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EUROCODE 6

-- REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY --

Background and applications
Dissemination of information for training – Brussels, 2-3 April 2009

1

EN 1996 DESIGN OF MASONRY
STRUCTURES
- REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY 2 and 3 April 2009 - Brussels
Presented by Peter Watt
Charlwood Partnership Ltd

EUROCODE 6

-- REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY --

Background and applications
Dissemination of information for training – Brussels, 2-3 April 2009

2

EN 1996-1-1 Design
Reinforced

- Principles

Yes

- Application Rules

Yes

Prestressed - Principles
- Application Rules

Yes
None

EUROCODE 6

-- REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY --

Background and applications
Dissemination of information for training – Brussels, 2-3 April 2009

Mortars

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EUROCODE 6
Background and applications

-- REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY --

Dissemination of information for training – Brussels, 2-3 April 2009

Mortars

4

REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Mortars and Their Uses M4 minimum strength class for reinforced/pre-stressed work M2 minimum strength class for bed joint reinforced walls to – enhance resistance to lateral loads Thin layer mortars and lightweight mortars “could” be used – BUT lightweight mortars are not advised in this type of work 5 .EUROCODE 6 -.

2-3 April 2009 Masonry Units 6 .EUROCODE 6 -.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.

EUROCODE 6 -. 2-3 April 2009 7 Masonry Units .REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.

for example 7 N/mm2 in British design code BS5628 Part 2 8 .REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 -. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Masonry Units No specific minimum unit compressive strength required Some National Standards have minimum masonry unit compressive strength requirements.

i etc with 1.iΨ0.supGkj.50Qk.1 as leading variable action 9 .iQk.1 + ΨQk.1 + γQ.1Qk.35Gk + 1.sup + γQ.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 -.5Qk.i is EN1990 general form UK National Annex to EN1990 has adopted : 1. 2-3 April 2009 EN 1990 Basis of Structural Design (Actions) ■ γGj.

0 fav.50 1.43 mean leading variable action 1. Qk Comment 1.EUROCODE 6 -.50 mean .dead & imposed other than wind Load type Gk EC6 UK N/A 1.60 (-5% diff.9 fav. BS5628 1.35 1.) 1. 2-3 April 2009 10 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS γ – ULS dead and imposed actions .REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.40 0.

2-3 April 2009 11 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS γ – ULS dead and imposed actions – wind actions on panels Load type Gk Qk Comment EC6 UK N/A 1.40 stab.20 .50 BS5628 1.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 -.40 leading variable action 1.50 1.35 1.) 1. (+25% diff.20 1.

) 1.35 BS5628 1. .40 Qk Comment 1. diff.50 1.35 (-6% eff.20 Eu 1.EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -. diff. 2-3 April 2009 12 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS γ – ULS dead and imposed actions – earth walls Load type Gk EC6 UK N/A 1.) 1.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.50 (+4% eff.35 as permanent action 1.44 eff.

0 1.15 1.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.3 --- Shear strength 2.0 1. bond. 2-3 April 2009 13 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS γm – ULS compression.5 Steel strength 1. shear.5 Bond strength 1.76 Compression strength Cat II 2. steel EC6 UK N/A EC6 DE N/A Compression strength Cat I 2.EUROCODE 6 -.5 1.15 .

α .EUROCODE 6 -. β and γm are all NDP values to be nationally selected on safety basis 14 .REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.fk = K fbα fmβ .ULS BUT : . 2-3 April 2009 Partial Safety Factors γm .fd = fk / γm where K .

2 23.7 40 60 34.7 11.2 21. Strength fb EC6 UK N/A fk BS5628 fk % Difference M2 2.0 +8 & +4 +10 & +8 80 100 68.EUROCODE 6 -.00 85.0 7.8 13.4 16.7 12.7 +3 & -25 +4 & -4 7 20 5.00 M12 3.5 M12 3.7 7.3 9.6 11.8 4.00 12.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.0 9.0 10.00 51.6 7.4 M2 2.8 18.5 15.102.00 20.95 17.1 4.5mm wide wall Comp.5 7. 2-3 April 2009 15 COMPARISON OF fk VALUES Group 1 clay brick masonry – standard format .1 +11 & +10 +12 & +14 .

EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.0 BS5628 fk % Difference M2 1.2 5.9 9.95 17.0 13.00 10.00 M12 2. 2-3 April 2009 16 COMPARISON OF fk VALUES Group 1 clay brick masonry – standard format .4 M2 2. Strength fb EC6 UK N/A fk 7 20 5.1 40 60 34.4 11.00 85.7 3.9 6.5 +3 & +1 +3 & +5 .4 4.328mm wide wall Comp.7 80 100 68.00 16.3 18.3 10.2 18.6 M12 3.9 0 & -5 +2 & -3 15.00 51.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.0 6.8 7.1 -9 & -29 -5 & -12 10.2 6.8 9.0 13.1 7.

