HELP.

PPPI

Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)

Release 4.6C

Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)

SAP AG

Copyright
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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)

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Meaning
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Example
Note
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Contents
Process Orders (PP-PI-POR) .............................................................................8
Process Order................................................................................................................................ 9
Data Flow During Process Manufacturing................................................................................ 10
Process Order Management....................................................................................................... 11
Order Processing ........................................................................................................................ 14
Order Closing .............................................................................................................................. 15
Creating Process Orders ............................................................................................................ 16
Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe ....................................................... 18
Production Version Selection ................................................................................................... 20
Selecting Production Versions Manually ............................................................................ 22
Selecting a Master Recipe ....................................................................................................... 23
Parameters in Customizing................................................................................................. 24
Validity of the Recipe .......................................................................................................... 25
Automatic Master Recipe Selection.................................................................................... 26
Selection Priorities ......................................................................................................... 27
Example: Selection Priorities.................................................................................... 28
Automatic Batch Creation ........................................................................................................ 29
Operation Overview ................................................................................................................. 30
Changing Operation/Phase Data ............................................................................................. 31
Changing Process Instructions ................................................................................................ 32
Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics......................................................... 33
Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe ............................... 35
Creating Process Orders Without a Material and With a Master Recipe............................... 37
Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval ......................................................................... 38
Converting Planned Orders Collectively .................................................................................. 41
Converting Planned Orders Individually................................................................................... 43
Partially Converting Planned Orders ........................................................................................ 44
Scheduling ................................................................................................................................... 46
Scheduling Types........................................................................................................................ 47
Scheduling Parameters in Customizing ................................................................................... 48
Changing the Scheduled Dates Manually................................................................................. 49
Order Floats ................................................................................................................................. 50
How the Control Key Influences Scheduling............................................................................ 51
Scheduling Phases ..................................................................................................................... 52
Scheduling Rules ........................................................................................................................ 53
Secondary Resource Scheduling .............................................................................................. 54
Midpoint Scheduling and Capacity Scheduling ....................................................................... 56
Capacity Requirements .............................................................................................................. 57
Scheduling Log and Results ...................................................................................................... 58
Scheduling and Scheduling Results on the Screen ................................................................ 59
Material List Components .......................................................................................................... 60
Data from the Material List ......................................................................................................... 61
Creating a Process Order for a Material without a Material List ............................................ 63

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Entering or Changing Material Components in the Material List ........................................... 64
Component Detail Screens......................................................................................................... 65
Assigning Components ............................................................................................................ 68
Creating Components .............................................................................................................. 69
Reassigning Components ........................................................................................................ 70
Sorting Components ................................................................................................................ 71
Filtering Components ............................................................................................................... 72
Deleting Components............................................................................................................... 73
Classifying Material List Components...................................................................................... 74
Example: Batch Splitting .......................................................................................................... 75
Material Quantity Calculation..................................................................................................... 76
Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation..................................................................... 79
Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities................................................. 83
Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data ........................................................................ 86
Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches............................... 91
Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities .................................................... 94
Defining Material Quantity Calculation..................................................................................... 98
Performing Material Quantity Calculations............................................................................. 101
Displaying and Printing Formula Overviews .......................................................................... 102
Checking the Availability of Material....................................................................................... 103
Checking Group ........................................................................................................................ 105
Check Rule ................................................................................................................................. 107
How is the Availability of Materials Determined? .................................................................. 108
At What Level is the Availability Check Carried Out? ........................................................... 109
Checking the Availability of the Materials in an Order.......................................................... 110
When is the Availability Checked?......................................................................................... 111
Collective Availability Checks ................................................................................................. 113
Carrying Out Availability Checks ............................................................................................ 114
Checking Collective Availability Online.................................................................................. 115
Preliminary Costing .................................................................................................................. 116
Cost Elements ........................................................................................................................... 117
Planned Costs for Components............................................................................................... 118
Planned Costs for Materials Manufactured In-House ............................................................ 119
Planned Costs for Materials Procured Externally .................................................................. 120
Manufacturing Costs .............................................................................................................. 121
Planned Costs for Production ................................................................................................ 122
Planned Costs for Internal Activity ......................................................................................... 123
Setting up a Quantity Structure ............................................................................................... 124
Overhead Costs......................................................................................................................... 125
Overhead Groups ...................................................................................................................... 126
Releasing Process Orders........................................................................................................ 127
Releasing Process Orders........................................................................................................ 128
How to Release Operations and Phases................................................................................. 129
Collective Release of Process Orders .................................................................................... 130
Actual and Planned Data after Order Release........................................................................ 131
Deviation Recording ................................................................................................................. 132
Inspection Lots/Inspection Characteristics............................................................................ 133
How to Create Inspection Lots................................................................................................. 134

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How to Delete Inspection Lots ................................................................................................. 136
Partial Lot Creation from the Process Order.......................................................................... 137
Creating Inspection Characteristics........................................................................................ 138
How to Delete Operations With Inspection Characteristics ................................................... 139
Printing ....................................................................................................................................... 140
Printing Shop Floor Papers...................................................................................................... 141
External Processing.................................................................................................................. 143
Goods Movements .................................................................................................................... 145
Planned Withdrawal of Material Components ........................................................................ 146
Unplanned Withdrawal of Components for an Order ............................................................ 148
Delivery to the Warehouse ....................................................................................................... 149
Automatic Goods Receipt ........................................................................................................ 150
What Checks are Carried Out During a Goods Receipt? ...................................................... 151
Delivery to Stock: Costs ........................................................................................................... 152
Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Material Master................................................................. 153
Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Order ................................................................................. 154
How to Post a Goods Receipt .................................................................................................. 155
Completion Confirmations in Process Orders ....................................................................... 156
Which Objects Can Be Confirmed?......................................................................................... 157
What Data Can You Confirm? .................................................................................................. 158
Fixed Parameters in Completion Confirmations.................................................................... 159
Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations ............................................................... 160
Entering Completion Confirmations ....................................................................................... 161
How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level .......................................................................... 163
How to Enter Confirmations at Order Level ........................................................................... 165
Entering Collective Confirmations.......................................................................................... 166
Goods Movements and Confirmations ................................................................................... 168
Reworking Goods Movements ............................................................................................... 170
How to Rework Goods Movements .................................................................................. 171
Reworking Actual Costs ........................................................................................................... 172
How to Redetermine Actual Costs ......................................................................................... 173
Running Confirmation Processes Separately ........................................................................ 174
Canceling Completion Confirmations..................................................................................... 175
How to Cancel a Completion Confirmation ............................................................................ 176
How to Display Canceled Confirmations................................................................................ 177
Decoupling of Confirmation Processes.................................................................................. 178
Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation ................................... 180
Example: Background Processing ......................................................................................... 181
Processing Predefined Confirmation Processes.................................................................... 182
Order Settlement ....................................................................................................................... 183
Order Closing ............................................................................................................................ 184
Technical Completion of Process Orders............................................................................... 185
Business Closing of Process Orders...................................................................................... 187
Archiving .................................................................................................................................... 189
Mass Processing ....................................................................................................................... 190
Status.......................................................................................................................................... 191
System/User Statuses............................................................................................................... 192

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Display Status ........................................................................................................................ 193
Status in Process Orders ......................................................................................................... 194
Business Transactions ............................................................................................................. 196
What is a Status Profile? .......................................................................................................... 197
What is a Selection Profile? ..................................................................................................... 199
Co-Products ............................................................................................................................... 200
Process Orders with Co-Products: Prerequisites ................................................................. 201
Co-Products: Costs................................................................................................................... 202
Co-Products: Using a Source Structure ................................................................................. 203
Information Systems................................................................................................................. 204
Order Information System ........................................................................................................ 205
Search Optimization............................................................................................................... 206
Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing............................................................... 207
Object Overview..................................................................................................................... 209
Object Detail List .................................................................................................................... 211
Collective Availability Checks................................................................................................. 213

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)

Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Purpose
Process orders are the main element used for the detailed planning and execution of process
manufacturing.
A process order describes the production of batches (materials) in a production run or the
rendering of services. It is generated from the master recipe and contains all the information
specified during process planning.
You use a process order to plan the quantities, dates, and resources of the manufacturing
process, to control process order execution, and to define rules for the account assignment and
settlement of the costs incurred.
In PP-PI, process orders perform the same function as production orders in PP.

Implementation Considerations
Install this component in process manufacturing companies.

Integration
If you want to

Then you must install the component

Plan material usage during the process

Material Master (LO-MD)

Plan how the resources are to be used during the
process

Resources (PP-PI-MD)

Plan the external processing of steps in the process

Purchasing (MM-PUR)

Plan quality inspections during production

Quality Planning (QM-PT)

Provide data for process control

Process Management (PP-PI-PMA)

Prepare cost determination using the master recipe

Controlling

Features
This component comprises all functions for order processing [Page 13] and order closing [Page
15].

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Process Order

Process Order
Definition
Manufacturing order used in process industries.

Use
Process orders are used for the production of materials or for rendering of services in a specific
quantity on a specific date. They enable the planning of resources, control of process order
management, and specify the rules for account assignment and order settlement.

Structure
A process order consists of operations, each of which is carried out at a primary resource. An
operation is subdivided into phases.
A phase is an independent process step that contains the detailed description of a part of the
entire manufacturing process. Phases are carried out at the primary resource of their superior
operation.
The way phases are related to each other specifies the sequence of the manufacturing process.
Phase relationships can be sequential, parallel, or overlapping.
Several materials required for the execution of a specific process step can be planned for an
operation or phase.
A phase contains standard values for activities. These values serve to calculate dates, capacity
requirements, and costs.
Several secondary resources can be planned for operations and phases in addition to the
primary resource.
A phase contains a number of process instructions that convey information relevant to process
control.

Integration
A process order can be based on a master recipe [Ext.].
A process order can be created from a planned order.
During order processing, the process instructions of a phase are transferred to the control recipe
destination that requires the information for process control.
An inspection lot for inspection during production can be created when a process order is
released.

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Data Flow During Process Manufacturing

Data Flow During Process Manufacturing
Production
Production rqmts
rqmts

Materials
Materials
• Material master
• BOM
Resources
Resources
• Proc. units
• Personnel

PP

Planned
Planned order
order

PP-PI

Process
Process order
order

Master
Master recipe
recipe
Manual

MM
Process
Process data
data documendocumentation
tation and
and evaluation
evaluation

Process
Process management
management

QM
Process
Process
messages
messages

• Automatic
• Manual ctrl (PI sheet)

Control
Control recipe:
recipe:
Proc.
Proc. instructions
instructions

Process
Process control
control sys./
sys./
PI
PI sheet
sheet

Process
control level

A production process is triggered by existing production requirements. During material
requirements planning, production requirements are converted into planned orders defining the
planned basic dates and production quantities.
During process planning, planned orders are converted into process orders. The basic dates and
production quantities are copied from the planned order. The actual production dates are
calculated using the basic dates. You can also create a process order manually.
A process order provides a detailed description of the actual production of one or more materials
in one production run.
A master recipe is used as the basis for a process order. It defines, for example, the planned
resources and material components.
After a process order has been released for production, the process instructions maintained in
the order are bundled into control recipes during process management. The control recipes are
either transferred to a process control system via a specific interface or they are displayed in
natural language in the form of a process instruction sheet (PI sheet) which can be maintained by
the line operator.
In return, process management receives process messages from the process control level and
transfers them to different destinations. For instance, it is possible to record actual values of the
process to functions for process data documentation and evaluation, post material consumptions
or production yields as goods movements, and transfer quality data to results recording of Quality
Management.

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Process Order Management

Process Order Management
The procedure involved in process order management can be divided into the following steps:

Process planning

Process order execution/process management

Order closing
Production rqmts

Archiving / Deleting

Process order
creation
eröffnung

Process data
documentation
Process order
settlement

Proc. order

Scheduling

Operations

Cap. rqmts plan.
Goods receipts
Proc. mess. for
diff. destinations

Phases
Process
instructions
Costs

In-process quality
inspections
Order
confirmations

Resource
allocations

Material
availability check

Material
components
Relationships
Relationships

Release of
process order
Creating & downloading
control recipes

Material withdrawals

Process planning comprises all activities that are performed during the creation and release of
a process order. Important steps in process planning are:

Order creation

Scheduling

Capacity requirements planning

Material availability check

Order release

The release of the process order represents the end of process planning and is the prerequisite
for carrying out the business functions for process order execution and process management.
In process management the process instructions maintained in the order are bundled into control
recipes. The control recipes are either transferred to a process control system via a specific
interface or they are displayed in natural language in the form of a PI sheet which can be
maintained by the line operator.
Process order execution comprises:

Withdrawal of required material components from the warehouse

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Process Order Management

Confirmations on the order processing status

In-process quality inspections for the inspection lot

Goods receipt from production

Sending of actual process data to different destinations using process messages, for
example for documentation or evaluation purposes

In PP-PI, the activities of order execution are carried out using process messages. In return to
the transfer of control recipes, process management receives process messages from the
process control level and passes them on to different destinations.
Order closing comprises the following activities:

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Process order settlement

Process data documentation

Reorganization of process orders (archiving and deleting)

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Order Processing

Order Processing
Order processing comprises the central processing steps involved in the life cycle of a process
order.
Process planning comprising

Process order creation

Selecting a master recipe

Creating reservations or copying them from planned orders

Calculating planned costs

Creating capacity requirements for the resources

Scheduling
Starting with the basic order dates, the system automatically schedules the process
order when you create it. In addition, it can later be rescheduled automatically or
manually whenever changes relevant to scheduling have been made.

Release of process order

Process order execution and process management

Creating and downloading control recipes (optional)

Printing shop floor documents

Carrying out material withdrawals
Withdrawing material components required in the manufacturing process in the form of
goods issues from the warehouse.

Recording confirmations

Carrying out in-process quality inspections (optional)

Posting goods receipts
Delivering the manufactured product to the warehouse by posting a goods receipt.

You only create control recipes during process order execution if you want to use PI sheets
and/or process control systems. In this case, you must also select the corresponding
components from Process Management.
If you also want to carry out in-process quality inspections for your orders, you must select the
relevant components from Quality Management.

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Order Closing

Order Closing
Order closing comprises the following steps carried out at the end of the life cycle of a process
order:

Process order settlement

Archiving of process orders

To be able to settle a process order, you must choose the special functions for process
manufacturing within Product Cost Controlling.

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Creating Process Orders

Creating Process Orders
Use
You can create process orders in the following ways:

As a rule, process orders are created when planned orders [Ext.] are converted in
requirements planning. This process is the same as when you create a process order
manually with a reference to a material. Certain data is already specified in the planned order
(material, quantity, basic dates, possibly the master recipe, …). A distinction is made
between the following:

Collective conversion [Page 41] (n planned orders Æ n process orders)

Individual conversion [Page 43] (1 planned order Æ 1 process order)

Partial conversion [Page 44] (1 planned order Æ n process orders)

You can also create a process order manually:

With reference to a material and master recipe [Page 18]

With reference to a material but without a master recipe [Page 35]

With an approved master recipe [Page 38]

Without reference to a material but using a master recipe [Page 37]

With a reference. Here you can select an object by choosing Continue (settlement rule,
operations, material, relationships, process instructions) or by entering a sales order.

Features
When a planned order is converted to a process order

The material to be produced, the order quantity, and the order dates are copied from the
planned order

The secondary requirements of the components are converted to reservations

A planning file entry is generated when changing the requirement quantity or basic dates
from the planned order, which triggers a regenerative planning of the material and its
components during the next requirements planning run.

When a planned order is partially converted to a process order

The partially converted planned order is fixed, which means it is not changed again in a
requirements planning run. Its secondary requirements are reduced in accordance with the
converted partial quantity

The planned order still exists until the Delete planned order indicator is set:

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This occurs automatically as soon as the planned order quantity is completely covered
by process orders

You can set it if you do not want to convert the planned order anymore (independent of
the planned order quantity that is still open).

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Creating Process Orders

The production version that is valid for the original planned order quantity is always used if
the master recipe selection for the process order to be created is controlled by a production
version.

When a process order is actually created (manually or by conversion)

A master recipe - even an approved one, if required - is usually selected (see Automatic
Master Recipe Selection [Page 26]) and serves as the reference for the process order. The
operation, phase, and resource data are copied from it, as well as the components in the
material list.

Automatic batch creation [Page 29] is possible for the material to be produced.

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Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe

Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe
1. Choose Logistics → Production - process → Process order and then Process order →
Create → With material.
The Create Process Order: Initial Screen appears.
2. Enter the following data:

The material number of the material in your master recipe;
Automatic batch creation [Page 29] can be carried out for the material you want to
produce.

The plant in which the material is to be produced (production plant)

The plant in which the goods receipt takes place for the material produced (planning
plant). You must only make an entry here if the planning plant is different to the
production plant.

The process order type (this controls, for example, whether an internal or external
number range is to be used)
If you enter an order type that requires internal number assignment, the system
automatically assigns a number when you save the process order.

If you have selected an order type that requires external number assignment, you must
also enter an order number in the Process order field.

3. Choose Continue.
The Create Process Order: Header - General Data screen appears.
4. Enter the following data:

Total qty: Here, you specify the quantity you want to produce. The unit of measure you
specified in the material master record is used. If you want to base your process order on
a master recipe, make sure that the total quantity you enter in this screen is within the
material quantity range specified in your master recipe. Otherwise, the system cannot
find the specific recipe you want to use.

If you have predefined a fixed lot size in the material master record of the material
you want to produce (MRP1 screen), the system proposes the lot size in this field.

Order start date or Order finish date: Depending on the scheduling type, you must
specify either the order start date or the order finish date, or both.
For example:
If you want to schedule forwards, specify the order start date.
If you want to schedule backwards, enter the order finish date.
If you do not want to schedule your order, specify both the order start date and the
order finish date.

Process orders are generally scheduled backwards.

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Creating Process Orders With Material & Master Recipe

Scheduling Type: Here, you enter a key that specifies how the order is to be scheduled.
The system proposes the value that has been defined in the scheduling parameters for
the selected order type in Customizing.

SchedMargin key OR
Float before production, Float after production and Release period
The floats before and after production and the release period are specified via the
scheduling margin key:
If you specify a scheduling margin key, the system fills these fields automatically.
If you do not specify a scheduling margin key, you can enter a float before
production, a float after production, and the release period with the corresponding
number of days.

Priority: You can allocate a level of priority to the order. However, this field is only used
for information purposes and does not influence processing of the order.

5. If you have only created one production version for the material you want to produce, choose
Continue.
If the validity period and the lot-size range of the production version match those of the
allocated master recipe and alternative BOM, the data is copied from the master recipe to the
process order.
If you have created more than one production versions, there are several different ways
to choose a production version (see Production Version Selection [Page 20]).
6. If necessary, also enter a long text by choosing
7. Choose

. Save the text and choose Back.

Operations.

The operation overview [Page 30] appears.
8. If you do not want to change the data that was copied from the master recipe or the bill of
material, save the process order now.
For information on how to change the data now or later, see Changing Operation/Phase
Data [Page 31].

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Production Version Selection

Production Version Selection
Use
When you create an order, you select a Production Version [Ext.] to determine a suitable recipe
along with the corresponding material list. Which production version is used, can be controlled in
different settings.
If you create a process order without a production version, the system does not copy the
formulas for material quantity calculation.

Prerequisites
Suitable production versions have been created in the master recipe or material master record
(see Maintaining Production Versions [Ext.]).

Features
You can specify that the production version is selected:

Automatically or manually

Depending on a quota arrangement

Activities
You control production version selection as follows:

Automatic/Manual Selection
In Customizing for Process Orders (section Define order-type dependent parameters, Production
version field), you determine whether the production version is selected automatically or
manually.
As a prerequisite, the following settings must have been made for selecting alternative BOMs
(material master, MRP4 view, Selection method field):

Selection by production version
In this case, the system uses the alternative BOM that is defined in the valid production
version. The lot-size range and the validity period of the production version apply.

Selection only by production version
In this case, the system uses the alternative BOM that is defined in the valid production
version. The lot-size range and the validity period of the production version apply. If no
production version is found, the system cannot create a production order or a process
order.

Selection According to Quota Arrangement
To (automatically) select a production version depending on a quota arrangement, you:

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Maintain the data on the quota arrangement in Customizing for Process Orders (section
Operations, Quota Arrangement): number range, quota arrangement usage

Enter a quota arrangement usage in the material master record of the material you want
to produce that includes production or process orders (MRP2 view, Quota arr. usage

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Production Version Selection

field) and choose Selection only by production version as the selection method (MRP4
view, Selection method field)

Maintain the quota arrangement for the material (Logistics → Production - process →
Process order and then Environment → Master data → Maintain quotas).
Enter the following data:

E (internal procurement) as the procurement type (column P)

E (in-house production) as the special procurement type (column S)

The production version. Make sure that it is also valid for the quota arrangement
period. If you use possible entries help to select the production version, make sure to
delete the value entered in the PPI field (plant from which the material is procured)
afterwards.

The quota for the usage of this production version

If required, a maximum quantity: the production version is not used once this quantity
has been reached

If required, a priority: the system only uses the production version for which the
lowest value not equal to zero has been specified (highest priority = 1). If you also
entered a maximum quantity, the system uses the production version with the next
priority once this quantity has been reached.

For more information about quota arrangements, see

Maintaining a Quota Arrangement [Ext.]

Determining the Source under a Quota Arrangement [Ext.]

Revision of Quota Arrangement [Ext.]

Monitoring Quota Arrangements [Ext.]

Co-Products: Special Features
When you create a process order, the system selects the following production versions in the
sequence specified below, provided that the quota arrangement does not define the sequence:
1. All valid production versions for the material, including those in which the material is used
as a co-product in a BOM item
2. If the Co-product indicator has been set for the material in the material master, all valid
production versions for other materials whose BOM contains the co-product as a BOM
item.
However, these production versions cannot automatically be copied to the process order.
They are not taken into account in material requirements planning, product costing, and
repetitive manufacturing.

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Selecting Production Versions Manually

Selecting Production Versions Manually
Prerequisites
If you always want to manually select one production version from several possible versions
when you create an order, you must define this in Customizing for Process Orders (section
Define order-type dependent parameters, Production version field).

Procedure
If several production versions with overlapping lot-size ranges and validity periods have been
created for the material, you can select a production version after you have entered the required
data on the Create Process Order: Header screen (see Creating Process Orders with Material
and Master Recipe [Page 18]). To select a production version, proceed as follows:
1. If manual selection of production versions has been defined in Customizing, the list
containing available production versions is displayed directly. If only one production
version exists, the system copies it directly instead of displaying it first.
If automatic selection of production versions has been defined in Customizing, choose
Production version to display the list of available versions.
If required, you can choose Versions: overview to display a list containing all production
versions for the material you selected.
2. On the Select Production Version for Material screen, select the production version you
want to use.
3. Choose Choose to copy it to the process order.
If the settings in Customizing or the production version itself prevent the system from
creating a process order for the data you have entered, the system displays a log.
If you do not want to select a production version, you must cancel order creation.

