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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG


TS. NGUYN PHM ANH DNG

GIO TRNH

L TRNH PHT TRIN


THNG TIN DI NG

3G LN 4G

(Tp 1)

NH XUT BN THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG

GD 01 HM 10

LI NI U
Thng tin di ng l ngnh cng nghip vin thng pht trin nhanh
nht vi con s thu bao t n 3,8 t tnh n cui nm 2008. Khi
ngun t dch v thoi t tin phc v mt s t ngi di chuyn, n
nay vi s ng dng ngy cng rng ri cc thit b thng tin di ng th
h ba, thng tin di ng c th cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v i hi
tc s liu cao k c cc chc nng camera, MP3 v PDA. Vi cc
dch v i hi tc cao ngy cng tr nn ph bin th nhu cu v 3G
cng nh pht trin n ln 4G ang cng tr nn cp thit. phc v
nhu cu hc tp ca sinh vin, Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin
thng phi hp vi Nh xut bn Thng tin v Truyn thng xut bn
Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G do
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng bin son.
3G l thut ng dng ch cc h thng thng tin di ng th h
th 3 (Third Generation). Mng 3G (Third-generation technology) l th
h th ba ca chun cng ngh in thoi di ng, cho php truyn c d
liu thoi v d liu ngoi thoi (ti d liu, gi email, tin nhn nhanh,
hnh nh...). 3G cung cp c hai h thng l chuyn mch gi v chuyn
mch knh. H thng 3G yu cu mt mng truy cp v tuyn hon ton
khc so vi h thng 2G hin nay. im mnh ca cng ngh ny so vi
cng ngh 2G v 2.5G l cho php truyn, nhn cc d liu, m thanh,
hnh nh cht lng cao cho c thu bao c nh v thu bao ang di
chuyn cc tc khc nhau. Vi cng ngh 3G, cc nh cung cp c
th mang n cho khch hng cc dch v a phng tin, nh m nhc
cht lng cao; hnh nh video cht lng v truyn hnh s; Cc dch v
nh v ton cu (GPS); E-mail; video streaming; High-ends games;...
Do khun kh c hn, gio trnh s ch tp trung trnh by hai cng
ngh: l HSPA (s pht trin tng cng ca WCDMA) v 3GPP
LTE. C th coi cng ngh HSPA v s pht trin tip theo ca n l hu
3G cn cng ngh LTE l tin 4G. y l cc cng ngh d kin s rt
pht trin trong nhng thp nin ti. Gio trnh c xy dng trn c s
sinh vin hc mn "a truy nhp v tuyn v l thuyt tri ph".

V y l gio trnh cho mn chuyn i hi sinh vin phi t c


nn gio trnh c bin son chi tit vi kt cu hp l sinh vin c
th t hc. Mi chng u c phn gii thiu chung, c phn tng kt
v cc cu hi.
Gio trnh bao gm 16 chng. Chng u gii thiu tng quan v
cc h thng pht trin ca 3G v l trnh pht trin ln 4G. Chng 2
cp n cc vn lin quan n truyn dn v tuyn bng rng. Chng
3 nghin cu cc cng ngh a truy nhp OFDMA v SC-FDMA ng
dng cho LTE. Chng 4 trnh by mt trong cc k thut quan trng
ca 3G pht trin v 4G l a anten. Chng 5 trnh by mt s k thut
then cht ca 3G pht trin v 4G l: thch ng ng truyn, lp biu
ph thuc knh v HARQ (pht li lai ghp). Chng 6 v chng 7
trnh by nguyn l ca HSDPA v HSUPA. Chng 8 cp n cc
vn qun l ti nguyn v tuyn ca HSPA. Chng 9 trnh by dch
v VoIP trong HSPA. Chng 10 trnh by mt s dch v tin tin ca
HSPA l MBMS - dch v qung b, a phng a phng tin v
CPC - kt ni gi lin tc. Chng 11 trnh by cc mc tiu LTE.
Chng 12 trnh by cc vn chung ca truy nhp v tuyn LTE v
kin trc giao din v tuyn LTE. Chng 13 v 14 trnh by lp vt l
v cc th tc truy nhp LTE. Chng 15 trnh by pht trin kin trc h
thng LTE/SAE. Chng 16, trnh by m phng nh gi hiu nng
HSPA, LTE v tnh ton qu ng truyn.
Ngoi ra phn Ph lc ca gio trnh, trnh by cc yu cu i vi
phn v tuyn ca my u cui HSPA v c thm phn Thut ng vit
tt, Ti liu tham kho bn c tin tra cu.
Gio trnh c th l ti liu tham kho cho sinh vin cc trng i
hc, cc chuyn gia, cc cn b qun l v k thut trong lnh vc thng
tin di ng. Mc d c nhiu c gng, song qu trnh bin son s kh
trnh khi thiu st, Hc vin rt mong nhn c kin gp ca cc
bn ng nghip v bn c gn xa.
Xin trn trng cm n!
HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

MC LC
Li ni u..............................................................................................5
Chng 1. Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G, LTE
trong 3GPP v l trnh tin ln 4G ...................................13
1.1. M u ....................................................................................14
1.2. Qu trnh tiu chun ha WCDMA/HSPA trong 3GPP .........14
1.3. K hoch nghin cu pht trin LTE ......................................24
1.4. IMT-ADVANCED v l trnh tin ln 4G..............................27
1.5. Tng quan truy nhp gi tc cao (HSPA) ..........................30
1.6. Tng quan LTE .......................................................................33
1.7. Kin trc m hnh LTE ...........................................................42
1.8. Tng kt...................................................................................45
1.9. Cu hi ....................................................................................46
Chng 2. Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong thng tin khng dy
bng rng.............................................................................47
2.1. Cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc s liu cao ......48
2.2. Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong bng thng
hn ch v iu ch bc cao....................................................54
2.3. nh hng ca mi trng truyn sng
ln truyn dn khng dy bng rng.......................................59
2.4. Cn bng chng phainh chn lc tn s................................65
2.5. Truyn dn a sng mang cho khng dy bng rng..............72
2.6. Tng kt...................................................................................77
2.7. Cu hi ....................................................................................78

Chng 3. OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE.......................................79


3.1. M u ....................................................................................80
3.2. Tm tt nguyn l OFDM .......................................................81
3.3. c tnh knh v cc k hiu tham kho ................................91
3.4. M ha knh v phn tp tn s trong truyn dn OFDM ......93
3.5. La chn cc thng s OFDM c s.......................................95
3.6. nh hng ca thay i mc cng sut tc thi ....................98
3.7. S dng OFDM cho ghp knh v a truy nhp.....................99
3.8. Pht qung b v a phng trong nhiu v OFDM..........102
3.9. Nguyn l truyn dn DFTS-OFDM ....................................105
3.10. Tng quan SC-FDMA.........................................................114
3.11. Sp xp sng mang con SC-FDMA ...................................119
3.12. Trnh by cc tn hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian .....121
3.13. Tng kt...............................................................................125
3.14. Cu hi ................................................................................125
Chng 4. K thut a anten .............................................................127
4.1. Cc cu hnh a anten ...........................................................127
4.2. Cc li ch ca s dng cc k thut a anten ......................129
4.3. a anten thu ..........................................................................129
4.4. a anten pht.........................................................................136
4.5. Ghp knh khng gian...........................................................146
4.6. Tng kt.................................................................................155
4.7. Cu hi ..................................................................................155
Chng 5. Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn
v yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp .............................. 157
5.1. M u ..................................................................................157
5.2. Thch ng ng truyn: iu khin cng sut
v tc s liu ....................................................................159

ii

5.3. Lp biu ph thuc knh .......................................................161


5.4. Cc s pht li tin tin ....................................................176
5.5. Yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp vi kt hp mm..............177
5.6. Tng kt.................................................................................182
5.7. Cu hi ..................................................................................183
Ph lc
Thut ng vit tt
Ti liu tham kho

iii

THUT NG VIT TT
2G

Second Generation

Th h th hai

3G

Third Generation

Th h th ba

3GPP

3rd Generation Partnership Project

n cc i tc th h th ba

3GPP2

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

n i tc th h th ba - 2

AAS

Adaptive Antenna System

H thng anten thch ng

ACLR

Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio

T s r knh ln cn

ACK

Acknowledgement

Cng nhn

AGW

Access Gateway

Cng truy nhp

AM

Acknowledged Mode

Ch cng nhn

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

M ha v iu ch thch ng

AMR

Adaptive MultiRate

a tc thch ng

ARQ

Automatic Repeat-reQuest

Yu cu pht li t ng

AWGN

Additive Gaussian Noise

Tp m Gauss trng cng

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

Knh iu khin qung b

BCH

Broadcast Channel

Knh qung b

BES

Best Effort Service

Dch v n lc nht

BER

Bit Error Rate

T s li bit

BLER

Block Error Rate

T s li khi

BM-SC

Broadcast/Multicast Service Center

BPSK

Binary Phase Shift Keying

Trung tm dch v qung b/a


phng
Kha chuyn pha hai trng thi

BS

Base Station

Trm gc

BTS

Base Tranceiver Station

Trm thu pht gc

CAZAC
CC

Constant Amplitude Zero AutoCorrelation


Convolutional Code

T tng quan bng khng bin


khng i
M xon

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo m

CN

Core Network

Mng li

CP

Cyclic Prefix

Tin t chu trnh

CPC

Continuous Packet Connectivity

Kt ni gi lin tc

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel

Knh hoa tiu chung

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

Ch th cht lng knh

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

Kim tra vng d

CS

Circuit Switch

Chuyn mch knh

CTC

Convolutional Turbo Code

M ha Turbo xon

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

Knh iu khin ring

DCH

Dedicated Channel

Knh ring

DFT

Discrete Fourier Transform

Bin i Fourier ri rc

DFTSOFDM
DL

DFT-Sread OFDM

OFDM tri ph

Downlink

ng xung

DPCCH

Dedicated Physical Control Channel

Knh iu khin vt l ring

DPCH

Dedicated Physical Channel

Knh vt l ring

DPDCH

Dedicated Physical Data Channel

Knh s liu vt l ring

DRX

Discontinuous Reception

Thu khng lin tc

DSCH

Downlink Shared Channel

Knh chia s ng xung

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

Pht khng lin tc

DUSP

Switching point from downlink to uplink

E-AGCH

Enhanced Absolute Grant Channel

E-DCH

Enhanced Dedicated Channel

im chuyn mch t ng
xung sang ng ln
Knh cho php tuyt i
tng cng
Knh ring tng cng

E-DPCCH

Enhanced Dedicated Control Channel

Knh iu khin ring tng cng

E-DPDCH

Enhanced Dedicated Data Channel

Knh s liu ring tng cng

eNodeB

E-UTRAN Node B

Nt B ca E-UTRAN

EPC

Evolved Packet Core

Li gi pht trin

E-RGCH

Enhanced Relative Grant Channel

E-UTRA

Evolved UTRA

ErtPS

Extended Real Time Packet Service

E-TFC

E-DCH Transport Format Combination

E-TFCI

E-DCH Transport Format Combination


Index
Evolved UTRA/Evolved-RAN

Knh cho php tng i


tng cng
Truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS
pht trin
Dch v gi thi gian thc m
rng
Kt hp khun dng truyn ti
E-DCH
Ch s kt hp khun dng truyn
ti E-DCH
Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t
UMTS pht trin

EUTRAN/ERAN
FACH

Forward Access Channel

Knh truy nhp ng xung

FBSS

Fast Base Station Switching

Chuyn mch trm gc nhanh

FCC

Federal Communication Commision

y ban thng tin lin bang

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplex

FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access

F-DPCH

Fractional DPCH

Ghp song cng phn chia theo


thi gian
Ghp knh phn chia theo
tn s
a truy nhp phn chia theo
tn s
DPCH mt phn (phn on)

FEC

Forward Error Correction

Hiu chnh li trc

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

Bin i Fourier nhanh

GERAN

GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

Mng truy nhp v tuyn GSM


EDGE
Nt h tr GPRS cng

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

Dch v v tuyn gi chung

GPS

Global Positionning System

H thng nh v ton cu

G-RAKE

Generalized-RAKE

RAKE tng qut

GSM
HARQ

Global System For Mobile


Communications
Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest

H thng thng tin di ng


ton cu
Yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp

HCR

High Chip Rate

Tc chip cao

HHO

Hard Handover

Chuyn giao cng

HLR

Home Location Register

B ghi nh v thng tr

HSDPA

High Speed Downlink Packet Access

HSPA

High Speed Packet Access

Truy nhp gi ng xung


tc cao
HS-DPCCH High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Knh iu khin vt l ring
Channel
tc cao
HS-DSCH High-Speed Dedicated Shared Channel Knh chia s ring tc cao
Truy nhp gi tc cao

HS-PDSCH High-Speed Physical Dedicated Shared Knh chia s ring vt l


Channel
tc cao
HSS
Home Subscriber Server
Server thu bao nh
HS-SCCH

High-Speed Shared Control Channel

HSUPA

High-Speed Uplink Packet Access

IDFT

Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

Knh iu khin chia s


tc cao
Truy nhp gi ng ln
tc cao
Bin i Fourier ri rc ngc

IFDMA
IFFT

Interleaved FDMA
Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

FDMA an xen
Bin i Fourier nhanh ngc

IMS

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Phn h a phng tin IP

IMT-2000

Thng tin di ng quc t 2000

IP

International Mobile
Telecommunications 2000
Internet Protocol

IPv4

IP version 4

Phin bn IP 4

IPv6

IP version 6

Phin bn IP 6

IR

Incremental Redundancy

Phn d tng

IRC

Interferrence Rejection Combining

Kt hp loi nhiu

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

Mng s a dch v tch hp

ITU

International Telecommunications Union Lin minh Vin thng quc t

ITU-R

International Telecommunications
Union- Radio Sector

Giao thc Internet

LCR

Low Chip Rate

Lin minh Vin thng quc t b


phn v tuyn
Giao din c s dng thng
tin gia RNC v mng li
Giao din c s dng thng
tin gia nt B v RNC
Giao din c s dng thng
tin gia cc RNC
Tc chip thp

LTE

Long Term Evolution

Pht trin di hn

MAC

Medium Access Control

iu khin truy nhp mi trng

Iu
Iub
Iur

MBMS
MBS
MBSFN

Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Dch v qung b a phng a


phng tin
Multicast Broadcast Service
Dch v a phng qung b

MCCH

Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency


Network
MBMS Control Channel

Mng a phng qung b n


tn s
Knh iu khin MBMS

MCE

MBMS Coordination Entity

Thc th iu phi MBMS

MCH

Multicast Control Channel

Knh iu khin a phng

MC-CDMA Multi Carrier- Code Division Multiple


Access
MC-WCDMA Multi Carrier- Wide band Code Division
Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo m


a sng mang
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
bng rng a sng mang

MDHO

Macro Diversity Handover

Chuyn giao phn tp v m

MICH

MBMS Indicator Channel

Knh ch th MBMS

MIMO

Multi-Input Multi-Output

Nhiu u vo nhiu u ra

ML

Maximum Likelihood

Kh ging cc i

MLD

Maximum Likelihood Detection

Tch sng kh ging cc i

MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service

Dch v nhn tin a phng tin

MMSE

Minimum Mean Square Error

MRC

Maximum Ratio Combining

Sai s bnh phng trung bnh


cc tiu
Kt hp t l cc i

MSC

Mobile Services Switching Center

MSCH

MBMS Scheduling Channel

Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch


v di ng
Knh lp biu MBMS

MTCH

MBMS Traffic Channel

Knh lu lng MBMS

Non-Acknowledgement

Khng cng nhn

NACK
NodeB

Nt B

nrTPS

Non-Real-Time Polling Service

Dch v thm d phi thi gian thc

OFDM

OOK

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access
On-Off Keying

Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s


trc giao
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn
s trc giao
Kha tt bt

OVSF

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

H s tri ph kh bin trc giao

PAPR

Peak to Average Power Ratio

PAR

Peak to Average Ratio

PARC

Per-Antenna Rate Control

T s cng sut nh trn cng


sut trung bnh
T s nh trn trung bnh (ging
nh PAPR)
iu khin tc cho mt anten

PCI

Precoding Control Indication

Ch th iu khin tin m ha

PDCCH

Physical Dedicated Control Channel

Knh iu khin ring vt l

OFDMA

PDCP

Packet-Data Convergence Protocol

Giao thc hi t s liu gi

PDSCH

Physical Downlink Shared Channel

Knh chia s ng xung vt l

PDU

Packet Data Unit

Khi s liu gi

PF

Proportional Fair

Cng bng t l (mt kiu lp biu

PHY

Physical Layer

Lp vt l

PRB

Physical Resource Block

Khi ti nguyn vt l

PS

Packet Switch

Chuyn mch gi

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Mng in thoi chuyn mch


cng cng
iu ch bin vung gc

QoS

Quality of Service

Cht lng dch v

QPSK

Quadtrature Phase Shift Keying

Kha chuyn pha vung gc

RAB

Radio Access Bearer

Knh mang truy nhp v tuyn

RAN

Radio Access Network

Mng truy nhp v tuyn

RAT

Radio Access Technology

Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn

RB

Resource Block

Khi ti nguyn

RF

Radio Frequency

Tn s v tuyn

RLC

Radio Link Control

iu khin lin kt v tuyn

RNC

Radio Network Controller

B iu khin mng v tuyn

RNTI

Radio Network Temporary Identity

ROHC

Robust Header Compression

Nhn dng tm thi mng v


tuyn
Nn tiu bn chc

RR

Round Robin

Quay vng

RRC

Radio Resource Control

iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn

RRM

Radio Resource Management

Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

RS

Reference Symbol

K hiu tham kho

RSN

Retransmission Sequence Number

S trnh t pht li

RTP

Real Time Protocol

Giao thc thi gian thc

rtPS

Real Time Polling Service

Dch v thm d thi gian thc

RU

Resource Unit

n v ti nguyn

RV

Redundancy Version

Phin bn d

SA

System Aspects

Cc kha cnh h thng

SAE

System Architecture Evolution

Pht trin kin trc mng

SC-FDMA
SCH

Single Carrier Frequency Division


Multiple Access
Synchronization channel

a truy nhp phn chia theo


tn s n sng mang
Knh ng b

SDMA

Spatial Division Multiple Access

SDU

Service Data Unit

a truy nhp phn chia theo


khng gian
n v s liu dch v

SF

Spreading Factor

H s tri ph

SFBC

Space Frequency Block Code

M khi khng gian tn s

SFN

Single Frequency Network

Mng tn s n

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Nt h tr GPRS phc v

SIC

Successive Interference Combining

Kt hp loi b nhiu ln lt

SIM

Subscriber Identity Module

Mun nhn dng thu bao

SINR
SMS

Signal to Interferdence plus Noise Ratio T s tn hiu trn nhiu cng


tp m
Short Message Service
Dch v nhn tin

SNR

Signal to Noise Ratio

T s tn hiu trn tp m

SOHO

Soft Handover

Chuyn giao mm

SRNS

Serving Radio Network Subsystem

Phn h mng v tuyn phc v

STBC

Space Time Block Code

M khi khng gian thi gian

STC

Space Time Code

M khng gian thi gian

STTD

Space Time Transmit Diversity

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TD-CDMA
TDD

Time Division -Code Division Multiple


Access
Time Division Duplex

TDM

Time Division Multiplex

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

Phn tp pht khng gian thi


gian
Giao thc iu khin truyn dn

TD-SCDMA Time Division-Synchronous Code


Division Multiple Access
TF
Transport Format

a truy nhp phn chia theo m


phn chia theo thi gian
Ghp song cng phn chia theo
thi gian
Ghp knh phn chia theo
thi gian
a truy nhp phn chia theo
thi gian
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
ng b - phn chia theo thi gian
Khun dng truyn ti

TFC

Transport Format Combination

Kt hp khun dng truyn ti

TFCI
TM

Transport Format Combination Indicator Ch th kt hp khun dng


truyn ti
Transparent Mode
Ch trong sut (cu hnh RLC)

TR

Technical Report

Bo co k thut

TrCH

Transport Channel

Knh truyn ti

TS

Technical Specication

c t k thut

TSG

Technical Specication Group

Nhm c t k thut

TSN

Transmission Sequence Number

S trnh t pht

TSTD

Time Switched Transmit Diversity

TTI

Transmission Time Interval

Phn tp pht chuyn mch theo


thi gian
Khong thi gian pht

UDSP

Switching point from uplink to downlink

UE

User Equipment

im chuyn mch t ng ln
sang ng xung
Thit b ngi s dng

UL

Uplink

ng ln

UM

Unacknowledged Mode

Ch khng cng nhn (cu


hnh RLC)

UMTS
USIM

Universal Mobile Telecommunications


System
UMTS Subcriber Identity Module

UTRA

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

UTRAN

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


Network

H thng thng tin di ng


ton cu
Mun nhn dng thu bao
UMTS
Truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS

WG

Wideband Code Division Multiple


Access
Working Group

Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t


UMTS
Giao din c s dng giao
tip gia nt B v UE
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
bng rng
Nhm cng tc

WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network

Mng ni vng khng dy

AMR

Adaptive Multirate

a tc thch ng

AMR-WB

Adaptive Multirate- Wide Band

a tc thch ng bng rng

VoIP

Voice over IP

Thoi qua IP

Uu
WCDMA

X2

Giao din gia cc eNodeB

ZC

Zadoff- Chu

ZF

Zero Forcing

Cng bc v khng

Chng 1

TNG QUAN PHT TRIN 3G, LTE


TRONG 3GPP V L TRNH TIN LN 4G

Cc h thng thng tin di ng 3G (gi tt l 3G) c trin


khai ti nhiu nc trn th gii. 3G+ ang c trin khai v 4G c
nghin cu c mt chun chung. L trnh pht trin t 3G ln 4G
ca 3GPP l mt l trnh di hn v c v th p o trong xu th cnh
tranh ca cc cng ngh thng tin di ng bng rng.
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm:
Qu trnh tiu chun ha WCDMA/HSPA trong 3GPP
K hoch nghin cu pht trin LTE
IMT-ADVANCED l l trnh tin ln 4G
Tng quan truy nhp gi tc cao HSPA
Tng quan LTE
Kin trc m hnh LTE
Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho sinh vin thng tin v cc
hot ng nghin cu v pht trin (R&D) 3G v l trnh ln 4G ang
c tin hnh trong 3GPP v bit c mt s cng ngh trin vng
cho 4G khc nh WiMAX. V WiMAX sinh vin c th c thm ti
liu tham kho WiMAX ca Hc vin CNBCVT.
hiu c chng ny sinh vin cn c k t liu c trnh
by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [1], [9], [10], [11],
[12], [14], [15], [16] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

14

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

1.1. M U

Chng ny s trnh by cc hot ng nghin cu v pht trin


(R&D) 3G v l trnh ln 4G ang c tin hnh trong 3GPP l t
chc quc t chu trch nhim cho vic pht trin v hi ha cc cc
tiu chun c pht hnh ca UMTS UTRA (WCDMA v TDSDMA). Qu trnh nghin cu pht trin UMTS ln 3G pht trin v
tin dn n 4G l vic a ra cng ngh HSPA (High Speed Packet
Access: a truy nhp gi tc cao) v LTE (Long term Evolution:
pht trin di hn) cho phn v tuyn v SAE (System Architecture
Evolution: pht trin kin trc h thng) cho phn mng.
Hin nay UMTS v ang trin khai trn th gii. 3GPP tin
hnh nghin cu ci thin hiu nng ca UMTS bng vic a ra
cc pht hnh R5, R6 v R7 vi cc tnh nng nh HSDPA, HSUPA
v MBMS. Mc tiu ca LTE l nghin cu pht trin hiu nng h
thng sau R6 RAN c th trin khai vo nm 2010. Cc nghin cu
ca LTE nhm gim gi thnh, tng cng h tr cho cc dch v li
nhun cao v ci thin khai thc bo dng cng nh cung cp dch
v. t c cc mc tiu ny cn a ra mt cng ngh v tuyn
tim nng mi cho php nng cao hiu sut ph tn, thng lng
ngi s dng v gim thi gian tr. Ngoi ra cng cn nghin cu
gim phc tp ca h thng (nht l i vi cc giao din) v
qun l ti nguyn v tuyn hiu qu d dng trin khai v khai
thc h thng.
1.2. QU TRNH TIU CHUN HA WCDMA/ HSPA TRONG 3GPP

1.2.1. 3GPP
3GPP c giao trch nhim tin hnh cng tc tiu chun ha
HSPA. Trc t chc quc t ny c giao nhim v tiu
chun ha cho WCDMA. Hot ng tiu chun ha cho
WCDMA/HSPA ca t chc ny t nm 1999 n nm 2006 c
tng kt theo thi gian a ra cc pht hnh trn hnh 1.1.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

Pht hnh 1999


(R3), 12/99

2000

Pht hnh 4
(R4) 03/01

2001

2002

Pht hnh 5
(R5) 03/02

2003

Pht hnh 6
(R6) 12/04

2004

2005

15

Pht hnh 7
(R7) 09/06

2006

Pht hnh 8
(R8)

2007

2008

Cc pht hnh
tip theo

2009

2010

Hnh 1.1. L trnh a ra cc pht hnh trong 3GPP


Mc pht trin u tin cho WCDMA t c vo cui nm
1999 khi pht hnh 1999 (R3) c cng b cha ng ton b cc
c t WCDMA. Pht hnh R4 c a ra sau vo u nm 2001.
Tip theo l pht hnh R5 c a ra vo nm 2002 v R6 vo nm
2004. Pht hnh R7 c a ra vo na cui ca nm 2006. 3GPP
lc u c bn nhm c t k thut khc nhau (TSG: Technical
Specifications Group) v sau l nm nhm chuyn t cc hot ng
GSM/EDGE vo 3GPP. Sau khi c cu li vo nm 2005, quay li cn
bn nhm TSG (hnh 1.2) sau y:
TSG RAN (Radio Access Network: mng truy nhp v tuyn).
TSG RAN tp trung ln giao din v tuyn v cc giao din bn trong
gia cc trm thu pht gc (BTS)/ cc b iu khin trm gc (RNC)
cng nh giao din gia RNC v mng li. TSG RAN chu trch
nhim cho cc tiu chun HSDPA v HSUPA

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

16

TSG CT (li v cc u cui). TSG CT tp trung ln cc vn


mng li cng nh bo hiu gia mng li v cc u cui
TSG SA (dch v v kin trc h thng). TSG SA tp trung ln
cc dch v v kin trc h thng tng th
TSG GERAN (GSM/EDGE RAN). TSG RAN tp trung ln cc
vn v RAN nhng cho giao din v tuyn da trn
GSM/GPRS/EDGE.
Cc i tc c t chc
Cc thnh vin
c l

C i din

Nhm iu phi n

TSG GERAN

TSG SA

TSG RAN

TSG CT

Cc nhm cng tc (WG)

Hnh 1.2. Cu trc 3GPP


Di TSG l cc nhm cng tc (WG: Working Group), ti y
cng tc nghin cu k thut thc s c tin hnh. Chng hn di
TSG RAN, ni nghin cu HSDPA v HSUPA, c nm nhm cng
tc sau y:
TS RAN WG1: chu trch nhim cho cc kha cnh v lp vt l
TS RAN WG2: chu trch nhim cho cc kha cnh lp 2 v lp 3
TSG WG3: chu trch nhim cho cc giao din bn trong RAN
TSG RAN WG4: chu trch nhim cho cc yu cu v hiu nng
v v tuyn
TSG RAN WG5: chu trch nhim cho kim tra u cui.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

17

Cc thnh vin ca 3GPP gm cc i tc c t chc. Cc hng


c nhn phi l thnh vin ca mt trong cc i tc c t chc v da
trn t chc ny h c quyn tham gia vo hot ng ca 3GPP. Di
y l cc i tc c t chc hin nay:
Lin minh cc gii php cng ngh vin thng (ATIS) t M
Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u (ETSI) t chu u
Lin hip cc tiu chun thng tin Trung Quc (CCSA) t
Trung Quc
Lin hip gii cng nghip v kinh doanh v tuyn (ARIB) t
Nht Bn
y ban cng ngh vin thng (TTC) t Nht Bn
Lin hip cng ngh vin thng (TTA) t Hn Quc
3GPP to lp ni dung k thut ca cc c t, nhng chnh cc
i tc c t chc s cng b cng vic ny. iu ny cho php c
c cc tp c t ging nhau ti tt c cc vng trn th gii v v
th m bo ph bin trn tt c cc lc a. Ngoi cc i tc c t
chc, cn c cc i tc c gi l i din th trng nh UMTS
Forum, l b phn ca 3GPP
Cng tc trong 3GPP c xy dng xung quanh cc danh mc
cng tc (nghin cu), thng qua cc thay i nh c a ra trc
tip nh cc yu cu thay i i vi c t. i vi cc danh mc
ln hn, thng thng nghin cu kh thi c thc hin trc khi
tin n cc thay i thc t i vi cc c t.
1.2.2. Chun ha HSDPA trong 3GPP
Khi pht hnh R3 hon thnh, HSDPA v HSUPA vn cha c
a vo k hoch nghin cu. Trong nm 2000, khi thc hin hiu
chnh WCDMA v nghin cu R4 k c TD-SCDMA, ngi ta nhn
thy rng cn c mt s ci thin cho truy nhp gi. cho php pht
trin ny, nghin cu kh thi (danh mc nghin cu) cho HSDPA
c khi u vo thng 3 nm 2000. Nghin cu ny c bt u

18

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

theo cc nguyn tc ca 3GPP (phi c t nht bn hng ng h). Cc


hng ng h khi u nghin cu HSDPA gm Motorola v Nokia
thuc pha cc nh bn my v BT/Cellnet, T-Mobile v
NTTDoCoMo thuc pha cc nh khai thc.
Nghin cu kh thi kt thc ti phin hp ton th TSG RAN
v kt lun rng cc gii php c nghin cu cho thy c li. Trong
danh mc nghin cu HSDPA ny c cc vn c nghin cu
ci thin truyn dn s liu gi ng xung so vi cc c t R3. Cc
chuyn nh pht li lp vt l v lp biu da trn BTS c
nghin cu cng vi m ha v iu ch thch ng. Nghin cu cng
bao hm c mt s nghin cu v cng ngh pht thu nhiu anten di
tiu Nhiu u vo nhiu u ra (MIMO) cng vi chn nhanh
(FCS: Fast Cell Selection).
V nghin cu kh thi cho thy c th t c ci thin ng k
vi mc phc tp hp l, nn r rng l cn tip tc danh mc
nghin cu thc t pht trin cc c t. Sau khi danh mc cng tc
ny c thit lp, phm vi cng tc ny vn tun theo danh mc
nghin cu nhng MIMO c ly ra thnh mt danh mc nghin cu
ring v nghin cu kh thi FCS cng c bt u c lp. Danh
mc nghin cu HSDPA c nhiu nh bn my ng h hn v danh
mc nghin cu thc t ny nhn c s ng h t cc nh bn
my ln nh Motorola, Nokia v Ericsson. Trong qu trnh nghin
cu, tt nhin con s cc hng ng gp k thut cho qu trnh ny
cn ln hn nhiu. Mt nm sau, c t HSDPA R5 c pht hnh.
Tt nhin vn cn c cc hiu chnh cho HSDPA, nhng nhng chc
nng li c trong cc c t lp vt l. Nghin cu mt phn b
chm li do cc hot ng hiu chnh song song cn thit cho cc u
cui v mng R3 ang c trin khai. Nht l i vi cc kha cnh
giao thc, cc kim tra k lng c thc hin pht hin cc chi
tit cn hiu chnh v lm r ngha cc c t v y l trng hp i
vi cc thit b R3 trc khi bt u cc hot ng thng mi ti
chu u vo na cui ca nm 2002. Nghin cu cc b phn ca

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

19

giao thc HSDPA chim nhiu thi gan nht, trong nghin cu
tng thch ngc c bt u vo thng 3 nm 2004.

Trong s cc chuyn khc lin quan n HSDPA, danh mc


nghin cu MIMO khng hon thnh trong chng trnh khung thi
gian ca R5 v R6. Ngi ta vn tranh lun xem c xng ng a n
vo h thng hay khng v y l chuyn nm trong danh sch cc
chuyn ca R7. Nghin cu kh thi i vi FCS kt lun rng
li ch nhn c t n khng ng k so vi s tng thm phc
tp v th sau khi nghin cu ny khp li khng c danh mc nghin
cu no c a ra cho FCS. Trong khi tp trung ln FDD (ghp
song cng phn chia theo tn s), TDD (ghp sng cng phn chia
theo thi gian) cng c a vo danh mc nghin cu HSDPA k
c cc gii php tng t trong c hai ch TDD (TDD bng hp
v bng rng).
1.2.3. Chun ha HSUPA trong 3GPP
Mc d HSUPA l thut ng c s dng rng ri trn th
trng, trong qu trnh chun ha HSUPA thut ng ny c s
dng i ci tn knh ring ng ln tng cng (E-DCH:
Enhanced Uplink Dedicated Channel). Nghin cu c tin hnh
trong giai on hiu chnh HSDPA v c bt u bng danh mc
nghin cu v tng cng ng ln cho cc knh truyn ti vo
thng 9 nm 2002. T pha cc nh bn my, Motorola, Nokia, v
Ericsson l cc hng ng h khi xng nghin cu cho vn ny
trong 3GPP.
Cc k thut c nghin cu cho HSUPA (E-DCH) bao gm
(xem hnh 1.3):
HARQ lp vt l nhanh cho ng ln
Lp biu nhanh ng ln da trn nt B
di thi gian truyn dn (TTI) ng ln ngn hn
Thit lp TTI nhanh

20

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


Lp biu nhanh ng ln
da trn nt B
TTI ngn hn cho
ng ln
HARQ cho
ng ln

iu ch bc cao
hn
Thit lp knh ring
nhanh

Hnh 1.3. Cc k thut c xem xt nghin cu cho HSUPA


Sau mt thi gian nghin cu di v chi tit, bo co kt qu
nghin cu lm sng t cc li ch ca cc k thut c nghin
cu. Bo co cho thy rng khng c li ch tim nng khi s dng
iu ch bc cao trn ng ln v th iu ch thch ng khng
c a vo danh mc nghin cu thc t.
Danh mc nghin cu ny c kt thc vo thng ba nm 2004
vi khuyn ngh vic bt u danh mc nghin cu trong 3GPP c
t HARQ lp vt l nhanh v c ch lp biu da trn nt B cho
ng ln cng nh di TTI ngn hn. Ngoi ra c ch thit lp
cc knh DCH nhanh hn khng c a vo khuyn ngh ny,
nhng cc vn ny c cp trong cc danh mc nghin cu
khc i vi pht hnh 3GPP R6 da trn cc kt qu nhn c trong
giai on danh mc nghin cu ny. Hnh 1.4 cho thy cc k thut
c chn cho danh mc nghin cu HSUPA.
3GPP bt u danh mc nghin cu ng ln tng cng FDD
c t cc tnh nng ca HSUPA theo khuyn ngh ca bo co.
Trong thi gian ny nghin cu TDD cha c tin hnh, nhng n
s c nghin cu trong k hoch R7.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

21

Lp biu nhanh ng ln
da trn nt B
TTI ngn hn cho
ng ln
HARQ cho
ng ln

Hnh 1.4. Cc k thut c la chn cho danh mc nghin cu HSUPA


Do nghin cu nn tng chi tit v tt c thc hin trong
thi gian nghin cu 18 thng, cng nh khng cn bn vi cng tc
hiu chnh cc pht hnh trc, cc c t c tin trin nhanh v
phin bn tnh nng u tin c a ra cho cc c t li vo
thng 12 nm 2004. Phin bn ny vn cha phi l phin bn hon
thin cui cng, nhng n cha cc chc nng then cht v trn c s
cc chc nng ny c th tip tc tin hnh nghin cu hiu chnh v
hon thin chi tit.

Hnh 1.5. Th d v qu trnh tiu chun ha HSUPA trong 3GPP

22

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Thng 3 nm 2005, danh mc nghin cu ny chnh thc c


hon thin cho cc c t chc nng, ngha l c th chuyn sang
hiu chnh tnh nng ny.Trong cc thng cn li ca nm 2005 cc
vn m cng nh cc yu cu hiu nng c hon thin. Th
d v qu trnh tiu chun ha cho HSUPA c minh ha trn hnh
1.5. Bc cui cng cho HSUPA l hon thin tng thch ngc cho
giao thc. iu ny s cho php thit lp mu chun cho cc thit b
s c a vo th trng. Theo k hoch, qu trnh ny c tin
hnh vo thng 3 nm 2005, sau khi vic xem xt ASN.1 kt thc
(ASN.1 l ngn ng m ha bn tin giao thc c s dng trong mt
s giao thc ca 3GPP).
1.2.4. Pht trin tng cng ca HSUPA v HSDPA
Trong khi HSUPA ang c c t, vn c cc nghin cu pht
trin ci thin R6 HSDPA cng nh mt s lnh vc khc, nh:
c t hiu nng cho cc u cui tin tin hn s dng phn tp
thu v (hoc) cc my thu tin tin
Ci thin tm ph sng ng ln bng cch s dng bo hiu
phn hi ng ln
Cc ci thin trong lnh vc di ng ca HSDPA bng bo hiu
nhanh hn v thi gian x l ngn hn.
Mt danh mc nghin cu vi tn l kt ni lin tc cho cc
ngi s dng s liu gi c nh ngha cho R7 vi mc ch
gim chi ph trong cc thi gian phc v v duy tr lin kt nhng
khng c lung s liu lin tc cn thit. Mt th d cho kiu dch v
ny l dch v thai trn c s gi vi tn gi ph bin l VoIP.
Danh mc nghin cu MIMO vn tip tc c tin hnh vi
nhiu sut. Nguyn l then cht l c hai (hay nhiu) anten pht vi
cc lung thng tin khc nhau v sau s dng hai hay nhiu anten
kt hp vi x l tn hiu tin tin ti u cui phn tch cc lung
ny nh minh ha trn hnh 1.6.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

23

Thch thc ch yu l phi chng minh rng liu c nhn c


tng li ng k so li nhn c t cc ci thin hiu nng
trong R6 v cc gii php ci thin dung lng hin c bng cch b
sung thm my pht- chng hn chuyn t cu hnh ba on sang
cu hnh su on . Cc kt lun trong 3GPP cho n thi im ny
ch l trong mi trng v m, HSDPA vi MIMO c v khng
mang li li ch v dung lng so vi trng hp thu phn tp v my
thu tin tin ti u cui. V th thch thc ny vn cn tip tc c
xem xt trong R7 v cc pht hnh tip theo. Nghin cu s hng
n cc nh hn (cc vi m).

