DRENCHED
a:
DQ
DO
VOLUME
I.
TIIK
THEORY
EQUATIONS:
01
M.A., D.Sc.,
AND
M.A., D.Sc.,
IRINI'lY COLLEGE,
DONhOAl I.KCirRI<K
IN
VOL.
EIGHTH EDITION
DUBLIN: HODGES, FIGGIS, &
Sc
1924.
DUBLIN;
MA1HEMA1ICS.
I.
(Second hsue).
CO.,
CO.,
NASSAU STREET.
PATERNOSTER ROW.
Printed by PONSOVBV
&
it
of Dr.
inadvisable to
the introduction of
new
Pan ton's
volume as indicated
cooperation, I have
and
I.
in this
volume by
W.
June !//, 1912.
S.
F>.
vi
Preface.
under the
Modern
and
Higher Algebra,
Chapter on
It has been
Determinants.
as simple
of
title
and
at
For many
this
in
examples
of the
We
Invariants
differences
the
of the
simplest
medium
the
through
roots of
the functions
of
the
of
This appears to be
equations.
of
the
presenting
We
how
mode
this
oovariants
rationally
in
of treatment
may
be brought into
assistance in the
more
much
to
Young
M.
of Belfast,
numerical equations.
mainly,
among
published
works,
to
the
Lessons
some degree
to
the
Theorie
des
Formes
binaires
and
of the
yii
Preface.
We must record
De Bruno.
Ohev. F. Fad
lectures
the
in
periodicals,
University of
Dublin,
from
Many
by him
of
at the
University Examinations.
have
works
mentioned the
been
treatises
consulted,
We
to
new Chapter on
Our aim has been
this
edition,
narrow limits
as
ment
of Algebra.
in the
assistance
Cours
(PAlgebre
supMeure
Equations algebriques by
Netto's
Algebra
des
und
ihre
Serret's
Substitutions
(Paris,
Anwendung
et
des
1870);
auf
die
(Leipzig,
Legons sur
Traitt
M. Camille Jordan
Substitutionentheorie
translation
afforded us most
of
la
(Paris, 1895).
COLLEGE, DUBLIN,
May, 1904.
by M. H. Vogt
I.
INTRODUCTION.
A rt
Page
...
...........
1.
Definitions,
2.
3.
Polynomials,
CHAPTER
I.
4.
Theorem
5.
Similar theorem
6.
Change
of
...
......
......
............10
.......
to
an increase or diminu
5
6
CHAPTER
is
divided by a
,,
12
.13
.
17
II.
12. 13,
15.
17.
18.
Equal roots,
Imaginary roots enter equations in
pairs,
.19
.21
.22
.....
...
25
26
28
Table of Contents.
Art.
30
21.
Use
22.
Theorem
relating to
30
variable,
32
Examples,
CHAPTER
III.
Theorem,
.35
36
when
two of
its roots,
"
42
26.
The cube
roots of unity,
43
27.
46
48
Examples,
28.
Theorems
Examples,
CHAPTER
...
53
54
1Y.
TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS.
60
60
by a given quantity,
and reciprocal equations,
33.
To
84.
Removal of terms,
......
by a given quantity,
37.
The
The
38.
Homographic transformation
.64
68
73
71
cubic,
76
by symmetric functions,
whose roots are any powers
proposed equation,
41. Trans foimation in general,
42.
biquadratic,
89. Transformation
76
of the roots of the
.........
......*.
Examples,
62
67
36.
61
78
80
.81
84
84
86
xi
Table of Contents.
CHAPTER
V.
Art.
92
properties,
53.
The
54.
....
0,
96
98
100
Examples,
CHAPTER
VI.
On
66.
The
105
108
109
two cubes,
....
Examples,
60.
Homographic
62.
relation
by radicals
roots,
.111
.113
Euler's assumption,
of the biquadratic.
114
120
121
126
Examples,
Second solution by radicals of the biquadratic,
127
Ferrari's solution,
Descartes solution,
133
135
roots,
139
129
66.
67.
142
144
Examples,
....
............
146
CHAPTER YIL
PROPERTIES OF THE DERIVED FUNCTIONS.
69.
70.
Theorem
71. Rolle's
relating to the
Theorem.
154
of a polynomial,
.155
167
Corollary,
72.
73.
Theorem
167
.
.168
159
Theorems relating
the equation,
Examples,
through a root of
161, 162
163
Table of Contents.
xii
CHAPTER
VIII.
77.
78.
roots.
I.,
sums of powers of
roots
169
Prop. III.,
sums
powers of roots,
Definitions of order and weight of symmetric functions, and theorem
of
170
173
83.
products,
Homogeneous
Page
166
167
Prop. II.,
81.
Prop.
CHAPTER
roots,
.174
178
IX.
180
Prop.
Prop. II.,
I..
181
Newton's method
of finding limits.
Prop. III.,
....
186
roots,
187
188
Examples,
CHAPTER
SEPAIIATION OF
91. General explanation,
92.
THE
X.
iiOOTS OF EQUATIONS.
..........
Equal
imaginary
roots,
of Fourier
and Budan,
197
198
.'
.203
roots,
206
.192
194
Examples,
189
189
183
185
a biquadratic,
.210
.211
,212
Table of Contents.
xiii
CHAPTER XL
SOLUTION OF NUMERICAL EQUATIONS.
Art.
Pa^e
215
103. Newton's
216
metbod of divisors,
Method of
method of
limiting tbe
217
218
divisors,
number
of trialdivisors,
221
222
....
....
112.
Homer's process,
Application of Homer's method to cases
Lagnwge's method of approximation,
113.
227
231
235
110. Contraction of
111.
226
238
241
242
246
Miscellaneous examples,
CHAPTER
XII.
115.
Complex numbers
Complex numbers
116. Multiplication
and
Graphic representation,
Addition and subtraction,
division,
llS.
The complex
complex numbers,
249
260
.......
'261
....
25?
variable,
.....
complex variable,
252
266
266
268
plane area,
122. Proof of the fundamental theorem relating to the
number
of roots of the
269
general equation,
123. Second proof of fundamental theorem,
124. Determination of complex numerical roots
260
:
261
266
267
xiv
Table of Contents.
NOTES.
A..
B.
C.
Tta
....<
........
Pa*
271
27
278
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
INTRODUCTION.
1.
Definitions.
We
Any
quantity
is
quantity
is
sion, for
and
example, in which n
is
a positive integer,
x
ax* + bx"~ l
or"
3
i
is
a rational
Jcx
/.
Introduction.
may become
nomial
The determination
is
obvious that,
f
w ~l
#i#
fl^tf"'
<in\x
+ an
0.
We
make
this supposition
and in such
*n + ptX* + ptX"* +
1
An
equation
is
+P*\X
said to be complete
+pn *
when
it
0.
contains terms
In many
and physical science the final
mathematical problem presents itself in the form of an equation
on whoe solution that of the problem depends. It is natural,
2.
been
In
this
made and
;
for the discovery, either exactly or approximately, of the numerical values of the roots will be explained in their proper places
in this work.
rical roots of
a numerical equation by
ficients
solution of
the quadratic.
Many
it is
made
fifth
as established
by
but
it
Introduction.
3.
Polynomials.
From
it is
We shall, in fact,
a
arbitrarily
assumed
degrees.
names
The terms
carried on.
It is convenient
gum tic,
sextic, &c.,
CHAPTER
I.
4.
first
when
x.
This inquiry will form the
subject of the present and succeeding Articles.
Writing the polynomial in the form
or*
^
 + +...+
_L
sum
to be
and
Theorem.
the value
If in
1, or
a$
is
the polynomial
any greater
a,,
ak
is
a,
a,,
The
inequality
>
x*~ l
4
a, of**
+ a^j x +
a*
by any value
is satisfied
of
x which makes
n ~l
a xn > a k (x
where #*
is
the greatest
<*
which
that
> a"
is satisfied if
f
#""2
+x+
an ^, an
among the coefficients a #2
the
series
withip
Summing
geometric
ly
frp
or *" >
"
M^T) (x
a (x  1) be > or = a k
x > or =
is
1),
1} '
1.
#0
is
useful in supplying,
when the
coefficients of the
that
when
negative if n be odd ; so that the theorem also supplies a negative value of x, such that for any value nearer to  oo the
nomial is, in general, such that limits much nearer to zero than
those here arrived at can be found beyond which the function
preserves the same sign ; for in the above proof we have taken
the most unfavourable case, viz. that in which all the coefficients
except the first are negative, and each equal to a& ; whereas in
general the coefficients may be positive, negative, or zero.
Several theorems, having for their object the discovery of such
closer limits, will be given in a subsequent chapter.
5. We now proceed to inquire what is the most important
term in a polynomial when the value of x is indefinitely diminished and to determine a quantity such that the substitution
of this, or of any smaller quantity, for x will have the effect of
;
Theorem.
If in
the polynomial
Theorem.

the value
where a*
a?,
is
sum of all
x =
a*
the others.
*
^
that
nume
1,
i
or
Art. 4,
.
make
fl
is,
> <V!  +
y
This proposition
follows:
is
or
f/ n _ 2
. .
any
less
tfo
7.
0"
//
value
of,
x y will
jy
Values so small
may
be assigned to
x as
to
make
the
polynomial
less
follows
When
the variable
of the polynomial
is
the
for
when a value
sufficiently small is
sum
given to
^,
the numerical
to
to a diminution of
When x is changed
+
a\ (x
to
h)""
+ # 2 (# +
n ~*
A)
. .
A), or
a*.i (x
h)
+ an
+
f
(n
. .
1)
a^*
h
in.
n1
...
+ #.2# +
(n
2) o
It will be observed that the part of this expression indepen(x) (a result obvious d priori), and that the succes
dent of h is/
manner:
nomial
by the notation
(x).
The
coefficient
Derived Functions.
of
by a
(x)
process the
same as that
succeeding coefficients
tions of this character
indicated,
we may
may
;
all
so that,
f(* +
It
h)
may
/(*)
+f (x) h +'L
/(* +
K)
We
two or
first
be found more
three, it will
hr
A2
f(* +
yH +
. . .
l.z
+/r()
j
1
<
o
o
~
. . .
'
EXAMPLE.
Find the result of substituting x
Here
+h
for
x
1
in the polynomial
7#
42s + 6s2
7x + 4.
h 4,
'7,
>
24
12,
is
1.2
The student may
hy
4
24
...
direct substitution.
10
made
ment
and
of f(x]
is
this is equal,
by Art.
G,
to
in which expression all the coefficients/' (#),/" (#), &c., are finite
Now, by the theorem of Art. 5, this latter expresquantities.
tion/^)
is
established.
to be observed that
It
is
increases continuously
and
that,
when
8.
(a) is
is positive
negative f(x]
Form of
Polynomial
is
is
is
f(x)
increasing with x
diminishing as
n ~*
a<tx
*
and
when
a^ix
an
quotient,
*
when
ai%
increases.
Form of
is
Quotient
and Remainder.
11
divided by x  h, be
This
we shall represent by
Q,
We
 h]
/(*)  (x
tf.
identity
The righthand
symbol of equality.
side of the
is
Equating the coefficients of x on both sides, we get the followiug series of equations to determine &<>, b l9 Aa . 6n_i, R
,
&0
bi
0,
bji
di 9
by
bji
rt a
bs
bji
f
^3,
remainder R.
in
series of operations
In the
first line
are written
down
12
The
first
plying a (or
EXAMPLES.
1
by x
5**
10** +
Ix  61
U divided
3.
The
36
10
11
61.
12
66
231.
77
170.
22
4*a
22#
2
3# + 2 is divided by *
f 6#
2211.
Ans. Q
a? + Qx + 9,
a?
f
1.
1470
Ans.
4.
11
13.
^ifc.
5.
9.
I
Tabulation of Functions.
The
operation explained
ficients are
since its
is
substituted for *.
satisfied
13
Tabulation of Functions.
x.
Let x
A,
Hence
the remainder when
then /(A)
finite.
by the
For example, the result of substituting 3 for x in the polynomial of Ex. 1, Art. 8, viz.,
3^4
is
The
3.
 855, as
appears from Ex.
5,
We saw in Art.
Art. 8.
7 that
from 
oo to
...5,4,3,2,l,
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,...,
and
may
EXAMPLES.
1.
+x
6, for
0,
2,
3,
4.
a Polynomial.
In
on
any
investigating the changes of a f unotion/(a?) consequent
10.
Graphic Representation
of*
14
numerical
We
proceed to explain a
mode
of
1)
,angles,
lines
OX,
OY
and be produced
indefi
These
and axis
Lines, such as
measured on the axis of x at
of y, respectively.
OA,
"x
.as
to
it,
Pig.
XX', such as
such as
Tor
l.
AP or I?Q',
AP,
are positive;
These
are negative.
Trigonometry.
by OA,
series of values of
15
Graphic Representation.
oo
curve will, by the distances of its several points from the line
OX> exhibit to the eye the several values of the function /(a?).
that
in
which
idea of
it
will often
amples will
EXAMPLES.
1.
The
the line
OD in
In Ex.
1,
is
x 
6.
onesixth of
fig. 2.
By means
of these values
we
obtain
here represented, the other two corresponding to values of f(x) which lie out of the
limits of the figure.
The
it a useful exercise
more minutely between
and E in the figure, viz. by
the points
$M
is
and
separarod by
Fig. 2.
16
2.
6.
17**
 4 and 4.
already tabulated in Art. 9 for values of x between
Art.
that
this
function
retains positive
on
an
exercise
as
be
4,
observed,
may
values for all positive values of x greater
2*7, and negative values for all
This
is
It
values of x nearer to
curve
<xf
than
^a
The
27.
x at
all,
it at
2*7
approximate
to,
is
amined.
We
X'
integers
I,
0,
1;1,2.
Values of x
22
9
8 7
Y'
Fig. 8.
6 !
1
4
224
504
39
572
**
504
432
35
13
14
16
54
(a
162
264
18
16
17
504
77
42
104
18
19
11 04 1512
20
words, there are two values of x for which the value of the given
2
polynomial is zero ; these are the roots of the equation 2# + x
6
2, and 1*5.
Similarly, the curve traced in Ex. 2
outs the axis in three points, viz. the points corresponding^ to the
0, viz.
 17x* + x + 6
0.
The
curve
17
more
For
moved up
curve to be
8
0, that the two values of x which render
equation 2# + x + 2
the polynomial zero are in this case imaginary. Whenever the
number
11.
It
is
oo to
+ oo
may commence
to diminish
it
may
commence again
to increase
diminution
example
may
after
may
go on then continually
in
At a
polynomial
may
have
several
such values
the
number
such a maximjun or
minimum
value
as
well
as
the
18
A knowledge of the maximum and minimum values of a function, giving the positions of the points
is
easy to show that maxima and minima occur alternately for, as the variable increases from a value corresponding to one maximum to the value corresponding to a second,
the function begins by diminishing and ends by increasing,
It
is
;
In
CHAPTER
II.
function /(#)
explained in
Art. 10
may
often be established
Theorem.
mediate between a and b f(x) must attain the value zero which
intermediate between f(a) and/ (6).
y
is
20
if
It will
joining these points must jout that axis at least once.
from the figure that several values may exist
between a and b for which / (x)
0, t. e. for which the curve
also be evident
of x.
me
This
Article.
for x
x =
x=
is
i
term.
is
nomial/^).
If a n
its last
The
0,
I
GO
,/(#)
is
negative
sign of f(x)
oo
,/(#)
is
odd
is positive.
if
41
jg
negative, the>
21
Imaginary Roots.
equation must have a real root between
14.
term
The theorem
positive root.
Theorem.
is
is
and
the
other negative.
The
results of substituting
oo
 00,
+,
0,
,
+ oo,
hence there
is
0, oo
+;
a real root between  oo and 0, and another beoo ; i. e. there exist at least one real negative, and
and
tween
one real positive root.
We have contented ourselves in both
i
as
sufficient to substitute
we have
Existence of a
Imaginary Roots.
real root
in
the
case
Roo%in
We
of
when
1,
which,
Fig. 4.
We
take a simple
22
example to
As
polynomial
lies entirely
f(x)
2^ + x
/(*) 
but
x,
it
+ 2
as in
fig. 4.
The equation
We
observe,
by the solution of the quadratic.
are in
there
that
in
of
values
the
absence
real
therefore,
any
this case two imaginary expressions which reduce the polynomial
as is evident
to zero.
proposition
integral equation has a root of the form
a +
a and
v/=~l,
/3
is,
called a complex
is
As
we assume
certain consequences
16.
Theorem.
from
it.
roots,
and no more.
We first
tion/^) This
is
nf ffa\
observe that
0,
then f(x]
72 miiflf.
if
is divisible
h =
23
Imaginary Roots.
Let, now, the given equation be
#* + j^tf"" 1
f(x)
i
p2 #"* +
+ JE>_, a? + /> =
0.
identical equation
/(*)(*i)$i(*).
 1 dimensions,
Again, the equation ^i (x) = 0, which is of n
must have a root, which we represent by o a Let the quotient
obtained by dividing $\(x) by x  a 2 be fa(x). Hence
.
i>i
and
..
(#)
/(a?)
(a?
(x
 o s)
0a(),
 en) (a?  a a
0,(#)
consists of the
f(x)
$ n (x)
(a?
1.
01) (x
n2 >
a n for
that
quantities
ai,
is to
aa
03
i>
n
And
it
Corollary.
Two polynomials
For if their
24
The theorem
any n given
no assistance in the
i.e.
us to solve completely
0, enables
The
also,
mial
The
factors.
by the product
quotient will
factors.
EXAMPLES.
1.
roots are
1,
3,
6.
4,
An*. **
2.
The equation
a*
has a root 5
6** + 8**
17a?r 10
6*8  13s*
60
at
and
&  x* + 8*  2 = 0.
16*8
+ 86*  178* +
106
0,
7.
Form
0.
division of Art. 8.
roots heing 1
4.
=0
An9.
two
63*
I
3, 6.
3
*'
~2'
f
Ant. 14**  28**  80* 4 9 m
6.
Here
it
is
evident that *
resulting quadratic.
6.
Form an
=* 1 satisfies
The two
0.
the equation.
Divide by *
1,
be
equation with rational coefficients which shall have for a nyrt the
irrational expression
Equal Roots.
This expression has four different values according to the different combinations
of the radical signs, viz.