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Selecting a Master Recipe

Selecting a Master Recipe
A master recipe is used to specify the operations and phases required in a production process.
When you create a process order, the system selects a master recipe. The individual operations
and phases of the master recipe, as well as the material list and other recipe data, are taken over
into the process order.
In special cases, you may want to create a process order without using a master recipe. This
may be the case, for example, if you want to create an order for unplanned rework.
In Customizing, you can specify whether a master recipe has to be selected as well as which
criteria should be used in the selection process.

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Parameters in Customizing

Parameters in Customizing
You can determine in Customizing:

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whether a master recipe has to be selected

whether selection should be carried out manually or automatically

search criteria priorities, such as status of a master recipe

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Validity of the Recipe

Validity of the Recipe
In order for a master recipe to be selected for a process order, the recipe, as a rule, must have
the status Released (depends on your chosen settings in Customizing).
In addition, the system only considers for selection recipes that match up with the data you have
specified in your process order.
1. The total quantity you have specified in your process order must lie within the charge
quantity range you specified in your master recipe. If the system cannot select a recipe,
it reselects without using the charge quantity.
2. The order dates you have entered in the process order must be valid for the master
recipe you want to select. For example:

if you enter the order start date, the system uses this date as the transfer date of the
master recipe.

if you enter the order finish date, the system calculates the transfer date of the recipe
by subtracting the in-house production time independent of the order quantity defined
in the material master from the order finish date.

Manual or Automatic Selection
In the case of manual selection, the system selects all master recipes for this material which are
valid on the transfer date. You can select the required master recipe from the list.
In the case of automatic selection, the system attempts to select a master recipe according to
the specified criteria. If, however, the system cannot select a master recipe automatically, it will
list all the master recipes available for your material. You can then select the required master
recipe from this list.

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Automatic Master Recipe Selection

Automatic Master Recipe Selection
When you create a process order with a material, you enter a material, the quantity of the
material to be produced and a basic order date. During automatic selection of a master recipe to
match this data, the system attempts to select according to the following criteria:
1. Material: The system first searches for all master recipes available for this material.
2. Quantity: The system then searches for all master recipes which have a charge quantity
range that corresponds to the specified order quantity. If there are no recipes with a
suitable range, the system continues its search without taking charge quantity ranges
into account.
3. Order dates: The system then calculates the date on which the master recipe must be
transferred into the order. Please see Validity of the Recipe [Page 25] in this
documentation.
4. Production version: The system searches for production versions valid for this material
at this date. Please see Selecting a Production Version [Page 22] in this documentation.
For information on the sequence, refer to the log ‘Read master recipe’.

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Selection Priorities

Selection Priorities
You may find that several master recipes meet all the selection criteria for automatic recipe
selection.
In this case, you can specify certain priorities in Customizing, according to which the system can
then select a specific master recipe.
You can set priorities in Customizing for the following entries:

For the task list type (master recipe = 2)

For the usage (such as production)

For the status of the master recipe (such as released)

Example: Selection Priorities [Page 28]

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Example: Selection Priorities

Example: Selection Priorities
You can determine the following priorities in Customizing for plant 1 and order type PI01:

Task list type Usage

Status

1. Master recipe Production

Released

2. Master recipe Production

Created

3. Master recipe General maintenance Created
In this example, the system first searches for a master recipe with the usage Production and the
status released. If a master recipe matching these criteria does not exist, the system searches for
a master recipe with the usage Production and the status created. If no master recipes match
these criteria, the system then searches for a master recipe with the usage General maintenance
and the status created.

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Automatic Batch Creation

Automatic Batch Creation
Use
You use this function to create a batch for the material to be manufactured.

Features
You can make the following settings in Customizing (production scheduling profile):

No automatic batch creation in the process order

Automatic batch creation on order creation

Automatic batch creation on order release

In Customizing for Batch Management, you can configure the system so that batch numbers are
assigned automatically. If you do not do this, the system will ask to assign batch numbers
automatically when you create and/or release the order.

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Operation Overview

Operation Overview
This screen contains the operations and phases the system has copied from the master recipe
and scheduled for the process order. The following information is provided:

The operation number (This number determines the sequence in which the operations are
processed.)

The phase number of existing phases

The number of the superior operation for each phase

The resource that is to be used for carrying out the operation

The control key. It determines how the operation/phase is to be treated (for example,
whether the phase must be reported, whether it can be printed, etc.).

The standard text key of the operation/phase if it has been defined for the operation
description

The long text indicator which specifies whether a long text exists

A short description of the operation/phase

If you choose menu options Goto → 2-line operation overview to access the operation overview,
the following additional information is displayed:

The order start and finish dates

The current status of the operation or phase (for example, whether the operation has been
created or is already released)

Whether material components are assigned to the operation/phase

Whether at least one secondary resource is assigned to the operation/phase

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Changing Operation/Phase Data

Changing Operation/Phase Data
Use
In the operation overview, you can change operation/phase data both in the create mode and
change mode.

Procedure
1. Choose

Operations. The operation overview appears.

2. Depending on the data you want to change, select the operations and/or phases to be
processed, and choose a processing type:

If you want to

Choose

maintain general data

Operation → Operation details and then

maintain standard values

choose the corresponding tab page

maintain user fields
maintain secondary resources

Operation → Secondary resources

maintain relationships

Operation → Relationships

maintain material allocations

Operation → Material assignments

maintain process instructions [Page 32]
assign values to process instruction
characteristics [Page 33]

Process inst. (only for phases).
Process inst. (only for phases), -select the
process instruction characteristics and choose
Process instructions → PI characteristic or PI
assistant.

From the Operation Overview screen, you can also access the corresponding detail screens for
changing the material list or material quantity calculation [Ext.] (via
Materials to the material
list and from there via
to material quantity calculation).

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Changing Process Instructions

Changing Process Instructions
Process instructions are copied from the master recipe and displayed on the Process Instruction
Overview screen when you create a process order.
You can

add/delete process instructions

add/delete process instruction characteristics for process instructions

You maintain process instructions in exactly the same way as during master recipe maintenance.
For more information, see Process Control Data.
In addition, you can create process instructions manually if they contain process-specific data
that cannot be transferred to the process instruction automatically. For more information,see
Maintaining Process Instructions on the Charateristic Overview [Ext.].

Creating Process Orders

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Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics

Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics
In Customizing, you define process instruction characteristics for process instruction categories.
You can assign values to process instruction characteristics:

in Customizing

in the master recipe

in the process order

As a prerequiste for the creation of control recipes values must have been assigned
to all process instruction characteristics. These can be classified as follows:

process instruction characteristics that are not defined for automatic value
assignment and for which you have to enter values manually

process instruction characteristics that are defined for automatic value
assignment, where

- you can initiate the value assignment in the process order (function Assign
values autom.)
- you can enter the values manually in the process order (even after the
function Assign values autom. has been executed, for ex. to change
generated values)
- during control recipe creation, the system automatically assigns values to all
those characteristics that have not been assigned values as mentioned
above
To assign values to process instruction characteristics in the process order, proceed as follows:
1. Select the desired phases in the operation overview and choose Goto → PI overview.
2. Select the desired process instruction characteristics in the process instruction overview
and choose Goto → PIC overview.
3. Assign values to the process instruction characteristics as follows :

Characteristics with indicator T (for value assignment with long text, X in column T) :
i)

Select the characteristic.

ii)

Choose Edit → Long text.

iii)

Enter the long text and save it.

Characteristics without indicator T :
Enter the desired value in the field Characteristic value.

Characteristics with indicator A (defined for automatic value assignment, X in column
A) :

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Enter the desired value in the field Characteristic value (= manual value
assignment); or

select the characteristics and choose Edit → Assign values autom.; or

do not assign a value at all.

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Assigning Values to Process Instruction Characteristics

Use field help for information on the logic used for the automatic value assignment
(in column A for the desired process instruction characteristic).
When the control recipe is created, values are assigned automatically only to those
process instruction characteristics defined for automatic value assignment to which
no values have been assigned so far.
If necessary, you can also change values (exception: process instruction characteristics for
which a change has been excluded during Customizing, for example, the order number) or delete
values.
To delete a value, select the desired process instruction characteristic and choose Edit → Delete
values.
In addition to this, you can add further process instruction characteristics in the process
instruction characteristic overview. You add process instructions characteristics in the same way
as during master recipe maintenance. For more information, see Maintaining Process
Instructions on the Characteristic Overview [Ext.].

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe

Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a
Master Recipe
Use
You can create a process order without a master recipe if, for example, you want to produce one
specific material in one specific process.

Prerequisites
If you specifically do not want to use a master recipe when you create a process order, you can
set the respective parameters in Customizing.
These parameters specify how the system is to proceed if no master recipes exist for the
material.
If the parameters specify that recipe selection is not required, the system creates a process order
in which it automatically creates one operation. It proceeds as follows:

If default values are maintained for the automatic generation of an operation, the system
uses these values to automatically create an operation in the order.

If no default values are entered in Customizing, the system creates one operation, with
control key 0001 and operation number 0010.

If you do want to use a master recipe when you create a process order, but recipe selection is
not possible even if the parameters specify that recipe selection is required, the system issues a
termination message, and you must restart order creation.
You can restart the master recipe selection process at any time prior to the release of the
process order.

Procedure
1. Choose Logistics → Production - process → Process order → Process order → Create →
With material.
The Create Process Orders: Initial Screen appears.
2. Enter your material number, plant (production and/or planning plant), and process order type.
Choose Continue.
The Create Process Order: Header - General Data screen appears.
3. Enter the total quantity of material, which in this case is not dependent on a pre-specified
quantity. Also enter the order dates and the scheduling type and choose Continue.
A dialog box appears informing you that no material lists exist for this material.
4. The dialog box asks if you want to use a different material list.You have two choices:

If you choose Yes, you must enter a material for which a material list already exists. The
system then uses this material list for the process order.

If you choose No, an operation is generated for the order (operation 0010).

5. Choose

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Creating Process Orders with a Material and Without a Master Recipe

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Creating Process Orders Without a Material and With a Master Recipe

Creating Process Orders Without a Material and With a
Master Recipe
Use
You can create a process order without a material and with a master recipe. You do this, for
example:

If you want to use a process order for a reworking procedure

If you want to use a cleanout recipe

Procedure
1. Choose Logistics → Production process → Process order → Process order → Create
→ Without material. The Create Process Order: Initial Screen appears.
2. You must enter the following in this screen:
Recipe group: Enter the name of the recipe group you want to use in this process order.
Recipe: Enter the number of your recipe in this group.
Plant: This is the plant in which your order will be processed.
Process order type: Enter the order type, which defines internal or external number
assignment.
3. Choose Continue.
4. Make the same entries as described under Creating a Process Order With a Material.
Once you have created the process order, the system will copy all the data from your
master recipe, but not the material list.

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Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval

Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval
Use
For production in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), process orders must be
approved before production. You can do this in the following ways:

Create with approved master data (see below)

Individual approval

Integration
Master data is approved in engineering change management. You therefore require the
Engineering Change Management (LO-ECH) component to do this.

Prerequisites
You make the following settings for order types to specify that an order must be created with
approved master data (see Customizing for the Process Order, Order-Dependent Parameters,
Mast. data tab page):

For master recipe selection:

Must be used with master recipe, automatic selection

Must be used with master recipe, manual selection

The Approval required indicator is set.

For collective orders, you must also make these settings for the order types of subordinate
orders.

Features
Master Data Selection
When you create a process order requiring approval, the master data selection procedure is the
same as for orders that do not require approval.

Checking the Approval
The system then checks whether the master data has been approved. Before the process order
can accept the master data on which it is based (recipe, BOM, production version) as approved,
the following prerequisites must be met:

The master recipe used must have the change rule with an engineering change order without
change type or an engineering change order with change type.

The recipe or one of its subordinate objects (for example, phase, secondary resource) and
the corresponding production version have been changed with at least one engineering
change request. The BOM can, but does not have to be processed with an engineering
change request.

For each of the objects mentioned above, the engineering change request whose due date is
the closest before the process order creation date must be released.

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Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval

Neither locked material components nor parts to be discontinued may be used.

For planned orders, no changed to the material list may be made.

For more information on the approval procedure for master recipe changes, see Engineering
Change Management and Recipe Approval [Ext.].

If you manufacture in compliance with GMP, note the following:
The approval procedure is not supported for BOMs of phantom assemblies.

Further Processing
If the prerequisites are not met,

The system statuses APNG (Approval not granted) and APRS (Approval withdrawn) are set.
They do not allow the release of the order. The reasons for not approving or withdrawing the
approval are documented in the log.

An individual approval is required for the order.

If the prerequisites are met,

The system statuses APG (Approval granted) and APRC (Based on approved recipe) are
set.

For the most part, only changes to MRP data in the order are allowed. Individually, the
following data can still be changed:

Order dates

Settlement rules

Order quantity: The quantity can only vary within the charge quantity range defined for
the recipe.

Resources: You can use the Resource selection function to assign resources that meet
the resource selection requirements for an operation.

Batches: Batches can be assigned for material components that are subject to batch
management.

A withdrawal of the approval is possible, if required (for example, for major changes). After
making the changes, an individual approval must be given for the order.

Exceptions when Approving Collective Orders
Each order in a collective order is checked individually and approved independently of the other
orders. If, for example, approval is denied for a subordinate order, approval is not withdrawn
automatically for the higher-level order or the collection as a whole.
For each non-approved order in the collective order, an individual approval is required to meet
the prerequisites.
The collective order cannot be released until all orders have been approved.

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Creating Process Orders Requiring Approval

Activities
Create process orders that require approval: Follow the steps outlined in Creating Process
Orders with Material and Master Recipe [Page 18].
Display log on withdrawal of approval: Goto → Logs → For reading master data.
Withdrawal of approval: Process order → Functions → Approval → Withdraw approval
(Individual) Approval: Process order → Functions → Approval → Individual approval

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Converting Planned Orders Collectively

Converting Planned Orders Collectively
Use
If several planned orders exist in the same plant, you can simultaneously convert them into
process orders via collective conversion. This is what is usually done in integrated production
planning and control.

Procedure
1. Choose Process order → Create → With planned orders. The Collective Conversion of
Planned Orders: Initial Screen appears.
2. Enter the planning plant, the MRP area and the MRP controller of the process orders you
want to convert. Enter the process order type with which the process orders are to be
created.
The selection criteria opening date (from - to), material, and sales order are also available.

If you select without a planning plant, the MRP controller you enter cannot be
checked. In this case the system will warn you.
In the Material field you can search with any character string (for example, A*, for all
materials starting with the letter A).
If you want to limit the selection of the planned orders to be converted according to
your opening date, you can also enter an interval in the Opening date range fields.
If an opening horizon is already defined in your user master record (parameter IDs,
AEV, and AEB), the values are automatically suggested by the system.
3. Choose Continue.
The system lists all planned orders that correspond to the selection criteria you entered.
You can display a planned order by double-clicking it (number of the planned order in the
Planned order column).
4. Select the planned orders you want to convert. Alternatively, you can delete planned orders
you do not want to convert from the list by choosing . You can then choose
to select
and convert the remaining planned orders together.
In the list of the selected planned orders, you can call up dependent objects by doubleclicking a planned order or material.
5. If necessary, change the order type of the selected planned orders. If you specify an order
type which requires external number assignment for a planned order, you must enter an
order number for the order.
6. Choose Convert.
The system converts all selected planned orders.

A log is created for each planned order for which the conversion is called up. You
call up this log by choosing
in the Result column.

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Converting Planned Orders Collectively
You can make a new selection of planned orders at any time. To do this, display the
selection area with Selection parameter on/off, enter the selection criteria and
choose .
Only planned orders which allow in-house production are proposed for selection. To
convert planned orders into requisitions, choose Logistics → Production - process
→ MRP → Planned order → Convert pur. req. → Collect. conversion.

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Converting Planned Orders Individually

Converting Planned Orders Individually
Prerequisite
The Conversion indicator must be set for the planned order you want to convert. The material
must allow in-house production.

Procedure
Choose Logistics → Production - Process.
1. Choose Process order → Create → With a planned order. The Create Process Order:
Initial Screen appears.
2. Enter the planned order number as well as the order type of the process order you want to
create.
3. If the order type you have entered requires external number assignment, you must also enter
the number of the process order you want to create in the Process order field. Choose
Continue.
The system copies all the data contained in the planned order, such as order quantity
and order dates. When the system selects a valid master recipe, all the recipe data, such
as operations and phases, resources and material list components are copied into the
process order.
4. Check the data copied from the planned order and change it if necessary.
5. Save the process order.

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Partially Converting Planned Orders

Partially Converting Planned Orders
Use
Use this procedure if you want to process a planned order in partial quantities. A process order is
generated for each partial quantity.

Procedure
You can call up the function for partial conversion from various locations in the system.
1. Depending on where you are in the system, choose in the following ways:
If you are …

Choose

In the SAP menu

Logistics → Production - Process → Process Order →
Create with a Planned Order. Set the Partial conversion
and choose Continue.

In the stock/requirements list

A planned order by double-clicking it in the Additional
Data for MRP Elements dialog box, and choose
→SubProcOrd.

In the MRP list

A planned order by double-clicking it in the Additional
Data for MRP Elements dialog box, and choose
→SubProcOrd.

In material requirements
planning

Planned order → Convert to proc. order. → Individual
conversion, set the Partial conv. indicator, and choose
Continue.

2. If you want to carry out several partial conversions, choose

.

3. Enter the quantities and dates.
For the conversion, the system uses the scheduling type defined in Customizing for the
order type (and plant) entered. However, you can change it in the individual orders after
the conversion.
4. Choose

Generate.

The system generates one process order per line. Since these process orders are not
yet saved, they are given temporary order numbers (for example, %0000000001).
As soon as a partial quantity is converted to a process order, the corresponding line on
the screen cannot be deleted. To delete, you must cancel the transaction and carry out a
new partial conversion.
5. If you want to make further changes in an order, select the line and choose Goto → Process
order. The Create Process Order: Header screen appears. After you have made the
changes, choose Back to return to the screen with the partial quantities.
6. Choose Save.

Result
The system saves the process orders.

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Partially Converting Planned Orders

A planned order that was partially converted is fixed. A fixed planned order is not changed in an
MRP run. Its secondary requirements are reduced in accordance with the partial quantity
entered.
If the total of the process order quantities created is smaller than the planned order quantity and
the Delete planned order indicator is not set, the planned order quantity is reduced accordingly.
If you do not want to convert any more planned orders, irrespective of the planned order quantity
still open, set the Delete planned order indicator.
If the total of the process order quantity created is greater or equal to the planned order quantity,
the planned order is deleted.
If the master recipe selection for the process order to be created is controlled via a production
version, the system always uses the production version that is valid for the original planned
order quantity for a partial conversion.

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Scheduling

Scheduling
Use
In order processing, the scheduling function calculates the production dates and capacity
requirements for all operations within a process order.
The scheduling process starts with the basic order dates (basic start and basic finish). The
system either takes the basic order dates from the planned order, or you enter them manually on
the header screen of the process order.
A process order is always scheduled automatically when it is created. In Customizing, you can
specify whether you also want the order to be automatically rescheduled before saving whenever
you make changes that are relevant to scheduling.

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Scheduling Types

Scheduling Types
You can schedule a process order using the following scheduling types:

Forward scheduling:
If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, the system schedules
forwards starting from the order start date.
If you enter the order start date, the system calculates the scheduled start and finish
dates.
If you enter the order start and finish dates, the system calculates the scheduled start
and finish dates.

Backward scheduling:
If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, the system schedules
backwards starting from the order finish date.
If you enter the order finish date, the system calculates the scheduled start and finish
dates.
If you enter the order finish and start dates, the system calculates the scheduled start
and finish dates.

Scheduling to current date:
If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, the system takes the
current date as the order start date and schedules forwards. You then enter the order
finish date and the system calculates the scheduled start and finish dates.

Only capacity requirements:
If you enter this scheduling type on the Main Header screen, you will have to enter both
the start and finish dates of the order. The system then calculates the scheduled start
and finish dates.
The individual operations are not scheduled. The system calculates the scheduled start
and the scheduled finish of the order by adding the float before production to the order
start date and subtracting the float after production from the order finish date. It then
writes the scheduled start and finish date into each of the operations.

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Scheduling Parameters in Customizing

Scheduling Parameters in Customizing
Scheduling parameters are entered in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations →
Scheduling → Define Scheduling Parameters) for each order type, plant and production
scheduler (specified in the material master). Parameters that influence the scheduling of a
process order are described below.

Scheduling Type
The scheduling type [Page 47] determines how scheduling is carried out (for example,
backwards). When you create a process order, the scheduling type is proposed on the order
header screen. You can, however, overwrite this scheduling type in individual process orders.

Current Date Scheduling
In Customizing, you can specify that an order is to be rescheduled as soon as it is delayed by a
certain number of days. If the order start date lies further in the past than the specified number of
days, the system will automatically carry out current date scheduling during the next scheduling
run. Current date scheduling is forward scheduling, starting from the current date, which is
reduced as much as possible (see Reduction Measures [Ext.]).

Rescheduling
You can specify that a process order is to be rescheduled when you save it (Schedule
automatically indicator). If changes are made to the order that are relevant to scheduling and this
indicator is not set, the order is given status NTER (date not current).

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Changing the Scheduled Dates Manually

Changing the Scheduled Dates Manually
You can change the scheduled start and finish of the order manually (Header → Change in
Dates → Scheduled dates)

If you entered the scheduled start date manually in forward scheduling, the system uses
this date as the fixed starting point for scheduling the order.

If you enter the scheduled finish date manually, the system uses this date as the fixed
starting point for scheduling the order.

In both cases, you can overwrite the dates manually, and enter a different scheduling type. You
can then reschedule by calling up the function Process order → Functions → Schedule.

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Order Floats

Order Floats
Since malfunctions can never be completely avoided in the process flow, the system takes
certain time-related floats (before and after production) in account when scheduling an order.
The float before production fulfills two functions:

It can neutralize delays during the staging of ingredients.

It offers you the option of shifting production dates towards the present if capacity bottlenecks
occur at any of the resources involved. In this way, the float before production can also be
used for capacity leveling as a float before and after production.

The float after production is used to neutralize unforeseen malfunctions in the production
process so that these do not shift the scheduled finish of the order.
The float before production and the float after production are defined for each material via a
scheduling margin key. This scheduling margin key, which is predefined in Customizing for
Process Orders (Operations → Scheduling → Define Scheduling Margin Key), is copied
automatically from the material master when you create an order.
However the times can be changed in the order.
The system calculates the scheduled start of the order by adding the float before production to
the order start date. It calculates the scheduled finish of the order by subtracting the float after
production from the order finish date.
The system subtracts the number of days defined in the release period from the scheduled start
of the order, thus calculating the release date of the order.