0 6.08 4.7 8.9 6.9 3.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.8 4.5 M2 2.2 2.9 3.5 -9 & -33 -9 & -24 .16 8.0 13.6 4.9 2.6 5.5 15.2 7.0 8. 2-3 April 2009 17 COMPARISON OF fk VALUES Group 1 concrete block masonry – 215 by 100mm – 100mm wide wall Comp.7 5.2 M12 2.0 3.8 15.8 3.40 5.5 +7 & -32 +6 & -37 2.0 10.3 7.6 -2 & -34 -9 & -36 10.0 7.79 34.8 3.89 11. Strength fb EC6 UK N/A fk BS5628 fk % Difference M2 1.4 5.7 4.EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.46 M12 3.4 22.

2-3 April 2009 REINFORCED MASONRY 18 .EUROCODE 6 -.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.

EUROCODE 6 -.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 19 .

2-3 April 2009 20 .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 -.

Grouted pocket walls .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.Quetta bond walls .EUROCODE 6 -. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bending Elements ■ Straightforward singly reinforced sections achievable as : .Deep beams etc.Beams simple span or continuous spans . 21 .Hollow blockwork walls .Grouted cavity walls .

Calculation of tensile steel area .Compression block check .Verify serviceability by span/depth ratios Does not directly deal with doubly reinforced sections 22 .Flanged sections are included .Check shear capacity and size/calculate shear links .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 -. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bending Elements ■ EC6 enables : .

For cantilever walls compression capacity = 0. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bending Elements AND .40fd bd2 Or = 0.30fd bd2 for Groups 2.For beams compression capacity = 0.5tf) is design compression capacity 23 . Units for flanged section : - MRd = fd bef tf (d – 0.27fd bd2 .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. Agg. 3 & 4 and L.EUROCODE 6 -.

EUROCODE 6 -.5(As fyd/ bd fd)} ≤ 0.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 24 EC6 Bending Elements Where : .MRd = As fyd z - is the section design moment capacity z = d{1 – 0.95d is the lever arm No user friendly interaction curves or simplified equations to directly deduce lever arm depth .

2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bending Elements ■ Shear and shear span enhancement as : .EUROCODE 6 -.For beams shear capacity = fvd bd for unreinforced section with shear span enhancement to fvd of 2d/ax ≤ 4 applicable And = fvd bd + (0.9d Asw fyd /s )(1 + cotα)sinα for reinforced section (links) where reinforced section shear capacity is 0.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.25fd bd limiting 25 .

35N/mm2 initial shear strength (high). 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bending Elements ■ Shear and shear span enhancement of fvd as : .5ρ) /γM and revised shear span enhancement for concrete grouted reinforcement in beams and walls without designed shear reinforcement (Annex is Informative) BUT .EUROCODE 6 -.EC6 does allow M4 mortars which are not compatible with 0.35N/mm2 + 17.Annex “J” modifies fvd to (0. National Annex material required or NCCI material 26 .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.

SERVICEABILITY Reinforced masonry members subjected to bending Effective Span to Wall – out of plane bending Depth Ratio Max.EUROCODE 6 -. Beam Simply supported 35 20 Continuous 45 26 Spanning two directions 45 - Cantilever 18 7 . 2-3 April 2009 27 LIMITING SPAN TO DEPTH RATIOS .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.

REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.2lef and d = 1.EUROCODE 6 -.4h + 0. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bending Elements ■ Deep beam design and design equations included : . 3 & 4 and L. Agg.40fd bd2 Or = 0.3z by EC6 definition 28 .For beams compression capacity = 0. Units where z the lever arm is lesser of: 0.30fd bd2 for Groups 2.7lef and 0.

REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Column (Strut) Elements ■ Principles included : .Short and slender columns design . 2 for compression part of section 29 .Steel strength fyd not modified by 0.Includes additional moment equation for slender columns .EUROCODE 6 -.Axial and combined axial/bending effects design .83 as in British design standard BS5628 Pt.No interaction equations for combined axial/bending design .

EUROCODE 6 -. 2-3 April 2009 30 EC6 Column (Strut) Elements Some Application Rules missing from EC6 for reinforced design e.fs2 As2/γm .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.5to – d1) + + fs2 As2 (0.5to – d2)/γm .83 fyd As1 (0.5fd dcm (to – dcm) + 0. combined vertical load and bending equation forms : NRd = fd b dcm + fs1 As1/γm .vertical load capacity MRd = 0.g.moment capacity where: γm is the steel partial safety factor in this case .