The
(x
required equation
 </p  </g)
is,
therefore,
(*
or
2
(x
p
or, finally,
Equal Roots.
It
being
now equal
to one another
is
called a
mul
number
(fig. 3)
We see
equal,
conceive that a slight addition to the absolute term of this polynomial, which is, as already explained, equivalent to a small
parallel movement upwards of the whole curve, would have the
effect of rendering equal the roots of the equation thus altered.
curve
it is
line
OX would no longer
but would
touch
it.
Now, when a
line touches a
coincident points.
Equal
roots
roots.
26
is
further altered
absolute term.
We shall
OX cuts the
appeared.
3 17x* + x + 28,
Consider, for example, the polynomial 10^
which is obtained from that of Ex. 2, Art. 10, by the addition
of 22.
corresponding to
Divide by x
of x.
in
1,
to be
,_
391
We observe in this
The reason
the two are replaced by a pair of imaginary roots.
of this will be apparent from the proposition of the following
Article.
18.
The
/3
*/
We
this identity,
We
where
is
(x
a)
/3
Q + Ex + ,R',
x.
Substitute in
27
Imaginary Roots.
this identity a
to vanish.
"!)
jR'
 Of
Ba + jR' =
since the real
0,
JR/3
hence
o,
K=
0.
0,
and, therefore, /
The
(a?)
as the root a +
Thus the
j3
/3
v/
1 a s well
<v/ 1
total
number
is always even
and every polynomial may
be regarded as composed of real factors, each pair of imaginary
roots producing a real quadratic factor, and each real root pro;
ducing a real simple factor. The actual resolution of the polynomial into these factors constitutes the complete solution of the
equation.
We
may
be considered
value of
k.
When
when k
is
when
rational in pairs.
28
1.
which
1,
shall
+ 2\/~l.
Ans. x*
2.
Form
3.
*<
2a 3
shall
have
Ans.
a;
bx2
12# 3
0,
6* + 2
4
two of
for
1x*
+ 19* 13 =
its
roots
72x 2
0.
 312* + 676 =
0.
V
1.
V3.
\/3,
+
one root being
f
v/
88
0,
7.
.4w*.
The
roots are 2
u
19.
rule,
tion,
roots,
may
be enunciated as follows
No
equation can
have
We
relative to the
In
+_
+ _

+ +
changes from +
to ,
and from 
..f
<
to +.
It
is
proposed to show
29
if this
corresponding to a positive root, are + , the resulting polynomial will have at least one more change of sign than the
original.
We write down
as follows
is placed
Here, in the third line, the ambiguous sign
wherever there are two terms with different signs to be added.
We
is
never diminished.
There
This
is
tion
if it
change of
sign.
x  a x ,
>
/3>
each
y,
so that
when
by each
of the factors
is
formed containing
30
all
least as
we conclude
changes of sign as
many
it
This
is
Descartes' proposition.
20.
Negative Roots.
In
be changed.
f(x)
(x
a,) (x
 a a)
(x
a 9)
(x
a w ),
/(
From
x)
 ( l) n
(x
a,)
(x
a a ) (x
e< 3
cr 2 ,
,),
....
 an
(x
<*,,).
are
No
number
of positive roots,
added
to the greatest
possible
+ 10^ 3 + x  4 =
0.
This equation, having only one variation, cannot have more than
one positive root. Now, changing x into  #, we get
x4 =
find since this has only one variation, the original equation cannot have more than one negative root. Hence, in the proposed
31
Theorem.
equation there cannot exist more than two real roots.
therefore, at least six
Descartes' rule
equations
for
imaginary
It has,
This application of
roots.
is
it
Theorem.
substituted for
b,
same
beticeen them.
lies
lies betiveen
in
an odd number
them
and
if they
an even num
This proposition, of which the theorem in Art. 12 is a particular case, contains in the most general form the conclusions
the proposition
its
to the roots of
first
We
x.
proceed to prove the first part of
the second part is proved in a precisely similar
manner.
(x)
a m and no others, of
01, a 2
between the quantities a and b, of
roots
lie
of the
factors
(.r
ai) (x
a 2)
We
(x a m ).
have, then,
f(r) s
(x
a,) (x
a,)
Now
<f>(a)
(a
(6
a,} (a
,)
and $
(b)
(i
a.)
,)
....
(x
x =
 am
) $
b,
(x).
we obtain
.... (a a m )
(a),
(ia m )0(6).
</
....
would
(a
(b
n,;
'/>
no)
(a
a*),
.... (6  a m ),
32
are different
its factors
but
all
are counted a
number
proposition.
this proposition it is to
of times equal to
multiplicity.
It is instructive to apply the graphic method of treatment to
From this point of view it
the theorem of the present Article.
between these points must cut the axis an odd number of times
when the points are on opposite sides of the axis and an even
;
number
of times, or not at
all,
when
EXAMPLES.
1.
an equation be
all positive, it
cannot kave a
positive root.
2. If the signs of the terms of any complete equation be alternately positive
and negative, it cannot have a negative root.
3. If an equation consist of a number of terms connected by + signs followed
signs, it has one positive root and no more.
by a number of terms connected by
positive signs,
it
if all
When
number of variations
an equation
number
An
is
number
complete
of sign in
;
f(x).
of variations,
be
real,
the
number
of positive
roots is equal
of continuations of sign.
sign positive,
of variations
must have
its last
its last
sign
negative.
Take the highest power of a? with positive coefficient (see Art. 4).
Hence prove that if an equation have an even number of variations it must
have an equal or less even number of positive roots and if it have an od?t number of
9.
variations
it
less
in other
33
Examples.
when
less
differ
and
Substitute
Find an
10.
oo
a*
number
3*;*
0.
Ans. At
least
two imaginary
roots.
11.
x*
\7xll0.
I5x~
f
Apply Arts.
Show
12.
+ qx
t
0,
where q awl r are essentially positive, has one negative and two imaginary roots.
13. Show that the equation
 qx +
x*
where
two
0,
q and r are essentially positive, has one negative root; and that the other
Show
14.
$z
AX  a
where
a, b, c,
....
C2
.1f
numbers
are
f
T
....
4I
I?
=x
v ~I
m,
all different
imaginary root.
Substitute a
f
$ V
and a
)8
a"
is
and 
has,
We
0.
when n
This and the next example follow zeadily from Arts. 19 and 20.
16. Show that the equation
has,
when n
is
xn +
and,
when n
a 2
30 #
f
is
1,
and no
This
is
f
20 *r
r4
r4
Ans.
 q
=* 0.
equivalent to
(x
The
2qaP
+ qx
f
2 2
)
0.
/
02
+ vV +
r*.
34
equation which has for roots the diffeient values of the expression
Form the
18.
where
+ v/11 + 0V7,
e \/~t
1.
have 8 values.
Form
\/34 
v^ll^fH
Am.
1.
Form an
20.
12u; 2
are, therefore,
# 4  8# 3 
Am.
19.
where
There
it.
all.
x*
36x
20 Vlo7,
400 j; 2
3168* + 7744 
0.
all
the
where
0i
\/p
= 1,
02 \/'y
t
v r*
0 J
=1,
ft
1.
Vp  V
 y/r,
'<i
i>
<i
+ v^^
Assume
Squaring,
* =
0i
2 (02
y/p
4"
02
\/^ +
03
\/r.
we have
*2 = p + q +
f
A/V +
e 3 *i
\/^ +
01 02
p^
r)
4 (0r
rp
py)
H0j0a0s
{*
This
written.
yp
is
is
 2* 2 (p +
r)
4
p2 +
02
r*
V/
?; l? r
f 02
2j?r
(0i
\/P +
\/# +
03
2rp
02
V^ r
an<* squaring,
2joy}
we
= *lpqr&.
Since
\/q
0i, 02,
yr
is
if
CHAPTER
III.
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ROOTS AND COEFFICIENTS OF EQUATIONS, WITH APPLICATIONS TO SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF THE
'"*'
HOOTS.
23.
xn + yM"**
When
f
 a,)
(s
;>,.r"
+...

(JP
,,)
(.r
04) 
(JT
 un
)
(1)
viz.
is
two
jt
the coefficient of
by three; and
;r
n ~3
sum
the
is
pz
= =
(HI
ay
(ci
riv
( 1)"
\
a,
f
4
a 2 aj +
n ),
....+ a n .\
o w ),
36
Roots ond
of Equations.
Coefficients
Theorem.
whose highest term
its
sign changed
The
coefficient
the coefficient of
unity , the coefficient p^ of the second term with
is
equal
of
to the
sum of
the roots.
sum of the
The
coefficient
equal to the
and
so
o)i,
sum of
its
sign changed
is
and
the n roots.
When
the coefficient a
of
is
then equal to
to
equal
^
and
is
of the equation
'
roots
;r
the
sum
by
it.
The sum
1),
we
of the
so on.
tfo
Cor. 1.
Every root of an equatioil is a divisor of the absolute term of the equation.
If the roots of an equation be all positive, the
Cor. 2.
coefficients (including that of the highest power of JT, will be
24.
it
distinct relations
between
37
Theorem.
01 is
one of the
Now,
roots.
in whatever
way
obtained, it must have for solution not only <n, but each of
the other roots a 2 a 3 ,
an
for, since all the roots enter in the
is
This
final
equation
in fact,
is,
we
the root
JLet a,
/3,
We
3
;
j>^'~
l>*
= 
Multiplying the
<^>r
IB
The
*
ft
+ ay
r /;,
0.
7),
i
/3y,
of these equations
three,
jhiC
which
"P7'
first
>
afi
"
]>*
a,
p&
by
4
/'V<
7>,* +
we
find
= 
/; 3

p.,a
;> 3
by
2
,
the second
0,
They may
also be
relations
which
Roots and
38
of Equations.
Coefficients
the roots.
among
EXAMPLES.
1.
the
sum
of
two of
its roots
a,
5:r
We have
7.
Taldnc:
01
ft
third
y=
we
0,
we
80
IGrr f
0,
second
f
theu
7 =
f
16,
a#7 = 
80.
obtain
first of these,
We
16.
roots are 5, 4,
6,
7 
a7 4
find for
ft
and 
4.
3r2
0,
two of
a,
We have
2a +
2
and j8 = 
1.
a
from whioh
3.
we
find a
2,
2a/3
3,
0,
The
roots are 2, 2,
i.
The equation
9*
4# 8 2a:2
12.*
+9 =
=
4,
+ 4a = 
2,
2a +
2
f /8
2/3
a;3
two
of
and
3.
whose
93.2
14a
24
0,
o,
j8,
easily obtain
3/3.
By
elimination of a
(
60 + 2y =
18,
28,
30' + 6/87
we
39
Examples.
from which
we have
14
The
The
1.
all
6, 4,
~
of
iy
j8
0.
The student
1.
56
difficulty
never require
f
and
90
what
is
the signi
may have
presented
examples
of this nature
itself in
we
mine the required unknown quantities. The reason of this is, that the given conmore relations amongst the roots. Whenever the equations
employed appear to furnish more than one system of values for the roots, the actual
roots are easily determined by the condition that they must satisfy the equation (or
equations) between the roots and coefficients which we have not made use of in
= 4 gives a system
detei mining them. Thus, in the present example, the value
satislying the omitted equation
a&y
=
24
is
therefore
be rejected.
6. Solve the equation
*
 0^f
23^150,
06,
3er
5
=
at oruo
9,
23,
1, 3, 5.
6.
a
whose
3a
f 2a
2 1* 3
 22*
f
40
0,
Assume
3$,
5,
5,
f
35.
'
Am.
7.
6, 2,
1,
+ 42#2 2S;r8=*
0,
Assume
have a8
for p.
or a
From
(2),
Art. 23,
we
2
.
An,.
22
_.
2,,
Roots and
40
8.
whose
 40* s
f
130*2
120a?
ap t
,
3
a/>
0,
Employ
^ ^ ^
^
3
120s + G4
whose
27
f
Assume
9.
of Equations.
Coefficients
0,
Ans.
8.
4,
2,
1,
relation
1
?..
hence
An
11
*
*'
2'
whose
roots are in
0,
harmonic progression.
22
"''
3'
9'
~3*
xs 
i/x
f
qx
The equation
is
p21 =
has two roots equal in magnitude and opposite in sign determine all the roots.
Take af = 0, and employ the first and third of equations (2), Art. 23.
;
Ans.
14.
v/3,  v/3,
V/ ^
vTi.
The equation
# 2  50# +12=0
is
16.
One
is
6,
it
px z +
may
^a?
41
Examples.
16.
Show
can be obtained
when they
a,
gives
$,
pi = na
2&,
a + (n
+2+3+
f { I
The
1) 8.
(n
first
of equations
(2)
1) } 5
Again, since the sum of the squares of any number of quantities is equal to the
square of their sum minus twice the sum of their products in pairs, we have the
equation
2
/?l
2j0 2
a2
(a f 8)
f
(a
25)
IN
~, /
ft)**
1 \
i
(2)
we find
all
8 2 in terms
when two
of its roots
a,
2
px + qx
$ are connected by a
r = 0,
relation a
& =
0.
Ana. pq
18.
r = 0.
px* +
</x
should have
19.
JT* f
pa?
gx~
+ rx + s =
+3 = 0;
Ans.
pqrp^  r8 = 0,
(1)
px*
(1) a,
+ r = 0,
(2)
and
xz
t
(2) 7, 5.
P
px +  =
0.
21. Find the condition that the biquadratic of Ex. 20 should have its roots connected by the relation
Ans. j? 3 4pq + 8r = 0.
+ 7 = a 5.
22. Find the condition that the roots a, /8, 7, 8 of
I
Ans. p*t  ra =
is satisfied
when
0.
the roots ot
Roots and
42
of Equations.
Coefficients
25.
exists
We
now show
shall
for
x in the identity
f <7,.r
x
/(# = (<>#)'* +
We represent, for convenience,
then
identity
by
hence a
satisfies
j3,
the second
member
of this
we have
satisfies the
1*'
common measure x
or
Substituting a for ^,
F(x).
equation. /"(a?)
0(ci)
n~
(x)
have a
sions.
Ex
1.
\MT'LKS.
The equation

3_5.^_4.r+ 203
find
them.
60
2ft
+ 3o =
Ans.
1,
2,
v/~2
43
if
EXAMPLES.
1.
The equations
The
 6x
4
5r 2
3^ +
= 0,
ll*150
An*
find them.
3.
1,
equations
ir
:<
:r
i
px~
p'x
f
qx
#'#
f r'
= 0,
=
f
find also
pp
26.
rr
pp
Unity.
rr'
Equations of the
forms
xn 
=
0,
xn
f
0,
roots of unity.
in a
the simple case of the binomial cubic, for which certain useful
It has been
properties of the roots can be easily established.
5,
are
*'
 1 =
11
11
*
^
'
~2~2^~~ 6
'
other
see the
must
same thing
also
as follows
be a root
for,
since
If
oi
44
Roots and
w8 =
1,
or (w
8
)
We
#  1 = 0.
3
Changing
we
tf
1 a
the cubic
(a?
satisfies
o>
1,
into a?,
a;
of Equations.
Coefficients
1) (#
i
o>) (a?
a> ),
&
f
0.
Whenever
in any product of quantities involving the imagiof unity any power higher than the second
cube
roots
nary
it
can be replaced by o>, or or, or by unity for
presents itself,
;
example,
The
fol
By
EXAMPLES.
1.
Show
is
2.
or//) (o>
wri)
Ans. m" 
identities
m 3 f
0,3 _ W 3 ss
3.
Show
(m f n)((am f
(
WJ
mn+
w,)(
ww
a>
w)(&r
I
wn),
/>).
is
rational.
o))8t
a>
7)(a
+ co 2
rational.
4m.
4.
(a 46.
<r
I
& 2 + 72  0y
 ya
7)(a f
j8 f
7)(
2
)8
+ W 7) =
a3
f )8
f
3
7  80^7.
Apply Ex.
j8
2,
7)
+ (a+
2
/8 4
7)
(2a
 3  7) (2/5  w  a)(2y ~ a
3).
n2
45
a>j8
7)
(a
a>
a' 4
w~w
for
j8'
4 wy s 
7'*
its
*/~$ ($  7) (7 
value
3a'Y a
(a
\/
8
a) (a
 0).
3.
4 7* 
SajS?)
',
where
2
a' s a 4
8.
Form
'
7'==7 +
0*427a,
207,
iw
o>m
n,
orw,
^ns.
9.
Form
2aj8.
whose
the equation
I 4
4
a;
 3mi*  (w8
4
n3 ) =
0.
roots are
Ant. x*
aw.
4
4
tm 4
w ? w,
3te* 4 3 (/
4 w? w 4
 mn) x 
(/
4
cuw.
m8 4
 S^mw) = 0.
th
important to observe that, corresponding to the n n
th
The roots
roots of unity, there are n n roots of any quantity.
It
is
of the equation
xn  a 
The
a.
V3/
0>
fl,
V3/~
0)~
V3/
<7,
where v^a represents the real cube root according to the ordinary
Each of these values satisfies the
arithmetical interpretation.
It is to be observed that the three
cubic equation x*  a = 0.
cube roots
may
above written by
1, <u,
wa
In addition, therefore,
two
3,
the
,
Form
by actual cubing.
wV
for a root
Vhere
Compare Ex.
o>
8.
Q 4\/Q2 + f* +
3
2
V& + ^
Ans. x* 4 3Pz  2Q
0.
46
Roots and
11.
Form an
for a root,
of Equations.
where
Cubing both
Coefficients
0i
and
1,
fa
1.
x=
and substituting
a:
for
its
0!
v/p +
0,
we
get
Since
Q\
and
may
0%
1,
u>,
We see
also that, since 9i and 2 have disapperaed from the final equation, it is
which of these nine roots is assumed equal to x in the first instance.
The resulting equation is that which would have been obtained by multiplying
indifferent
x <\/P
\/Q
12. Form separately the three cubic equations whose roots are the groups in
three (written in vertical columns in Ex. 11) of the roots of the equation of the
preceding example.
cu
1\
&\/ Q,\
and
8,
taking
first
finally equal to
and n equal
to^/P /Q',
9
o*~\/P, <jj"\/Q.
Ans.
x*
l/TQx  P~ Q
 P Q =
**
27.