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How the Control Key Influences Scheduling

How the Control Key Influences Scheduling
The control key of the operation influences scheduling in the following way:

If, according to its control key, an operation is scheduled, the system calculates the
duration and the dates of the individual operations.

If, according to its control key, an operation is not scheduled, the system assumes that
all the operations have a duration of 0.

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Scheduling Phases

Scheduling Phases
The duration of operations is defined by the duration of the individual phases. The scheduling
function calculates the duration of each phase.
Each phase is scheduled using the scheduling formula stored in the resource data. A phase
network is scheduled and the phase order dates are carried over to the operation. The start time
of the first phase plus the finish time of the last phase is the start and finish of the operation.
If you have entered the default values of phases in the master recipe, the system uses this data
to schedule (using the order dates in the initial screen).
If one phase of an operation is relevant for scheduling, the whole operation must be relevant for
scheduling.
If the operation is relevant for scheduling, then at least one phase must also be relevant for
scheduling.
If the scheduling indicator is flagged in the control key, the operation or phase is relevant for
scheduling.
The duration of the superior operation is defined by the duration of the individual phases.
You create temporal relationships between phases by maintaining their relationships. You can
also maintain relationships between phases of different process orders.

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Scheduling Rules

Scheduling Rules
Working/Operating Time
The working/operating time specifies when work can be carried out. The calendar used for
scheduling distinguishes between workdays and non-working days. You can define a
working/operating time in the system by specifying the start and end of shifts as well as the
breaks for each workday.
The following rules apply:

If the unit of the phase duration is smaller than the unit day, the working/operating time per
working day applies.

If the unit of the individual phase is greater than or equal to the working day, the phases are
scheduled to the day on the basis of the calendar used for scheduling.

Additionally, there are specific rules for date determination (see the Date section in Date
Determination at Operation Level [Ext.]) when times are exactly at work start, work finish, or
midnight.

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Secondary Resource Scheduling

Secondary Resource Scheduling
Use
The system uses this function in master recipe or process order scheduling to determine the start
or finish dates of the secondary resources.

Prerequisites

You have chosen a scheduling type that allows secondary resource scheduling (see
Scheduling Type [Ext.]).
Secondary resources are not scheduled in scheduling types with the Only capacity
requirements indicator. The scheduled start and finish dates of the recipe or order are
used for these resources.

A control key has been assigned to the secondary resource in which the Scheduling indicator
has been set (see Control Key [Ext.]).
If the Scheduling indicator has not been set in the control key, the system uses the dates
of the superior operation or phase for the secondary resource.

Features
The system uses the following data to determine the secondary resource dates:

The dates of the superior phase or operation

The offset between the start and finish dates of the phase/operation and the secondary
resources, which has been defined in the detail data of the secondary resource (see
Definition of Earliest and Latest Dates [Ext.])

The following rules apply in secondary resource scheduling:

A positive offset is added to the corresponding phase or operation date, that is, the
secondary resource date is after the reference date

A negative offset is subtracted from the corresponding phase or operation date, that is, the
secondary resource date is before the reference date

If no offsets have been defined for a secondary resource, the system uses the relevant phase or
operation date as the secondary resource date.
The following graphic illustrates secondary resource scheduling.

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Secondary Resource Scheduling

13:00
...

13:15

13:30 13:45

Ph. 11

Ph. 12

14:00

14:15 14:30 14:45 15:00

15:15

15:30 15:45

Ph. 13, ED
Ph.
Ph. 13, LD
Ph. 21

Ph. 22

Ph. 23

SR. 20

SR. 10, ED
SR.
SR. 10, LD

OS
OS == 5min
5min

Key:

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Ph
SR

= Phase
= Secondary resource

OF
OF == 5min
5min

ED
LD

= Earliest date
= Latest date

OS
OS == 00

OS
OF

OF
OF == 00

= Offset to start
= Offset to finish

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Midpoint Scheduling and Capacity Scheduling

Midpoint Scheduling and Capacity Scheduling
In capacity scheduling, the system takes work breaks into account.
Starting from a selected point in time, forward or backward scheduling can be carried out.
Secondary resources are also scheduled according to capacity availability provided that they
have the necessary control key.

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Capacity Requirements

Capacity Requirements
Capacity Requirements of an Operation
Operations have capacity requirements with a value of 0. The operations are not scheduled, as
scheduling is carried out implicitly via the phases. The value is calculated at scheduling. The
dates of calculated capacity requirements correspond to the dates of the operation.

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Scheduling Log and Results

Scheduling Log and Results
For every scheduling run, the system creates a scheduling log in the process order. The log
records all the information which is information on scheduling. If, for example, data relevant to
scheduling is not maintained in a resource or in an operation, the scheduling run is not
interrupted. Instead, the information is gathered in the form of messages in the scheduling log.
The scheduling log is used to:

collect messages issued by the system during the scheduling run

sort and group together the system messages according to certain criteria.

In Customizing, you can define control parameters which specify whether the
scheduling log is automatically displayed after each scheduling run, or whether it has
to be called up via the menu.

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Scheduling and Scheduling Results on the Screen

Scheduling and Scheduling Results on the Screen
This section describes how to call up the function Scheduling and how to display the scheduling
results on the screen.

Calling up Scheduling
To call up scheduling, proceed as follows:
1. Call up a process order (only in create or change mode).
2. Select the menu options Process order → Functions → Schedule. The system
schedules the process order and creates a scheduling log.

Scheduling Results
You can call up the scheduling log, proceed as follows:
Select Goto → Logs → For scheduling. The system displays an overview of the messages
collected.

Date/Quantity Overview
Via the header screen Date/quantity overview, you can display the release, start and finish dates
of the process orders as well as of the planned order, if you have converted a planned order.

Detail Screen of Operation Dates
To display the dates of the individual operations and phases, proceed as follows:
1. In the Operation overview screen, flag the operation or phase whose dates you want to
display.
2. Select the menu options Operation → Overview of dates. The system displays a detail
screen showing the dates (and times) of the operations and phases you have selected.

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Material List Components

Material List Components
Use
When you create a process order, you need to specify the components required for production in
the order. If the relevant data is already contained in the master data, it is automatically
transferred into the process order.

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Data from the Material List

Data from the Material List
Data from the Material List
If a material list exists for the material to be produced, the material list components are
automatically taken over into the process order as components. The following information is also
taken over for each component:

Item category: The item category determines how the component is dealt with in the order.
Examples are:

“L”: Item kept in stock
For items with this category, the system creates a reservation when creating the
order.

“R”: Variable-sized item
This category specifies that the component is kept in stock and that variable sizes
are maintained for the component.

“N”: Item not kept in stock
The system creates a requisition when creating the order for components in this
category.

“T”: Text item
This item category does not refer to materials. The item only contains text.

“D”: Document item
With this item category, you can enter different document types.

Items with category “D” or “TI” are not taken over into the process order.

Costing relevancy indicator (CR): This indicator specifies that the component is fully
relevant to costing.

Bulk material indicator (BM): If the material is marked as bulk material, it is not issued from
stock for the order, but is provided at the resource. A bulk material item is only listed for
information purposes. It is not relevant for material requirements planning or costing.

Backflushing (BF): This indicator specifies that the material component is backflushed. This
means that the withdrawal of the material is not posted until the corresponding operation is
confirmed.

Co-product (CO): This indicator specifies that the component is a co-product. You can only
specify a material as a co-product if it has been set up in the material master as such. Coproducts must be entered in the material list with a negative quantity. Item type is “L”.

Data from the Master Recipe
If a master recipe exists for the material to be produced, components can be assigned to specific
operations/phases in the recipe, or assigned components can be changed.

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Data from the Material List

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Creating a Process Order for a Material without a Material List

Creating a Process Order for a Material without a
Material List
Use
If you create a process order for a material without a material list, a dialog box will appear
informing you that no material list exists for this material and asking if you want to use a different
material list, for example, for another material. If you select Yes, the system will ask you to enter
a material with a material list.
If you select No, the system will create the order without a material list.
However, you can branch to the material list after the order has been created and enter a new
material list there.

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Entering or Changing Material Components in the Material List

Entering or Changing Material Components in the
Material List
Whether your material has a material list or not, you can enter or change material components in
the Material list screen of the process order. You can allocate, create, change or delete
components in the order as long as the system statuses “created” or “released” are active. You
should, however, note the following:

You cannot change the item category of a component once it has been created in the
order.

If you delete a component which is allocated to a released operation, the system
continues to display the component in the order. However, you can no longer enter data
for the component. The status “deletion indicator” is activated in the component.

You can change component data both in create and change mode.
The following detail screens exist for components:

General data

Co-product

Purchasing data

Text item

To change component allocation to operations or phases, proceed as follows:
1. Select the component whose allocation you want to change.
2. Now select the menu options Edit → Reallocate.
3. The system displays a pop-up Reallocate, in which you can change the allocation of the
component from one operation or phase to another. You can display a list of all the
operations and phases contained in your process order by clicking on Operation list.

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Component Detail Screens

Component Detail Screens
You can branch to any of the screens described in this section by selecting a component in the
Material list and selecting Component → <Detail screen>.

General Data
This screen contains the following data:
Component data:
Material: The number of the material component you have selected.
Item: Item number of the component in your material list.
Item category: Such as stock item or non-stock item.
Status: Component status, such as Released.
Storage location: Storage location of material.
Batch: If the component is subject to batch management, you can enter the number here.
Plant: Plant in which your material component is stored.
Requirement date: Date by which the requested quantity of material is needed.
Sort string: String that can be defined for sorting components in the display.
Revision level: Indicates the change status of an object. You can assign the revision level to a
change with reference to a change number.
Quantity data:
Requirements quantity: This is the amount you require of the individual component in order to
produce the order quantity.
Unit of measure: This is the unit of measure in which stock of this material is managed.
Committed quantity: This is the quantity confirmed in the availability check.
Issue quantity: This is the component quantity already issued from stock for the order.
Final issue: This indicator is set automatically for a goods movement when the total reserved
quantity has been withdrawn or delivered.
Co-product: Indicator showing that this material component is a co-product.

Co-Product - Item Data
With co-product manufacturing, you can show the common production of different materials
within one process order. This means that an order for several co-products describes the
common production as well as specifying the common materials for the process.
Within a process order manufacturing co-products, these can be assigned to the operation or the
phase in which they are processed.
The costs of an order are collected for the entire process and then can be distributed to the
various co-products using an equivalence number or a percentage entry.

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Component Detail Screens
Process materials represent a material type for which no updating of inventory quantities or costs
is required. Process materials are used as “starting points” for master recipes and process order
in the production of co-products.
You will only be able to branch to the co-product screens if your component is marked as a coproduct, both in the material master and in the material list.
In addition to the general data, this screen shows:

Order item data:
Quantity: Quantity of a co-product produced using this order.
Valuation type: This key uniquely identifies stocks of a material subject to split valuation.
The valuation category determines which valuation types are permissible for a material.
GR quantity: This is the quantity of goods received for the order item.

Tolerance data:
Underdelivery/overdelivery tolerance: This is the percentage by which an
underdelivery or overdelivery of this component will be accepted. You can select the
Unlimited field if this percentage value is unlimited.

Control data:
Quality inspection: This indicator shows that the component is subject to quality
inspection and that the goods receipt is posted to QM stock.
Delivery completed: If this indicator is set, no further goods receipts are expected for
this order item.
GR processing time: This is the goods receipt processing time in days.

Goods receipt data:
Storage location: The location to which the component is posted.
Batch: If the co-product is subject to batch management, you can enter an existing batch
number or create a batch master record.
Distribution: This is the distribution key for MRP.

Delivery data:
Goods recipient: You can enter the recipient for whom the material is destined here.
Unloading point: The point (such as a dock) where the material is unloaded.

Co-Product - Settlement Rule
On this screen, you maintain the settlement rule.
When a process order is settled, the actual costs incurred for the order are settled to one or more
receiver cost-objects (such as to the account for the material produced or to a sales order).
Offsetting entries are generated automatically to credit the process order.
On this screen, you can enter the cost receivers to which you want to distribute the costs of
production. The cost receiver can, for example, be a material or a cost center.
Under Receiver no., you enter the name of the settlement receiver, such as the name of the
material.

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Component Detail Screens

You can either apportion the costs to the various settlement receivers using a percentage, or by
entering an equivalence number. The costs of the order are then distributed proportionately to
the settlement receivers.

Purchasing Data
You can only call up this screen for components with item category “N” (non-stock item).
You use this screen to maintain data for external procurement.

Item Text
This screen is only relevant for components with the item category “T”.
On this screen, you can enter general data for the component, as well as a descriptive text for
the item.

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Assigning Components

Assigning Components
You can assign components to any operation or phase. You can assign components either

in the master recipe or

in the process order itself.

All components which have not been assigned to a particular operation or phase in the master
recipe are automatically assigned to the first operation in the order at the time of order creation.
You can, however, change the assignment of components by reassigning them to different
components (see section Reassigning Components [Page 70]).

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Creating Components

Creating Components
To create a component in the material list of your process order, proceed as follows:
1. Call up the Material list screen and enter the following data for your component:

material number

requirements quantity

unit of measure

item category

2. Press Enter. If the system requires further information, it will branch automatically to
the respective screen, where you can enter the data. For example, if you enter a nonstock component, you automatically branch to the Purchasing data screen.
3. The system will then display a pop-up in which you need to enter the operation or phase
to which you want to allocate this component. You can click on Operation list to display
all the operations and phases.

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Reassigning Components

Reassigning Components
To reassign components, proceed as follows:
1. Select the component that you want to reassign and click on Edit → Reassign in the
Material list screen.
2. A dialog box containing two fields appears:

the operation or phase to which the component is currently assigned

an input field in which you can enter the new operation or phase.
You can display a list of all operations and phases by clicking on Operation list.

3. Press Continue.

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Sorting Components

Sorting Components
You can sort components in the material list according to various different sort criteria. Proceed
as follows:
1. Choose Edit → Sort in the Material list screen.
2. The system displays a pop-up containing all the possible sort criteria. You can choose a
criterion and click on Copy. Now select Close to close the window.
3. In the remaining pop-up, click on Copy to have the system sort according to your chosen
criterion.
4. Once the system has finished sorting the components, you return to the Material list
screen, which now lists the items sorted according to your selected criterion.

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Filtering Components

Filtering Components
You can filter components according to certain criteria. When you filter the components, the
system displays only the components which meet the entered criteria. Selection criteria might
be, for example:

missing part

item category

backflushing

Proceed as follows to filter components:
1. Select Edit → Filter in the Material list screen.
2. The system displays a pop-up in which you select New selection to display all the
possible filter options.
3. You can now choose a criterion according to which you want to filter your components.
Click on Copy and then Close to close the window.
4. In the remaining pop-up, click on Copy to have the system filter according to your chosen
criterion.
5. The system now displays a pop-up in which you have to enter additional data. For
example, if you have chosen BOM item as your filter criterion, you will have to enter the
numbers of the BOM items in this screen and then select Filter.
6. The system filters your components and returns to the Material list screen.

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Deleting Components

Deleting Components
To delete components, proceed as follows:
1. In the Material list screen, select the component you want to delete and choose the
menu options Edit → Delete.
2. The system deletes the selected components.
If the process order has already been released, the deletion indicator is set for the component.

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Classifying Material List Components

Classifying Material List Components
On the Material list screen, you can classify the individual material components in your material
list.
Classifying the individual components has two purposes:
1. Material quantity calculation:
When you classify a component in the material list, you use the class type 022 (or 23,
depending on the batch level) for batch classification. From a logical point of view, you
would assign the same class to this component as you have assigned in the material or
batch master.
You can now assign values to the characteristics of this class. The system uses these
values for the purposes of material quantity calculation in the calculation sheet.
2. Batch determination
You can classify a component that is subject to handling in batches for the purposes of
batch determination. Use the same class you use for the material for the component.
You can also split batches in process orders.
For more information, see the R/3 Library LO - Batch Management under Batch
Determination [Ext.].
Matchcode Selection
You can also select the batch number via a matchcode selection directly in the Batch field. In this
case, you can select by batch class.
The Classification screen of the process order appears. If you wish, you can assign a further
value to your class. If you choose Find object, the system displays the batches that match your
criteria. You can then select the desired batch and return to the Material list screen, where your
batch number is now entered.
If you need to select more than one batch, you must enter the component a corresponding
number of times in the material list. For each entry, you need to enter a separate batch number
from the list of available batches.

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Example: Batch Splitting

Example: Batch Splitting
For a particular reservation, you require 100 L of the material component solution. The material
solution is classified as active batch of the class type 022 or 023. The characteristic active
ingredient, with an interval value of 60 -90, is assigned to the class active batch.
At goods receipt, you have classified all batches of solution as follows:
The characteristic Active substance ingredient has an interval value of 60 - 90.
You have three batches of solution, which have been inspected by Quality Management. The
values for these batches are as follows:
Batch 1: Active substance ingredient: 70

Quantity of batch: 50 L

Batch 2: Active substance ingredient: 60

Quantity of batch: 20 L

Batch 3: Active substance ingredient: 89

Quantity of batch: 35 L

You can select all the batches you need that correspond to your desired criteria, and make up
the quantity of 100 L that you require for your reservation.
The indicator S in the Material list screen shows whether a batch split is possible for the
component you have marked.
Batch Determination Screen
You call up the Batch processing screen by marking a component and choosing Material →
Batch management → Trigger batch det. components → Batch processing in the material list.
The following is displayed on this screen:

Requirements quantity
This is the total quantity you require for your order

Open quantity
This is the remaining quantity you still require

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Material Quantity Calculation

Material Quantity Calculation
Use
You use this function for a production version [Ext.] of a master recipe or a process order to
visually reproduce the dependencies between the following values:

Quantity and properties of a product, such as the active ingredient proportion

Quantity and properties of material components, that is, material items and their batches

Operation and phase quantities

The scrap to be expected for an operation or phase

You need this function to adjust the quantities defined in the bill of material (BOM), master recipe,
or process order in the following cases:

To calculate the component quantities if they are not proportional to the product quantity or if
different active ingredient concentrations of batches must be taken into account

To calculate the product quantity, that is, the base quantity of the master recipe or the order
quantity if it must be adjusted to modified component quantities. This may be the case if, for
example, a batch of a component is always used up completely.

To calculate the expected phase scrap if you want it to be displayed in the phase data in the
order (Quantities/Activities screen) and make it available for planned/actual evaluations
carried out in the Logistics Information System

To calculate operation and phase quantities if they are not identical to the product quantity.
You may want to do this, for example, if you must take the quantity difference caused by the
scrap produced into account.

Integration
You enter the formulas for material quantity calculation in the master recipe or process order. If
required, you transfer the formula results from the recipe to the BOM.
Material quantity calculation is always performed during further processing when you use the
production version to select a recipe and BOM and then carry out scheduling. This means that it
is performed, for example, when you create a process order, convert planned orders, or during
product costing, but not when you carry out material requirements planning without a detailed
plan.
In material requirements planning and product costing, material quantity calculation is used to
calculate the material and operation quantities that are, for example, necessary for reservations
or direct cost statements.
In the process order, material quantity calculation determines the order-specific quantities. The
formulas for the calculation are taken from the master recipe. However, you can change them in
the order and start the calculation again, if, for example, the basis for the calculation has
changed due to batch determination. The quantities calculated in this way are used as the basis
for reservations, scheduling, capacity requirements planning, and costing.

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Material Quantity Calculation

Prerequisites

To be able to use material quantity calculation in a master recipe, you must have defined a
production version for the master recipe.

To transfer the data from material quantity calculation from a master recipe to the process
order, you must create the process order with the corresponding production version.

To transfer the scrap calculated in material quantity calculation to the corresponding phase in
the process order, you must have activated scrap management in the parameters of the
relevant order type (see Customizing for Process Orders).

Features
Formula Definition
You can use the following functions in material quantity calculation to define formulas:

The common arithmetical operators and functions as well as references to quantities and
material properties (see Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation [Page 79])

Functions that you can use to perform material quantity calculation based on batch data (see
Material Quantity Calculation with Batch Data [Page 86])
This function enables you, for example, to use material quantity calculation together with
active ingredient management of the Batch Management component to plan the quantity
structure of your orders on the basis of exact active ingredient quantities.

Important Information about Value Processing
Depending on the type of value to be calculated, also bear in mind the following:

The formulas for the product and component quantities may not mutually refer to each other.

If you have planned a scrap quantity for a product in the material master record or the order
header, the system automatically increases the product and component quantities during
quantity calculation without formulas.
If you have planned a scrap quantity for a component in the material master record, the
BOM, or the material list of the process order, the system automatically increases the
component quantity during quantity calculation without formulas.
If you perform quantity calculation with formulas, the system does not automatically take
the planned scrap quantity into account. If required, you must explicitly include it in the
formula.

The scrap quantity calculated for a phase does not automatically reduce the succeeding
phase quantities. However, you can use the formulas of the operation and phase quantities
to visually reproduce the quantity difference caused by the scrap produced.

In collective orders, material quantity calculation is only supported within the leading order.
Header quantities and component quantities of subordinate orders are calculated in
proportion to the product quantity. For this reason, do not enter formulas for:

Directly-produced components of the leading order

Materials or phases of subordinate orders

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Material Quantity Calculation

Performing Material Quantity Calculation
You can start material quantity calculation as follows during production planning:

Automatically together with functions during which scheduling is carried out (see Integration
above)
Material quantity calculation calculates component, operation, phase, and scrap
quantities for which a formula has been defined. Product quantity calculation is not
carried out during automatic material quantity calculation.
Component quantities for which no formulas are defined have already been calculated in
proportion to the product quantity (for example, during order release or BOM explosion).

Manually in the master recipe or process order
Here you decide whether the product quantity is calculated in addition to the component,
operation, phase, and scrap quantities.
When you carry out product quantity calculation, the system automatically recalculates
the component quantities with a formula afterwards. Note, however, that component
quantities without a formula are not adjusted to the modified product quantity.

Activities

Defining Material Quantity Calculation [Ext.]

Performing Material Quantity Calculations [Ext.]

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Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation

Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation
Use
You can use the following functions in material quantity calculation whenever you do not need to
access batch data for the calculation. If you must take the values of batches into account in a
calculation, you can also use the functions described in Material Quantity Calculation with Batch
Data [Page 86].

Prerequisites

To be able to use material quantity calculation in a master recipe, you must have defined a
production version for the master recipe.

To transfer the data from material quantity calculation from a master recipe to the process
order, you must create the process order with the corresponding production version.

For you to be able to take material properties into account in material quantity calculation, the
following requirements must be met:

It must be possible to enter the property as a numeric value.

You must classify the material master record or the BOM item with a class of class type
Batch.

You must assign the property as a characteristic to this class and assign a value to it in
the material master record or the material list as well as in the material list of the process
order.

Features
The data of all materials, operations, and phases that are used in the master recipe or process
order are available in material quantity calculation. When you call up material quantity
calculation, you are given the following:

The planned quantity for each operation as well as a field for any interim results

The planned quantity for each phase, a field for the scrap to be expected, and a field for any
interim results

The planned quantity for each material, all numerical material properties as well as a field for
any interim results
For materials for which you use batch determination, you are given the following in
material quantity calculation:

A line containing the original quantity of the material item for the totals record (line 4 of
the example below)

A line containing the transferred batch quantity for each batch (lines 5 to 7 of the
example below)
For material properties, you are given:

In the master recipe, the value from the BOM or, if this value is missing, the value from
the material master record

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Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation

In the process order, the value from the material list of the order or, after the batch
determination, the value of the batches used
If multiple values or value ranges have been defined, the system uses the lowest value.

After you have carried out batch determination, the planned value from the material
list is normally still displayed in the totals record. If, however, no unit has been
assigned to the characteristic, the system displays the sum of all batch values
instead.
Example: Data of Material Quantity Calculation
Line Description Type Item
1 XYZ
MT
2 ..Create mix. OP
3 .-Charge mat. OP

0000
0110
0110

Sign

1:Qty

-

100.000
100.000
100.000
93.000

UM 2:Charact. 1 UM

MT

0010

L

70.00 %

0010

40.000 L

90.00 %

0010

50.000 L

80.00 %

7 …. BA:ABC3 MT

0010

3.000 L

70.00 %

Key:

MT
OP
BA

UM 4:Interim res.

L
L
L

5 …. BA:ABC1 MT
6 …. BA:ABC2 MT

4 ….ABC

3:Scrap

Material
Operation or phase
Batch

You can enter formulas for the following fields:

The quantity fields of the materials as long as batch determination has not been carried out

The quantity fields of the operations

The quantity and scrap fields of the phases

The Interim results field of materials, operations, and phases
This field does not directly influence the quantity structure of an order. Its value can,
however, be used to calculate the remaining quantities.

You can use the following operands to define your formulas:

Number constants, such as: –5; 3.1416; 1.3E12
The system expects the decimal point or the sign defined for decimal expressions in your
user defaults.

References to quantity, scrap, and characteristic fields and interim results
Note that the system does not take the unit of measure of referred values into account.
Percentages, for example, are treated like absolute values during the calculation.
References are displayed as follows in the formula:
[<Line of the field referred to>,<Column of the field>]

In the graphic above:

80

[001,001] refers to the quantity field of product XYZ

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Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation

[004,002] refers to the characteristic field of component ABC

In addition, you can use the operators or functions listed below:
Operator

Meaning

Example

+

Addition

-

Subtraction

*

Multiplication

/

Division

DIV

Division using integers; not intended for negative numbers

10 DIV 3 = 3

MOD

Remainder after division (modulo function); not intended for
negative numbers

10 MOD 3 = 1

Function

Meaning

Example

**

Exponentiation

3**3 = 27

IF…THEN…
ELSE

Returns the following value:

IF (2<3) THEN (5*6) ELSE (57) = 30

If the statement after IF is true, the value
of the expression after THEN

If the statement after IF is false, the value
of the expression after ELSE

IF NOT …
Returns the following value:
THEN…ELSE
– If the statement after IF NOT is false, the
value of the expression after THEN

IF (2<3) THEN (5*6) ELSE (57) = -2

If the statement after IF NOT is true, the
value of the expression after ELSE

ABS

Absolute value

ABS(-2) = 2

ROUND

Round to nearest integer

ROUND(1,8) = 2

TRUNC

Integral amount of a number; not intended for
negative numbers

TRUNC(1,8) = 1

SQRT

Square root

SQRT(144) = 12

EXP

Power to base e

EXP(1) = 2.7182746352

LOG

Logarithm to base e

LOG(2.7182746352) = 1

SIN

Sine

SIN(0) = 0

COS

Cosine

COS(0) = 1

TAN

Tangent

TAN(1) ≈ 1.55741

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Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation

Example
Calculating Header and Component Quantities [Page 83]

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Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities

Example: Calculating Product and Component
Quantities
Scenario
You want to make fruit juice from fruit premix, water, sugar, and lemon juice and fill it in 20-liter
containers. Remaining quantities smaller than 20 liters are directed to a collecting tank. For shelf
life reasons, you do not want to make a batch split for the fruit premix. Instead, you want to use
one tank and thus a complete batch for the production. For this reason, you must match up the
product quantity and all other component quantities with the actual fruit premix quantity.

Realization
Entries in the Master Recipe and Bill of Material (BOM)
In the BOM, you enter the required component quantities with reference to a base quantity of the
material Fruit juice. These quantities are transferred to the Material Quantity Calculation screen
in the master recipe. The following data is displayed, for example:
Line

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

UM

1 Fruit juice

Description

MT

0000

-

L

2 ..Create mix.

OP

0100

3 ..-Charge mat.

OP

0110

100.000
100.000
100.000

4 ….Fruit premix
5 ….Water

MT
MT

0010
0020

70.000
25.000

L
L

6 ….Lemon juice

MT

0030

3.000

L

7 ….Sugar

MT

0040

9.000 KG

18 ..- Discharge

OP

0210

19 ….Container

MT

0050

100.000

L
L

L

5.000 PC

Calculating the Product Quantity
The product quantity in the order is determined by the available fruit premix quantity. For this
reason, the system must calculate the fruit juice quantity as follows:
Fruit juice qty

=

Fruit premix quantity / 0.7

You therefore enter the following formula for the fruit juice:
[004,001] / 0,7
Calculating the Component Quantities
If you want the system to recalculate the component quantities after calculating the fruit juice
quantity, you must enter formulas for them. The quantity of water, lemon juice, and sugar can be
calculated in proportion to the fruit juice quantity. This means that you must enter the following
formulas:

For the water:
[001,001] * 0,25

For the lemon juice:

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Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities
[001,001] * 0,03

For the sugar:
[001,001] * 0,09

Only whole numbers make sense for the containers. Since you direct remaining quantities into
containers, the system must first calculate the number of containers in proportion to the fruit juice
quantity and then round it down to whole numbers. The following applies:
No. of containers

=

Fruit juice qty DIV Maximum qty of container

This means, you must enter the following formula:
[001,001] DIV 20

Process During Order Processing
In the order, the material data is processed as follows:
1. You create a process order for an order quantity or fruit juice quantity of 300 l for example.
2. The system calculates the following:

The required fruit premix quantity in proportion to the fruit juice quantity

The required quantity of water, lemon juice, and sugar as well as the number of
containers required based on the formula
As a result, the following data is displayed:
Line

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

UM

1 Fruit juice

Description

MT

0000

-

OP

0100

3 ..-Charge mat.

OP

0110

300.000
300.000
300.000

L

2 ..Create mix.
4 ….Fruit premix
5 ….Water

MT
MT

0010
0020

210.000
75.000

L
L

6 ….Lemon juice

MT

0030

9.000

L

7 ….Sugar

MT

0040

18 ..- Charge

OP

0210

19 ….Container

MT

0050

L
L

27.000 KG
300.000

L

15.000 PC

3. You carry out batch determination for the Fruit premix component. You use the batch that
has the earliest expiration date and a quantity of 175 l. In the totals record of the material
component, you use the batch quantity 175 l as the original quantity and set the requirement
quantity to 0.
4. You manually start product quantity calculation. The system makes the following adjustments
one after another:
a. It calculates the fruit juice quantity. As specified in the formula, it uses the totals record
for the fruit premix and thus the updated original quantity for this.
b. It updates the quantity of water, sugar, and lemon juice as well as the number of
containers using the formulas.
The following data is displayed:

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Example: Calculating Product and Component Quantities

Line

Description

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

UM

MT

0000

-

L

..Create mix.
..-Charge mat.
….Fruit premix
….BA:Premix1
….Water

OP
OP
MT
MT
MT

0100
0110
0010
0010
0020

250.000
250.000
250.000

7 ….Lemon juice

MT

0030

8 ….Sugar

MT

0040

19 ..- Charge

OP

0210

20 ….Container

MT

0050

1 Fruit juice
2
3
4
5
6

April 2001

175.000
175.000
62.500

L
L
L
L
L

7.500

L

22.500 KG
250.000

L

12.000 PC

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Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data

Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data
Use
If you use materials that are subject to batch management, you may need to take quantities and
properties of specific batches into account when your perform material quantity calculations in
the process order. Depending on the active ingredient concentration of a component batch, you
may need, for example, different quantities of another component, that is used as a filling
material.
Since no batches are assigned in the master recipe, you must use the values planned in the
material item when you perform calculations there. In the process order, however, you must
perform the same calculation again after you have carried out batch determination due to the
values of one, or in case of a batch split, several batches selected.
For this reason, SAP provides the functions described below to enable you to use the data of a
material item in the master recipe and the data of subordinate batches after the batch
determination in the process order. These functions can be used in addition to the functions
described in Basic Functions of Material Quantity Calculation [Page 79].

Material quantity calculation is not automatically performed after batch determination
in the order.

Integration

If you use batch data to calculate component quantities, note the following when you carry
out batch determination in the process order:

You must first carry out batch determination for the components to whose data you refer
in the formulas for other components.

Material quantity calculation is not automatically performed after batch determination. If
required, you must start the calculation manually to update the data of dependent
components.

If you also want to use active ingredient management of the Batch Management component,
you can perform material quantity calculation either for the physical quantity or for the active
ingredient proportion of a component.
If you use active ingredient proportions, you can use exact active ingredient quantities to
plan the quantity structure of your orders.

See also:
LO - Batch Management

Prerequisites
To be able to use material quantity calculation in a master recipe, you must have defined a
production version for the master recipe.
To transfer the data from material quantity calculation from a master recipe to the process order,
you must create the process order with the corresponding production version.

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Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data

For you to be able to take into account batch properties such as the active ingredient potency in
material quantity calculation, the following requirements must be met:

It must be possible to enter the property as a numeric value.

You must classify the material master record, the BOM item or the material item of the
process order as well as the batch with a class of class type Batch.

You must assign the batch property as a characteristic to this class and assign a value to it in
the batch as well as in the material master record, the BOM item, or the material list of the
process order.
Material quantity calculation uses the following values:

In the master recipe, the value from the BOM or, if this value is missing, the value from
the material master record

In the process order, the value from the material list of the order
If multiple values or value ranges have been defined, the system uses the lowest value.

In the material master record, you can also enter a planned value for the batch
characteristic for active ingredient management (Additional data, Proportion/prod.unit
tab page). To avoid inconsistencies between active ingredient management and
material quantity calculation, we recommend using the lowest characteristic value
from material classification.

Features
The following sections provide an overview of the functions of material quantity calculation that
take the batch data of a material component into account. In the expressions used:

<Material item> stands for the line number of the material item

<Characteristic column> stands for the column number of the batch characteristic

The examples refer to the following data:
Line

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

1 XYZ
2 ..Create mix.
3 ..-Charge mat.
4 ….ABC
5 ….BA:ABC1

MT
OP
OP
MT
MT

0000
0100
0110
0010
0010

-

100.000
100.000
100.000
93.000

….BA:ABC2
….BA:ABC3
….NNM

MT
MT
MT

0010
0010
0020

…. BA:NNM1 MT

10 …. BA:NNM2 MT

6
7
8
9

Description

UM 2:Charact. 1 UM 3:Charact. 2 UM
L
L
L
L
L

70.00 %
90.00 %

3.00 %
4.00 %

50.000 L
3.000 L
7.000 LW

80.00 %
70.00 %
60.00 %

3.50 %
5.00 %
30.00 %

0020

4.000 LW

50.00 %

25.00 %

0020

3.000 LW

60.00 %

20.00 %

40.000

Determining the Number of Batches in a Material Item
Use the following function:
CNUM(<material item>)

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Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data
The function determines the number of batches that belong to a material item. As long as no
batch has been assigned to the material item, the function has value 1.

CNUM(004) = 3

Adding up Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values
This function adds up the batch quantities or the values in the characteristic column you specified
for all batches of a material item. As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item,
the function returns the quantity of the material item or the characteristic value of the material
item.
Use the following function:

To add up batch quantities, use:
CSUM(<material item>)

CSUM(004) = 40 + 50 + 3 = 93

To add up characteristic values, use:
CSUM(<material item>;<characteristic column>)

CSUM(004;002) = 90 + 80 + 70 = 240

Calculating the Arithmetic Mean of Batch Quantities or Characteristic
Values
This function calculates the arithmetic mean of the batch quantities or the characteristic column
you specified from all batches of a material item. As long as no batches have been assigned to
the material item, the function returns the quantity of the material item or the corresponding
characteristic value of the material item.
Use the following function:

To calculate the arithmetic mean of the batch quantities, use:
CAMV(<material item>)

CAMV(004) = (40 + 50 + 3) / 3 = 31

To calculate the arithmetic mean of the characteristic value, use:
CAMV(<material item>;<characteristic column>)

CAMV(004;002) = (90 + 80 + 70) / 3 = 80

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Adding up Weighted Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values: Product
Sum
For each batch of a material item, this function multiplies the batch quantity by the value of the
characteristic column you specified or the values of both characteristic columns specified. It then
adds up the results. The system interprets the characteristic value that you use to weight the first
value as a percentage if the description of its unit contains a percent sign (%).
As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item, the function calculates the
product of the quantity and characteristic value of the material item or the product of the two
characteristic values of the material item.
You may need this function, for example, to calculate the total of the active ingredient quantities
from physical batch quantities based on the active ingredient concentration. Use the following
function:

To calculate the product sum of batch quantities, use:
CPSM(<material item>;<characteristic column>)

CPSM(004;002) = (40 * 0.9) + (50 * 0.8) + (3 * 0.7) = 78.1

To calculate the product sum of characteristic values, use:
CPSM(<material item>;<characteristic column 1>;<characteristic column 2>)

CPSM(004;002;003) = (90 * 0.04) + (80 * 0.035) + (70 * 0.05) = 9.9

Adding up Weighted Batch Quantities or Characteristic Values: Quotient
Sum
For each batch of a material item, this function divides the batch quantities by the value of the
characteristic column you specified or the value of the first characteristic column by that of the
second column. It then adds up the results. The system interprets the characteristic value that
you use to weight the first value as a percentage if the description of its unit contains a percent
sign (%).
As long as no batches have been assigned to the material item, the function divides the quantity
of the material item by the corresponding characteristic value or the first characteristic value of
the material item by that of the second value.
You may need this function, for example, to calculate the total of the physical batch quantities
from the active ingredient quantities of batches based on the active ingredient concentration. Use
the following function:

To calculate the quotient sum of batch quantities, use:
CQSM(<material item>;<characteristic column>)

CQSM(008;002) = (4 / 0.5) + (3 / 0.6) = 13

To calculate the quotient sum of characteristic values, use:
CQSM(<material item>;<characteristic column 1>;<characteristic column 2>)

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Material Quantity Calculation With Batch Data

CQSM(008;002;003) = (50 / 0.25) + (60 / 0.2) = 500

Examples

Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches [Page 91]

Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities [Page 94]

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Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches

Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient
Quantities of Batches
Scenario
You want to use a fruit premix with varying fruit content and water to produce a fruit juice whose
fruit content is always 5 %. During order processing, you always want to use the fruit premix
batch with the earliest expiration date. Depending on the fruit content of this batch, you want the
system to adjust the quantity of water in such a way that the fruit content intended for the fruit
juice is obtained.

Realization
Entries in Batch Management
You define active ingredient management for the material Fruit premix with the following
specifications:

You classify the material and its batches with a batch class that contains characteristic Fruit
content.
In the material, you enter 10 - 20 % as the allowed interval for the fruit content. In the
batches, you enter the actual fruit content.
In addition, you assign the proportion unit LF (liters of fruit) to the material, which you can
use to enter the absolute fruit content of a specific quantity of fruit premix.

For the batch determination for material Fruit premix, you define a batch search strategy that
allows batch determination based on proportion quantities. You use the expiration date and
the allowed interval defined for the fruit content as selection criteria for determining the batch.

Entries in the Master Recipe and Bill of Material (BOM)
In the BOM, you enter the required component quantities with reference to a base quantity of the
product Fruit juice. For the fruit premix, you use the proportion unit LF, which means that you do
not enter the physical quantity of the fruit premix but the fruit quantity it must contain.
The quantities and the characteristic values of material classification are transferred to the
Material Quantity Calculation screen in the master recipe. The following data is displayed, for
example:
Line

Description

1 Fruit juice
2 ..Create mix.
3 ..-Charge mat.
4 ….Fruit premix
5 ….Water

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

MT
OP
OP
MT
MT

0000
0100
0110
0010
0020

-

100.000
100.00
100.00

UM 2:Fruit content UM

L
L
L
5.000 LF
50.000 L

10.00 %

The absolute fruit content that is required in the fruit premix changes in proportion to the fruit
juice quantity. You therefore need not enter a formula for the fruit premix:
To obtain the intended fruit content of the fruit juice, you must, however, balance variations in the
percent fruit content of the fruit premix. This means that you must adjust the quantity of water.
This adjustment is not in proportion to the fruit juice quantity. The following relationship applies:

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Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches
Water

=

Product quantity – physical quantity of fruit premix

You can calculate the physical quantity of the fruit premix as follows in the master recipes:
Qty of fruit premix

=

Absolute fruit content in fruit premix / Percent fruit content

For the system to be able to correctly calculate the physical quantity of the fruit premix after the
batch determination and maybe even a batch split in the order, it must calculate the quotient sum
of all fruit premix batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the water:
[001,001] – CQSM(004;002)

Process During Order Processing
In the order, the material data is processed as follows:
3. You create a process order for an order quantity or fruit juice quantity of 500 l for example.
4. The system calculates the following:

The required fruit premix quantity in the proportion unit LF in proportion to the fruit juice
quantity

The required quantity of water using the formula
Since no batches have been selected, it uses the data from the material component
(line 4).
As a result, the following data is displayed:
Line

Description

1 Fruit juice
2 ..Create mix.
3 ..-Charge mat.
4 ….Fruit premix
5 ….Water

Type

Item

Sign

MT
OP
OP
MT
MT

0000
0100
0110
0010
0020

-

1:Qty

UM 2:Fruit content UM

L
L
L
25.000 LF
250.000 L
500.000
500.000
500.000

10.00 %

3. You carry out batch determination for the material Fruit premix. Since the batch with the
earliest expiration date only covers part of the requirement, you use the following:

20 % LF of a batch with 20 % fruit content

5 LF of a batch with 15 % fruit content

4. You start material quantity calculation. The system now updates the quantity of water using
the formula and batch data.
The following result is displayed:
Line

92

Description

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

1 Fruit juice
2 ..Create mix.
3 ..- Charge mat.
4 ….Fruit premix
5 ….BA:Premix1

MT
OP
OP
MT
MT

0000
0100
0110
0010
0010

-

500.000
500.000
500.000

6 ….BA:Premix2 MT
7 ….Water
MT

0010
0020

UM 2:Fruit content UM

L
L
L
25.000 LF
20.000 LF

5.000 LF
366.667 L

10.00 %
20.00 %
15.00 %

April 2001

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Process Orders (PP-PI-POR)
Example: Calculations Using Active Ingredient Quantities of Batches

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Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities

Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities
Scenario
You want to use a fruit premix with varying fruit and acid content to produce a fruit juice whose
fruit content is always 5 % and whose acid content is always 2 %.
The fruit premix batches are selected according to their expiration date. You can use different
batches whose expiration dates are close together in one order but each batch is always used up
completely.
You want to adjust the fruit content of the fruit juice by mixing water into it. The acid content, on
the other hand, is adjusted by adding lemon juice with the different lemon juice batches having
different acid contents themselves.

Realization
Entries in Batch Management
You define active ingredient management with the following specifications:

You classify materials Fruit juice and Fruit premix as well as the fruit premix batches using a
batch class that contains characteristics Fruit content and Acid content.
In material Fruit juice, you define the fruit content of 5 % and the acid content of 2 % you
want to obtain.
In material Fruit premix, you define 10 – 20 % as the allowed fruit content and 1 – 4 % as
the allowed acid content. In the batches, you enter the actual fruit and acid contents.

You classify material Lemon juice and its batches with a batch class that contains
characteristic Acid content.
In the material, you enter 20 – 30 % as the allowed interval for the acid content. In the
batches, you enter the actual acid content.
In addition, you assign the proportion unit LA (liters of acid) to the material, which you
can use to enter the absolute acid content of a specific quantity of lemon juice.

For batch determination, you define a batch search strategy that contains the selection
criteria Expiration date and Fruit content for material Fruit premix and a batch search strategy
that contains the selection criteria Expiration date and Acid content. The batch search
strategy you define for the lemon juice allows batch determination based on a proportion
quantity, this means, based on the absolute acid content.

Entries in the Master Recipe and Bill of Material (BOM)
In the BOM, you enter the required component quantities with reference to a base quantity of the
product Fruit juice. For the fruit premix that is to be used as complete batches, you enter the
required physical quantity in the BOM. Since the lemon juice is to be used depending on its acid
content, you plan it in the proportion unit Liters of acid. This means that you do not enter the
physical quantity of the lemon juice but the required absolute acid content instead.
The quantities and the characteristic values of material classification are transferred to the
Material Quantity Calculation screen in the master recipe. The following data is displayed, for
example:

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Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities

Line

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

1 Fruit juice

Description

MT

0000

-

L

2 ..Create mix.

OP

0100

3 ..- Charge mat. OP

0110

100.000
100.000
100.000

UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM

4 ….Fruit premix
5 ….Water

MT
MT

0010
0020

50.000
42.500

L
L

6 ….Lemon juice MT

0030

5.00 %

2.00 %

10.00 %

1.00 %

L
L

1.500 LS

20.00 %

Calculating the Product Quantity
The product quantity in the order is determined by the available fruit premix quantity. For this
reason, the system must calculate the fruit juice quantity as follows:
Fruit juice qty

=

Absolute fruit content in fruit premix / Intended fruit content in fruit juice

You can calculate the absolute fruit content of the fruit premix as follows in the master recipe:
Absolute fruit content

=

Fruit premix qty * Percent fruit content in fruit premix

For the system to be able to correctly calculate the fruit content after the batch determination and
maybe even a batch split in the order, it must calculate the product sum of all fruit premix
batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the fruit juice:
CPSM(004;002) / [001,002]
Calculating the Lemon Juice Quantity
To obtain the intended acid content of the fruit juice, you must balance variations in the percent
acid content of the fruit premix. For this reason, you must adjust the lemon juice quantity. This
adjustment is not in proportion to the product quantity.
The following applies for the calculation of the absolute acid content of the lemon juice required:
Absolute acid content

=

Intended absolute acid content in the fruit juice – absolute acid
content in the fruit premix

=

Fruit juice qty * intended percent acid content - absolute acid
content in the fruit premix

You can calculate the absolute acid content of the fruit premix as follows in the master recipe:
Acid content of fruit premix

=

Fruit premix qty * Percent acid content in fruit premix

For the system to be able to correctly calculate the acid content after the batch determination and
maybe even a batch split in the order, it must calculate the product sum of all fruit premix
batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the acid content:
[001,001] * [001,003] - CPSM(004;003)
Calculating the Water Quantity
To obtain the intended fruit content of the fruit juice, you must balance variations in the fruit
content of the fruit premix. This means that you must adjust the quantity of water. The following
relationship applies:
Water qty

=

Fruit juice – Fruit premix qty – Physical qty of lemon juice

You can calculate the physical quantity of the lemon juice as follows in the master recipe:
Lemon juice qty

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=

Absolute acid content in lemon juice / Percent acid content

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Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities
For the system to be able to correctly calculate the lemon juice quantity after the batch
determination and maybe even a batch split in the order, it must, however, calculate the quotient
sum of all lemon juice batches. For this reason, you must enter the following formula for the
water:
[001,001] – [004,001] - CQSM(006;003)

Process During Order Processing
In the order, the material data is processed as follows:
1. You create a process order for an order quantity or fruit juice quantity of 500 l for example.
2. The system calculates the following:

The required fruit premix quantity in proportion to the fruit juice quantity

The required water quantity and the required absolute acid content in the lemon juice
using the formulas
Since no batches have been selected, it uses the data from the material item (line 4).
As a result, the following data is displayed:
Line

Description

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

MT
OP

0000
0100

-

3 ..-Charge mat. OP
4 ….Fruit premix MT
5 ….Water
MT

0110
0010
0020

500.000
500.000
500.000

6 ….Lemon juice MT

0030

1 Fruit juice
2 ..Create mix.

250.000
212.500

UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM
L
L
L
L
L

7.500 LS

5.00 %

2.00 %

10.00 %

1.00 %
20.00 %

3. You carry out batch determination for the Fruit premix component. The system finds two
batches with identical expiration dates. You use the following batches:

One batch with a quantity of 200 L, a fruit content of 10 %, and an acid content of 3 %

One batch with a quantity of 100 L, a fruit content of 15 %, and an acid content of 2 %
You adjust the original quantity in the totals record of the material item accordingly.

4. You manually start product quantity calculation. The system makes the following adjustments
one after another:
a. It calculates the fruit juice quantity using the formula.
b. It updates the absolute acid content of the lemon juice and the required water quantity
using the formulas.
Since no batches have been selected for the lemon juice, the system uses the data
of the material item (line 8 of the graphic below) to calculate the quantity of water.
The following data is displayed:

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Example: Calculations Using Physical Batch Quantities

Line

Description

Type

Item

Sign

1:Qty

MT
OP
OP
MT

0000
0100
0110
0010

-

700.000
700.000
700.000

5 ….BA:Premix1 MT
6 ….BA:Premix2 MT
7 ….Water
MT

0010
0010
0020

8 ….Lemon juice MT

0030

1 Fruit juice
2 ..Create mix.
3 ..-Charge mat.
4 ….Fruit premix

UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM

300.000

L
L
L
L

200.000
100.000
370.000

L
L
L

5.00 %

2.00 %

10.00 %

1.00 %

10.00 %
15.00 %

3.00 %
2.00 %
20.00 %

6.000 LS

5. You carry out batch determination for the Lemon juice component. You use a batch quantity
with an absolute acid content of 6 LA and a percent acid content of 25 %.
6. You start material quantity calculation again. The system again updates the quantity of water
using the formula and the batch data available now.
The following result is displayed:
Line

Description

1 Fruit juice

Sign

1:Qty

-

700.000
700.000
700.000

UM 2:Fruit content UM 3:Acid content UM

MT

0000

OP
2 ..Create mix.
3 ..- Charge mat. OP

0100
0110

4 ….Fruit premix MT

0010

300.000

L

10.00 %

1.00 %

5 ….BA:Premix1 MT
6 ….BA:Premix2 MT

0010
0010

200.000
100.000

L
L

10.00 %
15.00 %

3.00 %
2.00 %

376.000

L

7 ….Water

April 2001

Type Item

L

5.00 %

2.00 %

L
L

MT

0020

8 ….Lemon juice MT

0030

6.000 LS

20.00 %

9 ….BA:Lemon1

0030

6.000 LS

25.00 %

MT

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Defining Material Quantity Calculation

Defining Material Quantity Calculation
Use
You use this procedure in the process order to define formulas (or adjust formulas taken over
from the master recipe) for the calculation of the following values:

The operation quantity or any interim results

The phase quantity, the expected phase scrap, or any interim results

The quantity of a material component or any interim results

The product or order quantity or any interim results

If required, you transfer the formula results to the order.

When you enter a formula for the product quantity, note that after the product
quantity has been calculated the system only updates dependent values for which a
formula has been maintained. For this reason, you must also enter a formula for the
values that are proportional to the product quantity.
In collective orders, material quantity calculation is only supported within the leading
order. Header quantities and component quantities of subordinate orders are
calculated in proportion to the product quantity of the leading order. For this reason,
do not enter formulas for:

Directly-produced components of the leading order

Materials or phases of subordinate orders

Prerequisites

The process order was created with a production version.

For you to be able to take into account material properties such as the active ingredient
potency in material quantity calculation, the following requirements must be met:

It must be possible to enter the property as a numeric value.

You must classify the material master record or the component in the material list with a
class of class type Batch.

You must assign the property as a characteristic to this class and assign a value to it in
the material master record or the material list of the process order.
Material quantity calculation uses the value from the material list or, if this value is
missing, the value from the material master record. If multiple values or value ranges
have been defined, the system uses the lowest value.

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To transfer the scrap calculated in material quantity calculation to the corresponding phase in
the process order, you must have activated scrap management in the parameters of the
relevant order type (see Customizing for Process Orders).

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Defining Material Quantity Calculation

Procedure
1. Choose

Materials in the process order.

The material list appears.
2. Choose

.

The Material Quantity Calculation screen appears. It consists of two sections:

The lower section contains one line with data for each operation, phase, and material
contained in the recipe.

In the Formula definition section, you can display the formula defined for the field that
you have selected in the lower section.

3. Place the cursor on the field for which you want to enter a formula and choose
formula.

Select

4. Enter the required formula in the Formula definition section. Insert the elements of this
formula as follows:

Use the keyboard to enter number constants.
Use the decimal markers defined in your user defaults or the decimal point.

To insert a reference to a material or a material property in the formula, double-click the
relevant field.
The coordinates of the field are inserted in the formula. When the material quantity is
calculated, they are replaced with the up-to-date quantity.

Note that the system does not take the unit of measure of referred values into
account. Percentages, for example, are treated like absolute values during the
calculation.

To insert the operators of the basic arithmetical operations or a bracket in the formula,
choose the corresponding button in the Formula definition section or use the keyboard to
enter the sign.

Use the keyboard to enter all other operators or functions.
For information on the available operators and functions, see Basic Functions of Material
Quantity Calculation [Page 79] and Material Quantity Calculation with Batch Data [Page
86].

5. Depending on the values for which your have entered a formula, start the calculation as
follows:

If you want to recalculate component, operation, phase, or scrap quantities, choose

If you want to recalculate the product or order quantity, choose Calculate product qty.

.

The system calculates the product quantity and subsequently updates all
component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been
maintained.
The system displays the calculated values in the corresponding fields in the lower screen
section.

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Defining Material Quantity Calculation
6. Save your entries as follows:

If you want to save the formulas without transferring the formula results to the order,
choose
and save the process order.

If you want to save the formulas and transfer the calculated material quantities to the
and save the process order.
order, choose

The system also copies the calculated material quantities to the order if the Fixed
quantity indicator has been set for the component of the material list.

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Performing Material Quantity Calculations

Performing Material Quantity Calculations
Use
You use this procedure to manually start material quantity calculation in the process order.
Depending on your requirements, you define the scope of the calculation as follows:

Calculation of the component, operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas
have been maintained

Calculation of the product quantity and subsequent update of the component, operation,
phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been maintained

You transfer the formula results to the order.

Prerequisites

The formulas of material quantity calculation have been defined in the order.

Procedure
1. Choose

Materials in the process order.

The material list appears.
2. Choose

.

The system uses the current formulas and data to calculate the component, operation,
phase, and scrap quantities and displays the results on the maintenance screen of
material quantity calculation.
If required, you can change the formulas from this screen (see Defining Material Quantity
Calculation [Page 98]).
3. If you also want to recalculate the product or order quantity, choose Calculate product qty.
The system calculates the product quantity and subsequently updates all component,
operation, phase, and scrap quantities for which formulas have been maintained.
4. If you want to transfer the formula results to the order, choose
order.

and save the process

The system also copies the calculated material quantities to the order if the Fixed
quantity indicator has been set for the component of the material list.

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Displaying and Printing Formula Overviews

Displaying and Printing Formula Overviews
Use
You use this procedure to get an overview of the formulas defined for material quantity
calculation. In comparison to the maintenance screen of material quantity calculation, the formula
overview has the following advantages:

The formula overview not only contains the quantities and value fields of material quantity
calculation but also the corresponding formulas.

References used in the formulas are replaced by the value and the description of the field to
which they refer.

Procedure
1. Choose

on the Material Quantity Calculation screen.

The formula overview appears.
2. Choose

to print the overview.

3. Enter the relevant print parameters and choose

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Checking the Availability of Material

Checking the Availability of Material
Before you start production, you can check whether all the material components allocated to the
process order are available on the calculated requirements dates.
In a process order, the system only checks material components that are relevant to inventory
management and have the item category “L” (stock component).
Availability checks can be triggered either automatically or manually:

The availability of components in an order can be checked automatically during order
creation and/or order release. In Customizing for Process Orders, you specify per order
type and plant whether the availability is to be checked automatically.

You can always trigger a manual availability check.

The checking scope is defined via the checking group (in the material master record) and the
valid checking rule (in Customizing for Process Orders).
Together, they define:

Which MRP elements are taken into account in the check

Which inventory categories are taken into account

Whether the replenishment lead time is taken into account.

In Customizing for Process Orders (Define Checking Control), you specify against which quantity
the material availability is to be checked. You can make the following settings:

Planning (open planned independent requirements)
In the check against planned independent requirements, the system only checks the
open planned independent requirement quantities created for the components. This
means that the ATP quantity is not included in this availability check nor are receipts or
stocks.
This type of availability check is most useful:

If assembly planning or phantom assembly planning is carried out for the
components

If quick statements about the availability situation are required and the results from
this check are precise enough

The system uses the open planned independent requirements quantity at component
level to determine a committed quantity, and this quantity is copied to the planned order
header as the committed quantity. In contrast to the availability check according to ATP
logic, however, the committed quantity is not recorded in the dependent requirements.
The planned independent requirements of the components are not consumed by the
committed quantity but by the complete dependent requirements quantity. In further
availability checks, the system can only commit quantities for the amount of planned
independent requirements that have not yet been consumed.
In the availability check against planned independent requirements, the following
dates/quantities are not calculated:

Total confirmation date

Partial confirmation date/ partial confirmation quantity

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Checking the Availability of Material

ATP-Quantity
In the check according to ATP logic, the system checks whether the dependent
requirements of each component are covered by specific receipt and issue elements or
by stock. This check is carried out dynamically, that is, each time you carry out the
check, the system recalculates the current situation. If a quantity can be committed for
the requirement date, the system enters precisely this quantity as the committed quantity
in the dependent requirements, and the ATP quantity for the components is reduced by
the committed quantity. Therefore, in the next availability check, dependent requirements
can only be committed for the amount of the remaining ATP quantity.

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Checking Group

Checking Group
You must allocate those material components for which you want to check material availability to
a checking group. You do this in the material master record.
In the checking group, you can specify:

If the materials to be checked are to be locked during the availability check
If the material lock indicator is set, the committed quantities are kept in a lock table. This
allows for more exact results since the inspection results for an order are taken into
account when checking other orders (before you save the order).

If the normal ATP (available-to-promise) quantity or the cumulative ATP quantity is to be
used during the check
It is a good idea to use the check with the cumulative ATP quantity, because you can
avoid inconsistencies in the commitment situation, which may arise if there is a change in
the date of expected goods receipts.

The checking group is used to group materials that are to be checked according to the same
criteria (see Checking Scope).

You can also switch off the availability check for a particular checking group. Materials
with such checking groups then do not take part in the check.
You must also enter a checking group in the material master record (MRP screens / Sales data
screens) of the assemblies/components for which the availability check against planned
independent requirements is to be carried out. The system uses the checking group to control
whether the check against planned independent requirements is allowed. You can make the
following settings for the checking groups:

No check against planned independent requirements
If this option has been selected for the checking group, no check against planned
independent requirements can be carried out in the planned order for this component.
However, the material can still be included in the availability check according to ATP
logic.

Always check the material against planned independent requirements
If this option has been selected for the checking group, the availability check against
planned independent requirements can always be carried out in the planned order for
this component. At the same time, it is also possible to carry out the availability check
according to ATP logic for this material.

Only check the material against planned independent requirements if the material is a
phantom assembly
If this option has been selected for the checking group, the system can only carry out the
check against planned independent requirements when dealing with phantom
assemblies (special procurement key phantom assembly). At the same time, it is also
possible to carry out the availability check according to ATP logic for this material.

These settings for the checking groups are made in Customizing for Sales and Distribution
(Define Checking Groups), in the Relevance during check against planning field.

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Checking Group

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Check Rule

Check Rule
You can maintain a check rule in Customizing. Check rules are defined for each application.
This means that you can carry out different availability checks for a material in different
applications.
The combination of check group and check rule defines the checking scope. Together, they
define

which MRP elements are to be checked

which inventory categories are to be checked

whether the replenishment lead time is to be taken into account in the check.

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How is the Availability of Materials Determined?

How is the Availability of Materials Determined?
The system determines the availability of materials according to the ATP method (availability-topromise). Using this method, the system checks

Whether the material requirements can be covered on the requirements date

At what point in time the requirements can be covered, if a full coverage of the
requirements is not possible on the requirements date.

Fur more information, refer to Availability Check [Ext.] as well as How is the Availability
Determined? [Ext.] in Production Orders in the Production Planning (PP) component.

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At What Level is the Availability Check Carried Out?

At What Level is the Availability Check Carried Out?
The availability check can be carried out at plant, storage location or batch level. The level at
which the check is actually carried out depends on the data maintained for the material
component.
You maintain this data as follows:
1. On the Material List screen, select the component for which you want to maintain
availability check data.
2. Choose Material → Material details. The Change Process Order: Material -General Data
screen appears.
3. Enter data in the Storage location, Batch or Plant fields. The availability check will be
carried out for the level (storage location, batch or plant) that you maintain on this
screen.
If a check is carried out at storage location or batch level and the components are available, the
system carries out an additional check at plant level.

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Checking the Availability of the Materials in an Order

Checking the Availability of the Materials in an Order
Use
You can check the availability of materials required for producing your order at header level or at
the level of each individual component.
To check material availability, choose Process order → Functions → Availability check →
Material - ATP on the header screen.
The system carries out an availability check in the background and issues a message informing
you whether you have a material shortfall or whether all materials are available.
To find out which shortfalls you have, you can call up the system log for material availability,
which will give you details of the missing material components.

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When is the Availability Checked?

When is the Availability Checked?
You can use either an overall check or an individual check to check the availability of
components.

An overall check determines the availability of all components within an order/collective
order. It can be carried out automatically, or you can trigger it manually.

An individual check determines the availability of a single component. It can only be
triggered manually.

You can also use the order information system to carry out an overall check for
several orders simultaneously (see Collective Availability Checks [Page 113]).
You specify in Customizing whether an availability check is to be carried out automatically. You
can also specify when the checks are to be carried out. The checks can be carried out
automatically, for example, when you create or release a process order. You can also specify
that the availability check is to take place when you save a created or released order. You make
these settings in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations → Availability check → Define
Checking Control).
If an overall check determines that a material is not available on the required date, the system
activates the status “material shortfall” in the order header.
The status "material shortfall" is withdrawn during an overall or individual check if the required
quantity of all components becomes available in the mean time according to ATP (available-topromise) logic.
You find information about the inspection results in the following places:
In the availability log, you find:

The result of the check (whether all components are available)

A list of the missing parts

A list of the reservations that could not be checked (because, for example, material
master data was not maintained)

The log is not saved when you leave order maintenance.
In the missing parts overview, you find

A list of the missing parts

The possibility to process missing parts (by changing, for example, the requirements
quantity or the issue storage location)

The date on which all components are available

The missing parts overview always shows the results of the last availability check,
independent of whether you have left order processing in the mean time.
In the missing parts list, you find

A list of the missing parts

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When is the Availability Checked?

A list of reservations that could not be checked (for example, because material master
data was not maintained)

A list of all checked components if you execute View → Inspection results → All
components.

The date on which other components are available

The missing parts list is not saved if you leave order processing.
If the availability is checked at the same time an order is released, the results of the availability
check are stored in the release log.

If you make changes that could affect the availability of components in the process
order (such as date or quantity changes), this does not automatically trigger a new
availability check. For up-to-date information on any missing parts in an order, you
should restart the availability check manually after you have made the changes.

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Collective Availability Checks

Collective Availability Checks
Use
Within the order information system, you can check several orders simultaneously for material
availability. Collective availability checks always carry out an overall availability check for each of
the orders.

Features
The orders to be checked can be process orders or planned orders. Just as for individual checks,
the checking rule for collective checks is taken from the order type (process orders), or from the
MRP group/plant parameters (planned orders).
The check can be triggered in the segregated object list ‘order headers’ within the order
information system.

Activities
In Customizing for Process Orders, you can define profiles for collective availability checks
( Define Profile for Order Information System).
For more information, refer to Production Orders in the Production Planning (PP) component.
Collective Availability Check: Criteria [Ext.]
Collective Availability Check: Results [Ext.]
Executing Collective Availability Check [Ext.]
Checking the Availability of Capacities [Ext.]

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Carrying Out Availability Checks

Carrying Out Availability Checks
You can carry out an availability check either for the entire order or for individual components in
the material list.
Checking all Material Components in the Order
To check the availability of all material components in the order, choose Process order →
Functions → Availability check → Material - ATP.
The system carries out an availability check. If material components are not available on their
requirements date, the status “Material shortfall” is set in the process order. A dialog box appears
to inform you about this.
Checking Individual Components
To check the availability of a particular material, proceed as follows:
1. On the Material list screen, choose Material → Availability → Check.
A screen appears on which the quantity required on the requirements date and the
confirmed quantity are displayed.
2. Choose ATP quantities to display more detailed information. Choose Period totals to
display the material requirements and receipts of the individual periods.
In both cases, you can:

Display the log (from the dialog box or by choosing Goto → Logs → Mat. availability)

Display the material shortfall list (from the dialog box or by choosing Goto → Material
shortfall → Mat.shortfall list)

Display the material shortfall overview (from the dialog box or by choosing Goto →
Material shortfall → Material shortfall)

The system only sets the status “Material shortfall” in the process order if you carry out an
availability check for all components, that is, for the entire order, and one or more components
are not available on their respective requirements dates.
In Customizing, you can specify that process orders with status “Material shortfall” are blocked
for release.
For more information, see the R/3 Library PP - Material Requirements Planning under Availability
Check [Ext.].

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Checking Collective Availability Online

Checking Collective Availability Online
1. Choose Logistics → Production - process → Process order and then Reporting → Order
information system → Object overview.
2. Enter an overall profile.
The overall profile specifies whether process orders and/or planned orders are read. You
can change the profile defined in Customizing temporarily using the ‘Object selection’
function.

For performance reasons, you should restrict the objects to order headers and
components. If you do not need to display the individual order components, you can
also exclude components from the selection.
3. Enter your criteria for order selection and choose Execute. Choose Order headers.
The system lists the selected orders.
4. Select the orders you want to include in the availability check, and choose Check
availability.
A dialog box for the availability check appears. You can use the Check mode function to
call up another dialog box in which you can specify further parameters to determine the
availability run.
5. Maintain parameters to determine the availability run, and choose Check availability.
The system checks the availability of the orders selected.

To display the availability log for a process order, select the order, and choose Goto
→ Log avail. material.
(As a prerequisite for this, you must have specified that a log is to be generated as a
parameter for the availability run, and a message of the specified levels or higher
must have appeared.

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Preliminary Costing

Preliminary Costing
Use
When you create a process order and after each subsequent change of data in the order, the
system calculates the planned order costs. The planned costs are allocated to cost elements.
For more information, see Process Orders in Cost Object Controlling [Ext.].

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Cost Elements

Cost Elements
A distinction is made between primary and secondary cost elements:
Primary Cost Elements
Costs which are considered as primary cost elements include:

material costs

costs for external procurement

These costs are allocated to the order via primary costs, such as material issues.
Secondary Cost Elements
Costs which are considered to be secondary cost elements include:

production costs

material overhead costs

production overhead costs

These costs are allocated to the order via internal cost allocations.
In the process order, only phases and secondary resources are used to determine manufacturing
costs.

Cost Segments
Cost elements are recorded in cost segments which are managed for each fiscal year. The
system uses the latest start date of the phase or the requirement date of the material to calculate
the period of the fiscal year in which the planned costs of an order are incurred.

Planned/Actual Cost Comparison
Both planned costs and actual costs are recorded in cost segments. Actual costs are updated
when material issues or completion confirmations are carried out for the order, or when a goods
receipt is posted for an externally procured material component, for example. This enables you
to compare planned with actual costs at any stage of order processing.

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Planned Costs for Components

Planned Costs for Components
The costing relevancy indicator of the component determines whether or not costs are
calculated for a material component. This indicator specifies that the component is fully relevant
to costing. If the indicator is not set, the material component is not taken into account in costing.
This indicator is on the material list General Data screen in the order. It is set as a default setting,
but can be reset manually.
The system automatically assigns the material component to the relevant cost element via the
MM Consumption Account Assignment.

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Planned Costs for Materials Manufactured In-House

Planned Costs for Materials Manufactured In-House
If a material is manufactured in-house, the system calculates the planned costs of the material
using the valuation variant and a price stored in the material master record.
In Customizing, a costing variant is defined for each order type and plant. The costing variant
refers to a valuation variant which determines which price from the material master record is
used to calculate the planned costs of a material (for example, the moving average price or the
standard price).

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Planned Costs for Materials Procured Externally

Planned Costs for Materials Procured Externally
For materials procured externally, the system distinguishes between stock components and nonstock components.

Planned costs for a component kept in stock are calculated in exactly the same way as for a
material manufactured in-house.

Planned costs for a component not kept in stock equal the value of the requisition created
for the component. The value of the requisition is calculated via the valuation price and the
price unit of the requisition.

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Manufacturing Costs

Manufacturing Costs
The activities used in an order can be divided into internal activities and external activities.
Planned costs are calculated for both types of activities.
The system calculates the planned costs for the activities in a phase based on the valuation
variant planned for the order type (defined via the costing variant). The values of the individual
activities are specified via the activities defined in cost center accounting.
For more information, see Cost Center Planning [Ext.]in the CO-CCA documentation.

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Planned Costs for Production

Planned Costs for Production
Whether a phase is calculated depends on the control key and the costing relevancy indicator
of the phase.
1. Using the control key of the phase, you can specify whether the phase is relevant to
costing.
2. If the phase is relevant to costing, you can additionally use a costing relevancy indicator
to specify the factor that is to be used to calculate the services performed in a phase or
you can disconnect the phase from costing. Operations are automatically excluded from
costing.

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Planned Costs for Internal Activity

Planned Costs for Internal Activity
To calcuate the planned costs for carrying out a phase, the system first sets up a quantity
structure for the produced activities. In a second step, the quantity structure is valuated with a
price.

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Setting up a Quantity Structure

Setting up a Quantity Structure
The most important data for setting up a quantity structure for an activity is defined in the
resource:

activities

formulas

Every activity is allocated to an activity type. Each activity type is allocated to a formula in the
resource. Using the formula and the standard times in the phase, the system calculates how
much activity is expected for a particular activity type in a particular phase.
As soon as the system has calculated how much activity is expected for a particular activity type,
it can valuate the activity for each activity type.

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Overhead Costs

Overhead Costs
Use
Overhead costs are costs that can only be assigned to the process order indirectly, such as
electricity costs or general storage costs.
Overhead costs are assigned to the process order by way of overhead surcharges, or they are
determined in Activity-Based Costing (see also Dynamic Template Allocation in Actual [Ext.]).
They are updated in the order under the cost elements defined in the costing sheet.

Process Flow
A costing variant is defined in Customizing for each order type and plant. The costing variant
refers to a valuation variant, which refers to a costing sheet. The costing sheet determines what
overhead surcharges are assigned to the order.
The costing sheet specifies:

To which direct costs surcharges are applied

Under which conditions a surcharge is calculated

How high, depending on these conditions, the surcharge percentage is

Which object (for example, a cost center) is credited under which cost element during
actual postings

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Overhead Groups

Overhead Groups
You can make the calculation of overheads dependent on the material to be produced by
specifying an overhead group. Using the overhead group and the costing sheet, the system
determines the percentage used to calculate the overhead costs of the order.
If you want the calculation of overheads to depend on which material is being produced, you
should note the following:

In the Costing screen of the material master record of the material to be produced, you
must have maintained an overhead group which refers to an overhead key.

The costing sheet valid for the order must refer to the above-mentioned overhead key.

You can find more information on overhead surcharges online in the guide to Organizational
Elements Internal Orders, as well as under the menu option “Overhead Surcharges [Ext.]” in the
Customizing menu of product cost accounting.

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Releasing Process Orders

Releasing Process Orders
When you create a process order by choosing Process order → Create, the initial status CRTD
is shown under System status in the main header. However, if an order is only created and not
released, various restrictions apply:

You cannot carry out completion confirmations for the order.

You cannot print shop floor papers.

You cannot create a control recipe.

You cannot carry out goods movements for the order, that is, you cannot withdraw any
material components.

When you release the order, these restrictions are canceled.

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Releasing Process Orders

Releasing Process Orders
You can release a process order in the create or change mode.
On the General Header screen of the application menu for process orders, choose Process order
→ Functions → Release. The status REL is displayed in the System status field.
When you save your entries, the process order is released. All operations and phases in the
order then have the status Released.
Releasing Process Orders Automatically
In the production scheduling profile maintained in Customizing, you can specify that process
orders are released automatically.
You can assign the profile to the process order in the material master record (Work Scheduling
view) of the material to be produced, or via the order type in Customizing.

Automatic batch creation [Page 29] can be carried out for the material you want to
produce.

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How to Release Operations and Phases

How to Release Operations and Phases
You can release individual operations/phases of the process order. If you release an operation,
all the phases belonging to this operation are also released.
The process order is then “partially released” and the status PREL appears under System status
in the main header.
Once you have released all the operations of a process order, the order automatically receives
the status released.
Once you have released all the phases of an operation, the operation is automatically released.
If you delete the last phase of an operation without releasing it, the operation is released.
To release an operation or a phase, proceed as follows:
1. In the Main header screen, select the functions Goto → 2-line operation overview. In
this screen, you can see the status of the orders. The 1-line operation overview does not
show this status.
2. Select the operations/phases you want to release.
3. Now select the menu options Operation → Functions → For operation/phase →
Release.
The system now releases the selected operation(s) and/or phases.
You can also release individual operations and phases from the 1-line operation overview as
follows:
1. In the 1-line operation overview, mark an operation or phase and select Operation →
Functions → Release.
2. The system will release the operation or phase if you have not released the whole
process order.

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Collective Release of Process Orders

Collective Release of Process Orders
You can several select process orders and release them. You can select process orders
according to the following criteria:

order type

plant

MRP controller

material

process order number (interval)

release date (interval)

status profile

Now proceed as follows:
1. Select the menu options Logistics → Production - process → Process order, and then
Process order → Release. Select the relevant plant. If required, you can enter further
criteria for the process order, such as MRP controller, material or status.
2. If you want to select process orders according to their release date, enter the interval
desired in the fields Release and To release.
3. If a release period is already proposed in your user master record, the corresponding
values are automatically taken over into the fields Release and To release.
The system automatically uses the current date as the release date according to which
process orders are selected.
4. Select all the process orders you want to release.
5. Select Release. The system releases the selected process orders.

If you want the system to also create control recipes after the release, select
Release+Control recipe instead of Release.

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Actual and Planned Data after Order Release

Actual and Planned Data after Order Release
When a process order is released, the resource classes are replaced by the selected individual
resources. The characteristics of reserved ingredients, such as the active ingredient potency of a
particular warehouse batch, replace the values taken over from the master recipe.
If scheduling and capacity requirements calculations have been carried out in the rough-cut
planning phase for the planned order, these results can be automatically taken over into the
process order.

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Deviation Recording

Deviation Recording
Use
After a process order has been released, a periodic background job checks whether there are
schedule deviations for operations or phases in process orders. If tolerances are exceeded or
fallen short of, specific users are notified.

Prerequisites
In Customizing for Process Orders (under Operations)

Variants for deviation recording must be defined together with the corresponding data
(selection criteria, tolerances, user to be informed)

A background job for deviation recording must be planned (on the Step screen, enter
program RCOCRDV2).

Only orders that were released after the creation (and planning) of the corresponding variants are
taken into account in deviation recording.

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Inspection Lots/Inspection Characteristics

Inspection Lots/Inspection Characteristics
Use
In a production process, it is sometimes necessary to carry out inspections to ensure the quality
of a product. An inspection lot documents a request for an inspection.
Inspection characteristics are assigned to the inspection lot. An inspection characteristic defines
what needs to be inspected. A distinction is made between qualitative characteristics and
quantitative characteristics.
With in-process inspections, an inspection lot is created for a process order. Characteristics are
assigned to individual operations in the master recipe. The characteristics define the inspection
requirements.
The results of the inspection are then recorded for each inspection characteristic and stored in
the inspection lot.
To find out more about inspection lots, see Inspection Processing.
To find out more about inspection characteristics, see Inspection Planning.

Features
The system distinguishes between planned and unplanned inspection characteristics:

Planned inspection characteristics are maintained in the master recipe

Unplanned inspection characteristics are maintained in QM results recording. You can
branch to QM from the operation/phase overview of the process order.

If inspection data has been maintained and activated in the quality management view of the
material master of the material being produced, then the system automatically creates the
inspection lot as soon as the first operation in the process order is released.
You also have the option of creating an inspection lot manually in the process order.

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How to Create Inspection Lots

How to Create Inspection Lots
If you use a quality management system, you can have your process inspected by generating an
inspection lot for your process order. In this case, this inspection is known as a process
accompanying inspection.
You can only create an inspection lot in a process order if:

The process order is not technically complete

The process order has no deletion flag or deletion indicator in the header

In the material master record of the material you want to produce, you must maintain the
respective QM data. For this purpose

-

call the QM view

-

In flag the field Quality inspection and call function Inspection data

-

On the detail screen QM inspection data, enter an Inspection type (as a rule 03 for
inspection in production) and a Quality score procedure. In addition, you must
enter an x in field Act to activate the QM inspection for this inspection type and this
material.

you have maintained QM data at operation/phase level (inspection characteristics) and
for inspection point processing also at recipe header level in the master recipe that you
have used to create the process order.

You can check the status of a process order in the status line of all process order header
screens. You can also use menu options Order → Functions → Status.

Create manually
To manually create an inspection lot, proceed as follows:
1. In the master recipe go to the Operation overview and select the operations during which
you want an inspection to take place.
2. Select Operation → Quality data. In the section Check points in production, click on
Offset change to change the type of check point. You must have Time-related flagged
here. This means that your inspections will be carried out on a time-related basis.
In addition, enter the Time factor and the Time unit.
3. At operation level, in the Operation overview, you must set up at least one inspection
characteristic for at least one operation or phase.
4. In the process order, you can generate an inspection lot by selecting Process order →
Functions → Generate inspection lot. After you have created the inspection lot, your
order receives status ILC (inspection lot created).

Create automatically
The system automatically generates an inspection lot for a process order when the first operation
or phased in the order is released:

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If the system manages to create an inspection lot, the system status ILCR (Inspection lot
created) is set in the header of the process order.

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How to Create Inspection Lots

If the inspection lot could not be created, the system status ILNC (Inspection lot not
created) is set.

You can select and process all orders in which the generating of an inspection lot
failed by using a selection profile and searching for all orders with the status ILNC

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How to Delete Inspection Lots

How to Delete Inspection Lots
You can only delete an inspection lot, if

the operations in the process order do not contain any unplanned characteristics

no inspection results have been recorded in the inspection lot

To delete an inspection lot...
1. Call up the process order.
2. Select the menu options Process order → Functions → Inspection lot → Delete Insp. lot.
The system automatically deletes the inspection lot for the process order.

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Partial Lot Creation from the Process Order

Partial Lot Creation from the Process Order
Use
You can create partial lots of material manufactured in a process order using the functionality of
the Quality Management (QM) application component. You may want to do this if you produce
separate individual quantities of the material in a process order, due to the fact that you, for
example:

Manufacture the material simultaneously using different resources

Manufacture the material at different times using the same resource

Prerequisites
The Quality Management (QM) application component has been installed in your system.

Activities
To inspect partial lots, you must assign inspection characteristics to your operations in the master
recipe or process order. You must then link the master inspection characteristics to general
characteristics that you used to classify your material.
If your material is to be handled in batches, you can assign individual batch numbers to the
partial lots when you record results in QM.
For more information, see Master Inspection Characteristics in the Quality Planning (QM-QP)
component.

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Creating Inspection Characteristics

Creating Inspection Characteristics
Use
Inspection characteristics are normally copied over from the master recipe. You can, however,
create inspection characteristics in QM results recording. These are known as ‘unplanned’
inspection characteristics.

Procedure
1. Call up the process order.
2. Branch to the operation overview and select the operation to which you want to assign an
inspection characteristic.
3. Select the menu options Operation → Functions → Unplanned insp. char.

You can only create an inspection characteristic after an inspection lot has been
created and saved for the order and after the order has been released.

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How to Delete Operations With Inspection Characteristics

How to Delete Operations With Inspection
Characteristics
If an inspection characteristic has been allocated to an operation (system status ICHA), you can
delete the operation providing

that no unplanned inspection characteristic is assigned to the operation

QM results (status QMDA) have not yet been recorded for the operation.

To delete an operation with status ICHA...
1. Delete the inspection lot allocated to the order.
2. Delete the operation in question.
3. Regenerate the inspection lot
This will ensure that the inspection characteristics of the remaining operations remain in
the process order.

Remember, if you delete an operation which has already been released, the system
activates the system status DLFL in the operation, but leaves the operation in the
operation overview.

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Printing

Printing
Use
In the SAP System, the printing of shop floor papers is carried out in the form of lists. A list can
be a complete printout of a material provision list, for example, or a printout of time tickets.

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Printing Shop Floor Papers

Printing Shop Floor Papers
Use
You can print shop floor papers for process orders.

Prerequisites
The process order(s) must be released.

Features
You can print the following:

Operations of a process order

Operation control ticket

Goods issue slip

Job ticket

Pick list

Completion confirmation slip

Wage slip

You can reprint all these papers at any time.

Print Functions
You can only print those papers that have been defined for your print settings in Customizing.
Under Process order → Settings → List control, you can display the lists of papers that your
profile allows you to print.
In Customizing for Process Orders (Process Order → Operations → Define Print Control), you
can define

Which lists may be printed from the process order
You can specify, for example, that all the shop floor papers are created during order
processing, but that the printing of the lists can be limited by choosing Process order →
Functions → Print.

Which lists a user is allowed to print
You can specify, for example, that user “A” is only allowed to print material provision lists
and withdrawal slips, and that user “B” is only allowed to print time tickets and completion
confirmation slips.

The data a list is to contain
You can specify which report is to be used to create a list. The report processes the
available data and prints it.

The layout of the list

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Printing Shop Floor Papers
You can, for example, define a form which prints a bar code on the completion
confirmation slip for a particular order type.

The spool parameters for printing
You can use the spool parameters to define whether you want the lists printed
immediately or stored in the spool and the number of days you want the list stored in the
spool before it is deleted.

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External Processing

External Processing
Purpose
You can use external processing to have individual process steps, that is operations or phases,
carried out by a different company. This process describes how externally processed steps are
treated in order processing.

Prerequisites
You have installed the application component Purchasing (MM-PUR).
The relevant purchasing master data has been created there (see the R/3 Library MMPurchasing, section Master Records from the Purchasing View).
The following data has been maintained for the phase or secondary resource (refer to External
Processing Data Maintenance [Ext.]):

A control key that allows external processing

The detail data on external processing

In subcontracting phases, allocations of the material components to be provided

Process Flow
1. When you create a process order, the external processing data of the phases and
secondary resources is copied to the order. You can still change this data in the process
order.
2. When you save the process order, the system creates a purchase requisition for
externally processed phases and secondary resources for the quantity of the phase or
secondary resource.
Depending on the data entered in the master recipe, the purchase requisition created is
of type Standard purchase order or Subcontracting and is assigned to the process order
account. In addition to the external processing data, the system also copies the short text
for the phase or secondary resource to the purchase requisition.
The purchase requisition number is copied to the external processing data of the phase
or secondary resource in the process order (see General Data detail screen).

If you later change the dates and quantities in the order, these changes are
automatically copied to the purchase requisition. However, they are not copied to an
existing purchase order.
3. Purchasing converts the purchase requisitions into purchase orders.
4. By monitoring the material stocks to be provided to a vendor, inventory management
determines whether all material components in a reservation are available. If required, it
makes a transfer posting to this stock for the material to be provided (movement type
541).
5. The vendor externally processes the phase or secondary resources.

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External Processing
After external processing has been completed, you post a goods receipt for the In
subcontracting phases, the allocated material components are automatically provided in
the purchase order.
In subcontracting secondary resources, you must enter the material components to be
provided to the vendor in the purchase order yourself.
In the process order, the system sets the P.O. exists (Purchase order exists) indicator in
the external processing data for the phase or secondary resource.
6. warehouse for the purchase requisition (movement type 101).
The following activities are carried out at the same time:

In the case of subcontracting purchase orders, the system posts a goods issue for the
material to be provided (movement type 543).

The quantity from the goods receipt is copied to the external processing data of the
phase or secondary resource in the process order.

The phase or secondary resources receives status EOPD, External operation partly
delivered or EODL, External operation delivered

The process order account is charged with the costs for external processing and the
material to be provided

See also:
R/3 Library MM- Purchasing Guide

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Goods Movements

Goods Movements
Use
Before you can start producing a material, all the necessary material components have to be
issued from stock via goods issues. The delivery to stock of the manufactured material is
documented in the system via a goods receipt. Both types of goods movement trigger the
following transactions in the system:

A material document is created to record the goods movement.

The stock quantities of the material are updated.

The stock values are updated in the material master record and the stock/consumption
accounts are updated.

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Planned Withdrawal of Material Components

Planned Withdrawal of Material Components
Use
When a process order is created, the system automatically creates a reservation for the
necessary material components. Each material component in the order is dealt with under a
different item number in the reservation. The reserved materials cannot be issued from stock until
the operation or phase to which they are assigned in the order has been released.
There are two ways in which you can post a goods movement:

Manually in inventory management

As part of process control by transferring a material consumption message (see also R/3
Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.]; PI CONS)

If the ‘backflush’ indicator is set for a component contained in the material list, the goods issue is
posted automatically when you create the confirmation for the respective phase.
For more information on how to control whether a material is backflushed, see Backflushing
[Ext.].
The withdrawal of the components causes the value of the components issued to be debited to
the order for each cost element and origin as actual costs.
To issue material components from stock, you can either refer to the order number or to the
reservation number. The reservation number is displayed in the general data screen of the
components.

Procedure
To issue material components from stock, proceed as follows:
1. Choose Logistics → Materials management → Inventory management → Goods movement
→ Goods issue.
2. Choose → To reservation or → To order. A dialog box appears in which you can either
directly enter the reservation or the order number, or search for them via the specified search
criteria.
3. Enter the reservation number or order number directly, or select one using the search
criteria. Choose Continue.

The system automatically proposes the movement type 261 (goods issue for order) as
well as all the material components in the order that are not marked as bulk material or
as material to be backflushed.

4. Check the list of material components proposed for issue. Save the goods issue.

If you do not refer to a reservation or to a process order when you post a goods
issue, the reservations remain open and the required quantity reserved, even though
the requirement no longer physically exists.

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Use

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Unplanned Withdrawal of Components for an Order

Unplanned Withdrawal of Components for an Order
Use
You can withdraw materials for an order even if the materials are not listed as components in the
order. These “unplanned withdrawals” cause the actual costs of the order to be updated.

Procedure
To carry out unplanned withdrawals for a process order, proceed as follows:
1. In the initial screen, select Logistics → Materials management → Inventory management and
enter movement type 261 (goods issue for order).
2. Enter the storage location and the plant from which the goods are to be issued. Press Enter.
The system automatically branches to the screen Enter goods issue: New items.
3. Now enter the number of your order. For each material you want to be issued, enter:
-

the material number

-

the quantity

-

the quantity unit
Batch
If the material you want issued is subject to handling in batches, you will have to either
enter a specific batch number or carry out batch determination. In order to perform batch
determination, you must either:

-

set up a batch search strategy or

-

enter an asterisk (*) in the field Batch.
The system will find batches of this material, which you can then copy over to your list of
items.

4. Post the goods issue.

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Delivery to the Warehouse

Delivery to the Warehouse
The data required to deliver the manufactured material to the warehouse is contained in the
header screen Goods receipt/Valuation of the process order header.
This screen contains the following information:

Underdeliv. tol.: Here, you can enter a percentage for the tolerance of underdelivery. If
a goods receipt quantity is within the underdelivery tolerance, the receipt is regarded as
a partial delivery and accepted without a corresponding warning message. If the goods
receipt quantity is less than the expected quantity minus the underdelivery tolerance, the
system issues a corresponding message.

Overdeliv. tol.: Here, you can enter a percentage for the tolerance of overdelivery. The
system does not accept a goods receipt which is greater than the order quantity plus the
overdelivery tolerance. If this case arises, the system issues an error message during
the posting of the goods receipt.

Unlimited: If this indicator is set, unlimited overdeliveries are permitted. The system
does not issue any warnings with regard to the quantity of the goods receipt.

Quality inspection: If this indicator is set, the system automatically proposes for the
material to be posted to stock in quality inspection when the receipt posting is carried
out.

Goods receipt indicator (GR): If this indicator is set, a goods receipt is expected for the
process order. This means that the process order is relevant for inventory management.

Delivery complete indicator: This indicator is set automatically by the system as soon
as a delivery is posted within the delivery tolerances. You can, however, set this
indicator manually during a goods receipt posting.

Non-valuated goods receipt indicator (GR non-val): This indicator is set
automatically by the system if the order is assigned to an account other than that of the
material to be produced (for example to a sales order).

Storage location: If a storage location is maintained in the material master of the
material being produced, the system proposes it in this field.

If desired, you can also maintain Batch, Goods recipient and Unloading point as additional
information for the goods receipt.

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Automatic Goods Receipt

Automatic Goods Receipt
Use
In the control key of an operation or phase, you can specify that the system should automatically
post the finished material to stock when the operation or phase is confirmed.
An automatic goods receipt can only be posted for one operation or phase per order. You should
therefore make sure that only one operation or phase in the order (normally the last operation or
phase) has a control key that specifies automatic goods receipt.
If several operations or phases in an order have a control key that specifies automatic goods
receipt, the system issues a warning message when you confirm one of them. In this case, you
have to post the goods receipt manually.

As a rule, you should not use this function in process manufacturing, for the following
reasons:
In order to calculate the activities performed, the quantity processed during an
operation is confirmed. In PP-PI, as a rule, this quantity does not correspond to the
yield.
When you use process messages from process control (PI PROD), automatic goods
receipts should not be used.

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What Checks are Carried Out During a Goods Receipt?

What Checks are Carried Out During a Goods Receipt?
When a material is delivered to stock after production, the system carries out the following
checks:

Goods receipt indicator

The system checks

whether a goods receipt is permitted for the order (indicator GR) and

whether or not the goods receipt is to be valuated (indicator GR non-val).

Under-/Overdelivery tolerance

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If the delivered quantity is not within the under-/overdelivery tolerances specified in
the order header screen Goods receipt/Valuation, the system issues a warning or an
error message.

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Delivery to Stock: Costs

Delivery to Stock: Costs
When you deliver the material to stock, the system determines the costs of the material produced
in the following way:

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If the price control indicator in the material master record is set to “S”, the delivered
quantity is multiplied by the standard price in the material master record of the material
produced.

If the price control indicator in the material master record is set to “V”, the delivered
quantity is multiplied by the price defined by the valuation variant.

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Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Material Master

Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Material Master
The following fields of the material master record (Accounting view) are updated when you post a
goods receipt for the material:

Total stock quantity
The total valuated stock for the material.

Total value
The value of all the valuated stock of the material.

Moving average price
Price which is calculated according to the corresponding goods movements and invoices
created for the material.
The system automatically determines the moving average price by dividing the material
value in the stock account by the total warehouse stock of a plant.