EUROCODE 6 -.For walls shear capacity = fvd tl for unreinforced section And = fvd tl + 0.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.0N/mm2 limiting . 2-3 April 2009 31 EC6 Racking Wall Elements ■ Principles and Application Rules included : .9Asw fyd for reinforced section where (fvd tl + 0.9Asw fyd )/ tl is 2.

Basic singly reinforced section in EC6 .No serviceability over-ride (as in BS5628 Part 2) .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.No separate limiting panel dimensions given 32 .EUROCODE 6 -.Modified orthogonal ratio method included . 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Bed Joint Reinforced Walls ■ Principles and Application Rules included : .

EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.Hooks. bends effective anchorage lengths set out to develop anchorage lengths .Detailing requirements on straight laps quite onerous 33 .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.5 and 3.Bond length calculation as ø fyd/4 fbod (as EC6 amendment) .6 give fbok values .Tables 3.Reinforcement cut off calculations given . 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Anchorage Bond and Lap ■ Principles and Application Rules included : .

2-3 April 2009 EC6 Anchorage Bond Calculation ■ lb = ø fyd / 4fbod Minimum straight lap detailing : = lb for tension/compression bars where < 30% bars are lapped and ≥ 10 bar ø’s between bars = 1.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.4 lb for tension bars where ≥ 30% bars are lapped or < 10 bar ø’s between bars = 2 lb for tension bars where ≥ 30% bars are lapped and < 10 bar ø’s between bars 34 .

and cover to bed joint reinforcement in mortar 35 .Extensive guidance given on bed joint reinforcement requirements. 2-3 April 2009 Durability ■ Principles and Application Rules included : .EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.There are 5 MX durability classes .Concrete mixes/covers table given (NDP values) .

2-3 April 2009 Summary of Differences EC6/BS5628 Pt.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -. 2 ■ Partial load factors γf are only about ±5% different except laterally loaded wind panels +25% ■ Partial material factors γm are same ■ Many design equations (Application Rules) are same or very similar with few exceptions shown ■ Otherwise dependant upon any real differences in material characteristic strength values such as fk 36 .

EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 PRESTRESSED MASONRY 37 .

PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 38 .EUROCODE 6 -.

PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. shear.EUROCODE 6 -. compression and losses equations not included. materials and partial safety factors same as reinforced Bending. e. 2-3 April 2009 39 No Application Rules in EC6 for prestressed design resistance Actions. : ■ Mu = fpb Aps z for basic bending capacity missing ■ Vu = ν d0 b for basic shear capacity missing ■ It = Kt øt /√ fci for transmission length missing Up to each country's NCCI’s to deal with .g.

REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.EUROCODE 6 -. 2-3 April 2009 REINFORCED MASONRY DESIGN GUIDANCE 40 .

Reinforced pocket wall .Reinforced simple spanning beam element *Provided in delegates packs 41 .EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.REINFORCED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.Reinforced short and slender columns with axial and bending actions . 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Design Guidance Worked Examples ■ 3 No. fully worked design examples as : .

Limiting moment does not effect design output or masonry section thickness/pocket centres .Tensile reinforcement same bar size/number.Serviceability same limiting conditions .Concrete infill/cover required same . IMS Guide interaction curve / ”c” factor used .Shear not restrictive . 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Design Guidance Worked Examples ■ Reinforced pocket wall : .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.Straight lap length for lapped bars doubled (40% increase for most grouted cavity walls) 42 .EUROCODE 6 Background and applications -.

83 applied to steel compressive fyd as BS5628 .Reinforcement output same incl. 2 interaction equations for axially loaded + moment conditions .In examples σd = 0.81fd > 0.EUROCODE 6 -.30fd so design axial load cannot be ignored with section just being treated as simple bending member . 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Design Guidance Worked Examples ■ Reinforced short and slender columns : .0. shear links 43 .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.Designs use BS5628 Pt.

EUROCODE 6 -.Concrete infill/cover required same 44 .Tensile reinforcement output does not change .Buckling limiting span 250bc2/d seems odd! . 2-3 April 2009 EC6 Design Guidance Worked Examples ■ Reinforced simple spanning beam : . No change .Serviceability same limiting conditions .27fd bd2 Does not change original design size .REINFORCED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.Compression limited to 0.Designed shear links just needed.

PLAIN MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels. 2-3 April 2009 Does not cover reinforced or prestressed design 45 .EUROCODE 6 -.

REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY -- Background and applications Dissemination of information for training – Brussels.Brussels Presented by Peter Watt Charlwood Partnership Ltd .EUROCODE 6 -.REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED MASONRY 2 and 3 April 2009 . 2-3 April 2009 46 EN 1996 DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES .