ta TOAAG TPS TOV Ohiywn éyxet- pio bévras, Tous 5é Adyous Ths StavopTs uy Sua waxpod xpovov Trorety, GAAG bie Bpaxéos, Gore THY pYTUNY TeV KEhevTbErTwY KAAS Bracalerbar. Tous 88 epi tas émorhuas Kai TExvas amnoXohnuEévovs GU- cews eb éxew Tpbs 76 omovdatduevor. Svvarov yap tov év GhAw pobiport oixsins éxovra GAhorpios Exew ev &AA@, 516 Kai Tvborys- pay gaci ras poets Tov abnor Siepevvaperor TérrEw avrois Te pol ipore. Tous 86 Tis éumopias ég6pous Stkaious re elvax Tév Tpdmov Kat 8 hoy mpayparwv éwmeipors, ds wire Tods Tpdras KaTacoyile- obat tov &yopactav eryuéia tot xeipovos, pte Thy apetpiav Tod KépBous ovyxwpeiv, Kai wadLOTa smi TOY Edwdipwr, EvOa Kai KoAa- Lev mpooxet Tovs mpds duerpiav Exxhivovras. Tots 56 ry tAnv wapexouévors eimépous elvar kai émaTHLovas Ta Tedovpévar, Kai 8K TOD TUvEYyUS GAN’ od TOppwbEV TavTAS TVA- éyorras, Kai Tadras Tapéxew KaKias mdoNS dTNAREYMEVAS. TOA ot yap of wév Tais Drews as Tapaptyvivtss, of 56 Tapa KaLpor STRATEGY 7 productivity in crops or resources in metal. They must be able to estimate the effects of climate and topography, the proximity of cities, of navigable rivers, and of the sea. They should find out about the permanent supply of water from surface sources or underground wells. In assessing the taxes, then, the financial officials should ex- amine all of those factors. The officials who collect the taxes, now, should be of the highest repute. Their financial means should be such that, if it should happen that their management of the assessment gives poor results, they may be able to make good the amount due the treasury from their own resources. Men who enjoy a good reputation but who lack financial means should not be accepted for such a position unless some wealthier citizens present themselves as surety for them with guarantees for the amount of the levy. They should have experience in dealing with gold and silver and know the inscriptions on the coinage. They should be forceful enough in making demands on the well-to-do, but should deal with the less prosperous with all pos- sible forbearance. Inspectors are called upon at certain times to consider unforeseen increases, reductions, and other changes in the public revenues. They are also to look into unclaimed land, on which taxes are no longer paid, as well as into the financial resources of applicants for those lands. They must be genuine lovers of truth, be respected for this, and place their hopes of being honored in the truth. They shall be skillful in investigating and interpreting facts and be good administrators, so that the public treasury will not suffer and no injustice will be done to the landowners. The officials who distribute the funds should be straightforward and unpreten- tious in manner. Above all they should be trustworthy, and this should be proven by testing them in small matters before entrusting them with major responsibilities. The accounts of their distribution should be audited at frequent intervals, not con- stantly postponed, so they may always keep in mind what they are supposed to be doing. Those who devote themselves to the sciences and the arts should possess the natural qualifications for their specialties. A person proficient in one branch of learning may have no aptitude for another. For this reason, it is said, Pythagoras used to examine the natural abilities of his students before assigning them their subjects.* The supervisors of trade must have a good sense of justice and be familiar with general business operations. They should not allow the salesmen to defraud their customers by mixing in goods of poorer quality or to make an inordinate profit. This is particularly true in the sale of foodstuffs, and anyone charging excessive prices should be punished. Those who provide materials should be resourceful and should thoroughly understand their work. They should procure the material close to home, not from a great distance. They should furnish products without flaws. Many wholesalers are guilty of mixing their goods. Some collect them at the wrong season, and they be- 18 3,4 85 rabras TVAAyOPTES, AXPHTTOUS adras KAGLETAOL. OTE yap KOLAaLTA ura mpos Sevporoutav TO réxrom xpHoyua, obre Bahoapov emi THs adris évepyeias hai mapagBerpsuevor. Tous 86 dxprorous civar Kai airois dveritnSeious Tpés TATAY épyaciar iSiav Te Kai Kowwgedi etre Std yapas i AOBHY Toparos 7 90 mapagpooivny % arédevoy, Kai rovTwv rods smoraTodyras elvat pahioTa piiavOperous, evépous, Emterkeis, KoLWwYLKOUS, Kat TH Mf.106 7461 iSta ToLoUpEevous | dv Exovar THY ypovTibda, Kai pLhoryLiay THY grravOpwriav doyLouévovs. Tous dé brnpéras rev eipnuéver dpxdvrwy eivat pre yEpov- 95 ras, ef wr) 71s 51d TodAIy gumerpian mp&yparos danpeToin TH Bpxorre, pit éeyav véovs. eivar 56 Kai Te HON XpnoTovs, ore Ppovipws Kat ixavias Exew per’ edkoopias Tpds THY TOV KEdEvOMEvWY CPTEELAY. rovs 86 ye houTods &mavras danpéras véous slvat, olov Evdogdpous, axGogdpous, dare Suverios &xeww 51d THY toXsY TO GadpaTOs Tpés THY 100 tv Kehevopéver tanpsciay. “Papaior 86 kai Te Evepov TOUTOLS TpOaTIWEaGL TOLTELAS MEPOS, 6 81) Bearpixév Kai OvpediKdy 6voudleran. gore 8é olov épuaTnddran, povooupyoi, droxpirai Kai Te Spo. xpavrou Sé TovToLs Emi Te yev- shiv Kai dvapphoswr Bacihéwr Kai éykawvior Tohew, PAdOTA 105 8& ai OpidpBov, obs 5% Towbar pera THY viKnVY, TOdEpious Bid HEoOU TeV Gedtpwv SiapiBatovres. 76 5E TadaLov od pdvov ‘Pwpaior, GANG Kai "EAANVES Kad TOAAG THY BOVEY ToUTOLS ExPaYTO. 3: K-R 46, Erck 24. 3: 2 mepi dpxévrwv De: om. codd. |] 63 73 K-R: ré» MP || 74 ras M: toUs P || 85 KaBroraow K-R: kaBuoraou MP 23-24 Homenus, Iliad. , 2, 24. || 26 Ibid., 4, 323. {| 34 dxpdacw: cf. Thucydidem, 2, 37. {| 66 cf. Luc. 16, 10. 73-74 locum non invenit Erck, nec ego. a. Ulepi orparnyers.) Ti pév obv gore TmoduTLKH, Kai TéTa TAUTNS Ta TPATA Kai Ka- Bodikwrepa wépn, eis Toca TE Kai Tiva Svatpetras THY TOALTEVOMEVOY 5 76 TAGS KaTa 76 KoTOV wEpos, Kai 6Trolous elvat XP% TOUS TE d&p- STRATEGY 19 come useless. Trees, for example, chopped down in full leaf cannot be used by the carpenter, nor does balsam retain its full vigor when it is thinned with oil. The unproductive are those who are unfit for any kind of work, private or public, because of old age, bodily infirmity, insanity, or some other excusing cause. Those charged with their care should be exceptionally humane, resourceful, kind, and sympathetic. They should regard the sufferings of those under their care as their own and look on their kind and humane work as its own reward. The assistants to the officials listed above should not be elderly, unless a great deal of experience in their work makes them of special value to the official, nor should they be too young. They should be of excellent character and carry out their assigned tasks in an intelligent, competent, and orderly manner. All the other work- ers, such as bearers of lumber and other loads, should be young because of the bodily strength needed for their type of work. The Romans add another class of citizens to the above, which is called the theatrical profession. This includes charioteers, musicians, actors, and the like. They are employed for celebrations such as the emperor’s birthday or his accession, for the dedication festivities of cities, and especially for triumphs. These are held after a victory, and enemy prisoners are paraded through the hippodrome.* In for- mer times not only the Romans but the Greeks and many other peoples had a place for this class. "Homer, Iliad, 2, 24. *Ibid., 4, 323. ‘The source of this statement is not known, ‘Literally, theaters, but it almost certainly refers to the hippodrome here: see C. Mango, “Daily Life in Byzantium,” XVI. Internationaler Byzantinistenkongress, Akten, I/] (= Jahrbuch der Oster- reichischen Byzantinistik) (Vienna, 1981), 337—53, esp. pp. 342-44. 4. [Strategy.] In the preceding pages we have discussed the science of government, touch- ing upon the principal and the more general departments of state, the several classes into which most of the citizens are divided, apart from the armed forces, and the 20 M f. 106" 10 15 20 25 4,5 xovras adriv Kai Tos dpxouévous, bid Trav pOacdvrww ypiv cipyrat. er nee ee rer re re Kpériarov Ths Shs mohureKijs. &pEouon 5é évredoev. Méya xaxév ed 018 dr 6 TéMEHOS Kat Tépa KaKaY eel BE vowov mpotpomiv Kai aperis tehsiwaw of sx6poi memoinvron Ta juérepa aipere, xpi) 86 Tévtws Exactor Tijs (Bias TaTpidos Kai Toy Spogihur dvréxecbar Kat hoyous Kai ypappact Kal mp&ypact, TEpt otparnyichs ypdgew eihoueba, 8.’ hs od pdvov payer bar ALG Kai Kpareiv tiv éxOpav Svvno suede. Srparnyixy toivuv éori pé0080s, Kad tv Tus oTpaTHyav Ta wev oixeta guddéetev, Tov 56 TohELw KaTOYwvioaLTO, aTpaTYYyOS 5é 6 koré orpornyuciy réxvqy Siamparropevos. Olov 88 det 76 atparnysr Sivan cipyrae pév Kai BV dv dThOs trois &pxovras mpérepor treypdpouer. Set BE mpds xetvors rav orparnyér elvar dvSpeior Th yroun, edpviy Ta ETpaTHYKE, EvOvun- portxéy, Kpunxér, Svvatév 1 THpaTL, PEpéTOVOY, GkKATETANKTOD, eira rois | wév dredéor poBepdr, tois 8 dAdots Emxaph, Tpoenr7, rosobror THY KOWaY emipErodpevor, ds pndév TaY evBexouévon Tapadureiv sis THY TOD KOWOd AvoLTEELAV. OoTE avayKN Tov OTPA- ryyov dd Tov Tpdkewr Soxydleodou Kai bid tabras paAROV THY apxny Séxerar. 4: K-R 54, Erek 27 4; 2 mepi otparnyuxis De: om. codd. || 9 mépa M: répas P e. Tas 86 otparnyucis 76 pév gore pudaxriKdy TeV oikeiay, TO 86 drewnriKéy tov brevavriov, sort b& purdaKriKdy LEV pEB080S Kad iv Ts mparrov rovs iSiovs pudééeev Kai d ToVT@D Eoriv, dmeLhn- rux6v 86 wsG080s KAO’ Hv rods évavtious aybynTar, Kai MpbTEpor YE mept Tod pudaKriKod Epodpsr: Sei yap Tov TOUS &AAOUS TOhEEIY EOE- hovra 7 oikeia mpdrepov év dopadeig TiHec bar. dopaderav 5é hEywW ob tiv év ozpareipact pdvov, GAG Kai bon Tepi TE TAS TOhELS Kat Tas XOpas éoriv cis 76 wNdév TobTwY KaKaS D6 THY EvavTiov TabEiv sous éxsiver oiKiTopas. 5: K-R 56, Erck 27. STRATEGY 21 qualifications required of officials and their subordinates. Next, then, we have to speak of the science of strategy, which is really the most important branch of the entire science of government. Without further ado, I shall begin. I know well that war is a great evil and the worst of all evils. But since our enemies clearly look upon the shedding of our blood as one of their basic duties and the height of virtue, and since each one must stand up for his own country and his ‘own people with word, pen, and deed, we have decided to write about strategy. By putting it into practice we shall be able not only to resist our enemies but even to conquer them. Strategy is the means by which a commander may defend his own lands and defeat his enemies. The general-is the one who practices strategy. The principal qualifications for a general should be evident from those we have just set down for all officials. In addition, the general should be manly in his attitudes, naturally suited for command, profound in his thinking, sound in his judg- ment, in good physical condition, hardworking, emotionally stable. He should in- still fear in the disobedient, while he should be gracious and kind to the others. His concern for the common good should be such that he will neglect nothing at all that may be to its advantage. The general must be judged by his actions, and it is prefer- able that he be chosen for command on the basis of his record. 5. Strategy teaches us how to defend what is our own and to threaten what be- longs to the enemy. The defensive is the means by which one acts to guard his own people and their property, the offensive is the means by which one retaliates against his opponents. We shall first discuss the defensive. The person who wants to wage war against an enemy must first make sure that his own lands are secure. By secure I mean not only the security of the army but of the cities and the entire country, so that the people who live there may suffer no harm at all from the enemy. 10 15 Mf. 107 25 30 a (epi tod pudaxrixod.) Tod roivuy gudaxriKod eis wév 8%) rpdm0s gor! Kad Sv piaKas Te Kai TpogthaKas TéTropEY Kai TUPTOds avaTTOMEY Kai Ppovpior Emiperovysba Tas Tev BxOpav Erupaveias KaTapNVviorTEs. Astrepos 8€, kab’ dv tas tev éxOpav érehsicers Sed5ouKdTes reixn Te Kai Tpotetxiopora &ysipowev Kai Tappovs avoppiTTomEr, dor’ &v Kap émirtacias BxOpav Erituvayayeiv Twas Ta TARO Eri Te ara Kai TOG A6gOUS Kai TA TTHAELA Kai Tas VIPTOUS STM YUE ew Svvarau tovs eis adra KaTapEvyovTas. Tpiros 8é, Kad’ Sv Tois pudaKTiKOIs TaY SthwY KEXP LEO Kat TOS ToUTOLs TOWipEY XapaKapaTa, Teppovs, TPLBdAOUS, BdOpous, oKddomas, Kai Te Sot. Térapros 88, Ka’ dv Tov Tohepior Kab’ hudv érepBowvovtor kai ipa ddvveroivtay mpos Ty drévrnow, Th dvteTepiotécet Ke- XpHweba, TOTE wév TOUS TrapaKelsévovs TaV eOvaV KaT’ adrov S.E- yeipovres Kad& Tov Kai hmérepos Temoinks Baotrsvs, TOTE 8é adbroi cis Tiy éxeiven dvrewoysuevor, 0} rod worjoat Xap, 6 Kai add Todas yiverat, GMA 70d arogThoat abrovs TOV HuETEpwV, Erei kai Tharropevoy Todo TOAAKIs BPEANTEV. olov BovrAdpevos 6 OTpA- mHyés Tv Trav xOpav dvaxapnow sreuré twas tov Seoperiv H TOY oixeiwy gv cx}port abrousdov guydvtas dmayyeidan Tois Evartion. sigehobvew Tov orparnyor sis THY Exeiven xdpay, of 58 pULaKis TOY oixeiwn évexa dpévres THY hustépay émi tiv iSiav evéaTpEgoV. Tlépatos 8&, | kad’ dv mao Tpdr0Ls amopoivTes TOD UdxEG Oat, 76 eipnvevew aipovpeda, Kav Tixn Cquiay Tia hiv evrebber erd- yeobau. Sto yep KaKev mpoKetpéver aipsTétepoy 76 KovysTEpor: év TovTw yap Kai péddov sikdtws dv TUS Ta oiKeia purdgeer, Kai Sid rTobTo 7p0 TaD GAhwv 76 eipnvevew édoxro. Ei kai redevraioy hyuir réraxrat, &px7 8é Kai TEdos TaoNS —v- axis ra re ouria Kai Ta TOpara, SY Xp) Kai WAAAY gporritew év TE 7 oTporiy Koi év Tais ThE. 6: K-R 58, Erck 28, 6: 2 mepi Tov pudaktiKou De: om. codd. || 21 bexuwray De: dea pau codd. STRATEGY 23 6. [Defense.] One way of arranging a good defense is to station sentinels and troops in out- posts, to light signal fires, and to set up fortified positions to give warning of the approach of the enemy. Second, in anticipation of enemy attacks we can erect walls, outer ramparts, and dig moats. Then, upon the actual approach of the enemy, most of our people can gather together behind them. They can also take refuge on mountains, in caves, and on any readily defensible island. Third, in addition to defending ourselves with our weapons, we can make use of earthen ramparts, trenches, caltrops, pits, sharpened stakes, and the like. The fourth way is useful when the enemy are advancing against us and we are unable to face them in open battle. We should then take some offensive action. Sometimes we can stir up neighboring peoples against them, much as our present emperor has been doing.' Sometimes we might line up our own troops against them, not really for action, although this may often result, but to keep them at a distance from our own men. Feigned movements of this sort have often worked out well. In like manner, to get the enemy to withdraw, there are cases in which the commander prevailed upon some prisoners or some of his own men to pose as deserters, flee to the enemy, and spread the report that the general was about to invade their country. To defend their territory, then, the enemy would evacuate our land and return to their own. The fifth way applies when we are in absolutely no condition to continue fighting. We then choose to make peace, even though it may cause us some disad- vantage. When faced with two evils, the lesser is to be chosen, Negotiating for peace may be chosen before other means, since it might very well offer the best prospect for protecting our own interests. Although listed here in last place, provision for food and water for the army and for the civilian population is both the beginning and the end of any plan of defense. ‘Probably Justinian (52765), as mentioned in the Introduction. 10 15 2s “Orroious eivat xp} Tovs gUAaKas Kai kata tivas Sei Tos TOToUs puAaTTEe avTous. Tovs pév obv Tas pudakas Kai mpopihakas éutreTUTTEVUEVOUS évayxaioy elven gpovinous tiv gicw, avBpeious, cToXacTiKOds, éypimvovs, SuvaTous, Kopous TA Gapara, Exew 88 abrovs oiKade yovaixas Te Kai Tai8as Koi Tepiovciay THY &ddov OTpaTiaTaV dua- vépovaay. Kai huépas wév 76 whéov KabevSeLv, vuKros 5é 76 Eharrov, od Tavtas do GAA TOUS LEV TPOTEpOV, TOUS 5é BaTEpov. SwpEds 5é apPavew ordre paduoTa xeyavos Kparobvros TH Tov 8xOpav Ta- povoiay pnvicwor. dveeynn dé Siopico Kai rovs TéTOUS, Tives av rovtwy siev sis kararKkoT Hy émirHSEerot. Tév roivey rotor of pév eior yupvoi Te (Kai) KaBapoi, of 88 obv- SevSpor, of Sé EhWSEts. XOHoYWLOL Sé TOUTwY siciv eis KaTATKOTTY Ob Gpadous te Kai KaBapovs TOUS avaysTatd TOTS EXOVTES WOTE 47 Aavbavew rois pirat THp TeV éxXOpav EEOBov. ei 86 Swadoi wév Te Kai Kabapoi od Eiciy dda hopwdets, KaTALaVOavELW Tas GvapETaed TOV Adyar Kowdérnras ei 6.’ abrav .eBiBalopevor of ToAEwL0L havOdveww rods pihaxas Sivevrat. Tovs 58 imnovs Tov Tas gbAaKas éxdvTwY aveyKn OraBias TE elven kai Taxeis, 76 pév Bid 76 pr) XpEperilew, 76 bE Sid 76 pur) KaTO- hopBeverbar yevtyovras. TloAddkts 5€ Tovs pUAaKas KaTaTXEiv BovdOmeEvoL OF TOE MLOL, aixpahorovs savTovs mhérrovrar oxXnwardmevor Ta TuéTepa: of émidav emi tas pbdaxas EhOotEev, TUVEXOVOLW oadToUs. GAdoL SE Kai addobev eiotdvtes eira Kar& vaTov TOY hywEeTépwrv yevouEevor ovA- hapPévover Tovs puddtrovras, 6 Kai padurra Emixivduvey Eore ToIs evharropévows. MP VSB (partim) 7: K-R 60, Exck 29. 7: 2-3 émoiovs . . . ebrovs MP: mepi puhdxwv VSB, qui hic inc. || 5 7%v gvow MP: om. VSB || 7 ze MP: om. VSB || 11 robs réz0us K-R: r6v réov MP || 13 kai K-R: om. MP {| 16~17 ze 1+, hopdbers K-R: obx eiviv AAG Ropdders re Kei KaBapoi MP Erck || 23-24 wonrdues . . . mddrrovrau MP: 6x1 Tous pUKaKas Bovdduevor Karacrxedv of mods tor ds aixpadurar éépXov- rat VSB STRATEGY 25 7 Qualifications Required of the Guards and the Location of Their Guard Posts. Soldiers entrusted with duty as sentinels or at the outposts must possess native intelligence; they should be courageous, clever, alert, physically strong and active. They should have their wives and children at home with them and possess more property than the average soldier. They should get most of their sleep during the day and less at night, never all of them at the same time, but some earlier, some later. ‘They ought to receive a reward each time they report the presence of the enemy, especially if it is a stormy season. Their posts should be carefully selected to make sure they have a good view. Some of the posts may be located on open and clear ground, some in wooded areas, others in swampy ones. The best observation posts are those with level, open ground in front of them, so the guards will not miss any movement of the enemy. If there is no open, clear ground but just hills, then the lower terrain between the hills should be checked out in case enemy troops could pass through there and elude the guards. The horses of the men on guard duty must be geldings and should be fast, the first so they will not neigh and the second so they will not be overtaken if they have to flee. It is not uncommon for the enemy to try to capture the guard post by having men pose as escaped prisoners, even wearing our equipment. Then, when they get close to the guards, they overpower them. In other cases, enemy soldiers have worked around to the rear of our sentinels and taken them prisoners, which exposes the troops covered by the guard posts to great danger. Mf. 107° wévous VSB || 5-6 dpoiws . 10 15 25 30 y. Tlept rupoav Kai dws oikovopnréov adrovs. Tots 8¢ mupcois avayKn Tapa TeV évBorépwr 6pacbat Tomwr, agp’ dv | Erepor Ex paxpod yraevar 76 onpeiov THs phoyos 7 TOD KaTVOU Sivavrar. Sei 5é Tous THY ypovTiba THY TUpTay ExovTas dpoiws Kai avrous eivan Tois pUdaét Kai WaMOTA KaTa THY dvdpsiav, ds w1 POBo Tov éxOpav Tp6 Kaupod yevyorras KaTAAYLTEVEW Té Sia TUPSs Kai Kamrvod Karapnvier Thy TOV ExOpav Epodov. mpoamTroriber Gat dé ypu- yave Te Kai Kadduny Kai SérBpwr axpEpdvas, Kai YopTov, PépEL TE p86" Eavrév Kai hiBov mupirny. mowsi 68 pddurra phoya Te Kai KaMVOY Sacvy re Kai els tibos aipspevov oTbnmTy KaTa TuUpss EmxEouEvN. *Avdmrew 86 ToUs Tupgous Sis wév &SMAOv TOUTOV dvTos eiTE Onpiav jw 16 Kivnue site mpoogtywr site TOhspiwv. yrwpinov 3é Gvapavévros Tov ért éxOpoi Kai mpds TOAEmOY eEvovTES, TPLTAA- ovdlew 4 TetpamAacalew Tas avaphoywoosts, TELdvwv 5é dvTwY Thevoranis. Suvarov 5é, GoTEP Kai Tapk TOL THY apxXaoTépwr sipntar, pera Tod dri &xOpoi Kai Tov cpipov Siddkou THY XdSeov odTOv, TOTAUTAKIS TODS TUPTOUS AvaTTOVTES TOTAL Kal XLALaSES av- Spav elvan Soxoiev. Xi 86 eiSévar ds of TOME LOL TOAAGKLS EupariLovTaL pEY TyLe- pas, emorpépovar S€ vuKrds Eri Twas Huspas KAaOnovXAdLoVTES, Kai TovTo Tovobat TOAAGKLS. of 86 TUpPTOL KAO’ ExdoTHY TAY sxXOpav éT- gavevay dvanrépsvor guyadevovar Tous iSious: of 5é Katappoviaav- Tes Tav Tupody are 54 Siapevdopévwn odrOv smi tev oikwy dva- mosiovrar. of 88 Tohéwuioe SEtévTes Emavras 6uod cvAhapBavovor. xp?) obv bia tabra Tas mév TpOTas Kai pepiKas Tov TodELiwY Eerr- paveias drat 7 Sis avarrovtas jpepeiv, edrpeTiterbar 5& Tpds yu- yi 1a THON, ob pry TaV oikwy dvaxwpEiv. TOAA@Y BE dvApaLvo- Lévoy Sumdacidlew 7 TokvmAacialew, vuKtés Ev TOvs TUpTOds, heépas 88 tovds Kamvots, dare avayKn Kai Ta TANON eldévou Ta bd Tov onpeior Snrovpeva. Kowe $6 TaVTOS ONMEIA TaAdTA ETTOTAY Tois Te UNVUoVEL Kai TOis YEevyovTW. 8: K-R 62, Erck 30. 8: 2 kai. . . adrovs MP: om. VSB || 5 det 58 MP: om. VSB || Exovras MP: éwmemuorev- ois MP: moAhiy Stéyepow Kai émpédevav éxer Bei VSB [| 6 poraEL. . . dvbpeiay MP: kai dvbpeious paddurra eivac VSB || 41 MP: om. VSB || 7 mupds K-R: arvpas MP: om. VSB || 7-8 16... . EpoBov MP: iv rhs épdbou Bud THY rupady whvvew VSB || 8 mpuaroriBeodeu 88 MP: Bei 88 abrovs mpoamoriberdan VSB || 9 re MP: om. VSB || 9-10 pépew STRATEGY 27 8. Signal Fires and Their Management. It is essential that signal fires be seen by posts far to the rear, and from them others still further off may be able to recognize the signal given by flame or smoke. The men in charge of the beacons should have the same qualifications as those se- lected for guard duty. They should be particularly noted for their bravery, so that fear of the enemy will not bring them to abandon their posts prematurely and fail to make the fire and smoke signals warning of the enemy’s approach. Firewood, reeds, tree branches, and dry grass should be gathered and kept on hand. The men should carry flint stones with them. Hemp thrown upon a fire causes a fierce flame and dense, high clouds of smoke. The signal fires should be lit twice if the nature of the movement is uncertain, that is, whether it was caused by wild animals, or by refugees, or by the enemy. If it becomes clear that it is the enemy and that they are launching an attack, then the signal should be lit three or four times, or even more if it is a very large force. It is possible, as some of the more ancient authorities suggest, to report not only the approach of the enemy but their strength in thousands, lighting the beacons once for each thousand men estimated. We must remember that the enemy often show themselves during the day, re- tire at night, and remain quiet a few days. They may repeat this a number of times. With the lighting of the beacons at each appearance of the enemy, our own people take to flight. After a while they will come to disregard the signals as misleading and stay quietly at home. The enemy can then come out and capture every one of them. For this reason, then, the signal should be given just once or twice when the enemy, or some of their detachments, first come into sight. The people may then get ready for flight but not yet leave their houses. But when the enemy actually appear in force, the signals should be given two or more times, fire by night and smoke by day. It is essential that the people understand the meaning of the signals. Standard signals should certainly be established for everyone, the men in charge of the beacons and the people who might have to escape.’ ‘On fire signals see P. Pattenden, “The Byzantine Early Waring System,” Byzantion, 53 (1983), 258-99, Mf. 108 28 8,9 . mupirny MP: om. VSB || 11 re kei MP: om. VSB || oriman K-R: oxevs} codd. || émexeouern MP: xeopévn VS: karaxeouévn B || 12 rourav évros MP: évros rod mpcrymarros VSB || 14 ro MP: cbs VSB | 15 7} retpamhacudtew VSB: om. MP || 16 7» MP: om. VSB || 18 da76cau MP: drat VSB 24 dvaravovran MP: Btavamavovtat VSB || 25 énavras VSB: dmavra MP {| 27 drat MP: om. VSB || duderrovras VSB: dvérruv MP |{ 29 3 mokvmAacudtew VSB: om. MP || 31 mévros VSB: mavrev MP || 32 re MP: om. VSB 0. Tlepi gpovpiov. Ta 88 ppovpia éénipntar mparov pév KaracKoT AS éveKa THS Tav &x0pav mapovoias, SevTEpov 5é Sia THY THY adTopGhwY drodox}HV, 5 tpirov Sid 16 Karéxetv Tvs hpETépous pvyddas, Kai réraprov bie 76 aOpsov éuminrew judas Tois Ta dxpa oikodort TAY TOhELiWY, OV MLAA- ov Asias évexa 7} dvaxpioews THY Tapa Tois ExXOpois TEhoULEVaV kat | repi @v dv adroi Kad’ hud Bovdevovtar. Aei 8 1a ypotpia mAnGiov ToLeiy TY Spur Kai ph méppw dye- 10 oTnKdta TaY éxXOpav Ths TapoSov, Hore 4.7) LavOdvery ros év adrois KatoiKobvras Tip TaV éxOpav Taposor, m1) 8° oUTw TAnoLalew ToIs dvareTrrapévors Xwpiows daTE Tov ExXOpOv &K TOD inv aUvEyyuS Eri paxpov éxeice mpocedpevovtwy 8a THY Tav Tomer émernSerdrnTa pndéva tov jperépwv ovyxwpeicbar, siye xpeia Tovrov yévyrat, 1S pire eiorévar Kore ppoupiov pnd’ od Tew exeiber Gédovras EELEvaL. *AapahiLecbar 5é atta oF WadAOV TeXViKA i} GuELK} 6xUPsTNTL, Kai wn arroribe bat év adbtois mhobrov unite cvvayew wrO0s avopw- Tov, ive ph T@ pOdvy rovTwr éi pakpdv adrois oi TOEpLOL TAapa- KaOnvran. vba Svaxepes LEV Huiv EToiLwWS TOs iBiovs Guvata mpds 20 TédEepor, adtois 8é baov mpoTapacKevacapévors TH soSov. Tots 86 oikotvras Kar’ adbra Tov wév Hyepova, writ TaTA } TOD gpoupiov gpovris éumemiotevran, yropiuov pév é’ evoeBeia TryXa- vew peta Kai Tov GdAkwv baa mpérer &pxovor, Tos 66 Exeioe Ka- Toikouvtas mn éxew wel” EavT@v Tas TE yuvaiKas Kai Tovs Taidas 25 adrav, GAN BxeW TaVTWS 76 ThEicToD avrav wépos év érépa EwapXia, iva rq 1760 ToUTwY unre mpés Tos EXOpOUS petyoLeY mA}T’ EAhas Tpo- StSoiey Te ppovpia. pévew 8é ovK dei TOUS adToUs, GAA KATE TIVAS xpovous évadrddrrecbat, THD wEv Emi Tovs oikoUs dvacTpE—srTOY, TOV 86 de6 Tov oikav émi Ta Ypovpia Tapayevopévar. si 5é Ta” TPdSpa 30 dopadreotarwn brapxer Ta Ypoipia date Kat’ ovdé&va TPOTOV TO- dopKeioba, ovrodoreiobat 5é dveunodiotws Sbvavtar Tap” Huar, ovdév Kwrver Kat TAS iSias paunrias abrous Exovras Exsios Sia Biov rere. STRATEGY 29 9% Forts. Forts are used for several purposes: first, to observe the approach of the en- emy; second, to receive deserters from the enemy; third, to hold back any fugitives from our own side. The fourth is to facilitate assembly for raids against outlying enemy territories. These are undertaken not so much for plunder as for finding out what the enemy are doing and what plans they are making against us. These forts should be erected near the frontier and not far from the route the enemy are expected to take, so that any hostile advance will not go undetected by the garrison. They should not be located too much out in the open. If they are, the enemy, taking advantage of the ground, could keep them under observation from very close up to a great distance and so prevent any of our men, if need arise, from entering the fort or from leaving it when they wish. Natural strength as well as technical skill should assure the defense of the forts. Valuables should not be stored in them, nor should too many men be as- sembled there. These may lead the enemy to invest the place for a long time. This would make it difficult for us to assemble our own troops for action, whereas it would be an easy matter for the enemy to get ready to move out. The garrison in each fort should have a commanding officer entrusted with complete responsibility for the post. He should be conspicuous for his religious character as well as for all the other qualifications one expects in an officer. The men in the garrison should not have their wives and children with them. Most of them should be left in a different province, so that love of them may not tempt the men to go over to the enemy or otherwise jeopardize the security of the fort. Soldiers should not stay too long in these posts, but should be relieved at regular intervals. One group may return home, while another comes in from their homes to the fort. Still, if a fort is extremely strong, so that there is no danger of its being besieged, and we can keep it provisioned without any problem, then there is no reason why the men cannot have their families reside there with them. 30 35 9,10 “Ooo 88 Tov KaToLKODVTAY Ta gpotpia md TeV EvavTiay Edi eOncar 7} é TaY Cvyyevav aixuadrwrous Tap’ abrois évras KEKTHL- Tow, ToUTOLS ob Sei KaTaTLOTEvEW TA PpovpLa, OVS’ Ei TLS GAXOS én” éyadnwore \ngdeis KateKpiOn. WaTos 8é wsdoTa Xopnyiav Sia Tav- ros éxew odra Kai Tpoyis apKovans TH Kaip@ Kab’ dv Tapa- KexabnKévan adrois To TohEpLov S¥varat. 9: K-R 66, Erck 31. 9: 20 onirois K-R: atroi MP || rponapacxevacapévas K-R: mporapacKevacapévors MP || 36 robrois K-R: tovrous MP || 38 aire kat K-R: kai arc MP Mf. 108° 10 15 20 Tlepi oikoSouAs Toews. Aci 5& wéddovras wodets Krilew mpGTOV MEV KaTATKOTHTAL TO xwpior, si 76 wéddov én” oairo KriLec Bax TetXos ave Bovhevrov soraL Tore Trois TodLOpKovaL Sia THY TOD Xwpiov Déow. Aevrepov 8é meipdcat 76 Vdwp Kai | yva@var ei mpds TOC aKiv- Svvov Kai et dpKovvtws éxer Tpds THY THs TOMEWS XopNYiaD Kai THY Gov dot KaTavevyew eis abTHV WEOLEY EV KALPO TEPLOTATEDS. ei 5& éxrds sin Tod Teixous TO Viwp, avdyKn 7} Tapatreiobat THY ktiow Ths TOdEwS 7} KH KwVETHOL TOUS avTAObYTAS EmLdnLOUVTWOY Tov TohEpioy. Tpirov 88 Koi ei MBov éxer TéuvecOau Svvdpevor i TeTUNLE- vov %8n, @AK wr) TOppwHEV ETA TOAKOV GUVAYOmEVOY THY KLV- Bivwr, SoadTas Kai si 7 EDAOV pr) Nav paKpdber wNdE Sid SVTBaTOv ToTwY drropépeTat OoTE ASvvaTus ExEw TPdS THY TOV oiKOSOUNLaTwOV ovvrédetav. Kai réraprov, i ovrogépas % xapa KabéaTyKED 7} Kai &hOBEV ovrodoreiobar Sivarat, spoiws 66 ci Kai dAhws Exsibev rpéped Bat oi mohirat Sivavrau. Kav wév TadTa obrws &Xp, Oappeiv Th KTiorst, Bi SE BH, kvowTEhés Tabt Hy Tapacteio bac. 10: K-R 68, Erck 32. 10: 13-14 Kebvve codd.: zévew conj. Erck || 19 éxn K-R: éyew MP STRATEGY EI We must not entrust the safety of these forts or assign to their garrisons men who have once been captured by the enemy or who have relatives imprisoned by them or who have been caught and convicted of some crime. Under all circum- stances the forts must have a good supply of food and water, enough to last through any possible siege by the enemy. 10. Building a City. Anyone intending to found a city must first carefully examine the site to see if it is suitable, so that the walls to be constructed will be able to withstand a siege. The water should be examined next to find out if it is safe to drink and if there is enough to supply the population of the city as well as all who might be expected to take refuge there in time of danger. If the source of water is outside the walls, the building of the city must be abandoned or a way found for the water bearers to go out even in the presence of the enemy. Third, one must find out if stone is available, already cut or easily quarried, so that it will not have to be transported a long distance at great risk. One should also find out if lumber has to be brought from far away or over difficult terrain, so that it is quite impracticable to have it at hand for construction. Fourth, one should find out whether the country produces enough food or whether it can be brought in from elsewhere. In like manner, can the citizens find other sources of sustenance there? If all these can be answered affirmatively, go ahead with the construction; but if not, it is best to abandon the project. Mf. 109 10 15 20 25 30 35 aa ta’, Tlod Sei xri{ew wok. Xwpia towuv émirpberc gor cis KTiow édEws, Kai WarLTTA ei Méddot TANTLUiTEpa KEiTbau THY Spur, boa KaTa Moguy KEiTaL, Kpnuvoi 5& Kik\@ THY dvodoy aroypatrovow, éTt 56 Kai doa bad HEyloTwY TOTALGY KUKAODTAL ¥ KUKAODTBaL SivaTat Ob duvapsvor OGL peTrapéperOar Suk THY TOD Xwpiov yUoL, ert bE Kat dow Eri Oararrns i meyiorer ToTapev Keineva ivOpar éxer Oéow driyo Tavtedas wéper Th Hreipwe ovvaTropeva. Xp1) 88 émi tev sipnuéver Bécewr pn Kal’ VSaTwV KEtoOa 76 teixos, paov yap dv TodTo bia vedv Kai KarEeveyKeiv KaT@OEV bopiT- Tovras Kai kaTaBadeiv dvubev srirpéxovtas, Gate pavepdv TovTo év Tois TOALOpKNTIKOIS. apicrac bat 5é TOD SaTos TO TeixOs WHT EhatTov anxav d', ds dv pr tas vads Tupyorojoarrss eita wHxXavais TUL xpomevor éxeiWer smBaivorey émi TH Teixer, prre wa&dW Téov TNXaY p'. AVoLTEEs LEY Yap TobTO Th TOdEL Kai ToIs Evavrions doUU- popov viv wév s€vodor TOY Thoiwy wEeTa TAELOTWY TOY TpAVvLEeTOY, vov 86 émavactpégovar kai KaTapetyovew emi Te Thoia mera Tei ote Tay KwWdbver. pbdver yap adbrods BTATMS TA BEAN Kai Of ATO Tob Teixous Badrdowevor AiBoL, o8 yep OUT jETa TOANOD TOD TdXOUS Tov veov arroByoorTan Kai adbis én’ adtas avafhoovron ds Kara medio TpéxovTes, eita stavacTpégorTes Kai Tals domiot TKETOpLE- vor. Koei (epi) | wév doyarsias tomwv, éoov dnd Ths TaY TéTwY gu- outs 6xuporyntos, Tabra. Ov« dyvow 5é bre TOdAOi THY TpOTOdaaY EvSarpoviay dpav7es kai toitny bid Tarts éoraven vopilovres, éTESay TOES MEYEAOS moteiv Sysddov, ob pé&Adov THs doyadsias 7} THs evTpereias Eppov- tilov, 516 Kara Tediwy TavTaAs TOAAaKLS aV@KOBOLOUY KYTOLS TE Kat Tapadeioots Kat \etu@ow dpailduevor. husis 68 76 ddynrOv TOY éemt- CupBowsrrwy dpavies Kai THY dovadeLAY U&AROV Tis EdTpETeias ampoxpivorres Exsi TouTas ToLEiv Bovhevdpweda Kai Teixyn TepiBadeiy, Ev00 div Ta Tay TOMOpKOUYTwY &dvvaret LyXOVT pero. Tévouro 8° dv more Kai év étumédq@ TOMS 6xUpe Bid 76 pEyEBOS tev MOwY Kai TY oikodopHY Kai TpOTETL TO OXAMA Kai THY aAMNY émipéderay, Kav pa ToTapois 7} Oardcon 7} Kpnuvois BonOhrar. Set Bé Tas ToLATAS TOAELS TPATOY BEV TOppaATaTO TaY Spur Krile Bid Tas aipvidious Kai havOavovoas émdpomas, Sevrepor 8é oikodomeiv adres Tév TOKEipEvoY TpdToV. 11: K-R 70, Erck 33. STRATEGY 33 i. The Site for Building a City. Suitable sites for building a city, especially if it is going to be fairly close to the border, are those on high ground with steep slopes all about to make approach difficult. Also suitable are sites with large rivers flowing around them or which can be made to do so, and which, because of the nature of the land, cannot easily be diverted. Finally, there are sites on a promontory in the sea or in very large rivers connected to the mainland only by a very narrow isthmus. In such locations, however, the walls must not be built at the water’s edge. That makes it easy for enemy ships to come in close enough to undermine the walls from below or to overthrow them by frontal assault. This is made clear in books on siegecraft, The walls should be set back from the water's edge no less than eighteen meters.' This should prevent the enemy from constructing towers on the ships and employing certain mechanisms to get over onto the wall. Neither should the distance be more than sixty-two meters. Keeping such an open space works to the advantage of the city and the disadvantage of its attackers. While landing from the ships they will suffer a very large number of casualties, and only at great risk will they be able to turn about and find refuge in the ships. They will constantly be within range of arrows and of rocks hurled from the walls. They cannot move nearly as fast in land- ing from the ships and then getting back on board as they could charging on level ground, wheeling about, and covering themselves with their shields. This is enough about the defense of places whose position is naturally strong. I am not unaware that many people look to the present prosperity and believe in increasing it in every way. When they start planning to found large cities, they give no less weight to nice appearance than to security. They have built a number of such cities on level ground and beautified them with gardens, parks, and lawns. But the way I look at it is that the outcome of what is happening these days is uncertain. Security, I think, is more important than a nice appearance. I prefer to have the cities located and fortified in such a way as to render useless the machines of any besiegers. Still, it is quite possible that a city built on a plain may be strong because of the size of the stones used, the method of construction, the general plan also, and other matters of detail, even though it is not favored by rivers, the sea, or cliffs. But it is important that such cities be built at a good distance from the border to avoid sudden, surprise attacks. In erecting them, now, the points given below should be kept in mind. “The text has ‘*30 picheis.”* Two Byzantine feet made up one pichys, which is equivalent to 62.46 om.: Schilbach, Metrologie, 21 That is, 100 picheis. Mf. 109 10 15 20 25 35 A, 12 11: 23 mepi Erck: wepi rijs K-R: lac. 3—4 litt. codd. || 36 xrifew K-R: xrifew abrés MP op’. (lds Sst Kriew m6dw.) Agi toivuv To mév T&xXOs Tov TeLX@v odK EhaTTOV TEéVTE TNXOV 8xsw, 76 88 tipos THXaV sikoor, 76 EV sis TO UH KaTacsteTOat 7} Kptois Saceidpeva 7 Bors Badddueva ods TeTpOBSrAOL HXAvai dronéumovot, 76 88 iva py ai Kdipaxes padiws TO Teixer TpoaTin- rover Kat of 8’ airy ToTe viévTes dkivSuvor Exact THY évaBacw. SupBadrgrar 8é kai paddov Tois rovovrows Teixeow 1) G76 THY oxnpdtav Tov mipywv Kai Tob TEixous Bonde. Sei yap Tovs TUpyous mousiv Kare pév THY sw odbrov Emupdverav Kai anévavtt TOV To- Auopxovvrar éEaydvous te Kai iomevpous, TOY mév Sv0 svOeLaV avaipovpevan vy @V 7 évTds yovia yiverat, was 8 avr’ aira@v ém- levyvvotons Tas Tapaddjdous siOsias, Kard 5é THY évd0bev ad- tev smupdvetav KvdwWdposidsis, &pxowevov mév TOD oXHUATOS GTO Tob sayous, Anyovtos 8& Kat’ ivoy Tod KévTpov Tod TY 6poyry aypoirros Hyuucgarpion by’ & BeBhKacw of Kard tov TOALOpKOUY- Twv a&ywvilopusvor, Tas 6& emi rav rexav éradtes éyywviovs yiverOa, aoTe broPhégapa éXew ovK Edatrov gxorTa 76 BOOS oTVALaY TpLdv, obT0 wév bid 76 ioxuporépas sive Tas EadLeLs Gore jr) TAT KEW adios rais Tv KMOwr Bodais, rodTo 5é Kai bia 76 évTOS adraV ava- mouecbou Tovs éwi trav éemdhéswy terarypévous Kai pire oupTa-| Teig0ou b16 TaY TapEpXOLévon pte UAV sumrddiov exsivors Kadi- orag Got. Tlavrés 88 rob b7ép yay Krioparos Ta KaTw &xpL THXaV ETTa, siye stmopoiper, bid peyicrwy dOwv oikodousicbwaav. Trois b& rovovTous hiBovs peyiaTous Kai oKANpods eivay Kai a&AAAOLS ap- polovras Kai Ta HK KaTa B&bos EXEL TOd Teixous eis TA UH Padiws b76 TaV Kpiav Stagsisabat 7} b76 Toy Xekwvor SLopitred Bae. *Aogadés 88 Kai mpoterxirudrwr gportile, TobTo wév dro- SoxAs svexa Tov oiksior, sted aypdbev Sri Te Teixn KaTApED- your, OF px TAVTN OTEvowpsiabau THY TOMY, TObTO SE Kai Sia 7d tovs éxsi KaTapevyorTas Sivacban Kai abrovs KaTa TY 8xOPav atro- paxeOat, padvota 5E Sid To TpOTKdTTELY Tas XEAM@VAS Kal TOUS Kptois abr, AAG 17} HaSins Kate Tod Teixous xwpEiv. Kaddv 88 Kai mp6 rovTou Tappov dvopirrew dare Bvt TobTOLS, STRATEGY 35 12. [How to Build a City.) First of all, the walls should not be less than three meters thick and twelve and a half meters high.' This should keep it from being shattered by battering rams or by stones hurled by stone-throwing engines, and the height should make it difficult to plant ladders against the wall and also make it dangerous for anyone trying to climb up them. The design of the towers and the walls adds greatly to the defensive strength of the walls. The sides of the towers facing outwards right in front of the besiegers ought to form an equal-sided hexagon. The two straight lines forming the interior angle should be removed and substituted with one straight line connecting the paral- lel sides. The interior appearance of the tower should be cylindrical. This shape should begin at ground level, extending evenly to the center of the dome-shaped roof, which provides a base for the men fighting against the besiegers.” The battlements on the walls should be at right angles. They should have undercut recesses no less than seventy centimeters’ deep to strengthen the battle- ments and make them stand up better against stone projectiles, and also to enable the men assigned there to get some rest within them without being stepped on by others passing along the wall or themselves getting in their way. All construction for four meters* up from the ground level should, if we can afford it, be built of very large stones. Size is important, and they should also be hard, carefully fitted together, as thick as the depth of the wall, so they may not easily be shaken by battering rams or dug out by sappers under protective cover. The security of forward walls is also to be considered. They are used to re- ceive our own people when they come in from the country to seek refuge behind the walls. This relieves congestion in the city, and the refugees can also stand there and fight against the enemy. They are especially useful in checking the advance of mov- able sheds and battering rams toward the main wall. It is a good idea to dig a ditch outside this wall. This provides double protec- 36 40 45 50 55 12, 13 mporerxiopare Kai Tagp@, 76 Teixos pudérrerbar. THY 5é Tdy~por Tonoper 76 pév tharos obK EhatTOY THXaY TeETTapaKoVTa, T6 5é BéBos Théov 4} Srécov dv éxou 76 BAB0S THY Oepediav, ive vroysious Tas ETLBovhas KaTa Tod Teixous TOLEtY EBEhOVTES Of TOhEMLOL, ETELSAY Tv 8uspuxe pbacwow, dvakahumrspevor Siehéyxovrar. Tov S& dé Ths Suwpuxos dvapepopevor xodv avayKaioy pwetaty rod Teixous Kai Tod mpoterxioporos aropépew Kai KaBopariler, EvOc TOV oi éKeiBEv arropayopevor bia 76 tipos Kai 76 ebpos Tov TOmoVv EmuTNdecdTepov THY TOhELiOV KATAYyWviC-OVTAL. T6 58 ado BaBbos Tis Sidpuxos yiwéTOw Kati TOV GhKOV TOhE@V boa év éruméby Keivtar, Kabddov 5é, doa Tov TOAEwH Emi AdQaY keivran, Sovardy 86 Kar’ auiriv cviéve Tous TOhEpious, ob ME&AROV Bic régpwv sovor Tv dogdheav 7} GSE Tas TOWWUVTaY H_av. aTo- ardvres Tod Teixous TNXaV TpL&KoVTA 7} TExTapaKorTa, ETA KUKhY Kata KabeTov TEpLeddrTEs Tov Xodv Ew OHoopEV aToV ETL T6 TpAvEés, date Sto rabra yiverbat kwvovTa Tov TOAELion THY cvodoV, Thy TE TOMY THS yas obK Edatrov 76 B&Bos ExovTaD % MHXELS TpELS Kat TOV mrynoudlovra téroy cari 6éitepoy TE Kai SuTavaBaror TH émUxaoee ‘yevdpevov. 12: K-R 72, Eck 34. 12: 2 was. . . toAW K-R:; om. codd. || 5 Kpwis . . . BadASpeva K-R: MiBors Baddromevear t kpwois Bac evpeva MP | 33 orevoxwpeiobax K-R: oPevoxwpeic Bax MP || 53 re M: 8é P Mf. 110 10 vy’. (las Sei rapackevdles bar Tpos TAS MNXAVAS THY TOMOPKOVVTY.) ‘Emre’ 86 ob povov Krilew Tédw Bédonev, GAXE 51) Kal Tapa- oxevaler bat Tpos TAS KNXAVEAS THY TOMOPKOUVTWY, YépE 61) Kat epi adrav eimwpsv. Siopttrovew of tokopKobyTes Ta Teixn TOUS MEY AiBovs Tod TEixous (owpy)|S6v Lap Bavovres ij weyiarous Svras KaTO- daésvovtes, eis 5é TOUS Exeivwy TéTovs dpbias 56as 7} Kai TaV dAAwY dhuv Ta eritHdeva bproravortes 7d drEepKeipevoy THs oikodouAs imepetSovow, iva yj GOpoov KaTEevexOév KaTaréBn Tovs Sopirrov- tas. émeidav $€ iSwor 76 teixos mrHoW amerodv, avawpartes TAS S4a5a5 Kai T&ALA TaY ELOY dvaxwporor TaY bE EUKwY I TOD TYPES avadwbévrov KaraTinter 76 TetXOs. ToLovaL 5é ToOTO TOTE MEV GoTa- STRATEGY we tion, forward wall and ditch, for the main wall. We should make the ditch no less than twenty-five meters wide* and either deeper or at least as deep as the founda- tions. Thus, if the enemy wants to damage the wall by mining, they will be discov- ered when they reach the excavated part, and forced to stop. The earth from the excavated ditch should be used to fill in the area between the main and the forward walls and leveled off to form a high, broad platform for the convenience of the sol- diers there fighting against the enemy. This same depth of excavation should be observed for any other city situated on a plain. In general, though, those cities located on hills, to which the enemy could have access, will be made secure not so much by ditches as by the following procedure. Standing back about eighteen or twenty-five meters® from the wall, we remove the dirt around the hill in a circle, digging vertically to make it slope down- hill. This puts two obstacles in the enemy’s way up the hill, the cut in the earth, which should be no less than two meters deep,” and the very steep and difficult slope rising up out of it. "In the text, five and twenty picheis. *See Fig. 1, infra, p. 136. "Three spithamai, each equivalent to 23.4 cm.: Schilbach, Metrologie, 19. See Fig. 2, infra, p. 136. See also Philo of Byzantium, 5, 1, 17, ed. and translated by Y. Garlan, Recherches de poliorcéti- que grecque (Bibliotheque des écoles francaises d' Athénes et de Rome, 223; Paris, 1974), pp. 279-404, esp. 293; B. Meyer-Plath and A. Schneider, Die Landmauern von Konstantinopel (Berlin, 1943), p. 33. “Seven picheis. *Forty picheis. “Thirty or forty picheis. Three picheis. 13. {Preparations Needed to Resist Enemy Siege Machines.} Since we do not intend simply building a city but also preparing it to resist the siege machines of the enemy, let us now turn to talk about this. The besiegers dig through the walls, removing the stones from the wall one at a time or, if very large, breaking them up, and in their place set up logs of pine or whatever other wood is at hand vertically to support the masonry above, so it will not suddenly fall down upon the diggers. When they see that the wall is about ready to fall, they set fire to the pine Jogs and other timber and withdraw. When the wood is consumed by the fire, the wall collapses. Sometimes this is done by digging out the dirt like a mole until 38 13 Aakos Sixny THY yhv VTopUrrovTes Expt TOd TO TEixOs UT6 YHV KaTa- AaBeiv, éxeidev THY apxHV TovovpEvoL Tod dpvypaTos vba ~OdvEew 15. @SvvaTodow of dm6 Ta TeLXGv Baddopevor diBor Kai TOY Beddv dow Xenoya goTe Kare TOY TOMOpKOUVTIY. ToTE 5é TES SLWPUKTHPAS Xek@vas KaTarKevagarTes Kai EK TOD yavEepod Ta’TAs TH TELxEL npoodéavtes 76 Teixos 6 abtav SvopUTrovat, Ta Spoww Tois eipynué- vous Samrparropevot. Eerdav Sé 76 Teixos KaTEevexGév oi 7odopKodv- 20 Tes Borer, ov peyioTy Boj Kara Tob KaTEvEXHErTOS TeixoUS TLVEp- Xovran. Kai H wév Ths dudpuxos atria ToLaiTn. "Oras 5é drravrica Tovs TodiTas KaTa TOD ToLOUTOY BHXAV}- patos aKkohovbus PnOjcErar. PyTéov 5é mpdtepov bre of Tov Xoov daropurrovtes, iva 47) ToLs TOAiTOLs EdpwparoV adtaV } 76 UNXdrn LAL, 25 mpoxadvppaci rot Tp6 Tod 6pdywaros KéExpnVTaL THY épyaciay ém- kadvmtovtes. Eat 56 kaTapabety 76 TowodTOY UNXaYHLa VITO TOV Ex- Opav Tedovpevor, énevdav uper i} Tov Xoov EmvotorBalopevor 7 mpoTreTéo wat xpwpévous Tos évavrious. Towbar 68 THY dudpvéw ot mohéusor ovK ém’ edOcias dei, aN’ sorw Gre Kai do€jy, iva wr 30 yapysov H Tos TohitaLs pds 6 wEpos TOD Teixous aTroTEivoVTaL. 516 81 ovK édarrov % SéKa THXELS AToGTaVTES TOD TEixoUS TOLHTOMEV raypov 7 Teixe. TAPAAANAOY, 76 5é BADOS adTHS daécoy dv } TO Ba80s 70d br yiv oikoSopjparos Tod TapaKElWLévor TELXoUS avayKN yap Katadapeiv tovs droptrrovras. Arethoveda 5& adtois 7 Hare 35 adrovs KaTakdUlovTes 7) KATV@ KaTaTViyoVTES. Taxa bé Kai TpOS YHV TWO KATAKALVOMEVOP Kati TPES cdTH THY a&KonY éemiaTHoavTa viv wéev évradba, viv 58 &ddaxOd sis alo now Tov dv Baber OdpvBor SéEa- obo, Kavred0ev TvO6pevor eis Epevvoay akpiBecrépav Kai avTi- oracw tev bmopuTrévTay KabicTaTbaL. Xproyor Sé ToOTo dv TE Mf. 110°40 wéxpt 70d | retxous KarékaBov of NropUrrovTes, aY TE [A TOUS TE Yap siovévan Bédovtas dvakdpoper TAS 6puAs Kai Tois eicodar THv ELoSov Grogpaouev. : Tap 88 dvappittouevov xobv odk Emi 76 Teixos &moTméumeL GAN ani rip érépay Thevpdv Ths SuapuxXos, Gs pyre Wns THY Bedov Ta- 45 oXew Tovs THY TaYpPOV aVOpUTTOVTAS PUhATTOLEVOUS U6 TOD XOMATOS, Kai TO TELXOS avEeTTLBOUAEVTOV Hs TA TOAKG Bramévew KWAVOMEVwY TOV ToMopKoUvTWY KaT& TOD TeiXoUs TpoTyépETbaL TooTO eV Bie TO xdpa, tobT0 88 Sic Thy Tappov. Kai ratte Aéyouer, si uy Typos THY TOW KUKAOT. Bi yap 50 got, adrny éxsivny dvoptrrovtes Padiws Tovs UropUrrovTas KaTa- AapBevoper. si 5é Kai TL “Epos TOD TEixous Eppayn havOavevtwr Tov évavtiov Has Suk TOY TéVTWS THY TOLOPKOULEVwY dpwEdELaD, drootavres 8p" ExdTEpa TOD TAMbVTOS TeixoUS TOLHTOmEV Suk TaXOUS oixodopny Twa svdobev apxoméevny pév a6 TOD byLods Teixous Odré- 55 pov pépous, Myyouaay 5é Emi 76 Erepor. 76 5é OXI ja TOU Teixous EoTH STRATEGY 39 one gets to the wall underground. They begin such digging at a point where stones and arrows shot from the walls, ordinarily effective against besiegers, cannot reach them. Sometimes they prepare the tortoises for digging, move them from a clear spot up to the wall, and begin to dig under it in the manner just explained. When the besiegers see that the wall has fallen, they cheer loudly and charge into the col- lapsed section, which, of course, is the purpose of the digging. How can the citizens deal with siege operations of this sort? We shall begin our discussion by noting that the enemy soldiers engaged in the digging will put up some kind of screen in front of them to mask their activity and keep their work from being detected by the citizens. We have reason to suspect that the enemy is involved in such operations whenever we notice a large pile of dirt or see the enemy putting up screens. The enemy do not always do their digging in a straight line but some- times at a slant so the citizens will not know what part of the wall they are aiming at. To counter this we should dig a ditch parallel to the walls not less than six meters! out from it and as deep underground as the foundations of the wall. This will cer- tainly intercept anyone trying to undermine the wall. We may then attack by flood- ing them out with water or suffocating them with smoke. Often enough by lying down and placing one’s ear on the ground, now in one place, now in another, one can detect sounds deep down. Beginning with such indications, one can make a more accurate investigation and then take measures to counter the mining. This is applicable whether the miners have dug all the way up to the wall or not. If they are trying to get inside, we may block their entrance, and if they have already gotten inside, we may cut off their retreat. The earth shoveled out of the ditch should not be thrown back toward the wall] but on the other side of the ditch, where it will serve to protect our men doing the digging from being hit by arrows. It will also aid in keeping the wall from being attacked, since the besiegers will find their approach to the walls blocked by the piles of dirt and then the ditch. What we have said applies if the city is not encircled by a ditch, for if there is one, then we need simply deepen it to intercept anyone digging through. If, how- ever, the besieged garrison has been grossly negligent, and the enemy have ap- proached without being detected and made a breach in the wall, then we should hastily construct another wall a short distance inside covering the damaged section in both directions, beginning, that is, from the still solid wall on the one side and connecting it with the other. This second wall should be shaped like a triangle with 40 65 70 Mf. tl 75 85. 9s 13 Tpiywvov pds heumovons Thevpas iv ToLet 76 TOAELOUpLEVOY TEIXOS, ds, elye Kai rovTou TepryévowTo of Trohé tot, GAN’ Ob TaVTWS Kai TOD per’ cite mepiysrirovTar Kawvod KricpaTos. obre yap TETPOBOAoLs BNXevH Lao Kar’ adtod xpjaawwro, ot7’ &Adws eiorévar SvvpoovTar kat’ aro ExaréepwHev 700 Teixovs Baddopwevo. Tas 88 Suwpuxriipas kahoupévas xedovas Srrws yivovrat Ev Tois modopKnrixois tyuiv éxmerovytar dws 88 Xp} Kar’ adra@v cywvile- oar Suk Tov broKEpévaY yruodsueba. pyTéov 5é mpTEpoY dws oi 71p6 Hyuav Kata Xehovav jywvilov7o. moré pév Vdara dvwbev Oeppa xéovow adrois, Toré 88 miccav biadvOeioav Tupi, sore 6& drs Kat mpi tavtas dvérrover. Te mreiota bE SoKods TWWas Emi 76 Teixos dva- BiBdoavres Kai Eipos mepiWévtes Kate 76 Gkpov Kat’ cataY aKov- riovow wes 88 Téppav % &oBeoTov Lekypévny KaTa TOY EXKOvTOY Tas xehavas dvabev drroTEéwTOVGL. Kai TATA LEV of TPO hMav. Hueis 68 Koi TL pos sxeivous ésvpousv, A Kai w&Adov sikétws Av Kar’ adrov svepynoetey. 616 Kai mepi Tovrea spodpev. Kai mporepov ye drt xpq Tas xehwvas KaTacKevalopéevas Opav- Tas Tob Teixovs KaTacToxaler Oat Kab’ ob TavTas é\EvTOVTAL, SOEV po Tov GdAov tpdopnaTe Twa éK TPLXOY 7} Epiwv FH Kod Nivev emi roUTH TOMTOLEDY pd TOV érad£ewy | XaAaY dvwOev, TO MEV WAKOS éxovta doov av ris 86EA0L, 76 58 TAATOS ST6TOV Kal TKETEW AT TOY Behav Siverar Tovs smi Tod Teixous éveoTHKéTas. Ta 5é cipnusva dpdopata dvuber émi tov éradéswr dmobHoavTes TaTTahOS Te kata Tod bpaTwaTos Tpbs TH Ex7ds aroTEémouev EpEBousvors TH reixel, OS pyre b76 TéY BehOv tev TOAELIoY TaCTXEW Mas TKETO- Lévous 16 TOY WpaTHaTUV, Kal Huds Ur KwrvETBaL KaT’ cToY ayovilerbor 8reddv adroi mncudlwou tH TEeixer, 7 THY TaPpor KATAXOVVUVTES 7} Kai Gus pNXavas Twas Kare TOD TEixoUs TpoTpE- popes. Trokkais yap of TohEmior dorriow éavTods KaTaKadvpavTEes TOALGOL KATOTW THY TOALOPKYTLKOY LNXAVNLaTwY Kata TOD TelxouS xwpeir, of usr oyerSdvacs, of 88 Bérecr Tos BpearnKdTas emi Tod Teixous droSuakovres, ive pr) dveber Tois HNXar) BAT avreTpar- Tovrea. primo 56 Ta tpdopaTa TpoTapackevagapévors Huds dva- ykn avr’ adrav xphodat trois sykoupiorpos oKeTa&T WAC ois of TOAI- Tow xparrar Kebeddovtes, & sort Kai MAAAOV EvTépLTTA. Kai TotTO ev TpPOTEpOV. Elra raypov vuxrds avopiouer ris mporépas évSoTépav: Tov BE éxeiOev LapBavousvoy xoov Ekxew smi 76 TElxos, Gs MH Pediws Tas XEAwVAS KATA TOD TEixoUS TPOTPEPET HAL AAG TPOTKETTELY VOV LEV Th Tappw, Viv BE Kai TH mpds TH TeixEL Xopart. Ei SE Ye Kod TADTO Kaboparicerar oi &xBpoi THY xehavny SBouTroLobvTEs, POvLiG THY nohitay THY wév avordynpodvtes Tov SE KaBaipovTEs, AAAG TOUS YE mheiorous adbray émoBchobvra Baver@ &k Tod Miav CUvEyyus dvwbEY STRATEGY at one side left open, the side where the breached wall is.? Then, even if the enemy manage to hold on to this, they will not so easily take the new construction. They will not be able to employ their stone-throwing machines against it, nor is there any other way for them to get inside, since they come under fire from both sides of the wall. In the section on siege operations we have discussed the construction of the mining shed called the tortoise. We shall now consider the means of defending against it. We must first say something about the way in which our predecessors dealt with the tortoise. They would pour boiling water down on them from above, or sometimes melted pitch, and they would try to set them on fire. Most of the time they would bring heavy timbers up on the wall, fit them with metal tips like a sword point, and drop them, point first, on the tortoise. Some would pour hot ashes or powdered lime from above on the men moving the tortoises. So much for our prede- cessors. We have discovered some things to add to their methods, which may prove even more effective against them. These we shall now explain. When we observe the tortoises being prepared, the first thing we have to do is to figure out which points along the wall they are most likely to attack. At those points we can hang loosely down from the battlements special mats made of hair, wool, or linen. They can be as long as you want and wide enough to protect the men on the wall against missiles. The mats should be fixed by pegs to the top of the battlements and the rest thrown over the front hanging against the wall. The mats, then, protect our men against enemy missiles, but we are not prevented from action against them if they come close to the wall trying either to fill in the ditch or to move some siege engines against the wall. Enemy detachments, covering themselves with their shields, often try to approach the walls by following behind the siege engines, and with slings or arrows try to drive off the men posted on the walls to keep them from damaging the machines from above. But if we have not gotten the mats pre- pared ahead of time, we shall have to substitute the bed coverings which the citizens use when they sleep, which can easily be collected. So much for the first thing to be done. Next, under cover of night we should dig another ditch closer in than the first. The dirt dug up there should then be piled up against the wall. This will make it difficult for them to move the tortoises against the wall, since they will be cut off by both the ditch and the bank of earth in front of the wall. Even if, owing to the negli- gence of our citizens, the enemy should level off these areas, fill in the ditch, clear the bank, and bring forward their tortoises, most of them will be killed, shot down 42 100 105 Mf. ly Wt 11S 120 125 130 135 13 KaraTtohepovpevor. od ry 88 GAA Kai 7H XPOVY THs KwUTEWS Kat adbroi TapacKsvacOnoopeda mpds Ta WEdAOVTA, Ef Eis TL Kai GrTra- péoxevor dvtes érvyxcvouev. Ei 86 kai rhv ragpov Th ovvexeig Tod TOAE LOU TrOLEtV SiaKwAVS~ sda, ovdér Edarrov THY Xekovny KwdITOuEV dvOdEY Yona Td airs KkataréuTovtes: 0} yap mpoBhvas Suvyoetar Kwhvopévyn dd Tob xaparos. ef 58 51 Kai Tobro Kaprepoiey oi Tohéwvor—bed600w yap kat TobT0 TavTedet Pabvpig t dmoyvac et Tov TOkLTa@Y—xOpTOV Hj eptyava 7 Kadauny Enpdv Kara Tov xekwovav (év)wOev KoraTréu- movtes Bampyooper adtas. od yap 5% Kat TobT0 (7rEpt)yevéa bat Svvy}- covran of Tohéuiot, KaV OTL WaMOTA TOA Tia Eigi Kai (Oavd)ToU Ka~ TagpovoiTes, TOAAOD ud 76 TAHOOS THs UAns dvarrrowévov | Tod tupés kati karaghéyew Svvayévov Th Siavoph od pdvov THY XEdavny, K miko abrais Sud Bpoxor mepBsdevrar, GAG Kai mavTas Tos &v avrais. S€aiper 5é Kai wadAov TH Proya Kai poBEpay amEpydlerar TeAyN émumaccopévn. Tip 88 gopdy Tov MOwy &rroKpovdpeda, ots 5} (ai) TeTPOBdhoL LNXavai TEuTOVEW, ObTwS. TXOWia Bis TXH MATA SiKTIMV mWréEavTEs ovK Edarrov SaxrbAov 76 Tax0s ExoVvTA XahGpeEv dvwbev Emi Svoi TH- Xo THY TELxOv TpOPaddouEva Kai peTAvEpopEva éTi TOV TATXOVTA Térov Th yap évd6ce TovTWY 76 TpOdpdv TAS KWITEwS TOV Aidwy drroxpovoueda. Ta 88 Kara yehover sipnusva Kéy Tois Kpwois sikétws dv yé- votro. Kparuotov 5€ Kai AiBov péyurroy Suk Twos pHXaAVis Eis thos dvoBBacavres dpréver Kara THs XEAOVIS 7} TOD KpLOD. 7 88 unxart Tobrov EXETW TOV TpOTOY. ETTW Tis Bos EVALVOS TETPAYWVOS, TPOXLAS éxouoa. Luyoi 6é ava Si0 Tas TAEUPas TUVEXETWOAY, TTDAOL BE Kad” ExdoTny yoviav EpeatynKores Kai eis ANHAOUS ATrOKAWOpLEVOL 6poiws rots Kaw Cvyois ovvdedéabwcay. Kepaia dé Tis Ek wEGoV THs Bavews Kata KabeTov dvatewouern TvvExXéd Ow b16 THY pETaLTaTwWY TETPA- yavor & &} Towbow ot lvyoi of Te TeTp&ywva CYvEXOrTES. TAUTN Toivev Th 6pOh Kepaig cvvSeSécbw Kai TWs érépa Tmhayia &x pécov Kovgllonérn, hs Tov dkpwv 7@ ev anodhoavres Tov hiBov, 76 BE Ka- dehxboartes, els thos Tov hibov dvaBiBacouer, or’ dv kaT& Kopveyy 708 pHXavIwaTos yevropevos dyed. dvierar 88 oitws: Ta GVYEXOVTA Tov hiBov oxowie eis év cwvaxbévta 51d TOS KaptoU KpaTeia Bw Ka- Tabev, GoTE dpeLévov Tod oXouviov Tv AiBov KaTapéEpETOat. STRATEGY 43 at close range from above. Not only that, but while we are keeping them at bay we may be getting ourselves ready for any future operations, especially if we are still unprepared in some areas. But if the persistence of the attack prevents us from digging the new ditch, we may nonetheless stow down the tortoise by throwing dirt down in front of it, for it will not be able to move forward over piles of dirt. If the enemy still persist in at- tacking—for we must admit that even this could come about because of the utter negligence or despair of the citizens—then we may throw down hay, wood, or dry reeds upon the tortoises and set them on fire. There is no way in which the enemy can prevent this, no matter how bold and death-defying they may be. By adding fuel we can make the fire larger and make it spread so it can burn up not only the tor- toise, even though it be sheathed in wet felt, but also all the men in it. Sulphur sprinkled over it will cause a terrifying flame to flare up. We may soften the impact of stones thrown from siege artillery in the follow- ing manner. Ropes, a finger or more thick, may be woven into nets and hung down over the walls a bit more than a meter out from them at any point where damage is being done.’ These will yield and check the full momentum of the stones. What has been said about the tortoises may also be applied to the battering rams. The most effective method is to lift a large stone high in the air with a suitable machine and then drop it on the tortoise or the ram. The machine is made in the following way. There should be a square wooden base mounted on wheels. One or two braces should connect the sides. Vertical pieces should then be set into each comer, inclined in toward each other and connected by braces corresponding to those on the main frame. Set a pole vertically in the center of the frame, supported by the squares in the middle formed by the braces joining the main square. Now, on. top of this straight pole tie another beam, raising it up by the middle. The stone should be tied to one end of this beam and raised up by pulling down the other end. When it is as high as the machine will permit, it is dropped. This is how it is re- leased. The ropes holding the stone are fed through a kind of pulley and held to- gether under the machine. When the rope is let go, the stone will fall. “Ten picheis. See Fig. 3, infra, p. 136. Two picheis. 44 13, 14 13: 2 mas... wodopxoivrav De: mas dei mapacKevdterbar K-R: om. codd. || 6 cw- pnbdv De: lac. 3-4 litt, codd.: duadéy conj. Oldfather teste Erck: orouxnSév K-R || 27 ém- croiBatépevor K-R: émurroupatowev MP || 46 Bayévew K-R: Siapévet MP || SO KaTadap- Bévopev K-R: kare Boper MP || 51 rob reixous K-R: ray évavriwy MP || 58 xawvod M: Kaupod P || 97 rév K-R: rijv MP |) 100 ef eis 71 De: eds etre MP: ef elért conj, Erck: ets dirra K-R | 107 dvaev K-R: ..oBev M: ....ev P || 108 mepryevéaOar K-R: ...-yevéo dou M: .....véo8at P || 109 i tov MP || 115 ai K-R: om. MP || 116 duxrdwy K-R: 8erday MP || 131 76 Erck: 76 MP: vod K-R. 5. Tlepé raxxrixhjs. Taxrich sow émoriun Kad’ iv Ts TAHOOS avOpwTOV pel” Smhov ovvrdgat te Kad Kwhoat Kate Koupov Sivecrar. THs 68 TAaKTEKTS 5 pépn sori técoapa: otvratis avdpav mpds TOAEpOY emuTHSELOS, Sthav Savoy mpos ri ExdoTOV xpeiav &pyddios, Kivnots &vdThov OTpaTEvpaTos TH Katp~ TpETOVEA, oikovopia TOhEMOV, TpOTaTeV re Kai mpayyaTar, TeéTev TE Kai airay séracw pEeTa TOD CUP pépovtos Exovaa. 10 "Erei 5é Tohépov eidn éoti 5b0, vavpaxia Te Kai TElopaxia, avayKn Kad’ &x&tepov TovTwr Seikou TA THS TaKTUKhS WEpH. od yap Mf112 duotws év Te welopayia kai | vavpaxig cvvrbéweda, obdé Trois adtois OXH HAT xpHpEda, ovdé THY abriy ExXomev Siaipecw Tod oTpareipa- 0s 0888 Tos *youpévous o98E Ta TOUTWY SVOmerTa, GAN’ dveryKn BLa- 15 gopwr 6vrav Tav eidav Ths waxns Siagdp@ Kai TH siby Tis TAKTLKTS xpjoacbar. iva 5é pH ovyKexvuévos hyiv 6 déyos H, iSiws mepi éxdorou rovTwy Siadnypoueba, Kai mpérepdv ye TEpi Telopaxias. Teoodpwv roivuy vray tpoTav Ka@ ots &ANOTE GANOL Bri YAS kar’ dAdpAwr SupywviLorto, Kai yap oi wév mELoi, of Sé Euro, of SE 20 8’ dpudrwr, of dé du Ekegavrwy Tovs TOAEmoUS Erroiouy, 6 wEV TrEpi Bhegavtov Kai &ppdrov TpoT0s Ev TO TapdvTt dpeiabu: Ti yap av Kai Trepi ToUTwy Epobpev, dméTe wndé wEXpL PNudTwv Ta THs TaKTiKAS owletou: mepi 8& THs iSiws Kadovsévns TELLKTS Kai immiKhs Suva- pews 6 Aoyos ywéoHw. dpKei yap Kai Tab’ra Kaas yuLvacapévous 25 émi THS dAnOeias xpjoacbat Kak ToUTwY ETuTNdeiws EEew mpds Ta dour. “Iva 86 ixavas 6 mepi ToUTwY huiv Exn Adyos, PyTéov 6Te TaVT6S rob &v Exatpateia TAHBoUS TO BEY BoTL WaxXiMOY, 6 Kai dmTELANTLKOY kai évomAov Kai oTpPaTEVpA Kai aTPATEs 6vOUaLETAL, 76 SE TEXYLKOD, STRATEGY 45 14. Tactics.’ Tactics is a science which enables one to organize and maneuver a body of armed men in an orderly manner. Tactics may be divided into four parts: proper organization of men for combat; distribution of weapons according to the needs of each man; movement of an armed body of troops in a manner appropriate to the occasion; the management of war, of personnel and materials, including an exami- nation of ways and causes as well as of what is advantageous. There are two kinds of war, at sea and on land. The tactics appropriate to each must be examined separately. We do not get organized in the same way for fighting on foot and fighting in ships. We do not use the same formations or the same dis- position of troops. The officers and their titles are different. These two forms of warfare are so different that completely different tactical methods have to be em- ployed. To avoid confusion, then, we shall discuss each form of warfare by itself, taking land warfare first. Now, then, there are four principal ways in which men have fought one an- other in the past. They have waged war on foot, on horseback, in chariots, and on elephants. In these pages we shall not bother to discuss fighting with elephants and chariots. Why talk about them when even the terminology for their tactics has be- come obsolete? It is on the infantry and the cavalry forces, as they are each called, that we shall concentrate. It is sufficient if a person has been well trained in these, for he can make use of them as they stand and will be able to adapt easily to other situations. To aid in understanding our treatise on tactical matters, let it be noted that the entire force on campaign is comprised of the following. First are the combat troops, the force armed for offensive action, which is called an armed force or an army. 46 M£. 112" 14, 15 30 olov AGordpor, xadxeis, TEKTOVES Kai TH Spore, ots OD LOVOY Bid Tas 15 20 25 modopxias GdAG Kai TéAAA CVVERUpépELY dvéeyKn, 76 BE XOPNYEY Tov avaykaiwy, olov dpromadau, oivor@at, KpeoT@dau Kai TH Spowr, 14: K-R 88, Erck 40. 14: Cf. Aelianum, 2. we’. Tlepi padayyos. Déddrayé 56 éorw dvdpav évorruv Tod ovwrakis sis x0pav dpvav. Kai oXHpata wév pdhayyos TouKkiha, olov KUKAoS, HouBos, fopBoersés, EuBodds re Kai KorkEuBodos, Kai mpos TovTOLS ErEpa, mrepi av héyew év TH TapovTe dpeioOw Sic TO TOV TOAOV dpre Tp6s TaKriucny &yipvacror. & 86 ToUTeV paALTTA ToIs TOAAOIS BOTL yYept- 4a Kai mpOs mapadoow Tod TaApVTOS pabhparos EmiTNdeLrEpa TavT’ eimeiv kai bi8é€ou Kai én’ adrois Sei€ou THY TaKTLKHY Gs OLdv TE Sid Bpaxéor mepdoopar. érreira 58 Kai TEpi Tov Gddwv Siaknyopeder. Trapipa 86 ratte ois moos Aéyw, Od StL VOY TaKTIKA Ke- xphwe20a, — Tivos yap dv Evexa Kai Ths Tapobons cvyypagis é5e Onuev; — GAN’ 67 viv TOAAKIS TApATATToUEVOL TETPAYaVOLS TE Kai émuynkeotépots Xpavrar trois XHwaTr. 76 yap Omws Set cuvTEeTaxGae TOUS OTPATIBTAS KATE TAS TOLAUTAS Pdhayyas Kai TéALA 6a bv abrav £5 wadnoopeda, o¥8? drobv wépos Kate Oewpiay | TaKTiKhy Hiv drodédeuatan. ffs 88 pyTéov &Kk TéTwY Kai ciwy MEpaV Kat Srrws 7 TE Tetp&ywvos Kat étepounKns ovviorara gddayé, Kai Tas ExacTOV Tav pspav dvoudlerat Kai TOY HyoUpévan oaitov, Kai mpdrEpov ye Trepi Tov Thevpav aris, al 76 Tay ovvéxovar TOD OTPATEVpLATOS. Oi madrawot Low Tiv gdhayya év Tais KwWHoETW ameiKkalovTEsS rip pév kar’ diy TaV TOdELion TpdowroY dvopatovar, THY bE cabriy Kat péTwmov Kai dpOahpov Kai TTdpa Kai Gpapsv Kai TpwTOdoXiar évoudtovow. THY 5é Karomw Kai TedevTaiay ovpay, Tas 58 Trap’ éxdtepa ob povov Kowas Kabdnep Tas sipnuévas, &ALG Kai (dios TAevpas a6 weTapopass (Trav) Tod C@ov Thevpav dvopdLovow, Kai TO bev pecaitatoy 700 peterov, Kab’ 6 7) StxoTopia Tod TavTés oTpA- Tevparos dro Tob mETwTON Er’ Odpav yiveTat bupahby héyouat, Ta BE map’ exdtepa TAs bixoTopias Si0 wEyLETa ED THs pdrayyos Képas STRATEGY 47 Then come the technical groups such as stonecutters, metalworkers, carpenters, and the like, who need to be on hand for siege operations and for other special work. Third, there are the supply services which provide bread, wine, meat, and other necessities. "In this and subsequent chapters (esp. 15, 18, 21-24, 31) the author derives much from the an- cient tactical writers: Aelian, ed. H. Kéchly and W. Riistow, Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller, 2, 1 (Leipzig, 1855); Asclepiodotus, ed. ibid., and also with English translation by Ilinois Greek Club, Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus, Onesander (Loeb Classical Library, London-New York, 1923); Arrian, ed. J. Scheffer, Arriani Tactica et Mauricii artis militaris libri duodecim (Uppsala, 1664). 15. The Phalanx. A phalanx is a formation of armed men designed to hold off the enemy. It may assume a variety of shapes: the circle, the lozenge, the rhomboid, the wedge, the hollow wedge, and many others which we shall not bother to discuss in this work, since very few people nowadays have any practical knowledge of tactics. 1 shall here attempt briefly and as best I can to concentrate my remarks and explanations upon those aspects of tactics with which the general public is familiar and which best fit the purpose of the present study. 1 shall then pass on to other topics. When I say that people are familiar with these things, it is not because we are actually making use of tactics now—if that were so, what purpose would be served by this book?—but because nowadays troops are so often drawn up in square or oblong formations. For in due order we shall learn how the soldiers are to be formed in phalanxes of those kinds, and we shall omit nothing that has any bearing on tac- tical theory. Next we have to speak of the number and kind of parts that constitute a square or oblong phalanx and how they are formed, then the names for each section and the titles of the officers. We should first discuss the flanks of the phalanx, which serve to enclose the entire force. The ancients compared the phalanx in its movements to a living body. The part looking toward the enemy they called the face, sometimes also the forehead, the eye, the mouth, the joint, or the first rank. The last part to the rear was the tail. The two sides they called the flanks, not only from the common way of speaking, as with the above terms, but also in a special manner by analogy with the flanks of a living being. The point right in the middle of the front, which bisects the whole force from front to rear, is called the navel. The two principal parts of the phalanx along both sides of that dividing point are called the right horn and the left horn, the 48 Mf 113 15 30 Seftor Kai Képas evavupor éyovaL, Kai Se£tdv wév TO av Sele TeTa- ypsvov, exavepor 88 76 év sbwvdipors. “Avaykn 8é robs mév KaTa TpdowToY icrapévous KaTa TEUPaS GAAHAOLS CuvTETaXOat TGs TOUS EvavTious dpHvTas, Kai TOUTOLS TODS Aourovs Exec Gan. cvvTWéacr 5é Kai 76 NouTdy Garay TrIOOS eis Tov 35 dvapetagd tov &Kkpwv rérov, obx ds Ervxev, AAAA Kara aTiXovs dpOious Te Kai &ykapoious Tois &kpows OvvVvEvovTas, GOTE EKaTTOV tov oTparwwrév Kara bb0 otixous TeTaxOar. héyw 58 GpOvov pév atixov, ds Kai héxos mpooayopeteran, Tov ay’ Evds oiov bx ToTE ampwrooratobvros &v Th pkhayyt emi rév atévartTe Kal TedevTaiov 40 AapBardpevor, ds ospayds dvopdterar, éyKaporov 8& Tov dy’ évds Tis Se€tas Thevpas ei Tov enévavTe Ths apitTepas hapBavdmevor 7 tovvartiov, 6s Kai Cvyos Méyerat dr6 weTagopas Tod KaTa VOTOV TOY Boaw émuxeipévon Evdou érerdav aporpiacw 7} Kai dudeas Edxovow, @oTe Exacrov tod TavTds oTpaTEvparos buai Takeo. TEPLEXETOQL, 45 Quy@ Te Kai oTixe, by’ dv ornpilopsvor SvaKarayarioror yivovrat. Kai Cvyoi pév siow dmdco. Kai dv8pes Kad’ Eva: orixov eioi TeTa- ypévor, Bor’ dvéryKn icapipous eivar tous Te Luyous mpés EavTods, 6poiws 8€ Kai Tovs/arixous. Zrouxeiv 2 Néyerau émi wépous mév 76 Tovs dvaperaed mavTas 50 Tav oTixwy | kate piav evbeiav Keio Bat Trois dxpots ioov dn’ dAAHAOY anéxovras, duoiws Kai lvysiv 76 Tos évapeTaty TavTas TOD aiTod Luyod kara piav eieiay xeiobar rois &xpors TH acdt@ SiaarHmare &h- Ajov drréxovtas, KaOddou 5é Grav mavtes ot TE OTixaL Kai oi Lvyot kar’ edOeiav Keivro trois dKpots. 55 Kai whikos ev gadayyos déyerat 76 dvaperaéd tev Thevpav SidoTnpa hapBavopyevor, Babos 5é 16 &xdoTOV oTixov, Kal TaVvTES pév of Kore Tév mpiroy Lvysv Teraypévor mpwTooTérat THY dm’ abraVv SvopdLovran, of 86 Kara Tov Sevrepor émiaTaran TOY mp6 adbrav, Kai mah oi Kata Tov TpiTov TpwToaTaTat Tay an’ adrov, KaKEivoL Ert- 60 ordrai rav Siwy mpwrooraTar, Kai per’ obra émi Tov dddww &veehs dpoiws péxpr TaV obpayav. “Exaoros $6 Tov aTixwr Kal’ Bavtov AOxos TpoTayopeverat Kai 6 rovrov aynyoupevos Aoxacyés, of 8 6¥0 Axo StAoXia KaAAODVTAL Kat 6 TovToV HyoupeVos Stdoxirns, of 68 TEcoapes AdXOL TETPApXia Kai 6 65 Tovrov ryobpevos Terpapxns, 76 BE Bis TooodTOY raktapxia Kai 6 TovTou Hyobpevos Ta€ikpxNS, 76 5é dis TaAW TOCODTOY CUYTAYKA Kat 6 robrov yOUEvos ovvraywaTEpyns, Ta SE SU0 CvvTaymaTa KEho‘Y- Tou TEvTaKOTLApXia Kai 6 TOUTOV TyyoUmEVvOS TEVTaKoTLapXNS, ai SE 800 TevTaKooLapxian KedovvTaL XedLapXia Kai 6 TOUTOU tyoUpEvoS 70 xuadrapyns, ai duo xuALapxian pepapxia Kai 6 Tovrov *yoUmEvos we- papyns. ai dv0 wepapyiat yarayyapyia Kai 6 rovrov dpnyovpevos Parayyapxns. cuveyerar obv évreiOev EPN wiKpa Te Kai LEyada TH STRATEGY 49 one designating the troops formed on the right side, the other those on the left. The troops stationed in the front must line up along the side facing the enemy, and the others should form behind them. The other men in the unit position them- selves in the space between the two flanks in an orderly manner, in ranks which are straight across and at the same time at right angles to the flanks, so that each soldier takes his stand in two lines. What I mean is that there is a straight row, which is called a file, which goes from any one of the men in the first line of the phalanx all the way back to the last in line, who is named the rear guard. The oblique row or rank goes from one of the men on the right flank all the way to one on the left, or the other way around. This row is also called a yoke, by analogy with the wooden yoke placed on the neck of oxen when plowing or pulling a wagon. Each soldier in the whole army, then, occupies a position in two lines, the rank and the file, and by taking a firm stance there the whole unit becomes more formidable. There should be as many ranks as there are men lined up in cach file, so that the ranks by them- selves, as well as the files, must be of equal strength. They are said to be lined up in the proper position when everyone all down the file stands in a straight line equidistant from one another and parallel to the edges. In like manner, the ranks are properly formed when everyone all along the same rank is in a straight line parallel to the edges and equidistant from one another. The for- mation is complete when all the files and ranks stand in straight lines parallel to the edges. The width of the phalanx means the distance between the two flanks, and its depth is that of each file. All the soldiers stationed in the first rank are named proto- states in relation to those behind them, and those in second place are called epistates in relation to those ahead. In the same way, the men in the third row are called proto- states in relation to those behind them, but epistates in relation to their own proto- states, and so all the others in like order down to the rear guard. Furthermore, each file by itself is called a squad and its head a squad leader. Two squads are called a double squad and its head a double-squad leader. Four squads form a tetrarchy, and its leader is a tetrarch. Twice that number is a taxi- archy, whose chief is a taxiarch. Twice that number, in turn, is a syntagma under the command of a syntagmatarch. Two syntagmata make up a pentekosiarchy led by a pentekosiarch. Two pentekosiarchies are called a chiliarchy, which is commanded by a chiliarch. Two chiliarchies make a merarchy under the command of a merarch. Two of these, in turn, form a phalangarchy commanded by a phalangarch. These, then, are the small and the larger units, which make ten in number, as well as their 15 85 Mf. 113" 90 95 100 105 10 ALB 18 Apne béxa Kai TOUS HYoupévous abrav 6poiws. EK TéT@V MEY ObY Bepav Kai oiwy 4 parayé ovviotarat Kai dws ObyKELTaL, Kai TRS Exacrov tev wepav avis 6vouaterar Kai THY yyouLéven abrir, Sid Tovrea ikavies juiv Tapadédorat. ‘loréov 8é 6rt %) Tapodoa Sivipeots yéyove TOD aTpaTEiparos, Koi TOY Hyyovpévan adtaov 76 TrABOS, Sid 76 Padiws TErsta Bat Ta KE- Aevdpeva. mav yap THOS TH ii K6yw SvomEpLécywyov Kai Bie tobTo xpr) Kata 76 Aakwvikov £00 TEiovas etvar Tovs ENyouLEvovs Tov OTPATEvpATOS, Kai TOV ev AoXayOV ArrevOUvELY TOV Lov OTixoY kot Tnpeiv Ta Ka’ airér BLacThwaTa, THD 8 dAdwv tyyoumévev EKe- arov avahoxsiv Tous iSiovs arixous Kai Sia TaVTMY KaTadOXEtT Aa TO Tay TOU OTpaTevparos. ~oTL 8& TVAAOXLGMOS pEV Grav héxos héxw oixeiws TapaTebh, KaTadoxiopuos 86 drav mévres of KOXoL Tpds BA~ Andous oikeiws Exwou. Aci é rods wév mpwtoaratas, ots Kai iAdpxas Kai AoxXaryous dvopdlomer, Siapépew Tavrds Tov orpareiuaros &v te dvbpeig Kai Aopp odparos | Sia THY Kar’ pv Kai Eri xeipas pdxny Kai Te BapY tov emupepopévev abrois Sthwv. tos 8 &dAoUS pEiLovas HyEuovas obx Ayrrov pév Kai avrous Thy Te avBpsiay Kai poyny Exew Tod cdpa- Tos, padtoTa bé &uTreipia moképov Kat ppovncer Scevnvoxévan TOV GAdwv, Kai rovTer Exacrov érepor érépov Srdcov Kai TAELOVeY dp- xovot. era 5 Tovs TpwroaTatas TOvs EmaTaTas abTaY, TOUT EoTL tous Emi Tob Sevrépou Cuyod teTaypévous, Kai yap TuTTOVTwY TLV@Y Ev tals cvpBorais Tov mpwroeratovrrar avtoi eis TH» EKxeivwy eiciact TaeW. Tods 58 otpayous otk éddrrous pév elvar thy Te dvdpeiav Kai iv paunv Tod GepaTos Tov Kata z7év SevTepov Lvydv TeTayLEéVOr, Madore 88 Kai avrous sumewpig Kai ppovncer Siagépew Tov EAdwv, 76 wep iva rip Taw THPAGL Kai TWVEXwOL TOUS évTOs, 76 BE iva BY TH Kaip@ Td &yavos CLVWBHEL Tobs Eumpoober, GoTeE Baptépav Kai duoarrayarioroy THY vdrayya TH TAHGEL KATA Tov xOpar yive- obo, Kai Tpirov iv’ aigvibiov KaT& verov TAS vahayyos mpoom- nTOvTeY TOY TOhEMio EoTW ére abroi EmaTpayérTEs KATE THY BX- Spay mpwrooraroivray évamhnpwowar xpeiav. Mere 88 tous obpayous tous Emi THV dxpwr TaY oTixeY TETa- yuévous eit’ oby tas mhevpas, dud Tas UTEpKEpacrets TE Kai DrrEp- gahayyaoes trav éxOpav Kai mpocére Tas aigridious EmBdaeLs ai- Tov, ai TOdGKIS Kai Kat’ adTaY yivovTaL. KaTH 3b méumTnY THEW Tous Emi TOY Hyuthoxiwy bie 76 dwevOivew pe Kai adrovs TodS oTi- Xous, vvabeir 86 Kai Tous Eumpoo Ber bpoiws Tois obpayois, ov Suva- pévov Exeivar | 76 wav B&BOS TS Padayyos TvVWHEIV. weTa BE TOU- Tous Tovs Emi Tod TpiTov Wvyod, Elta Tos Emi TOU TépTTOV, Elta TOS STRATEGY 51 commanders. Enough now has been explained about the number and nature of the units that make up the phalanx, about its organization, and about the terms used for each unit and the titles of its commanders. It should be understood that the purpose of this division of the army and the assignment of so many officers is to facilitate the execution of orders. For it is diffi- cult to maneuver the entire force by a single word of command. For this reason the army must follow the Laconian practice of having a large number of officers. Each squad leader directs his own file and maintains the proper distances in it. Each one of the other officers should see to the proper alignment of his own files, and in this way all of them will effect the correct formation of the entire army. The squads are properly aligned when each is in its own position next to the other, and the forma- tion is complete when all the squads are at the right distance from one another. The front rank men, whom we also call ilarchs and squad leaders, should stand out from the rest of the army because of their courage and physical strength, for they have to bear the brunt of the hand-to-hand fighting and wear such heavy armor. The other major officers should be no less distinguished for courage and physical strength. They should also be far superior to the others in combat experi- ence and good sense, each one according to his rank and the number of troops under his command. Next in quality to the protostates should be the epistates, that is, those lined up in the second rank. For, if any of the protostates should fall in action, they are the ones who move up to take their places. The rear guard should possess no less courage and physical strength than the men stationed in the second rank. They should also be notably superior to other troops in experience and good sense, for they are responsible for forming and keep- ing the men in their place in line. In action, moreover, they must keep the men ahead of them in close order, so that the phalanx may maintain its compact formation and present a stronger and more formidable front to the enemy. Third, in case of a sur- prise attack by the enemy on the rear of the phalanx, they may have to turn about and act as protostates in repelling the enemy. After the rear guard come the troops stationed on the files on the sides, for they must guard the flanks against envelopments and encirclements as well as sur- prise attacks by the enemy, which are often directed against them. Fifth in impor- tance are the leaders of half files, who help in maintaining order in the files and who keep the men in front of them in close order, just as the rear guard who, by them- selves, cannot tighten up the ranks of the whole phalanx. Next to consider are the 15, 16 M5 émi rod EBSduov Kai éveéts dpolws. Ex 58 Tod Aovrod TANOoVvS of houmoi rev épriwy Lvyav évaTAnpwOHcovrat, TobT’ EoTLW 6 TéTApTOS, 6 &kros, 6 dy00s, Kai vets wExpt TOV obpayav. MP VSB (partim) 15: K-R 90, Erck 41. 15: 21 of MP: dre of VSB || {oq VS: Yoav B: Lov MP || 21-24 drecdlovtes . . . dvo- ualovow MP: cixdlovres: 73 pév adris mpdowmoy dvoudtovor Kai grdpa, 75 86 Képas Kai Kegadiy, Ado 5é dpadudv % Supador, Kai GAdo mhevpav Kai odpav GdAo VSB |} 24 karomw K-R: karéyev MP || 7és K-R: 7c MP || 26 rv K-R: om. codd, || 28 Aéyoust codd.: Aéyouor Kad épapés conj. K-R, Erck ex Asclepiodoto, 2, 6 | 39 mpuracrarobrros K-R: mpoorarobyros M: mporrayoivros P | 40 rap dy" K-R: ray MP || 57 mpwroaréerau Erck ex Asclepiodoto, 2, 3, et alibi: mpooréras MP || 59 mpwrorrérat Erck: mpoordrat MP || 60 mparoorardy Etck: poorariay MP || 69 xAuapyic K-R: xthvapxia MP || 72-73 7 éptOu@ K-R: rev éprOyév MP || 84~85 Srav . karahoxurpos 8¢ m. P || 85 olKetws M: oixedovs P || 94 mpwroaréras K-R: mpootaras MP | 113 76 wav inc. A Mf. 114 10 15: Cf. Aelianum, 7-9; Asclepiodotum, 2-3; Arrianum, p. 10-16. 1G’. (epi émhivews.) Totrwr 56 obtws ovvretaypévwov Xp} Tos MEV TPWTOOTaTAS kexphobat Tois puhaxtixois Tov Showy by’ OY pahioTa TOD TmpaTOS Ta mpos THY MaXNY wépY GUddrTETAL. Kai THY pév TAY domiBwY 8Ld- perpov otk éharrov sivar omaLaY Ente, GOTE Tas doTiBdas Bis &A- Anas Kah@s ovv7ibepévas KaTagpatTrew Kat kaTakahvmrew Kai guharrew 76 oTparevua sis 76 undéve 76 THY BedOv TOV svavTiov made. Tas 86 ye TOY TpwrocTaToWVTAY pddoTA dogadrcoTEpaAs ruyxdveuw, éxew | 88 obras povas Téradov odnpodv Kata péToV TAS dormiBos sis KiKAov ypapopevor év & Eipos dveoTatw ovK Eharror 76 inhos Baxrdhwv Tecordpwr, iv’ ob povov Tous évavriovs poBA ToppwbEr Spavras GAG Kai TpavpaTitn KaKds sis Teipav Epxopevor. Tas 8¢ mepuxegaraias Kai Tous Odpaxas Kai Tas TEpLKYnLiBAS elvar wév Kai adra eri rovotrov Bapos xovTa Hote prTE pediws Tacxew obras wir’ &yav rH Béper uTreiv Kai mp6 Katpod KaTAdaTrA- STRATEGY 53 men in the third rank, then those in the fifth, in the seventh, and so on in order. The rest of the troops fill up the even-numbered ranks, fourth, sixth, eighth, and so on to the rear guard. 16. {Armament.} When the troops have been formed as described, we must equip the front rank men with defensive armor to protect those parts of the body that are most exposed in action, Their shields should be no less than one and a half meters in diameter,' so that when they are joined together they form a solid, defensive protection behind which the army can hide without anyone being injured by enemy missiles. The shields of the protostates should be particularly solid, and they alone should have an iron circlet embossed in the center of the shield in which a spike at least four fingers long should be fixed,? both to unnerve the enemy when they see it from a distance and to inflict serious injury when used at close range. Armor for the head, breastplates, and shin guards should be heavy enough to ward off injury but not so beavy as to be burdensome and wear down the strength of Af. 8" Mf. 114" Ato 25 30 35 46 50 55 16 vav Ty Tav OTpaTLWTaD Sivapty. sivar 8é ToLadTa Ob pdvOY BLe THY BAny Avorredobvra AAG Kai 5ud 7d OXAMA Kai THY heérnta, iva dio- MoGaivn 7é BEN Tporninrovra, &rL 58 Kai Sid THY A716 TOD OHperos anooracw. Sei yap ara émuceiobar ov« smi xetwviokwv, 6 TwWes mowdow 76 Bépos Tov StAwY gevyovTES, GAN &ri iwatiwy odk Ehar- tov daxrbhou 76 TaxXos &xX6vTMV, TA MEV iva wy AUTH MpooavovTa TH oKdnpornt GAN’ évapusrroL 7h THAT KAAGS EmiKeipeva, 76 58 ive bi) padins darnrar Tov capKav Ta Tov ExXOpaV BEAN GAN’ Burrodi- ouro, rotro pév, Ws eipytat, dua Tov Gidnpov Kai TO OXHWA Kat THY Aevérnta, Tobr0 88 Kai Sad Thy mpos THY CdpKa Tod OLdHpov a7é- craow. det 88 Tv Tepixegaratay Kai gipos KaTa KopyyrY sxELY ObK Bdarrov 76 thos BaxTUwr TpLar, | iva ei THxoL év Tais TVUTAOKais of orpartéran Kai 81’ adbtav dywvilowro Kai goBepwrepot Tois éxOpois Sradeixvuvra. Té 58 Sdpara éxew phKos émdcov dv Exactos abtav pépew v- vara, Goavrws 88 Kai Tobs Kare Tov SevTEpov Luysr Kai TpiTor Kai réTaptov TETaAyLEVOUS, BATE TA TOY TecadpuV luvya@v S6para TpoTi- Trew Tod TAVTOS OTPATELMATOS, KAI TA LEV TOD TpwTOV LuyoU Tpds TA tod Sevtépov Tocobrov mposxew décov Kai 6 TpATOS Lvyds TOU Sev- zépov Kai pe€is dpoiws Ews Tod Terdprov Lvyod: cup Paiver dé ds Te TOAAG TodTO TUKVOUBENS THS Parayyos dvd THXVY Eva. % “EV obV To.atTn ovvrakis Tov Sopatwv héyerat Maxedovixy: Tavry yap TOUS MaxeSévas yaoi xpricac bar. Twés 56 14 Séparre 708 Sevrépov Luyod éi Tor obToV maKpsTEpa Tob mpwrou Erroinaay waTE THY mpoBod}y TaV SopaTur Tod TE TpPaToU Wwyoi 708 ze Sevtépou iony eivar 81e 76 80 BdpaTe Kad’ évds dywvi- Leabar rev bmevavtion. Tovs 58 werd Tov réraptov Lvydp TeTaAypEvoUS of wav Kai adrods KaTéxew énérpebav Sopara TAY TeV TpoTEpwY addrrova, of 88 iows &uevov Bovrevodpevor ob | Sépara, w&hov bE BSoparia Koi dkovria Kai doa Sue xeIpos B&ANETOaL KaTa TY ExOpav Sivavra—mip Tov &kpwv orixav Tis Pahayyos Kai Tov TpoTEXas TrapaKerpéver aiirois &Xpr Tpiav orixuy, Er. 88 Kai rY obpayav Kai TaV TpoTEXas TapaKkeLsven adrois &XpiTpLdv luyav: dei SE Tovs Ertl zov mpatov Kai Bevrépov lvyod retaypévous Tov adTov KABOTALO OV Exew ob pdvov Tovs obparyods AAA Kai TOUS &kpoUs OTixXoUS THY TAEV- pav—ti yap dv kai dpedjoarev rovs Tpwroatarobvras Eis xetpas EX- par ‘Kovras Te Bépata TY KaTa pETOU Tis PELaYyyOS TETHYMEDOV. Kai 4 wév tov 6thov xpijors ToravTn. ef 66 wh TavTEs oi THS parayyos éxousv Bdipati Kai TepiKvnuiow xpHoacbaL, GAA Tav- Tws ob ye Kata Tov TpdrEpov Kai devTEpov bvyov Kai Tov TehEvTaiov kai TeV otixwn oi dKpor mepiBa | Kodvrat Tabra dud Tas eipnusvas aitias, oi 86 NoLmot LéBats Kai Odpate Kai TEpLkegadaiars Tais EK srikov Kai BUponS ovrrebeipsvats. WS dv BE Un AUTH TadTa TO THA STRATEGY 55 the soldiers before they get into action. These should provide protection not only because of their material strength but because of their design and their smoothness, which should cause missiles to glance off and fall to the ground. There should also be a space between the armor and the body. It should not be worn directly over ordinary clothing, as some do to keep down the weight of the armor, but over a garment at least a finger thick. There are two reasons for this. Where it touches the body the hard metal may not chafe but may fit and lie comfortably upon the body. In addition, it helps to prevent the enemy missiles from hitting the flesh because of the iron, the design, and the smoothness, but also because the metal is kept away from the flesh. The helmet should have a spike on top no less than three fingers long; it makes our soldiers look more formidable to the enemy, and they might actually be able to use it as a weapon in the fighting. The spears should be as long as can be carried by an individual in the second, third, or fourth rank of the formation. The spears of the first four ranks should stick out in front of the whole army. Those of the first rank will be out in front of those of the second by the same distance that the first rank stands ahead of the second, and so on through the fourth rank. When the phalanx is closed up, then, the distance should generally be about two-thirds of a meter. This type of formation with spears is called the Macedonian, for they are reputed to have made use of it. Some have made the spears of the second rank longer than those of the first, so that the forward thrust of the spears of the first and second ranks would be equal and twice as many spears could be employed at one time against the enemy. Some have thought that the men stationed in the rank behind the fourth should also be armed with spears, although shorter than those of the men in front of them. Others have recommended, perhaps with better reason, that they should not have regular spears but javelins, light spears, and other weapons that can be thrown against the enemy. The files on the edges of the phalanx, however, and the three files in line next to them, as well as the rear guards and the three ranks right in front of them, should have the long spears. The rear guards and the files along the edges of the flanks should have the same armament as the troops stationed in the first and second ranks. What use will a set of long spears in the middle of the phalanx be to the protostates who are engaged in hand-to-hand fighting with the enemy? This is the manner of distributing the armament. If everyone in the phalanx cannot be equipped with breastplates and shin guards, at least the men in the first, second, and last ranks and those in the files on the flanks should certainly wear them for the reasons given above. The rest of the troops may be provided with coats of mail, breastplates, and head coverings fashioned of felt or leather. So that the rough material does not chafe the skin, they should wear padded garments under them, as 56 16, 17 60 Th oKAypérnTt, UroKsiobucav Kai adrois TepioTnBista, KaBdmEp smi Tov ovdnpav Bwpakion Kai Ta Gdwy BrEyouEY. dpedrtaee yap Kav- radba Th TaxXUTHT TabTA, od padios THY BedOv diEepxouévor 7 od opddpa gBavdvrav 76 BAB0s Tod OdpaTos. Kai Tepi BEV TELLKAS Po- eyyos émi Toc obrov. MP A VSB (partim) 16: K-R 100, Erck 45. 16: 1 «¢' M: om. AP ||2 epi drAigews K-R: om. codd. [| 3 To¥s Eck: Tois MPA || mpwro- oréras Erck: mpoorérous MP: mpwroorérats A || 5—6 Kei. . . elvou MPA: 671 ras TeV SmrhuraY écoribas év peyéber ob bei elvar éddrrovas VSB || 9 tas... rvyxdveLv MP: om. A || 10 éxew AVSB: éx... MP il uévas MP: kai AVSB: povas xai Erck || wéoov A: méou MP: wéo VSB || 10-12 ards... thos MPA: év 1 pécw Kai wéradov anpodv arpoyybhov Kai év adr Eipos dveornKds doe: VSB || 27-28 Bei. . . pov MPA: éoaitws Kai éxdorn TepiKegaraig Eipos dveornK6s Goel Baxridoy y' Kai paduore tais TaV Noxayav VSB || 36 cvpBaiver A: onpaiver MP: om. VSB || 40-43 rwés . . . brevavtiov MPA: drt Twwés 7a Bépara trav 708 B' Luo bmdurav rogobrov éroinoay papérepa dare irnv elvar rv mpooBodiy abrir pera THY Tob a Lvyod Aoxaryov VSB || 47-51 maay . . . mhevpdv MPA: dr Karé Ty Shur éumegpaypévor dpel- Rovaw elvar od wévor of Eurpootev Luyoi &AAE Kai of Smiabev odpayoi, Ert BE Kai of &Kpo. orixos rev mhevpian Ths padceyyos VSB || 55 xoHracGat A: xojoGa: MP || 58-59 rais. . . cuv- reGetpévats A: rois ovr Wepévors MP | é A: om. MP “we Tlepi inmuiis padayyos kai dtu dei ovvréerrew adrhy. Tas 88 irmuchs Suvdpeas Kai of mpwroordrar kai of were TOvS mpwroordras &xpt to teraprou (uyod reraypévor Kai of obperyoi Kai 5 of &kpoe Ta orixav Kai of wer’ Exsivous TaTTOpevoL Ob LOvoY THY adbriy Towrnra Tov Telav éXéTwoav Kerd Te Gvbpsiay Kai Poynv owparos Kai Eurerpiay Tohépwv, GAd& Kai THY TAEW Kod MpOTérTL TOV kadoruopov. TwWés 88 Etépws oadrovs OvYTaTTOVEL TUKVaT EWS EVEKA, kai ToUTwV of pév Tas Kepards Tiv Emu Tod SevTépov Lvyod weTAed 10 Tv Gpwv Tov immwv TBéact 70d mpwrov Lvyod, of 8é weTaéD Tov mevpav. Aci 86 rovs immovs Tav MpwroctarovvTwy wAT’ yaw véovs elvar ptjyre OoptBuv areipous, vépe te avrovs TpomeTamsdé te Kai TEpL- orépvia odnpa, mpos d& Kai TEpiTpaxyda, GoTe KaTayparrew Mf. 115 15 adrois Ta mpés THY waxny pEpy TeV immu? | Eis TO U1) Ka‘ AdTOUS TE- oxovtTas dvaraparred bai Te Kai KaTaBadhew Tovs imméas. Tas BE ye Races tev moder tov immov Kai aires pois oSnpois meT&AOLS Ka- STRATEGY 357 we recommended for iron breastplates and other items. The thickness of the cloth also makes it more difficult for missiles to penetrate, or at least to penetrate deeply, into the body. So much then about the infantry phalanx. Seven spithamai. 2The finger as a measurement was 1.95 cm., so the spike would be almost eight centimeters long 17. The Cavalry Phalanx and Its Formation. In a cavalry force the file leaders, the four ranks in position behind them, the rear guards, the troops on the edges of the ranks, and the men next to them should have the same qualifications as their counterparts in the infantry as far as bravery, physical strength, and combat experience are concerned. In fact, their formation and also their armament should be the same. Some commanders employ a different formation to make the unit more compact. Some of them line up the heads of the horses of the second rank with the shoulders of the horses in the first rank, while others line them up with their flanks. The horses of the soldiers in the front line should not be too young or unused to noise and confusion. They should be equipped with iron armor for their heads, breasts, and necks. These will protect the parts of the horses most exposed in ac- tion, for if they become wounded they may easily get out of control and throw their riders. In like manner, the horses’ hooves should be protected by iron plates, so they $8 17, 18 moganriabar sis 76 UN fading mdcoXEW B76 TE TPLBOWY Kai TeV @ddov. 20 Avagéper 8& rijs TOY TElov pareyyos 7 im7muKT). 7 ev yap b.6- hov memixvetar kai dvoavréperotov exer 76 Bapos ev rats md7}- ceow, cvvwbotvtwr &AHous KaTa THY TOhELIWY TODS E“mTpOT OEY, 1) 88 Hpaiwrai te kai xwpis mANTEwWSs yiverat, Exer bE Te Kai adrH ogodpérntos Kara tas mpoaBords reddy wi BASHY Te Kat Kat’ 25 ddiyov mpoorinry rots vavrions AAG eta 6EVTEPOV TOD KLYMATOS. éo7t 88 TodTO Kai KATATANKTLKOY TS TOIs MU OPdSpa TETELpapéE-| AL vous TOhEpov. Tlas pév obv Sei ovvrérrew podoyya Kai was Smhilew Exacrov tav é&v Th pddayyt TeTaypévw be TovTwY Huiv eipyrat. érei 5& od 30 povov dei cwvTaéar gadayya GAME Kai KUHTAL, PyTéoV Kai TEpi KWHTEDS. 17: K-R 104, Erck 47. V7: 1d! M: 6" A: om. Pl] 3-4 Kai of wera. . . rererypévou A: om. MP |] 4~5 Kai of odpayoi . .TarréyevorMP: om, Al|7 éuzreipiaw A: Syrrerpia MP9 Kai Tove of wav MP: bate Al|