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Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Order

Delivery to Stock: Updates in the Order
The following fields are updated in the header screen Date/Quantity overview and in the main
header of the order when you post a goods receipt for the material produced:

Confirmed quantity
The total quantity of the material that has been delivered to stock.

Confirmed finish date
The date of the last goods receipt for the material.

Order status
The status “partially delivered” is activated in the order until

the total quantity delivered to stock reaches the order quantity (minus the
underdelivery tolerance), or

the Del. compl. indicator is set manually during a goods receipt.

The status “final delivery” is activated in the order as soon as

the total quantity delivered to stock for the order is within the tolerance limits of the
order, or

the Del. compl. indicator is set manually during a goods receipt.

The status “final delivery” specifies that no further goods receipt is expected for the
order. However, it is still possible to post goods receipts for remaining quantities.

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How to Post a Goods Receipt

How to Post a Goods Receipt
To deliver an order to stock, proceed as follows:
1. Starting in the initial screen, select the menu options Logistics → Materials management
→ Inventory management and then Goods movement → Goods receipt → For order.
2. Select the menu options Movement type → Order to warehouse (101).

The system displays the movement type in the corresponding field. Check the entry, add
the order number, the plant and the storage location and then press ENTER.

You reach the screen Goods Receipt for Order: New Items 0001. The system proposes
the following quantity:

if you are not using inspection accompanying manufacture, or inspections for operations
or phases, the planned quantity is proposed from the order.

if you are inspecting using inspection points, the system proposes those quantities
recorded during results recording for the operation that feature the indicator ‘last partial
lot allocation’.
If the material is subject to handling in batches, the material quantity per batch is
proposed.

Note, that, in this case, the value derived in PP-PI should be ignored, as no
confirmations are normally generated by QM.
3. Enter the quantity that you want to deliver to stock.

If the process order is finished, set the indicator “final delivery”.

If only a part of the order quantity is delivered to stock, do not set the indicator.

4. Save the goods receipt.
You can find further information on goods movements in the MM Inventory Management Guide.
A goods receipt can also be generated using process messages on the produced material
quantity from process control. See also R/3 Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.].

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Completion Confirmations in Process Orders

Completion Confirmations in Process Orders
Use
A completion confirmation documents the processing status of orders, operations, phases and
individual capacities. As such, completion confirmations are used to monitor the progress of
process orders.
A completion confirmation is used to record

The quantity processed in a phase

How much activity is used to carry out a phase

The actual dates of a phase

The resource at which the phase is carried out

Who carried out the phase.

Precise completion confirmations are important in realistic and exact production planning.
A completion confirmation can cause:

A reduction in the capacity load on the resource

An update of the costs, based on the confirmed data

An update of the order data, such as times or order status

Withdrawal postings for backflushed components

An automatic goods receipt (only for one phase per order)

MRP relevant update of the expected yield in the order.

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Which Objects Can Be Confirmed?

Which Objects Can Be Confirmed?
You can enter completion confirmations for:

Orders

Phases

Secondary resources

As costing, scheduling, and capacity requirements planning is only carried out on the basis of the
confirmation data of the phases, only phases and not operations can be confirmed. At present,
an operation is not automatically confirmed when you confirm its phases.

Make sure that you assign material components for which backflushing has been
defined to phases only. When the respective phase is confirmed, the goods issue for
this component is posted.
For information on the confirmation of phases and secondary resource, see R/3 Integration Using
Process Messages [Ext.].

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What Data Can You Confirm?

What Data Can You Confirm?
You can confirm the following data for a phase:

Quantities
You can confirm the quantity processed in a phase.

Activity data
You can confirm the activity used to carry out the phase, such as the duration of the
processing time.
You can also enter estimates for the remaining activity to be used. These estimates can
then be used in scheduling and capacity planning to adapt the standard values of the
phase.

Times and dates
You can confirm when the processing of the phase was started or finished.

Personnel data
You can, for example, confirm the personnel number of the employee, or the number of
employees needed to carry out the phase.

Resource
You can confirm the resource at which the phase was carried out.

Posting date
A posting date is entered for every completion confirmation. The system automatically
proposes the current date as the posting date. You can, however, enter a different date.

Goods movements
You can post planned and unplanned goods movements with every confirmation, in the
Material overview screen. For more information, see Goods Movements and
Confirmations [Page 168].

You can also enter a long text to describe the completion confirmation.

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Fixed Parameters in Completion Confirmations

Fixed Parameters in Completion Confirmations
Use
You can enter settings for completion confirmations both in Customizing (fixed parameters) and
in the actual confirmation (Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations [Page 160]).
In Customizing, you can specify the following for phase confirmations:

Whether partial or final confirmation should be proposed by the system

Whether a costing log should be displayed if errors occur during the calculation of costs

The default time unit for completion confirmations

Whether the underdelivery and/or overdelivery tolerances of the order should be checked
during confirmation

Whether the system should react if the phase/operation sequence is not adhered to

Whether previously confirmed data, or data which is planned to be confirmed should be
displayed during confirmation

Whether an error log is displayed for goods movements with errors (for
backflushing/automatic goods receipts), and that you can correct the errors in the material
overview before posting the confirmation

Whether the system should check that the date is in the future.

These settings are fixed parameters that can only be maintained in Customizing. You can,
however, display these settings in the confirmation function by selecting the menu options
Parameters → Fixed parameters in the Process order confirmation screen.

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Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations

Variable Parameters in Completion Confirmations
Use
You can enter settings for completion confirmations both in Customizing (fixed parameters) and
in the actual confirmation function (variable parameters).
In the confirmation function, you can specify the following during each confirmation:

Whether a partial or final confirmation should be carried out

The confirmation detail screen to which the system should automatically branch after the
initial screen

Whether previously confirmed phases should be displayed during a confirmation, or only
open phases

Whether an error log should be displayed for goods movements with errors

Whether an error log should be displayed if errors occur during the calculation of actual costs

Whether only phases which require confirmation should be displayed, in other words, phases
whose control key specifies that they must be confirmed.

These settings are variable parameters which you can display and maintain in the confirmation
function. Each time you carry out a new confirmation, the system adapts the settings to the
parameters maintained in Customizing (fixed parameters).
To display or change variable parameters, choose menu options Parameters → Variable
parameters.

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Entering Completion Confirmations

Entering Completion Confirmations
Use
You can confirm data

For a phase
You have two options:

To confirm quantities, durations, activities or personnel data, enter a confirmation for
a time confirmation ticket.

To confirm specific times (such as start or finish processing), enter a confirmation for
a time event.
When you confirm specific events, the system calculates the confirmed duration (for
example, the time between start and finish of processing counts as the duration of
processing).
The following applies for time event confirmations:

Every confirmed time event is assigned internally to a record type group. Processing
time events are assigned to record type group 2.
Each record type group can be assigned to one or more parameters in the standard
value key of the resource (such as machine time). The link between time event and
parameter ensures that the calculated duration counts as an activity (for example,
when calculating the actual costs of the phase/operation).

The processing of a phase requires both machine time and labor time. The time
event confirmation for the processing section of the phase can take effect on activity
“machine time” and on “processing time”, if you enter record type group “2” for the
parameters “machine” and “labor” in the standard value key.

You can only confirm quantities when you confirm time events.
You can only confirm activities that cannot be assigned to a particular record type
group by using the time event “Variable activity”. The confirmed value is assigned to
a corresponding value in the standard value key parameters.
You can generate confirmations as follows:

Manually, during order processing. This applies to all the above data.

As part of process control by transferring messages on phase status. See also R/3
Integration Using Process Messages [Ext.].
For the individual confirmations, you have the following options:
Time Event Confirmation for Phases [Ext.]
Time Event Confirmation for Secondary Resources [Ext.]

Only in exceptional cases as part of inspection results recording from QM, only when
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Use
return to the confirmation transaction, but no confirmation is automatically transferred
from results recording.
See also QM documentation on inspection management/inspection recording. As a
rule, you should not use this method in process manufacturing, for the following
reasons:
- QM returns the yield. In process industries, this quantity as a rule, does not
equal the processing quantity. However, the processing quantity is required to
determine the activity required.
- Simultaneous confirmation from QM and process control (message on phase
status) is not allowed.
For this reason, the indicator that controls the recording of confirmations
issued by QM, is preassigned ‘no confirmation’ in PP-PI.

For an order

If you enter a confirmation at order header level, the system confirms all the
operations and phases in the order which, according to their control key, can be
confirmed or must be confirmed. These phases are confirmed in proportion to the
quantity entered at header level.

Within process control, you can have the relevant orders confirmed during Material
Flow Postings Between Process Orders [Ext.].

For several phases at the same time

If you use the collective entry function, you can confirm the following data for several
phases from different orders at the same time:

yield

reason for variance

personnel number

resource

For each phase, you can also specify whether the entry is a final confirmation.

If, during a collective confirmation, you set the indicator “final confirmation” for a
phase, and the indicator “Open reservations” is set in the confirmation parameters in
Customizing, the system automatically clears any open reservations for that phase.

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How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level

How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level
To reach the screen for entering completion confirmations, select the menu options Logistics →
Production -process → Process order.

Confirming a single phase
To enter a confirmation at phase level, proceed as follows:
1. Select the menu option Confirmation → Enter for phase → Time ticket or Time event.
2. Specify the phase you want to confirm:

Enter the completion confirmation number, or the order number, and phase number.
This identifies the phase to be confirmed.

If you enter only the order number, the system lists the operations and phases contained
in the order. Select the phase you want to confirm.

3. Specify which data you want to confirm (for example, dates).
You have three possibilities:

Select the menu option Goto and the corresponding screen:
→ Quantity/activity
→ Dates
→ Personnel data
→ Qty/Activity/Forecast

Press ENTER.
The system automatically branches to the screen which is specified in the screen
control (Parameters → Variable parameters).

Select the menu options Goto → Actual data.
You can now enter quantity/activity and personnel data in the same screen.

4. Choose between final confirmation and partial confirmation.

If you want to confirm data for a phase that is only partially processed, select the
indicator Partial confirmation.

If you want to confirm data for a phase that is finished, and you wish to simultaneously
clear any open reservations for the phase, mark the indicator Clear open reservs.
You can also switch between partial/final confirmation via the menu options Parameters
→ Variable parameter.

A partial confirmation can be especially useful if you work with very large lots.
5. Enter the data you want to confirm.
If not all the fields which you need for completion confirmation are available on the
screen, you can reach the required fields or the required screens via the function keys or
via the menu.

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How to Enter Confirmations at Phase Level
6. If required, press the function key Material overview to check or change any goods
movements that are to be posted with the confirmation.
7. Save your completion confirmation.

Confirming several phases
For collective entry, proceed as follows:
1. Select the menu options Confirmation → Enter → For phase → Collective entry.
2. In this screen, you can enter a new completion confirmation in each line. Enter the
relevant confirmation numbers and the data you want to confirm. Each line represents
one confirmation and is assigned a separate confirmation counter.
3. Save your confirmation.

The activities of collective confirmations are calculated using the confirmed quantity
and the planned standard values.

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How to Enter Confirmations at Order Level

How to Enter Confirmations at Order Level
To enter a confirmation at header level, proceed as follows:
1. Select the menu options Logistics → Production - process → Process order, and then
Confirmation → Enter for order.
2. Enter the order number and press ENTER.
3. Enter the data that you want to confirm.

As an alternative to entering yield, you can enter a degree of processing.

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Entering Collective Confirmations

Entering Collective Confirmations
Prerequisites
You can preset the following values (in Customizing for Process Orders, choose Operations →
Confirmation → Define Parameters for Collective Confirmation).

Identifying the confirmation
You can identify an individual confirmation either by the confirmation number or the order
number/phase number.

Suggesting actual data
You can specify at which time (when entering, when saving) quantities or activities to be
suggested. By default, no quantities are suggested and activities are determined when
you save. Personnel data and dates are always suggested.

Procedure
1. Choose Logistics → Production process → Process order.
2. Choose Confirmation → Enter for phase → Collective confirm.
The Collective Entry: Time Ticket screen appears.
3. Enter the data that is to be valid for all confirmations (for example, unit of measure,
personnel number) in the Default values section and choose Enter. You can save these
default values as user-dependent so that they appear the next time you log on. You can
also delete these default values.
Enter your confirmations. Each line corresponds to a confirmation and contains fields
that are also available when you make a single entry for a time ticket confirmation.
You can determine how the table is to be set up (see Table Controls [Ext.]).
You can change the default type of confirmation identification during the input dialog. To
do this, choose Edit → Other view.

You can have the system suggest actual data (quantities, activities, dates, personnel
data). To do so, select the relevant confirmations, choose Actual data, select the relevant
actual data, and choose Continue. This data overwrites data that you may have already
entered.
4. Save your confirmations.

You can go to the actual data screen by choosing Goto → Actual data. You have the
complete functionality of time ticket confirmation. From this screen, you can go to the
detail screens and to the goods movement overview. If several confirmations have been
selected, you can switch between the individual confirmations.

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Entering Collective Confirmations

You can branch to the goods movement overview from the collective entry screen
(choose Goto → Goods movements). On this screen, the goods movements for the
selected confirmations are displayed.
You can check and, if necessary, change the goods movements. When you go back to
the collective entry screen, the Goods movement already determined indicator is set for
the selected confirmations. When you save the confirmations, the goods movements are
also posted.
For more information, see Goods Movement Overview [Ext.].

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Goods Movements and Confirmations

Goods Movements and Confirmations
Use
When you create a confirmation, you can also post planned or unplanned goods movements.
You can post goods movements in PP-PI using process messages from process control. If you
use this function, you should not trigger material postings using confirmations.

Planned Goods Movements
The following types of planned goods movements exist:

Backflushing
If you confirm an order or a phase with components that have the backflushing indicator
set, the system automatically posts a goods issue for these components.

Automatic goods receipt
If the control key of the phase being confirmed specifies automatic goods receipt, the
system automatically posts the produced material to stock.

Automatic goods receipt should not normally be carried out in process manufacturing
for the following reasons:
The operation quantity (quantity confirmed) does not normally correspond to the
quantity produced,
If you want to use process messages (PI_PROD) to report material quantities, the
goods receipt is triggered by the corresponding message (exception: inspection point
processing in QM). See Process Management, R/3 Integration Using Process
Messages [Ext.].

An automatic goods receipt can only be posted for one phase/operation per order.
You should therefore make sure that only one phase per order (usually the last one)
has a control key that specifies automatic goods receipt).

Unplanned Goods Movements
You can branch from a confirmation to a material overview. In Customizing, you can specify
whether the overview lists all the components assigned to the phase/operation, or only those
which are to be backflushed/for which an automatic goods receipt is to be posted. You can enter
any number of planned and/or unplanned goods movements in the material overview.

If you use process messages (PI_CONS, PI_PROD) to report material quantities,
you should not post goods movements within order confirmation.
If, for some reason, errors occurred in the goods movement (for example, not enough material in
stock when the backflushing occurs), you can process the incorrect goods movements either

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Use

directly in the confirmation transaction or in a separate transaction for processing goods
movements with errors.

Correction in the confirmation
You can set up Customizing (error handling indicator) so that the system displays an
error log before saving a confirmation, if goods movements errors have occurred. You
can then correct the errors by branching to the material overview before you save the
confirmation.

The following restriction applies to the material overview:
If the confirmation parameter “All components” is set and you branch to the material
overview before you save, the system lists all components in the material overview. If
the confirmation parameter “All components” is not set, or if you do not branch to the
material overview, the system only displays components that are to be backflushed
or for which an automatic goods receipt should occur.

Correction by reworking
If you want to correct goods movements errors later, you can use the reworking function. For
further information on this function, see Reworking Goods Movements [Page 170].

Goods Movements in the Background
Using Running Confirmation Processes Separately [Page 174] in Customizing, you can specify
that planned goods movements (backflushing/automatic goods receipt) should be temporarily
stored when you post the confirmation and posted in the background.
You can start the temporarily stored goods movements periodically using a background job with
the program CORUPROC, and post these goods movements.
You can configure the background job in Process Order Customizing via Operations → Schedule
background jobs.

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Reworking Goods Movements

Reworking Goods Movements
Use
This function enables you to correct goods movements errors arising from confirmations, and to
carry out the goods movement again.

Features
This function enables you to:

Display errors in detail

Examples of errors are: missing storage location, missing batch, blocked material
data, too little stock, posting in the incorrect period.

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Correct goods movements

Carry out goods movements again

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How to Rework Goods Movements

How to Rework Goods Movements
1. Change to the process order menu.
2. Wählen Sie Environment → Material movement → Rework goods mvmnts
3. Enter the selection criteria for the desired goods movements, and choose Execute.
4. Select the goods movements you want to rework.
5. Choose Environment → Display errors to display the errors in detail. You leave the
message by choosing Enter.
6. Select the desired goods movements, and make any necessary changes to them (Goto
→ Change details, for example).
7. Choose Save to carry out the goods movements again.

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Reworking Actual Costs

Reworking Actual Costs
Use
This function enables you to redetermine actual costs if an error has occurred during a previous
determination of actual costs during confirmation.

Features
This function enables you to:

Output an error log on the error details

Examples of errors are: missing activity price, invalid cost center, or incorrect
allocation of activity type to cost center.

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How to Redetermine Actual Costs

How to Redetermine Actual Costs
1. Change to the process order menu.
2. Choose Confirmation → Rework actual costs.
3. Use selection criteria to choose the confirmations you want to rework.
4. Select the desired confirmations, and choose Goto → Error log.
5. Open a new session, and correct the error.
6. Return to the session for reworking confirmations.
7. Select the confirmations that you changed.
8. Choose Save to redermine the actual costs.

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Running Confirmation Processes Separately

Running Confirmation Processes Separately
In Customizing, you can make settings that specify when processes triggered by a confirmation
should run. You can use this setting to improve system performance when entering
confirmations.
You can specify that the processes run:

Immediately online

Immediately in the update task

Later as a background job.

You can influence the following confirmation processes that you can:

Posting automatic goods receipt

Backflushing components

Determination of actual costs.

In addition, you can specify in Customizing whether these confirmation processes are to be
carried out in parallel, or consecutively. You can specify the following:

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Number of parallel tasks

The server to be used.

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Canceling Completion Confirmations

Canceling Completion Confirmations
Use
It is possible to cancel data previously confirmed.

What can you Cancel?
Every completion confirmation entered in the system can be canceled. Thus, if you entered three
confirmations for a phase, you can also cancel three confirmations and all confirmations
automatically created by them.

You also activate user stati (depending on the reason for the malfunction) when
confirming a phase. The stati are not automatically canceled when you cancel the
confirmation.
You can also access this function from within a PI sheet. See also: Canceling Order
Confirmations [Ext.].

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How to Cancel a Completion Confirmation

How to Cancel a Completion Confirmation
If you want to cancel a confirmation, you must first specify which completion confirmations you
want to cancel:

If only one confirmation has been entered for a phase, you only have to identify the
phase.

If several confirmations have been entered for a phase, you must also specify which
completion confirmation you want to cancel.

Proceed as follows:
1. Select the menu options Confirmation → Cancel.
2. Specify the phase for which you want to enter a cancellation:

By entering the completion confirmation number or the order number and the phase
number, you clearly identify the phase.

If you enter only the order number, the system branches to a screen with the
corresponding phases/operations and their confirmations. Select the phase in question
or the confirmation to be canceled.

3. Press ENTER.

If several confirmations exist for the phase, the system branches to a screen which lists
the confirmations. Mark the completion confirmation you want to cancel. Branch to the
corresponding detail screen.

If only one confirmation exists for the phase, the system branches directly to the detail
screen of the confirmation.

4. Check the data to be canceled in the detail screen and save the cancellation.
5. When the cancellation is saved, you can enter a reason for the cancellation in a long
text.

To reverse the cancellation of a confirmation you must manually reenter a
confirmation.

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How to Display Canceled Confirmations

How to Display Canceled Confirmations
If you want to display confirmation cancellations for the phases of an order, you must call up the
completion confirmations in display mode. Proceed as follows:
1. Select the menu options Confirmation → Display.
2. Enter the number of the order in question.
The system branches to an overview screen in which all confirmations and cancellations
entered for the order are listed.

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Decoupling of Confirmation Processes

Decoupling of Confirmation Processes
Use
When you enter confirmations, various processes are triggered (goods movements are posted,
actual costs are determined) that may affect the response time of the confirmation dialog.
You can avoid this by decoupling these processes from the actual confirmation. Decoupling is set
up in Customizing.

Features
You can decouple the following confirmation processes:

Automatic goods receipt

Backflushing

Actual cost determination

You can define when each of these processes is to run:

In dialog mode, the processes are triggered immediately. The next dialog step can only
take place when all processes have finished.

If an error occurs during actual cost determination or goods movement, you can remove the
cause of the error or cancel the processing of the confirmation.

If you are working in the update task, the next dialog step is possible immediately. The
data for the processes is passed to the update task without delay and is processed
immediately.

If the processes are background jobs, they are not executed immediately. The next
dialog step can take place right away.

If you do not make any special settings, processing takes place as usual in dialog mode.

Background Processing
For background processing, note the following:

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Future change records are saved for the individual processes. These future change
records contain all the necessary information for processing the background job later
(see Processing Selected Confirmation Processes). You cannot set deletion flags (status
DFVL) for orders with future change records.

In the background job, you schedule the CORUPROC program with a variant. You use
the variant to define which processes are to be executed in the job.You schedule the job
in Customizing for Process Orders (Operations → Schedule Background Jobs). For an
example of when you can schedule the processes, see Example: Background
Processing.You can process future change records in parallel (see Settings for
Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation). This is useful if a large number
of future change records have to be processed in a limited amount of time.

Due to time differences from decoupling, data inconsistencies can arise, which disappear
when processing of all future change records is finished. This is the case for instance, if
the the confirmed quantity of a material has not yet been posted to stock by the
automatic goods receipt.

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Decoupling of Confirmation Processes

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Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation

Settings for Decoupling Processes Carried Out During
Confirmation
You can make the following settings for decoupling:

Execution time

You summarize the following settings in a key term for process control:

Which processes are to be decoupled (automatic goods receipt, backflushing, actual
costs determination)?

When is the process to run (dialog mode, update task, background job)?

To define the control key for process control, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define
Time for Confirmation Processes in Customizing for Process Orders.

Confirmation parameters

In the confirmation parameters, you assign a key term for process control of the confirmation
process to an order type in a plant. This activates decoupling for the order type.
To enter the confirmation parameters, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define
Confirmation Parameters in Customizing for Process Orders.

Parallel processing

If you are working with background jobs, you enter the confirmation processes that are to be
processed in parallel here.
The confirmation processes are divided into two groups: goods movement (goods receipt
and goods issue) and actual cost determination. For each group, you can determine the
following parameters:

Number of parallel tasks

The server to be used

Maximum number of items per material document (for goods movements)

To maintain the paralleling type, choose Operations → Confirmation → Define Paralleling
Type for Confirmation Processes in Customizing for Process Orders.

