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2009-2010

CELLPHONE OPERATED LAND ROVER


ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010

PROJECT REPORT
ON
CELLPHONE OPERATED LANDROVER

SUBMITTED BY:
NAME ROLL NO.

ANIL KUMAR GAUR 0601031018

VED PRAKASH PANDEY 0601031116

AJAY SINGH 0601031006

BRIJESH KUSHWAHA 0601031035

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:-

MR. VIVEK GUPTA


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND COMMUNICATION

UCER NAINI ALLAHABAD


CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that ANIL KUMAR GAUR, student of UNITED


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH NAINI
ALLAHABAD has undergone Final year project in CELLPHONE
OPERTED LANDROVER under my guidance and supervision.

During the Project period in ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010


his performance and behavior was found EXCELLENT.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to Mr. VIVEK GUPTA


for providing us with their proper guideline and supervision to perform
our final year project. And for assisting us during the whole project.

We would like to thank the whole ECE Department of U..C.E.R. for their
continuous cooperation and clarification of doubts while carrying out
project work.

Our special thanks goes to all the faculty members and college
administration of U.C.E.R. for their assistance and encouragement.

Last but not the least we express our sincere thanks to the institute
UNITED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH NAINI
ALLAHABAD for providing such a platform for implementing the ideas
in our mind.

ANIL KUMAR GAUR


AJAY SINGH
BRIJESH KUSHWAHA
VED PRAKASH PANDEY
B. TECH (4th Yr) (VIII Sem.)
Electronic & communication Engg.
United college of engineering &
Research
Naini ALLAHABAD
DECLARATION

We do hereby declare that this project is prepared on the basis of study


related to the Project “CELLPHONE OPERATED LANDROVER”. It is
my own work and no part of it has been submitted to any other
Institution.

ANIL KUMAR GAUR


AJAY SINGH
BRIJESH KUSHWAHA
VED PRAKASH PANDEY
ELECTRONICS & COMM.
U.C.E.R. NAINI ALLAHABAD
INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION
2. ABOUT THE POROJECT
3. SIGNIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
5. TECHNOLOGY USED (DTMF SIGNALLING)
6. PCB CONSTRUCTION
7. OPERATION OF THE PROJECT

HARDWARE PART :

1. OVERVIEW OF THE CIRCUIT COMPONENT


2. FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE PROPER OPERATIO OF
HARDWARE
3. LIST OF EACH COMPONENT USED WITH
SPECIFICATION
4. EXPLANATOIN OF USED IC’S
• MANUFACTURE NAME, SPECIFICATION,
OPERATING VOL. AND OTHER CONDITION
• APPICATION OF IC’S
• PIN DIAGRAM AND FUNCTION DIGARAM
• INTERNAL SCHEMAYIC AND
INTERNALWORKING OF IC’S

SOFTWARE PART :
1. ROLE OF THE SOFTWARE
2. WHICH LANGUAGE USED
3. REQUIREMENT OF RUN SOFTWARE
4. ALGORITHM WITH DAATA FLOW DIGRAM
5. SOURCE CODE
6. FLOWCHART
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT :

1. APPLICATIONS
2. ADVANTAGES
3. DISADVANTAGES
4. FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS & FUTURE SCOPE
5. DATASHEETS
6. CONCLUISION
7. REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION :

Conventionally, wireless –controlled robot use RF circuits, which have


the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range and
limited control, can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantage
of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the
service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve
controls.
Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots
share the features of a mechanical movable structure under some form of
control. The control of robot involves three distinct phases:-

1.) Perception,

2.) Processing,

3.) Action.
Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is
done by on-board micro controller or processor, and the task (action) is
performed using motors or with some other actuators.
PROJECT OVERVIEW :

In this project, the robot is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call
to the mobile phone attached to the robot. In the coarse of a call, if any
button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at
the other end of the call. This tone is called ‘dual-tone multiple-
frequency’ (DTMF) tone. The robot perceives this DTMF tone with the
help of the phone stacked in the robot.

The received tone is processed by the ATmega16 microcontroller with


the help of DTMF decoder MT8870. The decoder decodes the DTMF
tone into its equivalent binary digit and this binary number is sent to the
microcontroller. The microcontroller is pre programmed to take a
decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in
order to drive the motors for forward or backward motion or a turn.

The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot
acts as a remote. So this simple robotic project does not require the
construction of receiver and transmitter units.

DTMF signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the
voice-frequency band to the call switching centre. The version of DTMF
used for telephone tone dialing is known as ‘Touch-Tone’.

DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to


each key so that it can easily be identified by the electronic circuit. The
signal generated by the DTMF encoder is a direct algebraic summation,
in real time, of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine) waves of different
frequencies, i.e., pressing ‘5’ will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz
and 770 Hz to the other end of the mobile phone.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT :

Robotics is an interesting field where every engineer can showcase


his creative and technical skills.

Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio
signals to remotely control a device. The term is used frequently to refer
to the control of model vehicles from a hand-held radio transmitter.
Industrial, military, and scientific research organizations make [traffic]
use of radio-controlled vehicles as well.

A remote control vehicle is defined as any mobile device that is


controlled by a means that does not restrict its motion with an origin
external to the device. This is often a radio control device, cable between
control and vehicle, or an infrared controller. A remote control vehicle
(Also called as RCV) differs from a robot in that the RCV is always
controlled by a human and takes no positive action autonomously.

One of the key technologies which underpin this field is that of remote
vehicle control. It is vital that a vehicle should be capable of proce eding
accurately to a target area; maneuvering within that area to fulfill its
mission and retur ning equally accurately and safely to base.

Recently, Sony Ericsson released a remote control car that could be


controlled by any Bluetooth cell phone. Radio is the most popular
because it does not require the vehicle to be limited by the length of the
cable or in a direct line of sight with the controller (as with the infrared
set-up). Bluetooth is still too expensive and short range to be
commercially viable.

We contol robot any where of world where mobile network is possible.


And watch our robot through use 3g technology vedio conferencing.
HISTORY OF REMOTE CONTROLLED
VEHICLES :

The First Remote Control Vehicle :


Precision Guided Weapon : This propeller-driven radio controlled boat,
built by Nikola Tesla in 1898 , is the original prototype of all modern-day
uninhabited aerial vehicles and precision guided weapons. In fact , all
remotely operated vehicles in air, land or sea. Powered by lead-acid
batteries and an electric drive motor, the vessel was designed to be
maneuvered alongside a target using instructions received from a wireless
remote control transmitter. Once in position, a command would be sent to
detonate an explosive charge contained within the boat!s forward
compartment. The weapon!s guidance system incorporated a secure
communications link between the pilot!s controller and the surface-
running torpedo in an effort to assure that control could be maintained
even in the presence of electronic countermeasures. To learn more about
Tesla!s system for secure wireless communications and his pioneering
imp lementation of the electronic logic-gate circuit read ‘Nikola Tesla —
Guided Weapons & Computer Technology’, Tesla Presents Series Part 3,
with commentary by Leland Anderson.

Use of Remote Controlled Vehicles During World


War II :
During World War II in the Europe an Theater the U.S. Air Force
experimented with three basic forms radio control guided weapons. In
each case, the weapon would be directed to its target by a crew member
on a control plane. The first weapon was essentially a standard bomb
fitted with steering controls. The next evolution involved the fitting of a
bomb to a glider airframe, one version, the GB-4 having a TV camera to
assist the controller with targeting. The third class of guided weapon was
the remote controlled B-17. It!s known that Germany deployed a number
of more advanced guided strike weapons that saw combat before either
the V-1 or V-2. They were the radio-controlled Henschel!s Hs 293A and
Ruhrstahl!s SD1400X, known as ’Fritz X,’ both air-launched, primarily
against ships at sea.
TECHNOLOGY USED (DTMF SIGNALLING) :

Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF)


Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for
telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-
frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications
devices and the switching center. The version of DTMF used for
telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone
(canceled March 13, 1984 ), and is standardized by ITU-T Recomme
ndation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other multi-frequency
systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.