0,
0,
Symmetric
For example, the functions of the roots (the sum, the sum of the
products in pairs, &c.) with which we^ were concerned in Art. 23
.are of this nature; for, as the student will readily perceive, if
,in
any
Symmetric Functions of
47
the Boots.
first
It will be shown
variety of symmetric functions of the roots.
in a subsequent chapter, when the discussion of this subject is
resumed, that any rational symmetric function whatever of the
roots can be
Article,
is
letter
pression
be written down.
may
Thus,
if a, /3,
y be the
roots of
cr/3
+ a? 7 2 +
/3Y,
where
same
all
case,
where
4 a 2 y 4 fi*y 4
13
/3
4 y*a 4 y 2 /3,
By
among
is
as follows
when
Roots and
48
of Equations.
Coefficients
EXAMPLES.
1
4 px* 4
tf
qx
=s
0.
+ & 4 y=
0y 4 ya 4
we
2a2 /3
obtain
hence
2crj8
^.
3r
2.
3.
a2
f
4 y\
hence, by Ex.
47 +
I
1,
2a = 3
4.
Find
We
for the
jt?
=  ^3 +
Zpq
2^^
3r.
V+7
'W
easily obtain
2cr/3
(ft
is
7)
?'S
2pr.
7) (7
3).
equal to
2a$7
2a
f
Ans.
47
a)8
4
o2/85
2
47
o3
cryS
47
4 ^ 2 a7 4 # 2 a5 4
^35
5*a
82 a7
4 px* 4 qx 1 4
Multiplying together
obtain
ra;
0.
a44748 = ;>,
a/87
hence
This
we
)3
6.
p*
from which
6.
2a)3
3
2a'J
+ 7s
we obtain
Ans.
of
a+0
o8
y,
 pq\
3 a#y
4
JP,
a)85
4 a7^ 4
2a
j87
^878
r,
4 4a075 = pr ;
2a 07 = .pr 2
=
4t
49
Examples.
7.
Find for the same biquadratic the value of the symmetric function
o8
S2 .
+ 72 +
4
2a2 = p2 8.
Find
for the
a2
a2 7 2 + a 2 5 2 +
we
2?.
2a0 =
2
7 +
+ y5 2
5
f,
obtain
2a2
hence,
by Ex.
+ 22a 2 /3y
f
6a0y$ =
8
;
6,
 2pr +
2*.
2a/3
2a2 = JP  2?
y,
s 2a
2a 2a
3
j8
2o
4
/87.
convenient to remark here, that results of tho kind expressed by this last
equation can be verified by the consideration that the number of terms in both
members of the equation must be the same. Thus, in the present instance, since
[It is
2a2
contains 4 terms, and 2a 6 terms, their product must contain 24 ; and these
3
2
tlie 12 terms which form 2a
together with the 12 which form 2a #7.]
Using the results of previous examples, we have, therefore,
are in fact
2a 3 /8 = p*q  2? 2  pr +
10.
Find
for the
+ 74
fr
f
4*.
of
54 .
2
Squaring 2a , and employing results already obtained,
2a 4 = J3 4  4p~q
11.
f
2g
+ 4pr ~
4*.
coefficients, of the
sum
Xn +p&n 1 + p2X~2
Squaring 2ai,
we
f
. .
+ 22aiaa
+p n = 0.
easily find
2
jPi
2ai 2
hence
2ar =
12.
pi* 
2p z .
sum
of the reciprocals of
Roots and
50
From
the second
CX203
last,
... On
01
and
tt3
of Equations.
Coefficients
last of
CUCC2
....
by
~r
"r
02
l)* ^,,
= (l)"jp
<*
we have
the latter,
= (
a,il
....
01 0303
we have
.... On +....+
~~~
,
~r
~t~
On
03
In a similar manner the sum of the products in pairs, in threes, &c., of the
found by dividing the 3rd last, or 4th last, &c., co
13.
by the last.
Find for the cubic equation
the value, in terms of the coefficients, of the following symmetric function of the
roots o, 8,
2
087) +(7a) +(a/3)
numerical coefficients are those which occur in the expansion to the third power,
viz. 1, 3, 3, 1.
We
easily obtain
3
14.
Express
in
{(ft
7)
(y
a)
(a
0)
18 (a?
where
a,
/3,
we have
two following
7)
+ P~ (7 
f
x~
(a
~ #) 2
+ (o3oi2)a?r
(tfis
Since
2
)
JB
7) (2jB
7
2a/37=3a(o4
a) (2 7
/8^ 7)
 j8)
= 3ah
3ai
= 0.
coefficients of
51
Examples.
the required value
30]
4w. ao
16. Find, in
of
 7)
(2a

obtained by substituting
is easily
+ 3aa# +
(2)8
03
 7  a)
o (#
(#
 a  /3)
(2 7
for
(*
ft)
7).
 27 (o2
>
in the identity
3
+ 2ai 8 ).
+ 4 3# +
4 *= 0,
 7) a (a )*' +
(7
3
)
08
5)
(a
*)* (7
2.
Employing the
<,{(
7)
2
(
*)
examples G and
results of
2
+ (7
(0
a
)
8,
+ (a jB)*
we
find
(7
8
)
= 24
 40, *s
4 3^ 2 2 ).
17. Taking the six products in pairs of the four roots of the equation of Ex. 16,
and adding each product, e.y. oj8, to that which contains the remaining two roots,
78, we have the three sums in pairs
7 4
it
is
ya
a5,
f
a/8 f
5,
78
required to find the values in terms of the coefficients of the two following
f
76;
is
the
(a
(7 f a5)
The former of these
sum
+ 78)
(7 +
(ya
j85) (aj8 f
5)
(7 +
a3) (ya
+ /38),
78).
uniformly by the
letters X,
The former
is
(j.v
v.
/x,
I/A
2a'~'7, and
i.s
~
The
latter
is,
when
3
375(a +
and we obtain
A/u,
ix.
(4ais 
+ 7 +8 +
:i
/3
>
>
a
^7 5 ( \
\ a
^
\ H [:)
5/
7
8 (Zauaj  S'/oOuty
K 2
I
2r ^4).
6)
Roots and
52
of Equations.
Coefficients
18. Find, in terms of the coefficients of the biquadratic of Ex. 16, the value of
^he following symmetric function of the roots
:
{(7
)()(*) (7*)}
l(a
To
other differences a
OB
The symmetric
5,
7)
/3
5,
We
5.
(),
(7
*)(**),
(a
3) (7).
A,
/A,
v,
We have,
we have
5),
(2A
^
v]
 A)
(2ft v
(2v A 
,i),
or
2a)3),
Multiplying this out, substituting the value of 2o#, and attending to the results
of Ex. 17,
The
we
function of the coefficients here arrived at, as well as those before obtained
in Examples 13, 16, and 16, will be found to be of great importance in the theory
of the cubic and biquadratic equations.
19. Find, in terms of the coefficients of the biquadratic of
Ex.
This
may be
represented briefly
by 2
(a
2.
Ans.
20.
dratic of
a
S)
(7+ a
5)
(af
78) =32
coefficient?
Theorems relating
53
Symmetric Functions.
to
Theorems
roots in
The
may be
observed in the particular cases of the Examples 13, 15, 16, 17,
&c. of the last Article ; and that it must be true in general appears from the equations (2) of Art. 23, for the suffix of each
coefficient in those equations is equal to the
When an
all
equation
is
equal
is
such that
the terms in
it
is
to zero.
The
a Q xn + naixn
for the equation then
equal
~l
~
1
becomes
a^'^ +
Z
(a?
+ l) w =
0,
,...
i.
e. all
=();
and therefore
which
is
&c. art
made equal
to unity.
27 we have instances of
this theorem.
Roots and
54
of Equations.
Coefficients
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find
J_
_i_
&y
where
a, 3,
symmetric function
_i_
a&
ya
Xs
2
px + qx +
4
0.
Ans.
3.
r
2.
^4w.
3.
Here
2a2a
= 2a s /8 3
4
/8
a72a'0
5a 6
is
Find
for the
easily obtained
3
by squaring 2a
same equation.
2
%pqr + 3r
Ex.
(see
f
7*
fi
2;>
1 2yy
1 2j3
8;/ 02
Spqr
60
2
2
7 4 a
a2
4 j3
2
'
+7
7+0
+
2^
+ 7
af)
Am
7.
Art. 27)
3,
6.
Ans.
5.
 jo 3
hence, &o.
Ans.
4.
24r
a3
27a 
&
2a/8
7*
*
4pr
20
55
Examples.
8.

\a +
for the
equation.
 4?8 "
9.
Calculate in terms of p,
+ py?
x*
1
2aS a2
Here
 5
4
a/8
f
qx*
+
1
and Sa2 
S~
the value of
g, r, s
rx
+ 2
7
~a
 9r2
0.
gr
10.
2pqr
f
same cubic
Iqs
~ pra f
fl~
p n i# + /> =
f
11.
Compare Ex.
12.
0.
7 
a8)
7a 
5) (a/3
 7 3).
^s.
f
i)
(j8
 7) 2
in terms
cubic equation
tfo#
+ 3a 8 # +
3#i#
0.
1
xn
f
^la?"'
+ jt?2#n~2 ....
in the form
W I ,L +
+
12
(ai
1
(
2oi2
14.
Qear
!)_,
1
~ ,1
f~f"
03
ai
a;
a*
fa\
or
.. ..
Ill
 +  +
f l^nia? 4 JP
<
hence, &c.
V/*~^~a~
f
A/^0
4 v/'  72
5
^o*"
(a
2
i
)*
CC1A2
equation
v4w.
13.
r2 ~jo2
0.
56
Roots and
of Equations.
Coefficients
Ans. 3* 2  2
15. If a,
2
(j
+ !)(* f
(a
1)( 7
1)(5
+1) 
p* +
2#)
Ex.
a?
8jpr
0.
 r).
(p
prove
9,
 q +*) 2 4
(1
4p*q
in the identity of
17.
vhere
1) (a2
(ai
 (a
1)
1)
(1
 p* + Pi 
. .
.)*
(p\
 P* +
)*
a, 0, 7, 8
x*
 7s8 +
x each
8s2
6x
10
0.
x2 4 2 =
0,
and multiply.
Ana. 166.
18.
0,
prove
o
(3
The
A/tv,
f
7) (7
4
+ W(a ^
)(
where
A,
/x,
equal to
is
Ex.
biquadratic equation of
Ifi
(Ca^as
(/* 4
v}(v f A) (A
f A*),
or
symmetric function
2 (a 
#)
9.
4
Ans.
Show
5)(/3 f 5) (7 f 5)
when
S;;
I6p~g
20?
f
+ 4pr 
16*.
that
is
The
(a
4
)
{48
(a
ff2
(a,
ax 2
prove that
1C>
and
(a', /8')
Zbx 4
3
i
two
(a
%
4rt]
from a fixed
two quadratic equations
pairs of points
of the
0,
a'x*
2b'x
f c'
origin
on
when one
22.
The
I
a'c
2##'
C on
0.
57
Examples.
find the condition that
C should
between
Compare Ex.
23. Retaining the notation of the preceding question, find the condition that the
four points 0,
A,
J?,
division.
Ans. adz
3bcd+
2c s
= 0.
This can be derived from the result of Ex. 22 by changing the roots into their
reciprocals, or it can be easily calculated independently.
24. If the roots (a, 0, 7, 5) of the equation
e
be so related that a
8,
yS are
5,
in
the coefficients
among
Compare Ex.
Foifli the
25.
By +
a
3
where
1,
and
a,
/8,
twya

c*>0 f
a>
7 are the
26.
Express
sum
of
f
yaf a>a0
ar0
f
w*v
of the cubic
f 34^'" f 3r^r 4 rf
7 ~
ajB) (2 7 a
= 0.
 187) (20  ^7 
aj8
two cubes.
Ann. ($7
Compare Ex.
4 a>
(20?
as the
a0
roots*
ax*
co*7
5,
f
o>7<x 4
<w'
Art. 26.
27. Express
3
z)
in terms of
jc
4 y
f
and
1
(a?
4
\vheie
*yj5,
f/ 4
o>
w'J s) 3
+ (j;
w
4
//
1.
A**.
28. If
r'
find
3T,
r,
^ in terms
Apply Jbixample
H
F8 4 ^s 
'
of #, y,
#', y',
4, Ail. 26.
Am.
29.
(a
f
7)
a3y
(07
+ ya f
a0)
Ans.
Compare Ex.
18, Art.
24
(cr
 07)
(0
 7)
(7*
aj8)
Roots and
58
of Equations.
Coefficients
(
(2).
(J
8~
Ans.
31.
(1).
(2a07)(27a)(27a/8).
(2).
90Sx)(7a)(a#.
Xs
px 1 \qxrQ
p2
*2q
we
is b,
The
b~.
easily find,
required condition
(P*
2?) (q*
sq uares of the
is
2pr)
r*
0.
a*
whose
7x*
form indicated
20#
in
24
0,
Ex. 31.
Ans.
33.
Roots
3,
and 2 + 2
V^l
px*
among
rx
qx
aV
1,
1.
Ans.
p*
1q
r*
'Iqs
0.
whose
4a 3
Sx*
120s
4
900
f /3
0,
Ex. 33.
Ans.
35. If a
V^, 6 + 5 V~l.
0s
0,
Xs + g#  r =
36.
0.
a,
ft
f
2
j# + ##
f
aft f 1
Ana.
=
1 f
0.
+ pr
4 r*
0.
59
Find the condition that the biquadratic
37.
#4 + px* + qx" 4 rx
f
+ q + pr +
38.
xn
This
r1
+ (^ f j?r  2q 2
ao)
(ai

p\x
n'}
1) *
0.
is
(q
 1) **f * ^ o.
+pzz
n~2
equation
+pn = 0.
is
Am.
(
'*
i
by giving to r
all
0, 2, 4, 6 ....
when w
is
1,
when n
is
even
follows
and
all
the values
odd.
a,
j8,
7 by
ai,
1,
71, a.
aiE=7,
7isa^3;
j8i7a,
oi
ai
ai
These
results
+
+
f
f
7i
f
71*
3
/8i
4
)3i
fo*
f
7i
3ai/3,7i,
2
2
J {ai + ^i
= f
* + qx is
2
/Si
01, 3i,
{ai
f
7r}%
4 71"
01/8171.
sum
of the roots
= 0), and
calculating
capable of being expressed in terms of the product ai/3i7i and the sum of squares
2
f
+ 71* ; the former being equal to r, and the latter to  2 (fr 71 + 71 ai f a t 1),
i
or
2g. These sums can be calculated readily as follows :
By means of x* = r  qx,
all
oi
and the equations derived from this by squaring, cubing, &c., and multiplying by
x or ar2 any power of #, say xf, can be brought
by successive reductions to the form
A + Bx+ Cx*, where A B, C are functions of q and r. Substituting ai, 0i, 71, and
,
adding,
this
we
way
find 2ai*
7?
r,
= 3^t
5ai u
2^(7.
110r
(? r*).
CHAPTER
IV.
TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS.
29.
We
Transformation of Equations.
instances, without
knowing
can in
many
by elementary
by the aid
another
We
mations of equations.
whose roots
shall
3? +
We
JC
nr
p X
n ~*
*rp 2 X
p n ^X + pn =
+ p^
cliauging x into
//"
'
Piy
n~ l
y^
8)
+ p*y n ~*  ...
The polynomial
Ol ) (x
0.
pn^ y T
pn
(//
i)
(x
dn )
or odd,
(y + a 2 )
(//
n).
in
ai,
EXAMPLES.
1
&+
with their signs changed.
7* 4
7o?3
roots of
 8# 2
Ans.
f
xb
f
7# 4
1x*
8x* +*x
=0.
61
3# 6
4
f
8
it
x
= 0.
Ix + 2
f
coefficients.]
Am.
a7
4 3.r
+ # 8 f x* + 7x
0.
To
2,
i,
ma^ wa
2,
many we change
x into
Multiplying by
in
in
n
,
we
have
n
n
y + mp\y
~l
m*p 2
n ~*
i/
+

(l/
mn p n ^y + mnpn
~l
men) (y
 maz )
(y
iwa n ).
Hence,
/;?.%
;w
3
,
mn
for the
of
When
by multiplying the
roots
common
all
multiple of
by a quantity
we can
which
In
EXAMPLES.
1.
We
2.
Remove
 18*
4
27 =0.
6.
dns
3?
3x~
+ 24# 216 = 0.
62
Transformation of Equations.
Remove
3.
6,7
evident that
it is
have only
if
= 6,
be taken
by
Ann.
Remove
4.
13
we
&\i>x* Ux +
0.
77
coefficients.
The required
multiplier
Ans.
Remove
hence
6.
6.
x*>
is
10.
30# 2
f
520# 4770
= 0.
6 #3 +
,
5
;r
 18
o2
0.
900
12
Ans.
0.
we change x
into  in the
reductions,
1
Pi
P*
Pn~\
or
hence,
1
if
we
replace x
by
,
and multiply
by
y'
the*
*rill
have
63
Reciprocal Equations.
There
when x
is
is
changed into
The
equafions.
its reciprocal.
among
reciprocal
the coef
ficients of
are,
Pn~\
 ~
2J n
The
 PL
Pni
 P*
  P ~1 
;?i
*<>
lj n
Pn
J'n
*
pn =
or
1,
P~
pn =
l.
In the
(1).
which give
first
case
we have
Reci
pn
is
the relations
the beginning
from
= Pi,
pn2
&c,
I**,
class
pi = p,,_i
responding terms counting from the beginning and end are equal in
magnitude hut different in sign. It is to be observed that in this
ease when the degree of the equation is even, say n 2ui, one of
the conditions becomes
p m = p m
>
or p m =
equation
degree
and
or +
is
it is
a,
/3,
also be a root,
is
 must
so that in reciprocal
whose degree
is its
&c.
own
When
the
reciprocal
is
64:
Transformation of Equations.
the
known
factor
(x+
1 or a? 1),
and
and what
of the
is left is
is
 1 +
a reciprocal
In equations
first class.
of
0.
By
equations
even,
and
this
of reciprocal equations.
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find the equation whose roots are the reciprocals of the roots of
**
 3^ +
7* 2
6*
Am.
2.
Reduce
to a reciprocal equation of
a
6
* +
K
8
22
=
2y
0.
5//
22
T* +T*
Ans.
To Increase or Diminish
To
Quantity.
effect this
3y
f
0.
first class
*io.
x*
f
 x*   x* +  x +
6
33.
7?/
0.
transformation
we change
the vari
tive.
The
resulting equation
There
is
mode
is (see
Art. 6)
^V Q^yH
... 
o.
which for
practical purposes is much more convenient than the direct calculation of the derived functions, and the substitution in them
proposed equation be
.
+ an  x + a n }
Let the
To Increase or Diminish
and suppose the transformed polynomial
y =
since
a?
h, this is
65
the Roots.
in
be
to
equivalent to
that
is
A ny
A
if this
(x
+ AI (x 
A)*"
again be divided by x
quotient
*Q. o
7jN**~"^
f/yt
I***
/fry
_i_
1~
A)**"
h,
A)
the remainder
is
/)\H~^
/*
J
( t*
>4
+ An_ 2 (x 
<<cjLl I***
"f"
A^i
An
i,
and the
_i_
~T~
4
Cl^j_2
Proceeding in this way, we are able by a repetition of arithmetical operations, of the kind explained in Art. 8, to calculate
in succession the several coefficients
last, A
An
being equal to a
It will appear
in a subsequent chapter that the best practical method of solving numerical equations is only an extension of the process
employed in the following examples.
EXAMPLES.
1.
each diminished by
The
5# 8
7# 2
llx
f
11
0,
4.
12
12
20
60
65
11
11
17
66

Transformation of Equations.
Here the first division of the given polynomial by x  4 gives the remainder
and the quotient x z  x* f 3#
5 (cf. Art. 8).
Dividing this a^ain by
9 (= At) t
4,
again,
55y  9
2.
.#
each diminished by
4#
#
0.
roots of
f
11
0,
3.
15
f
therefore,
is,
2
305y 4 507f/ + 353 =
3
15y + 94y
f
0.
4x*
each increased by
The
2# 3
is,
by
7z
of course,
Am.
4. Increase
0,
2.
2.
303y129 =
4i/s4Qy*
0.
*
6.
13# 2
 12* +
0.
 2876y f 4058 = 0.
first
3.
The
Removal of Terms.
calculation
may
67
332
Am.
Removal of Terms.
34.
f
5//
One
7325?/
+ 53689 =
0.
is
to
remove a
certain
y,
we have
formed
equation will
0,
the trans
If h be either of
5
JL
1)
0,
the transformed equation will want the third Jterm the removal
of the fourth term will require the solution of a cubic for h and
;
so on.
/(A)
To remove
0,
which
is
we must
itself.
68
Transformation of Equations.
EXAMPLES.
1.
ic
which
into one
shall
 6^ + 4x 
naoh
a\
gives
2.
Ans. y*  8y
which
into one
shall
65
= 0.
0.
+ Sa^f #5 =
15
4s. y 4
2.
by
24^
f
65y
which
into one
The
want the
shall
third term.
quadratic for h is
 12A 
6/i 2
Binomial
giving h
0,
=
3r J
we obtain
y*+ 8// s  Illy 196 =
we obtain
y*fy4 17y8 = 0.
1,
(2)
35.
I.
3,
(1)
18
Coefficients.
0.
*
in
ficient,
*w
is
coefficient of the
corresponding term
w
expansion of (x + l) by the binomial theorem. The
student will find examples of equations written in this way on
in the
Examples 13 and
The form
16.
is
one
We
now adopt
Un = a&?
naiX
f
n~ l
+
J.
#n
~2
+ na n . x + a n
}
/o
Binomial
We have, therefore,
One advantage
69
Coefficients.
changing n into n
form
of the binomial
1, &o.,
is,
The
Un
function of
or n
Un
is,
first
derived
plainly,
so that the first derived function of a polynomial represented in this way can be formed by applying to the suffix
of
the rule given in Art. 6 with respect to the exponent of the
.i
variable.
We
derived of U^
first
is
4,
formed
suffix
by
it is,
therefore,
~l
7W or
,
:
flr
1 &
2 o?
n~ a
f
na n
\x
into
A yn
Q
nAiif +
1
f
nin  1)
n'2
+
\ >>  ^3//
^liy + 4,
where
^oj ^ij 4 2,
A* =
0n,
^
=
i
o^
CT,,
Z7,,
^i,
by
.
^2
^nly
&n
substituting A for x in
.
Un l9
o^
a
*
Un
',
2iA
+ aa , &o.
suffixes,
as
70
Transformation of Equations.
explained in Art.
mation, viz. f(y +
/,
we may
6,
W,
Un
its first
derived/i(A)
is
we have
by
is,
n(n
A n_i\
1)
it
and
so on.
therefore,
is,
nA n.
above rule,
tlie
the
first
these
Making
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find the
Am.
The
<7
result of substituting
3 (onh
f
i)
I
y+h
A2 +
x in the polynomial
for
2iA +
^2)
?/ I
^o^ 3
f 3^!/<
f
3^/t
<z s .
f
hy the method of
ii
3r/2#
f
We
roots
o^
#3
0.
h obtained
by a quantity
f
f
"i
= 0,
i.e. h
= a,,

3 (a<ff2
r)
i*
o ^3
3. Find the condition that the second and third terms of the
equation Un should be capable of being removed by the same substitution.
Here A\ and A^ must vanish for the same value of A; and eliminating h
Ans.
4.
a^ci'i
fijr
4
2r
second term.
by removing
The third term
is
substitution,
 27 =
0.
which gives
 a{1 =
0.
The
The required
71
Cubic.
by
equation.
5. Find the condition that the second and fourth terms of the equation Un =
should be capable of being removed by the same transformation.
Here the coefficients A\ and A* must vanish for the same value of h ; eliminat
=
we
ff
0,
/*
3#iA
Zctih
0,
3
i
0.
among the coefficients of a biquadratic equareducible to that of a quadratic for when the second term is
removed the resulting equation is a quadratic for y^ ; and from the values of y
N.B.
"When
those of
6.
oc
is
can be obtained.
by removing
its
f
16s3 + 72s2
0.
in
is
y4_24y
x + 20s 3
l
I
143s2
+ 430s
4
Am. The
8.
and
129
second term.
The equation
7.
64s
462
0.
roots are
 7,  3,  5
V'S.
Find the condition that the same transformation should remove the second
fifth
Un =
0.
3#i
The
= 0.
Cubic.
On
we
0,
(1)
obtain
where AI,
0,
^=
0,
or
A^
72
Transformation of Equations.
and A s we
find, as in
3
2
(0 02
y+
01 )
00
The
T (00*03
3000102
20j
3
)
Ex.
2,
is
0.
00
mary
them by single
2
0i
0o 08
ff,
letters.
it is
custo
We accordingly adopt
 30Q0102 + 20j 8 =
3Hz + G =
by
it
becomes
(3)
a form which will be found convenient in the subsequent disThe variable, s, which occurs in the first
cussion of the cubic.
member of this equation, is equal to ,y or # + 0j ; the original
cubic multiplied
by
3H (a& +
a,
transformed equation
(2) will
be
al
i
cii
,
0o
i)
H
,
7 +
or, since
a + /3 + T1B
they
may
be written as follows
80!
_
a
0j
J
p, y, those of the
73
The Biquadratic.
We
can write
down immediately by
latter will be
found to
agree with the value already found in Ex. 15, Art. 27.
may here make with regard to the general equation an
We
transformed equation
is
any two
roots
a',
/3'
of the
and G.
jET,
among
The Biquadratic.
37.
is
r/o//
where
article
The transformed
.equation, want
in this case
+ 6^4 2 // 2 + 4 A $ 4
4 4
0.
641
found
Hy*
'
f
"
G'/ +
We
'
is,
therefore,
(a*a
^ 1 ^8 + 6a
2
(ti
a2 
3rt x )
0.
It is
to regard this
74
Transformation of Equations.
identity
This involves #
>
H, and another
viz.
4^3
which
is
3fl 2
2
,
This function
is
represented
by the
letter /, giving
written
6H 40 + *'/ 3jEP = A
r+ Tjy
^ + T**
171
^0
#0
^0
,
We
J)
by
of
and obtain
+ 6 Hz + 4 Gz + a<~I  3II 2 =
2
0.
(2)
quartic multiplied
(a^x
f/!)
f
by
The
a&
f
variable
ft
is
the
the original
QH(a& +
i)
4G
(a<& + ai]
+ a<?I 3ID.
Any symmetric function of the roots of the original biquadratic equation which contains their differences only can therefore be expressed by r/ ZT, 6r, and /.
,
j3,
7, 8, those of
The sum
dg
j; the
of these =
sum
the
sum
r#0
and
for their
75
HomograpJiic Transformation.
continued product
we have
the equation
7 $a)(3 7
There
is
p) (3Sa/3y)
attention, as
it
will be
This
is
shows that
we
now to call
wish
<
it
is
The example
It is
referred to
It
tf
0?
We
HI G*H\
a<?J^a<?
Or
this relation
verify.
Whenever a
d 2 into
<7otf24
2,
# 3 into
+ 2<VWj 
z,
Thus
&c.
ffoffs
#i
<?2
A?
38. l!oiiiograjjiic
.Transformation.
The transforma
y by the equation
If A
ft
=  ^, A' =
0, [/
y,
= 1 we have y = x we have
,
A*
h, as in Art. 33.
76
Transformation of Equations.
From
equation.
the equations
we
Aa +
Aa +
ju
= T7
\(3
it
&>
P = v/T +
ju
.,
/>
/u
>>
Ap
a 
A'//) (a
(\1JL
j3)
j3'
sponding
roots,
(a
('
we

/)
(#'
y) =
~
8')
(a
(a
j3j
(7
7)
(/3
8)
Sj"
Thus,
if
on the
It is
called holographic.
It
important to observe that the transformation here conand y are connected by a relation
is
of the
form
Axy + Ex + Cy +
0,
is
39.
Transformation
l>y
Symmetric Functions.
Sup
it is
posed.
7
or any number of them.
</>
(a, /3,
.),
where
We form all
may
pos
77
combinations
down
and write
When
(afiy),
<f>
(a/38), &c.,
this product is
EXAMPLES.
1.
The
roots of
+ px* +
s*
qx
f
are a,
R=
3
y + Py* + Qy 4
then
 r=
and we have
tion.
We
to
 p2 
in the
2cTj8
= a2
72
<<J
n
~
^+
2q]
(q'
2pr) y
a2 ^ 3 7 2
2/?r,
r*
therefore,
(p
^*.
If a,
2a 2 ^ =
2,7,
is,
3
2/
3.
j8
Q=
easily ohtain
Find
+ 72
2o
2.
a?
+ j0# 3
f
(p
f
r*
roots are a
3pg
3r) y*
qx*
r#
(q*
0.
n
s
.
H=
0.
0>
024 + 2ai*4) =
ft.
3j>qr
3r2 ) y
7, 5 be the roots of
a*
find the equation
whose
I
0,
jy +
4
y +
%+
Q /y 2 +
xS
0,
then
 P = 2a 2
Compare Exs.
R
= 2a2/3 27 2
^=
a 2 /8 2 7 2 5 2 .
Jim.
4. If a,
Q = 2a 2^3 2
y*>
2
(2?
 2?) y 3
(g
1
2;?r f 2*)
(r
2qs)
y+
*2
7, 5 be the roots of
ao# 4
find the equation
whose
f
4i# 3
f 6rta^
roots are x,
4
o5,
/*,
7a
+ 43^ +
a4
viz.,
aft f
f j85,
75.
<
(40i #3
 ao4) y
8
,
<*
(2o33 
30
78
Transformation of Equations.
Show
5.
when
Ex. 4 are multiplied by i#o, and the second term of the equation then removed,
*
 Iz + 2J =
is
0.
as ex
much
will
EXAMPLES.
Form
1.
xn
To
+ piX
n~ l
+ pzX"
changing x into
appix"multiplying,
n
#,
we
+2>zti*
even
~l
pix"~'~
we have
4
+ .... 4
pnlr
powers of x
The
+ pn 
0.
the identity
+ pn =
(x
Ui)(x
02)
(x
cr, 4
Pn\x +jj n
.^(pia"
first
member
we may then
(x
01) (x
a2 )
(x f
a,,)
4 jya
2
replace x
by
N.B.
Pn~\ x
we have
+ p 2 JC~ + piX n * +
it is
u
p\ x
X"
(x
f
and obtain
y,
.
B (y  oi 2
(// a 2 ~)
(// a
2
)".
first
r3 
x
f
8* 
0.
Ana. y*
Tho
latter equation,
^positive root
by
15#
f
52y
36
0.
roots.
79
Examples.
3.
**
+ *2
+ 2# +
Am.
y* +
0.
2y
2
6y* f 3y
 2y  9 =
0.
from Descartes' rule of signs that the original equation must hato
It follows
4. Verifj5.
Form
tho Examples
and
3 of Art. 39.
X n + plX>^ + P2X
+p
iX
pn
I
0.
/"(#),
In the present case we must multiply together /(#), /( wa Oi /(^ 2 #) the variables
1 = 0.
involved being obtained by multiplying x by the roots of the equation a; 3
'
(pn+pH*& +
which we ropiesent,
.)
+ f(p n i
for brevity,
H^,,4*
We
jinil
P, Q,
have
nre
all
P
P4
f
xQ
+ x*R
(x
+ X(p
ti
}>n^* r
.),
x*R,
and
wxQ.
aVQ
wJiR
4 a**li
.
HH
(tax
02)
t*)

(*
 a n).
(I)
x successively, we obtain
ai)(a>JC
(w^  ai)(V
03)
03)
(wx
(u'JC
a M ),
(2)
 O H ),
(3)
we
1
results
obtain
.r
3
tf
+ *JP  Za*PQR B
ai )(a;
a 2 3)
..(*
a,
3
).
member
first
We
 oi)(
only.
since P, Q,
The
functions of x*.
P
then.
P4
of Art. 26,
by
Pf xQ
whorr
as follows
form
equation.
6.
 *3 +
2xz
0.
Ans. y*
+ 3x
4 1
3
2
14y + 50y + 6y
0.
<* s
0.
ax*
Ans.
f
Zbx*
Sex
+d=
0.
9<:
 9^)y +
80
Transformation of Equations.
= 0. For
between the two equations / (x) = 0, and
(x, y}
example, suppose it were required to form the equation whose
roots are the sums of every two of the roots (a, /3, 7) of the
<f>
cubic
pa? + qx r = 0.
or*
We have here
The equation
(x,
y)
is in
his case
=p  x
for
when x
takes the value a, y takes one of the proposed values; and when
x takes the values /j and 7, // ta,k s tne other proposed values.
If a, 0,
7 be the
substituting
VMPLES.
xz
px
4
qx
0,
#7 +
,
70 4
ajSf 
,
j8
Here
a#7
lubstituting
4
is
xy =
for # in f(x)
Form,
Substitute
for the
same
for x.
j
ay,
is
then obtained by
0.
cubic, the
a;8
4w. ry 2.
e<i
(1
nation
a.& +
^7,
4 r) T/>
+ p (1 +
r)
q*)
r)
0.
 ^yr 
0.
(1
4
f
r1
Substitute
7 be the
a + 8
 4pq +
y
'
8r)y
f
(JP
12r)^
(6r
a&
prove that the equation in y
3&r 2 + Zcx
f
whose
7 
f <Z
0,
roots are
ya  &
y + a  20'
or
+7 is
&'
for x.
Ans. (p*4pq
4. If a,
a
y +
roots are
_JL_ _
+7a
81
2a
a&  yz
a +~j8
 27
axy
42.
We
I (x
f
}
y]
0.
shall
ing
article to
f
qx
r = 0,
(1)
is
readily reducible.
equation
have to form the equation in y
is
We may
f
We
applied to the solution of the general problem, viz. the formation of the equation whose roots are the squares of the
differences of every
when
for
the product
{y(a!a 2 )
2
{
\y(^*tf\\y(^atf] ....
\y
(a a
a
ct 3
is
In
82
Transformation of Equations.
y 
(]3
7)*
= a2 +
/3
e.
g. (j3
+ 72 
7)
we have

a'"
also
2
a +
The equation
+ 72 =
/3
(#,
y)
cj3j
2<?,
r.
x
or
#3
4.
W +
 2r =
20)3?
J /
(,,
;
r
we get
(?/ f
q]y
^
x  or =
3r
x =
or
0,
2/
y
If
it
f
6^///
9*/
y/
+ 4^ 3
//
is
4
first
27 r2 =
0.
(2)
we
+^
(a, j3,
7) of the cubic
is
is
We
write
down
83
The
in the above.
result is
18Zz
r^
a^
SljET 2
^o
#0
(to
which has
_~ (G*+ 4.ff
27
# +
,^V9
_.
0,
for roots
(4)
(/3).
7 a);
(/3 7 ),
The equation
We
(4)
can write
(/3y)
a?(ya)\
down from
(/3)
(5)
2
.
this
roots of the cubic (3), viz. the product of the squares of the differences, in terms of the coefficients :
6
2
s
2
2
037) (7) (/3) = 27(G
t4.H 3 )
(6)
6r
is
477 3
We
G~
f
Tlie expression
cubic,
and
is
111
Grtutfi
brackets
represented by
&
f
#2^3
+ 4^
^ 33
f
4a^a 3  3a?aJ\.
is
JW 
47P s rvA,
tfo,/
A.
EXAMPLES.
1.
Form
s3
7*
0.
4iw. x*
2.
Form
x 3 + 6x~
First
 42# 2
f
f
7x
Form
0.
0.
0.
+ 6# 2 + 9x +
225s  68
0.
^w.
What
f
4.
 400 =
3.
441a;
iP
18a; 2
+ Six =
last
example ?
0.
drawn
84
Transformation of Equations.
43.
We
positive and negative, and, therefore (Art. 20), (5) has no negative root and consequently the given cubic has all its roots real.
is positive, the cubic has hco imaginary
(2). When G' + 4H*
For the equation (5) must then have a negative root.
roots.
z
+ 4ZP = 0, the cubic has two equal roots. For
(3). When G
In this case
the equation (5) has then one root equal to zero.
=
a
not
vanish.
that
does
We
assumed
it
A 0, being
may say,
;
When
(4).
For the
tions
may
6r
0,
andH=Q,
#2
'
al
a>
44.
problem
The general
by the aid
of symmetric functions, of
roots are the differences, or the squares of the
of the formation,
f(x)
(0
i)
(x
(x
a,)
(a?
may
be treated
 an =
)
0.
as
85
n, in succession,
/(.r +
(a?
aO  x (x +
+ a2)
3x
d!
and giving
r the values 1, 2, 3,
(x + a 2
cii
a 3)
(#+a!a n ),
 a 3 ) ....
ai) (a? + a a
+ a a  a n ),
(x
(i)
a r)
f (ar}
tf>
(j?,
a a ) 
<t>
(a?,
a w)
{#
(ai
a2)
2
}
{%*
(ai
a3)
2
.
}
To form
Or we may,
as
degree in
a?
of the
The roots
for
We
of the
86
Transformation of Equations.
EXAMPLES.
1.
are a,
The
+7
roots are
2
2
7 +
2
,
o
32
f
^w*. y
2.
The
o,
8
f
2#2
L + L.L
^
JL
^T~^'
The
a, /?,
f
246y  660 =
roots are
i_JL
^07
^3
LL
I +
^
y
12y
f
/3'
172y
 2072 =
+ &y + T2
ya
f
f
a2
a2 ,
f a/3 f
4w. (y
4.
The
a,
+ pxz
qx
f
a2
a2
(jt?
If a, 0,
7 be the
prove that
 y)(y 
(ft
0.
a2
4jP
f
*.
8pr)
f
8;>y 
(1
a) (a
+ + a 2 )* + 1 f 3rt f 3 2
 &} is a rational function
}
2fl
3 ==
and
3i^
7, 5
0.
9(1
af a 2 ).
H of the cubic
+ 32^ +
7)
2
,
(7
o)
(a
#)
are in arithmetical
An*.
,
progression.
7. If a,
2
IGjo^r + 8r
of a.
Am.
when
#3  3
6.
qY
5.
f
x9
being
0.
s3 + qx + r
are
28y
3tf f 1
^s.
3.
are
#2
f
2jff 3
0.
be the roots of
;
0,
(P  7 2 ) 2 (' ~
52) 2
(7
 a2
2
)
(0
5 2) 2
f
(a
 0*)
(7*
 *2).
*.
0.
87
Examples.
Prove that,
8.
if
07 + 70 + 00
 7)*( 
{(0
18
8)2
(0
(y
a) (0
8)
*+ 8s
aV
The roots
10.
(a?
and
1)
a,
3,
15
S)*}
(a
2 2
)
(7*
 $*)}
0,
for
we
find that
Hence the
2.
a must
factor
satisfy
x 2  2a? +
6,
3), as is evident.
(#
of the cubic
a G x*
are
8 2 )*
1.
The
0,
0)*( 7
a2 ) 2 (0 2
9*
78
f
 7*) 2 (a2  V? + ( 72 
9.
a& + 05
+
30i a?
3a2 #
f
+ 7,
f a,
0.
We give here
another solu
nished by A.
aoy* +
whose
roots are o
A,
34 iy2
7
/*,
h.
is
(Art. 35)
t>A z y
This equation
0,
This condition
this equation
is (see
Ex.
17,
0.
is
h)
27*
(7
h}
0,
or
f
7,
11.
The
0o2
are o, 0, 7, 8
+ 4#i# 3
+
6#2#2
4 4tf 3
0i
7,
7 +
a,
+
0,
+
5,
5,
7+8.
from
The
condition
is
in this case
0.
a sextic in h whose roots are J (0 + 7), &c., from which the required
equation can be obtained as in the last example.
This
is
88
Transformation of Equations.
Form, for the cubic of Ex.
12.
fly
 a
+7
jya
7 + 02/8'
2a'
whose
y*
 2y
roots are
'
its roots
dition is
0.
written, since
,
Form
13.
2/3 7
Dimmish
should hare
for the
 gy
qj3
f
7  2a
2y a
'
'
 7)8
 2y
701
4 ft
We
_
~
+
JJT^A
2/3 7
or
The equation
in h
7
7  2a
found
is
^ 3 2  SAiAzAa +
will be
A'
a/37
/8 f
The
*ci
the roots by A, and express the condition that the transformed cubic
roots in harmonic progression (see Ex. 19, Art. 24).
have
2
14.
its
a A
which
2a
7
4
T
roots are
2Az*
0,
to reduce to a cubic.
are
a,
7, 5
whose
ya ~ &$
0)87?
7f ajS"5'
of/87"
fry aS
+ 70^5'
Diminish the roots by
condition
is
A,
roots are
to a cubic in
Tne
also
=  =
/(a)
0,
+ qx
by
f
0.
elimination.
equation, and p
f (pci)
a Q A<?
The
in this case
Let /(*)
be the given
0,
we have
by eliminating
89
Examples.
between these two
latter equations.
result is
16. If a, 0,
7 be
the roots of
a?Hp*2 +
#f r
= 0,
Ans. ^2(p*
17.
Form
for the
&
y
d(*.
18. If a,
3
rZtf
 (pqr 
7 be the
3r2
)#
roots are
a"
7'
 bpqr f 3r2 + #3
f (pV
 (jp* ?2  2^V +
a?
4jt?^r
 2? 3  r2 =
)
0.
a?
+ qx +
= 0,
4*.
19. If a,
j8,
t/
7 be the
m#7,
f
#J
my a,
f
 wyy2 + (i2 ^ f
$lmr)y
ly
f
mojS.
 Pm q 1  Mm2 qr  m3 ra = 0.
l*r
o#
+ 30i#2 +
30 2 # +
0,
(a/3)( 7),
(37)
(r)<7
(3 a),
Ans. y
,
3
+ r
y*
 i
o*
20.
Form,
(/8
Ex.
(
7 a)
21.
Form,
of squared
Ex.
a()87)
2
,
0(7 a)
2
,
Ans.
M = 0.
+ 207,
f
roots are
a.
P = py9r,
J2
22.
whose
7 (a)
0.
(0'(27ajS).
(2j8 7 ),
The
5
6
whose
roots are
CHAPTER
V.
Reciprocal Equations.
45.
shown
in Art. 32
that
all
We
a m xm
4
f
a\x +
r?
0.
m
Dividing by # and uniting terms equally distant from the
extremes, we have
,
Assume # f  =
s,
Vp
and
let
xp +
a?
relation
F
F
F
fi
and
so on.
=
=
F s F
F s~F
3
=
=
3, &c.,
4s
5^f
we have
\
2,
5s;
by solving a
quadratic.
91
Examples.
EXAMPLES.
1
Dividing by
x+ 1
za
f
+ x9 + x +
= 0.
we have
& + x* + 1 = 0.
This equation
may
 1 = 0,
x + i
whence
giving
# +  = !,
~1
/Tls
/~^B
2
2.
Find the
Dividing by
a?*
1,
we have
4s2
**
* 6z*
i
z2
whence
+2
+
and for
and
3,
(z
0,
2,
\/ 3,
/T:
y/^l
 \/3
Dividing by x
we
have
y/
 1=0.
(1)
we have
2
3) =0,
y/3
3.
z2
V^
or
#+
giving
and the
0,
(1).
the equation
92
Solution of Reciprocal
we have
the quadratics
~
0,
*
where
0*
= *{
6</&
1 f
(10
20
1.
Transforming
this,
Z8
whence
The quadratic
0.
and
0,
32
=
z
0,
a?
0,
x s/3
(!+*)
*(!+**),
0.
(l+*)* = a(
(2).
<**. (1
In
f
6.
x2
6.
we haye
46.
Binomial
this
<i)*
f
(7
is
articles will
a =
thi
1,
and therefore
am
is,
The same
case
is
(4
a)= 0.
Properties.
x*
0, then a
must
is
m =
(u
1, or (a
m
)
1;
a root of x  1 = 0.
n
m  1 =
equations x
unity.
a root,
that
3^)c
General
Ecjiiatioiis.
f
If
m
x n
0,
Binomial Equations.
To prove
numbers
and
we make
this
If m and n
is
be integers
1.
preceding the
r
Now,
equations
final restoration of
is
r
the approximation
._
be any
let a
if possible,
;
to
prime
mb  na 
93
common
then
a m = 1,
a mb =
therefore
and a w =
1,
a ('"*'"*) = 1, or a
whence
and ana =
l
1,
or a = 1
that
is,
1 is the
equations
n,
integers
xn 
0, are roots
To prove
0,
 1 = 0.
of the equation #*
this, let
m = Aw',
n = kti.
Now,
since m'
and a
mb
If, therefore, a
be a
 na =
k.
root of x m
common
1 =
0,
and xn 
0,
For,
of
them be
by
sarily
11
'1
.
p
equal, a
= a?
whence
but,
by Prop.
And
tion.
a,
1,
p ~^
=
prime
to (p
q),
which
is
number
less
than
n
n.
is
neces
Solution of Reciprocal
94:
50.
PROP. V.
When n
is
the equations #?
then a p
+ a + a*+... +
where a
is
a?
a root of x*>
We prove this
r l
q, r.
similar
a b c
Any term, e.g. a fi y , of the product
n
bn =
is evidently a root of the equation x  1 = 0, since a*" = 1, fi
1,
a b c n =
=
And no two terms of the
1.
1, and, therefore, (a fi y )
7*"
a b c
product can be equal for, if possible let a [3 y be equal to
b ~b
cc
a '~ a =
b
a
c
another term a 'fi 'y '; then a
p 'y '. The first member
of this equation is a root of xp  1 = 0, and the second member
is a root of aP"  1 = 0.
Now these two equations cannot have a
;
common root since p and qr are prime to each other (Prop. II.);
hence aa fi b y c cannot be equal to a a 'fi b 'y c'.
52. PROP. VII.
The roots of the equations? 1 = 0, where
n = p a q b r c and p, q, r are the prime factors of n, are the n products
,
is
a root of xp
1, /3
a root of x q
1,
is
factors occur
We
we
95
53.
the case
^1
0.
kind.
If,
=
again, n
],
 1 =
which belong
to
no lower degree.
and? 6
p)
x*
roots
p)
V
a
special roots
other, there
ofa^  1 =
0,
and
q/
0, respectively.
Now,
if
a and
/3
n
is a special root of x  1 =
for if
;
m =
not, suppose (a/3)
1, where m is less than n; we have then
m is a root of
w but a m is a root of a* a  1 =
am
0, and
/3~
1
/3"
0,
PJ
All the
roots
n
0/#  1 =
th
a*" 1
where a
is
ff )
When
is
given,
we may obtain
th
special n roots of unity.
* The term
"
"
'
is here used in preference to the usual term
primitive root," since the latter has a different signification in the theory of numbers.
special root
96
Solution of Reciprocal
Since a
different
"1
is
n th
where p
is
a?, a *,.
aC'
to n, the roots
prime
a w^(=l)
)*,
n  1 in some order
0, 1, 2, 3, ...
whence
the same as the former, except that the terms occur in a different
order.
To each number p 9 prime to n and less than it (1 inth
for a mp cannot
cluded), corresponds a special n root of unity
be equal to 1 when
is less than n, for if it were we should
;
series
equal to
and the
1,
therefore a?
is
prime to
by a known property
it is,
when n=p
which
n
special roots of #
than n and
nil
is also,
of numbers,
less
If
number
of
0.
EXAMPLES.
1.
To determine
Here, 6
it
= 2x3.
are roots of x*
and dividing x*
f 1
by
c
0.
9
Consequently the roots of the equations x
1
Now,
0.
or x
dividing x*
we have
1,
x~
0.
oots are
also since
which may be
The
aai
ai
6
,
5
,
easily verified.
a5
or ai 5 , 01
or a, 
by
f 1
a?
0,
and
0,
which determines
we have
a:
97
Examples.
2.
To
a?
M
= 0.
12
# 1 =
and s  1 = 0,
12
12
~
8,
**
4,
the roots of
a 
12
1 by x*
1
are roots of x
1,
0,
;
now, dividing
and a?  1, and equating the quotients to zero, we have the two equations
* 8 + xt + 1 = 0, and a* + 1 = 0, both of which must he satisfied hy the special
4
1
roots of # 12
1 =
therefore, taking the greatest common measure of oP + a;
and aft + 1, and equating it to zero, the special roots are the roots of the equation
4
I
x*
a?
The same
least
common
* 4  x2 +
0.
result
= 0, we have x 4  =
V3
if
whence,
a and
ai
2
are the four special roots of * 12
+
we
take aai
1 (as
ai
may
0, or (a f ai)
ai
#8
0,
therefore be expressed
o8
by the
we have
a.
0,
1,
aai/
a, ai,
f ai f
= 0.
and a
ai.
The
and
roots
series a,
1.
11
5
7
Further, replacing a by a a a , we have, including tbe series just determined,
the four following series, by omitting multiples of 12 in the exponents of a :
,
a5 ,
a,
a7 ,
a 11 ,
o,
a5 ,
a",
a7,
a6 ,
a,
a",
where the same roots are reproduced in every row and column, their order only
being changed. We have therefore proved that this property is not peculiar to any
one root of the four special roots and it will be noticed, in accordance with what
;
is
a,
1, 6, 7,
all
and 11 are
tbe roots of # 12
a 6 , a7 , a 11 , as follows
all
1
:
98
Solution of Reciprocal
>.
Show
4.
obtained
5.
a;
21
that the eight roots of the equation in the preceding example may he
roots of a* +
+ 1 = by the four roots of
to
**6*
Am.
+ 6*' + 8^8*+l =
0.
#" = a + b
where a and
ft
a~R cos a,
Let
x =
then
now,
J
1,
It (cos a
we
+ J 1
R sin a
+ J 1 sin a)
+J1
r (cos
if
sin 9)
have, by
sin nO)
De
Moivre's Theorem,
R (cos a + J 1 sin a)
and, therefore,
rn cos nO =
r"
sin nO =
equalities,
r8n =
2
,
R cos a,
R sin a.
and adding,
n =
giving r
We have then
cos
nO = cos
a,
sin
nO =
sin a
and, consequently,
nO = a
f 2/C7T,
is
of the
99
Jit cos
2/C7T
p^1
+ J
a + 2for\
sin
Giving to k in
series of
We may
form
*\T>{
Jltl cos
If
we now suppose
n
becomes # =
root of 1
J
ir
cos
R=
and a =
1,
or unity,
n J
the equation 3? = a + 5
0,
J
+ ^/ 1
lT
Sill
n
Jit
^
/
{
a
cos /ii
+ l>
J 1
a\
sin .
'
one n th root of
+ b J~ 1.
The preceding formula shows, therefore,
of any imaginary quantity may be obtained by
is
is
fTT

we give k any
1 sin
COS
If
+J~
nj}\
J
f
/;
Jl sm
f
of them by
Taking
tu
the n
roots of unity.
xn  a +
we
n
Jl, and x = a
Jl,
are
a +
cos

rir
0, 1, 2,
ls
/ 1 sin
3 ... n 
H2
It
f
1.
100
Solution of Reciprocal
EXAMPLES.
1.
Dividing by
Assuming
= x f , we
0.
z*
2z
0,
Resolve (x
f I)
x 
obtained.
is
1 into factors.
Ans. 1x (x
3.
4
2 f
1)(#
f 1)*.
depends.
Ans.
2*
 4z3
 3*2 + 3* f 1 = 0.
When
+
 2 and
this
is
hence x
between  2 and
6.
Show
+ 
is
a,
 x+
I)
is reciprocal,
 27*2 (x 
a
l)
Am.
Exhibit
The
sin a (see
this is real
and
2.
7.
between
2.
all
and solve
it
0.
Roots:
2, 2,
J,
I,
K
= 0.
where w, w2
sented as follows
The nine
roots
may be
repre
2
the other six roots are special roots of the given equation
Excluding 1, w, u>
and are the roots of the sextic
;
Xs
8.
0.
th
Reducing the equation of the B degree in Ex.
tion
= #+, we
obtain
3, Art. 63,
by' the
substitu
101
Examples.
prove that the roots of this equation are
Zcosii'.
2 cos?*
2oosg,
2eo.jj,
Reduce the equation
9.
4# 4  85#3 4 357s2
to a reciprocal equation, and solve
340*
64
it.
= +.
Assume
Ans. Roots:
4,
1,
J,
16.
x*
4 wjfliC
4 w 2 ##2
m*px
f
4
m = 0.
4
11. If a be
number
(1
Show
12.
a)(l
a2 )(l  a n
(1
a" 1 )
0,
where n
a prime
is
n.
13.
when
Form
14.
where a
is
an imaginary root of
a6
a3 4 a 4
x 1
o2 4 a5 ,
Ans. x* 4 x z  2#
0.
0.
the roots of this cubic are known, the solution of the equation x 1
1 =
be completed by means of quadratics. For, suppose the three roots to be
When
may
#2, #3
a?i,
and a 2 and o 6 of xz
x$x
41 =
may be
0.
x\x
41 = 0;
a 3 and a 4 of x2
41 = 0,
x^x
by the methods
of
Chap. X.
15.
Form
where a
As
are
is
a8
je
a2 4 a s
known, the
4
an imaginary root of x n
o12 and
x*x
x\
o8
*
a 11
0.
when
a 10
4
0,
Let x\ y
#2, #s
a*
4
x'6
a 9 and a8
x*
a9
4 a7
 4x
4 1
0.
# 13
may be
and
a6
a4
Ans.
solving quadratics.
4 a 12 4 o6
 x\x
4
a7 of x1
x&
aa
f
12
6
quadratics are solved, each pair of roots a, a ; a8 , a , &o.,
volution of another quadratic, as in the preceding example.
all real)
completed by
a11 and o3
= 0.
may be
#j
When
a10 of
these
found by the
102
Solution of Reciprocal
1 = 0.
to quadratics the solution of # 17
form
we
the
of
the
one
a
roots,
quadratic whose roots are
imaginary
Calling
16.
We
Reduce
ai
= a +
02
aiaz = 4 (ai
easily find
10
a 13
o+
15
f
o 13 f a 15
+ a 16
11
14
f
f
f 02) =
a*
f
f
hence
ai
this quadratic.
a l6
a
a4
4
4 a
and
f
f
a4
a
12
+ a2
a6
f
~ a3
a
72
a8
f
x4
= 0,
Assuming, again,
71
f
I
11
10
f
a5
11
a 14
+ a 12
f
a6 ,
1 = 0, and
0.
1
seen that 1, &z are the roots of x
a\x
c^'
71, 72 of xSeparating again each of these into two parts, and forming the quadratic whose
roots are, for example, a + a 16 and a 13 f a 4 the sums of the roots in pairs are
1
it is
obtained
and
by the
preceding examples.
This and the preceding two are examples of Gauss's method of solving alge 1 = when n is a prime number. The solution
braically the binomial equation
of such an equation can be made to depend on the solution of equations of degree
1. When n= 13,
not higher than thw greatest prime number which is a factor in n
1 being = 3*2 2 in that case ; and
e.g. the solution depends on that of a cubic, n
4
1
when n
17, the solution is reducible to quadratics, n
being then = 2 . For
the application of Gauss's method it is necessary to arrange the n  1 imaginary
roots in a suitable order in each case according to the powers of any one of them.
'J
number n
when
raised
to n
2 inclusive, and divided in each case by
powers from
remainders are all different.
(See Serret's Cours d'Algel^e Superieure,
to successive
the n
e.g.
2, 6, 7,
and 11 of
the lowest primitive root of 13, and dividing the successive powers of 2
get the following series of remainders
and
12
11
10
by
13,
we
7;
which exceed 13 are reduced by the equation a13 = 1. If the lowest primitive
same way, we get the following series of remainders
On comparing
10
13
5
15
16
11
14
12
n=
13, the
it
6.
will be observed
given above.
and in the
103
Examples.
The lowest primitive root in any particular case is the only one necessary to be
known for the application of Gauss's method and this can usually he found with;
out difficulty hy
may
It
trial.
prime numbers 2, 3, 6, is a primitive root in the case of every prime number less
than 100, with the exception of 41 and 71, whose lowest primitive roots are
Methods of finding all the primitive roots are given in
6 and 7 respectively.
work above
Find by
the equation # 19
trial
referred
to.
how
to solve
0.
It is readily found that 2 is a primitive root, and the remainders after division
19
are given in the process of trial.
Since 18 = 3 2 .2, the solution will be
by
effected by cubics and quadratics.
The first cubic is found by forming the
equation whose roots are
Show
+
+ au +
o8
f
16
13 4
f a
a 18
a1
a9
17
15
f
a 11
4
f
a 12 ,
4
a 5,
4
a 10 .
lowest after # 17
...
4
<*
pix~
4
jt)
a^2
f
p n~\x
4
4
pn 
0,
roots are
1
ai H
1
,
as
4
ai
We
an
...
+ pn\X
f
pn s
(x
a\)(x
...(*
+ jt?2*2 + Pi* +
Pn (*
\

(*
01 /
form x
\

a+ 

a;**,
and assuming x
4
2,
the
left
by means of the
Art 45
equation
20.
2/
relations of
On )
hand
O2)
(7
0.
&)
104
Solution of Reciprocal
This can be derived from the result of Ex. 19, p. 52, by changing the roots into
2
1 \

(1a
2
2
by a j8 V* which
equal to
is
p/
~
Ans
From
<7
2a 2 /8 2 (7~
5)
48 (a8 2
the values of the symmetric functions given in Chapter III. several others
21.
a2) as 04
2
.
a,
of the
oox*
naix*
2#"1
We easily obtain
into their reciprocals
Show
 a.*f =
5(oi
 l)(i 2
a
(
na n \x
oa)
I
an
0.
we have
22.
"
aa)
ajW
2
.
a,,
fi
2
(
#5
v^
are
+ j/b,
Sjpjr
et/a
a4
f
bp*x
2y
f
f
^v7 ^,
^2
f
B %/!>,
& y~a +
%/a '+
^ yj,
0
i,
example; and,
(1)
(2)
(3)
when p b < q\
when p* > g 2
when p* = g*
there
is
all real
+ ft 4 7) ( +

an imaginary
is
+ &y)
(a
where a
if
2a*,
a6
Ant.
26.
fifth root
7)
(o f
of unity
+ fry).
47*&ay(a*0y).
an imaginary root of x*
2a8 ,
1
a8
2
,
a*
+ 2a,
0.
Ans.
*+3
3*
11
0.
CHAPTER
VI.
On
we
involved.
(1). First
form
method of solution
involving radicals.
this is a natural
Assuming,
therefore, x
x* ~ 2px
Now,
if this
4
z
p 
q = 0.
&
2p =  P,
we have
giving
=
r=
+ Jq
p*
= Q,
P
106
all generality.
Jp+Jq
are forms which
+ 7=rp,
Jqjr
may
Let
its
it
For
simple factors.
this
s?
and determine
PX + Q
+ e
it
0,
so that
a?
may
purpose we put
be a perfect square,
i. e.
Px + Q
we make
4
its
2
the quadratic to the form w 
we have
value,
(fo
and obtain
its
(I'x
+ ;')%
or
u*
&
and
form
v\
solution
uv=
(lx*+
2
(x +
mx +
px
ri)*
(Fx*
2
f
q) (x
i
may
+ m'x + n')%
p'x +
(?'),
be reduced
107
t
(3).
roots.
Q,
0, of
which
We
  P,
Q.
a/3
If
fall
means
j3
Now
(a0)
=P
4Q;
for,
is
no
difficulty in
obviously,
2
and, therefore, a /3 = JP  4Q.
=  P.
fW/3
y=/(P,
Qx
0,
we
Q, R),
may
+ wj3 +
cu
7)
(a
K
w 2 j3 + wjY
ratic
X*
we
+ p#3 + Qff +
Rx +
known
S=
w$ + nj
f
rS = /(P, Q, P, S),
the roots of
108
/3,
7, 8.
may
56.
The Algebraic
3Hz + G =
0,
where
s
= ax +
To
6,
H<*acb*,
<?d  3abc
hence, cubing,
f~
therefore
*8
Now, comparing
coefficients,
*Jp*J<l=ff,
we have
p + q=
See Note
A at
109
JOT
*Jq its
value
we have
=r,
IIP
+ 3//s
+6 = 0.
p be
if
replaced
by
q this value of *
HP +
pp=>
Jp
w HP + w ';r=>
^ HP +
J;>
<>
rr
J/>
Now,
if z
be replaced by
value ax +
its
ax + b =
,;
Jp
6,
we
have, finally,
H=
ax*
f
3bx*
and cube
f
3c# +
tf
0,
entire generality.
57.
The
solu
solution
it is
complete.
the roots of the cubic are all real, 6? 2 + 4jET s = K* Y
an essentially negative number (see Art. 43) ; and, substituting
For,
for
when
110
in the
we have
may
nume
f 47P is
As a practical method,
positive in this case.
however, of obtaining the real root of a numerical cubic, this
since
process
of little value.
is
In the
can make
first case,
use of
manner
Assuming
d> V
7
 lie
~, and
,
>
we nave
and
p
=tan d>
T
also
finally, since
01
q =
= i (G 2
J
= cos
YV
d>
>
ue
=
<j)
7f,
1
;
!T*)= ( 7/)
f
1 sin
viz.
jjj?
i
<?,
01
+ 377s +
y^
cu
Jj
<7,
0,
'"
?J/?
f
(t
jjy,
become
2
( JT) J cos
,
o
2
( JT)i cos
^4^
o
by
is
58.
Cubes.
3cx + d s
4
(x)
where
= ax +
3Hz
G,
4
b.
Now, assuming
s
where
f

fj.
[ft
v(
i,)
+ M ) 3 },
(1)
when reduced,
fiif
Comparing
(z
(IUL
v).
coefficients,
Hv =  H,
fzv
(/LL
v}
=
therefore
+
where
a*A
<?
2
4
G
*=,
4^%
=aJK
,
.
, v
//
42
as in Art.

(z
Whence, putting
also
ju)
(s
f
v)
f
i
~
6,
~ H.
(2)
we have from
(1)
which
is
two cubes.
By
(x}
as the difference of
the aid of
the*
112
resolved into
its
We
completed.
the equation ^ (a?) =
in terms of
mial cubic the equation
(fJL
we
V) C?$ (X)
ju
(z
f
p and
vY 
now
selected
Solving as a bino
V (2 + fdY = 0,
If
v.
ax + b
of cube roots
will be seen that we shall get the same three values of , the
order only of these values changing according to the cube roots
selected.
It follows that the expression
it
has three, and only three, values when the cube roots therein are
taken in all generality. This form therefore is, in addition to
that obtained in the last Article, a form proper to represent a
root of a cubic equation (see (1), Art. 55).
may
above,
be easily seen,
d bc)x+
(bd<*)}.
113
of the Roots.
{a
when
/3
+ y + 0(a +
w/3f
a>
1,
o>, o>
are
y) +
(a
o> /3
it is
a, /3, y,
017)
plain that
if
the functions
9 (a + wfi +
w 2 y),
(a
a/*/3
o>y)
we
could,
Now
for,
is
It
rational symmetric function of a, /3, y, their sum is not so.
will be found, however, that the sum of the cubes of the two
functions in question
is
and
We
a
f
oi/3
oTy,
I
M= a
w 2 /3 +
f
ojy.
have then
(OL)*
A Bu + <?or,
f
(0W)
A + B<
+ Cu,
where
^=a
/3
2
2
2
+ /3 y + y 8 a), <7=3(a/3 + /3y f ya 2 J
U M
f
(Of.
Ex.
5, p.
2S
 3Sa 2 +
=  27
)3
12a/3y
p. 50.)
Again,
*~
whence
(a
r"
+ w/3 + o/y)
3
,
f' i
(a +
/3
/*
+ wy)
a3
a6
"f'
s
114
by
ti
and
2,
/3,
(a
w[5
o>
y)
(a
>
f
c*r/3
tuy)
are remarkable as being the simplest functions of three quantities which have but two values when these quantities are interchanged in every way. It is owing to this property that the
solution of a cubic equation can be reduced to that of a quadand
Several functions of a, )3, 7 of this nature exist
ratic.
it will be proved in a subsequent chapter that any two such
;
by a
the coefficients.
of algebraical solution of
the cubic,
we
modes
EXAMPLES.
1.
Let
7
2
)
(x
a) f (7
F= 08 ?)(*),
 a)* (x  0) +
 *)
(ZT +
a)
(x
 if.
W= (a 8) (* 7
F= (7 )(*,
Am.
2.
(a
(^^ 3 (a
).
115
Examples.
Example, we have
in the last
i7
since
therefore
is
the
(ft
7)* (*
a)
+ Ff TFsO;
 a) 2 (*  jS) 2 +
(7
 j8)
(a
(*
7)'
common
3.
These
(1).
(ft
(2).
(/8
(3).
()8
(x
 7 s (* ~
 7 )7 (x 
a)
by
)
7
4
a)
4.
(7
5
)
ZUVW\
f (Z7
(2)
(*
a)' (x
3
ft)
0)
(a
(
(a
/8)
(*
j3)'
(*
7
0) (*
 yf
 7) 5
7
)
1,
F,
(1)
(x
a)
down
Z7,
Ans.
(7
+ (7 
p. 59.
to,
+F
W*)UVW\
(3)
i(Z7
V^+
f
Express
)(*
(*<*)(*
as the difference of
7)
two cubes.
Assume
 *V;
^i 3
(*a)(*(* 7 )=
whence
Z7i
w [7,
we have
arid, therefore,
\
but AM*'
A +
/i f
 7 ),
(ft
 taTi
Z7j
Adding,
 Fi = A (x "
Fi = ft (a: 
/u
/8),
v (x
Aa
0,
a),
p (7
f
7).
/xy8 f
a),
1^7
i>
=
^>
(a
ft)
whence
/x,
r;
1,
whence
and
Z7i
5.
Prove that
We
L = a f
have
we
aj8
f
w7 = a
o> 4 or*
Similarly for
A + w
(/8
and giving
/*)
to
+ w2
(7
h the values
M.
17
roots.
h]
/3
a,
j8,
7, in suc
 7, 7  a, a  ft.
116
6.
express the product of the squares of the differences of the roots in terma
of the coefficients.
We have
Z4 Jf=2a7, Z +
agam
and,
L J/=
(ft
 7)(w
orZ wJf =
2
),
Z3
 a2
(7 a)(a>
eoLtfM =
),
(a
 w 2 ),
)(
since
 Jlf s) 2 == (Z 3 4 3/ 3
(Z
Z 3 + M8
fl6 (
(Cl
= (27 a/8)ar;
26,
we
\wHf
and
3Jf=(27a)a>,
7 )2 ( 7
. a (a
j2
2
)
and
 4ZW 3
27
0)2=
Z Jf obtained
in Art. 59,
Art. 42.)
7.
+ Jf3
Z8 These are
Jf 3
identities
_
i{ (2a ^_ 7
E V/^JOS 
easily obtained
).>
+
+
7)
^ 7 _ a )3
(2j8
(7
3
)
(a
:i
^8)
&c.
M,
4
Z
Jf, &c.,
2
To obtain expressions for Z 2
&c., in terms of the differences
The following forms for Z 2 and 3/ 2 are obtained by subtracting
8.
(a
In a similar manner, we
(7
2
(
difficulty,
2Z1T =
9.
There are
(ft
we have
7
2
)
4
4
(aft
+ w
<*>'*& 4
whose
and
(a
(a
2
4
(a
)3)
+ ury) 2
y
/8)
 7  ) 2 + ^(a  J8) 2
 a) 2 f w (a  j3) 2
(2^8 7
)M2)8
3
7  o)
a)
(a
a +
7)
find
 Z 4 == (j8  7)M2 ~ 3  7) 2 +
 Jlf*= 037) 2 (2a/8 7 2 4
Also, without
of o, 0, 7.
7,
W7,
wa
4 )3 4
or Jf, viz.,
7,
w2 a
4
ft 4
7,
w^a
4
cu8
(2 7
Z Jlf and L 2 M 2
2
)
t*ft
wa +
(2 7
a7,
4
7,
117
Examples.
These functions
be expressed as follows
may
X,
X,
M,
<*M,
 X)(<J>  wZ)(f 
or
0>'
Substituting for
we have
and
jfcf
o>
X)(<J>
(1,3 f
&M* =
^+
If 3)
0,
0.
10. To form, in terms of L and H, the equation whose roots are the
squares of
the differences of the roots of the general culic equation.
Let
* =
(a
fi?
Rationalizing this,
we
obtain
27
which
aid
of
the results
is
obtained by substituting
 X 2 and ~
for
M and X,
means of the
relations
LM=9~,
For instance, the
first
equation
*(*
<Cf. Art. 42.)
is
4P
and
T*
'
"
""
all
by
118
11. If a,
y and
a',
',
ax*
a's'f
to
+ 3c
3baP
rf
I
0,
+ Zc'x + d' =
3'a?
form the equation which has for roots the six values of the function
$a
oa'
/3j8'
+ yy.
The easiest mode of procedure is first to form the corresponding equation for
the cubics deprived of their second terms, viz.,
**
+ 32Ts + Q =
s3
0,
+ 31T* +
4,0
s;
(aa
6?'
0,
+ *)(V
Substituting for the roots of the transformed equations their values expressed
by
radicals,
we have
which reduces to
Cubing
this,
we
find
0.
Now,
substituting for
8
a?
we have
and
q,
p' and
+ Gx  jET3 =
a;
0,
#',
'#
f
JB"'
by
the equations
0,
aa'v/^
((?^'
0,
where
and
Finally, substituting for
we have
be 8  1 e
^>
its
value
aa'<f>
together,
cubics
0,
sidered in Ex. 9.
<f>
f
wj8
,
2
f
7,
It
&c.,
3*^',
may
119
Examples.
12.
Form the
where
p,
a7
and
Since
/>
a,
will he the
*
f
32&
same
f (7
if a,
whence, eliminating
S>
i,
(p
!)(,,
2)(2p
roots
i,
z2)
1)
*s
of the equation
1)
is
3i'ir' 2
Q* (?
0.
+ Ux* +Zcx
ay*
when
by the
replaced
have, therefore,
H=
nd similarly
13.
7 be
j8,
We
0.
3e?V
4
0,
d'
0,
a ('
Multiplying by
w2
ot
7')
(7'
LM
Cubing, and introducing the
0.
becomes
this equation
+ 7 (a' 
a')
'
i'JIf.
we
coefficients,
find
coefficients
that the
In
Eliminating p and
= pa +
px\
g,
is
g,
q.
ft'
= p&
qt
f
y*spy +
q.
we have
7'
which
x'
this case
fry + yof
7'a
aft'
a']8
0,
moreover,
is
unchanged
if for o, 0,
la
m,
Ift
JV
I
m',
l'&
+ m,
4
m',
we
ly
substitute
+ m,
/V +
w'
This relation,
120
+ ZHz +
in the last
G=
0,
+ 3HV
z'*
G'
4
0,
Now
putting z
= kz,
G'm&G;
H'eztfH,
whence, eliminating
is
&,
G^H* = Gfi H?
become
It
may
identical
be observed
by the same
transformation, viz.,
jy
77"'
(a'x'
b')
=
(ax
b).
60.
Cubic.
we prove
cubic
The
relation in terms of
tJie
we have
O  y)
flo
<?
(a (/3
\
(ft
y)
jY
+
f
(7
(y
/3
2
/3
homographic
coefficients.
(y
a)
2
+ y
a)
2
a)
(a
+7
(a
2
(a
/3)
/3)
/3)
the relations
= 18 (a?  flofl,),
= 9 (aa z  a,a^ 9
 18
a.a,).
aj3,
 (a +
/3), 1,
respectively,
a/3
0,
we have
ft
ft
(a
3)
aft
but
whence
V ~f ("4^)
H $ + JTi(a + ^) +
0,
121
which
where
= ax +
3H
0,
b,
H  ac  b\
I=
ae
 4bd
3c
4
(7
= a 2 ^  Sabc + 2^ s
To
= Jy> +
J?
J>*
Squaring,
^~Pgr = 2(J,j Jr
+ J^J7)
Jr Jp
2(p +
q +
r)z*8zjp Jq Jr+ (p + q
Comparing
p+
q + r
this equation
=  3H,
q,
~4(qr+ rp+pq) = 0.
r}
we have
qr+rp+pq =
3H
Jp Jq J r = 
\
or, since
6?
4 J? 3  a2 J27 + <fj,
(Art 37),
.
where
t7 s ^r^
+ 2bcd
ad z
eb*
s
,
and
finally,
may
and Biquadratic.
putting
4r*
This
the Cubic
H*
we
0*0,
 laO +
J=
0.
(2)
necessary to
we
make a
between equations
distinction
and
When
it is
and
(2),
(1)
and, therefore,
tic in 2, it
of four
is
which
JP> J$>
r/*%
may
thus
( J7>)
are
all
the possible
Jp,
remove
all
(J7) J^
Jg
may
Jr
fulfilling
same signs
may, however,
We
by eliminating one
s,
123
of the
The
all
ambiguity, since
it
gives four,
and only
given before,
And finally,
restoring to
q,
and
z their
values
we have
ax + b = J b*  ac + a*Q l + J #*  ac + az f) 2
G
as the complete algebraic solution
0i
and 9 2 being
of the
biquadratic
equation
 laO +
J=
0.
To assist the student in justifying Euler's apparently arbitrary assumption as to the form of solution of the biquadratic,
we remark that, the second term of the equation in z
being
absent, the sum of the four roots is zero, or Sj + s 2 + s 3 + s 4 =
;
are in this
&c., of
Si)
(*i
==
s,, s 3 , s s ,
2 4 , included in the
Jp +Jq + J' 7
formula
124
We
and
now
Attending to the
remarks above made with reference to the signs of the radicals,
we may write the four values of z = ax + b as follows
>
j3>
7>
ay +
from which
sions for
7;,
may
#,
= 
(T +
'
f3
(4
8)',
)*
;j
easily establish
4
4
(q
_
_
(,
4 (;>
Oi
r)
;;)
y)
4 ,/a
= 4
2
r/
= 4a*
(0,
(9,
0,)
= ~
rr (/3
viz.,
 rr
00 =
(7
a) (/3
=  ^ 2 (a /3)( 7 ft)

a, 3, 7, S,
7 )(a
aid
ft, ft,
of
8),
S)
(5)
S).
the
relation
ft in terms of
125
Examples.
EXAMPLES.
1
roots,
oots, the
and conversely.
J=
all
/=
two
of the roots
'
4.
Prove the following relations between the biquadratic and Euler's cubic with
are
all real
(2).
cubic are
When
and
all real,
positive.
When
all
nil real,
When the biquadratic has two real and two imaginary roots, Euler's
(.").
cubic has two imaginary loots and one real positive root.
These results follow readily from equations (4) when the proper forms are subIt is to be observed that all possible
7, S in the values of;;, g, r.
1
stituted for a,
cases arc heie comprised, the biquadratic being supposed not to have equal roots.
It follows that the converse of each of these propositions is true.
Hence, when
and
positive,
we may
conclude that
all
the roots
imaginary
roots,
we
conclude that the biquadratic has two real and two imaginary
roots.
5.
Prove that the roots of the biquadratic and the roots of the reducing cubic
are connected
by the following
relations
When
the roots of the biquadratic are either all real, or all imaginary,
(1).
the roots of the reducing cubic are all real ; and, conversely, when the roots of
the reducing cubic are all real, the roots of the biquadratic are either all real or all
imaginary.
(2). When the biquadratic has two real, and two imaginary roots, the reducing cubic has two imaginary roots and, conversely, when the reducing cubic has
two imaginary roots, the biquadratic has two real and two imaginary roots.
;
These results follow readily from the preceding example, since the roots of the
(1) and (2) are connected by a real linear relation.
two cubics
6.
When If is
For
7.
imaginary
roots.
When / is
case
two imaginary
two imaginary
roots.
H and
When
8.
are
biquadratic
imaginary.
J is
For, since
and
Ex.
Show
that the
H, and
a*Q
there
is
posi
4.
is
necessary.
A X*
Q
4.A& + ^4 =
SAiX*
4
m3 + w 3
Sim* + 3 (\mn
Ans.
11.
2
)
0.
 3mnO  (m*
{x*
are given
6lx*
(4ww
)}
64 (^
+ w3 +
nz
 Mum) x 2
by the formula
n +
v*
+ u~n
f tarn
\/ 1
f
4
p. 34.)
determine H,
J in
I,
f
62Zir 2
terms of
13.
f
a zl
 2H'Z =
0,
n.
m,
/,
Ans.
4^
JT= 
oo
/,
J=
12ww,
/=
 4 (w 3 +
3
).
Write down the formulas which express the root of a biquadratic in the parwhen /= 0, and /= 0.
ticular cases
14. Express,
of the roots a,
15.
differences
in terms of
I and
By means
a* (3
_ yy y 
What
is
a,
7, 5
/.
16.
cubic,
7, 5.
(2), p.
82,
we ob
a )2 ( a
)2
8 )2
_ 5)2 7 _ 5 yz =
(
2 56 (/*
 27/2 ).
the quantity under the final square root (viz., that which occurs
under the cube root in the solution of the reducing cubic) in the formula expressing
a root?
Ans. 27J*I*.
17.
4
biquadratic equation a #
jterms
o>
J7) /,
and
4ai# 3
f
62#2 +
4^3 x
Removing
^+
^+^
6JET
4G
127
the Biquadratic.
we
obtain
we have
roots,
(a
#)
2
,
0.
&c.,
unaltered
hut
becomes
And by
powers puly.
ducing
In a similar manner we
II, I, J.
the function
7, 5
)3,
may
be eliminated, intro
may
may
02.
dratic.
ax*
f
+ ^dx +
6cx?
4
4/>.f'
where
We
rt,r
4 CJZs 2 +
46% +
/  3// =
0,
^.
now assume
equation
^
J> +
J?
J r Jy
+ J/ ; J?>
(z
J/;,
J^, Jr.
qr
f
r)
or
s
2
(yr
f
rjt?
f
j^g) s
Comparing
Spqrz
f
this equation
(^r
=
^,
^7^
+pq}
4(p + q+
<tI
(12//
r)pqr =
easily find
whence, p,
I
a !)
f  6//*
f
0.
s,
0.
we
128
This equation
or
making
may be readily
H iftf
and putting
reduce
it
4fl
JET,
 laQ +
J=
and
/,
to the standard
J,
we may
cubic, viz.,
0.
is
number
of
In order
to express p,
the biquadratic,
we
q,
Jq Jr  Jr Jp  Jp
*!
 aa +
z2
*ap
z,^ay +
= 
*4
aS + b =
Jq Jr
\
Jq,
Jq Jr + Jr Jp
Jq.
0(/3
a z (fly  aS) + ab
((3
Jp
Si
yag)
+ y  a 
8)
of
Jq,
Jq Jr  Jr Jp + Jp
the values of z 2 + s 3 
y,
Jr Jp  Jp Jq,
From
/3,
a, /3, y, o,
s4 ,
any value
and
sa s3
=  4jq Jr,
= 4
no combination
z
different from
z^
we
obtain
From
tion
its
and similar equations we have, employing the rela=  2pqr, the following modes of expressing p, q, r in
these
a, /3, 7,
/3yaS
'
8#
a* ( 7
 r = a
 78
 
a/3
a +
~:
=:
/:>
 3 /
"
86?
=
a* (a
4
/3
63.
Factors.
8)
its
this expression,
M, N, and
M* = b  ac
2
Eliminating
4a
which
is
MN= be  ad + 2abO, N
+ art,
(ae
(c
+ 2a0) 2 
ae.
 4bd +
3c'
From
(0,,
0,
2,
3 ),
2
with three corresponding values of J/ 2 MN,
and thus all
the coefficients of the assumed form for the quartic are deter,
employed for the solution of the equation of the fourth degree. This mode of
solution is due to Ferrari, although by some writers ascribed to Simpson (see note A).
first
two quadratic
factors, is
due to Descarte*.
is
equated
distinct
ways
it
moreover,
M corresponds a
should be noticed
single value of
N>
since
MN = bcad
The
quartio
+ 2a6)* 
may
When
2,
1?
#3,
we
solution
and
"We have,
j3,
a,
and
7, S.
therefore,
where
2
J/!
Jl>
ac+(fO
l9
M* m Jtf
Jtfac+a^,
+7 _ a _S=4
and
'
since
obtain
'
..
a +
we
_S8_4
7 +
..
^+7
+ S =
aa
=  J/
aft
ay +
ft
jl/!
J/!
 
J/l
f
a + 'fl784
4,
M> +
 J/ 2
t
4
J/"3 ,
1T3 ,
Mi
 J/3 ,
J/,
J/3
131
The
exists also
J/2,
l9
+ 7  a  S) (7 + a 
j3
S) (a
and by means
stricted in the
/3
S)
64Jtfi Jfa
Ex. 20,
(see
p. 52)
#3,
manner explained
By
iii
are
/r
uc
and JT2 
a~t) l9
b'
ao
t
a2
1.
Form
7 4
Adding the
where
0i,
70
a5,
1
/*,
Exs.
viz.,
78.
07 + aS =
40!
2 ,
a
05=
402
2 ,
4^ +
2,
7a
f
0)8
+ 78=
An*, (ax
(Cf.
v,
a0
35,
4, 5, Art. 39.)
K2
we have
2o)
 41 (ax 
2c)
+ 16J=
0.
132
2c
Substituting for
its
value in terms of
1201
= 2\ 
120 2
2/i
120a
2r
fji
(7
Xs
 \  fi s
a,
a) (3
0) (7
8)
7) (a
5)
we
7, 5,
ft,
5)
(a
find
0) (7
OB
5),
7) (a
(7
immediately
),
a) (0
5).
Ex.
Verify, by
5, Art. 61,
a3)(j8
From
1,
the conclusions of
oi'
the biquadratic
related.
Form
(37
Ex.
+ 7  a  5),
7 a  05)
+a
(7
we
5),
(a/8
a5
78) (a
+0  7
3)
find
r
2J\
7a5,
)8
also
JfiJVi
Ic
 ad + 2ab6\ =
We
reducing cubic.
Ans.
6.
Form
+ bc
(a*<l>
ad)
az
<f>i,
l(a~(^
be
ad]
2W= 0.
ya  35
7  a5
7 +
705'
a05'
a T"0
 78
7
__
MN _
^~_
 ad + labe
Ic
rac +
Jf ~~b'
5*
'
a~ti
26
(0<J> f
3
)
+ (aI
12^2)
W^ +
(Cf.
Ex.
(a*e f
3
,
(<ty
14, p. 88.)
f b)
G*
0,
becomes
6^  9ac 2W) ^ +
f
+ bf  HG(a<l>
2 (afo
0.
133
6.
?
(ya
^03ya8)
?5)',
 7 5) 2
(a
Representing, as
 ad~
2bcd
Form
7.
<
labdd
07 a5
 (a +
y) aS
7'
is
(7
a)
a&
#8
ya
5)
tr an s f
eb 2
08  (0
f
8)
ya
(a
f
78
78
"
(7
+ 5)

cd
be
+ 2dO
20
r = d 2 ce
+ ae8
may be derived from Ex. 5 by changing the roots into their reciproand making the corresponding changes ia the coefficients.
This result
cals,
64.
The Resolution of
Second
Factors.
M ethod
<:\r
I
f
cfo
We
p
have,
(a?
4 2px
by comparing
p'=2
q) (#
these
we
fifth
q,
%px
+ q).
pq'+p'g = 2
ti>
The
+ q+ typ'= 6
Cl
If
and
,
Cl
^=U
^.
fl)
q\
in each case
<
when
134
venient, however, to
If
q, q'
We
equations,
,
pq + pq .
and eliminating p,
It
is
more con
assume
p', q, q',
2c

4abc  2a*d
by means
8bd>
_;
J
which
is
0,
of solution.
From a comparison
the form of the fifth equation is obvious.
of the assumed values of
with the equations of Ex. 1, Art. 63,
it
appears that
therefore
we
is
the same as
<
If
a, /3, 7, 8
(see
instance
by the elimination
of
jp, jp',
g,
q.
i*
Comparing
this
+ 4Gz
a 2/ 3.H*.
f
we
6Ift 2
2p*
$)(
2j>* f ?'),
^""12") ^"^
(2r\
2==
and putting
this equation,
when
3
by a becomes
divided
4a s
2.
3
<f>
 lap
/=
f
0.
two quadratic
x + px 4 gt
x + p'x
factors
q',
is
<f>
has
it
all
possible values
(p
 p')\
(P
'
'
Pq
~P
q,
PP',
qq'*
~p
qq'
'
it
'
pq>
pp'
pp'
 p'} (q  <?'), (q 
has
 p'q?
(pq'
all
values corresponding to
p*4q.
or
pq'p'q*
Expressing these functions in terms of the roots, the number of possible values of
each function becomes apparent.
0,
4&Vry +
f
u, =
o,
where
Z/i
* ap +
C^ =
J,
+ 2bp +
c,
Z73
tfp
+ 35p 2 +
S^jo
rf,
&c.
equations .to
2
/o
136
eliminating
and
we have
7r,
since
/;,
The equation
when reduced by
a IT*
*
 Z7? +
3J5TZ7;
6//^
/
12// 2 )
4
i
+ G,
2
4G Z7
+ a 2 /
becomes
2
which
is
is
J7,
(a
US 
6GHU
 G* =
0,
(1)
if
we put
This transformation*
jfr/0f
,7=0.
be employed to solve the biquadratic ; and it is important to observe that the cubic (1) which
here presents itself differs from the cubic of Art. 62 only in
may
signs.
We proceed now to
form y l9 y^
y*
o = *yi +
hence we
y
p,
/3
 kfo +
p,
may
7
write
ft
 + />,
2/2
8 =A
+p
y\
* This method of
solving the biquadratic by transforming it to the reciprocal
S. S. Greatheed in the Camb. Math. Journ*, vol. i.
137
and, therefore,
O^Cyp)*
(ap) (/>)
1
,
/3ya8
/
+7 _a~
/3
r g)_.
_
_ ( 7 a)(/3S)(a/3)(
a Sr
(P + 7
An
4
4fcp
y)
= 0;
l9
F{
F F
2,
'
;
J^, J^',
quadratics:^
(*)
0,
()(a/3j0
We have
4r/^
+ 6 co? 2 +
(.f
(*
(* 7 )(*S) =
>
0.
OiD =
O^
2
,
&o.,
p) (y
 p) =
(o
p) (S
p)
/r,
&c,,
00 00 00
2,
1?
3,
the distances
0.
Also
z
since OiFi = k* 9 k has six values represented geometrically
by
the distances
0,F,, 0,^,';
0, &o.,
8,
0,F,';
3,
3',
measured in
138
We can
from geometrical considerations alone find the positions of the centres and foci of involution in terms of a, )3, 7,
and thus confirm the results just established, as follows
Since the systems [FiBFi'G] and [FiAFi'D] are harmonic,
,
and
0,
if
F or FI
we have
1
d?
j3
x = p
or
,
whence
p =
7f,
+ OFS
OKOFS =
^
A =
EXAMPLE.
Transform the cubic
ax*
3#2 +
%cx
f *?
The assumption x  ky
 G Z7i 3 +
The
values of
/>
f
3 Jf 2
2
Z7i
+ H*
==
0,
where
U\
a$
ap
J.
)8
&y
4 7
a2
ya
2a*
$2
7fa
2^*
f
^  2y
The geometrical interpretation in this case is, that if three points ', J5', C" be
with respect to
is the harmonic conjugate of
taken on the axis such that
B and C, B' of .# with respect to C and y and C of C with respect to 4 and 2?
then
we have
_ 6U
4
OA
OA
in terms of a,
OA'
7, see
Ex.
13, p, 88.
39
66.
The
rational
homographic
For the purposes
We
proceed accordingly
quadratic in terms of the coefficients.
to form the equation whose roots are the three values of
"**
/a + 0/3 + 0*7 +
when
and
since
S
we
(a
]3)
 3Sa 2  2X 
12
whence
a2
'
2fji
t*
 2v =  48
~,
1.
140
Again, since
Sfc 
and
i/)*
= 24,,
we have
also
t}
Hence
tlie
(rr/)
or,
3H(a
2
substituting for (?
which
is
(<tt
ty +
its
(zH*
t:i
becomes

0,
substitution
To determine
a, /3, 7, S
we have
4 7 
2,
a+/3fyfS = 4;
along with
tt
from which we
find
i
We
Lave
also
of Jtfi,
J^, Jt z
the
equation
by means
of
we may
ing form
/u,
v in the follow
S (07 + nS) +
01
(70 + 3S) +
a,
(a/3
+ 78),
f
ai
(a/3
+ 78).
L=
0!
OJ0 2
0>
S,
J
5f =
01
+ CU0a +
0.6/3.
They may
142
EXAMPLES.
1
Show
that L and
Increasing
2.
To
a,
by
A,
a, 3, 7, 8.
a,
7, 8.
)3,
the values of
1202 =
and
120!=
2
M in terms of
L
M,
X+
2
jtf,
we
0.
find easily
2
Jif=087)(aS)(a> 
X
Jf = (7
(3
a)
8)
we
find in terms of the coefficients the product of the squares of the differ
From
7, 8
w),
a>),
sides together,
and
 J*0 + /=0,
find
 JIP 
VT3
()8
 7)
(7
 a)
also,
= 24
^ = (3  7)
~
8
)
(a
0) (a
2
JP) ^
^ (7
(T?
5)
(3
8) (y
S)
we have

2
)
and, since
(X
3 2
)
(3
5)
 4Z 3 Jlf
(a
2
j3)
(7
have finally
6
3.
(&
 7? (7 ~
2
)
(a
Show by a comparison
 3) 2
8) (0
 S) 2 (7 
8)
 256
(7
 27,7*).
67.
dratic.
into
057)(a8), (ya)(3), 
 1, and G into
(a
 ft)
(7
~ 5),
167.
Equation of Squared PifferenceL of a BiquaIn a previous chapter (Art. 44) an account was given
of the general problem of the formation of the equation of difIt was proposed by Lagrange to employ this equaferences.
tion in practice for the purpose of separating the roots of a
given numerical equation ; and with a view to such application
Numdriques, 3rd
and note
Although
in.).
for
We
terms of
and
a, If, /,
The problem
J.
is
of procedure is to
5)
{0( 7 5)'}
and
s <p 
IIi
7 2+
{ (ft
7)
(a
a
)
 5)
we
(a
:
Introducing
now
16 JT
Oi becomes
f
(801
<1>~+
4J
P,
 480 2
V 8 f 3Q
^4Q</> +
2
pressed in terms of P, Q,
f* +
3P</>
f
H\
4
J $>+
4S0203.
Ila IIs
18 J2^)
(3P
J?,
167 B s^,
Q,
$*
P</>
+ Qe
^F,
3.