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Example: Background Processing

Example: Background Processing
If confirmations processes are to be processed in the background, you must decide when the
individual processes are to take place. As a general guide:

Automatic goods receipts should be processed directly after the actual confirmation.
Particularly for materials that are to be processed further or that are required in sales, it
is important that stock levels are kept up-to-date. For this reason, processing in dialog
mode or in the update task are both possible.

Backflushing withdrawals should be processed within larger periods (for example,
twice a day). Since the material has already been physically taken from the storage
location, up-to-date stock levels are less important. However, other material consumers
as well as material requirements planning must be notified.

Actual costs determination should take place less frequently (for example, once a
day). Actual costs determination is not important for a smooth production process. It is
needed for cost control and is therefore to be adapted to the processes in Controlling.

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Processing Predefined Confirmation Processes

Processing Predefined Confirmation Processes
Use
You can use this function to process future change records for confirmation processes (see also
Decoupling Processes Carried Out During Confirmation [Page 178]). You only have to process
future change records online, in exceptions (for example, for moving up processing when the
background job is planned later). Future change records are usually processed as background
jobs. There are separate functions for processing goods movements with errors and errors in
actual cost determination.

Features
On the selection screen, you can decide which future change records are to be read. You can
limit the selection of orders or the selection of processes.
You can use this function to process future change records from confirmations for the following
processes:

Backflushing

Automatic goods receipt

Actual cost calculation

HR data transfer

You can do the following:

Display an order for a future change record
(Select a record and choose Order.)

Display a confirmation for a future change record
(Select a record and choose Confirmation.)

Execute backflushing/automatic goods receipt/actual cost determination
(Select a record and choose Save.)

Execute data transfer to HR
(Choose HR data transfer. You can only execute this action for all records
simultaneously.)

You cannot cancel confirmations for which there are future change records.

Activities
You start this function from the Process Orders screen by choosing Confirmation → Predefined
Processes.

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Order Settlement

Order Settlement
For information on order settlement, see the following sections:

R/3 Library PP Production Orders, section Order Settlement [Ext.]

R/3 Library, CO Cost Object Controlling, section Process Orders in Cost Object
Controlling [Ext.]

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Order Closing

Order Closing
Use
You use the order closing function to indicate that a process order is complete from the logistics
and cost accounting points of view.

For process orders that have been completed and for which all costs have been posted, see
Business Closing of Process Orders [Page 187].

For process orders that have been completed and for which costs must or can still be posted,
see Technical Completion of Process Orders [Page 185].

For process orders that are prematurely terminated or cannot be executed correctly, see
Technical Completion of Process Orders [Page 185].

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Technical Completion of Process Orders

Technical Completion of Process Orders
Use
Technical completion is the completion of a process order from the logistics point of view. You
usually use this function when you want to terminate execution of an order prematurely, or if the
order was not properly executed and you want to delete open requirements of the order (for
example, reservations, capacity requirements).

Prerequisites
You must be allowed to set the order or operation to Technically completed. This means that a
system or user status does not stop you from doing so. To set the order to Technically
completed, the system checks the Technical completion business transaction (BTAB). For more
information, see Business Transactions [Page 196].

Features
The following actions are carried out when the order is technically completed:

The order is not indicated as relevant to MRP anymore.

The reservations are deleted.

The capacity requirements are deleted.

Purchase requisitions that may exist for externally processed operations or non-stock
components are deleted.

The system status Technically completed (TECO) is set for the order and the operations.

If an order is technically completed, you cannot make any changes to the order. You can only
display it. However, if the order data must be changed, the technical completion of the order can
be revoked.

You can still make postings for the order after the technical completion. You can,
for example, post a material withdrawal or a confirmation if they were forgotten.

Activities
You can execute technical completion in the following ways:

While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing →
Technically complete.

While carrying out mass processing (Logistics → Production process → Process order →
Tools → Mass processing), choose Technically complete in the Actions group box.

You can revoke technical completion in the following way:

While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing →
Revoke technical completion.

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Business Closing of Process Orders

Business Closing of Process Orders
Use
As a rule you perform business closing of a process order when you do not expect any more cost
postings for it. Such an order is then considered closed for cost accounting and is not taken into
account when evaluating process orders that are still open.
In the system, business closing, in contrast to technical completion, is usually only called "close".

Prerequisites
You can only perform (business) closing for a process order if:

The order has status Released (REL), Control recipe created (CRCR) or Control recipe
discarded (CRAB), or Technically completed (TECO). To have status Technically completed,
the order must have already reached status Released.

The order balance is 0.

There are no more open purchase requisitions, orders, or commitments for it.

All data related to the process order is available and correct (For example, the inspection lots
for the order must be completed).

There are no future change records from the confirmation processes.

The business transaction [Page 196] Close must be allowed for the order or operation. This
means that a system or user status does not stop you from doing so.

Features
The following actions are carried out when the order is closed:

In contrast to the technical completion, no more costs can be posted to the order. This
means no more confirmations or goods movements are allowed for this order.

You can no longer change the order. You can only display the order data, revoke the Closed
(CLSD) status, and set the deletion flag.

All actions belonging to the status Technically completed [Page 185] (TECO) are carried out.

The system status Closed (CLSD) is set for the order and the operations. This status (or
Technically completed) is a prerequisite for archiving.

In the collective order, the status Closed (CLSD) is also set for lower-level orders.
If the system detects an order in the collective order that cannot be closed, the orders along
the way to the leading order are not closed either. Other parts of collective orders are closed
if they only contain orders that can be closed.

Activities
You can close the order in the following ways:

While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing →
Close.

While carrying out mass processing (Logistics → Production process → Process order →
Tools → Mass processing), choose Close in the Actions group box.

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Business Closing of Process Orders
You can revoke closing as follows:

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While changing an order, choose Process order → Functions → Restrict processing →
Revoke closing.

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Archiving

Archiving
Use
Archiving process orders is part of the general reorganization procedure for orders.

Prerequisites
Only one archiving object is required for archiving process orders. It is called PR_ORDER.

Process Flow
The reorganization of orders is divided into three steps in the R/3 System:
1. Activating the deletion flag in the order
2. Activating the deletion indicator in the order
3. Carrying out an archiving run
Orders that have already been archived can be restored and displayed in the R/3 System by
means of a fourth step, the retrieval function.
An order can only be archived after you have activated a deletion flag for it. You can do this
either manually or automatically (that is, in a background job). After a first residence time has
elapsed, the deletion indicator is activated for those orders marked with a deletion flag by running
a background job. After a second residence time is over, the orders are archived and deleted
from the database at the same time.
See also:
Archiving Process Orders (PP-PI) [Ext.]

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Mass Processing

Mass Processing
Use
Mass processing allows you to carry out functions for several orders.

Features
The following mass processing functions are available:

Scheduling

Setting up capacity requirements

Costing

WM material staging

Technical completion

Closing

Test Run
You can specify whether the changes made in mass processing should only be carried out as a
test. Error messages that may occur are collected. None of the changes are written to the
database.

Log
Log records are written and saved when you execute the function. The log records contain
information about how the mass processing functions are executed. If no log record is available,
the function was carried out without restrictions. The log records are assigned to the order or the
order network.

Activities
1. Choose Logistics → Production - Process → Process Order → Tools → Mass Processing.
2. Enter the selection criteria and choose the action to be executed. If required, also specify
whether or not you want to limit the number of the orders to be processed, if you want
another log and if you only want to carry out a test run.

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Status

Status
Definition
A status documents the current processing status of an object. When business transactions are
carried out on an object (for example, on a process order, an operation or a component), the
status of the object changes accordingly. The status activated influences which business
transactions can be carried out on an object.

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System/User Statuses

System/User Statuses
The SAP System distinguishes between system statuses and user status.

System Status
A system status is a status set by the system. It informs the user that a particular function was
carried out on an object. A system status cannot be influenced by the user, in other words, you
can only delete or change a system status in conjunction with certain business transactions
predefined in the system.

When you release a process order, the system automatically sets the system status
“released”. You cannot influence this status unless you carry out a business
transaction which leads to a change of the system status (such as marking the
process order as “technically complete”).

User status
A user status is always activated by the user and can be created in addition to the existing
system status. You can activate any number of user statuses alongside the internally activated
system statuses. To activate user statuses, you need to have created a status profile in
Customizing for the relevant order type (see What is a Status Profile? [Ext.]).
You can activate any number of statuses in a process order.

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Display Status

Display Status
Use
Along with the identification code displayed in the process order header, you can also call up the
status in text form. Both forms are language-dependent.

Procedure
1. To display the active status of a process order, choose

.

The Status tab page appears. A list of the statuses for your process orders that are
active are displayed. These are the system status or user status, with or without the
status number. You can change a defined status profile in the Stat.prof field.
2. If you want to display the business transactions allowed for this status, choose the Business
processes tab page.

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Status in Process Orders

Status in Process Orders
The status menu that you can call up in the process order from the Header - General Data
screen provides information on the various statuses the system assigns to your order in the
course of processing. These statuses are also displayed in the System status field on the header
screen.
Statuses in the Process Order

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Status

Description

CLSD

Completed

SETC

Settlement rule created

BNAS

Batch not assigned

BCRQ

Order to be handled in batches

BASC

Batch assignment complete

BRAR

Batch record archived

BRRQ

Batch record required

ORTE

Order record terminated

ORAC

Order record archived

ORRQ

Process data documentation/order record required

CRTD

Order created

MSPT

Material shortage

REL

Order released

APG

Approval granted (for appropriate order types)

APGS

Single approval granted

APNG

Approval not granted

APRC

Based on approved recipe

APRS

Approval withdrawn

MACM

Material committed

MANC

Material availability not checked

NTUP

Dates are not updated

PCMN

Production campaign

CSER

Error in cost calculation

PIGN

Process instruction generated

CRFI

Control recipe finished

CRCR

Control recipe created

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Status in Process Orders

CRAB

Control recipe discarded

TECO

Technically Completed

PCNF

Partially confirmed

OPGN

Operation generated

PRC

Order pre-costed

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Business Transactions

Business Transactions
What is a business transaction?
A business transaction is an action through which an object (for example, a process order) is
taken to another processing level that is indicated in the SAP System by a corresponding status.
A business transaction is an action carried out by the user at the screen, such as

Releasing an order

Releasing an operation

Posting a goods receipt

Entering a completion confirmation

Printing an order

How can a status influence a business transaction?
A status can

Allow a business transaction

Issue a warning before the business transaction is carried out

Forbid the business transaction

In the second case, you receive a warning message before the system carries out the transaction
desired. It is up to you to decide if you want to proceed, despite the warning.

You want to mark a released process order for deletion. However, the order does not
yet have the status “technically complete”. The system issues a warning message
informing you that the order is not yet technically complete.

When can you carry out a business transaction?
To be able to carry out a business transaction, the following requirements must be met:

At least one active status must allow the transaction

No active status may forbid the transaction

When is a status active?
A status is active if it is set in the object.
A status in inactive if it

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Has never been activated

Was active before but has since been deactivated

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What is a Status Profile?

What is a Status Profile?
A status profile is created in customizing per order type.
Within a status profile you can

Define user statuses and document their function in long texts

Specify the expected sequence of user statuses by assigning a "status number" to each user
status

Define an initial status, which is automatically set when the object is created

Specify that a user status should automatically be activated, if a certain business transaction
is carried out

Allow or forbid certain transactions, if a status is active

Status Numbers
For every user status you can define a status number. With the help of the status number you
determine the sequence in which the user statuses are activated.
If you do not assign a status number to a user status, the user status can always be activated.
However, only one user status with a status number can be active at any given time.
If you assign a status number to a user status, you must also specify a lowest and a highest
status number for the user status. These limit the status number interval from which the next
user status can be selected.

You have defined the following user statuses with the following status numbers in a
status profile:
Example of User Statuses with Status Numbers
Status no. Status

Lowest no. Highest no.

-

Planning locked -

-

1

Preparation

1

2

2

Execution

1

3

3

Check

2

4

4

Completion

4

4

In this example, ths status "planning locked" can always be activated since it has no status
number.
Status "preparation" must be activated first. When status "preparation" is active, it is possible to
activate status "execution".
If status "execution" is active, you can activate either status "preparation" or status "check".

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What is a Status Profile?

The lowest and highest number of the highest activated status number is always
valid. In the above example it would therefore not be possible to first activate status
"execution" from status "check" and to then activate status "preparation" from status
"execution".
If status "check" is activated, you can activate either status "execution" or status
"completion". Once status "completion" is activated, a return to preceding statuses is
no longer possible.

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What is a Selection Profile?

What is a Selection Profile?
In a selection profile, you can define status combinations of user status and system status as
selection criteria.
Selection profiles are used for selection in the order information system.
You can enter the system status as well as user status in a selection profile. If you also want to
select according to user status, you must enter the corresponding status profile when creating
the selection profile. You cannot assign a status profile to a selection profile at a later time.
For more information on creating a selection profile, choose Master Data → Order → Define
Selection Profiles in Customizing for Process Orders.

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Co-Products

Co-Products
Use
Products that are usually manufactured together can now be produced using one process order,
but with separate settlement. One product is regarded as the main product and the remaining
products are described as co-products. The system automatically creates a separate order item
for each of the co-products.
The following applies to process orders with co-products:

You can settle the main product and the co-product(s) to different receivers

Goods movements can be posted simultaneously for all products manufactured in the order.

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Process Orders with Co-Products: Prerequisites

Process Orders with Co-Products: Prerequisites
You must meet the following requirements if you want to create a process order with co-products:

Activate the indicator Co-product in the material master of the co-product (MRP 1 screen).

The co-product must exist as a component in the material list of the main product (negative
quantity, item type L).

The indicator Co-product must be activated in the General data screen of the material
component.

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Co-Products: Costs

Co-Products: Costs
The costs for the orders are assigned to the order header and then distributed to the individual
co-products according to equivalence numbers. You specify an apportionment structure in the
material master of the main product. The apportionment structure specifies how the total costs
should be distributed over the main product and the co-products.
Based on this data, the system creates the following when a process order is created:

One settlement rule that distributes the total order costs over the main product and the coproducts (i.e. over the individual order items)

One settlement rule per item that assigns the costs to stock

At present, it is only possible to distribute actual costs.

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Co-Products: Using a Source Structure

Co-Products: Using a Source Structure
By using a source structure, you can enter different equivalence numbers for different cost
element groups within the same apportionment structure.
Example of equivalence numbers with source structure
Cost element grp

Main product

Production costs

1

4

Material costs

2

1

Overhead

5

3

Co-product

Here, the cost distribution varies between the cost element groups in the apportionment
structure.
If you do not use a source structure, the cost distribution must be the same for all cost element
groups in the apportionment structure:
Example of equivalence numbers without source structure
Cost element grp

Main product

Production costs

2

1

Material costs

2

1

Overhead

2

1

Co-product

If you want to work with a source structure, you need to:
1. Define a source structure in Customizing.
After this, define an apportionment structure in the material master of the main product.
2. Go to the material master of the main product.
3. Branch to the MRP 1 screen.
4. Select the function key 'Co-prod. manufacture'.
The system displays a dialog box in which you can enter apportionment structures.

An apportionment structure can only be defined for co-products. Therefore, please
make sure that the indicator Co-product is activated (indicator next to the function
key).

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Information Systems

Information Systems
Use
The following information systems are available for process manufacturing:

The order information system [Page 205] for

Reporting

Mass processing

The Shop Floor Information System enabling standard analyses for

Resources

Operations

Material

Process orders

Material consumption

Product costs

For more information on the Shop Floor Information System, see the R/3 Library
Logistics General -> Logistics Information System (LIS).

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Order Information System

Order Information System
Use
The order information system is a tool that offers the following shop floor control functions for
process orders:

Reporting

Mass processing

Evaluations are made using the logical database IOC and the original order tables.

Prerequisites
The profile for the individual objects and the overall profile you want to use for the information
system must have been defined in Customizing.

Features
All orders that exist in the system can be included in the evaluations (including those with
deletion flags/indicators). However, archived orders are not taken into account.
The order information system offers various list types in reporting. Their layout can be adapted to
suit your requirements.
The following functions are available to display the objects selected from the database:

Object Overview [Page 209] (Objects in hierarchical form, shows relationships between
objects)

Object Detail List [Page 211] (detailed information on individual objects)

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Search Optimization

Search Optimization
Use
To improve system performance, you can specify which objects are read from the database.

You want to have an overview of the status of all orders of a particular order type. In
this case, make sure that all objects except for the order header are deselected.
You want additional information on partially released or partially confirmed
operations (for example, the operations status). In this case, you must also select the
object “operations”.
You can select the following data objects:

Order header

Order item

Documented goods movements

Operations / phases / secondary resources

Components

(Individual) capacity requirements

Confirmations (order header level, operation level, sub-operation level)

Automatic goods movements (order header level, operation level)

Incorrect automatic goods movements (order header level, operation level)

You can define an overall profile to specify which data objects are read from the database (see
Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing [Page 207]). You can also change these
settings manually on the initial screen.
Object Hierarchies on the Database
The objects are stored on the database in a hierarchical structure. The order header is at the top
of the hierarchy, followed, by the order items, the confirmations, and so on.
When specifying which objects are read from the database, note the following:
To display a particular object, the system needs to read the actual object as well as all the
objects, which are situated above that object on the data base.

You want to create a list of all the components required for a certain group of orders.
To be able to display components, the system needs to read the relevant order
headers, order items, operation sequences, operations and components. If you
select the object “components”, the system will also automatically select all other
required objects.

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Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing

Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing
Use
The information displayed in the process order information system as well as the layout of the
information is controlled via an overall profile, which you can enter on the initial screen. The
overall profile contains several subordinated single profiles.
They contain information regarding selection criteria and layout of lists.
Overall profiles
In an overall profile, you can enter the following information:

A variant which can be used to suppress selection criteria

Which objects to read from the database

Which of these objects are to be displayed in the list

Object up to which objects are to be expanded on the object overview

Single profiles for all objects

Single profiles
In a single profile, you enter parameters relevant for the object overview list (first point only)
and the object detail list (all points).
You can enter the following information in a single profile:

Fields displayed (both in object overview and object detail list)
You can specify via a subprofile which fields are displayed when you call up the list.

Specifications on how the list is formatted
You can, for example, define the width of the columns, influence the grouping of the
fields and determine whether the values are to be displayed as percentage rates.

Sort criteria
You can specify via a subprofile how the fields are sorted when you call up the list.

Grouping criteria
You can specify via a subprofile how the fields are grouped together when you call up
the list

User filters
Via a report variant, you can store filter criteria for the objects. The corresponding object
list is automatically filtered according to these criteria when you call it up.

Status filters
Objects that have a status (for example, order headers, operations, and components)
can be filtered using a selection profile.

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Order Information System: Profiles In Customizing

Activities
Maintain the required profiles in Customizing.

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Object Overview

Object Overview
Use
The object overview displays the objects selected from the process orders in hierarchical form.
This makes it easy to see the relationship between the individual objects (for example component
allocated to an operation or confirmation allocated to an order header).
The following functions allow you to structure the information in a way which best suits your
requirements:

Suppressing irrelevant orders
You have, for example, chosen all process orders that belong to a particular sales order.
Two of these are of particular interest. You can hide the remaining orders so that you can
concentrate on the relevant orders.

Suppressing irrelevant objects
You have, for example, chosen all process orders to which a certain component is
allocated. In this case, you may want to hide the object “operation” as it is of no interest
to you. This can be specified in the transaction, or in the overall profile.

Compressing selected objects
You have, for example, selected phases, and now only want to process the operations.
You therefore compress the object “sub-operations”. This can be specified in the
transaction, or in the overall profile.

Whereas suppressing irrelevant objects can be used for hierarchically superior
objects (for example suppressing sequences when displaying operations),
compressing objects is useful for hierarchically subordinate objects (for ex.
compressing phases when displaying operations).

Displaying fields/changing the field sequence
You have, for example, selected "operations". You either want to display the field
"confirmed time", or you want to put it at the beginning of the line rather than at the end.
You change the displayed fields or the sequence of the field display via the field selection
for object "operations". This can be specified in the transaction, or in the overall profile.

Refreshing the List
You can branch into any number of process orders within the list and carry out business
transactions, (such as order/operation releases, availability checks, etc.).
If you then want to refresh the list to reflect the changes that you made, you have two options:

Complete refresh: A complete refresh will update all process orders in the list.

Partial refresh: If you have only changed a small number of orders in the list, you may
only want to refresh the orders that have changed, as this would reduce the system load
(To carry out a partial refresh, you first need to mark the relevant objects).

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Object Overview

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Object Detail List

Object Detail List
Use
Every object selected from the database can be

Displayed in the object overview, or

Displayed in the detail list

Each detail lists contains detailed information on the object.

You want to display all components that were used during a particular period. The
detail list is suited to this purpose, since you do not require detailed information
on the superior objects “operation” and “order”. You can, however, group the
information in the detail list according to order / operation.
Similar objects (for example operations and phases) are displayed in one list. The Process
Order Information System offers you the following object detail lists:

Object detail list...

Displays the following objects:

Header detail list

Order headers

Item detail list

Order items

Operation detail list

Order operations
Order suboperations

Component detail list

Order components

Confirmation detail list

Confirmations of orders
Confirmations of phases

Capacity detail list

Operation capacities
Suboperation capacities

Goods movements

Goods issues for backflushed components
Automatic goods receipts

Failed goods movements Goods issues for backflushed components
Automatic goods receipts
Purchase requisition
Purchase order
You can control the content and the layout of the list by specifying

Which fields are to be displayed for the object

The layout of the fields (for example, grouping or width of the field columns)

The sequence in which the objects are displayed (ascending/descending order)

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Object Detail List

A selection profile, if you want to make the display of an object dependent on its status.

The object detail list offers the following functionality:

You can print out information displayed on the lists

You can filter the information displayed on the lists

You can branch to other objects from within the list (If, for example, the Sales order no.
field is displayed, you can branch to the sales order by positioning the cursor on the field,
and choose Environment → Display object.

If you want to include planned orders in a collective availability check (see Collective
Availability Checks [Page 213]), the objects are restricted to order headers and
components.

If you do not specify which objects are to be displayed in the detail list, the system
displays information on all objects.

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Collective Availability Checks

Collective Availability Checks
Use
In the process order information system, you can check the material availability of several orders
at the same time. These collective availability checks always carry out an overall availability
check for each of the orders.
The orders to be checked can be process and/or planned orders. As with individual checks, the
checking rule is determined via the order type (process orders) or the MRP group / plant
parameters (planned order).
See also: Availability Checks [Page 103]

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