As a method of in-band signaling, DTMF tones were also used


by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of
local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of
cable companies. Until better out-of -band signaling equipment was
developed in the 1990s , fast, unacknowledged, and loud DTMF tone
sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels
in the United States and elsewhere.

Telephon e Keypad
The contempor ary keypad is laid out in a 3x4 grid, although
the original DTMF keypad had an additional column for four now-
defunct menu selector keys. When used to dial a telephone number, pressi
ng a single key will produce a pitch consisting of two simultaneous pure
tone sinusoidal frequencies. The row in which the key appears dete
rmines the low frequency, and the column dete rmines the high
frequency. For example, pressi ng the !1! key will result in a sound
composed of both a 697 and a 1209 hertz (Hz) tone. The original keypads
had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple
tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. These tones
are then decoded by the switching center to determi ne which key was
pressed.
A DTMF Telephon e Keypad
OVERVIEW OF CIRCUIT COMPONENT :

PARTS LIST:-

Semiconductors:
IC1 - MT8870 DTMF Decoder
IC2 - ATmega16 AVR microcontroller
IC3 - L293D motor driver
IC4 - 74LS04 NOT gate
D1 - 1N4007 rectifier diode

Resistors (all ¼-watt, ±5% carbon):


R1, R2 - 100-kilo-ohm
R3 - 330-kilo-ohm
R4-R8 - 10-kilo-ohm

Capacitors:
C1 - 0.47µF ceramic disk
C2, C3, C5, C6 - 22 pF ceramic disk
C4 - 0.1µF ceramic disk

Miscellaneous:
XTAL1 -3.57MHz crystal
XTAL2 - 12MHz crystal
S1 - Push-to-on switch
M1, M2 - 6V, 50-rpm geared DC motor
Batt. - 6V, 4.5Ah battery
FLOW DIAGRAM OF OPERATION :
DESCRIPTION:

As shown in the above block diagram, first block is the cell phone .so, it
acts as a DTMF generator with tone depending upon key pressed. DTMF
Decoder ,i.e.,IC CM8870 decodes the received tone & gives binary
equivalent of it to the microcontroller. The controller is programmed such
that appropriate output is given to Motor Driver IC L293D which will
drive the two DC Motors connected to it. The concept used for driving is
‘Differential Drive’. So, ultimately the two motors rotate according to the
key pressed on the keypad of the cell phone.
PCB CONSTRUCTION :

Step 1:

Generated from your design files, we create an exact film representation


of your design. We will create one film per layer.
Step 2 :

Shear Raw Material


Industry standard 0.059" thick, copper clad, two sides. Panels will be
sheared to accommodate many boards.

Step 3
Apply Image:

Apply photosensitive dryfilm (plate resist) to panel. Use light source and
film to expose panel. Develop selected areas from panel.

Step 4 :
Pattern Plate:
Electrochemical process to build copper in the holes and on the trace
area. Apply tin to surface.

note: All PCBexpress boards are plated through holes.

Step 5 :
Strip & Etch:
Remove dryfilm, then etch exposed copper. The tin protects the
copper circuitry from being etched.

Step 6 :
Solder mask:
Apply solder mask area to entire board with the exception of solder pads
Step 7 :

Solder coat:
Apply solder to pads by immersing into tank of solder. Hot air knives
level the solder when removed from the tank
Step 8 :
Nomenclature & Fabrication
Apply white letter marking using screen printing process. Route the
perimeter of the board using NC equipment.
WORKING :
In order to control the robot, you have to make a call to the cellphone
attached to the robot from any phone.
now the phone is picked by the phone on the robot through autoanswer
mode(which is in the phn, just enable it).
now when you press 2 the robot will move forward
when you press 4 the robot will move left
when you press 8 the robot will move backwards
when you press 6 the robot will move right
when you press 5 the robot will stop.

INTERNAL SCHEMATIC AND INTERNAL


WORKING OF IC’S :
DMFT DATA OUTPUT TABLE :
ACTUAL PCB PHOTOGRAPH :
SIDE VIEW:

Fig.1

TOP VIEW:
Fig.2

VIEW OF USED IC’S :


Fig.3

To connect the hands free with the circuit


there are always two connections which come out of the phone,
these connections are
1. Tip
2. Ring
i'll prefer to use handsfree which have a straight jack (similar to the ones
which we use in our ipods, but a thinner one)

the tip of that jack is called the "tip"


and the rest part behind the tip after a black strip is the ring So connect
these two connections with the circuit and you will be done.

EXPLANATION OF USED IC’S :

1. IC 1 MT8870 DTMF DECODER


2. IC 2 L293D MOTOR DRIVER
3. IC 3 74LS04 NOT GATE
4. IC 4 ATMEGA 16 AVR
MICROCONTROLLER

IC 2 L293D

PUSH-PULL FOUR CHANNEL DRIVER WITH


DIODES
CHARACTERISTIC:-
600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY
PER CHANNEL

1.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive)


PER CHANNEL

ENABLE FACILITY
OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION
LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.5 V
(HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY)
INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES

BLOCK DIAGRAM :
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Symbol Parameter Value Unit

VS Supply Voltage 36 V
VSS Logic Supply Voltage 36 V
Vi Input Voltage 7 V
Ven Enable Voltage 7 V
Io Peak Output Current (100 s non repetitive) 1.2 A
Ptot Total Power Dissipation at Tpins = 90 C 4 W
Tstg, Tj Storage and Junction Temperature – 40 to 150 C

PIN DIAGRAM :
DESCRIPTION :
The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage,
high current four channel driver designed to
accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive
inductive loads (such as relays solenoides, DC
and stepping motors) and switching power transistors.
To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels
is equipped with an enable input. A separate
supply input is provided for the logic, allowing operation
at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes
are included.
This device is suitable for use in switching application at frequencies upto
5 khz

The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic


packaage which has 4 center pins connected together
and used for heatsinking The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface
mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for
heatsinking

IC 1 MT8870
DESCRIPTION :

The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 is a complete DTMF


receiver integrating both the band split filter and digital decoder
functions. The filter section uses switched capacitor techniques for high
and low group filters; the decoder uses digital counting techniques to
detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code.

External component count is minimized by on chip provision of a


differential input amplifier, clock oscillator and latched three-state bus
interface.
FUNCTION BLOCK DIAGRAM :
IC 3 74LSO4

Hex Inverting Gates


Software description (the hex code)

The software is written in ‘C’ language and compiled using Code Vision
AVR ‘C’ compiler. The source program is converted into hex code by the
compiler. Burn this hex code into ATmega16 AVR microcontroller.
The source program is well commented and easy to understand. First
include the register name defined specifically for ATmega16 and also
declare the variable. Set port A as the input and port D as the output. The
program will run forever by using ‘while’ loop. Under ‘while’ loop, read
port A and test the received input using ‘switch’ statement. The
corresponding data will output at port D after testing of the received data.

LANGUAGE USED

“C” LANGUAGE

REQUIREMENT FOR THE RUN SOFTWARE

1. 256 MB RAM
2. 10 GB HARDDISK
3. WIN 2000 OR XP

SOURCE CODE (C PRORAGRAM CODE)

Source program:
Robit.c
#include <mega16.h>
void main(void)
{
unsigned int k, h;
DDRA=0x00;
DDRD=0XFF;
while (1)
{

k =~PINA;
h=k & 0x0F;
switch (h)
{

case 0x02: //if I/P is 0x02


{
PORTD=0x89;//O/P 0x89 ie Forward
break;
}
case 0x08: //if I/P is 0x08
{
PORTD=0x86; //O/P 0x86 ie Backward
break;
}
case 0x04:
{
PORTD=0x85; // Left turn
break;
}
case 0x06:
{
PORTD=0x8A; // Right turn
break;
}
case 0x05:
{
PORTD=0x00; // Stop
break;
}
}
}
}
FLOWCHART :
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT :

APPLICATIONS :

Scientific :

Remote control vehicles have various Scientific uses including hazardous


environments, working in the deep ocean , and space exploration. The
majority of the probes to the other planets in our solar system have been
remote control vehicles, although some of the more recent ones were
partially autonomous. The sophistication of these devices has fueled
greater debate on the need for manned spaceflight and exploration. The
Voyager I spacecraft is the first craft of any kind to leave the solar
system. The martian explorers Spirit and Opportunity have provided
continuous data about the surface of Mars since January 3, 2004 .

Military and Law Enforcement :

Military usage of remotely controlled military vehicles dates back to the


first half of 20th century. Soviet Red Army used remotely controlled
Teletanks during 1930s in the Winter War and early stage of World War
II. There were also remotely controlled cutters and experimental remotely
controlled planes in the Red Army

Search and Rescue :

UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the
United States. This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs
during the 2008 hurricanes that struck Louisiana and Texas.
Recreation and Hobby :

See Radio-controlled model. Small scale remote control vehicles have


long been popular among hobbyists. These remote controlled vehicles
span a wide range in terms of price and sophistication. There are many
types of radio controlled vehicles. These include on-road cars, off-road
trucks, boats, airplanes, and even helicopters. The ’robots’ now popular
in television shows such as Robot Wars, are a recent extension of this
hobby (these vehicles do not meet the classical definition of a robot; they
are remote ly controlled by a human). Radio-controlled submarine also
exist.

ADVANTAGES :
1.Wireless control
2. Surveillance System.
3. Vehicle Navigation with use of 3G technology.
3. Takes in use of the mobile technology which is almost
available everywhere.
4. This wireless device has no boundation of range and
can be controlled as far as network of cell phone

DISADVANTAGES :

1. Cell phone bill.


2. Mobile batteries drain out early so charging problem.
3. Cost of project if Cell phone cost included.
4. Not flexible with all cell phones as only a particular ,cell
phone whose earpiece is attached can only be used.
FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS & FUTURE
SCOPE :

1. IR Sensors:

IR sensors can be used to automatically detect & avoid obstacles if the


robot goes beyond line of sight. This avoids damage to the vehicle if we
are maneuvering it from a dist ant place.

2. Password Protection:
Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it
can be operated only if correct password is entered. Either cell phone
should be password protected or necessary modification should be made
in the assembly language code. This introduces conditioned access &
increases security to a great extent.

3. Alarm Phone Dialer:

By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a !DTMF Transceiver IC’


CM8880 , DTMF tones can be generated from the robot. So, a project
called !Alarm Phone Dialer! can be built which will generate necessary
alarms for something that is desired to be monitored (usually by
triggering a relay). For example, a high water alarm, low temper ature
alarm, opening of back window, garage door, etc. When the system is
activated it will call a number of programmed numbers to let the user
know the alarm has been activated. This would be great to get alerts of
alarm conditions from home when user is at work.

4. Adding a Camera:
If the current project is interfaced with a camera(e.g. a Webcam) robot
can be driven beyond line-of-sight & range becomes practically unlimited
as GSM networks have a very large range.
DATASHEETS

PINNACLE ENVIROMENT:

AVR SPI PROGMMER:


CONCLUSION :

In the designing of Project has been an exhilarating and enriching


experience. Here during the designing of Project I came to know about
all the processes of designing of Pcb related to Project .the up various
machines, maintaining and designing of projects tempo to achieve best
knowledge and keeping high knowledge of the project designing
I also tried to study about various projects prepared to achieve best
experience about projects . To have knowledge of project designing and
maintenance of the same in such a big quantum has been highly enriching
to me.

To sum up, in these 06 weeks I had come across all the processes
Related to the electronics Project designing.

REFERENCES

1. Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia

2. h t t p : // ww w . 8051 p r o j e c t s . i n f o /

3. h t t p : // ww w . i n s t r u c t a b l es . c o m /
4. c e ll p h o n e o p e ra te d la n d roEvleecrt r onics For You’ Magazine
,
Edition (july 2008)

5. “DTMF Tester” , ‘Electronics For You’ Magazine , Edition


(June 2003 )

6. h t t p : // ww w . a l l d a t a s h ee t . c o m /

7. h t t p : // ww w . d a t a s h ee t 4u . c o m /

8. h ttp:// www . datash eetcatalog. com/