Hnh 1.6. Nguyn l MIMO vi hai anten pht v hai anten thu
Cc danh mc vn ang c nghin cu cho HSDPA hoc
HSUPA gm vn v gim tr thit lp cuc gi chuyn mch gi
(PS) v chuyn mch knh (CS) nhm rt ngn thi gian cn thit
chuyn t trng thi ri vo trng thi tch cc (Cell_DCH). V hu
ht cc bc trong WCDMA s vn gi nguyn khng lin quan n
cuc gi CS hay PS, nn cc ci thin ny mang li li ch cho c
HSDPA/HSUPA ln thit lp cuc gi thoi bnh thng. u tin
nghin cu tp trung ln xc nh cch thc ci thin thit lp cuc
gi thoi R3 v ng thi tin ti s dng cc phng php c th p
dng c cho cc thit b hin c. Sau nghin cu chuyn sang

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

24

cc ci thin ln hn khng s dng c cho cc thit b hin c


nhng tim nng hn v cc u cui s thay i. Ngha l cc thit b
c kh nng R7 s nhn c thm cc ci thin trong hu ht cc
trng hp. Pht trin HSPA trong R7 (cn gi l HSPA+) a n
tc 28Mbit/s cc i trn ng xung v 11 Mbit/s cc i trn
ng ln.
1.3. K HOCH NGHIN CU PHT TRIN LTE
Nghin cu pht trin tiu chun LTE c tin hnh trong cc
E-UTRAN TSG (Technical Specification Group: nhm c t k
thut). Trong cc cuc hp ca RAN TSG ch c mt vi vn k
thut l c tn thnh. Thm ch trong cc cuc hp sau cc vn
ny vn c xem xt li. 3GPP vch ra k hoch lm vic chi tit
cho cc nhm nghin cu TSG RAN. L trnh pht trin ca LTE gn
lin vi l trnh pht trin ca 3GPP. Hnh 1.7 cho thy l trnh pht
trin ca 3GPP.
R99 (R3)
12/1999

R4
3/2001

R5
3/2002

R6
5/20005

R7, R8...

Hnh 1.7. L trnh pht trin 3GPP


Cc vn nghin cu c thc hin trong hai TSG:
TSG RAN: Nghin cu tiu chun cho giao din v tuyn
TSG SA: Nghin cu kin trc mng.
K hoch nghin cu pht trin tiu chun LTE c cho trn
hnh 1.8.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G


Quyt nh s a truy
nhp, kin trc RAN

Quyt nh yu cu

12

2005
3
6
9
Quyt nh phn chia chc
nng RAN-CN

25

Thng qua TR
Hon thnh giai on 2: LTE

12
3
Quyt nh chi tit di ng
v cu trc knh

Nghin cu tnh
kh thi: LTE

2006
6

2007
12
3
Thng qua TR
Hon thnh giai on 2: SAE

c t li

Nghin cu tnh
kh thi: SAE

Hnh 1.8. K hoch nghin cu tiu chun E-UTRAN


Qu trnh nghin cu c tin hnh trong cc nhm TSG
3GPPLTE/SAE di s iu hnh ca PCG (Project Coordination
Group: nhm iu phi n 3GPP) c cho trn hnh 1.9.
PCG
(Nhm iu phi n)

TSG GERAN
(Mng truy
nhp v tuyn)

GERAN WG1
(Cc vn v
tuyn)

TSG RAN
(Mng truy
nhp v tuyn)

RAN WG1
(c t lp 1 v
tuyn)

GERAN WG2
(Cc vn giao
thc)

GERAN WG3
(o kim u cui)

TSG SA
(Cc vn Dch v
v h thng)

SA WG1
(Cc dch v)

TSG CT
(Mng li v u cui)

CT WG1
(MM/CC/SM (Iu))

SA WG2
(Kin trc)

RAN WG3
(c t IuB, Iur, Iu)

SA WG3
(An ninh)

CT WG3
(Tng tc vi mng
ngoi)

RAN WG4
(Hiu nng v tuyn)

SA WG4
(Codec)

CT WG4
(MAP/GTP/BCH/SS)

RAN WG5
(o kim hp chun
u cui)

SA WG5
(Qun l vin thng)

CT WG5
(Truy nhp dch v
m OSA)

Hnh 1.9. T chc ca nhm iu phi n 3GPP

TR 23.882 V1.1.0
Pht tri?n ki?n trc
m?ng
(SP-060152 )
Bin t?p: Vodafone

TR R3.018 V0.4.0
Giao di?n v ki?n trc
truy nh?p v tuy?n
EUTRA v EUTRAN
Bin t?p: Vodafone

Cc TR c?a nhm cng tc

TR25.813 V0.8.4
Cc v?n d? v? Giao th?c
v tuy?n EUTRA v
EUTRAN
(RP-060176)
Bin t?p: Nokia, LG, NEC,
Motorola, Samsung

SI TR: NTT DoCoMo


Tr?m g?c: Ericsson
?u cu?i: Motorola
RRM: Nokia
K?ch b?n h? th?ng
v tuy?n: Siemens

Hnh 1.10. Cc bo co k thut c thng qua trong 3GPP

TR25.814 V1.2.3
Cc v?n d? v? L?p v?t
l EUTRA
(RP-060178 )
Bin t?p: NTT DoCoMo

K?t qu?

TR25.912.1.3: Nghin ca tnh kh? thi c?a EUTRA v EUTRAN

TR 25.913 V7.3.0: Cc yu c?u v? EUTRA v EUTRAN

TS22.xxx V0.0.0
Cc yu c?u v? pht
tri?n ki?n trc h?
th?ng 3GPP
(S1-060602 )
Bin t?o: T-Mobile

26

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Nh trn hnh 1.9 ta thy PCG iu hnh bn nhm TSG (nhm


c t k thut) sau: (1) SA (Services and Architecture: dch v v h
thng), (2) CT (Core Network and Terminals: mng li v cc u
cui), (3) GERAN (GSM EDGE: mng truy nhp v tuyn GSM
EDGE), (4) RAN (Radio Access Network: mng truy nhp v tuyn).

Hnh 1.10 cho thy cc TR (bo co k thut) c thng qua


trong 3GPP.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

27

1.4. IMT-ADVANCED V L TRNH TIN TI 4G


Trong ITU, nhm cng tc 8F (ITU-R WP 8F) ang tin hnh
nghin cu cc h thng tip sau IMT-2000. Kh nng IMT-2000, cc
tng cng ca n v cc h thng bao gm cc giao din sau IMT2000 c cho trn hnh 1.11. Bng 1.1 cho thy mc tiu ca 4G.
Bng 1.1. Mc tiu ca 4G
Tc s liu

100Mbit/s cho vng rng, 1Gbps cho vng hp

Kt ni mng

Hon ton IP

Thng tin

Rng khp, di ng, lin tc

Tr

Thp hn 3G

Tr kt ni

Thp hn 500ms

Tr truyn dn

Thp hn 5ms

Gi thnh trn mt bit

1/10-1/100 thp hn 3G

Gi thnh c s h tng

Thp 3G (khong 1/10)

Hnh 1.11. Cc kh nng ca IMT-2000 v cc h thng sau


IMT-2000 theo khuyn ngh M.1654 ca ITU-R.

28

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ITU-R WP 8F tuyn b rng cn c cc cng ngh v tuyn di


ng mi cho cho cc kh nng cao hn IMT-2000, tuy nhin vn
cha ch r cng ngh no. Thut ng IMT-Adv c s dng cho cc
h thng sau IMT-2000. Tuy nhin IMT-Adv cng s c cc bc
pht trin ging nh IMT-2000 v cha cc kh nng ca cc h thng
trc . Qu trnh nh ngha IMT-Adv cn ang c khi tho
trong WP8F v s hon ton ging nh qu trnh nghin cu cc
khuyn ngh cho IMT-2000. N s da trn tp cc yu cu k thut
ti thiu, v cc tiu ch nh gi v khi u bng vic mi tt c cc
thnh vin ITU v cc t chc khc. Cc cng ngh c c s
c nh gi da trn cc tiu ch tha thun. Vic nh gi s
c tin hnh cng vi s cng tc ca cc t chc bn ngoi ITU
nh cc t chc nghin cu tiu chun. V qu trnh ny cn s ng
thun nn mt s cng ngh c th p dng cho IMT-Adv khng th
xc nh trc. N phi l s cn i gia: tnh kinh t khi m rng,
h tr cc mi trng ca cc ngi s dng khc nhau v kh nng
ca cc cng ngh khc nhau. Ngoi ra kh nng s dng my u
cui trn ton cu cng s l mt tiu ch quan trong.
Mt hot ng chnh trong ITU-R na lin quan n IMT-2000
Adv l vn xc nh ph tn s dng. iu ny s c tin hnh
trong WRC07 (World Radio Congress: Hi ngh v tuyn th gii).
Trong gii nghin cu, mt s n nghin cu ang c tin
hnh trong IMT-2000 Adv v th h sau ca truy nhp v tuyn.
Chng hn n Winner c h tr mt phn kinh ph t Lin minh
Chu u l n dnh cho nghin cu v vn ny. Khi nim
Winner c rt nhiu cc phn t rt gn vi LTE. Tuy nhin Winner
t mc tiu cho tc s liu cao hn v v th c thit k cho
bng thng rng hn 20 MHz. Mt im khc na l Winner s s
dng cc ch chuyn tip v a chng.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

29

Mt n khc ging nh n ca chu u ni trn l n


Tng lai (Future) ca Trung Quc tp trung ln xut giao din
v tuyn cho IMT-Adv. Tuy nhin la chn cc xut cui cng cho
IMT-Adv s l cc t chc pht trin tiu chun nh: ETSI, ARIB,
CWTS.. C quan tiu chun ton cu nh 3GPP tt nhin s c vai tr
quan trng trong vn hi ha cc xut t cc t chc tiu chun
cng nh t cc vng khc nhau.
Mc d 3GPP hin nay cha tin hnh nghin cu trc tip IMT2000 Adv, tuy nhin 3GPP s xut ln ITU-R. IEEE 802.16
(WiMAX) cng ang hon thin khi nim ca mnh v hng n
xut cho IMT-Adv trong 802.16m. Tng t 3GPP2 cng ang tin
ti xut IMT-Adv.
LTE l mt trong s cc con ng tin ti 4G. LTE s tn ti
trong giai on u ca 4G, tip theo n s l IMT Adv. LTE cho
php chuyn i t t t 3G UMTS sang giai on u 4G sau
sang IMT Adv. Chuyn i t t t LTE sang IMT Adv l cha kha
ca thnh cng trn th trng. Ngoi LTE ca 3GPP ta cng cn
nghin cu cc hng chuyn i khc sang 4G. 3GPP2 cng v
ang thc hin k hoch nghin cu LTE cho mnh, h thng do
3GPPP2 xut l UMB (Ultra Mobile Band). Chng trnh khung
ca k hoch ny bt u t nm 2000 v theo d kin th cc c t
tiu chun s c cng b vo thng 12 nm 2007. Ngoi ra WiMAX
cng c k hoch tin ti 4G. Ta c th m t qu trnh tin ti 4G ca
cc cng ngh hin c nh trn hnh 1.12.

30

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 1.12. Qu trnh pht trin cc cng ngh thng tin di ng n 4G


1.5. TNG QUAN TRUY NHP GI TC CAO (HSPA)
1.5.1 M u
Truy nhp gi tc cao ng xung (HSDPA: High Speed
Down Link Packet Access) c 3GPP chun ha ra trong R5 vi
phin bn tiu chun u tin vo nm 2002. Truy nhp gi ng ln
tc cao (HSUPA) c 3GPP chun ha trong R6 vo thng 12
nm 2004. C hai HSDPA v HSUPA c gi chung l HSPA. Cc
mng HSDPA u tin c a vo thng mi vo nm 2005 v
HSUPA c a vo thng mi vo nm 2007.
Tc s liu nh ca HSDPA lc u l 1,8Mbit/s v tng n
3,6 Mbit/s v 7,2Mbit/s vo nm 2006 v 2007, tim nng c th t
n trn 14,4Mbit/s nm 2008. Trong giai on u tc nh
HSUPA l 1-2Mbit/s trong giai on hai tc ny c th t n 45,7 Mbit/s vo nm 2008.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

31

HSPA c trin khai trn WCDMA hoc trn cng mt sng


mang hoc s dng mt sng mang khc t c dung lng cao
(xem hnh 1.13).

Hnh 1.13. Trin khai HSPA vi sng mang ring (f2) hoc chung
sng mang vi WCDMA (f1).
HSPA chia s chung h tng mng vi WCDMA. nng cp
WCDMA ln HSPA ch cn b sung phn mm v mt vi phn cng
trong BSC v RNC.
Lc u HSPA c thit k cho cc dch v tc cao phi thi
gian thc, tuy nhin R6 v R7 ci thin hiu sut ca HSPA cho VoIP
v cc ng dng tng t khc.

Hnh 1.14. Tc s liu khc nhau trn cc giao din


(trng hp HSDPA)

Khc vi WCDMA trong tc s liu trn cc giao din


nh nhau (384 kbps cho tc cc i chng hn), tc s liu
HSPA trn cc giao din khc nhau. Hnh 1.14 minh ha iu ny cho
HSDPA. Tc nh (14,4Mbit/s trn hai ms) ti u cui ch xy ra
trong thi im iu kin knh truyn tt v th tc trung bnh c
th khng qu 3Mbit/s. m bo truyn lu lng mang tnh cm

32

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ny, BTS cn c b m lu li lu lng v b lp biu truyn


lu lng ny trn h tng mng.
1.5.2. Kin trc giao din v tuyn HSDPA v HSUPA cho s liu
ngi s dng
Hnh 1.15 cho thy kin trc giao din v tuyn HSDPA v
HSUPA cho s liu ngi s dng. Mt phng bo hiu khng c
th hin trn hnh 1.3 (trong mt phng ny bo hiu c ni n
RLC sau c a ln DCH hay HSDPA hoc HSUPA). S liu t
cc dch v khc nhau c nn tiu IP ti PDCP (Packet Data
Convergence Protocol). MAC-hs (High Speed: tc cao) thc hin
chc nng lp biu nhanh da trn BTS. .

MAC-hs: High Speed MAC: MAC tc cao


MAC-e: E-DCH MAC: MAC knh E-DCH, MAC-es: thc th MAC knh E-DCH
sp t li th t

Hnh 1.15. Kin trc giao din v tuyn HSDPA v HSUPA


cho s liu ngi s dng

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

33

1.6. TNG QUAN LTE


C th tm tt cc nhim v nghin ca LTE v SAE nh sau:
V phn v tuyn (LTE):
Ci thin hiu sut ph tn, thng lng ngi s dng, tr
n gin ha mng v tuyn
H tr hiu qu cc dch v gi nh: MBMS, IMS
V phn mng (SAE):
Ci thin tr, dung lng v thng lng
n gin mng li
Ti u ha lu lng IP v cc dch v
n gin ha vic h tr v chuyn giao n cc cng ngh
khng phi 3GPP
Kt qu nghin cu ca LTE l a ra c chun mng truy
nhp v tuyn vi tn gi l E-UTRAN (Enhanced Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access Network: Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t
ton cu tng cng), n gin trong ti liu ny ta s gi chung l
LTE. Trong cc phn di y ta s xt tng quan kin trc LTE v k
hoch nghin cu n trong 3GPP.
1.6.1. Tc s liu nh
LTE s h tr tc nh tc thi tng ng k. Tc ny c
nh c ty theo kch thc ca ph c n nh.
LTE s m bo tc s liu nh tc thi ng xung ln n
100Mbit/s khi bng thng c cp pht cc i l 20MHz (5bps/Hz)
v tc nh ng ln 50 Mbit/s khi bng thng c cp pht cc
i l 20MHz (2,5bps/Hz). Bng thng LTE c cp pht linh hot
t 1,25 MHz ln n 20 MHz (gp bn ln bng thng 3G-UMTS).
Lu rng tc nh c th ph thuc vo s lng anten pht
v anten thu ti UE. Cc mc tiu v tc s liu nh ni trn c

34

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

c t trong UE tham chun gm: (1) kh nng ng xung vi hai


anten ti UE, (2) kh nng ng ln vi mt anten ti UE. Trong
trng hp ph c dng chung cho c ng ln v ng xung,
LTE khng phi h tr tc s liu nh ng xung v ng ln
ni trn ng thi.
1.6.2. Tr mt phng C v mt phng U
Cn gim ng k tr mt phng iu khin (mt phng C)
(chng hn bao gm tr chuyn i t trng thi ri sang trng thi
trao i s liu khng k tr tm gi l 100ms), (hnh 1.16).

Hnh 1.16. Th d v chuyn i trng thi trong kin trc E-UTRAN


LTE phi c thi gian chuyn i trng thi nh hn 100ms (nh
trong ch ri ca R6) vo trng thi tch cc (nh trong R6
Cell_DCH). N cng cn m bo thi gian chuyn i nh hn 50ms
t trng thi ng (nh trong R6 Cell_PCH) vo trng thi tch cc
(nh trong R6 Cell_DCH).
Cn m bo tr trong mt phng U nh hn 10ms. Tr mt
phng U c nh ngha l tr mt chiu gia mt gi ti lp IP trong
UE (hoc nt bin ca UTRAN) n lp IP trong nt bin ca
UTRAN (hoc UE). Nt bin ca UTRAN l nt giao din UTRAN
vi mng li. Chun phi m bo tr mt phng U ca LTE nh hn
5ms (hnh 1.17) trong iu kin khng ti (ngha l mt ngi s
dng vi mt mt lung s liu) i vi gi nh (chng hn ti tin

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

35

bng khng cng vi tiu ). R rng rng cc ch n nh bng


thng ca LTE c th nh hng ng k ln tr.

eNodeB: Nt B c thm cc tnh chc nng b sung so vi nt B ca WCDMA/HSPA

Hnh 1.17. Tr mt phng U


1.6.3. Thng lng s liu
Thng lng ng xung trong LTE s gp ba n bn ln
thng lng ng xung trong R6 HSDPA tnh trung bnh trn mt
MHz. Cn lu rng thng lng HSDPA trong R6 c xt cho
trng hp mt anten ti nt B vi tnh nng tng cng v mt my
thu trong UE; trong khi LTE s dng cc i hai anten ti nt B v
hai anten ti UE. Ngoi ra cng cn lu rng khi bng thng cp
pht tng, thng lng cng tng.
Mt khc thng lng ng ln trong LTE cng gp hai n ba
ln thng lng ng ln ca R6 HSUPA tnh trung bnh trn mt
MHz. Trong gi thit rng R6 HSUPA s dng mt anten pht ti
UE v hai anten thu ti nt B; cn ng ln trong LTE s dng cc
i hai anten pht ti UE v hai anten thu ti nt B.
1.6.4. Hiu sut ph tn
LTE phi m bo tng ng k hiu sut ph tn v tng tc
bit ti bin trong khi vn m bo duy tr cc v tr t trm hin c
ca UTRAN v EDGE.
Trong mng c ti, hiu sut ph tn knh ng xung ca LTE
phi gp 3 n bn ln R6 HSDPA tnh theo bit/s/Hz/trm. Trong
gi thit rng R6 HSDPA s dng mt anten ti nt B v mt my thu,
cn LTE s dng 2 anten ti nt B v mt anten ti UE.

36

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hiu sut ph tn knh ng ln trong E-UTRAN phi gp ba


n bn ln R6 HSUPA tnh theo bit/s/Hz/trm vi gi thit HSUPA
s dng hai anten ti nt B v mt anten ti UE cn LTE s dng hai
anten ti nt B v hai anten ti UE.
Cn lu rng s khc bit v hiu sut ph tn trn ng
xung v ng ln l do mi trng khai thc khc nhau gia ng
xung v ng ln. Thng thng ng ln rt nhy cm vi gim
cp knh nh nhiu a ng v.v... v th gi thnh m bo hiu
qu tch sng trong ng ln cao hn trong ng xung.
LTE cn h tr s n nh bng thng kh nh c, chng hn
5, 10, 20 v c th c 15 MHz. Cng cn xem xt c vic nh c bng
thng 1,25 hay 2,5 MHz trin khai trong cc vng bng thng
c cp pht hp.
Bng 1.2 v 1.3 cho thy so snh thng s tc v hiu sut s
dng bng tn gia LTE v HSPA trn ng xung v ng ln.
Bng 1.2. So snh thng s tc v hiu sut s dng ph tn gia
LTE trn ng xung v HSDPA
HSDPA (R6)

LTE

ch LTE/ t

Tc nh (Mbit/s)

14,4

144

100/ t

Hiu sut ph tn (bit/Hz/s)

0,75

1,84

3-4 ln HSDPA/ t 2,5

Thng lng ngi s dng


bin

0,006

0,0148

2-3ln HSDPA/t 2,5

Bng 1.3. So snh thng s tc v hiu sut s dng ph tn gia


LTE trn ng ln v HSDPA
HSUPA (R6)

LTE

ch LTE/ t

Tc nh (Mbit/s)

5,7

57

50/ t

Hiu sut ph tn (bit/Hz/s)

0,26

0,67

2-3 ln HSUPA/ t 2,6

Thng lng ngi s dng bin

0,006

0,015

2-3 ln HSDPA/t 2,5

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

37

1.6.5. H tr di ng
Hiu nng LTE cn c ti u ha cho cc ngi s dng di
ng ti cc tc thp t 0 n 15 kmph (kmph: km/gi). Cc ngi
di ng ti cc tc cao t 15 n 120kmph cn c m bo hiu
nng cao tha mn. Cng cn h tr di ng ti cc tc t 120
kmph n 350 kmph (thm ch n 500 kmph ph thuc vo bng tn
c cp pht). Vic m bo tc 350 kmph cn thit duy tr
cht lng dch v chp nhn c cho cc ngi s dng cn c
cung cp dch v trong cc h thng xe la tc cao. Trong trng
hp ny cn s dng cc gii php v m hnh knh c bit. Khi thit
lp cc thng s lp vt l, LTE cn c kh nng duy tr kt ni ti tc
ln n 350 kmph thm ch ln n 500 kmph, ph thuc bng tn
c cp pht.
LTE cng cn h tr cc k thut cng nh cc c ch ti u
ha tr v mt gi khi chuyn giao trong h thng. Cc dch v thi
gian thc nh ting c h tr trong min chuyn mch knh trc
y phi c E-UTRAN h tr trong min chuyn mch gi vi cht
lng ti thiu phi bng vi cht lng c h tr bi UTRAN
(chng hn tc bit m bo) trn ton b di tc . nh hng ca
chuyn giao trong h thng ln cht lng (thi gian ngt) phi nh
hn hay bng cht lng c cung cp trong min chuyn mch
knh ca GERAN.
1.6.6. Vng ph
LTE phi h tr linh hot cc kch bn ph sng khc nhau trong
khi vn m bo cc mc tiu nu trong cc phn trn vi gi thit
s dng li cc i trm UTRAN v tn s sng mang hin c.
Thng lng, hiu sut s dng ph tn v h tr di ng ni trn
phi p ng cc c bn knh 5 km v vi gim nh cht lng i
vi cc c bn knh 30 km.

38

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Nh ni trn LTE phi hot ng trong cc bng thng 1,25


MHz; 2,5MHz; 5MHz; 10MHz; 15MHz; v 20MHz trn c ng
xung ln ng ln. Cn m bo lm vic c ch n bng ln
song bng.
H thng phi h tr truyn ni dung trn ton th cc ti nguyn
bao gm c cc ti nguyn kh dng i vi nh khai thc (c gi l
Radio Band Resources) trong cng mt bng tn hoc trong cc bng
tn khc nhau trn c ng ln ln ng xung. H thng phi h
tr lp biu cng sut, lp biu thch ng...
1.6.7. MBMS tng cng
MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service: Dch v a
phng qung b a phng tin) c a vo cc dch v ca LTE.
Cc h thng LTE phi m bo h tr tng cng cho MBMS. LTE
phi h tr cc ch MBMS tng cng so vi hot ng ca
UTRA. i vi trng hp n phng, LTE phi c kh nng t
c cc mc tiu cht lng nh h thng cc h thng UTRA khi
lm vic trn cng mt i trm.
H tr MBMS ca LTE cn m bo cc yu cu sau: (1) ti s
dng cc phn t lp vt l: gim phc tp u cui, s dng
cc phng php a truy nhp, m ha, iu ch c bn p dng cho
n phng cho cc dch v MBMS v cng s dng tp ch bng
thng ca UE cho cc khai thc n phng cho MBMS, (2) Thoi v
MBMS: gii php LTE cho MBMS phi cho php tch hp ng thi
v cung cp hiu qu thoi dnh ring v cc dch v MBMS cho
ngi s dng; (3) Khai thc MBMS n bng: phi h tr trin khai cc
sng mang LTE mang cc dch v MBMS trong ph tn n bng.
1.6.8. Trin khai ph tn
Yu cu LTE lm vic vi cc kch bn trin khai ph tn sau y:
ng tn ti trn cng vng a l hoc cng i trm vi
GERAN/UTRAN trn cc knh ln cn

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

39

ng tn ti trn cc knh ln cn hoc chng ln ti bin gii


cc nc
LTE phi c kh nng hot ng c lp (khng cn sng mang khc)
Tt c cc bng tn u c cho php tun theo pht hnh v cc
nguyn tc bng tn c lp
Cn lu rng trong trng hp cc yu cu iu phi bin gii,
cc vn khc nh cc gii php lp biu cn c xem xt cng vi
cc hot ng khc ca lp vt l.
1.6.9. ng tn ti v tng tc vi cc 3GPP RAT
LTE phi h tr tng tc vi cc h thng 3G hin c v vi cc
h khng theo chun 3GPP. LTE phi m bo kh nng ng tn ti
gia cc nh khai thc trong cc bng lin k v trn bin gii.
Tt c cc u cui LTE h tr khai thc UTRAN/GERAN phi
c kh nng h tr o, chuyn giao n/t c hai h thng UTRAN v
GERAN. Ngoi ra LTE cn phi h tr o gia cc RAT (Radio
Access Technology: cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn) vi nh hng
chp nhn c ln s phc tp u cui v hiu nng mng, chng
hn bng cch cung cp cho cc UE cc c hi o trn ng ln v
ng xung thng qua lp biu.
V th vn t ra y khng ch l vic tng thch ngc m
c vic h tr c ch chuyn giao gia cc mng 3GPP khc nhau.
Ngoi ra cng cn nhn mnh rng HSDPA vn l mt gii php 3G
t 3GPP v n hon ton tng thch ngc vi cc mng W-CDMA.
Tng thch ngc l ht sc cn thit trong LTE, nhng cng cn
xem xt cn thn trong mi tng quan vi cc tng cng v hiu
nng v kh nng. Vn tng thch gp phi y cng ging nh
cc vn tng thch c gii quyt gia UTRAN v GERAN
(da trn GSM).

40

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Di y l cc yu cu cho tng tc mng:


Thi gian ngt chuyn giao cc dch v thi gian thc gia
LTE v UTRAN/GERAN khng c qu 300ms
Thi gian ngt chuyn giao cc dch v phi thi gian thc gia
LTE v UTRAN/GERAN khng c qu 500ms
Cc thit b u cui khng tch cc (chng hn ti trng thi R6
Cell_PCH) h tr UTRAN/GERAN c b sung thm LTE khng nht
thit ch gim st cc bn tin tm gi t mt trong s UTRAN,
GERAN v LTE
Cc yu cu trn c t ra cho cc trng hp trong cc
mng UTRAN v/hoc GERAN cung cp h tr cc chuyn giao
LTE. Thi gian chuyn giao ni trn c coi l gi tr cc ti thiu,
cc gi tr ny c th thay i khi kin trc tng th v lp vt l c
nh ngha chi tit.
1.6.10. Kin trc v qu trnh chuyn i
Kin trc ca LTE phi c s ng trong TSG (Technical
Specification Group: nhm c t k thut). Kin trc E-UTRAN phi
c xy dng trn c s chuyn mch gi mc d phi h tr cc
dch v thi gian thc v lu lng loi hi thoi. Kin trc
E- UTRAN phi n gin ha v gim thiu s lng cc giao din.
LTE phi m bo chuyn i kinh t t kin trc v giao din v
tuyn UTRA ca R6. Thit k mng LTE phi c thc hin theo
mt kin trc LTE duy nht da trn gi (kin trc khng dy ton IP
s ng tr trong cc mng LTE).
Kin trc LTE phi gim thiu xy ra mt im ca nhiu s c
v v th phi c cc bin php d phng. Kin trc LTE phi h tr
cc yu cu QoS u cui u cui. Ngoi ra cc giao thc thng tin
ng trc phi c ti u ha trong LTE. Cc c ch QoS phi xt
n cho cc kiu lu lng khc nhau s dng hiu qu bng thng.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

41

LTE phi h tr cc kiu dch v khc nhau nht l trong min PS


(chng hn VoIP, hin din). E-UTRAN (hay vit gn l E-RAN)
phi c thit k gim thiu cc thay i tr (Jitter) cho thng tin
gi TCP/IP.
1.6.11. Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn
Nh cp trn, qun l ti nguyn v tuyn i hi : (1) h
tr tng cng QoS u cui u cui; (2) H tr hiu qu truyn cc
lp cao; (3) H tr chia s ti v qun l chnh sch trn cc cng
ngh truy nhp v tuyn (RAT) khc nhau.
1.6.12. Cc vn v mc phc tp
LTE phi tha mn hiu nng yu cu. Ngoi ra mc phc tp
cng phi c gim thiu n nh h thng v tng tc vi cc
giai on trc. iu ny cng cho php gim gi thnh thit b u
cui v UTRAN. thc hin cc yu cu trn ta cn lu cc vn
sau.
gim phc tp trong qu trnh thc hin c v phn cng ln
phn mm, thit k LTE phi gim thiu s lng cc ty chn v
m bo loi b cc tnh nng bt buc tha. Mt vn quan trng
na l phi gim thiu s lng cc trng hp kim tra cn thit,
chng hn gim s lng cc trng thi ca cc giao thc, gim thiu
s lng cc th tc, cc thng s v tnh ht.
Cc yu cu i vi LTE phi gim thiu mc phc tp ca
UE lin quan n kch thc, trng lng v dung lng acqui (ch
ch v ch tch cc) nhng vn m bo cc dch v tin tin
ca LTE. tha mn cc yu cu ni trn cn lu cc yu t sau:
Cn xem xt mc lin quan n kh nng h tr nhiu RAT
(GERAN/UTRAN/LTE) khi xem xt phc tp ca cc tnh nng LTE
Cn gim thiu cc tnh nng bt buc
Khng c c cc c t kp hoc tha cho cc tnh nng bt
buc khi thc hin cng mt nhim v

42

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Phi gim thiu s lng cc ty chn. Tp cc ty chn phi kh


thi cho cc kiu UE v cc kh nng khc nhau. Cc kiu UE/cc kh
nng khc nhau c s dng p ng mc phc tp ph thuc
vo hiu nng. chng hn vic s dng nhiu anten.
1.7. KIN TRC M HNH LTE
Hai kin trc m hnh c cc 3GPP WG (nhm cng tc ca
3GPP) xut cho kin trc LTE c cho trn cc hnh 1.18, 1.19
v 1.20.

Hnh 1.18. Kin trc m hnh B1 ca E-UTRAN


cho trng hp khng chuyn mng

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

43

Trn m hnh kin trc hnh 1.18 cc k hiu c s dng nh


sau. R1, R2 v R3 l tn ca cc im tham kho. Gx+ k hiu cho Gx
pht trin hay m rng. PCRF1 (PCRF: Policy and Charging Rules
Function: chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch) th hin
chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch pht trin. Cc ng
ni v cc vng trn khng lin tc th hin cc phn t v cc giao
din mi ca kin trc LTE.

Hnh 1.19. Kin trc m hnh B2 ca E-UTRAN trong Rh m bo


chc nng chun b chuyn giao gim thi gian ngt
Trn m hnh kin trc hnh 1.20 cc k hiu c s dng nh
sau. Rh th hin chc nng chun b chuyn giao gim thi gian
ngt. D kin giao din ny s tng i tng qut m bo cc t

44

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hp khc nhau ca RAT. Gx+ th hin Gx c thm h tr di ng gia


cc h thng truy nhp (Inter AS). Wx+ k hiu cho Wx c thm h tr
di ng gia cc h thng. Inter AS MM (Inter Access System
Mobility Management) k hiu cho qun l di ng gia cc h thng
truy nhp. PCRF2 th hin chc nng quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch,
trn hnh v chc nng ny c th hin hai ln ch th hin cu
hnh. Cc ng trn v cc ng ni khng lin tc th hin cc
phn t/giao din mi ca kin trc E-UTRAN.

Hnh 1.20. Kin trc m hnh LTE theo TR 23.822


M hnh 1.20 th hin kin trc theo TR 23.882 trong cc giao
din c c c t chi tit.

Chng 1: Tng quan pht trin 3G

45

1.8. TNG KT
Chng ny xt tng quan cc cc qu trnh pht trin t 3G
WCDMA ln 3G HSPA (3G+) v LTE (E3G/4G-). Cc cng ngh
truy nhp HSPA vn cn da trn cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn
CDMA ca WCDMA, tuy nhin cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn
ca LTE s dng a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao
(OFDMA), s c xt c th trong cc chng sau ca gio trnh. C
th ni HSPA l hu 3G cn LTE l tin 4G. Trong chng ny ta
cng xt l trnh tin ln 4G. Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cho 4G
s c th gi l IMT2000 Adv (IMT2000 tin tin). Hin nay c
nhiu d n v sut nghin cu tm cng ngh thch hp cho 4G,
tuy nhin cha c sut no c chp nhn v th cha c chun
cho 4G. Hy vng trong thi gian gn nht cc t chc quc t ln nh
3GPP, 3GPP2 hoc WiMAX tp trung ln nghin cu cng ngh c
th cho 4G t c cc tiu chun cho 4G. Chng ny cng xt
tng quan qu trnh xy dng chun cho HSPA v LTE cng nh cc
cng ngh ny. Nhn chung mc tiu ca cc cng ngh mi ny u
nhm ci thin cc thng s hiu nng v gim gi thnh so vi cng
ngh trc n:
Tng tc s liu nh
Tng tc bit ti bin
Ci thin hiu nng sut s dng ph tn
Gim tr vng
S dng bng thng linh hot
Gim chi ph u t mng
Gim mc phc tp, gi thnh cng nh tiu th cng sut ca
u cui

46

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Tng thch vi cc pht hnh trc v vi cc cng ngh v


tuyn khc.
Ti u ha cho tc di ng thp ng thi h tr tc di
ng cao.
Chng ny cng xt tng quan nguyn l hot ng, m hnh
giao thc, m hnh mng cng nh mt s tnh nng c th ca
HSPA v LTE.
1.9. CU HI
1. Trnh by qu trnh tiu chun ha WCDMA/HSPA trong 3GPP
2. Trnh by k hoch nghin cu pht trin LTE trong 3GPP
3. Trnh by khi nim IMT-ADVANCED l l trnh tin ln 4G
4. Trnh by tng quan nguyn l hot ng, m hnh giao thc,
m hnh mng cng nh mt s tnh nng c th ca HSPA
5. Trnh by tng quan nguyn l hot ng, m hnh giao thc
cng nh mt s tnh nng c th ca LTE
6. Trnh by tng quan kin trc m hnh mng ca LTE

Chng 2

TRUYN DN TC S LIU CAO


TRONG THNG TIN KHNG DY BNG RNG

Mc ch chnh ca pht trin 3G v tin n 4G l cung cp cc


tc s liu cao hn cho nhng ngi s dng u cui so vi 3G
hin ti. iu ny khng ch bao hm kh nng cc tc nh cao
hn m cn m bo tc cao hn ny trn ton b k c ti bin .
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny s bao gm:
- Cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc cao
- Cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc s liu cao
- Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong bng thng hn ch v iu
ch bc cao
- nh hng ca mi trng truyn sng ln truyn dn khng
dy bng rng

- Cn bng chng phainh chn lc tn s


- Truyn dn a sng mang cho khng dy bng rng
Mc ch chng ny nhm gip cho bn c hiu c cc hn
ch c bn lin quan n vn : cc tc s liu no thc t t
c trong cc kch bn khc nhau. y l cc hiu bit nn tng cho
cc phn sau ca chng cng nh cc chng khc lin quan n cc
phng tin khc nhau tng cc tc s liu kh dng trong cc
kch bn thng tin di ng khc nhau.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

48

hiu c chng ny bn c cn hc k cc t liu c


trnh by trong chng v tham kho thm cc ti liu [9], [10], [11],
[14], [15].
2.1. CC HN CH C BN I VI TRUYN DN TC
S LIU CAO
Shannon a ra cng c l thuyt xc nh tc cc i
c gi l dung lng cc i m thng tin c th c truyn trn
mt knh thng tin cho trc. Mc d trong trng hp tng qut,
cng c ny kh phc tp, tuy nhin trong trng hp c bit khi
thng tin c truyn trn mt knh (hay mt ng truyn v tuyn)
ch b nh hng ca tp m Gauss trng cng, dung lng knh C
c xc nh bi mt biu thc kh n gin sau:
S

C = Bw .log 2 1 +
N

(2.1)

Trong :
+ BW l bng thng kh dng cho truyn tin
+ S k hiu cho cng sut tn hiu thu
+ N k hiu cho cng sut tp m trng nh hng xu ln tn
hiu thu.
T (2.1) ta thy rng cc yu t cn bn hn ch tc s liu
kh dng l cng sut thu kh dng, hay tng qut hn l t s tn hiu
trn tp m S/N kh dng v bng thng kh dng Bw. lm r hn
cch thc m cc nhn t trn hn ch tc s liu kh dng, ta gi
thit rng thng tin s dng mt tc truyn tin R no . Cng sut
tn hiu thu c khi ny c th c biu din l: S = Eb.R, trong
Eb l nng lng tn hiu thu trn bit. Ngoi ra cng sut tp m c th
c biu din l N = N0.Bw, trong N0 l mt ph cng sut tp
m o bng W/Hz.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

49

R rng rng tc thng tin khng bao gi vt qu dung lng


knh. Da trn iu ny v kt hp vi biu thc (2.1) ta c bt
ng thc sau:

E .R
S

R C = Bw .log 2 1 + = Bw 1 + b
N
N 0 .Bw

(2.2)

Hay, nu nh ngha hiu sut s dng bng thng (mc s


dng bng thng) = R / Bw , ta c:

log 2 1 + .

Eb

N0

(2.3)

Ta c th vit li bt ng thc trn nhn c bin di cho


nng lng thu ca mt bit thng tin c chun ha theo mt ph
cng sut tp m khi mc s dng bng thng cho trc nh sau:
Eb 2 1
Eb
min =

N0
N0

(2.4)

Biu thc ngoi cng bn phi, t s Eb/N0 yu cu ti my thu, l


mt hm ph thuc vo mc s dng bng thng (hnh 2.1). T
hnh 2.1 ta thy, i vi mc s dng bng thng nh hn 1, ngha
l cc tc thng tin nh hn nhiu so vi bng thng c s dng,
Eb/N0 yu cu t thay i theo . i vi mt ph cng sut tp m
cho trc, mi s tng tc thng tin u tng ng vi tng tng
i cng sut thu yu cu S = Eb/R ti my thu. Mt khc, i vi cc
mc s dng bng thng ln hn mt, Eb/N0 yu cu tng nhanh
theo . V th trong trng hp cc tc s liu c cng gi tr hoc
ln hn bng thng, mi s tng tc thng tin khng km theo tng
bng thng kh dng s dn n tng tng i kh ln cng sut tn
hiu thu yu cu cc tiu.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

50
20

Vng hn ch
cng sut

15

Vng hn ch
bng thng

10
5
0

0,1

1
Mc s dng bng thng,

10

Hnh 2.1. Eb/N0 yu cu ti thiu ti my thu


ph thuc vo mc s dng bng thng
2.1.1. Truyn dn tc s liu cao mc cao trong cc kch bn
gii hn bi tp m
T phn tch trn, ta c th rt ra mt s kt lun lin quan n
vic m bo tc s liu cao trong cc h thng thng tin di ng
khi tp m l ngun gim cht lng ng truyn v tuyn chnh
(kch bn b gii hn bi tp m).
Trong cc kch bn ny, tc s liu c cung cp s lun
lun b gii hn bi cng sut thu kh dng hay trong trng hp
tng qut l t s tn hiu thu trn tp m. Ngoi ra mi s tng
tc s liu kh dng trong mt bng thng cho trc u i
hi t nht l tng cng mt lng tng i cng sut tn hiu
thu. ng thi nu c th m bo cng sut thu kh dng, th
(t nht l theo l thuyt) c th m bo mi tc s liu trong
mt bng thng hn ch kh dng.
Trong trng hp mc s dng bng thng thp, ngha l
chng no tc s liu ca ng truyn v tuyn cn thp hn
bng thng kh dng, mi s tng tc s liu i hi tng

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

51

tng i gn nh cng mt lng cng sut thu. Trng hp


ny c gi l hot ng b gii hn bi cng sut (ngc vi
hot ng b gii hn bi bng thng s xt di y), v trong
trng hp ny, tng bng thng kh dng khng nh hng
ng k ln vic cng sut thu cn thit i vi mt tc s liu
cho trc.
Tri li, trong trng hp mc s dng bng thng cao, ngha
l trong trng hp cc tc s liu c cng gi tr hay ln hn
bng thng kh dng, mi s tng thm tc s liu u i hi
tng tng i kh ln cng sut tn hiu thu tr phi bng thng
c tng t l vi tng tc s liu. Trng hp ny c gi
l hot ng b gii hn bi bng thng v trong trng hp ny
mi s tng bng thng s gim cng sut tn hiu thu yu cu
cho mt tc s liu cho trc.
V th s dng hiu qu cng sut tn hiu thu hay trong
trng hp tng qut t s tn hiu trn tp m kh dng, bng thng
truyn dn t nht phi c cng gi tr nh tc s liu cn m bo.
Gi thit rng cng sut pht khng i, cng sut tn hiu thu c
th c tng ln bng cch gim khong cch gia my pht v my
thu, hay gim suy hao tn hiu trn ng truyn t my pht n my
thu. Khi ny trong kch bn b gii hn bi cng sut, t nht v mt l
thuyt ta c th tng tc s liu kh dng bng cch gim khong
cch ngha l vng ph. Trong h thng thng tin di ng iu ny
tng ng vi gim kch thc v v th cn nhiu trm hn bao
ph cng mt din tch. c bit, vic m bo cc tc s liu vi
cng gi tr hay ln hn bng thng kh dng (mc s dng bng
thng cao) s i hi gim kch thc rt ln. Mt cch khc l ch
chp nhn tc s liu cao cho cc u cui ti tm ch khng
phi trn ton b .
Cch khc, tng tng cng sut tn hiu thu cho mt cng sut
pht cho trc l s dng nhiu anten ti pha thu (phn tp anten

52

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

thu). C th s dng nhiu anten thu ti trm gc (cho ng ln) hay


nhiu anten thu ti u cui di ng (cho ng xung). Bng cch
kt hp cc tn hiu thu mt cch hp l, t s tn hiu trn tp m c
th c tng t l vi s anten thu v th cho php t c cc tc
s liu cao hn i vi mt khong cch pht thu cho trc.
a anten cng c th c p dng ti u pht, thng ti trm
gc, v c s dng tp trung ton b cng sut pht v pha
anten thu (n u cui di ng ch). Gii php ny cng tng cng
sut tn hiu thu v cho php t c cc tc s liu cao i vi
mt khong cch thu pht cho trc.
Tuy nhin vic cung cp cc tc s liu cao bng cch s dng
nhiu anten pht v anten thu ch hiu qu n mt mc nht nh,
ngha l chng no cc tc s liu ny cn b gii hn bi cng
sut ch khng phi bng thng. Bn ngoi im ny, cc tc s
liu bt u b bo ha v mi s tng tip s lng anten pht hay
anten thu mc d c ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m nhng s
khng m bo tng cc tc s liu. Tuy nhin tnh trng bo ha
tc s liu ny c th trnh c bng cch s dng ng thi
nhiu anten ti pha pht v pha thu bng s ghp knh khng gian
hay cn c gi l MIMO (Multi Input Multi Ouput a u vo a
u ra). Cc k thut a anten bao gm c ghp knh khng gian s
c xt chi tit trong chng Cc k thut a anten.
Mt gii php khc tng t s tn hiu trn tp m l gim cng
sut tp m hay gim mt ph cng sut tp m ti my thu.
Phng php ny c th t c bng cch thit k my thu tin tin
gim h s tp m.
2.1.2.Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong cc kch bn b gii hn
bi nhiu
Cc phn tch trn ch xt cho mi trng thng tin v tuyn b
nh hng ca tp m. Tuy nhin trong cc kch bn thng tin di ng

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

53

thc t, nhiu t cc ln cn (c gi l nhiu gia cc ) thng


gy gim cp ng truyn v tuyn ln hn tp m, nht l trong
trng hp nh v ti lu lng cao. Ngoi nhiu gia cc , cn
xy ra nhiu t cc truyn dn khc trong c xt (c gi l
nhiu ni ).
Xt v nhiu mt, nh hng nhiu ln ng truyn v tuyn
cng tng t nh nh hng ca tp m. Cc nguyn tc c xt
trong cc phn trn cng p dng c cho kch bn trong nhiu l
ngun gy gim cp ng truyn v tuyn chnh:
Khi cho trc bng thng, tc s liu cc i c th t c
b gii hn bi t s tn hiu trn nhiu.
Vic cung cp cc tc s liu ln hn bng thng kh dng
(mc s dng bng thng cao) s tn km t quan im cn
m bo t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao mt cch khng tng
xng.
Tng t nh cc kch bn i vi tp m, gim kch thc
cng nh cc k thut a anten l cc bin php then cht tng cc
tc s liu trong kch bn b gii hn bi nhiu:
Gim kch thc s gim s ngi s dng v v th s gim lu
lng trn mt . Nh vy gim mc nhiu tng i v v th
cho php t c cc tc s liu cao hn
Kt hp hp l cc tn hiu thu ti nhiu anten s tng t s tn
hiu trn nhiu sau kt hp anten
S dng to bp bng nhiu anten pht s tp trung cng sut pht
v pha my thu ch v dn n gim nhiu ln cc ng truyn
v tuyn khc v v th ci thin tng t s tn hiu trn nhiu
trong h thng.
Mt im khc bit quan trng gia nhiu v tp m l khc vi
tp m, nhiu thng c cu trc nht nh v th mt mc nht

54

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nh c th d bo c nhiu v c th loi b mt phn hay ton b


n. Chng hn mt tn hiu nhiu ln c th n t mt phng xc
nh v vy nu s dng x l khng gian bng nhiu anten ti pha
thu ta c th loi b n mt phn hay ton b (s xt trong chng
k thut a anten). Ngoi ra cng c th s dng cc khc bit v
ph gia tn hiu ch v tn hiu nhiu loi nhiu v gim
tng nhiu.
2.2. TRUYN DN TC S LIU CAO TRONG BNG
THNG HN CH V IU CH BC CAO
Nh phn tch trong phn trc, cung cp cc tc s liu cao
hn bng thng kh dng l khng kinh t, t quan im l n i hi
t s tn hiu trn tp m v t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao mt cch
khng tng xng ti my thu. Tuy vy bng thng thng l mt ti
nguyn khan him v t tin v trong mt s trng hp c th m
bo t s tn hiu trn tp m hay tn hiu trn nhiu cao, chng hn
trong cc mi trng nh vi lu lng thp. Cc h thng thng tin
di ng tng lai (pht trin ca 3G v 4G) phi c thit k tn
dng c cc kch bn ny, ngha l phi c kh nng cung cp s
liu cao trong mt bng thng c hn khi cc iu kin v tuyn
cho php.
Gii php n gin nht cung cp cc tc s liu cao trong
bng thng truyn dn cho trc l s dng iu ch bc cao, ngha l
m rng bng ch ci iu ch bao gm nhiu cch truyn tn hiu
hn nhm cho php truyn nhiu bit thng tin hn trn mt k hiu
iu ch.
Trong trng hp iu ch QPSK (s iu ch ny c s
dng cho ng xung ca WCDMA v cdma2000), bng ch ci
iu ch bao gm bn cch truyn tn hiu khc nhau. Bn cch

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

55

truyn tn hiu ny c m t bng bn im khc nhau trn mt mt


phng hai chiu (hnh 2.2a). Bng bn cch truyn tn hiu khc nhau,
QPSK cho php truyn 2 bit thng tin trn mt k hiu iu ch. Nu
m rng n iu ch 16QAM (hnh 2.2b) 4 bit thng tin c th c
truyn trn mt k hiu iu ch. M rng tip n 64QAM, 6 bit
thng tin c th c truyn trn mt k hiu iu ch (hnh 2.2c).
ng thi, bng thng ca tn hiu c pht khng ph thuc vo
kch thc ca bng ch ci iu ch m ch ph thuc vo tc
iu ch ngha l vo s k hiu iu ch c truyn trong mt giy.
Nh vy mc s dng bng thng cc i (o bng bit/s/Hz) ca
16QAM v 64QAM gp hai v ba ln mc s dng bng thng ca
QPSK. Cn nhn mnh rng c rt nhiu s iu ch c th s
dng c khc so vi cc s trn hnh 2.2. Chng hn s 8PSK
bao gm 8 cch truyn tin v cho php 3 bit thng tin truyn ng thi
trn mt k hiu iu ch.
QPSK

16QAM

64QAM

(a)

(b)

(c)

Hnh 2.2. Cc chm tn hiu i vi: (a) QPSK, (b) 16QAM


v (c) 64QAM
Vic s dng s iu ch bc cao cung cp kh nng t c
mc s dng bng thng cao hn, ngha l cung cp cc tc s
liu cao hn trong mt bng thng cho trc. Tuy nhin mc s
dng bng thng cao hn phi tr gi bng kh nng chu tp m v

56

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nhiu km hn. Ni mt cch khc, cc s iu ch 16QAM v


64QAM i hi Eb/N0 ti my thu cao hn so vi QPSK i vi xc
sut li bit cho trc. iu ny hon ton ph hp vi phn tch trong
phn trc, trong kt lun rng mc s dng bng thng cao
hn i hi Eb/N0 thu cao hn.
2.2.1. iu ch bc cao kt hp vi m ha knh
Cc s iu ch bc cao nh 16QAM v 64QAM i hi t l
Eb/N0 cao hn so vi QPSK i vi mt t s li cho trc. Tuy nhin
khi kt hp vi m ha knh, vic s dng s iu ch bc cao s
tr nn hiu qu hn trong mt s trng hp, ngha l n i hi
Eb/N0 thu thp hn so vi s iu ch bc thp QPSK i vi mt
t s li cho trc. Chng hn iu ny c th xy ra khi mc s
dng bng thng yu cu c th t c bng iu ch bc thp vi
khng s dng hoc s dng m ha knh rt t. Trong trng hp ny
m ha knh b sung c th p dng bng cch s dng s iu ch
bc cao nh 16QAM c th cho php t c tng li hiu sut s
dng cng sut so vi s dng QPSK.
Ta xt v d sau, nu yu cu mc s dng bng thng gn
bng 2 bit thng tin trn mt k hiu, th s QPSK ch cho php m
ha knh rt hn ch (t l m gn bng mt). Mt khc, s dng iu
ch 16QAM cho php s dng t l m vo khong mt phn hai.
Tng t nu i mc s dng bng tn bng 4 bit thng tin trn
mt k hiu, th vic s dng 64QAM c th hiu qu hn 16QAM v
n cho php s dng t l m ha knh thp hn v v th nhn c
li m ha b sung.
T phn tch trn ta thy rng i vi mt t s tn hiu trn tp
m/nhiu cho trc, tn ti mt s kt hp ti u gia s iu ch
v t l m ha knh theo thng tin c truyn vi mc s
dng bng thng cao nht (tc s liu cao nht i vi bng thng
cho trc).

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

57

2.2.2. Thay i ca cng sut pht tc thi


Nhc im chung ca cc s iu ch bc cao nh 16QAM
v 64QAM l thng tin khng ch c mang bi pha m cn c bi
bin ca sng mang (xem hnh 2.2b v 2.2c) dn n tn hiu sau
iu ch c cc thay i rt ln v cc gi tr nh ln trong cng sut
tc thi.

Pout

Pout

Pinsat

Pin

IBO: khong li u vo
OBO: Khong li u ra

Hnh 2.3. c tuyn b khuch i cng sut in hnh


Cc gi tr nh ln trong cng sut tn hiu tc thi i hi phi
tng khong li trong b khuch i cng sut dch chuyn im
cng tc vo vng tuyn tnh dn n hiu sut ngun ca b khuch
i cng sut thp v lm tng cng tiu th cng sut (hnh 2.3).
Ngoi ra do phi s dng cc b khuch i cng sut mnh hn nn
gi thnh b khuch i cng sut cng cao hn. Mt gii php khc
phc yu im ny l gim cng sut pht trung bnh, ngha l gim
di ng i vi mt tc s liu cho trc. Hiu sut ca b
khuch i cng sut c bit quan trng i vi u cui di ng
(ng ln) do u cui di ng phi tiu th cng sut thp v c gi

58

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

r. i vi my pht trm gc (ng xung) iu ny t quan trng


hn v th iu ch bc cao thch hp hn i vi ng xung so vi
ng ln.
Nh phn tch trong mc 2.1 cho thy truyn dn vi mc s
dng bng tn cao l khng hiu qu v mt cng sut v n i hi
phi tng mt cch khng tng xng t s tn hiu trn tp m v t
s tn hiu trn nhiu i vi mt tc s liu cho trc. Ch c th
s dng cc s iu ch bc cao cung cp cc tc s liu cao
trong mt bng thng hn ch khi cc t s tn hiu trn tp m v tn
hiu trn nhiu kh cao, chng hn trong cc mi trng nh vi ti
lu lng thp hay i vi cc u cui gn trm gc.
Ngoi ra cung cp cc tc s liu cao mt cch hiu qu
nht xt t quan im t s tn hiu trn tp m v t s tn hiu trn
nhiu (hay vng ph tt nht), ta cn m bo bng thng ti thiu
phi bng tc s liu.
Tuy nhin tn ti nhiu vn quan trng lin quan n vic s
dng bng thng rng hn trong cc h thng thng tin di ng:
Ph tn thng l ti nguyn khan him v t tin v thng rt
kh tm c cc cp pht ph ln m bo truyn dn
bng rng, c bit l ti cc bng tn thp
S dng cc bng thng pht v thu rng hn gy nh hng ln
phc tp ca thit b v tuyn k c trm gc ln u cui
di ng. Chng hn, bng thng truyn dn rng hn s nh
hng ln tc ly mu ti my pht v ti my thu v v th
nh hng ln phc tp v tiu th ngun ca cc b bin i
s vo tng t v tng t vo s cng nh x l s ca tng
u. Ngoi ra cc phn t v tuyn cng c thit k phc tp hn
v t tin hn khi truyn dn bng rng.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

59

2.3. NH HNG CA MI TRNG TRUYN SNG LN


TRUYN DN KHNG DY BNG RNG

= 2, 2 s
= 1,1 s
max = 6,6 s

Cng sut

Cng sut tng i, dB

Ngoi hai vn trn, mt vn rt quan trng nh hng ln


truyn dn khng dy bng rng l mi trng truyn sng hay knh
v tuyn (trong chng ny ta ch xt vn ny). Phainh a ng
trn knh v tuyn dn n tn thi v chn lc tn s lm hng tn
hiu thu. Tn thi v chn lc tn s xy ra khi tn hiu pht truyn
n my thu qua nhiu ng truyn vi tr khc nhau (hnh 2.4a).

Hnh 2.4. Truyn sng a ng (a)


gy ra tn thi (b) v chn lc tn s (c)
Cn lu rng cc hnh 2.4b v 2.4c ch th hin mt ln chp
chp p ng min thi gian v min tn s ca knh v tuyn tn
thi. Khi u cui di ng di chuyn, cu trc truyn sng a ng
thay i v cu trc ca cc p ng ny cng s thay i.
Trong min thi gian khi trm gc (u vo knh v tuyn tn
thi) pht i mt xung kim th u ra l mt dy xung c tr v bin
khc nhau (hnh 2.4b) c c trng bng ba thng s: (1) tri tr
trung bnh qun phng (RDS: Root Mean Squared Delay Spread):
, (2) tr tri trung bnh v (3) tr tri max max.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

60

Tr tri l mt khi nim c s dng biu th tr ca mt


ng truyn so vi ng truyn n sm nht (thng l LOS:
ng truyn trc tip). Mt thng s thi gian quan trng ca tn
thi l tri tr trung bnh qun phng (RDS: Root Mean Squared
Delay Spread): cn bc hai mmen trung tm ca l lch tr cng sut.
RDS l mt s o thch hp cho tri a ng ca knh. Ta c th s
dng n nh gi nh hng ca nhiu giao thoa gia cc k hiu
(ISI).

(2.5)

P(k )k
=

(2.6)

P(k )
k

P(k )k
2

P(k )

(2.7)

trong P(k) l cng sut trung bnh a ng ti thi im k.


Trong min tn s knh v tuyn tn thi tng ng vi p ng
knh tn s thay i theo tn s (2.4c). Tn thi trong min thi gian
v tnh chn lc trong min tn s ca knh s lm hng cu trc tn
hiu pht trong min thi gian v min tn s dn n t s li cao
hn. Tt c cc knh v tuyn u b chn lc tn s mt mc
nht nh. Tuy nhin mc nh hng ny cng ln khi bng thng
truyn dn cng ln. Ngoi ra mc chn lc tn s cng ph thuc
vo mi trng, chng hn chn lc tn s t hn trong mi trng
nh (t tn thi hn) v cc mi trng c t vt tn x v phn x
sng hn nh mi trng nng thn. Tng t nh cc thng s tri
tr trong min thi gian, ta c th s dng bng thng nht qun

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

61

c trng knh trong min tn s. Tri tr trung bnh qun phng t


l nghch vi bng thng nht qun v ngc li, mc d quan h
chnh xc ca chng l mt hm ph thuc vo cu trc a ng. Ta
k hiu bng thng nht qun l BC v tri tr trung bnh qun phng
l . Khi hm tng quan tn s ln hn 0,90 bng thng nht qun
c quan h sau y vi tri tr trung bnh qun phng:
BC

1
50

(2.8)

Mt nh gi gn ng Bc cng thng c s dng l rng


bng vi tng quan t nht bng 0,5 l:
BC =

1
5

(2.9)

V hai thng s trn lin quan cht ch vi nhau nn ta c th ch


xt mt thng s trong qu trnh thit k h thng.
Ngoi ra, hiu ng Doppler cng nh hng xu ln cc c tnh
truyn dn ca knh v tuyn di ng. Do chuyn ng ca my di
ng, hiu ng Doppler gy ra dch tn s i vi tng sng mang
thnh phn. Nu ta nh ngha gc ti n l gc hp bi phng ti
ca sng ti th n v phng chuyn ng ca my di ng nh
hnh 2.10, th gc ny s xc nh tn s Doppler (dch Doppler) ca
sng ti theo biu thc sau:
f c = f D cos

(2.10)

Tc thay i ca cc p ng knh ph thuc vo tc


chuyn ng ca u cui di ng v lin quan n tri Doppler fD
c nh ngha l: fD= fc. v/c, trong fc l tn s sng mang (2GHz
chng hn), v l tc chuyn ng ca u cui v c l tc nh
sng (hnh 2.5).

62

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

dA

2A

fd =

2 vt

cos

v.f
1 v
= cos = c cos
c
2 t

Hnh 2.5. Gc ti ca sng ti minh ha hiu ng Doppler


Thi gian nht qun chu nh hng trc tip ca dch Doppler,
n l thng s knh trong min thi gian i ngu vi tri Doppler.
Tri Doppler v thi gian nht qun l hai thng s t l nghch vi
nhau. Ngha l
TC

fD

(2.11)

Khi thit k h thng ta ch cn xt mt trong hai thng s ni trn.


Ph thuc vo quan h gia cc thng s tn hiu ( rng bng
tn, chu k k hiu,) v cc thng s knh (tri tr trung bnh qun
phng, tri Doppler,), ta c th phn loi phainh phm vi hp da
trn hai c tnh: tri tr a ng v phainh chn lc tn s. Tri tr
a ng l mt thng s trong min thi gian, trong khi vic knh

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

63

l phainh phng hay chn lc tn s li tng ng vi min tn s.


V th thng s min thi gian, tri tr a ng, nh hng ln c
tnh knh trong min tn s. Tri Doppler dn n tn tn v phainh
chn lc thi gian, v th lin quan n tri Doppler ta c th phn loi
phainh phm vi hp thnh phainh nhanh v phainh chm. Tri
Doppler l mt thng s trong min tn s trong khi hin tng
knh thay i nhanh hay chm li thuc min thi gian. Vy trong
trng hp ny, tri Doppler, thng s trong min tn s, nh hng
ln c tnh knh trong min thi gian. Hiu bit c cc quan h
ny s h tr ta trong qu trnh thit k h thng.
Bng 2.1. Cc loi phainh phm vi hp
C s phn loi
Tri tr a ng

Loi phainh

iu kin

Phainh phng

B<<BC; T10

Phainh chn lc tn s

B>BC; T<10

Phainh nhanh

T>TC; B<fD

Phainh chm

T<<TC; B>>fD

Tri Doppler

Cc k hiu c s dng trong bng 2.1 nh sau: B k hiu cho


rng bng tn tn hiu, BC k hiu cho bng thng nht qun, fD k
hiu cho tri Doppler, T k hiu cho chu k k hiu v tri tr trung
bnh qun phng.
Nu bng thng nht qun knh ln hn rt nhiu so vi rng
bng tn tn hiu pht, tn hiu thu s b phainh phng. Khi ny chu
k k hiu ln hn nhiu so vi tri tr a ng ca knh. Ngc li,
nu bng thng nht qun knh nh hn rng bng tn tn hiu
pht, tn hiu thu s b phainh chn lc tn s. Trong trng hp ny
chu k tn hiu nh hn tri tr a ng knh. Khi xy ra trng hp
ny, tn hiu thu b mo dng dn n nhiu giao thoa gia cc k hiu
(ISI). Ngoi ra vic lp m hnh cc knh phainh chn lc tn s
phc tp hn nhiu so vi lp m hnh knh phainh phng, v lp

64

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

m hnh cho knh phainh chn lc tn s ta phi s dng b lc


tuyn tnh. Do ta cn c gng chuyn vo knh phainh phng cho
tn hiu truyn dn. Tuy nhin do khng th thay i tri tr a ng
v bng thng nht qun, nn ta ch c th thit k chu k k hiu v
rng bng tn tn hiu t c knh phainh phng. V th nu
cho trc tri tr, ci thin hiu nng truyn dn, ta chn gi tr chu
k k hiu trong gii thut iu ch thch ng t c knh
phainh phng thay v knh phainh chn lc.
Da trn tri Doppler, ta c th phn loi knh thnh phainh
nhanh v phainh chm. Nu p ng xung kim knh (trong min thi
gian) thay i nhanh trong chu k k hiu, ngha l nu thi gian nht
qun knh nh hn chu k k hiu ca tn hiu pht, knh s gy ra
phainh nhanh i vi tn hiu thu. iu ny s dn n mo dng tn
hiu. Nu p ng xung kim knh thay i vi tc chm hn nhiu
so vi k hiu bng gc pht, knh s gy ra phainh chm i vi tn
hiu thu. Trong trng hp ny knh t ra tnh i vi mt s chu k
k hiu. Tt nhin ta mun c phainh chm v n h tr cht lng
truyn dn n nh hn. Ta khng th xc nh Doppler khi thit k h
thng. V th, khi cho trc tri Doppler, ta cn chn rng bng tn
tn hiu (bng thng sng mang con) trong gii thut iu ch thch
ng nhn c knh phainh chm thay v knh phainh nhanh.
Nh vy ta s t c cht lng truyn dn tt hn.
Cc b cn bng min thi gian v min tn s c s dng
t lu chng tn thi trong min thi gian v chn lc tn s trong
min tn s. Cc b cn bng ny m bo hiu nng tha mn vi
phc tp hp l cho cc bng thng tng ng vi bng thng 5MHz
ca WCDMA. Tuy nhin nu tng bng thng truyn dn ln hn
na chng hn 20MHz nh mc tiu ca 3GPP LTE th phc
tp ca cc b cn bng hiu nng cao tr thnh mt vn
nghim trng.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

65

Cch tip cn khc l nghin cu cc s truyn dn v thit k


tn hiu t c hiu nng truyn dn tt ngay c khi chn lc
tn s knh v tuyn cao m vn m bo phc tp ca my thu
mc cho php. Di y l hai gii php cho truyn dn bng rng
t tiu ch ni trn:
1. S dng cc kiu truyn dn a sng mang khc nhau pht
tn hiu bng rng tng bng nhiu tn hiu bng hp ghp
knh theo tn s. Trng hp c bit ca truyn dn a sng
mang l truyn dn OFDM s c xt chi tit trong chng 3.
2. S dng cc s truyn dn n sng mang c thit k c
bit c th cn bng hiu qu nhng vi phc tp hp l.
Gii php ny s c xt trong chng 3.
2.4 CN BNG CHNG PHAINH CHN LC TN S
Trc y phng php ch yu x l s gim cp tn hiu do
phainh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn l p dng cc dng cn
bng khc nhau ti pha thu cho truyn dn n sng mang. Mc ch
ca cn bng sa mo c tuyn tn s (cn bng min tn s) hoc
dng xung tn hiu (cn bng min thi gian) do phainh chn lc tn
s gy ra v mc nht nh khi phc li dng tn hiu ban u.
Truyn dn n sng mang s c s dng cho ng ln ca LTE
v th trong phn ny ta s xt cc gii php cn bng chng phainh
cho truyn dn n sng mang.
2.4.1. Cn bng tuyn tnh min thi gian
Phng php cn bng cn bn nht l b cn bng tuyn tnh
min thi gian cu to t mt b lc tuyn tnh c p ng xung kim
w() (hnh 2.6).
Bng cch chn cc p ng xung kim khc nhau, ta c th thc
hin cc chin lc cn bng (my thu) khc nhau. Chng hn, trong

66

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cc h thng DS-CDMA cu trc my thu gc thng c s dng.


My thu RAKE l mt cu trc my thu n gin ca hnh 2.6,
trong p ng xung kim ca b lc c chn m bo lc
phi hp knh
w() = h*(-)

(2.12)

trong p ng b lc c chn l phc lin hp ca p ng xung


kim knh o. B lc ny cng thng c gi l b lc kt hp
cc i.

s(t )

Hnh 2.6. Cn bng c bn trong min thi gian


La chn b lc my thu theo tiu chun MRC (b lc phi hp
knh) cho php t c t s tn hiu trn tp m sau b lc cc i
(v th b lc ny c tn l kt hp t l cc i). Tuy nhin lc da
trn MRC khng cung cp bt k sa mo tn hiu no do tnh cht
chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn gy ra. V th lc my thu da trn
MRC ch ph hp khi tn hiu thu b gim cp ch yu do tp m hoc
nhiu t cc ngun pht khc ch khng cho cc trng hp gim cp
tn hiu do chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn.
Mt gii php khc l chn la b lc my thu b tr ton b i
vi chn lc tn s knh v tuyn. iu ny c th t c bng cch
chn p ng xung kim b lc my thu theo quan h sau:
h()w() = 1

(2.13)

trong k hiu cho tch chp tuyn tnh. Cch chn b lc ny


cn c gi l cn bng p buc v khng (ZF: Zero Forcing). Cn
bng ZF cho php b tr ton b chn lc tn s knh v tuyn (cn

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

67

bng hon ton) v v th hon ton trit c mi gim cp tn hiu


lin quan. Tuy nhin cn bng ZF c th dn n t s tn hiu trn tp
m sau cn bng rt ln v v th gim hiu nng ng truyn tng
th, c bit khi knh c p ng tn s bin ng nhanh.
Gii php th ba v l gii php cho php chn c b lc cn
xng gia gim cp tn hiu do chn lc tn s v tp m/nhiu c
gi l cn bng MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error: sai li trung
bnh nh nht). B lc trong trng hp ny c la chn phi m
bo gim thiu sai li trung bnh bnh phng gia tn hiu u ra b
cn bng v tn hiu c pht:

= E s(t ) s (t )

(2.14)

Trong thc t b lc cn bng tuyn tnh thng c thc hin


dng b lc FIR ri rc theo thi gian vi L nhnh tr nhn cc mu
tn hiu thu nh minh ha trn hnh 2.7.
My thu
nT
r(t)

sn

rn

rn

D
w0

w1

D
w L-1

sn

Hnh 2.7. Cn bng tuyn tnh c thc hin


theo b lc FIR ri rc thi gian

68

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

C th chng minh rng b cn bng MMSE ri rc thi gian vi


w = [ w 0 , w1 ,..., w L-1 ] c xc nh theo biu thc sau:

w = R -1 p

(2.15)

Trong R l ma trn t tng quan u ra ca knh c kch


thc LxL. Ma trn ny ph thuc vo p ng xung kim ca knh v
p l vct tng quan cho u ra/u vo ca knh vi kch thc
Lx1, ph thuc vo p ng xung kim ca knh.
Trong trng hp di cn bng ln (L ln), b cn bng MMSE
min thi gian c th rt phc tp v hai l do sau:
- Bn thn b cn bng (b lc) c th rt phc tp
- Tnh ton thit lp b lc MMSE nht l tnh ton o ca tng
quan R kch thc LxL c th rt phc tp
2.4.2. Cn bng min tn s
Mt cch khc gim phc tp ca cn bng tuyn tnh l
thc hin cn bng trong min tn s nh minh ha trn hnh 2.8.
Trong cn bng tuyn tnh min tn s, cn bng c thc hin theo
tng khi kch thc N. Trc tin tn hiu thu sau ly mu c
chuyn i vo min tn s bi DFT kch thc N (DFT: Discrete
Fourier Transform: bin i Fourier ri rc). Sau cn bng c
thc hin bng lc trong min tn s vi cc nhnh lc trong min tn
s l W0, W1,, WN-1 chng hn bng DFT cho cc nhnh lc min
thi gian w0, w1,, wL-1 ca hnh 2.7. Sau cng tn hiu min tn s
nhn c sau cn bng c chuyn i ngc vo min thi gian
bng IDFT (Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform: bin i Fourier
ngc ri rc) kch thc N. Nn chn kch thc N ca khi l hai
ly tha ca mt s nguyn: N = 2n vi n l mt s nguyn c th
thc hin tnh ton FFT/IFFT theo c s hai cho x l DFT/IDFT.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

69

i vi mi ln x l khi kch thc N, cn bng min tn s c


bn bao gm:
- Mt DFT/FFT kch thc N
- N ln nhn phc (b lc min tn s)
- Mt bin i ngc IDFT/IFFT kch thc N
c bit trong trng hp cc knh b chn lc tn s nng (
di cn bng L ln), cn bng min tn s theo hnh 2.8 t phc tp
hn nhiu so vi cn bng min thi gian theo hnh 2.7.

S k

s n

S0

SN 1

Hnh 2.8. Cn bng tuyn tnh min tn s


Tuy nhin c hai vn gp phi i vi cn bng min tn s:
- Lc min thi gian trn hnh 2.7 thc hin tch chp tuyn tnh
ri rc thi gian. Tri li lc min tn s theo hnh 2.8 tng ng
vi tch chp vng trong min thi gian. Nu gi thit b cn
bng min thi gian c di L, th L-1 mu u tin ti u ra
ca b cn bng min tn s s khng ging nh u ra tng
ng ca b cn bng min thi gian.

70

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

- Cc nhnh ca b lc min tn s W0, W1, . . . , WN-1 c th c


xc nh nh sau, trc ht xc nh p ng xung ca b lc
min thi gian tng ng sau chuyn i b lc ny vo min
tn s bng DFT. Tuy nhin nh ni trn, vic xc nh b
lc min thi gian (chng hn MMSE) c th kh phc tp trong
trng hp di L ca b cn bng ln.
Mt cch gii quyt vn th nht l thc hin chng ln qu
trnh x l tng khi ca b lc cn bng min tn s nh minh ha
trn hnh 2.9, trong chng ln c thc hin t nht l L-1 mu.
Vi chng ln ny, L-1 mu (khng chnh xc) u tin ti u ra ca
b cn bng min tn s c th c loi v cc mu tng ng ny
(cc mu ng) cng c cung cp ti phn cui ca khi
thu/c cn bng trc . Nhc im ca kiu chng ln v loi b
ny l chi ph tnh ton v v th my thu s phn no phc tp hn.

Hnh 2.9. X l chng ln v loi b

Hnh 2.10. Chn CP trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang


Mt cch gii quyt c hai vn ni trn l chn tin t chu
trnh (CP: Cyclic-prefic) ti pha pht (hnh 2.10), tng t nh

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

71

OFDM chn CP trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang c ngha


l chn V mu ca CP vo tng khi ti pha pht. Kch thc khi
pht phi bng kch thc khi N s dng cho cn bng min tn s
pha thu.
Vi vic da CP vo, t quan im my thu knh s th hin nh
l tch chp vng trn khi x l kch thc N ti my thu. V th
khng cn x l chng ln v loi b. Ngoi ra by gi cc nhnh ca
b lc min tn s c th c tnh ton trc tip t c tnh p ng
tn s knh c ly mu m khng cn phi tnh trc b lc cn
bng min thi gian. Chng hn, trong trng hp b cn bng
MMSE cc nhnh lc min tn s c th c tnh theo biu thc sau:

H k*
2

H k + PN

(2.16)

Trong PN l cng sut tp m v Hk l p ng tn s knh


c ly mu. i vi cc di ca b cn bng ln, tnh ton ny
phc tp hn nhiu so vi tnh ton min thi gian nh xt trong
phn trc.
Nhc im ca chn CP trong trng hp truyn dn n sng
mang cng ging nh i vi OFDM, ngha l mt thm chi ph cho
c cng sut v bng thng. Mt phng php gim chi ph CP l
tng kch thc N ca b cn bng min tn s. Tuy nhin cn
bng theo khi c chnh xc, knh phi hu nh khng thay i
trong on thi gian tng ng vi kch thc khi x l. Hn ch
ny m bo gii hn trn i vi kch thc khi N, trong kch
thc ny ph thuc vo tc thay i knh. Lu rng ging nh
hn ch i vi khong cch gia sng mang con ca OFDM
f = 1/TFFT, khong cch ny ph thuc vo tc thay i knh
(xem chng 3).

72

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

2.5. TRUYN DN A SNG MANG CHO KHNG DY


BNG RNG

Phn knh

Mt cch tng tng bng thng truyn dn m khng lm hi


tn hiu do chn lc tn s knh v tuyn l s dng truyn dn a
sng mang. Nh c m t trn hnh 2.11, trong truyn dn a sng
mang, thay v truyn mt tn hiu bng rng, nhiu tn hiu bng hp
(thng c gi l cc sng mang con) c ghp knh theo tn s
v c truyn ng thi trn cng mt ng truyn v tuyn n
cng mt my thu. Bng cch pht N tn hiu song song trn cng mt
ng truyn v tuyn, c th tng tc s liu tng ln N ln. Khi
ny nh hng gy hi i tn hiu do chn lc tn s knh v tuyn
ph thuc vo bng thng kh hp ca tng sng mang con. nh
hng ny khng khc g nh hng i vi s truyn dn bng hp
c bng thng tng ng vi bng thng ca tng sng mang con.

Hnh 2.11. M rng n truyn dn bng thng rng hn


bng a sng mang

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

73

Nhc im ca kiu pht trin truyn dn a sng mang trn


hnh 2.11 l khi m rng mt cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng hp
hin c vo mt bng thng truyn dn rng hn bng cch truyn dn
song song N sng mang bng hp l phi ghp cc bng thng sng
mang con ny phn cch nhau chng khng gy nhiu cho nhau.
iu ny nh hng tiu cc ln hiu sut s dng bng thng.

, | f | f1
1

(| f | f1 )
1
( f ) = 1 + cos
, f1 | f | f 2 Z

f cr .

2
0
, | f |> f 2

(1 ) f = f . (1 + )
f1 = f cr .
2
cr
2
2
Bw = 2. f 2 = f cr .(1 ) = 4, 7 MHz

Hnh 2.12. Ph ca WCDMA, khun dng cosin tng vi =0,22


V d ta xt s pht trin a sng mang cho WCDMA (s ny
c gi l MC-WCDMA) cho vic truyn dn bng thng rng hn.

74

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

WCDMA c tc chip Rc = 3,84Mchip/s tng ng vi tn s


fcr = 3,84MHz. Tuy nhin do vic to dng ph, thm ch ph l
thuyt ca WCDMA (khng k s m rng ph do s khng hon
thin ca my pht) c rng ln hn 3,84MHz. Chng hn nh trn
hnh 2.12, nu ph WCDMA c dng cosin tng vi dc = 0,22,
th rng bng tn ca n cng bng Bw = (1+0,22)3,84MHz = 4,7MHz.
i vi MC-WCDMA, khong cch gia cc sng mang con
phi bng 4,7MHz trnh nhiu gia cc sng mang con. Cn lu
rng cng c th s dng khong cch gia cc sng mang con nh
hn vi iu kin nhiu gia cc sng mang con phi gii hn.
Nhc im th hai ca truyn dn a sng mang l tng t nh
iu ch bc cao, truyn dn song song nhiu sng mang con s dn
n cc thay i cng sut tc thi ln hn. V th truyn dn a sng
mang cng s dn n nh hng tiu cc ln hiu sut ca b khuch
i cng sut. Mt gii php cho vn ny l gim cng sut trung
bnh, ngha l gim di ng tn hiu i vi mt tc s liu cho
trc. V th tng t nh vic s dng iu ch bc cao, truyn dn
a sng mang thch hp hn i vi ng xung (truyn dn u
cui di ng) do tm quan trng ca vic m bo hiu sut b khuch
i cng sut ti u cui di ng cao hn.
u im chnh ca kiu pht trin a sng mang nh hnh 2.11 l
m bo s pht trin rt t t v c thit b ln ph tn ca cc cng
ngh truy nhp v tuyn n bng thng truyn dn rng hn nht l
i vi ng xung. iu quan trng l c th thit k a sng mang
theo hng pht trin ln truyn dn bng rng ni trn m vn cho
php s dng cc thit b hin c khng c kh nng thu a sng mang
vi iu kin mi sng mang con ng xung th hin nh mt sng
mang bng hp, trong khi i vi cc u cui di ng a sng
mang, mng c th cung cp cho n ton b bng thng a sng mang
truyn tc s liu cao hn.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

75

Hnh 2.13. Nguyn l OFDM p dng cho ng xung ca LTE


K hiu thu

K hiu vo

f0

f1

f0

f N 2 f N 1

f1

f N 2 f N 1
Ly mu

Ly mu

IFFT

FFT

f0

f0

Knh

f1

f1

f N 2

f N 2

f N 1

f N 1

My pht

My thu

Hnh 2.14. Qu trnh bin i IFFT pha pht v FFT pha thu

76

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Mt gii php s dng truyn a sng mang cho php tit kim
bng thng l OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex:
ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao). LTE s dng gii php
ny cho ng xung. Nguyn l tng qut OFDM trong trng hp
ny c minh ha trn hnh 2.13. Qu trnh bin i IFFT v FFT
c tm tt trn hnh 2.14.
i vi ng ln gim nh hng ca t s cng sut nh
trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR: Peak to Average Power) ln
OFDM, ng ln s dng mt phng n ci tin ca OFDM cho
php truyn tn hiu ging nh n sng mang vi tn gi DFTS
OFDM (OFDM Sread DFT: OFDM tri ph bng DFT) hay cn c
gi l SC-FDMA (Single Carrier- Frequency Division Multiple
Access: a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s n sng mang) c minh
ha trn hnh 2.15.

Hnh 2.15. Nguyn l DFTS OFDM hay SC-FDMA


Trong chng 3 ta s xt chi tit v vic s dng truyn dn a
sng mang da trn OFDM cho ng xung v n sng mang
SC-FDMA cho ng ln.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao

77

2.6. TNG KT
Chng ny xt cc nguyn nhn hn ch truyn dn bng
rng trong cc h thng thng tin v tuyn v cc gii php khc
phc. Truyn dn tc cao (bng rng) c th b gii hn bi cc
yu t sau:
- Bng thng hn ch
- Tp m
- Nhiu
- Mo dng tn hiu do nh hng phainh chn lc tn s ca
ng truyn
i vi trng hp th nht khi cng sut tn hiu thu cn ln
ta c th:
- S dng iu ch bc cao
- Cc s a anten da trn ghp knh khng gian.
i vi trng hp th hai ta c th:
- Gim kch thc gim c ly ph sng dn n tng t s
tn hiu trn tp m v th cho php t c cc tc s liu
cao hn
- Kt hp hp l cc tn hiu thu ti nhiu anten s tng t s tn
hiu trn tp m sau kt hp anten
- S dng to bp bng nhiu anten pht s tp trung cng
sut pht v pha my thu ch v v th tng t s tn hiu trn
tp m.
i vi trng hp th ba ta c th s dng cc bin php sau:
- Gim kch thc s gim s ngi s dng v v th s gim
lu lng trn mt . Nh vy gim mc nhiu tng i v v
th cho php t c cc tc s liu cao hn

78

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

- Kt hp hp l cc tn hiu thu ti nhiu anten s tng t s tn


hiu trn nhiu sau kt hp anten
- S dng to bp bng nhiu anten pht s tp trung cng sut
pht v pha my thu ch v dn n gim nhiu ln cc
ng truyn v tuyn khc, do ci thin tng t s tn
hiu trn nhiu trong h thng.
i vi trng hp th t ta c th:
- S dng truyn dn n sng mang kt hp vi b cn bng ti
my thu
- S dng truyn dn a sng mang c bit l OFDM
2.7. CU HI
1. Trnh by cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc s liu cao.
2. Trnh by truyn dn tc s liu cao trong bng thng hn ch v
iu ch bc cao.
3. Trnh by cc nh hng ca mi trng truyn sng ln truyn dn
khng dy bng rng.
4. Trnh by nguyn l cn bng chng phainh chn lc tn s.
5. Trnh by nguyn l truyn dn a sng mang cho khng dy bng
rng.
6. Khi u cui di ng gn trm gc nn s dng s iu ch
bc cao hay bc thp, ti sao?
7. C nn s dng ghp knh khng gian khi u cui xa trm gc
hay khng, ti sao?
8. Khi tp m cao vn m bo truyn dn tc s liu cao ta cn
lm g?
9. Khi nhiu cao vn m bo truyn dn tc cao ta cn lm g?
10. gim nh hng phainh chn lc tn s dn n nhiu gia
cc k hiu ta c th s dng cc gii php g?

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

79

Chng 3

OFDMA V SCFDMA CA LTE

OFDM l cng ngh truyn dn a sng mang tit kim bng tn


s c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin v tuyn bng rng.
OFDMA l phng php a truy nhp da trn OFDM c s dng
trong cc h thng tin di ng bng rng thay th cho CDMA.
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm:
Tm tt nguyn l OFDM
c tnh knh v cc k hiu tham kho
M ha knh v phn tp tn s trong truyn dn OFDM
La chn bng thng cho OFDM c s
nh hng ca thay i mc cng sut tc thi
S dng OFDM cho ghp knh v a truy nhp
Pht qung b v a phng trong nhiu v OFDMA
Nguyn l truyn dn DFTS-OFDM
Nguyn l SC-FDMA, Sp xp sng mang con SC-FDMA v
trnh by cc tn hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian
Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho sinh vin cc kin thc v
nguyn l ca cc k thut a truy nhp v tuyn OFDMA v SC-FDMA
v l do s dng cc k thut a truy nhp v tuyn ny trong LTE.
hiu c chng ny sinh vin cn c k t liu c trnh
by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [1], [7], [8], [9], [10],
[14], [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

80

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

3.1. M U
Trong chng ny trc ht ta s xt nguyn l OFDM v ng
dng ca n trong m hnh lp vt l OFDMA ng xung ca LTE.
OFDM c tip nhn l s truyn dn ng xung cho LTE
v cng c s dng cho cc cng ngh khng dy bng rng khc
nh WiMAX v cc cng ngh truyn hnh qung b DVB.
Nhc im ca iu ch OFDM v cc phng php truyn dn
a sng mang khc l s thay i cng sut tc thi ca tn hiu pht
rt ln dn n t s gia cng sut nh v cng sut trung bnh
(PAPR: Peak to Average Power Ratio) rt ln. iu ny lm gim
hiu sut ca b khuch i cng sut v tng gi thnh b khuch i
cng sut. Nhc im ny rt quan trng i vi ng ln v cc
MS phi tiu th cng sut thp v c gi thnh h.
Nhiu phng php c xut gim PAPR ca tn hiu
OFDM. Tuy nhin hu ht cc phng php ny ch m bo gim
PAPR mc khng cao. Ngoi ra cc phng php ny i hi
tnh ton phc tp v gim hiu nng ng truyn. Truyn dn a
sng mang bng rng l mt gii php truyn dn a sng mang ph
hp cho ng ln ngha l cho my pht ca MS. Tuy nhin cn
nghin cu x l mo dng sng tn hiu xy ra trong mi trng
thng tin di ng do phainh chn lc tn s. LTE s dng mt dng
iu ch ci tin ca OFDM c tn gi l DFTS-OFDM ( DFT
Sprread OFDM: OFDM tri ph bng DFT). y mt cng ngh y
ha hn cho thng tin ng ln tc cao trong cc h thng thng
tin di ng tng lai. DFTS-OFDM c hiu qu thng lng v
phc tp tng t nh OFDM. u im chnh ca DFTS-OFDM l t
s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR: Peak to Average
Power Ratio) thp hn OFDM. DFTS-OFDM. LTE s dng DFTSOFDM cho a truy nhp ng ln vi tn gi l SC-FDMA. Chng
ny xt nguyn l ca DFTS-OFDM v SC-FDMA ng dng trong LTE.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

81

3.2. TM TT NGUYN L OFDM


Truyn dn OFDM l mt kiu truyn dn a sng mang. Sau y
l mt s c trng quan trng ca OFDM:
S dng nhiu sng mang bng hp. Chng hn nu mt h thng
MC-WCDMA (WCDMA a sng mang) bng thng 20MHz s dng
4 sng mang vi mi sng mang c bng tn l 5MHz, th vi bng
thng nh vy OFDM c th s dng 2048 sng mang vi bng thng
sng mang con 15MHz.
Cc sng mang con trc giao vi nhau v khong cch gia hai
sng mang con lin k bng i lng nghch o ca thi gian k
hiu iu ch sng mang con (hnh 3.1). V th cc sng mang con ca
OFDM c t gn nhau hn so vi FDMA.

Hnh 3.1. K hiu iu ch v ph ca tn hiu OFDM


Ta k hiu N l tng s sng mang con ca h thng truyn dn
OFDM v P l s sng mang con m mt my pht trong h thng c
th s dng. S khi pht thu ca h thng OFDM c cho trn
hnh 3.2. Hot ng ca h thng OFDM trn hnh 3.2 nh sau.

'
P 1

,..., X , X

'
1

X 0 , X 1 ,..., X P 1

'
0

X P' 1

X 0'
X 1'

X P 1

X0
X1
x(m)

Hnh 3.2. S khi ca mt h thng OFDM

y N 1

y1

y0

xN 1

x1

x0

82

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

83

3.2.1. My pht
Cc khi k hiu iu ch thng thng (QPSK hay 16- QAM
chng hn) gm P k hiu iu ch (k hiu l X 0 , X 1 ,..., X P 1 ) c
a qua b bin i ni tip vo song song (S/P) c P lung
song song vi di k hiu ca mi lung bng TFFT, trong TFFT
c gi l di hiu dng ca mt k hiu OFDM. Mi k hiu
iu ch Xi (i=0,1,,P-1) c gi tr phc th hin ph ri rc ca sng
mang con th i trong s N sng mang con ca h thng. Cc sng
mang con c iu ch X 0 , X 1 ,..., X P 1 c kt hp vi N-P sng
mang con rng (bng khng) to nn tp {Xi} (i=0,1,, N-1) gi
tr phc v c a ln N u vo ca b bin i fourier nhanh
ngc (IFFT). IFFTcho ra N sng mang con trong min thi gian {xi}
(i=0,1,, N-1). Cc sng mang con trong min thi gian ny c th
1
hin cc mu ri rc vi tn s ly mu fs = Nf = N.
, trong
TFFT
f l khong cch gia cc sng mang con v Ts =

1 TFFT
=
l chu
fs
N

k ly mu. Tn hiu u ra IFFT c biu din dng cc mu ri


rc. Sng mang con th i ti thi im k trong min thi gian c
xc nh nh sau:
xi,k =

N1

X i,ke

j2

i
m
N

(3.1)

m=0

trong i (i=0,1,,N-1), k (k l mt s nguyn nm trong


khong t - n ) k hiu cho sng mang con th i ca k hiu
OFDM th k tng ng; Xi,k gi tr phc ca tn hiu c iu ch
thng thng th i ti thi im k; m (m=0,1,,N) l mu th m ca
tn hiu c ly mu vi thi gian ly mu Ts=TFFT/N tng ng vi
tn s ly mu fs= N/TFFT.

84

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Tn hiu u ra b bin i song song vo ni tip (P/S) trong


min thi gian ti thi im k c xc nh nh sau:
N1 N1

x k = X i,k e
i=0

j2

i
m
N

P1 N1

= X i ,k e
i= 0

j2

i
m
N

(3.2)

i vi OFDM ta c th biu din tn hiu pht trong min tn s


nh sau:
T

Xk = X 0,k X1,k " X P1,k 0...0 , trong [.]T l php chuyn v, P


l s k hiu iu ch thng thng trong khi k v s s khng bng
N-P. Tn hiu trong min thi gian nhn c bng cch nhn tn hiu
trong min tn s vi ma trn sau:
1
1

j2

eN
1

j4

eN
xk = 1
#
#

#
#

j2( N1)

1 e N

1
e
e
#

j8
N

#
e

"

1
j4
N

e
e
#

j6
N
j12
N

#
j4( N1)
N

" e

j4( N1)
N

"e
% #
%

j6( N1)
N

j2( N1)
N

"e

#
j2( N1)( N1)
N

X
k

(3.3)

trong hng ca ma trn trong (3.3) th hin cc sng mang con


ti thi im ly mu m.
B chn CP (Cyclic Prefix) thc hin chn V mu ( di TCP)
ca k hiu OFDM vo u k hiu ny c di k hiu bng:
T=TFFT+TCP, trong TFFT l di hiu dng cn TCP l khong thi
gian bo v chng ISI (nhiu gia cc k hiu) gy ra do phainh
a ng v V mu c chn l V mu c copy t cc mu cui
cng ca tn hiu xk. Thng thng TCP c chn bng thi gian tr
tri cc i (tr ca ng truyn n mun nht cn c xt so vi
tr ca ng n sm nht). Khi ny m trong phng trnh (3.3) s
l: m=0,1,, N-1,, N+V-1 v tng s mu u ra b CP s bng

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

85

N+V. Ta c th biu din tn hiu sau chn CP trong min thi gian v
min tn s nh trn hnh 3.3.

Hnh 3.3. Trnh by OFDM (sau chn CP) trong min thi gian v tn s
B bin i s vo tng t (DAC) cho ta tn hiu tng t c
dng sau:

N-1
i

X i,k exp j2 T (t - kT) ,


FFT

i=0
kT - TCP t kT + TFFT
x k (t) =
0,
nu khc

(3.4)

P-1
n

X i,k exp j2 T (t - kT) ,


FFT

i=0
kT - TCP t kT + TFFT
x k (t) =
0,
nu khc

(3.5)

Hay

ngha ca vic chn CP c gii thch trn hnh 3.4. Trong


trng hp knh tn thi do b phainh a ng mt phn tnh trc
giao gia cc sng mang con s b mt i: phn cui ca k hiu

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

86

OFDM pht trc do n tr s chng ln ln phn u ca k hiu


OFDM pht sau. Trong trng hp ny khong thi gian tng quan
ca b gii iu ch cho k hiu c xt s chng ln mt phn ln
k hiu trc (hnh 3.4a). V th tch phn tn hiu i thng s cha
nhiu ca tn hiu phn x t k hiu trc . Hu qu l khng ch
xy ra nhiu gia cc k hiu (ISI) m cn c nhiu gia cc sng
mang con (ICI: Inter Channel Interference).

TFFT
xk 1

xk

xk +1

X0
X1

X P 1

TFFT + TGD

TFFT

TCP

TFFT

Hnh 3.4. Gii thch ngha chn CP


Mt cch khc gii thch nhiu gia cc sng mang con trong
knh v tuyn phainh tn thi nh sau. Nguyn nhn tn thi ca
knh l do p ng tn s ca knh phainh chn lc tn s. V th
tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang khng ch c m bo bi phn
cch gia chng trong min tn s m cn bi cu trc c th min
tn s ca tng sng mang: thm ch nu knh min tn s khng i
i vi bp ph chnh ca mt sng mang con OFDM v ch c cc

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

87

bp ph bn b hng do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn, th


iu ny cng dn n mt tnh trc giao gia cc sng con cng vi
nhiu gia cc sng mang con. Do cc bp bn ca mi sng mang
con OFDM ln, nn d lng tn thi b hn ch (tng ng vi
tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn thp) vn c th xy ra nhiu
gia cc sng mang con.
gii quyt vn ny v lm cho OFDM c kh nng thc s
chng tn thi trn knh v tuyn, chn CP (Cyclic Prefix: tin t chu
trnh) c thc hin. Chn CP tng di k hiu OFDM t TFFT ln
TFFT+TCP trong TCP l di ca CP tng ng vi vic gim tc
k hiu OFDM. T hnh 3.4b ta thy tng quan vn c thc
hin trn on thi gian TFFT=1/f v tnh trc giao sng mang con s
c m bo ngay c trong trng hp knh tn thi chng no on
tn thi cn ngn hn di CP.
Nhc im ca chn tin t CP l ch mt phnTFFT/(TFFT+TCP)
ca cng sut tn hiu thu l phn thc t c b gii iu ch
OFDM s dng v iu ny c ngha l mt mt phn cng sut khi
gii iu ch OFDM. Ngoi vic mt cng sut, chn CP cn gy ra
mt bng thng v tc k hiu OFDM gim trong khi rng bng
tn ca tn hiu khng gim.
Mt cch khc gim CP l gim khong cch gia cc sng
mang f tng ng vi tng TFFT. Tuy nhin cch ny lm tng
nhy cm ca truyn dn OFDM vi s thay i nhanh ca knh kho
tri Doppler cao v cc kiu sai s tn s khc.
Cn lu rng CP khng th bao ph ton b di ca tn thi
knh. Ni chung cn c mt s cn nhc gia mt cng sut do CP v
hng tn hiu (do ISI v ICI) m phn d tn thi do CP khng ph
ht gy ra. iu ny c ngha rng tn ti mt im ti u cho di

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

88

CP m vic tng n khng nh hng xu n mt cng sut dn n


gim kch thc v ngc li vic gim n khng lm nh hng
xu n hng tn hiu.
3.2.2. My thu
Tn hiu u vo my thu (u ra knh) c dng sau:
y(t)= x(t)h(t)+(t)(3.6) trong h(t) l li knh v (t) l tp
m Gauss trng cng v k hiu cho tch chp. B bin i t tng
t vo s (ADC) s bin i y(t) vo s, b loi b CP s loi CP. Qua
trnh loi CP c thc hin bng tch chp vng. Di y ta s gii
thch nguyn l tch chp vng.
Ta c th biu din k hiu OFDM bao gm CP ri rc trong
min thi gian dng vect sau:
(3.7)

x = [ x N-v-1 , xN v ,..., xN 1 x0 , x1 ,..., xN 1 ]




CP

S liu gc

Trong xm k hiu cho mu m ca tn hiu OFDM trong min


thi gian.
Nu khng xt tp m, tn hiu u ra ca knh s l y = x h ,
trong h l vect c di v+1 biu th p ng knh xung kim
trong thi gian k hiu OFDM. Hnh 3.5 gii thch qu trnh tch chp
dch vng gia p ng knh xung kim h v x u vo cho hai mu
u tin ca y.
hv hv1

h1

xN v xN v+1

xN 1

h0
x0 x1 x2

y0 = hv xN v + hv 1 xL v +1 + ... + h0 x0

hv
xN 1

hv 1

xN v xN v+1 xN v + 2

h0
x0 x1 x2
h1

xN 1

y1 = hv xN v +1 + hv 1 xN v + 2 + ... + h1 x0 + h0 x1

Hnh 3.5. Minh ha qu trnh tch chp quay vng


gia p ng knh xung kim h v xCP.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

89

Da trn cc phn tch trn, ta c th biu din tn hiu u ra


knh sau tch chp vng cho cc mu hu ch nh sau:
y0 = h0 x0 + h1 xN 1 + ... + hv xN v
y1 = h0 x1 + h1 x0 + ... + hv xN v +1

(3.8)

y N 1 = h0 xN 1 + h1 xN 2 + ... + hv xN v 1

Sau tch chp vng nu ch gi li cc thnh phn u tin v


tri ca h phng trnh (3.8) ta s loi b c CP.
Ta c th biu din li phng trnh (3.8) dng ma trn quay
vng nh sau
x0
x
y= 1
#

xN 1

xN v
h0
... xN v +1

#
#
hv
... xN v 1

xN 1

xN 2 ...

x0

xN 1

xN 2

...

# +

(3.9)

= Xh +
Sau b loi b CP, V mu ca CP b loi b v N mu cn li l
cc mu ca tn hiu hu ch . B bin i ni tip vo song song cho
ra N lung song song ng vi N sng mang con thu ca tn hiu thu

trong min thi gian: { yi, (m)} (i=0,1,...,N-1) dng cc mu ri rc m

(m=0,1...,N-1). Cc sng mang ny c a ln b bin i FFT


chuyn i t min thi gian vo min tn s. Sau FFT my thu ly ra
P sng mang con cn thu trong min tn s { X } (i=0,1,, P-1), mi
i

sng mang con c xc nh nh sau:


P1 N1

j2 i
 =
X
yi ,k (m)e N
k
i= 0 m = 0

(3.10)

90

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

trong i (i=0,1,,P-1), yi ,k (m) k hiu cho mu m trong min thi


gian ca k hiu iu ch thng thng th i trong khi P k hiu
c pht ti u ra ca knh, k (k l mt s nguyn nm trong
 gi tr phc ca
khong t - n ) l khi th k tng ng; l X
k

tn hiu thu trong min tn s trong khi k hiu k; m (m=0,1,,N-1)


l mu th m ca tn hiu c ly mu trong min thi gian vi thi
gian ly mu Ts=TFFT/N tng ng vi tn s ly mu fs= N/TFFT.
Tn hiu u ra b bin i ni tip vo song song s l chui
ni tip cc k hiu thu ca khi k c th c biu din dng
vect sau:
 = X , X ,..., X

X
k
P 1, k
0,k 1,k

(3.11)

Tng qut ta c th biu din ton b cc bc x l tn hiu ca


mt h thng thng tin OFDM vi cc tn hiu dng vect nh trn
hnh 3.6.


X

y = xh+

Hnh 3.6. H thng thng tin OFDM bng gc vi cc tn hiu


dng vect.
Truyn dn OFDM c th c biu din trong khng gian hai
chiu: tn s- thi gian nh trn hnh 3.7.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

91

X i ,k

Hnh 3.7. Biu din tn hiu truyn dn OFDM


trong khng gian hai chiu (tn s-thi gian)
3.3. C TNH KNH V CC K HIU THAM KHO
Knh OFDM bao gm t hp iu ch OFDM (x l IFFT), knh
v tuyn tn thi v gii iu ch OFDM (x l FFT) c m t
dng knh min tn s trn hnh 3.8. Nu coi rng CP ln (khi ny
tch chp knh v tuyn tn thi trong khong thi gian ly tch phn
TFFT ca b gii iu ch c th coi l tch chp dch vng tuyn tnh),
th cc nhnh knh min tn s H0,, HP-1 c th c rt ra trc tip
t cc p ng knh xung kim nh trn hnh 3.8 (hnh v pha di).
khi phc li k hiu pht cho qu trnh x l tip theo (chng
hn tch k hiu s liu v gii m knh), my thu phi nhn X i vi
phc lin hp ca Hi: H i* (hnh 3.9). Qu trnh ny thng c gi
l cn bng mt nhnh v c p dng cho tng sng mang con c
thu. c th thc hin iu ny, my thu phi c tnh cc nhnh
knh min tn s H0,H1,,HP-1.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

92

X0
X1

X 0
X

X P 1

X P 1

H0

X 0

X0

H P 1

X i = H i X i + i

P1
X P 1

X P 1

Hnh 3.8. M hnh knh OFDM trong min tn s

H0

X 0

X0
H P1

X P 1

H 0*

X 0
H P* 1

P1
X P 1

X P 1

Hnh 3.9. M hnh knh pht thu OFDM min tn s


vi b cn bng mt nhnh
Cc nhnh knh min tn s c th c c tnh gin tip bng
cch trc ht c tnh p ng knh xung kim sau tnh ton Hk.
Tuy nhin phng php nhanh hn l c tnh cc nhnh knh min
tn s trc tip. Trong trng hp ny h thng chn cc k hiu tham
kho (cn c gi l cc k hiu hoa tiu) ti cc khong thi gian
quy nh trong li thi gian tn s ca OFDM (hnh 3.10). Do bit
trc c cc k hiu tham kho ny nn my thu c th c tnh

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

93

knh min tn s xung quanh v tr k hiu tham kho. Cc k hiu


tham kho phi c mt ln c trong min thi gian v min tn
s c th m bo cc c tnh knh cho ton b li thi gian tn
s ngay c trong trng hp cc knh v tuyn b phainh chn lc
tn s v thi gian cao.

Hnh 3.10. Cc k hiu tham kho trn trc thi gian tn s


3.4. M HA KNH V PHN TP TN S TRONG TRUYN
DN OFDM
Cht lng knh v tuyn b phaing chn lc tn s lun lun
thay i trong min tn s. Hnh 3.11a v b cho thy s ph thuc ca
cht lng knh v tuyn (cng sut tn hiu thu hoc t s tn hiu
trn tp m) vo tn s cho trng hp n sng mang bng rng
(WCDMA chng hn) (hnh 3.11a) v a sng mang (OFDM) (hnh
3.11b). Trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang, mi k hiu
iu ch c truyn trn mt bng thng rng, trong do nh
hng ca pha inh chn lc tn s bng thng ny c th bao gm c
vng tn s c cht lng truyn dn cao v vng tn s c cht lng
truyn dn thp. Vic truyn dn thng tin trn mt bng tn rng gm
nhiu di bng vi cht lng khc nhau ny c gi l phn tp tn s.

94

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Tri li trong trng hp OFDM, mi k hiu ch c truyn


trn mt bng thng hp. V th mt s k hiu c th ri vo vng
tn s c cht lng knh rt thp. V th tng k hiu ring l thng
thng s khng nhn c phn tp tn s ngay c khi knh mang
tnh chn lc tn s cao. Kt qu l t l li bit c s ca truyn dn
OFDM trn knh chn lc tn s tng i km v km hn nhiu so
vi t s li bit c s trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang
bng rng.
Tuy nhin trong thc t m ha knh c s dng trong hu ht
cc h thng thng tin s nht l trong trng hp thng tin di ng.
Trong m ha knh mi bit thng tin c truyn phn tn trn nhiu
bit m. Nu sau cc bit m ny thng qua cc k hiu iu ch
c sp xp ln cc sng mang con v cc sng mang con ny c
phn b hp l trn ton b bng thng truyn dn ca tn hiu OFDM
(hnh 3.11c), th mi bit thng tin s nhn c phn tp tn s (ngha
l mi bit ny c truyn trn cc bng tn c cht lng khc nhau
ca knh) mc d cc sng mang con v c cc bit m khng nhn
c phn tp tn s. Phn b cc bit m trong min tn s nh trn
hnh 3.11c i khi c gi l an xen tn s. an xen tn s trong
trng hp ny ging nh an xen trong min thi gian c s dng
kt hp vi m ha knh chng phainh thay i theo thi gian.
Nh vy, tng phn vi truyn dn n sng mang bng rng,
m ha knh (kt hp vi an xen tn s) l khu quan trng truyn
dn OFDM nhn c ch li t phn tp tn s trong knh chn lc
tn s. V m ha knh thng c s dng trong thng tin di ng
nn y khng phi l nhc im qu nghim trng ca OFDM,
ngoi ra cng cn nhn mnh rng ngay c khi t l m kh cao h
thng vn nhn c mt lng phn tp tn s sn c.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

95

c1 c2 c3 c4

Hnh 3.11. Gii thch vai tr ca m ha knh trong OFDM


M ha knh kt hp vi an xen tn s cung cp phn tp tn s
cho truyn dn OFDM
3.5. LA CHN CC THNG S OFDM C S
s dng OFDM cho truyn dn trong thng tin dng, cn la
chn cc thng s c s di y:
Khong cch gia cc sng mang con f
S sng mang con N cng vi khong cch gia sng mang con
quyt nh ton b bng thng truyn dn ca tn hiu OFDM
di CP: TCP. Cng vi khong cch gia cc sng mang
f=1/TFFT, TCP quyt nh di k hiu OFDM: T=TCP+TFFT, hay
tc k hiu OFDM.

96

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

3.5.1. Khong cch gia cc sng mang con ca OFDM


Tn ti hai tiu ch cn cn nhc trong vic chn sng mang con:
Khong cch gia cc sng mang con cng nh cng tt (TFFT
cng ln cng tt) gim thiu t l chi ph cho CP: TCP/(TFFT+TCP)
Khong cch gia cc sng mang con qu nh s tng s nhy
cm ca truyn dn OFDM i vi tri Doppler
Khi truyn qua knh phainh v tuyn, do tri Doppler ln, knh
c th thay i ng k trong on ly tng quan TFFT dn n trc
giao gia cc sng mang b mt v nhiu gia cc sng mang.
Trong thc t, i lng nhiu gia cc sng mang c th chp
nhn rt ln ty thuc vo dch v cn cung cp v mc tn hiu
thu chu c tp m v cc nhn t gy gim cp khc. Chng hn ti
bin ca mt ln t s tn hiu trn tp m cng nhiu c th kh
thp khi tc s liu thp. V th mt lng nh nhiu b sung gia
cc sng mang con do tri Doppler c th b qua. Tuy nhin trong cc
trng hp t s tp m cng nhiu cao chng hn trong cc nh hay
ti v tr gn BS, khi cn cung cp cc tc s liu cao, cng mt
lng nhiu gia cc sng mang con nh trn cng c th gy nh
hng xu hn nhiu.
Cn lu rng ngoi tri Doppler, nhiu gia cc sng mang con
cng xy ra do hot ng khng chnh xc ca my pht v my thu
nh: cc sai s tn s v tp m pha.
3.5.2. S lng cc sng mang con
Sau khi chn c khong cch gia cc sng mang con theo
mi trng (da trn cn nhc gia tri Doppler v tn thi), s lng
cc sng mang con c xc nh da trn bng thng kh dng v
pht x ngoi bng.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

97

rng bng tn c s ca tn hiu OFDM bng P.f, ngha l


s sng mang con nhn vi khong cch gia cc sng mang con. Tuy
nhin ph ca tn hiu OFDM c s gim rt chm bn ngoi rng
bng tn OFDM c s (hnh 3.12). L do gy ra pht x ngoi bng
ln l vic s dng to dng xung ch nht dn n cc bp sng bn
gim tng i chm. Tuy nhin trong thc t lc hoc to ca s
min thi gian c s dng loi b phn ln cc pht x ngoi
bng ca OFDM. Trong thc t cn dnh 10% bng tn cho bng bo
v i vi tn hiu OFDM. Chng hn nu bng thng kh dng l
5MHz th rng bng tn OFDM P.f ch c th vo khong

Mt ph cng sut (dBm/30kHz)

4,5MHz. Gi s LTE s dng khong cch gia cc sng mang l


15kHz, th iu ny tng ng vi vo khong 300 sng mang con
trong 5MHz.
30,0
20,0
10,0
0,0
-10,0
-20,0
-30,0
-40,0
-50,0

-3,5 -3,0 -2,5 -2,0 -1,5 -1,0 -0,5 0,0 0,5 1,5 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0

3,5

Tn s (MHz)

Hnh 3.12. Ph ca tn hiu OFDM c s 5MHz.


3.5.3. di CP
V nguyn tc, di CP TCP phi bao ph c di cc i
ca tn thi d tnh c th xy ra. Tuy nhin tng di CP m khng

98

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gim f dn n tng chi ph cng sut cng nh bng thng. Mt


cng sut dn n kch thc gim v h thng b hn ch nhiu hn
bi cng sut, v th cn c s cn i gia mt cng sut cho CP v
thit hi tn hiu do tn thi khng c CP bao ph ht. Ngoi ra
mc d khi kch thc tng tn thi tng, nhng khi kch thc
vt qu mt gi tr no cng khng nn tng TCP, v mt cng
sut c th gy nh hng xu ln tn hiu nhiu hn nh hng ca
tn thi do khng c ph ht bi CP.
Mt l do c th phi s dng TCP di hn lin quan n
trng hp truyn dn a vi vic s dng SFN (Single-Frequency
Network) m s xt trong phn sau.
Nh vy ti u hiu nng i vi cc mi trng khc nhau,
mt s h thng OFDM h tr nhiu di CP. Cc di CP khc
nhau ny c th c s dng trong cc trng hp sau:
CP ngn hn trong cc mi trng nh gim thiu chi ph
cho CP
CP di hn trong cc mi trng c tn thi rt ln v c bit
trong trng hp SFN
3.6. NH HNG CA THAY I MC CNG SUT TC
THI
Mt trong s cc nhc im ca truyn dn OFDM l s bin
ng ln trong cng sut pht tc thi dn n gim hiu sut b
khuch i cng sut v tiu th cng sut ca u cui di ng cao
hn hoc phi gim cng sut pht ra dn n gim c ly ph sng.
Nhiu phng php c xut gim gi tr nh ca tn
hiu OFDM:
Dnh trc tng. Dnh trc mt tp sng mang con khng s
dng cho truyn dn s liu. Cc sng mang con ny c iu ch

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

99

c th trit b cc gi tr nh ln ca ton b tn hiu OFDM v v th


c th gim khong li ca b khuch i cng sut. Nhc im ca
phng php dnh trc tng l mt bng thng do khng th s dng
mt s sng mang con cho truyn dn s liu. Ngoi ra tnh ton
phng php iu ch cho dnh trc tng cng rt phc tp
Xo trn chn lc. Chui bit sau m ha knh c xo trn vi
cc m ngu nhin ha. Sau mi chui c xo trn c iu
ch OFDM, v tn hiu c cng sut nh thp nht c chn pht.
Sau gii iu ch OFDM ti pha thu, gii ngu nhin (gii xo trn)
v gii m knh c thc hin cho tt c cc chui ngu nhin c th
c. Nhc im ca phng php ny l tng phc tp ca my thu
v phi thc hin nhiu gii m ng thi.
3.7. S DNG OFDM CHO GHP KNH V A TRUY NHP
Hnh 3.13 m t s dng OFDM cho a truy nhp OFDM c
th truyn dn ng thi cc n/t cc my u cui bng phn chia
tn s. Phng php ny c gi l ghp knh cc ngi s dng cho
ng xung (t trm gc n cc my u cui di ng) v a truy
nhp cho ng ln (t cc my u cui di ng n trm gc).
a) ng xung

b) ng ln

Hnh 3.13. OFDM c s dng cho s ghp knh/a truy nhp:


a) ng xung, b) ng ln
Trn ng xung, OFDM c s dng lm s ghp knh
cc ngi s dng. Trong khong thi gian mt k hiu OFDM, ton

100

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

b cc sng mang con kh dng c chia thnh cc tp con khc


nhau v c gn cho cc ngi s dng khc nhau truyn n cc
u cui khc nhau (hnh 3.14.a).
Tng t trn ng ln, OFDM c s dng lm s a truy
nhp. Trong khong thi gian mt k hiu OFDM ton b cc sng
mang con kh dng c chia thnh cc tp con khc nhau v c
gn cho cc ngi s dng khc nhau truyn t cc u cui khc
nhau n trm gc (hnh 3.14b). S a truy nhp ng ln s
dng OFDM c gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao
(OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) i vi
ng t MS n BS
Thng thng thut ng OFDMA c s dng cho c ng
xung v ng ln v th trong ti liu ny n gin ta s ch s
dng thut ng ny cho cc hai ng.
Hnh 3.13 gi thit rng cc sng mang con lin tip c s
dng truyn n/t my di ng u cui. Tuy nhin cc tp con
sng mang con c phn b trn ton b cc sng mang con kh
dng cng c s dng truyn n/t cc my u cui di ng
(hnh 3.14). Li ch ca cc s OFDM phn b l c th nhn c
phn tp tn s b sung tri rng trn ton bng thng rng hn cho
tng ng truyn.

Hnh 3.14. Ghp knh ngi s dng/OFDMA phn b

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

101

Trong trng hp OFDMA c s dng cho ng ln, tn hiu


OFDM pht i t cc u cui di ng khc nhau c ghp knh
theo tn s, iu quan trng l cc truyn dn t cc u cui cc v
tr khc nhau so vi trm gc phi n trm gc mt cch ng b
theo thi gian. c bit l s mt ng b gia cc truyn dn t cc
u cui di ng khc nhau ti trm gc phi nh hn di CP
m bo tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con thu c t cc u
cui di ng khc nhau trnh nhiu gia cc ngi s dng.
Do khc nhau v khong cch t cc u cui di ng n trm
gc v v th dn n khc nhau v thi gian truyn lan (s khc nhau
c th vt xa di CP), nn cn phi iu khin nh thi pht ca
tng u cui (hnh 3.15). iu khin nh thi pht nhm iu chnh
nh thi pht ca tng u cui di ng m bo rng cc truyn
dn ng ln c ng b ti trm gc. Do thi gian truyn lan thay
i khi u cui di ng chuyn ng trong , iu khin inh thi
pht phi l mt qu trnh tch cc lin tc iu chnh nh thi pht
cho tng u cui di ng.

2 1

Hnh 3.15. iu khin nh thi pht ng ln


Ngay c khi iu khin nh thi pht hon ho, vn lun c mt
lng nhiu gia cc sng mang con do sai s tn s. Trong trng
hp sai s tn s hp l v tri Doppler nh nhiu ny thng tng
i nh. Tuy nhin iu ny ch xy ra khi coi rng cc sng mang
con khc nhau c thu ti trm gc vi cng sut gn nh nhau. Trn

102

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ng ln do khong cch gia cc u cui di ng n trm gc


khc nhau v th suy hao ng truyn ca cc ng truyn ny cng
c th rt khc nhau. Nu hai u cui pht cng mt cng sut th do
khong cch khc nhau cng sut tn hiu thu ti trm gc t hai u
cui ny c th rt khc nhau v v th tn hiu thu t trm u cui
mnh hn s gy nhiu i vi tn hiu thu yu hn cho d vn duy tr
c trc giao hon ho gia cc sng mang con. trnh iu ny
cn phi thc hin iu khin cng sut pht ca cc u cui mt
mc nht nh i vi OFDMA ng ln bng cch gim cng
sut ca u cui gn trm gc m bo cng sut ca cc tn
hiu thu gn nh nhau.
3.8. PHT QUNG B V A PHNG TRONG NHIU
V OFDM
Cc dch v qung/ a phng trong h thng thng tin di ng
cho php cung cp ng thi thng tin cho nhiu u cui di ng.
Cc dch v ny thng c tri rng trn mt vng rng ln cha
nhiu nh trn hnh 3.16a. Thng tin qung b/a phng c th l
mt TV clip mi, thng tin v tnh hnh thi tit a phng, thng tin
v th trng chng khon ti mt thi im cho trc v c nhiu
ngi quan tm.
Khi cn cung cp cng mt thng tin cho nhiu u cui di ng
trong cng mt , tin li nht l cung cp thng tin ny bng cch s
dng mt ng truyn dn v tuyn qung b cho ton ng thi
n tt c cc u cui di ng lin quan (hnh 3.16b), ch khng nn
pht thng tin ny bng cc ng truyn dn ring cho tng u cui
di ng (truyn n phng, hnh 3.16c).
Pht qung b trn hnh 3.16b phi c nh c c th t n
cc u cui di ng thu yu nht bao gm c cc u cui ti bin .

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

103

iu ny dn n chi ph ti nguyn kh cao (cng sut my pht trm


gc c th t c tc s liu dch v cho trc). Mt gii
php cho vn ny l hn ch tc s liu qung b m bo t
s tn hiu trn tp m gii hn chng hn i vi bin v c bit l
i vi cc kch thc ln. Mt gii php khc cho php duy tr tc
s liu qung b cao l gim kch thc tng cng sut thu ti
bin . Nhng iu ny dn n tng s lng m bo vng
qung b cho trc v lm tng gi thnh trin khai h thng.

Hnh 3.13. Pht qung ba a (a), n (b) v pht n phng (c)


Trong trng hp pht qung b a , c th tit kim ti nguyn
m vn m bo tc s liu nu cc u cui di ng ti bin s
dng cng sut thu t truyn dn qung b ca nhiu khi tch
sng/gii m s liu qung b. V th c th t c li cng sut
ln, nu cc u cui c th thu ng thi v kt hp cc truyn dn
qung b t nhiu trc khi tch tn hiu v gii m. Phng php ny

104

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

c gi l kt hp mm cc truyn dn qung b/a phng t nhiu


v c ng dng cho MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast/Mulricast
Service: dch v qung b/a phng a phng tin) trong WCDMA.
Trong trng hp WCDMA, mi pht qung b trn ng
xung s dng mt m ngu nhin ring v th u cui c th nhn
bit tn hiu tng trong qu trnh kt hp mm. Mc d kt hp mm
tng ng k cng sut thu cho cc u cui ti bin , tuy nhin
truyn dn qung b t cc khc nhau vn gy nhiu cho nhau. iu
ny lm hn ch t s tn hiu trn nhiu v v th gii hn tc s liu.
Mt gii php loi b nhc im ni trn v ci thin hn na
cc dch v qung b/a phng trn mng thng tin di ng l m
bo rng cc truyn dn qung b t cc khc nhau hon ton ging
nhau v c pht ng b theo thi gian. Trong trng hp ny cc
truyn dn thu c t cc khc nhau nhn t u cui di ng th
hin nh mt truyn dn duy nht b nh hng ca truyn sng a
ng (hnh 3.17). Pht cc tn hiu ging nhau c ng b theo
thi gian, c bit l trong trng hp cung cp cc dch v qung
b/a phng i khi c gi l khai thc mng n tn s (SFN:
Single Frequency Network).

Hnh 3.17. Tng ng gia pht qung b a c ng b v


truyn sng a ng
Trong trng hp truyn dn t nhiu ging nhau v c ng
b thi gian, nhiu gia cc do cc truyn dn trong cc ln cn

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

105

xt t u cui s c thay th bng tn hiu b hng do tn thi. Nu


truyn dn qung b s dng OFDM vi CP bao ph phn chnh ca
tn thi, th cc tc s liu qung b ch b gii hn bi tp m v
iu ny c ngha c th t c tc s liu qung b rt cao c
bit l trong cc nh hn. Ngoi ra khc vi kt hp mm a ca
WCDMA MBMS, my thu OFDM khng cn nhn dng cc khi kt
hp mm, v tt c cc truyn dn nm trong gii hn ca CP s c
my thu t ng thu nhn (ging nh trng hp truyn sng a
mg ca mt tn hiu).
3.9. NGUYN L TRUYN DN DFTS-OFDM
3.9.1. S khi h thng DFTS-OFDM
Hnh 3.18. cho thy s khi ca h thng DFTS-OFDM v
OFDM tng ng.
Trn hnh 3.18 v trong cc phn sau ta s dng cc k hiu sau y:
x p : k hiu s liu th p (p=0,1,,P-1) trong khi s liu ti u

vo b DFT ca DFTS-OFDM

X n : Mu n (n=0,1,,P-1) trong min tn s ca tn hiu ti u


ra ca DFT
Xi: Sng mang con th i (i=0,1,,N-1) c iu ch trong
min tn s ti u vo ca b IFFT
xi: Sng mang con th i (i=0,1,,N-1) ca tn hiu OFDM trong
min thi gian ti u ra ca IFFT
xi,k (m): Mu m (m=0,1,, N-1) ca tn hiu OFDM ti u ra
ca b bin i t song song vo ni tip (PS) ti thi im k (k l
mt s nguyn nm trong khong t - n ).

{X }
TFFT = Ts mod .P / N

{X i }

TFFT

{x i }

di hiu dng ca k hiu

Hnh 3.18. Cu trc my pht v my thu ca cc h thng:


a) DFTS-OFDM, b)OFDM.

Tu, TFFT : Cc di k hiu ca ngi s dng v


OFDM

N: Tng s sng mang con FFT

P: S k hiu iu ch a ln DFT

P/S: Bin i song song v ni tip

{ }
xp

106

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

3.9.2. My pht DFTS OFDM

My pht DFTS-OFDM bin i tn hiu nh phn thnh mt dy


sng mang c iu ch. vy n thc hin cc thao tc x l tn
hiu nh trn hnh 3.18. X l tn hiu c thc hin theo tng khi

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

107

k hiu iu ch. Mi khi c bao gm P k hiu trong mi k


hiu c di Tsmod. Vy mt khi l mt khong thi gian Tsmod.P.
Ti u vo ca my pht, b iu ch bng gc bin i u vo nh
phn thnh mt chui nhiu mc cc s phc v nhm chng thnh
cc khi k hiu { x p } (p=0,1,,P-1) c khun dng ca mt trong s

cc s iu ch sau: BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM hoc 64QAM, trong


P l s sng mang con m h thng OFDM dnh cho my u cui.
H thng thc hin thch ng iu ch v v th tc bit truyn dn
s ph hp vi iu kin knh hin thi ca my u cui. Bc th
nht trong qu trnh iu ch DSTF-OFDM l thc hin bin i
Fourier ri rc (DFT: Discrete Fourier Transform) kch thc P to
ra th hin min tn s

{X } ca
n

cc k hiu u vo, trong

n=0,1,, P-1 v P<N. Sau tp sng mang con c iu ch c


kt hp vi N-P sng mang con rng (bng khng) c tp sng
mang con c iu ch min tn s {X i } (i=0,1,,N-1) a ln u
vo b IFFT. Sau IFFT ta c tp cc sng mang con c iu ch
{xi} trong min thi gian ti u ra ca IFFT. Khi ny mi xi
(i=0,1,,N-1) iu ch mt tn s. Sau b bin i ni tip vo song
song (S/P) ta c cc mu ca tn hiu OFDM x(m). Sau tn hiu
OFDM s iu ch mt sng mang v tt c cc k hiu c iu ch
s c truyn ln lt. Ging nh OFDM, gi tr ca N l mt s ly
tha hai (N=2k trong k l mt s nguyn) c th x l FFT theo
c s hai vi phc tp thp v P =N/Q l mt c s nguyn ca N.
Q c gi l tha s tri rng bng tn ca chui k hiu. Nu tt c
cc u cui u pht P k hiu trn mt khi, th h thng c th x
l ng thi Q cuc truyn dn ng thi m khng b nhiu ng
knh (CCI: Co-Channel Interference). My pht thc hin hai qu
trnh x l tn hiu na trc khi pht. N chn mt tp k hiu vi
tn gi l CP (Cyclic Prefix) ng vai tr thi gian bo v ngn
chn nhiu gia cc khi (IBI: Inter-block Interference) do truyn a

108

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ng. My pht cng thc hin lc tuyn tnh (c gi l to dng


xung) gim nng lng ngoi bng. Tng qut, CP l copy phn
cui ca khi v t vo phn u ca khi. Vic s dng n c hai l
do. Trc ht n ng vai tr khong bo v gia hai khi lin k.
Nu di ca CP ln hn tri tr cc i ca knh, th s khng c
IBI. Th hai n cho php chuyn i tch chp tuyn tnh ri rc thi
gian vo tch chp dch vng ri rc thi gian. V th s liu pht qua
knh c th c m hnh nh tch chp vng gia p ng xung kim
v khi s liu c truyn, m trong min tn s l nhn theo tng
im ca cc mu DFT. Khi ny loi b mo knh, ti my thu ta
ch cn chia DFT ca tn hiu thu cho DFT ca p ng xung kim
theo tng im hoc c th s dng k thut cn bng min tn s
phc tp hn.
Trn hnh 3.18 ta thy s khc nhau gia DFTS-OFDM (hnh
3.18a) v OFDM (hnh 3.18b) ch ch DFTS-OFDM s dng thm
DFT ti pha pht v IDFT ti pha thu. Chnh v th i khi DFTSOFDM c tn gi l DFT spread OFDM (OFDM c tri ph bng
DTF) hay iu ch OFDM c m ha trc.
Nu kch thc P ca DFT bng kch thc N ca IFFT th cc
khi DFT v IFFT trn hnh 3.18a s loi t nhau. Tuy nhin nu P<N
v cc u vo IFFT cn li c t vo khng th tn hiu u ra
IFFT s l mt tn hiu c thuc tnh n sng mang, ngha l mt
tn hiu c thay i cng sut t v bng thng ph thuc vo P. Nu
ta coi rng tn s ly mu ti u ra ca IFFT l fs th bng thng
chun ca tn hiu pht s bng B=P/Nfs. V th nu thay i kch
thc P ca khi, th bng thng tc thi ca tn hiu pht s thay i.
iu ny cho php n nh bng thng linh hot. Ngoi ra bng cch
chuyn dch cc u vo IFFT theo cch sp xp u ra DFT, ta c th
dch tn hiu pht trong min tn s. nhn c mc linh hot
cao theo bng thng tc thi c xc nh theo kch thc P ca

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

109

DTF, thng thng ta khng th m bo P=2k vi k l mt s


nguyn. Tuy nhin chng no cn c th biu din P nh l tch ca
cc s nguyn t nh, DFT vn c th x l FFT khng theo c s 2
vi phc tp thp. Chng hn DFT kch thc P=144 c th c
thc hin bng cch kt hp x l FFT theo c s 2 v c s 3 (32.24).
Li ch trc ht ca DFTS-OFDM so vi s truyn dn a
sng mang nh OFDM l gim mc thay i cng sut pht tc
thi hay PARP v nh th tng hiu sut b khuch i cng sut. Li
ch ny c m t trn hnh 3.19. Hnh 3.19 cho thy phn b PAPR
ca DFTS-OFDM v OFDM thng thng. PAPR c nh ngha
nh l t s gia cng sut tn hiu nh trong mt khi IFFT (mt k
hiu OFDM) v cng sut tn hiu trung bnh.

Hnh 3.19. Phn b PAPR i vi OFDM v DFTS-OFDM.


ng lin nt: QPSK; ng t nt: 16QAM.

110

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

T hnh 3.19 ta thy PAPR ca DFTS-OFDM thp hn nhiu so


vi OFDM thng thng. Trong trng hp iu ch16QAM, PAPR
ca DFTS-OFDM hi tng. Tri li i vi OFDM PAPR t ph thuc
vo s iu ch hn. Ta c th gii thch iu ny nh sau. Tn
hiu OFDM pht l tng ca rt nhiu sng mang con c iu ch
c lp, v th cng sut tc thi c phn b gn nh hm m khng
ph thuc vo s iu ch p dng cho cc sng mang con khc nhau.
Mc d PAPR c th c s dng m t nh tnh s khc
nhau v bin ng cng sut gia cc s truyn dn khc nhau,
nhng n cha phi l s o tt nh gi nh lng nh hng ca
s bin ng cng sut ln li cn thit ca b khuch i cng
sut. S o tt hn v nh hng ny cng nh nh hng ln hiu
sut ca b khuch i cng sut l s o thnh phn lp phng
(CM: Cubic Metric). CM l s o v i lng li cn thit i vi
mt dng sng ca tn hiu cho trc so vi lng li cn thit ca
dng sng tn hiu chun. Hnh 3.19 cho thy CM (c cho bn phi
hnh v) c cng xu th nh PAPR. Tuy nhin s khc nhau v CM
nh hn s khc nhau v PAPR.
3.9.3. My thu DFTS-OFDM
Nguyn l hot ng ca my thu DFTS-OFDM c cho phn
di ca hnh 3.18a. V c bn, my thu thc hin cc x l tn hiu
ngc so vi my pht. Trc ht x l FFT kch thc N c thc
hin, tip theo loi b cc mu tn s khng lin quan n tn hiu cn
thu, cui cng x l DTF ngc kch thc P.
Trong trng hp l tng nu khng xy ra hng tn hiu do
knh v tuyn, gii iu ch DFTS-OFDM s khi phc li hon ho
khi cc k hiu c truyn. Tuy nhin trong trng hp tn thi gy
ra do knh v tuyn b phainh chn lc tn s, tn hiu DFTS-OFDM
s b hng bi t nhiu. Ta c th hiu iu ny nh sau:

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

111

V l tn hiu n sng mang bng rng, tn hiu tri ph ca


DFTS-OFDM s b hng trong trng hp knh tn thi
Nu knh l chn lc tn s trn bng tn ca DFT, th DFT o
ti my thu khng th khi phc ng khi cc k hiu pht gc
V th i vi DFTS ta cn s dng b cn bng b tr tnh
chn lc tn s ca knh. My thu DFTS-OFDM s dng b cn bng
min tn s tuyn tnh t phc tp hn b tr tnh chn lc tn s
ca knh. Nguyn l b cn bng min tn s c cho trn hnh 3.20.
Sau FFT, trong N mu tn s ca tn hiu s ch c P sng mang
con cn thu c ly ra v c a ln u vo ca b cn bng
min tn s. Sau cc mu ny c cn bng bi b lc min tn s
c nhiu nhnh lc c cc trng s W0, W1,, WP tng ng nh trn
hnh 3.20. Sau tn hiu sau cn bng c chuyn ngc li min
thi gian bi IDTF kch thc P (xem hnh 3.18a).

w0
f0

w1

f1

wN

tx


Y
0


Y
1

-1

f P 1


Y
P

Hnh 3.20. B cn bng min tn s tuyn tnh cho DFTS-OFDM


Cc trng s ca cc nhnh lc W0, W1,,WP-1 c th c xc
nh trc ht bi cc p ng xung kim ca b lc min thi gian
MMSE tng ng sau chuyn vo min tn s bng DFT. Tuy

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

112

nhin b lc min thi gian MMSE c th rt phc tp nht l khi s


nhnh tr cn ln do tn hiu truyn dn bng rng. Tuy nhin vic
chn CP cho php loi b ngay t u nhiu ISI do chng ln gia hai
k hiu v v th trng s nhnh lc c th c tnh nh sau:

wi =

H i*
2

H i + PN

(3.12)

Trong Hi l mu ca p ng tn s ti fi v PN l cng sut tp m.


So vi b cn bng min thi gian th b cn bng min tn s
n gin hn nhiu nht l khi di b cn bng ln. y chnh l l
do m b cn bng min tn s dc chn cho DFTS-OFDM.
Nhc im chnh ca chn CP l phi chi ph thm bng thng
v cng sut khng cn thit cho CP.
3.9.4. DFTS-OFDM vi to dng ph
Tn hiu DFTS-OFDM c to ra trong cc phn trc y l tn
hiu c ph dng hnh ch nht. gim hn na s bin thin ca
tn hiu DFTS-OFDM, ta c th thc hin to dng ph thch hp cho
tn hiu ny. S to dng ph cho DFTS-OFDM c m t trn
hnh 3.21. Sau x l DFT kch thc P cho cc k hiu iu ch, tn
hiu c nh k tri rng trong min tn s. Sau qu trnh to
dng ph c thc hin bng cch nhn cc mu tn s vi hm to
dng ph, chng hn hm cosin tng cn bc hai (mt ph cng
sut c dng cosin tng) c biu din nh sau:
t
cos

t
T
f (t ) = sin
2 2
T 1- 4 t
T2

(3.13)

Trong T l thi gian k hiu v thng s (01) l h s


dc.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

113

Sau tn hiu ny c a ln b IFFT.

{x }
p

Hnh 3.21. DFTS-OFDM vi to dng ph min tn s

Xc sut (PAPR>x)

DFTS-OFDM

0,1

OFDM
0,01

0,001
4

8
x, dB

10

11

12

S o thnh phn lp phng


(CM: Cubic Metric):
- OFDM: 3,4 dB
- DFTS-OFDM (
): 1,0 dB
): 0,8dB
- DFTS-OFDM (
0,45dB
- DFTS-OFDM (

Hnh 3.22. Phn b PAPR v s o thnh phn lp phng i vi


DFTS-OFDM c to dng ph.

114

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 3.22 cho thy to dng ph cho php gim hn na s bin


i cng sut ca tn hiu pht nh vy t c hiu sut b khuch
i cng sut cao hn. Tuy nhin ci gi phi tr cho to dng ph l
vic gim hiu sut s dng ph tn do ph tr nn rng hn. Chng
hn khi h s dc ca b lc cosin tng =0,22 c ngha l bng thng
tng thm 22% so vi khng to dng ph. V th to dng ph ch p
dng cho cc trng hp b hn ch cng sut khi cng sut pht ch
khng phi ph l ti nguyn qu him. Khi ny vic gim thay i
cng sut pht nh to dng ph cho php ci thin c ly ng ln.
3.10. TNG QUAN SC-FDMA
Trong cc ng dng thng tin di ng, OFDMA c u im rt
ln v kh nng khng i vi nh hng ca truyn tn hiu a
ng. Kh nng khng ny t c nh vic h thng OFDM
pht thng tin trn N sng mang con bng hp trc giao vi mi sng
mang con hot ng ti tc bit ch bng 1/N tc bit ca thng tin
cn truyn. Tuy nhin dng sng OFDM th hin s thng ging
ng bao rt ln dn n PAPR cao. Tn hiu vi PAPR cao i hi
cc b khuch i cng sut c tnh tuyn tnh cao trnh lm mo
tn hiu. t c mc tuyn tnh ny, b khuch i phi lm
vic ch cng tc vi li (so vi im bo ha) cao. iu ny
dn n hiu sut s dng cng sut (t s cng sut pht vi cng
sut tiu th mt chiu) thp v th c bit nh hng i vi cc
thit b cm tay. Mt vn n khc gp phi OFDMA trong cc h
thng thng tin di ng l cn dch cc tn s tham kho i vi cc
u cui pht ng thi. Dch tn ph hoi tnh trc giao ca cc cuc
truyn dn n nhiu a truy nhp.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

115

khc phc nhc im ny, 3GPP nghin cu s dng


phng php a truy nhp ng ln s dng DFTS-OFDM vi tn
gi l SC-FDMA v p dng cho LTE. Ging nh trong OFDMA, cc
my pht trong h thng SC-FDMA s dng cc tn s trc giao khc
nhau (cc sng mang con) pht i cc k hiu thng tin. Tuy nhin
cc k hiu ny c pht i ln lt ch khng phi song song. V
th khng nh OFDMA, cch sp xp ny lm gim ng k s thng
ging ca ng bao tn hiu ca dng sng pht. V th cc tn SCFDMA c PAPR thp hn cc tn hiu OFDMA. Tuy nhin trong cc
h thng thng tin di ng b nh hng ca truyn dn a ng, SCFDMA c thu ti BTS b nhiu gia cc k hiu kh ln. BTS s
dng b cn bng thch ng min tn s loi b nhiu ny. Cch t
chc ny ph hp cho cc h thng thng tin di ng n cho php
gim yu cu i khuch i tuyn tnh trong my cm tay vi tr gi
bng b cn bng thch ng min tn s phc tp trong BTS. Hnh
3.23 m t nguyn l SC-FDMA.
Hnh 3.23a m t trng hp a truy nhp ca hai u cui c
n nh bng thng bng nhau (c cng P), cn hnh 3.23b m t
trng hp a truy nhp ca hai u cui c n nh bng thng
khc nhau.
Bng cch dch cc u ra ca DFT n cc u vo thch hp
ca IFFT, h thng c th pht tn hiu vo ng v tr min tn s
c quy nh theo lp biu.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 3.23. SC-FDMA trn c s DFTS-OFDM.

116

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

117

Hnh 3.24 cho thy s khc nhau trong qu trnh truyn cc k


hiu s liu theo thi gian. Trn hnh ny ta coi rng mi ngi s
dng c phn 4 sng mang con (P=4) vi bng thng con bng 15
kHz, trong mi k hiu OFDMA hoc SC-FDMA truyn 4 k hiu
s liu c iu ch QPSK cho mi ngi s dng. Hnh 3.24 bn
tri cho thy i vi OFDMA 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn ng
thi vi bng tn con cho mi k hiu l 15 kHz trong khong thi
gian hiu dng TFFT ca mt k hiu OFDMA, trong khi i vi
SC-FDMA bn k hiu s liu ny c truyn ln lt trong khong
thi gian bng 1/P (P=4) thi gian hiu dng k hiu SC-FDMA vi
bng tn con bng Px15 kHz (4x15Hz) cho mi k hiu.

Hnh 3.24. V d minh ha s khc nhay trong vic truyn


cc k hiu s liu theo thi gian i vi OFMA v SC-FDMA:
OFDMA truyn cc k hiu s liu ng thi
cn SC-FDMA truyn cc k hiu s liu ln lt

118

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Ging nh OFDMA, thng lng SC-FDMA ph thuc vo cch


sp t cc k hiu thng tin ln cc sng mang con. C hai cch phn
l cc sng mang con gia cc my u cui. Trong SC-FDMA
khoanh vng (LFDMA: Localized SC-FDMA) hay cn c gi l
DFTS-OFDM khoanh vng (Locallized DTFS-OFDM), mi u cui
s dng mt tp sng mang con lin k pht i k hiu ca mnh.
V th bng thng truyn dn LFDMA bng mt phn bng thng h
thng. Trong SC-FDMA phn b (DFDMA: Distributed FDMA) hay
cn gi l DTFS-OFDM phn b (Distributed DFTS-OFDM), cc
sng mang dnh cho mt u cui c phn b trn ton b bng tn
tn hiu. Mt phng n ca SC-FDMA phn b c gi l SCFDMA an xen (IFDMA: Interleaved SC-FDMA), trong cc sng
mang con c chim bi mt u cui cch u nhau v cc sng
mang con gia chng rng dnh cho cc u cui khc. Hnh 3.25
cho thy hai cch sp xp ni trn, trong c ba u cui, mi u
cui pht i cc k hiu trn bn sng mang con trong mt h thng
c 12 sng mang con. Trn hnh 3.25a, trong cch sp xp IFDMA
u cui 1 s dng cc sng mang con 0, 3, 6 v 9 cn trong cc sp
xp LFDMA (hnh 3.25b) u cui 1 s dng cc sng mang con
0,1,2,3.

Hnh 3.25. Cc phng php n nh sng mang con


cho nhiu ngi s dng.
Hnh 3.26 cho thy s thc hin sp xp LFDMA v IFDMA.

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

119

Hnh 3.26. S sp xp: a) LFDMA v b) IFDMA


Xt v kh nng khng i vi li truyn dn (iu ny nh
hng ln thng lng), SC-FDMA phn b c kh nng khng
pha inh chn lc tn s tt hn SC-FDMA khoanh vng v thng tin
cn truyn c tri rng trn ton b bng tn tn hiu. Do vy n s
cung cp kh nng phn tp tn s. Tri li LFDMA cho php t
c phn tp a ngi s dng khi xy ra phainh chn lc tn s
nu n n nh cho tng ngi s dng phn bng tn trong ngi
s dng ny c c trng truyn dn tt nht ( li knh cao). Phn
tp a ngi s dng da trn vic phainh c lp i vi cc my
pht khc nhau. H thng cng cn c b lp biu theo knh (CDS:
Channel Dependent Scheduler) cho cc sng mang. CDS i hi h
thng gim st cht lng knh truyn ph thuc tn s cho tng u
cui v thch ng n nh sng mang con thay i p ng tn s
knh ca tt c cc u cui.
3.11. SP XP SNG MANG CON SC-FDMA
Mt s phng php c s dng sp xp cc k hiu truyn
dn xp ln cc sng mang con ca SC-FDMA c th c s dng.
Cc phng php ny c chia thnh phn b v khoanh vng nh
minh ho trn hnh 3.26. Trong ch sp xp sng mang con

120

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

phn b, cc u ra ca DFT c t trn ton b bng thng vi 0


c chn vo v tr cc sng mang con khng c s dng. Nh
ni trn, IFDMA (SC-FDMA an xen) l mt trng hp c bit
quan trng ca SC-FDMA phn b (DFDMA). Tri vi IFDMA,
trong LFDMA (SC-FDMA khoanh vng) u ra ca DFT c t
ln cc sng mang con lin tc, v th n s chim mt on ca ton
b bng thng. Cc phng php sp xp cn c chia thnh tnh v
lp biu ph thuc knh (CDS: Channel Dependent Scheduling). CDS
n nh cc sng mang con cho ngi s dng ty thuc vo p ng
knh i vi ngi s dng. i vi phng php th nht, sp xp
sng mang con phn b cung cp phn tp tn s, bi v ph ca tn
hiu cn truyn c tri rng trn ton b bng thng. Vi sp xp
phn b, CDS ci thin thm hiu nng. Tri li CDS rt quan trng
i vi sp xp sng mang con khoanh vng v n ci thin ng k
phn tp a ngi s dng nh ni trn.

{x }
p

2 p

j
n
P1
Xn =
x pe P , P = 4

p =0

{Xn }

{X

i,I FDMA

{X

i,LFDMA

Hnh 3.27. Th d v cc k hiu truyn dn ca SC-FDMA


trong min tn s i vi P =4, Q=3, N=12

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

121

Cho n nay ta ch cp tng qut vic xp xp P k hiu trong


mi khi ln N>P cc sng mang con truyn dn. Tuy nhin vi
N=256 trong cc h thng thc t, s kh nng sp xp c th c qu
ln i vi cc gii thut lp biu thc t. gim mc phc tp
sp xp, cc sng mang con c nhm thnh cc chunk (khc) v tt
c cc sng mang con trong cng mt chunk c n nh ng thi.
Chng hn 256 sng mang con c th chia thnh 32 chunk, trong
mi chunk c 8 sng mang con hay 16 chunk vi mi chunk c 16
sng mang con. Hnh 3.27 cho thy mt th d v qu trnh x l s
cho cc k hiu truyn dn ca SC-FDMA trong min tn s i vi
P=4, Q=3 v N=12.
3.12. TRNH BY TN HIU TRONG MIN THI GIAN
3.12.1. Trnh by tn hiu IFDMA trong min thi gian
Ta c th biu din tn hiu IFDMA trong min thi gian nh sau:
N 1

x( m ) = Xi e

j2

i
m
N

(3.14)

i =0

Trong
Xn ,i = Q.n (0 n P 1)
0 , nu khc

Xi =

(3.15)

m=P.q+p; N=Q.P ; 0 qQ-1; 0 pP-1

(3.16)

hiu c ba phng trnh trn, ta xt th d trong N=12,


Q=3, P=4. y l th d trong d kch thc FFT l 12 vi tng s
sng mang con bng 12, c ba ngi s dng vi mi ngi s dng
c cp pht bn sng mang con cho bn k hiu iu ch u vo
(xem hnh 3.27). T phng trnh (3.15) :
Xi=0=Xn=0, Xi=3=Xn=1, Xi=6=Xn=2 v Xi=9=Xn=3;

122

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

S dng (3.16), ta c th bin i phng trnh (3.14) nh sau:


N 1

x(m) = Xi e

j2

i
m
N

i =0

P 1

X e
n =0

n
j2 m

P 1

X e
n =0

n
j2 (P.q + p)

(3.17)

Vi q=0 ta c:
x(m)=

P 1

X e
n =0

n
j2 p

= xp

(3.18)

T phng trnh (3.17) v (3.18) ta thy s ph thuc ca tn hiu


sau bin i IFFT theo thi gian khng khc g tn hiu u vo ( x p ).
Hnh 3.28 minh ha truyn dn cc k hiu IFDMA theo thi gian. T
hnh ny ta thy cc k hiu c truyn ln lt theo thi gian, khc
vi OFDM cc k hiu c truyn ng thi theo thi gian.
3.12.2. Trnh by tn hiu LFDMA trong min thi gian
Tng t nh trn ta c th biu din tn hiu LFDMA trong
min thi gian nh sau:
N 1

x(m) = X i e

j2

i
m
N

(3.19)

i =0

Trong :
X ,i = n (0 n P 1)
Xi = n
0 , nu khc

(3.20)

m=Q.p+q; N=Q.P ; 0 qQ-1; 0 pP -1

(3.21)

hiu c ba phng trnh trn, ta xt th d trong N=12,


Q=3, P=4. y l th d trong d kch thc FFT l 12 vi tng s
sng mang con bng 12, c ba ngi s dng vi mi ngi s dng
c cp pht bn sng mang con cho bn k hiu iu ch u vo
(xem hnh 3.27). Ta xt th d cho ngi s dng th nht vi q=0. T
phng trnh (3.19) v (3.20):
Xi=0=Xn=0, Xi=1=Xn=1, Xi=2=Xn=2 v Xi=3=Xn=3;m=Q.p

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

123

S dng (3.21), ta c th vit li phng trnh (3.19) nh sau:


N 1

x(m) = X i e

j2

i =0

i
m
N

P 1

= Xn e

j2

n
m
N

n =0

P 1

X e
n =0

= xp

j2

k
(Q.p)
Q.P

P 1

= Xne

n
j2 p

n =0

(3.22)

T phng trnh (3.21) ta thy trong trng hp q=0, tn hiu u


ra LFDMA ging nh tn hiu u vo.
i vi trng hp q0 ta nhn c phng trnh biu din tn
hiu u ra IFFT trong min thi gian nh sau :
3

*m = c p ,m .x p

(3.23)

p =0

Trong *m l gi tr xen gia cc k hiu xp (xem hnh 3.28),


cp,m l trng s phc.
Nh vy trong trng hp LFDMA cc k hiu cng c truyn
ln lt. y chnh l l do ti sao SC-FDMA PAPR thp hn
OFDM.
Hnh 3.28 cho thy truyn dn k hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi
gian cho trng hp N=12, Q=3 v P=4. i vi IFDMA, cc k hiu
thi gian ch l lp li ca cc k hiu u vo gc vi quay pha h
thng c p dng cho tng k hiu trong min thi gian. V th
PAPR ca tn hiu SC-FDMA ging nh trng hp tn hiu n sng
mang thng thng. Trong trng hp LFDMA, tn hiu thi gian l
cc bn sao chnh xc ca cc k hiu thi gian u vo trong P v tr
ly mu. N-P mu cn li l tng c trng s ca tt c cc k hiu
trong khi vo. Hnh 3.28 cho thy th d ca cc tn hiu chim
chunk bao gm c sng mang khng.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

124

{x }
p

{x(m)

IFDMA

{x(m)

L FDMA

*m = cp,m .x p , cp,m l trng s phc


p =0

Hnh 3.28. Th d v cc k hiu truyn dn SC-FDMA


trong min thi gian
Hnh 3.29 cho thy bin ca cc k hiu SC-FDMA cho
trng hp N=64, P=16, Q=4 v QPSK.
0,5
IFDMA
LFDMA

0,4

0,3
0,2
0,1

10

20

30

40

50

60

Thi gian (s mu)

Hnh 3.29. Bin ca cc k hiu SC-FDMA cho trng hp


N=64, P=16, Q=4 v QPSK

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ca LTE

125

3.13. TNG KT
Trong chng ny ta xt nguyn l chung ca OFDM v
DFTS-OFDM. OFDM l phng php truyn dn a sng mang cho
php truyn dn v tuyn bng rng vi tit kim bng thng nht. V
th n c s dng cho m hnh lp vt l OFDMA ng xung
ca LTE. Tuy nhin do nhc im ca OFDM l n c PAPR cao,
nn DFTSS-OFDM c s dng cho m hnh lp vt l SC-FDMA
ng ln. DFTS-OFDM l dng ci tin ca OFDM trong cc k
hiu trc khi a ln IFFT c tri ph nh DFT. Trong khi cc k
hiu iu ch c truyn song song trong OFDM, th trong DFTSOFDM (SC-FDMA) cc k hiu ny c truyn ni tip v y
chnh l l do ti sao PAPR ca SC-FDMA thp hn ca OFDM.
3.14. CU HI
1. Trnh by nguyn l c tnh knh v cc k hiu tham kho.
2. Trnh by vai tr ca m ha knh trong phn tp tn s khi truyn
dn OFDM.
3. Trnh by phng php la chn bng thng cho OFDM c s.
4. Trnh by nh hng ca thay i mc cng sut tc thi ln cht lng
truyn dn.
5. Trnh by s dng OFDM cho ghp knh v a truy nhp.
6. Trnh by pht qung b v a phng trong nhiu v OFDMA.
7. Trnh by nguyn l truyn dn DFTS-OFDM.
8. Trnh by nguyn l SC-FDMA.
9. Trnh by cc phng php sp xp sng mang con SC-FDMA.
10.Trnh by cc tn hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian.

126

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

11.Nu ngha ca chn CP, di ca thi gian CP ph thuc vo


yu t g?
12. di chn CP nh hng nh th no ln cng sut pht v bng
thng.
13.Ti sao s truyn dn DFTS-OFDM li cho php gim PAPR.
14.Nu trong s hnh 3.1, P=N th ta c truyn dn kiu g?

Chng 4

K THUT A ANTEN

Cc k thut a anten c s dng ci thin hiu nng h


thng bao gm: ci thin dung lng h thng (nhiu ngi s dng
hn trn mt ) v vng ph ( ln hn) cng nh cung cp dch v
tt hn nh tc s liu trn mt ngi s dng cao hn. Cc k
thut ny bao gm vic s dng nhiu anten ti my pht v my thu
kt hp vi x l s tin tin.
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm:
Cc cu hnh a anten
Cc li ch ca s dng cc k thut a anten
a an ten thu
a anten pht
Ghp knh khng gian
Mc ch ca chng ny nhm cung cp cho sinh vin cc kin
thc tng quan cc k thut a anten c s dng pht trin 3G
c bit l cho HSPA v LTE.
hiu c chng ny sinh vin cn c k t liu trong
chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [9], [10], [11], [14] , [15] v tr
li cc cu hi cui chng.
4.1. CC CU HNH A ANTEN
Mt c trng quan trng ca mi cu hnh a anten l khong
cch gia cc phn t anten do quan h gia khong cch anten v

128

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

tng quan tng h gia phainh knh v tuyn ti cc anten


khc nhau.
Cc anten trong cu hnh a anten c th c t kh cch xa
nhau t c tng quan lng h thp. Tuy nhin trong cc cu
hnh khc, cc anten c th c t kh gn nhau tng tng quan
tng h, khi ny tn hiu cc anten khc nhau s b pha inh tc thi
gn ging nhau. Cc cu hnh a anten ny c phn loi thnh phn
tp, to bp v ghp knh khng gian s c xt cc phn di y.
Khong cch anten thc t cn thit t c tng quan thp
hoc cao ph thuc vo bc sng hay tn s sng mang s dng cho
thng tin v tuyn. Ngoi ra n cng ph thuc vo kch bn trin khai.
Trong trng hp cc anten trm gc trong cc mi trng
thng gp l cc v m (cc kh ln, v tr t anten kh cao ),
khong cch gia cc anten thng l vi chc bc sng m bo
tng quan phainh tng h thp. Nhng i vi cc u cui di
ng trong mi trng tng t, khong cch gia cc anten ch cn
na bc sng (0,5) l m bo tng quan tng h kh thp.
L do khong cch anten khc nhau gia trm gc v u cui di ng
trong mi trng cc v m l cc phn x a ng gy ra phainh
ch yu xy ra vng gn u cui di ng. V th nhn t u cui di
ng, cc ng truyn khc nhau thng n vi gc rng v iu
ny c ngha l tng quan phainh thp ngay c khi khong cch
gia cc anten nh.
Tri li, trong cc kch bn trin khai khc, nh trin khai vi m
vi cc anten trm gc c t thp hn mi nh hay trin khai trong
nh, mi trng nhn t pha trm gc rt ging vi mi trng nhn
t pha u cui di ng. Trong cc kch bn ny khong cch anten
trm gc nh hn cng m bo tng quan phainh thp.
Cc phn tch trn tng ng vi gi thit rng cc anten c
cng phn cc. Mt gii php khc t c tng quan phainh
tng h thp l s dng phn cc khc nhau cho cc anten khc

Chng4: K thut a anten

129

nhau. Khi ny c th t cch anten rt gn nhau nhn c mt


kt cu anten nh gn m vn m bo tng quan gia chng thp.
4.2. CC LI CH CA VIC S DNG CC K THUT A
ANTEN
Cc k thut a anten ti my pht v ti my thu c th c s
dng theo cc cch khc nhau t c cc mc ch khc nhau:
Nhiu anten ti my pht v (hoc) ti my thu c th c s
dng m bo phn tp chng phainh trn knh v tuyn. Trong
trng hp ny, cc knh truyn do cc anten ny to ra phi c tng
quan phainh tng h thp, hay ni mt cch khc cn c khong
cch gia cc anten ln (phn tp khng gian), hoc s dng cc
anten c phn cc khc nhau (phn tp phn cc)
Nhiu anten ti my pht v (hoc) ti my thu c th c s
dng to dng bp anten tng hp (bp pht v bp thu) chng
hn t c tng ch cc i trong trong phng n my pht
hoc n my thu hoc trit cc tn hiu nhiu chnh. Qu trnh to
bp ny c th c thc hin da trn tng quan phainh tng h
cao hoc thp gia cc anten
S c mt ng thi nhiu anten ti my pht v my thu c th
c s dng to ra nhiu knh thng tin song song trn giao din
v tuyn. iu ny m bo kh nng s dng bng thng cao m
khng gy gim hiu sut s dng cng sut hay ni mi cch khc
cho php tc truyn dn cao m khng gy nh hng ln n ph
sng. Gii php ny c gi l ghp knh khng gian.
4.3. A ANTEN THU
Xt v mt lch s cng nh s ph bin, cu hnh thng gp v
c bit t lu l cu hnh s dng nhiu anten ti my thu.
Phng php ny thng c gi l phn tp thu hay phn tp RX,
mc d mc ch ca n khng phi lun lun ch nhn c phn
tp chng phainh.

130

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 4.1 m t nguyn l kt hp tuyn tnh cc tn hiu thu y1,


, yNr t Nr anten thu bng cch nhn tn hiu thu ny vi cc tha s
trng s phc w1* , w *2 ,..., w *Nr trc khi cng chng vi nhau. Vect
nhn c sau kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh ny c th c biu din
nh sau:
y1
x = w ......w . # = w H y
y Nr
*
1

*
Nr

(4.1)

Trong ch s H k hiu cho chuyn v Hermitian

w1*
y1
x

w *Nr

yNr

Hnh 4.1. Kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh


Nu coi rng tn hiu pht khng b phainh chn lc (khng c
tn thi) v tp m l tp m Gauss trng cng, tn hiu thu ti cc
anten khc nhau trn hnh 4.1 c th c biu din nh sau:
1
y1 h1

y = # = # .x + # = h .x +
N
y Nr hNr
r

(4.2)

Chng4: K thut a anten

131

Trong x l tn hiu pht, vect h bao gm Nr li knh phc


v vect bao gm tp m trng ti Nr nhnh thu t cc anten khc
nhau (xem hnh 4.2).
w1*

h1
y1
1

x

hNr

*
Nr

y Nr
Nr

Hnh 4.2. Cc knh truyn trong kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh


C th d dng chng minh rng t c t s tn hiu trn
tp m cc i sau kt hp tuyn tnh, cn chn vect trng s w
nh sau:
w MRC = h

(4.3)

Kt hp ny cn c gi l kt hp t l cc i (MRC: Maximum
Ratio Combining). Cc trng s MRC thc hin hai mc ch:
Quay pha tn hiu thu c ti cc anten khc nhau b tr pha
ca knh tng ng v m bo rng cc tn hiu ng pha khi cng
vi nhau (kt hp nht qun)
nh trng s cc tn hiu t l vi cc li knh tng
ng,nghal s dng trng s cao cho cc tn hiu thu mnh hn.
Trong trng hp cc anten khng tng quan vi nhau, ngha l
khong cch gia cc anten ln hay cc anten c phn cc khc
nhau, th cc li knh h1, h2, , hNr s khng tng quan nhau v
kt hp phn tp tuyn tnh cung cp phn tp bc Nr. i vi to bp
pha thu, vic chn cc trng lng anten theo (4.3) tng ng vi

132

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

bp thu c li cc i Nr trong phng hng n my pht ch.


V th vic s dng nhiu anten thu c th tng t s tn hiu trn tp
m sau kt hp t l vi s lng cc anten thu.
MRC l mt chin lc kt hp anten khi tn hiu thu ch yu b
ph hoi bi tp m. Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp ca thng tin
di ng, tn hiu thu ch yu b ph hoi bi nhiu t cc my pht
khc trong h thng ch khng phi tp m. Trong trng hp s
lng cc tn hiu nhiu kh ln, kt hp t l cc i vn l la chn
tt chng hn trong trng hp tng nhiu th hin ging nh tp m
v khng c hng n c th. Tuy nhin trong trng hp ch c
mt ngun nhiu ln (hoc trong trng s ngun nhiu ln c hn)
nh m t trn hnh 4.3, hiu nng ch c th c ci thin nu thay
v chn cc trng s anten t c t s tn hiu trn tp m cc
i sau kt hp anten (MRC), cc trng s anten c chn sao cho
cc ngun nhiu ny b trit tiu. i vi to bp pha thu, iu ny
tng ng vi bp thu c suy hao cao ti hng n ngun nhiu ch
khng tng ng vi bp thu c li cc i theo hng n tn
hiu ch. Vic s dng kt hp anten vi mc ch trit tiu cc
ngun nhiu c th thng c gi l kt hp loi b nhiu (IRC:
Interference Rejection Combining).
xI

h1
h2

hI ,1

hI ,2

Hnh 4.3. Kch bn ng xung vi mt ngun nhiu vt tri


ch c hai anetn thu

Chng4: K thut a anten

133

Trong trng hp ch c mt ngun nhiu vt tri nh trn hnh


4.3, ta c th biu din cng thc (4.2) nh sau:
1
hI ,1
y1 h1

y = # = # .x + #
.xI + # = h .x + hI .xI + (4.4)
N
hI , Nr
y Nr hNr

Trong xI l tn hiu nhiu v vect hI gm cc li knh


phc t ngun nhiu n Nr anten thu. p dng cc biu thc t (4.1)
n (4.4) ta thy rng tn hiu nhiu hon ton b trit tiu nu vect
trng s w c chn thc hin biu thc sau:
w H .hI = 0

(4.5)

Trong (.)H l chuyn v Hermitian.


Trong trng hp tng qut, (4.5) c Nr li gii khc khng cho
php linh hot chn trng s. Tnh linh hot ny c th c s dng
trit cc ngun nhiu chnh khc. c bit hn na trong trng
hp tng qut vi Nr anten thu, v mt l thuyt c th hon ton trit
tiu Nr-1 ngun nhiu tch bit. Tuy nhin vic la chn cc trng s
anten trit tiu hon ton mt s cc ngun nhiu ln c th dn
n tng mc tp m sau khi kt hp anten. iu ny tng ng vi tng
ln mc tp m trong trng hp b cn bng cng bc v khng.
V th ging nh trng hp cn bng tuyn tnh, phng php
tt hn l chn vect trng s anten w t c sai s trung bnh
bnh phng cc tiu:
2
= E x x

(4.6)

Phng php ny thng c gi l kt hp sai s bnh phng


trung bnh cc tiu (MMSE: Minimum Mean Square Error).

134

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Mc d hnh 4.3 ch minh ha kch bn ng xung vi mt


trm gc gy nhiu ch yu, IRC cng c th c p dng cho ng
ln trit tiu nhiu t cc u cui di ng c th. Trong trng
hp ny, u cui di ng gy nhiu c th nm trong cng nh u
cui di ng ch (nhiu ni ) hoc trong bn cnh (nhiu gia cc
) (hnh 4.4). Trit nhiu ni lin quan n trng hp ng ln
khng trc giao, ngha l khi nhiu u cui di ng pht ng thi
bng cch s dng cng mt ti nguyn thi gian-tn s. Vic trit
nhiu ni bng IRC i khi cn c gi l a truy nhp phn chia
theo thi gian (SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access).

Hnh 4.4. Kch bn my thu b mt my u cui di ng gy nhiu


mnh: Nhiu ni , b) Nhiu gia cc
Trong thc t knh v tuyn lun lun b tn thi mt mc
nht nh hay ni mt cch khc c tnh chn lc tn s v iu ny
dn n ph hoi tn hiu bng rng. Mt bin php chng li s
ph hoi tn hiu kiu ny l p dng cn bng tuyn tnh min thi
gian hay min tn s. Cng cn nhn mnh rng vic kt hp anten
thu tuyn tnh ni trn c rt nhiu im tng ng vi cn bng
tuyn tnh:
Lc/cn bng tuyn tnh min thi gian thc cht l p dng x l
tuyn tnh cho tn hiu thu ti cc thi im khc nhau (hay cc tn s
khc nhau) t c SNR sau cn bng cc i (cn bng da trn
MRC), cng l mt s la chn loi b s ph hoi tn hiu do tnh

Chng4: K thut a anten

135

chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn (cn bng cng bc khng, cn


bng MMSE...)
Kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh l qu trnh x l tuyn tnh p dng
cho cc tn hiu thu t cc anten khc nhau chng hn x l trong
min thi gian nhm t c SNR sau kt hp cc i (kt hp da
trn MRC), cng l mt s la chn trit cc ngun nhiu c th
(da trn IRC, MMSE)
Vy, trong trng hp tng qut knh chn lc tn s v nhiu
anten thu, ta c th p dng lc/x l khng gian thi gian hai chiu
nh trn hnh 4.5 trong lc tuyn tnh c nhn nhn nh l tng
qut ha ca nh trng s anten trn hnh 4.1. Cc b lc phi c
la chn kt hp gim thiu tng nh hng ca tp m, nhiu v
cc ph hoi tn hiu khc do chn tc tn s ca knh.

w1
x

w2
Hnh 4.5. X l tuyn tnh khng gian thi gian hai chiu (hai anten thu)
Mt cch khc, c bit l trong trng hp chn CP c p
dng ti pha pht, c th p dng x l tuyn tnh tn s/khng gian
nh trn hnh 4.6. Cc trng s tn s khng gian cn c chn kt
hp gim thiu tng nh hng ca tp m, nhiu v ph hoi tn
hiu do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn.
X l tn s/khng gian trn hnh 4.6 khng dng IDFT cng c
th c p dng nu phn tp thu c p dng cho truyn dn
OFDM. Trong trng hp truyn dn OFDM khng c ph hoi tn

136

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hiu do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn. V th cc trng s


trn hnh 4.6 c chn vi mc ch ch gim nhiu v tp m. V
nguyn l s ny ging nh cc s kt hp anten ni trn
(MRC v IRC) c p dng cho tng sng mang.
Lu rng mc d trn cc s hnh 4.5 v hnh 4.6 ta ch xt
hai anten, nhng c th m rng cho cc s nhiu hn hai anten.
*
w1,0

w *2,0

x
*
w1,P-1

w *2,P-1

Hnh 4.6. X l tuyn tnh khng gian/tn s hai chiu (hai anten)
4.4. A ANTEN PHT
Mt gii php khc hoc b sung cho nhiu anten thu, phn tp
v to bp cng c th t c bng cch p dng nhiu anten ti
pha pht. S dng nhiu anten pht thng c quan tm cho ng
xung, ngha l ti trm gc v khi ny c nhiu khng gian hn lp
t kt cu anten. Trong trng hp ny vic s dng nhiu anten pht
m bo kh nng phn tp v to bp khng cn cc anten thu b
sung v chui my thu tng ng ti u cui di ng. Mt khc, do
phc tp nn vic s dng nhiu anten pht cho ng ln (ti my
u cui di ng) t hp dn hn. Trong trng hp ny, thng thng
h thng s dng thm cc anten thu v dy cc my thu tng ng ti
trm gc.

Chng4: K thut a anten

137

4.4.1. Phn tp anten pht


Nu khng bit r cc knh ng xung ca cc anten khc
nhau ti my pht, cc anten pht khng th m bo to bp m ch
m bo phn tp. i vi phn tp cn m bo tng quan tng h
gia cc knh ca cc anten khc nhau thp. Nh xt trn, iu
ny c th t c bng cch chn khong cch gia cc anten
ln, hay mt gii php khc l s dng cc hng phn cc anten
khc nhau. C rt nhiu cch tip cn khc nhau thc hin phn tp
bng nhiu anten pht.
4.4.2. Phn tp tr
Do knh pha inh b tn thi, nn s c nhiu ng truyn
phainh c lp vi tr khc nhau n my thu v iu ny cung cp
phn tp a ng hay phn tp tn s. Nu lng truyn sng a
ng khng qu ln v s truyn dn s dng cc cng c
chng li ph hoi tn hiu do tnh chon lc tn s ca knh v tuyn
(chng hn truyn OFDM hay cn bng tin tin ti pha thu) th h
thng c th li dng c truyn a ng.
Nu knh khng b tn thi, nhiu anten pht c th c s dng
to ra tn thi nhn to hay tng ng chn lc tn s nhn to
bng cch pht i cc tn hiu nh nhau vi tr tng i khc nhau t
cc anten khc nhau vi tng quan tng h thp gia cc anten ny.
Kiu phn tp tr ny c minh ha trn hnh 4.7 cho trng hp hai
anten pht. Tr tng i T phi c chn m bo lng phn
tp tn s ph hp trn rng bng tn ca tn hiu c truyn.
Phn tp tr trn hnh 4.7 cng c th c m rng cho cu hnh c
nhiu anten hn.
u cui di dng khng nhn bit c tr phn tp, n n gin
coi y l mt knh v tuyn b tn thi. Tr phn tp c th c a
vo cc h thng thng tin di ng hin c m khng cn bt k mt
h tr c bit trong tiu chun giao din v tuyn. Tr phn tp cng
c th p dng cho mi s truyn dn c thit k x l cng

138

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nh li dng phn tp phainh chn lc tn s (WCDMA v


cdma2000).
My pht trm gc

RX
T

u cui di ng

Hnh 4.7. Hai anten phn tp tr


4.4.3. Phn tp tr vng
Phn tp tr vng (CDD: Cyclic Delay Diversity) cng ging nh
phn tp tr ch khc mt im l phn tp tr vng hot ng theo
tng khi v p dng dch vng ch khng p dng tr tuyn tnh i
vi cc anten khc nhau (hnh 4.8). Nh vy phn tp tr vng c th
p dng c cho cc s truyn dn theo khi nh OFDM v
DFTS-OFDM.

X0
X1
X2
X3
X0

X 1e

j 2f

X 2 e j 2f 2

X 3e j 2f 3

Hnh 4.8. Phn tp tr vng (CDD) hai anten pht

Chng4: K thut a anten

139

Trong trng hp truyn dn OFDM, dch vng tn hiu trong


min thi gian tng ng vi dch pha ph thuc vo tn s v iu
ny to nn tnh chn lc tn s nhn to t gic my thu. CDD hai
anten pht c th m rng cho cu hnh nhiu anten pht hn.
4.4.4. Phn tp theo m khng gian thi gian
M khng gian thi gian l mt thut ng c s dng cho cc
s pht nhiu anten trong cc k hiu iu ch c sp xp vo
min khng gian v thi gian ln cc anten pht nhn c phn
tp nhiu anten pht. M ho khi khng gian thi gian (STBC: Space
Time Block Code) vi hai anten pht c s dng trong 3G
WCDMA vi tn gi STTD (Space-Time Transmit Diversity: Phn
tp pht khng gian thi gian).
Hnh 4.9 m t hot ng ca STTD cho cc cp k hiu iu
ch. Anten th nht pht trc tip cc k hiu iu ch, cn anten th
hai pht cc cp k hiu iu ch theo th t ngc li, ngoi ra cc
k hiu ny cn c o du v chuyn thnh lin hp phc.
My pht trm gc

x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ,...

x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ,... B m
ha
STTD

h1
h2

x1* , x0* , x3* , x2* ,...

RX
u cui di ng

xn , xn +1 xn*+1 , xn* ,...

Hnh 4.9. Phn tp pht khng gian thi gian (STTD)


M ha khng gian thi gian hai anten trn hnh 4.9 c th c
coi l c t l m bng mt. iu ny c ngha rng tc k hiu u
vo c cng tc k hiu ti tng anten tng ng vi s s dng
bng thng bng mt. Cng c th m rng m ha khng gian thi

140

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gian cho nhiu anten hn. Tuy nhin trong trng hp iu ch phc
nh QPSK hay 16/64QAM, cc m c t l mt m khng gy nhiu
cho nhau (cc m khng gian thi gian trc giao) ch tn ti cho hai
anten. Nu cn trnh nhiu gia cc k hiu trong trng hp s dng
nhiu hn hai anten, phi s dng cc m c t l nh hn mt v iu
ny dn n gim s s dng bng thng.
Vect thu ca truyn dn STTD c th c biu din nh sau:
yn h1 h2 xn
y = * = * * . * = h .x
yn +1 h2 h1 xn +1

(4.7)

Trong yn v yn+1 l cc k hiu thu trong khong thi gian pht


cp k hiu. Cn lu rng biu thc trn c rt ra vi gi thit
rng cc li knh h1 v h2 khng thay i trong thi gian pht cp
k hiu. V ma trn h c nh c ma trn nht phn nn c th
khi phc c cc k hiu pht xn v xn+1 t cc k hiu thu yn, yn+1
m khng xy ra nhiu gia chng bng cch nhn ma trn
W= h H = h 1 vi vect y (lu : ch s -1 k hiu cho ma trn o).
4.4.5. Phn tp theo m khng gian tn s
M khi khng gian tn s (SFBC: Space Frequency Block Code)
cng ging nh m STBC ch khc l m ha c thc hin trong
min khng gian (anten)/tn s ch khng trong min khng gian
(anten)/thi gian. V th SFBC c th c p dng cho cc s
OFDM v cc s truyn dn min tn s khc. Tng t nh
STTD, SFTD c s dng cho SFBC (hnh 4.10). T hnh 4.10 ta
thy cc k hiu iu ch (min tn s) X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ,... c sp xp
trc tip ln cc sng mang con OFDM ca anten th nht, cn khi
cc k hiu X 1* , X 0* , X 3* , X 2* ,... c sp xp ln cc sng mang con
OFDM ca anten th hai.

Chng4: K thut a anten

141

X0
X1
X2
X3

iu ch
OFDM

X 1*
X 0*
X 3*
X 2*

RX
iu ch
OFDM

u cui di ng

Hnh 4.10. Phn tp pht khng gian- tn s vi hai anten pht


Cng ging nh m ha khng gian thi gian, nhc im ca
m ha khng gian tn s l khng th tng s anten ln hn hai m
khng lm gim t l m.
So snh hnh 4.10 vi hnh bn phi ca hnh 4.8, ta c th nhn
thy s khc nhau gia SFBC v phn tp tr vng ch yu cch sp
xp cc k hiu iu ch min tn s ln anten th hai. Li im ca
SFBC so vi CDD l SFBC cung cp phn tp ti mc k hiu iu
ch trong khi CDD trong trng hp OFDM phi da trn m ha
knh kt hp vi an xen min tn s cung cp phn tp.
4.4.6. To bp ti pha pht
Nu c c mt s hiu bit v cc knh ng xung ca cc
anten pht khc nhau v nht l mt s hiu bit v pha knh tng
i ti pha pht, cc anten pht ngoi phn tp cn c th m bo to
bp, ngha l to dng cho ton b bp anten theo phng n my
thu ch. Ni chung to bp c th tng cng tn hiu ti anten thu

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

142

ln n tha s Nt, ngha l t l vi s anten pht. Khi ni v cc s


truyn dn da trn nhiu anten pht cung cp to bp, ta cn
phn bit gia cc trng hp tng quan anten tng h cao v thp.
Tng quan anten tng h cao lin quan n cu hnh anten vi
khong cch gia anten nh nh trn hnh 4.11a. Trong trng hp
ny, cc knh gia cc anten khc nhau v my thu c th hu nh
ging nhau k c phainh knh v tuyn ngoi tr s khc nhau v
pha ph thuc vo phng. Khi ny c th li bp truyn dn tng n
cc phng khc nhau bng cch s dng cc dch pha khc nhau i
vi cc tn hiu pht trn cc anten khc nhau nh trn hnh 4.11b.

e j1

e j2

e j3

e j4

e j1

e j2

e j3

e j4

Hnh 4.11. To bp kinh in vi tng quan anten tng h cao:


(a) cu hnh anten v (b) cu trc bp
Phng php to bp pha pht bng cch s dng cc dch pha
khc nhau cho cc anten c tng quan cao i khi c gi l to
bp kinh in. Do khong cch gia cc anten nh, bp pht tng kh
rng v cc iu chnh phng bp sng (trong thc t l iu chnh
cc dch pha anten) thng thng c thc hin kh chm. iu
chnh c th c thc hin trn c s nh gi phng n u cui
di ng ch c rt ra t o c trn ng ln. Ngoi ra do gi
thit tng quan cao gia cc anten pht khc nhau, to bp kinh in
khng th m bo phn tp chng phainh knh v tuyn ngoi vic
ch tng cng tn hiu thu.

Chng4: K thut a anten

143

Tng quan anten tng h thp lin quan n khong cch gia
cc anten ln (hnh 4.12) hay cc phng phn cc anten khc
nhau. Vi tng quan anten tng h thp, nguyn l to bp c s
cng ging nh s trn hnh 4.11. Tuy nhin khc vi to bp kinh
in, cc trng s anten phi c gi tr phc ngha l phi c th iu
chnh c pha v bin ca tn hiu pht trn cc anten khc nhau. iu
ny phn nh thc t l do tng quan anten tng h thp, c pha v
li tc thi ca cc knh anten c th khc nhau.
Vi bc sng

x1

xNt

x2
w2

w1

w Nt

B tin
m ha

x
Tn hiu cn pht

Hnh 4.12. To bp da trn b tin m ha trong trng hp tng


quan anten tng h thp
Khi s dng cc trng s phc khc nhau cho cc tn hiu cn
pht trn cc anten khc nhau, ta c th biu din vect tn hiu cho
cc anten pht nh sau:
x1 w1
x = # = # .x = w.x
xNt w Nt

(4.8)

Cn lu rng to bp kinh in trn hnh 4.11 cng c th c


m t theo phng trnh (4.8), c ngha rng tin m ha anten vi
hn ch li bng mt v ch m bo cc dch pha cho cc anten
pht khc nhau.
Gi thit rng cc tn hiu pht i t cc anten khc nhau ch b
pha inh phng (phainh khng chn lc tn s) v tp m trng,
ngha l khng c tn thi, t c cng sut tn hiu thu cc i,
cn chn cc trng s tin m ha nh sau:

144

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


wi =

hi*

(4.9)

Nt

h
k =1

Ngha l trng s phi bng lin hip phc ca li knh hi


c chun ha m bo tng cng sut pht c nh. Vect tin
m ha phi m bo:
Quay pha tn hiu pht b tr pha tc thi ca knh v m
bo cc tn hiu thu c ng b pha
n nh cng sut cho cc anten khc nhau theo nguyn tc cng
sut ln hn c n nh cho cc anten c iu kin knh tc thi tt
hn ( li knh |hi| cao)
m bo tng cng sut pht bng mt (hay mt hng s bt k)
im khc nhau cn bn gia to bp kinh in trn hnh 4.11 vi
gi thit tng quan tng h gia cc anten cao v to bp trn hnh
4.12 vi gi thit tng quan tng h gia cc anten thp l ch
trong trng hp th hai h thng cn bit knh chi tit nh gi
phainh tc thi ca knh. Cc gi tr mi ca vect tin m ha phi
c tnh trong trong mt khong thi gian ngn bt kp cc thay
i ca phainh. Do cc iu chnh cho cc trng s b tin khuchi
c xt n phainh tc thi (bao gm li knh tc thi), nn to bp
trn hnh 4.12 cng cung cp phn tp chng phainh knh v tuyn.
Ngoi ra trong trng hp thng tin da trn ghp song cng
phn chia theo tn s (FDD: Frequency Division Duplex) trong
truyn dn ng ln v ng xung s dng cc bng tn khc
nhau, nn thng thng phaing gia ng ln v ng xung
khng tng quan vi nhau. V th trong trng hp FDD ch u
cui di ng l c th nh gi c phadinh knh ng xung. Nn
u cui di ng phi bo co c tnh knh ng xung cho trm
gc thng qua bo hiu ng ln. Mt cch khc, u cui di ng
c th t mnh la chn vect tin m ha t mt tp hu hn cc

Chng4: K thut a anten

145

vect tin m ha c th c (c gi l bng m tin m ha) v bo


co vect ny cho trm gc.
Mt khc trong trng hp ghp song cng phn chia theo thi
gian (TDD: Time Division Duplex), trong truyn dn ng ln v
ng xung s dng chung mt bng tn nhng trong cc khe thi
gian cch bit nhau, nn thng thng tn ti tng quan phainh cao
gia ng ln v ng xung. Trong trng hp ny trm gc (t
nht l v mt l thuyt) c th xc nh phainh ng xung t o
c trn ng ln nh vy trnh c vic phn hi thng tin. Tuy
nhin iu ny ch m bo khi coi rng u cui di ng thng
xuyn pht trn ng ln.
Cc phn tch trn y c a ra vi gi thit l knh khng
thay i trong min tn s. Trong trng hp knh chn lc tn s, r
rng rng khng th ch c mt h s knh trn mt anten c tnh
ton theo (4.9). Tuy nhin trong trng hp OFDM, mi sng mang
con thng tri qua mt knh khng chn lc tn s. V th trong
trng hp truyn dn OFDM, tin m ha trn hnh 4.12 c th c
thc hin trn c s tng sng mang con nh trn hnh 4.13, trong
cc trng s ca b tin m ha ca tng sng mang con c chn
theo (4.9).
w1,0

w 21,0

IFFT
S/P
IFFT

w1,N-1
w 2,N-1

Hnh 4.13. Tin m ha cho tng sng mang con


trong trng hp OFDM (hai anten pht)

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

146

Cn lu rng trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang nh


trong WCDMA, phng php mt trng s trn mt anten nh trn
hnh 4.12 c th c m rng xt n c knh tn thi/tn tn.
4.5. GHP KNH KHNG GIAN
T trc n nay ta ch xem xt vic s dng nhiu anten ti c
u pht v u thu ch ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m/nhiu v
at c li phn tp chng phainh so vi vic ch s dng
nhiu anten ti u pht hoc s dng nhiu an tan ti u thu. Tuy
nhin s dng nhiu anten ti c u pht v u thu cn cho php
ghp knh khng gian t c hiu sut s dng ph tn cao hn
trong trng hp t s tn hiu trn tp m/nhiu cao v tc s liu
cao trn giao din v tuyn.
4.5.1. Nguyn l c s
T cc nghin cu trong cc phn trc ta hiu rng vic s dng
nhiu anten ti my pht v my thu cho php ci thin t s tn hiu
trn tp m t l vi s lng anten khi p dng to bp ti c my thu
v my pht. Trng hp tng qut vi Nt anten pht v Nr anten thu,
h thng a anten c th tng t s tn hiu trn tp m NtxNr ln. Nh
xt trong chng 2, vic tng t s tn hiu trn tp m ny trong my
thu cho php tng tc s liu trong trng hp tc s liu b gii
hn bi cng sut ch khng b gii hn bi bng thng. Tuy nhin
mt khi t n vng hot ng b gii hn bi bng thng cc tc
s liu s bt u bo ha nu khng th tng bng thng.
gii thch s bo ha tc s liu ta xt biu thc c s cho
dung lng knh chun ha sau y:
S

= log 2 1 +
Bw
N
C

(4.10)

Trong bng cch s dng to bp, t s tn hiu trn tp m


S/N c th tng t l vi NtxNr. Tng qut, log2(1+x) t l vi x khi x

Chng4: K thut a anten

147

nh,ngha l khi t s tn hiu trn tp m nh, khi ny dung lng


gn nh t l vi t s tn hiu trn tp m. Tuy nhin khi x ln,
log2(1+x)log2(x), ngha l khi t s tn hiu trn tp m ln hn,
dung lng ch t l vi logarit ca t s tn hiu trn tp m.
Tuy nhin trong trng hp nhiu anten pht v nhiu anten thu,
trong mt s iu kin nht nh, c th to lp NA=min{Nt, Nr} knh
song song, trong mi knh c t s tn hiu trn tp m gim NA
ln (cng sut tn hiu c phn chia gia cc knh),ngha l vi
dung knh nh sau:

N S
= log 2 1 + r

Bw
NA N
C

(4.11)

V by gi ta c NA knh song song trong mi knh c dung


lng xc nh theo (4.11), tng dung lng knh cho cu hnh a
anten khi ny c xc nh nh sau:

N S
= N A log 2 1 + r

Bw
NA N
C

Nr
S
= min { N t , N r } .log 2 1 +

Bw
min { N t , N r } N

(4.12)

Nh vy trong mt s iu kin nht nh, c th lm cho dung


lng knh tng gn nh tuyn tnh vi s lng anten v trnh c
bo ha tc s liu. Ta s gi phng php ny l ghp knh
khng gian. Thut ng x l anten MIMO cng thng c s
dng, tuy nhin thut ng chnh xc cho tt c cc trng hp l a
anten pht v a anten thu bao hm c trng hp phn tp pht thu
kt hp.
hiu c nguyn l c s v cch to lp cc knh song song
trong trng hp nhiu anten ti my pht v nhiu anten ti my thu,
ta xt cu hnh anten 2x2, ngha l c hai anten pht v hai anten thu
nh trn hnh 4.14. Ngoi ra ta gi thit rng cc tn hiu pht ch b

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

148

phainh khng chn lc tn s v tp m trng, ngha l khng xy ra


tn thi knh.

h1,1
x1

h1,2

y1

x1

y2

x2

h2,1
h2,2

x2

Hnh 4.14. Cu hnh anten 2x2


T hnh 4.14 ta c th biu din cc tn hiu thu nh sau:
y h1,1 h2,1 x1 1
y = 1=
+ = h .x +
y2 h1,2 h2,2 x2 2

(4.13)

Trong h l ma trn knh 2x2. C th coi biu thc ny l s


tng qut ha ca biu thc (4.2) cho nhiu anten pht vi nhiu tn
hiu khc nhau c pht trn cc anten pht khc nhau.
1

x1

My thu

y1

x1

y2

x2

TX

x2

Hnh 4.15. Thu tuyn tnh/gii iu ch cc tn hiu ghp knh khng gian
Nu coi rng ma trn h l kh o, th my thu c th hon ton
khi phc c vect x v c hai tn hiu x1 v x2 m khng cn

Chng4: K thut a anten

149

nhiu gia chng bng cch nhn vect thu y vi ma trn W= h -1


(xem hnh 4.15):
x1
x1
H
x = w.y + = x + h .
2
2

(4.14)

Mc d c th khi phc hon ho vect x trong trng hp


khng c tp m chng no ma trn knh cn kh o h , biu thc
(4.14) cng cho thy rng cc thuc tnh ca h s xc nh mc
gii m /gii iu ch lin hp s tng mc tp m. c bit, ma trn
knh cng gn vi ma trn n nht (singular matrix, ma trn n nht
l ma trn khng kh o), mc tng tp m s cng ln hn.
gii thch ma trn W, ta cn hiu rng cc tn hiu pht t hai
anten pht l cc tn hiu gy nhiu cho nhau. Khi ny cc anten thu
c s dng thc hin IRC, m thc cht l trit b hon ton
nhiu t tn hiu pht trn anten th hai khi tch tn hiu pht t anten
th nht v ngc li. Cc hng ca ma trn W ch n thun thc
hin IRC.
Trong trng hp tng qut, mt cu hnh a anten s gm Nt
anten pht v Nr anten thu. Nh ni trn, trong trng hp ny,
s lng cc tn hiu song song c th c ghp khng gian trong
thc t b gii bi bin trn NA=min{Nt,Nr}. Ta c th hiu iu ny
nh sau:
- Khng th pht nhiu hn Nt tn hiu, ngha l cc i ch c th
ghp khng gian Nt tn hiu
- Vi Nr anten thu, cc i ch c th trit Nr-1 tn hiu gy nhiu,
ngha l cc i ch c th ghp khng gian Nr tn hiu
Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp, s lng cc tn hiu c
ghp khng gian, hay bc ghp knh khng gian s t hn NA ni trn:
- Trong trng hp iu knh rt km (t s tn hiu trn tp m
thp) s khng cn li ghp knh khng gian v dung lng knh l

150

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

mt hm ph thuc gn nh tuyn tnh vo t s tn hiu trn tp m.


Trong cc trng hp ny, cu hnh a anten pht v thu phi l to
bp ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m ch khng phi ghp knh
khng gian.
- Trong trng hp tng qut hn, bc ca ghp knh khng gian
phi c xc nh da trn cc thuc tnh ca ma trn knh NtxNr.
Khi ny cc anten b sung cn c s dng m bo to bp. T
hp to bp v ghp knh khng gian c th t c bng ghp knh
khng gian da trn b tin m ha s c xt di y.
4.5.2. Ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha
Tin m ho tuyn tnh trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian
c p dng ti pha pht x l tuyn tnh bng mt ma trn tin
m ha kch thc NtxNr (hnh 4.16). Nh ni trn, trong trng
hp tng qut, NA bng hoc nh hn Nt, ngha l NA tn hiu c
ghp khng gian v c pht i bng cch s dng Nt anten.

x1,
x2,

,
xNt

x1
x2

xNt

Hnh 4.16. Ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha


Lu rng nh ni trn, tng qu ha c th coi ghp knh
khng gian nh to bp da trn b tin m ha c vect tin m ha
kch thc Ntx1 c thay bng ma trn tin m ha c kch thc
NtxNr.

Chng4: K thut a anten

151

B tin m ha trn hnh 4.16 thc hin hai mc ch:


- Trong trng hp khi s lng cc tn hiu c ghp khng
gian bng vi s lng anten pht (NA=Nt), b tin m ha c s
dng trc giao ha cc truyn dn song song nhm ci thin s
cc ly tn hiu ti pha thu.
- Trong trng hp khi s lng cc tn hiu c ghp song
song nh hn s lng anten pht (NA<Nt), b tin m ha ngoi vic
kt hp ghp knh khng gian v to bp cn m nhim thm vic
sp xp NA tn hiu c ghp song song ln Nt anten pht.
khng nh tin m ha c th ci thin s cch ly gia cc tn
hiu c ghp khng gian, ta biu din ma trn knh h =H vo dng
phn tch gi tr n:
H=UDVH

(4.15)

trong cc ct ca V v U to thnh mt tp trc giao gia chng


vi nhau v D l mt ma trn ng cho c NA gi tr cn hai eigen
mnh nht ca HHH. S dng ma trn V lm ma trn tin m ha ti
pha pht v ma trn UH ti pha thu, ta nhn c ma trn knh tng
ng H=D (xem hnh 4.17). V H l mt ma trn ng cho nn
s khng c nhiu gia cc tn hiu c ghp khng gian ti pha thu.
ng thi v c hai V v U u c cc ct trc giao, nn cng sut
pht cng nh mc tp m ca b gii iu ch (gi thit tp m trng
ghp khng gian) s khng thay i.
R rng rng trong trng hp thc hin tin m ha, mi tn hiu
s c mt cht lng ph thuc vo cc gi tr eigen ca ma trn
knh (xem phn bn phi ca hnh 4.17). V th rt c li khi s dng
thc ng ng truyn ng trong min khng gian bng cch chn
chn t l m v (hoc) s iu ch cho tng ng truyn thch
ng vi cht lng knh.

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

152

11/ 2

21/ 2

N1/A2
i1/ 2

Hnh 4.17. Trc giao ha cc tn hiu ghp khng gian


bng cch tin m ha
Trong thc t ma trn tin m ha s khng bao gi ph hp hon
tan vi ma trn knh, v th lun c mt lng nhiu d gia cc tn
hiu ghp khng gian. C th x l nhiu ny bng cch x l tuyn
tnh b sung ti pha thu nh trn hnh 4.15 hoc x l phi tuyn m ta
s xt di y.
xc nh ma trn V, h thng cn bit c ma trn knh H.
Tng t nh to bp da trn tin m ha, cch tip cn chung l
my thu phi c tnh knh v quyt nh ma trn tin m ha ph
hp t mt tp ma trn tin m ha kh dng (bng m tin m ha). Sau
my thu phn hi thng tin v ma trn tin m ha v my pht.
4.5.3. X l thu khng tuyn tnh
Trong cc phn trc x l thu tuyn tnh c s dng kt hp
vi qu trnh khi phc tn hiu ghp khng gian. Tuy nhin, h thng
c th t c hiu nng gii iu ch tt hn nu p dng x l thu
phi tuyn trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian.
Gii php my thu ti u cho cc tn hiu ghp khng gian l p
dng tch tn hiu kh ging cc i (ML: Maximum-Likelihood).
Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp, tch tn hiu ML qu phc tp. V th
c mt s xut gim phc tp cho hu ht cc s ML.

Chng4: K thut a anten

153

Mt gii php khc, x l phi tuyn gii iu ch cc tn hiu


ghp khng gian c gi l kh nhiu ln lt (SIC: Successive
Interferrence Cancellation). SIC da trn gi thit l cc tn hiu
c m ha ring bit trc khi ghp khng gian. Qu trnh ny
thng c gi l truyn dn nhiu t m (Multi-Codeword), i lp
v truyn dn mt t m (Single-Codeword), trong cc tn hiu
c gi thit l c m ha kt hp (hnh 4.18). Cn hiu rng ngay
c trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu t m, s liu c th c bt
ngun t cng mt ngun nhng sau c phn thnh cc tn hiu
khc nhau c ghp khng gian trc khi thc hin m ha knh.

Hnh 4.18. Truyn dn mt t m (a) v truyn dn nhiu t m (b)


T hnh 4.19 ta thy trong trng hp kh nhiu ln lt, trc
ht my thu gii iu ch v gii m mt trong s cc tn hiu c
ghp khng gian. Sau s liu sau gii m, nu gii m ng, c

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

154

m ha li v cc tn hiu thu s tr s liu ny loi b n. Sau


tn hiu ghp khng gian th hai s c gii iu ch v gii m m
khng b nhiu (t nht l trong trng hp l tng) bi tn hiu th
nht v nu c gii m ng, n c m ha li v c loi b
khi cc tn hiu thu cn li trc khi thc hin gii iu ch v gii
m tn hiu th ba. Qu trnh ny c lp li nhiu ln cho n khi
tt c cc tn hiu ghp khng gian c gii iu ch v gii m.
y1
y2

yNr

Hnh 4.19. Gii iu ch/gii m cc tn hiu ghp khng gian


da trn kh nhiu ln lt (SIC)
R rng rng trong trng hp kh nhiu ln lt, cc tn hiu
u tin c gii iu ch v gii m l cc tn hiu b mc nhiu cao
hn cc tn hiu c gii iu ch mun hn. V th SIC hot
ng tt, cn phn loi kh nng chu nhiu ca cc tn hiu khc
nhau, t nht theo nguyn tc, tn hiu c gii iu ch u tin phi
chu nhiu tt hn tn hiu th hai, tn hiu th hai phi chu nhiu tt
hn th ba Gi thit truyn dn nhiu t m nh trn hnh 4.18b,
nguyn tc trn c th t c bng cch p dng cc s iu ch

Chng4: K thut a anten

155

v t l m ha khc nhau cho cc tn hiu khc nhau, chng hn iu


ch bc thp v t l m ha cao cho tn hiu c gii iu ch/ gii
m u tin. Phng php ny thng c gi l PARC (PerAntenna Rate Control).
4.6. TNG KT
Chng ny trnh by cc k thut a anten khc nhau p dng
cho thng tin khng dy ni chung v cho WCDMA/HSPA cng nh
LTE ni ring. C th tng kt cc li ch nhn c t p dng k
thut a anten nh sau:
Phn tp khng gian ci thin ang k tin cy nh tng t s
tn hiu trn tp m nhiu ln
Cc li phn tp ni trn c th nhn c bng cc s dng
a anten thu hoc a anten pht hay kt hp c hai
Cc k thut to bp l gii php trc tip tng nng lng tn
hiu hu ch nhng ng thi nn hoc loi b cc tn hiu nhiu
Khc vi phn tp v to bp, ghp knh khng gian cho php
truyn ng thi nhiu lung s bng cch x l tn hiu phc tp
C th chuyn mch gia cc ch phn tp v ghp knh
khng gian khc nhau t c im c thng lng v tin cy
ti u.
4.7. CU HI
1. Trnh by cc khi nim tng quan v khng tng quan trong cc
cu hnh a anten
2. Trnh by cc li ch ca s dng cc k thut a anten
3. Trnh by cc k thut a anten thu
4. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp anten pht

156

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

5. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp tr v phn tp tr vng


6. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp theo m khng gian thi gian
7. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp theo m khng gian tn s
8. Trnh by nguyn l c s ca ghp knh khng gian
9. Trnh by nguyn l ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha
10.Trnh by nguyn l x l thu khng tuyn tnh
11.Nn s dng s ghp knh khng gian khi my di ng xa
hay gn trm gc, v sao
12.Nn s dng s phn tp khi my di ng xa hay gn trm
gc, v sao
13.V sao m bo phn tp tt phi t cc anten pht hoc thu
cch xa nhau

Chng 5

LP BIU, THCH NG NG TRUYN V


YU CU PHT LI T NG LAI GHP
Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn v yu cu pht li t ng lai
ghp (HARQ) l cc cng ngh then cht cho thng tin v tuyn bng
rng.
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm:
Thch ng ng truyn: iu khin cng sut v tc s liu
Lp biu ph thuc knh
Cc s pht li tin tin
Yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp vi kt hp mm
Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho sinh vin cc kin thc
chung v cc k thut thay i tc thi cu hnh knh truyn dn v
tuyn ph thuc vo cht lng ng truyn t c dung lng
truyn dn cao nht.
hiu c chng ny sinh vin cn c k t liu c trnh
by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [1], [5], [9], [10], [11],
[14] , [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.
5.1. M U
Mt trong cc c tnh quan trng ca thng tin v tuyn di ng
l s thay i nhanh v ln ca cc iu kin knh tc thi. Tn ti
mt s nguyn nhn i vi cc thay i ny. Phainh chn lc tn s
dn n cc thay i nhanh v ngu nhin i vi suy hao ng

158

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

truyn. Phainh che ti v tn hao ng truyn ph thuc khong


cch cng nh hng ng k ln cng tn hiu thu. Cui cng,
nhiu ti my thu do truyn dn t cc khc v cc u cui di ng
khc cng nh hng ln mc nhiu. Tm li c nhiu thay i nhanh
v ngu nhin trong cht lng ca tng ng truyn v tuyn trong
mt v cc thay i ny cn c xem xt cng nh khai thc mt
cch c li.
Chng ny s xt mt s k thut x l cc thay i cht lng
ng truyn v tuyn tc thi. Lp biu ph thuc knh trong cc h
thng thng tin di ng gii quyt vn v cch thc chia s cc ti
nguyn v tuyn gia nhng ngi s dng (cc u cui di di ng)
khc nhau trong h thng t c hiu sut s dng ti nguyn tt
nht. iu ny c ngha l gim thiu lng ti nguyn cn thit cho
mt ngi s dng v th cho php nhiu ngi s dng hn trong h
thng trong khi vn p ng c cc yu cu cht lng dch v.
Lin quan mt thit vi lp biu l thch ng ng truyn. Thch ng
ng truyn gii quyt vn lin quan n cch thit lp cc thng
s truyn dn ca ng truyn v tuyn x l cc thay i cht
lng ng truyn v tuyn..
C hai lp biu phu thuc knh v thch ng ng truyn u
nhm khai thc tt nht cc thay i knh thng qua cc qu trnh x
l thch hp trc khi truyn dn s liu. Tuy nhin do tnh cht ngu
nhin ca cc thay i cht lng ng truyn v tuyn, khng bao
gi c th t c thch ng cht lng knh v tuyn tc thi mt
hon ho. HARQ (Hybrid ARQ: ARQ lai ghp) v th rt hu ch.
HARQ i hi pht li cc gi thu b li. C th coi y nh l mt c
ch x l cht lng knh v tuyn tc thi sau truyn dn v b sung
rt tt cho lp biu ph thuc cht lng knh v thch ng ng
truyn. HARQ cng phc v cho vic x l cc li ngu nhin do tp
m trong my thu.

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

159

5.2. THCH NG NG TRUYN: IU KHIN CNG


SUT V TC S LIU
iu khin cng sut ng c s dng trong cc h thng
thng tin di ng da trn CDMA nh WCDMA v cdma2000 b
tr cc thay i iu kin knh tc thi. ng nh tn gi, iu khin
cng sut ng thc hin iu chnh cng sut pht ca ng truyn
v tuyn b tr cc thay i v cc s khc nhau ca cc iu kin
knh tc thi. Mc ch ca iu chnh ny l duy tr Eb/N0 khng
i ti my thu truyn thnh cng s liu m khng b xc sut li
qu cao. V nguyn l, iu khin cng sut pht tng cng sut ti
my pht khi cc iu kin knh v tuyn ti (v ngc li). Nh vy
v bn cht cng sut pht t l nghch vi cht lng knh (hnh
5.1a). Kt qu iu khin cng sut cho php m bo tc s liu
khng i khng ph thuc vo cc thay i knh. i vi cc dch v
nh thoi chuyn mch knh iu ny rt cn thit. C th coi iu
khin cng sut l mt lai thch ng ng truyn trong iu
khin cc thng s truyn dn c thc hin thch ng vi cc
iu kin knh tc thi khc nhau nhm duy tr mc Eb/N0 yu cu.
Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp ca thng tin di ng, c bit
l trong trng hp lu lng gi, khng nht thit phi m bo tc
s liu khng i trn knh v tuyn. Trong cc trng hp ny
iu quan trng i vi ngi s dng l m bo tc s liu cao
ti mc c th. Trong thc t, ngay c trong cc trng hp ca cc
dch v tc khng i thng thng nh thoi v video, cc thay
i (ngn hn) trong tc s liu cng khng quan trng chng no
tc s liu trung bnh vn c duy tr khng i (vi gi thit l
trung bnh c ly trong mt khong thi gian kh ngn). Trong cc
trng hp ny khi khng cn tc d liu khng i, th mt gii
php thay th cho iu khin cng sut l thch ng ng truyn
bng cch iu khin tc ng. iu khin tc ng khng

160

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Cht lng
knh

Tc s
liu

Cht lng
knh

Tc s
liu

Cng sut
pht

Cng sut
pht

hng n duy tr tc s liu tc thi ca ng truyn v tuyn


khng i trong mi iu kin knh tc thi. Tri li, vi iu khin
tc tc s liu c iu chnh b tr s thay i iu kin
knh tc thi. Trong trng hp cc iu kin knh thun li, tc
s liu c tng v ngc li. Nh vy iu khin tc duy tr
Eb/N0=P/(R.N0) ti mc yu cu khng phi bng cch thay i cng
sut P m bng cch thay i tc s liu R. iu ny c minh
ha trn hnh 5.1b.

Hnh 5.1. (a) iu khin cng sut, (b) iu khin tc


Cc nghin cu cho thy rng iu khin tc hiu sut hn
iu khin cng sut. V nguyn l, iu khin tc vn cho php
b khuchi pht ton b cng sut v v th c s dng hiu sut.

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

161

Mt khc iu khin cng sut dn n trong nhiu trng hp b


khuchi cng sut khng c s dng hiu qu v cng sut truyn
dn thp hn cng sut cc i.
Trong thc t tc s liu ca ng truyn v tuyn c iu
chnh bng cch iu chnh s iu ch v (hoc) t l m ha
knh. Trong cc iu kin ng truyn v tuyn thun li, Eb/N0 ti
my thu cao v hn ch tc s liu ch yu l bng thng. V th
trong cc iu kin nh vy, s iu ch bc cao (16QAM hoc
64QAM) cng vi t l m cao c s dng. Tri li trong cc iu
kin ng truyn v tuyn xu, s iu ch bc thp (QPSK
chng hn) cng vi t l m thp c s dng. Chnh v th, thch
ng ng truyn bng iu khin tc cn c gi l iu ch v
m ha thch ng (AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding).
5.3. LP BIU PH THUC KNH
Lp biu iu khin vic n nh cc ti nguyn chia s gia
nhng ngi s dng ti tng thi im. N lin quan mt thit vi
thch ng ng truyn v thng th lp biu v thch ng ng
truyn c coi nh l mt chc nng lin kt. Nguyn l lp biu
cng nh vic chia s cc ti nguyn gia nhng ngi s dng, t
nht v mt l thuyt, ph thuc vo cc c tnh ca giao din v
tuyn, vo vic ng truyn l ng ln hay ng xung v vo
vic truyn dn ca nhng ngi s dng khc nhau c trc giao
hay khng.
5.3.1. Lp biu ng xung
Trn ng xung, thng trng truyn dn n cc u cui di
ng khc nhau trc giao vi nhau, ngha l v l thuyt, khng xy ra
nhiu gia cc truyn dn (khng c nhiu ni ). Trc giao ni
ng xung c th t c trong min thi gian bng TDM (ghp

162

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

knh phn chia theo thi gian); trong min tn s bng FDM (ghp
knh phn chia theo tn s), trong min m bng CDM (ghp knh
phn chia theo m). Ngoi ra min khng gian cng c th c s
dng phn tch nhng ngi s dng bng cch sp xp cc anten.
Cch ny thng c gi l ghp knh khng gian (SDM: Spatial
Division Multiplexing), mc d trong nhiu trng hp n c s
dng kt hp vi mt hay mt s trong s cc phng php ghp knh
ni trn.
i vi s liu gi, trong lu lng thng mang tnh cm, v
l thuyt c th ch ra rng TDM l thch hp hn c v v th thng
thng y l phn t chnh trn ng xung. Tuy nhin TDM
thng c kt hp vi vic chia s ti nguyn v tuyn trong min
tn s (FDM) hoc trong min m (CDM). Chng hn trong trng
hp HSDPA, ghp knh ng xung l kt hp TDM v CDM. Tri
li trong LTE, ghp knh ng xung l kt hp TDM v FDM. L
do chia s ti nguyn khng ch c thc hin trong mt mnh min
thi gian s c xt mun hn trong phn ny.
Khi xy ra truyn dn ng thi n nhng ngi s dng khc
nhau hoc bng FDM hoc bng CDM, cng xy ra vic chia s ton
b cng sut pht ca . Ni mt cch khc, khng ch c cc ti
nguyn thi gian/tn s/m c chia s m cn c ti nguyn cng
sut trong trm gc. Tri li trong trng hp ch chia s ti nguyn
thi gian, s ch c mt truyn dn ti mt thi im v v th s
khng xy ra chia s tc thi tng cng sut pht kh dng ca .
Trong phn tch di y, ta gi thit rng lc u ng xung
s dng TDM vi lp biu cho mt ngi s dng ti mt thi im.
Trong trng hp ny, mc s dng knh v tuyn s cc i nu
ti mt thi im, ton b ti nguyn s c n nh cho ngi s
dng ny vi iu kin knh tc thi tt nht:

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

163

- Trong trng hp thch ng ng truyn da trn iu khin


cng sut, iu ny c ngha l i vi tc s liu cho trc cng
sut pht c th thp nht v v th gim thiu nhiu truyn dn n
cc khc khi mc s dng ng truyn cho trc
- Trong trng hp thch ng ng truyn da trn iu khin
tc , iu ny c ngha l i vi cng sut pht cho trc, hay ni
mt cch khc i vi nhiu n cc khc cho trc, mc s
dng ng truyn t c cao nht.
Tuy nhin, nu p dng cho ng xung, iu khin cng sut
pht kt hp vi lp biu TDM c ngha l ton b cng sut pht kh
dng trong hu ht cc trng hp s khng c s dng ht. Chnh
v l do ny iu khin tc c a dng hn.
Chin lc c phc tho trn l mt th d v lp biu ph
thuc knh trong b lp biu xt cc iu kin ng truyn v
tuyn tc thi. Lp biu ngi s dng theo cc iu kin ng
truyn v tuyn tc thi tt nht thng c gi l lp biu t s tn
hiu trn nhiu cc i (max-C/I) hay tc cc i. V trong mt ,
cc iu kin ca cc ng truyn v tuyn khc nhau thng thay
i c lp, ti mi thi im hu nh lun c mt ng truyn v
tuyn vi cht lng gn nh cc i (hnh 5.2). V th knh c s
dng cho truyn dn s c cht lng cao nht v vi iu khin tc
, tc s liu cao nht c th c s dng. iu ny dn n
dung lng h thng cao. Phng php nhn c li trong
truyn dn c thc hin i vi nhng ngi s dng c iu kin
ng truyn v tuyn thun li thng c gi l phn tp ngi s
dng; thay i knh cng ln v s ngi s dng cng ln th li
cng ln. V th tri ngc vi quan im truyn thng rng pha inh
nhanh (ngha l thay i cht lng knh v tuyn nhanh) gy nh
hng tiu cc v cn phi chng, trong thc t vi lp biu knh
phainh li c li v cn khai thc n.

164

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 5.2. Lp biu ph thuc knh


V mt ton hc, b lp biu max-C/I (tc cc i) c th
c biu din nh l qu trnh lp biu ngi s dng k nh sau:
k = arg max Ri
i

(5.1)

Trong Ri l tc s liu tc thi cc i i vi ngi s


dng i. Mc d t quan im dung lng h thng, lp biu max- C/I
l c li, tuy nhin nguyn l lp biu ny khng cng bng trong tt
c cc iu kin v cc thay i ln trong cc iu kin knh tc thi
ch xy ra do phainh nhanh, ch khi ny nhng ngi s dng mi
nhn c tc s liu trung bnh nh nhau. Thng thng ngi s
dng khng th nhn bit c cc thay i tc tc thi v nhanh.
Tuy nhin trong thc t cc u cui di ng s tri nghim c cc
khc bit trong cc iu kin knh trung bnh (ngn hn) chng hn do
khong cch khc nhau v do phainh che ti gia trm gc v u
cui di ng. Trong trng hp ny cc iu kin knh m mt u
cui di ng phi tri nghim (trong mt thi gian di) c th ti hn
cc iu kin knh m cc u cui khc phi tri nghim. V th
chin lc max-C/I thun ty c th lm cht i u cui di ng
c cc iu kin knh ti, v u cui c cc iu knh knh ti ny
s khng bao gi c lp biu. iu ny c minh ha trn hnh

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

165

5.3a, trong b lp biu max-C/I c s dng lp biu gia hai


ngi s dng khc nhau c cht lng knh trung bnh khc nhau.
Hu nh ton b thi gian ch c mt ngi s dng c lp biu.
Mc d cho php nhn c dung lng h thng cao, nhng tnh
trng ny khng th chp nhn c t quan im cht lng dch v.

Cht lng ng
truyn v tuyn

Cht lng ng
truyn v tuyn

Cht lng ng
truyn v tuyn

Mt gii php khc cho chin lc lp biu max-C/I c gi l


lp biu quay vng c m t trn hnh 5.3b. Chin lc lp biu ny
cho php nhng ngi s dng chia s ti nguyn m khng xt n
cc iu kin knh tc thi. Lp biu quay vng c th c coi l lp
biu cng bng trong khi lng ti nguyn nh nhau (khong thi
gian nh nhau) c phn cho mi ng truyn thng tin. Tuy nhin
lp biu quay vng khng cng bng v mt m bo cht lng knh
ging nhau cho tt c cc ng truyn tin. Trong trng hp ny cn
dnh nhiu ti nguyn v tuyn (thi gian) hn cho cc ng truyn
tin c iu kin knh ti hn. Ngoi ra lp biu quay vng khng xt
n cc iu kin knh tc thi trong qu trnh lp biu v iu ny
dn n tng hiu nng h thng thp hn nhng cht lng dch v
gia cc ng truyn tin khc nhau cn bng hn so vi lp biu
max-C/I.

Hnh 5.3. Th d v ba hnh vi lp biu khc nhau:


(a) max-C/I, (b) quay vng, (c) cng bng t l.
Ngi s dng c chn c th hin bng hnh m nt

166

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Chin lc lp biu phi c kh nng tn dng c cc thay i


nhanh ca knh ci thin thng lng trong khi vn m bo
thng lng trung bnh ca tng ngi s dng nh nhau cho tt c
nhng ngi s dng hay t nht l m bo c mt thng lng
ngi s dng ti thiu cho tt c nhng ngi s dng. Khi phn tch
v so snh cc gii thut lp biu khc nhau, iu quan trng l phi
phn bit cc kiu thay i cht lng dch v khc nhau:
- Thay i nhanh cht lng dch v tng ng vi, chng hn,
phainh a ng nhanh hay thay i nhanh mc nhiu. i vi nhiu
ng dng s liu gi, cc thay i ngn hn kh ln ca cht lng
dch v thng c th chp nhn hoc thm ch khng pht hin c
i vi ngi s dng
- Cc khc bit di hn trong cht lng dch v gia cc ng
truyn tin khc nhau tng ng vi, chng hn, cc khc nhau v
khong cch n trm gc v phainh che ti. Trong nhiu trng hp
cn hn ch cc khc bit ny trong cht lng dch v
V th mt b lp biu thc t phi lm vic ti mt v tr no
gia b lp biu max-C/I v b lp biu quay vng tn dng nhiu
nht cc thay i nhau trong cc iu kin knh m vn tha mn
mt mc no s cng bng gia nhng ngi s dng.
Mt th d v b lp biu kiu ny l b lp biu cng bng t l
c minh ha trn hnh 5.3c. Trong chin lc ny, cc ti nguyn
chia s c n nh cho ngi s dng c iu kin knh v tuyn tt
nht mt cch tng i, ngha l ti mi thi im, ngi s dng k
c chn cho truyn dn theo iu kin sau:
k = arg max
i

Ri
Ri

(5.2)

trong Ri l tc s liu tc thi i ngi s dng i v Ri l tc


s liu trung bnh i vi ngi s dng i. Tc trung bnh c
tnh trn mt chu k ly trung bnh cho trc TPF. m bo vic s

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

167

dng hiu qu cc thay i knh ngn hn v ng thi gii hn cc


khc bit di hn n mt mc chp nhn, hng s thi gian TPF phi
c t ln hn hng s thi gian i vi cc thay i ngn hn.
ng thi TPF phi ngn cc thay i cht lng dch v trong
khong TPF khng b ngi s dng nhn qu r. Thng thng TPF
c th c t vi giy.
Trong cc phn tch trn, ta gi thit l cc ti nguyn v tuyn
trn ng xung c n nh cho mt ngi s dng ti mt thi
im, ngha l qu trnh lp biu ch c thc hin thun ty trong
min thi gian bng cch s dng TDM. Tuy nhin trong mt s
trng hp, TDM c kt hp vi CDM v FDM. V nguyn tc, c
hai l do khng ch s dng mt mnh TDM cho ng xung:
Trong trng hp khng ti, ngha l khi lng s liu cn
truyn n mt ngi s dng khng ln tn dng ton b dung
lng knh v mt phn ti nguyn c th n nh cho ngi s dng
khc hoc bng CDM hoc bng FDM
Trong trng hp cc thay i knh trong min tn s c khai
thc bng cch s dng FDM m ta s xt di y.
Cc chin lc lp biu trong cc trng hp ny c th c coi
l tng qut ha ca cc s xt cho cc trng hp ch s dng
TDM. Chng hn, x l cc ti tin nh, c th s dng phng
php lm no s thm n, trong ngi s dng c lp biu c
chn theo max-C/I (hay mt s lp biu khc bt k). Sau khi
ngi s dng ny c n inh ti nguyn ph hp vi khi lng
s liu ang i truyn dn, ngi s dng tt nht th hai c chn
(theo chin lc lp biu ny) v c n nh (mt phn) ti nguyn
d v c tip tc nh vy.
Cui cng cng cn lu rng thng thng gii thut lp biu l
vn ca vic thc hin trm gc ch khng phi l vn c c
t trong mi tiu chun. iu cn c c t trong tiu chun h

168

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

tr lp biu ph thuc knh l o c/bo co cht lng knh v bo


hiu cn thit cho vic cp pht ti nguyn ng.
5.3.2. Lp biu ng ln
Phn trc xem xt qu trnh lp biu lin quan n ng
xung. Tuy nhin lp biu cng c p dng cho cc truyn dn
ng ln v phn ln cc nguyn l xt trn cng c th s dng
cho ng ln mc d c mt s im khc bit gia hai ng ny.
V c bn, ti nguyn cng sut ng l c phn b gia
nhng ngi s dng, trong khi trn ng xung ti nguyn cng
sut c tp trung ti trm gc. Ngoi ra, cng sut truyn dn cc
i ng ln ca mt u cui thng thp hn nhiu so vi cng
sut pht ra ca trm gc. iu ny nh hng ng k ln chin lc
lp biu. Khng ging nh ng xung trong TDMA thun ty
thng c s dng, lp biu ng ln thng da trn vic chia s
trong min tn s v (hoc) min m kt hp vi min thi gian v
mt u cui khng th c cng sut tn dng hiu qu dung
lng ng truyn.
Tng t nh trng hp ng xung, lp biu ph thuc knh
cng c li trong trng hp ng ln. Tuy nhin cc c tnh ca
giao din v tuyn c xt lin quan nhiu n vic ng ln da
trn a truy nhp trc giao hay khng trc giao v kiu s thch
ng ng truyn c s dng, ngoi ra cng nh hng ng k ln
chin lc lp biu ng ln.
Trong trng hp s a truy nhp khng trc giao nh
CDMA, iu khin cng sut thng ng vai tr quan trng cho hot
ng bnh thng. Nh xt trn, mc ch ca iu khin cng
sut l iu khin Eb/N0 thu c th phc hi c thng tin thu.
Tuy nhin trong cc s khng trc giao, iu khin cng sut cng
c mc ch khng ch nhiu tc ng n nhng ngi s dng
khc. C th biu din iu ny bng vic coi rng mc nhiu cho

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

169

php cc i ti trm gc l mt ti nguyn c chia s. Thm ch


nu xt t quan im mt ngi s dng, vic pht ton b cng sut
t c tc s liu cc i l c li, th iu ny cng khng
th chp nhn c t quan im nhiu v cc u cui khc trong
trng hp ny c th khng truyn s liu thnh cng. V th vi a
truy nhp khng trc giao, qu trnh lp biu cho mt u cui khi cc
iu kin knh thun li c th khng phi l trc tip chuyn sang tc
s liu cao v cn xt n nhiu do cc u cui pht ng thi
khc gy ra. Ni mt cch khc, cng sut thu (v v th tc s
liu) nh iu khin cng sut s khng i khng ph thuc vo iu
kin knh ti thi im truyn dn, trong khi cng sut pht ph thuc
vo iu kin knh ti thi im truyn dn. V th, thm ch lp biu
ph thuc knh trong th d ny khng cho trc tip li lin quan
n vic u cui pht tc s liu cao hn, tuy vy n vn cung cp
li cho h thng lin quan n nhiu ni thp hn.
Phn tch trn v a truy nhp khng trc giao c n gin
ha v khng a ra cc gii hn i vi cng sut pht. Trong thc t
cng sut pht ca mt du cui c gii hn trn v vn thc
hin cng nh quy nh lut v qu trnh lp biu cho mt u cui
truyn dn trong cc iu kin thun li s gim xc sut m u cui
khng c cng sut tn dng dung lng.
Trong trng hp s a truy nhp trc giao, iu khin cng
sut khng cn thit v cc li ch m lp biu ph thuc knh mang
li tng t nh trong trng hp ng xung. V nguyn tc, t
quan im nhiu ni , u cui c th pht ton b cng sut v b
lp biu n nh mt phn ti nguyn trc giao thch hp (trong thc
t l mt phn ca ton b bng thng) cho u cui ny truyn
dn. Tuy nhin cc hn ch v thc hin nh d r gia cc tn hiu
thu hay di ng b gii hn trong mch in ca my thu c th t ra
cc gii hn ln s khc nhau v cng sut cc i c php gia cc
tn hiu t cc u cui pht ng thi. V th vn cn iu khin cng

170

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

sut mt mc no dn n tnh trng gn ging nh trng


hp khng trc giao.
Cc phn tch v a truy nhp trc giao v khng trc giao ch
yu ch xt n truy nhp ni . Tuy nhin trong nhiu h thng thc
t, ti s dng tn s gia cc c s dng. Trong trng hp ny
a truy nhp gia cc s khng trc giao khng ph thuc vo a
truy nhp ni v n s t ra cc gii hn cho cng sut pht c
php t mt u cui.
Khng lin quan n vic a truy nhp trc giao hay khng trc
giao c s dng, cc nguyn l lp biu c s c s dng cho
ng ln cng ging nh cho ng xung. B lp biu max-C/I s
n nh tt c cc ti nguyn ng ln cho u cui c cc iu kin
knh ng ln tt nht. B qua tt c cc gii hn cng sut trong
u cui, iu ny cho php t c dung lng cao nht (trong mt
cch ly).
Trong trng hp s khng trc giao, lm no s thm n l
mt chin lc lp biu c th s dng. Bng cch lm no s thm n,
u cui c cc iu kin knh tt nht c n nh tc cao nht.
Nu mc nhiu ti my thu nh hn mc cho php cc i, u cui
c cc iu kin knh th hai cng c php pht v qu trnh tip
din nh vy cho cng nhiu u cui hn cho n khi t n mc
nhiu cc i cho php ti my thu. Chin lc ny cho php t c
mc s dng giao din v tuyn cc i nhng vi tr gi l tc
s liu gia nhng ngi s dng rt khc nhau. Trong trng hp
cc oan, ngi s dng ti bin vi cc iu kin knh xu c th
hon ton khng c pht.
Ta c th mng tng rng cc chin lc gia lm no s thm
n v max-C/I l cc chin lc cng bng t l khc nhau. Trong
trng hp ny gii thut lm no s thm n a ra cc tha s trng
s cho tng ngi s dng. Cc trng s ny t l vi t s gia tc
s liu tc thi v tc s liu trung bnh.

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

171

Cc b lp biu ni trn u gi thit rng hiu r cc iu kin


ng truyn v tuyn tc thi, tuy nhin vic nhn c hiu bit
ny trn ng ln rt kh (ta s bn v vn ny trong phn 5.3.4
di y). Trong cc trng hp khng c thng tin v knh ng
ln ti b lp biu, c th s dng lp biu quay vng. Tng t nh
i vi ng xung, lp biu quay vng c ngha l cc u cui
c pht ln lt, v th to nn mt hot ng ging nh TDMA vi
tnh trc giao gia nhng ngi s dng trong min thi gian. Mc d
lp biu quay vng n gin nhng n km xa chin lc lp biu ti u.
Tuy nhin nh ni trn, cng sut pht trong mt u cui b
hn ch v v th cn chia s ti nguyn ng ln trong min tn s
v (hoc) min m. iu ny cng nh hng ln cc quyt nh lp
biu. Chng hn, cc u cui xa trm gc thng hot ng trong
vng b gii hn bi cng sut, tri li cc u cui gn trm gc
thng hot ng trong vng b gii hn bi bng thng. V th i
vi u cui xa trm gc, tng bng thng khng dn n tng tc
s liu v th tt nht l n nh mt lng bng thng nh cho u
cui ny v n nh bng thng cn li cho cc u cui khc. Tri li,
i vi cc u cui gn trm gc, n nh bng thng cao hn s dn
n tc s liu cao hn.
5.3.3 Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu ph thuc knh trong
min tn s
Trong phn trc ta gi thit rng lp biu da trn TDM v
gii thch trong trng hp ny lm cch no c th tn dng c cc
thay i knh ci thin hiu nng h thng bng cch p dng lp
biu ph thuc knh, nht l kt hp vi iu khin tc ng. Tuy
nhin khi c truy nhp trong min tn s, chng hn thng qua vic s
dng OFDM, lp biu v thch ng ng truyn cng c th c
thc hin trong min tn s.
Thch ng ng truyn trong min tn s c ngha l da trn
hiu bit v cc iu kin knh tc thi trong min tn s (hiu bit v

172

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

suy gim cng nh mc nhiu/tp m ca tng sng mang con) c th


iu chnh cng sut v (hoc) tc s liu ca tng sng mang con
t c mc s dng ti u.
Tng t, lp biu ph thuc knh trong min tn s c ngha l
da trn hiu bit v cc iu kin tc thi ca knh trong min tn
s, cc sng mang con khc nhau c s dng cho cc ng truyn
dn n/t cc u cui di ng khc nhau. Cc li lp biu nhn
c t vic khai thc cc thay i trong min tn s cng ging nh
nhn c t cc thay i trong min thi gian. R rng rng trong
cc tnh trng khi m cht lng knh thay i ng k theo tn s,
trong khi cht lng knh thay i chm theo thi gian, lp biu ph
thuc knh trong min tn s c th tng dung lng h thng. Mt th
d ca tnh trng ny l h thng bng rng trong nh vi mc di
ng thp trong cht lng thay i theo thi gian chm.
5.3.4. Thu nhn thng tin trng thi knh
chn ra tc s liu ph hp (trong thc t l s iu ch
v t l m ha knh thch hp), my pht cn c thng tin v cc iu
kin knh truyn v tuyn. Thng tin ny cng cn cho qu trnh lp
biu ph thuc knh. Trong trng hp h thng da trn ghp song
cng theo tn s (FDD), ch my thu l c th nh gi chnh xc cc
iu kin knh truyn v tuyn.
i vi ng xung, hu ht cc h thng cung cp mt tn hiu
ng xung c cu trc quy nh trc, c gi l hoa tiu dng
xung hay tn hiu tham kho ng xung. Tn hiu tham kho ny
c pht t trm gc vi cng sut khng i v c th c u
cui di ng s dng d c tnh cc iu kin knh ng xung.
Thng tin v cc iu kin knh ng xung sau c bo co li
cho trm gc.
V c bn, my pht cn c nh gi phn nh cc tnh trng
knh ti thi im truyn dn. V th v nguyn tc, u cui c th s

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

173

dng mt b d bo d bo cc iu kin knh tng lai v bo co


gi tr d bo ny cho trm gc. Tuy nhin do iu ny i hi phi
c t cc gii thut d bo v cch thc hot ng ca cc gii thut
ny khi u cui di ng n cc v tr khc nhau, nn hu ht cc h
thng thc t ch n gin bo co cc iu kin knh o c cho
trm gc. C th coi y l mt b d bo rt n gin vi gi thit
rng cc iu kin knh trong tng lai gn cng ging nh cc iu
kin hin thi. V th s bin ng knh theo thi gian cng nhanh th
thch ng ng truyn cng km hiu qu.
V khng th trnh tr gia thi im u cui o cc iu kin
knh v thi im p dng cc gi tr c bo co ti my pht, nn
lp biu ph thuc knh v thch ng ng truyn thng thng lm
vic tt nht ti mc di ng u cui thp. Nu u cui di ng
bt u chuyn ng nhanh, cc bo co kt qu o s b lc hu khi
BS p dng n. Trong cc trng hp ny tt nht l thc hin thch
ng ng truyn da trn cht lng knh trung bnh di hn v s
dng HARQ bng kt hp mm cho thch ng nhanh.
i vi ng ln khng th thc hin c tnh cc iu kin
knh mt cch trc tip v khng c tn hiu tham kho c pht vi
cng sut khng i t tng u cui di ng. Bn lun v c tnh
knh ng ln s c xt trong chng sau.
Trong trng hp mt h thng s dng TDD (ghp song cng
phn chia theo thi gian), trong truyn dn ng ln v ng
xung c ghp chung theo thi gian trn cng mt bng tn, suy
hao tn hiu ng ln c th c c tnh t cc o c ng
xung ca u cui di ng do tnh i ln ca phainh a ng
trong trng hp TDD. Tuy nhin cn lu rng cch ny khng
cung cp y thng tin v cc iu kin ng xung. Chng hn
cc tnh trng nhiu ti u cui ng xung v cc trm gc khc
nhau trong trng hp TDD.

174

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

5.3.5. Hnh vi lu lng v lp biu


Cn lu rng khi ti h thng thp cc gii thut lp biu khc
nhau t khc nhau (trng hp ch mt hay mt s t ngi s dng c
s liu i truyn dn ti trm gc ti thi im lp biu). Cc khc
bit ny ch r rt khi ti cao. Tuy nhin khng ch ti m c hnh vi
ca lu lng cng nh hng ln hat ng tng th ca lp biu.
Nh ni trn, lp biu ph thuc knh tm cch khai thc cc
thay i ngn hn trong cht lng v tuyn. Ni mt cch tng qut,
mt mc cng bng di hn nht nh trong cht lng knh cn
c tnh n khi thit k b lp biu. Tuy nhin khi p t cng bng
cao hn, thng lng s gim, nn cn phi cn nhc gia cng bng
v thng lng. Trong qu trnh cn nhc ny, iu quan trong l phi
xt n cc c tnh lu lng v n nh hng ln ln vic cn nhc
gia thng lng h thng v cht lng dch v.
minh ha ta xt ba b lp biu ng xung khc nhau:
1. B lp biu quay vng (RR: Round-robin), trong cc iu
kin knh khng c xt
2. B lp biu cng bng t l (PR: Proportional Fair), trong
cc thay i ngn hn c khai thc trong khi vn duy tr tc s
liu trung bnh di hn ca ngi s dng
3. B lp biu Max-C/I, trong ngi s dng c cht lng
knh tc thi tt nht c lp biu
i vi kch bn b m y, khi lun c s liu sn sng ti BS
cho tt c cc u cui trong , b lp biu max-C/I s dn n nhng
ngi s dng ti bin khng c hoc ch c thng lng rt thp.
L do v chin lc cn bn ca b lp biu max-C/I l tt c ti
nguyn u c cp pht cho u cui c cht lng knh m bo
tc s liu cao nht. Rt him khi hoc hu nh khng bao gi
ngi s dng ti bin c c cc iu kin knh tt hn nhng

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

175

ngi s dng ti tm (tr trng hp xy ra phainh su ti tm )


v th rt him khi hoc hu nh khng bao gi nhng ngi s dng
ti bin c lp biu. Tri li b lp biu cng bng t l s m
bo mt mc cng bng nht nh bng cch chn la nhng ngi
s dng lp biu nu h m bo tc s liu cao tng i so
vi tc s liu trung bnh. V th c xu th l nhng ngi s dng
c lp biu theo nh phainh ca h ch khng theo cht lng
tuyt i. V th ngay c nhng ngi s dng ti bin cng s c
lp biu v iu ny m bo s cng bng ( mt mc nht inh)
gia nhng ngi s dng.
i vi trng hp s liu gi mang tnh cm (bng n), tnh
trng khc hn. Trong trng hp ny, cc m ca nhng ngi
s dng s c hn v trong nhiu trng hp thm ch rng. Chng
hn mt trang web c kch thc nht nh v sau khi pht i trang
web ny, s khng cn s lu pht n u cui lin quan cho n
khi ngi s dng n phm yu cu mt trang mi. Trong trng hp
ny b lp biu max-C/I vn m bo mt mc cng bng nht
nh. Sau khi b m ca ngi s dng c C/I cao nht rng, mt
ngi s dng khc c b m khng rng v c C/I cao nht s c
lp biu v tip tc nh vy. Nguyn nhn khc nhau gia b m y
v lu lng trnh duyt web c minh ha trn hnh 5.4. B lp biu
t l cng bng c hiu nng nh nhau trong c hai trng hp.
R rng rng mc cng bng do cc tnh cht lu lng em
li ph thuc rt nhiu vo lu lng thc t; v th trong mng thc
t khng nn a ra mt s gi thit nht nh cho thit k khi mu
lu lng c th khc vi cc gi thit ny. V th nu ch da trn cc
tnh cht lu lng i vi cng bng th s khng c chin lc tt,
nhng cc phn tch trn nhn mnh rng cn thit k b lp biu
khng ch ring cho trng hp b m y.

176

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

CDF: Comutative Distribution Function: hm phn b tch ly

Hnh 5.4. Minh ha hnh vi ca cc chin lc lp biu khc nhau:


(a) i vi cc b m y v (b) i vi m hnh lu lng duyt web
5.4. CC S PHT LI TIN TIN
Do s thay i cht lng tn hiu thu, truyn dn trn cc knh
khng dy b mc li. mc nht inh c th chng li nh hng
ca cc thay i ny bng cch s dng thch ng ng truyn nh
xt trn. Tuy nhin khng th loi b c cc thay i khng
th d bo c ca nhiu v tp m. V th hu ht cc h thng
thng tin khng dy u s dng m ha sa li trc (FEC). Nguyn
l c s ca m sa li trc l a cc bit d vo tn hiu cn pht.
iu ny t c bng cch cng cc bit chn l vo cc bit thng tin
trc khi truyn dn. Cc bit chn l c tnh ton t cc bit thng
tin ty theo cu trc m ha c s dng. V th s bit c pht trn
knh ln hn s bit thng tin gc v mt lng d c a vo tn
hiu pht.

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

177

Mt cch khc x l cc li truyn dn l s dng yu cu pht


li t ng (ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request). Trong s ARQ,
my thu s dng m pht hin li, thng l CRC (Cyclic
Redundance Check: kim tra vng d) pht hin xem gi thu c b
mc li hay khng. Nu khng pht hin c li trong gi s liu
thu, s liu thu c thng bo l khng mc li v my thu thng bo
iu ny cho my pht bng cch pht i cng nhn (ACK). Tri li
nu li b pht hin my thu s lai b s liu thu v thng bo cho
my bng cch gi i ph nhn (NAK). p li NAK, my pht li
thng tin ging nh gi.
Hu ht cc h thng thng tin hin i k c WCDMA v
cdma2000 u s dng kt hp m ha sa li trc v ARQ, kt hp
ny c gi l ARQ lai ghp (HARQ). HARQ s dng cc m sa
li trc hiu chnh mt tp con ca tt c cc li v da trn pht
hin li pht hin cc li khng th sa. Cc gi s liu thu li b
loi b v my thu yu cu pht li cc gi hng. Hu ht cc s
HARQ s dng m CRC pht hin li v cc m turbo v xon
sa li, nhng v nguyn tc c th s dng m s li v hiu chnh
li bt k.
5.5. YU CU PHT LI T NG VI KT HP MM
Hot ng HARQ m t trn thc hin xa cc gi b li v yu
cu pht li chng. Tuy nhin mc d khng th gii m cc gi ny,
tn hiu thu c ny vn cha thng tin v thng tin ny s mt nu
xa cc gi thu mc li. Nhc im ny c khc phc bng cch
s dng HARQ vi kt hp mm. Trong s HARQ vi kt hp
mm, gi mc li c lu li trong b nh m v sau c kt
hp vi gi c pht li nhn c mt gi duy nht tn cy hn
cc gi thnh phn. Gii m sa li dc thc hin trn tn hiu kt
hp. Nu gii m tht bi (CRC c s dng pht hin iu ny),
pht li c yu cu.

178

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Theo quy nh, pht li trong mi s HARQ phi th hin


cng tp bit thng tin nh truyn dn gc. Tuy nhin tp cc bit c
m ha v c pht trong mi ln pht li c th c la chn theo
cch khc nhau chng no chng vn cn th hin cng tp bit thng
tin. V th HARQ vi kt hp mm c chia thnh loi sn bt
(Chase Combining) v phn d tng (Incremental Redundancy) ph
thuc vo vic c i hi pht li tng t nh ln pht ban u hay
khng (hay ch pht phn d tng).
Kt hp sn bt c thc hin vi vic pht li cng tp cc bit
c m ha ging nh ln truyn u tin. Sau mi ln pht li, my
thu s dng kt hp t l cc i kt hp tng bit thu c vi cc
bit ca cc ln truyn dn trc v tn hiu sau kt hp c a n
b gii m. V pht li l bn sao ca ln pht u tin nn c th coi
pht li vi kt hp sn bt l mt dng m ha lp. V th khng c
phn d mi c pht. Kt hp sn bt khng cho thm li m
ha m ch tng t s Eb /N0 tch ly cho mi ln pht li (xem hnh 5.5).
Cc bit th.t
Cc bit c
m ha

Chn CRC,
M ha sa li t l 3/4

Cc bit c
pht
Pht ln u

Pht ln hai

Nng lng
c tch ly

Eb

2Eb

T l m
tng hp

r=3/4

r=3/4

Pht ln ba

3Eb
r=3/4

Pht ln bn

4Eb
r=3/4

Hnh 5.5. Th d kt hp sn bt
Vi kt hp phn d tng (IR), mi ln pht li khng ging nh
ln pht u tin. Thay vo , nhiu tp cc bit c m ha c
thnh lp trong mi tp th hin cng mt tp cc bit thng tin.
Mi khi cn pht li, pht li s s dng mt tp cc bit c m ha
khc vi ln pht trc . My thu kt hp pht li ny vi cc ln

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

179

pht trc ca cng mt gi. V pht li ny c th cha cc bit chn


l b sung khng c trong cc ln pht li trc nn t l m tng hp
s c gim sau mi ln pht li. Ngoi ra mi pht li khng nht
thit phi cha cng s bit c m ha nh pht gc v tng qut s
iu ch c th khc nhau cho cc ln pht li khc nhau. V th c
th coi kt hp phn d tng nh l tng qut ha ca kt hp sn bt
hay ngc li kt hp sn bt nh l trng hp c bit ca kt hp
phn d tng.
Thng thng kt hp phn d tng c xy dng trn mt m
t l thp v cc phin bn d khc nhau c to ra bng cch chch
b mt s bit u ra ca b m ha. Trong ln pht u, ch mt s c
hn cc bit c m ho l c pht v th t l m cao. Trong ln
pht li, cc bit c m ha b sung c pht. Chng hn gi thit
rng m c s c t l m 1/4 (c mt bit thng tin th c ba bit c
m ha). Trong ln pht u mt phn ba s bit c m ha c
pht v th t l m l 3/4 (hnh 5.6). Trong trng hp gii m b li
v c yu cu pht li tip theo, cc bit c m ha b sung c
pht dn n t l m tng hp 3/8. Sau ln pht li th hai t l m
tng hp s l 1/4. Trong trng hp pht li nhiu hn hai ln cc bit
m ha pht s lp li v th t l m vn l 1/4.

Hnh 5.6. Th d v kt hp d tng

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

180

Vi phn d tng, m c s dng cho ln pht u phi m


bo hiu nng tt khng ch khi s dng c lp m c khi c s
dng kt hp vi m c pht ln hai. Tng t nh vy i vi cc
ln pht sau. V th cc phin bn d thng c to ra bng cch
chch b mt s bit ca mt m t l thp, cc mu chch b phi c
quy nh sao cho mt m t l cao phi l mt b phn ca cc m t
l thp. Ni mt cch khc t l m tng hp ri sau ln pht th i bao
gm cc bit c m ha ca cc phin bn d RVk (trong
k=1,i) phi c hiu nng nh mt m tt c thit k trc tip i
vi t l ri. Cc loi m xon ny c gi l cc m xon tng thch
t l.
Cc hnh 5.7 v 5.8 cho thy th d v s dng HARQ s dng
m turbo c s t l m r=1/3 cho kt hp sn bt v kt hp phn d
tng. Trn hnh 5.7 cc pht li u ging nhau v ging pht ln
u. Trn hnh 5.8 cc pht li ch pht phn d (cc bit chn l)
vi s bit tng.
B m ha turbo
H thng
chn l 1
Chn l 2

r=1/3

Phi hp tc (chch b)
Pht li

Pht ln th nht
H thng
chn l 1
Chn l 2
r=3/4

r=3/4
Kt hp mm (ti my thu)

H thng
chn l 1
Chn l 2

r=3/4

Hnh 5.7. HARQ kt hp sn bt s dng m turbo

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

181

Hnh 5.8. HARQ kt hp phn d tng s dng m turbo


Trong cc phn trnh by trn y, ta gi thit l my thu thu
c tt c cc phin bn d trc. Nu tt c cc phin bn d u
cung cp cng mt lng tin v gi s liu, th th t cc phin bn d
khng quan trng. Tuy nhin i vi mt s cu trc, cc phin bn
d c tm quan trng khc nhau. Chng dn i vi cc m turbo,
trong cc bit h thng c tm quan trng hn cc bit chn l, v th
ln pht u tin phi t nht l cha cc bit h thng v mt s bit
chn l. Trong cc ln pht li c th c cc bit h thng khng phi
cc bit c pht ln u. Tuy nhin nu ln pht u c thu vi
cht lng km hoc hon ton khng thu c, th vic ch pht li
cc bit chn l l khng thch hp v cc bit h thng cung cp cht
lng tt hn. V th tng d vi s dng cc m turbo c li khi
s dng nhiu mc phn hi, chng hn s dng hai ph nhn khc
nhau: NAK yu cu cc bit chn l b sung v LOST yu cu

182

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

pht li cc bit h thng. Tng qut, vic xc nh s lng cc bit h


thng v cc bit chn l khi pht li da trn cht lng tn hiu ca
cc ln pht trc khng phi n gin.
HARQ vi kt hp mm, bt k s kt hp sn bt hay phn
d tng, dn n gim tc s liu do cc ln pht li v c th coi l
thch ng ng truyn ngm. Tuy nhin khc vi thch ng ng
truyn da trn cc c tnh iu kin knh tc thi tng minh,
HARQ vi kt hp mm iu chnh ngm tc s liu da trn kt
qu gii m. Xt v tng thng lng, kiu thch ng ng truyn
ngm ny c u im hn thch ng ng truyn tng minh v
d b sung ch cn thit khi cc ln truyn dn trc khng cho php
gii m ng. Ngoi ra n khng phi d bo cc thay i ca knh
nn n c th hot ng tt khng ph thuc vo tc chuyn ng
ca u cui. V thch ng ng truyn ngm c th cung cp li
thng lng h thng, vn t ra l v sao thch ng ng truyn
tng minh vn cn thit. L do chnh ca vic s dng thch ng
ng truyn tng minh l gim tr. Mc d xt t quan im thng
lng h thng ch cn s dng thch ng ng truyn ngm l ,
nhng cht lng dch v ca ngi s dng u cui c th khng
m bo xt v quan im tr.
5.6. TNG KT
Chng ny xt mt s cng ngh c s dng nh l cc
cng ngh then cht trong cc h thng thng tin di ng 3G tng
cng v 4G: lp biu, thch ng ng truyn v HARQ.
Lp biu ph thuc knh trong cc h thng thng tin di ng gii
quyt vn v cch thc chia s cc ti nguyn v tuyn gia nhng
ngi s dng (cc u cui di di ng) khc nhau trong h thng
t c hiu sut s dng ti nguyn tt nht. Lp biu ph thuc
knh cho php gim thiu lng ti nguyn cn thit cho mt ngi s
dng v th cho php nhiu ngi s dng hn trong h thng trong

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

183

khi vn p ng c cc yu cu cht lng dch v. Thch ng


ng truyn gii quyt vn lin quan n cch thit lp cc thng
s truyn dn ca ng truyn v tuyn x l cc thay i cht
lng ng truyn v tuyn. Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu lin
quan mt thit vi nhau.
Tuy nhin do tnh cht ngu nhin ca cc thay i cht lng
ng truyn v tuyn, khng bao gi c th t c thch ng cht
lng knh v tuyn tc thi mt hon ho. HARQ (Hybrid ARQ:
ARQ lai ghp) v th rt hu ch. HARQ i hi pht li cc gi thu b
li. C th coi y nh l mt c ch x l cht lng knh v tuyn
tc thi sau truyn dn v b sung rt tt cho lp biu ph thuc cht
lng knh v thch ng ng truyn. HARQ cng phc v cho vic
x l cc li ngu nhin do tp m trong my thu. Trong s HARQ
vi kt hp mm, gi mc li c lu li trong b nh m v sau
c kt hp vi gi c pht li nhn c mt gi duy nht tn
cy hn cc gi thnh phn. Gii m sa li c thc hin trn tn
hiu kt hp.
5.7. CU HI
1. Trnh by nguyn l thch ng ng truyn da trn iu khin
cng sut.
2. Trnh by nguyn l thch ng ng truyn da trn tc s liu.
3. Trnh by nguyn l lp biu ph thuc knh.
4. Trnh by cc s pht li tin tin.
5. Trnh by yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp vi kt hp mm kiu
sn bt (Chase Combining).
6. Trnh by yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp vi kt hp mm kiu
phn d tng (Incremental Redundancy Combining).

184

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

7. Hy s dng khi nim t s tn hiu trn tp m Eb/N0= (P/Rb)/N0


gii thch ngha ca hai s thch ng ng truyn trn
hnh 5.1?
8. Tiu ch c bn ca lp biu ph thuc knh l g?
9. Ti sao lp biu knh li cho php tng dung lng?
10.Ti sao ni HARQ l mt dng thch ng ng truyn?
11.So snh cc s kt hp mm sn bt v phn d tng trong
HARQ?

Ph lc

CC YU CU PHN V TUYN
CA U CUI HSPA

Ph lc ny s trnh by cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui


3GPP HSPA. Phn u PL1 trnh by cc yu cu i vi my pht,
phn hai PL2 trnh by cc yu cu i vi my thu v phn ba cn li
(PL3) trnh by cc bng tn khc nhau s dng cho HSPA.
PL1. CC YU CU MY PHT

PL1.1. Cng sut u ra


Cc u cui WCDMA v HSPA thng mi c loi cng sut 3
vi cng sut u ra cc i 24dBm hay loi cng sut 4 vi cng sut
ra 21dBm. Loi cng sut 3 c dung sai +1/-3dB, ngha l cng sut ra
u cui phi nm trong di t 21 n 25dBm. Dung sai trong loi
cng sut 4 l +2/-2dB. Nu cng sut ra u cui l 22dBm th u
cui c th c phn loi hoc loi 3 hoc loi 4 do s chng ln
trong nh ngha loi. Cc loi cng sut c tng kt trong bng
PL1. Cng sut ra u cui cao hn c th ci thin tc ng ln
trong vng ph sng yu.
Bng PL1. Cc loi cng sut
Loi cng sut 3

Loi cng sut 4

Cng sut cc i

+24dBm

+21dBm

Dung sai

+1/-3dB

+2/-2dB

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

606

HSDPA a ra mt knh ng ln mi phn hi L1 vi tn


gi l knh vt l iu khin ring (HS-DCCH). Truyn dn
HS-DPCCH xy ra song song vi DPCCH thng thng to ra
truyn dn a m. Truyn dn a m i hi mc tuyn tnh cao
hn i vi cc phn v tuyn ca my pht (UE) v t s cng sut
nh trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR) tng. Cc c t 3GPP cho
php UE gim cng sut ra cc i i vi cc khe thi gian c pht
HS-DPCCH. Gim cng sut pht cho php ph thuc vo bin
tng i ca DPDCH d v DPCCH c. Nu cng sut tng i ca
DPCCH thp so vi DPCCH th khng c php gim cng sut.
Nu tc s liu ng ln vo khong 16kbit/s hoc cao hn th
khng cn gim cng sut. Gim cng sut 1dB c th c s dng
cho cc tc s liu thp. Gim cng sut cc i 2dB ch c
php khi kt ni ng ln khng pht s liu. Cc gii hn cng sut
ra ca UE c cho trong bng PL2. Gim cng sut s khng nh
hng ln nh c qu ng truyn v cc mng ny thng c
nh c m bo tc 64kbit/s trn ng ln vi s dng
DPDCH.
Bng PL2. Cng sut ra R5 UE vi HS-DPCCH
T s bin
DPCCH/DPDCH

Tc bit in hnh
tng ng (kbit/s)

Gim cng sut ra cc


i c php (dB)

1/15<c/d<12/15

>8-16

12/15,5<c/d<15/8

8-16

-1

15/7<c/d<15/0

0 (khng truyn dn
s liu)

-2

i vi R6 nh ngha gim cng sut thay i mt cht c


mt nh ngha n gin bao hm tt c cc t hp k c s dng
HSUPA ln HSDPA. Thut ng s o lp phng (CM: Cubic

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

607

Metric) c a ra nh l mt s o gim cng sut c php. c


t cho php gim cng sut khi CM tng do s dng cc knh m song
song vt qu gi tr CM tham chun bng 1 (CM=1 i vi
c/d=12/15, hs/d=24/15). Nh vy gim cng sut ra cc i c
tnh theo gi tr CM bng 1 v gi tr CM cc i l 3,5 tng ng vi
gim cng sut cho php bng 2dB.
20 lg ( v _ norm3 ) 20 lg ( v _ norm_ref )

rms
rms
CM = CEIL
;0,5
k

Trong k=1,8 nu cc m nh knh c chn t na thp ca


cy m, ngc li k=1,56 v v_norm th hin dng sng in p c
chun ha ca tn hiu u ra v v_ref l dng sng c chun ha
ca tn hiu tham chun (ting thoi ARM 12,2kbit/s). Ceil(x;0,5) l
gi tr ca biu thc c lm trn n 0,5dB gn nht chng hn
CM=[0; 1; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3; 3,5]
nh ngha ny cng thay th cc nh ngha R5 cho cc thit b
ch c HSDPA khng h tr HSUPA.
Ngoi cng sut ra cc i, cng sut ra cc tiu cng c nh
ngha. u cui phi c kh nng gim cng sut xung cn -50dBm
bo v cc trm gc khi n tin n rt gn anten trm gc, chng
hn trong cc trong nh.
PL1.2. T l d knh ln cn
T l d knh ln cn (ACLR: Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio)
m t lng cng sut c php d r n cc sng mang ln cn.
Khng c cc quy nh ny cho HSDPA cng nh cho HSUPA, v
gim cng sut ra vi cc knh iu khin HSDPA v HSDPA c
nh ngha cho php cng mt b khuch i cng sut s dng
c cho c HSPA v WCDMA nhng vn p ng cc yu
cu ACLR. Nu khng cho php gim cng sut khi PAPR tng,

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

608

s rt kh khn duy tr hiu nng ACLR m khng tng kch c b


khuch i.
Mc ch ca kim tra ACLR l bo v hiu nng thu ca trm
gc. iu ny lin quan n cc trm gc nm gn u cui, trong khi
u cui li pht n mt trm gc xa vi cng sut cao. iu ny
c bit quan trng i vi cc trng hp nhiu gia cc nh khai
thc v r rng rng cc u cui khng th ni n trm gc gn nht
nu chng thuc mt nh khai thc khc.
Trng hp ny c minh ha trn hnh PL1 cho sng mang ln
cn th nht v th hai. Cc gi tr ACLR khng th hin mc cng
sut ti mt im tn s, m chng l tch hp trn bng thng
3,84MHz bng b lc my thu c s dng lm m hnh o. o
c thc hin ti ton b cng sut, nhng n cng ng i vi cc
mc cng sut thp hn cho n khi mc ny n gn mc cng sut
cc tiu. Ti im ny tp m nn s bt u nh hng ACLR.

Hnh PL1. T s d knh ln cn do pht t u cui

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

609

Ngoi ra, cc yu cu pht x ca my pht c nh ngha trong


cc im trn ng cong hnh PL1 phi nm di cc mc cng
sut quy nh. iu ny nhm m bo cc quy nh theo lut v
ngoi ra trong mt s nc cn c cc yu cu c bit cho chi tit
mt n pht x (chng hn cc yu cu ca FCC M).
PL1.3. iu ch pht
Cc yu cu iu ch pht khng a ra cc b sung ring lin
quan n HSDPA, nhng vi HSUPA hin nay vn c mt s vn
lin quan n cc yu cu v ln vc t li trm gc (EVM: Error
Vector Magnitude). EVM m t lng cng sut d gia cc m nh
knh cho chui my pht ca mt trm gc gy ra l bao nhiu. Quy
nh ny c m bo cht ch hn i vi HSDPA do s dng
iu ch 16QAM.
Khng c iu ch mi c a ra trn ng ln s dng
HSUPA, v iu ch kha dch pha vung gc (QPSK) knh kp trong
R3 vn c s dng. Vi s dng truyn dn a m, EVM m t
lng cng sut r r t mt m n mt m khc do mc khng
chnh xc pha ca my pht, ngay c khi trong mt knh l tng vn
duy tr c trc giao. Hnh PL2 cho thy v d v trng hp khi hai
m c s dng vi tc s liu cc i vi mt knh s liu vt l
ring tng cng (E-DPDCH). V l thuyt cc knh ny hon ton
trc giao vi nhau v v chng c truyn trn cc nhnh khc nhau
(ng pha v pha vung gc) ca tn hiu QPSK hai knh. Lu rng
mc cng sut gia knh iu khin vt l ring (DPCCH) v knh
DPDCH khng c a ra trn hnh PL2, v mc cng sut ca
DPCCH vi h s tri ph 256 rt thp so vi mc cng sut SF4 hay
SF2 ca E-DPDCH. SF cng nh th nhiu gia cc knh E-DPDCH
song song s cng nghim trong hn, v li x l nh nn khng
th h tr trit nhiu. cc yu cu EVM hin ti vn ng i vi
truyn dn HSUPA v hin 3GPP vn ang nghin cu a ra cc

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

610

yu cu hiu nng ti thiu cho n nh cng sut min m nhm m


bo rng cc UE pht tt c cc knh vi trng s ph hp.
S khng lin tc pha cng quan trng thm ch trong trng hp
knh n m (DPDCH hay E-DPDCH), v iu ch mang thng
tin ng pha ca tn hiu ny. Do , tnh khng lin tc pha cng
lm gim cp hiu nng h thng trn m n. Do vy, cc c t
ca 3GPP R5 c c kim tra trng hp khng lin tc pha v m
DPDCH n.

Hnh PL2. D cng sut gia cc m do i lng vc t li


PL2. CC YU CU MY THU

PL2.1. nhy
nhy my thu l thng s kim tra hiu nng my thu ti
cc mc cng sut tn hiu thu thp (khi c tp m nhit). y l m
hnh cho trng hp u cui di ng nm ti bin . Hnh PL3 cho
thy cc mc kim tra o nhy. Mc nng lng chip tn hiu
yu cu trc gii tri ph l -117dBm. nhy c nh ngha cho
thoi 12,2kbit/s vi li x l l 25dB, v th sau tri ph mc ny

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

611

c nng ln thnh -92dBm. Gi thit yu cu Eb/N0 l 7dB i vi


t l li khi (BLER) l 1%, khi ny mc tp m nhit phi l 99dBm. V mc tp m nhit vi 3,84Mbit/s l -108dB, nn h s tp
m yu cu phi thp hn 9dB. nhy yu cu bng -117dBm p
dng cho bng I. i vi cc bng khc nhy thay i gia 114dBm
v
-117dBm tng ng vi h s tp m t 9dB n 12dB. Cc yu cu
nhy lin quan n bng thng cng c nh ngha, v kch c
bng thng v khong cch song cng gia ng ln v ng xung
l khc nhau trong cc bng tn. Cc bng tn khc nhau c xt
trong phn PL3.

Hnh PL3. Trng hp kim tra nhy my thu


Kim tra nhy c tin hnh khi u cui di ng pht
ton b cng sut (21dBm hay 24dBm), v kh nng ln nht y l
trng hp bin vng ph sng ca . iu ny cho php xt n d
my pht n bng tn my thu. Kim tra nhy ch c quy nh

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

612

cho knh kim tra tham chun thoi 12,2kbit/s. Khng c bt k cc


kim tra khc lin quan n nhy my thu c th HSDPA v
HSUPA.
t c hiu nng yu cu trong trng hp kim tra, cn
m bo suy hao kh ln gia my pht v my thu. Tn hiu c
pht qua b lc song cng trong u cui ti mc cng sut thm ch
cn cao hn cng sut u ra thc t do suy hao ca chnh bn thn b
lc song cng. Phn cch gia my pht v my thu c thc hin
bi phn cch kh dng ca b lc song cng v cc b lc bng
thng trong chui pht (hnh PL4). Lu rng my pht ca v d trn
hnh PL4 ch l mt trong nhiu gii php c th c, my pht ny s
dng trung tn.

Hnh PL4. Chui pht vi nhiu n phn thu


PL2.2. chn lc knh ln cn
Cc yu cu v chn lc knh ln cn (ACS: Adjacent
Channel Selectivity) trong 3GPP R3 vn ng i vi HSDPA v
HSUPA. ACS m t mc cng sut cho php ca sng mang ln cn
khi u cui vn c th hot ng ti tn s hin thi. iu ny
thng xy ra gia cc nh khai thc trong cc mng thc t. Cc c
t ca 3GPP i hi ACS bng 33dB. R5 cng c mt trng hp
kim tra mi, tuy nhin n ch m rng vng kim tra ch khng lin

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

613

quan trc tip n khai thc HSDPA/HSUPA. Trong thit k u cui,


ACS t c bng b lc knh v lc s bng gc (hnh PL5).

Anten

B lc
knh

Bin i A/D
v lc s

Gii tri ph

Eb /N 0

Knh
chnh

Knh
ln
cn

Knh
chnh

Knh
ln
cn

Knh
chnh

Knh
ln
cn

Knh
chnh

Knh
ln
cn

Hnh PL5. V d v phn chia ACS trong my thu


PL2.3. Chn
Chn trong bng nh ngha cc mc tn hiu t cc sng mang
c cao bao nhiu u cui di ng c th thu c tn hiu trong
cng mt bng tn. Tn ti cc quy nh cho cc dch tn 10MHz v
15MHz. Dch tn 5MHz c xt trong ACS trong phn trc.
Hnh PL6 minh ha trng hp dch tn 10MHz, trong chn ti
mc -56dBm. Tn hiu ca chnh c 3dB cao hn mc nhy, v
th mc tn hiu l -114dBm cho bng I. K c li x l mc tn
hiu t n -89dBm. Vi Eb/N0 bng 7dB, mt ph tp m cng
nhiu thp hn -96dBm. Vi dch tn 10MHz, yu cu nhy l
40dBs v vi dch tn 15MHz yu cu ny l 52dBs.
trin khai h thng bng hp th h hai trong cng bng tn,
mt tp yu cu chn bng hp khc c quy nh. H thng bng
hp c th l GSM hoc IS-95. Cc yu cu cng ng cho UMTS
850, UMTS 1800 (bng 1800 ca GSM) hay UMTS (bng 1900 ca
PCS). Tn hiu kim tra l mt tn hiu c iu ch GMSK c tn

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

614

s trung tm cch tn s trung tm WCDMA hoc 2,7MHz hoc


2,8MHz (xem hnh PL7). Hnh PL7 minh ha trng hp 2,7MHz,
trong mc tn hiu tuyt i ca tn hiu bng hp c t bng
-57dBm ti u vo my thu th hin trng hp trin khai ngoi
hin trng, trong mt sng mang GSM cng mt sng mang
WCDMA. Mc cng sut tn hiu cn thu l -105dBm tng ng vi
gim 10dB so vi trng hp kim tra nhy bng -115dBm trong
cc bng ny.

Hnh PL6. Chn trong bng vi dch tn 10MHz


Nu cc trm gc ca GSM v WCDMA c t cng mt ch,
th cc tn hiu thu ti u cui c cng mc v v th trnh c cc
vn lin quan n chn. Cc vn lin quan n chn ch xy ra
khi GSM v WCDMA c trin khai khng hp tc, ngha l khi
c trin khai bi cc nh khai thc khc nhau s dng cc trm t
khc nhau.

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

615

Hnh PL7. Chn bng hp i vi ngun nhiu GMSK


PL2.4. iu ch giao thoa
Kim tra iu ch giao thoa nhm kim tra dung sai sn phm
iu ch giao thoa bc ba ca my thu u cui, Sn phm ny sinh ra
do hai tn hiu cng sut cao cch nhau 10MHz v 20MHz. Yu cu
ny cn thit cho trng hp khi nhiu h thng ng thi tn ti trn
cng mt vng. Cc tn hiu kim tra bao gm mt tn hiu bng hp
cch 10MHz v mt tn hiu bng rng cch 20MHz c pht lin
tc. Thit lp tn hiu kim tra c cho trn hnh PL8, trong c hai
tn hiu c pht ng thi. Cc tn hiu kim tra c mc cng sut
-46dBm, cn tn hiu mong mun c cng sut -114dBm, tng ng
vi gim 3dB so vi trng hp kim tra nhy bng -117dBm.

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

616

Ngoi ra, cn c trng hp kim tra iu ch giao thoa bng hp


cho cc bng tn ni c nhiu kh nng trin khai cc h thng bng
hp. Trng hp kim tra ny s dng hai tn hiu bng hp pht lin
tc cch nhau 3,5 hay 3,6MHz v cc tn hiu iu ch GMSK cch
nhau 5,9 hoc 6,0MHz.
I bl = -46dBm

Eb = -89dBm
N 0 = -96dBm

E b/N0 = 7dB
Gp = 25dB

DPCH_Ec = -114dBm
DPCH
10MHz
20MHz

Hnh PL8. Trng hp kim tra iu ch giao thoa


PL2.5. Phn tp thu v kiu my thu
Vic a ra HSDPA dn n xut hin cc vn lin quan n
phn tp thu v cc gii thut bng gc tin tin trong u cui di
ng. 3GPP R5 c cc yu cu hiu nng HSDPA c th thc hin
c vi vic ch s dng my thu RAKE mt anten. R6 b sung
thm cc yu cu i vi cc u cui HSDPA, trong cc u cui

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

617

ny phi c phn tp thu v b cn bng. Hin nay, cc c t ca tiu


chun ny cha cc yu cu cho cc trng hp sau:
- My thu RAKE n (3GPP R5)
- My thu RAKE vi phn tp thu (kiu I tng cng trong 3GPP
R6)
- My thu vi b cn bng (kiu II tng cng trong 3GPP R6)
- My thu c b cn bng v phn tp thu (kiu III tng cng
trong 3GPP R7)
Hiu nng thc t ca anten c lp vi cc yu cu trn. Cc
trng hp kim tra c phn tp thu s dng gi thit kch bn l
tng trong cc anten khng tng quan vi nhau. Tt nhin trong
cc thc hin thc t, iu ny khng th c, cc anten s c tng
quan v v th ph thuc rt nhiu vo thit k u cui cng nh vo
bng tn c s dng. Tn s cng thp th tng quan cng cao.
Ngoi ra cc anten ny cng khng c li ging nhau v th li ch
nhn c t chng s gim. Nu c xt n phn tp thu trong qu
trnh quy hoch v pht trin mng, th cn xt n tng quan anten.
Hnh PL9 cho thy mt v d v s nh hng ca tng quan anten
ln thng lng h thng hot ng trong bng tn 800MHz v 2GHz.
Hnh ny gi thit rng khong cch vt l gia cc anten l nh nhau
cho c hai bng tn. Nh vy khong cch tng i (so vi bc
sng ) i vi bng 800MHz s nh hn i vi bng 2GHz. Khong
cch tng i gia cc anten cng nh th tng quan gia chng
cng ln v li t phn tp anten cng thp. ng cong trn cng
l trng hp khng tng quan gia cc anten. ng cong gia l
trng hp cho vi bng 2GHz vi khong cch anten tng i bng
0,5 cn ng cong thp nht l trng hp cho bng tn 800MHz
vi khong cch anten tng i gim xung bng 0,2. nh hng
tng quan anten vi 0,5 nh hn 5% so vi trng hp l tng,

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

618

cn nh hng ny ln n 10-15% khi khong cch anten bng 0,2.


V l thuyt, s dng phn tp anten cho php tng dung lng.
li dung lng t c vo khong 50-60% i vi cc v m.
Thit k u cui thc t s quyt nh hiu nng thc t, trong cc
c tnh ph cng sut phng v (PAS: Power Azimuth Spectrum)
cng vi li anten s quyt nh hiu nng thc t trn hin trng.

Trng hp l tng (i.i.d), trong bng 2MHz (0,5) v trong bng 800MHz (0,2)

Hnh PL9. nh hng tng quan anten ln hiu nng h thng


PL2.6. Mc vo cc i
Vi vic a vo s dng 16QAM, cn m bo nhiu thng tin
chnh xc hn v pha v bin , nu khng hiu nng 16QAM s
gim nghim trng. m bo iu ny, mt trng hp kim tra
c th c nh ngha kim tra hiu nng u cui ti mc tn

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

619

hiu vo cc i. y l trng hp khi u cui gn trm gc, trong


vng 16QAM s c s dng. Trng hp kim tra ny thc hin o
thng lng m bo hot ng bnh thng ca chui thu
HSDPA. Trng hp kim tra ny c th p dng cho tt c cc thit
b h tr 16QAM. Cc trng hp kim tra mc vo cc i cho R3
v HSDPA c minh ha trn hnh PL10. i vi HSDPA, trng
hp ny c sa i ph hp vi cc thay i ln hn ca ng
bao tn hiu 16QAM. Tt c cc u cui trong cc th loi t 1 n
10 u c th s dng trng hp o ny m bo dung sai mc tn
hiu cao u vo. Ngoi ra cn c trng hp kim tra ring cho
QPSK kim tra cc loi u cui 11 v 12.

Hnh PL10. Kim tra mc tn hiu vo cc i ti u cui s dng


DCH v HSDPA 16QAM.
Tng mc thu l -25dBm trong khi tn hiu c thit k c
tng mc ti -44dBm, tc l thp hn 19dB i vi R3, cn i vi
HS-DSCH 13dB thp hn ti mc -38dBm. Trng hp kim tra
HSDPA i hi thng lng 700kbit/s s dng bn m v pht 3 TTI
mt ln. tham kho, thng lng cc i s dng bn m v 3 TTI
mt ln l 960kbit/s.

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

620

PL3. CC BNG TN V CC U CUI A BNG

3GPP a ra cc c t WCDMA cho tt c cc bng t ong lin


quan khng gian cho sng mang WCDMA. Cc phng n tn
s v cc vng thng s dng chng trn ton cu c lit k trn
hnh PL11. Cc phng n tn s khng ph thuc vo pht hnh
3GPP, ngha l, thm ch nu phng n c b sung theo lch trnh
3GPP R7, th cc sn phm cho cc bng ny c th s dng pht hn
3GPP trc y lm c s thit k. Ch cn p ng cc yu cu mi
b sung cho thit b v tuyn h tr cc phn t truyn dn c th
bng mi.

Hnh PL11. Phn b tn s cho WCDMA


(a) Cc bng c th dng cho WCDMA ton cu;
b) Bng tn IMT-2000)
Trin khai WCDMA c bt u ti chu u v chu trong
di ph chnh 2,1GHz bng I vi n nh 2x60MHz. Cc u cui

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

621

WCDMA thng kt hp WCDMA 2100 vi mt s bng GSM. Cc


mng WCDMA ti M lc u c trin khai ti 1,9MHz bng II sau
m rng n 850MHz bng V. Trong thc t cc u cui
WCDMA ti M phi h tr WCDMA bng kp 1900+850MHz. Khi
bng IV mi ca 3G kh dng ti M, cc phng n tn s mi s c
mt trn th trng. S c cc phng n tn s bng kp mi ti cc
th trng Brazil v chu , trong cc nh khai thc s dng c
bng 850MHz v 2100MHz. Trin khai WCDMA ti cc tn s
900MHz v 1800MHz i hi s dng cc bng ny trong cc u
cui WCDMA a bng kt hp vi bng chnh 2,1GHz.
Cc phng n tn s khc nhau s dng cng mt c t
WCDMA/HSPA ngoi tr cc khc bit v cc thng s v cc yu
cu i vi phn v tuyn. Cc khc bit ny c lit k di y:
1. Cc tn s knh b sung vi dch tn 100kHz c a ra
t sng mang WCDMA chnh xc gia khi 5MHz cho cc
bng II, IV v VI (xem hnh PL12). S th t knh chun l
bi s ca 200kHz
2. Cc yu cu chn bng hp cho cc bng ny (II, IV, VI v
900) ti cc vng trong GSM c trin khai trong cng
mt bng. Phn cch sng mang gia WCDMA v nhiu bng
hp l 2,7MHz (hnh PL7). y l phn cch ti thiu c th
khi WCDMA c t gia mt khi 5MHz v sng mang
GSM th nht cch bin ca khi ny 0,2MHz, v th tng
phn cch l 5,0/2+0,2 = 2,7MHz. i vi bng III li knh
l 200kHz khng dch tn 100-kHz, v th khong cch chn
bng hp l 2,8MHz. Trng hp kim tra iu ch giao thoa
bng hp cng c a vo chun cho cc bng ny (xem
mc PL2.4).
3. Gim bt cc yu cu v nhy u cui cho cc bng (II, IV
v VIII), ni m phn cch gia ng ln v ng xung ch

Ph lc: Cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca u cui HSPA

622

l 20MHz hay nh hn. Cc yu cu ny cho php t c


suy hao song cng ln gia pht v thu trong mt u cui
nh. gim t 2 n 3dB so vi cc bng khc.

Hnh PL12. Cc s knh b sung


cho php t sng mang vo gia khi 5MHz

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Hisiao-Hwa Chen & Mohsen Guizani, Next Generation Wireless System
and Networks, John Willey & Sons, Ltd, 2006
2. 3GPP TR 25.813, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
and Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN); Radio
Interface Protocol Aspects (Release 7), 3/ 2006.
3. 3GPP TR 25.814, Physical layer aspects for Evolved Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) (Release 7), 9/2006
4. 3GPP TR 25.913 V7.3.0, Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA)
and Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN)(Release 7) , 3/ 2006
5. Dr. Lee, HyenonWoo, 3GPP LTE & 3GPP2 LTE Standarzation,
Samsung Electronics, 6/2006
6. Dr.Stefal Parkvall, Long-Term Evolution-Radio Access, Ericsson
Research, 2005
7. Dr. Hyung G Myung and others, Single Carrier FDMA for Up Link
Wireless Transmission, IEEE Vehicular Magazine, 9/2006
8. Dr. Hyung G Myung and others, Peak-to-Average Powwer Ratio of
Single Carrier FDMA Signals with Pulse Shapping, The 17th Annual
IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio
Communications (PIMRC'06), 2006
9. Harri Holma & Anti Toscala, HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS, John Willey
and Sons, LTD, 2006
10. 3GPP TR 36.201, Long term Evolution LTE Physical layer General
Description (Release 8), 9/2007
11. Harri Holma & Anti Toscala, WCDMA for UMTS-HSPA Evolution and
LTE, John Willey and Sons, LTD, 2007

12. Erick Dahlman and others, 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mibile
Broadband, Academic Press
13. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, L thuyt tri ph v ng dng, Gio
trnh, Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, Nh xut bn Bu
in, 2000
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tuyn, Gio trnh, Hc Vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2004
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Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, Nh xut bn Bu in,
2001
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Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, Nh xut bn Bu in, 2001
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Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, Nh xut bn Bu in,
2004
18. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng v cng tc vin, Nghin cu h thng
truyn dn s dng my thu pht thng minh trn c s OFDM, ti
nghin cu khoa hc Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, M s:
12-HV-2005-RD-VT.
19. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng v cng tc vin, Xy dng phn mm m
phng knh phainh cho thng tin di ng, ti nghin cu khoa hc
Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, M s: 06-HV-2003-RD-VT.
20. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng v cng tc vin, Xy dng m hnh
OFDMA MIMO v CDMA MIMO thch ng, ti nghin cu khoa
hc Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, M s: 12-HV-2006RD-VT.
21. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng v cng tc vin, Xy dng m hnh truyn
dn thch ng a lp cho cc h thng thng tin di ng th h sau,
ti nghin cu khoa hc B Bu chnh Vin thng, M s: 101-06-KHKT
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trnh pht trin ln 4G, ti nghin cu khoa hc Hc vin Cng ngh
Bu chnh Vin thng, m s 08-HV-2007-RD-VT

23. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, L thuyt tri ph v a truy nhp, Bi
ging, Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2007
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vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2007
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Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2008
26. Dr. L. Hanzo and others, Adaptive Wireless Transceiver, Wiley, Great
Britain, 2002.
27. A.Duel-Hallen, S.Hu, and H.Hallen , Long range prediction of fading
channel, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol.17, pp.62-75, May
2000.
28. S.Osuki, S.Sampei, & Morinaga, Square QAM adaptive modulation
TDMA/TDD systems using modulation level estimation with Walsh
function, Electronics Letters, vol. 31, pp. 169-171, February 1995.
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modulation in a slow Rayleigh fading channe, Electronics Letters, vol.
32, pp.1167-1169, 20 June 1996
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dissertation, Dept. Elec. Eng., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, Nov. 2001
31. Zheng, L., and Tse, D. N. C., Diversity and multiplexing:
A fundamental tradeoff in multiple antennas channels, IEEE Trans.
Inform. Theory, vol. 49, pp. 10731096, May 2003
32. Rappaport, T. S., Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice,
ISBN 0-13-042232-0, Prentice Hall PTR, 2002;
33. Che, H, Adaptive OFDM and CDMA Algorithm for SISO and MIMO
Channels, Ph.D thesis of Delft University of Technology in Delft, the
Netherlands, 2005.
34. Witrisal, K, OFDM Aire Interface Design forMultimedia ommunication,
Ph.D thesis of Delft University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands,
2002.
Erick Lawrey, Adaptive Techniques for Multiuser OFDM, Ph.D thesis of
Jame Cook University of Technology, 12/2001.

GIO TRNH

L TRNH PHT TRIN THNG TIN DI NG 3G Ln 4G


(Tp 1)

Chu trch nhim xut bn


NGUYN TH THU H

Bin tp:

NG M HNH
tHU CHU th vit

Trnh by sch:

bi ngc bo

Sa bn in:

tHU CHU th vit

Thit k ba:

TRN HNG MINH

()

(Gio trnh ny c ban hnh km theo quyt nh s 48/Q-T&KHCN


ngy 20 thng 02 nm 2009 ca Gim c Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng)

NH XUT BN THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG


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