16
80i
by the
V
4
</>
(8720
we have
as follows
2 Q)
result of
J
Example
+ 12<22
2
<J>
18,
page 89,
we
(P
f
obtain
+ 36Q2fy f 27^ 2 = 0.
8PQ 
267?)
8
<f>
0.
144
The following
is
(96JT
It should
+a
/)
4
<
/ 2  288*27)
a, JET, /,
J*
Jty
III
quadratic function of Q\
calculation
by
<
= #i 2
0i

8
<f>
256 (I 3
 27/ 2 = 0.
)
can be expressed as a
;,,
between
this quadratic
and
68.
Biquadratic*.
it is
necessary to repeat
coefficients,
are
these coefficients
numerical quantities.
It is
assumed
also,
where
It will be
/  27 J\
3
ing as
(1)
do not vanish separately (]3) when three roots are equal, in which
case / = 0, and J = 0, separately (see Ex. 2, Art. 61)
(y] when
;
* The
equation of squared differences was first given in this form by Mr.
Roberts in the Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques, vol. xvi.
M.
145
two distinct pairs of roots are equal, in which case we have the
= 0, aU  12H 2
It can be
(Ex. 3, Art. 61).
conditions
along with the equation A = 0, are equivalent to two independent conditions only. Finally, we may have (8) all the roots
equal ; in which case may be derived
= 0, 7=0,
independent conditions
When A
(2)
ginary
is
roots.
and
two ima
in terms of the
for when all the roots are real A is plainly positive and
f
k J 1,
k J 1,
the proper imaginary forms, viz., h
are substituted for a, 3, y, S, it readily appears that A is positive
roots
when
also
(3)
we
is
negative
In the
case,
coefficients is
not by
itself sufficient to
it
The
two
further conditions
cases
may, however,
In order
be obtained from Euler's cubic (Art. 61) as follows
that the roots of this cubic should be all real and positive, it is
:
When A
is
are all imaginary in every case except when the following conditions
are fulfilled,
viz.,
negative,
in which
146
and Biquadratic.
Show
1.
that if
H be positive, or H~
if
& not
(and
unequal,
(2)
0),
its
two equal, or
(2)
roots
as
(3)
G2
(1)
is
all real
and
ao*3
have two
o2 
where
roots equal to
2
i
I
i2
2JETi,
3a 2x
s =*
prove
s &>
os
+
<w
4. If
Sai*
3te
Sex
is 
rf
(x
Z
*
r)
to)r
(W 
f
 0.
c2 )
may be
3ia:2 f
aa?
3c# +
rf
where
$2 ) r2 f (ad
ai, ^i,
(x
+ m (x 
ai)
n (x  7 i) 8,
3M
2
r
$cix
rfi
0.
Also
ai ai*
f
/ai
<f
/ai
33i ai
m;3i
4
zj3
f 3<?i
4
01+^1 =
we
0,
<S:c.
If
7 be
3 (bc\
a\d)
0.
4
rationalize the equation
4
. ......... .
V'a:
l\e)
4
~
 o4 v/^
126^*4
* ~ 7 =
o,
i,
^2,
s.
and adding,
147
Examples.
If ai,
7.
and
/8i,
a\x*
HI 3
Let
4
whose
ai GI
aj,
fa
2bix
0i
4
2 a? 4
Hi m
2
,
a^c*
Ans.
N.B.
a 2# 8
0,
(ai 02<J>
 2&i i 2
may
<j>
4 ci cj)
 Hi BzQ*
0.
be solved by expressing
<j>
by
of Ex. 7,
8.
_
four values of
Let
2^Tia
a\c^
a^c\
In
this
9.
Example the
several values of
2b\ b z .
f
Am.
Let
ai 4 02
(2ai a 2
4
2(i* 2 4is
resulting biquadratic
if $>
(ai
az)
2*i)0
such that
JT^)
I
G=
 JTi J5T2 =
0.
0.
^>.
s= rt!/> 2
^lj.
2.?7i 2
2 *i,
(ia 2
f
a^j
i/ J2 ) 2
2jtf
2 ci
2
<j>
f
10. Show that when the biquadratic has a double root, the cubic whose
roots
are the values of p (Art. 65) has the same double root ; and find what this
cubic
becomes when the biquadratic has three roots equal.
/be
11. If
and
both positive, prove directly (without the aid of Euler's
cubic) that the roots of the biquadratic are all imaginary.
It appears from the expression for
in terms of the roots (Ex.
19, p. 62) that
is positive there must be at least one
when
roots h
pair of
k
V^T
imaginary
diminishing all the roots by A, and dividing them by k (which transformations
will not alter the character of the other
pair of roots 7, 5, nor the signs of
and J }
the biquadratic may be put under the form
Now
1),
*
or
whence
f
4j0#
/ =
^c
f
p*t
4
6cx~
%p*c
4jy#
I
q,
_ 4^2 +
q
 jo 2
(^ 4 1)
where 6c = ^
f 1
3^
<
<
(q
4^2
_ ^y
and therefore
proving that
7 and
5 are imaginary
positive
(of.
Ex.
8, Art. 61).
148
and Biquadratic.
two
relations
In
where
by
OQ
a&c
a\,
a 
 =
and
we
3J?
find
=
A2 ,
0,
/  3 H* =
is
3,
a) (x
/8)
Find the condition that the biquadratic may be capable of being put under
13.
the form
/
In
(#
2px 4
#)
and fourth
4m
(x
4 2px
coefficients are
q)
n.
formation, and the general solution involves only two square roots.
Am.
14.
Prove that
0.
m (x
w)
n (x
w)
Form
the equation whose roots are the six anharmonic functions of four
by the equation
= 0.
The
six
anharmonic
ratios are
1
149
Examples.
\
5)
7)
'
A
\
(aj8)(7~5)
(y
*8 ~
also the equation
is
whose
a)
0102
fl
=
23
S)
020i'
3
*,*
OS'yXaS)
01
0 3 '
roots are
aft*
I2a lt
16 v//
 277 2 =
0.
The equation whose roots are the ratios, with sign changed, of the roots of either
of these cubics is
4A
2
fa>
<f>
 27/V>(4> 
I)
A e J3  27/ 2
where
The
I)
(see
Ex.
16, p. 88),
<
The
(a).
as follows
six
anharmonic
*'
From
may
"
*'
n~?
^i
^r*
'
we have
ratios
 7)
_
(
+ 7  a
5)
(^
5)
3)
7 
5)
the relations
01
02
1,
f
03
03
1,
f
=
1,
0^
rf>l
which determine
(b).
w and
If
For suppose 0i =
are
whence
0!
I
w, or
0i
0,
o>
in (a),
for
2
;
we
Also, since
iT^V
A
'""
F^
A
'
or
2
5(M) =
fA
we have
1
#004
4i3 + 32 = 0.
2
o,
anharmonic
ratios.
When
occurring twice
and in
4>j
(<J).
These
this case
m_
/ (see
<f>
/=
_H^
if
Show
are
1, 2, ,
each
for if
u
or 2\
if
0,
Ex. 18,
p. 62).
<p
results,
is
and Biquadratic.
the Cubic
(see
Ex.
he proved by
may
12, p. 119)
*)}.
14s
1\
_ *(*
I)
\p*
b satisfied by
18. Express
5(
(7
 8) 2
and ultimately
96
Bi+
C2H\
19.
Express
(^
 72
2
)
(a
 52
4
2
2
7 a
2
)
()8
~ 52
2
f
(a
20.
Form
is
equivalent to
the equation whose roots are the several products in pairs of the
roots of a biquadratic.
The
required equation
is
2 
<p
CT
21.
a,
7,
Form
4</>0,.
tt
are the
+ 
values of
16/<J>
~
= 0.
,
where
roots of a biquadratic.
is
?')()
":+*?"*:+;
Ant. 4 (a^1
f
2$> f
c)*
I(a<p f
2fy>
+ e) + J =
0.
151
Examples.
22. Prove

From
_\2
7
2 \
a 2 0i 4 2JT
we have
2 f
a, JT, /, /, as
2JI
above.
if
24.
0,
and
form
of the
Here
sum
or
3j>
0,
1, JP
or difference of
/ ==
ace
4 2bcd
aU ss
(ax
and
or
SJP
Prove that
is
*'"*
23. Prove
by
(ac
a perfect square
eb 2
ad*
czf
i2)
two squares
c3
0.
2
F)y 4
(00
2
y 4 2 (ad
be)
if
yz
(a<
(ae
fo)yz
4
(o^
3
)J
c2 ) a2
if
7=0.
25. If a, #, 7, 8 be the roots of the equation
V#When
Va 4
is rationalized,
Now,
a 4 Var
and the
i,
j8
N//3
4 Vir  7 4 Vi~T=
+ V^ +
\/5
0.
3)
Ut for a
03, 04*
we have
152
and Biquadratic.
transformation.
Substituting
x'
ax'*
We can suppose x
x'
it
4 Vix' 3
f
Z72#' a 4
4 U&'
ax' 4
from which
+ 6 Uix' 2
Ui
t
(Tix"
0,
Z7<
satisfy the
Z/3
we have
0.
two equations
2
equal with opposite signs, and when x'
To obtain the values of p and sf in terms of the roots
5, of the biquadratic, assume
, 7,
pi
x'i
The equation
a,
in
*',
#'i
pi
whence
0,
therefore, obtained
2pi=a +
by eliminating
2#'i
p, is
jS.
the equation of
4(72 3
To
we have from
 IUz + /=
17*
where
00,
6 is a
hence
U^ap + b^y/MX;
from which,
0.
x'*
Z7i*
+ 3JT+
finally,
2
/a 02J2"
an expression with only four values, in which the root of the biquadratic is expressed in terms of a single root of the reducing cubic.
27. Prove that every rational algebraic function of a root B of a given cubic
equation can in general be reduced to the form
Co
f
C\e
Do + DI$'
.
these
may
any degree.
By
/\
~A where
and
$> (0)
ty (9)
successive substitutions
be reduced to a quadratic.
is
reducible to the
form
1
CQ f ciO f ezff
Equating this to the form written above, and reducing by the given cubic, we
obtain an identical equation, viz. LQ + Ltf f ZzO 2 m 0,
where Q, L\, L\. are
L\ =
0,
Xs
as
0, to
We
D\.
<7i, D
have, therefore, the three equaVions
determine the ratios of C O\ t 2>o, DI.
Zo* O t
153
Examples.
28. Prove that the solution of the biquadratic does not involve the extraction
of a cuhe root
expressed
Any
Hence the determination of will not involve the extracthe preceding example.
tion of a cube root
and the formula of Ex. 26 shows that the expression for the
;
29.
when
by any
(2U
(l),
30.
(4)',
_J =
(8)07a5 = 0,
(5)
(5
+7=
(2)
may
0,
(3) (y
a) (0
8)
(7a)085)a>(aj8)(75) =
be proved as follows
it
Putting
(a
0,
j8)
(7
(6), (7)
5)
0,
3 7 = 0.
a\
form
o#4 (#o#4
922 +
)'~
24
os 2
2a2
3
)
A^
Now,
ties
expanding,
into the
(3)0,
+7_
(1)
(4),
This
root.
the equation
is satisfied
Am.
any cube
Find in each case the relation which connects the roots of the biquadratic
31. When a biquadratic has two equal roots, prove that Euler's cubic has two
equal roots whose common value is
21
and hence show that the remaining two roots of the biquadratic in
real, equal, or
imaginary, according as
2HI
3aJ
is
Prove that when a biquadratic has (1) two distinct pairs of equal roots the
two terms of the equation of squared differences (Art. 67) vanish, giving the
conditions A= 0, ZHI
3o7"=
and when it has (2) three roots equal, the last
three terms of this equation vanish, giving the conditions 1=0, J
and show
32.
last
the equivalence of the conditions in the former case with those already obtained in
Ex. 3, Art. 61,f and Ex. 12, p. 148. Prove also that the equation of squared differences reduces in the former case to < 2 (a z <p + 12JT) 4 , and in the latter case tx*
CHAPTER
VII.
tion.
APB
Let
be the
lynomial
point on
to
it
any value
ble x =
OM.
corresponding
of the varia
We
determine the
proceed to
mode
of re
second point
Q on the curve,
corresponding to a value of
x which exceeds
by a small quantity
OM
OM =
ar,
MN =
//,
The expansion
Thus
h.
ON = x +
PM = /(#), QN =f(x +
also
5.
Fig.
/*).
of Art. 6 gives
f(*+h) =
f(x)
+/'
(x)
h +
^ h*+
or
But
Now, when h
(1)
_
"
is indefinitely
_
~
_ ton
~
^ *
_
~
PT
155
Values.
PEN
to the curve at P
the angle
becomes PTM<
tangent
Also all terms of the righthand member of equation (1) except
the first diminish indefinitely, and ultimately vanish when h 0.
;
The equation
becomes therefore
(1)
tan P2VJ/
from which we
function/'
=/(#)
(x)
OX
70.
mial.
Theorem.
mum
minimum
f (x)
Values of a Polyno
is
We
proceed to
ment
prove that/'
or decrement of
(x)
h)
/(a),
0.
We
x.
/(a) </(a +
hence f(a +
/>),
and f(a 
h}
</(a
is
h)
incre
minimum,
positive, i.e.
Now, when h
;
vanish
and, moreover,
andf"
(a) is negative.
minimum
tion
(x)
furnish a
f"
when
An
maximum
exactly
(a)
0,
maximum and
maximum or minimum,
be positive.
is
(x)
(x) is positive,
is
(x)
when
the value is
the root
is
a minimum.
is
substituted in
156
The theorem
of this
Ar
ticle
it is
value of ./(#)
at
as
minimum,
is
P, P'
when the
plain that
maximum,
or
6),
(fig.
as at p, p'
the
and, consequently,
Pig. 6 represents a polynomial of the 5th degree. Corresponding to the four roots of/' (x) = (supposed all real in this case),
viz. OM, Om, OM', Om', there are two maxima, MP, M'P' ; and
m'p'.
EXAMPLES.
1.
= ** +
/
1
=   makes
4
(See
!,
,,
f(x)
/"(*) =
4.
49
a minimum.
,
fig. 2, p. 16.)
2.
/ (x) /'
(at)
x
3.
makes f(x)
makes
68, a
./(#)
6 (2x
I).
maximum.
67, a
minimum.
Here
=
4.
2# 3
 6
f(x)
W + x6.
(x)
3#4
16s
4 6.r
48.r
and
7.
it
gives a
minimum
value,
345.
The
roots of
maximum
(x)
10#3
17# 2
are, approximately,
minimum.
f a: f
6.
0302, 11031.
(See
fig. 3, p. 16.)
The former
gives a
157
Rollers Theorem.
(x)
0.
is
o.
The
We
two points
from the figure that the number
of such values
Two
is
between two
always odd.
may
and
Corollary.
(x)
0,
which
72.
roots
f(x)
In
(x
<n) (x
a*) (x
Q 3)
...
(x
y + x
a n ).
for x\
is
contra
Let the
have
We
158
where
e#
ql
qt
ai
(a?
+#
ai)
+#
aa
(a?
a2)
= (#a 2 )(#a s)
Oa
**
ai) (x
(a?
(0a,,)
+ #
a 3)
a,) (#
We
 a2
(a
...
a,)
(0
/(*) +/'
(*)
/'
(a?)
=
=
a)
(x
.
(x
(x
n)
 aj,
a w _i),
a w ).
y+
01) (X
8)
_i)
have, again,
a)
( a n
+ ... +
ni)(#
(a?
+ (*
**n>
(x
(#
(ir
 a2
)
a*) (#
 a)
ai)
'
for
(x
 a n ),
(a?
 an +
)
y>
f (y
4
we
#),
+ y.
obtain
as above written,
"
(^)
1.2
(x)
X
73.
carder
ai
equation /(#) =
of the
is
**oot
a multiple
(x]
an
Theorem.
Multiple Roots.
a^
of
thi
ihe ordef
0.
(x)
/
Each term
first,
?^
in this will
which
is a factor in
will
(x).
have
X
a m+1
x  aw
still
(x
159
m1
the first
is
derived equations.
Since/''
(x) is
from/(#),
it is
ai)
Determination
is
manifest.
of*
f(x]
for,
if
common
In
1
,
factors
(*)",
&o.,
roots equal to
/3,
g roots equal
we must
Let
(x}
0.
160
EXAMPLES.
1
The G.
C.
factor in /(#).
Whenever,
remaining factors,
it
0.
to
be x
hence
(a?
2)
is
we
8.
Thus
and
5 being the
two
5.
f
This
operation verifies the previous result, the remainders after each division vanishing
as they ought.
2.
roots,
x5
The G.
a factor in
C.
M.
f (x}.
10#2
(x) is
found to be #
0.
2
 2x +
(x
I) 3 (a + 3* +
Hence
1.
1,
we
(x
I)* is
obtain
6).
/(*)=
3.
15*
f
The G. C. M.
Hence
3.
_ 2# 3  11#2 4 12x + 36 =
is
a;
 x  6.
The
0.
f
2 and
/(.).( + 2)(*3).
4.
Find
all
6**
+ 9#3  Ux~  4x +
Am.
f(x)
(x
8.
1) (x f I)' (x
2)5.
The ordinary process of finding the greatest common measure of a polynomial and its first derived function may become
very laborious as the degree of the function increases. It is
wrong, therefore, to speak, as
is
Theorem.
161
Theory
It
common
measure.
75. This and the succeeding Article will be occupied with
theorems which will be found of great importance in the sub
Theorem.
little less
and
like signs
immediately after.
Substituting
a
A in f(x) and/'
(a?),
and expanding, we
have
/(a
A)
=/() /'
(a)
+
A'
 ....
on those of their
Corollary.
0,
first
(oi)
a multiple
0.
is
A. (a).
162
In the
do not vanish
h)
and/'
(a
h) the first
terms which
are, respectively,
the proposition
is
established.
we may
Theorem.
root a, a value a
When any
little
little
f (x)
has an rmultiple
and a value a
equation
and
negative, or negative
and
positive
the
/3 ,/4,/*>
h
of
may
is,
series of functions/,
that
/i,/2,
are
+++;
and
for a value a
+ h
of x they are
for before the passage through the root the sign of /4 must be
from that of 6 ; the sign of /8 must be different from
different
and
is
so small that
interval through
no root of /6
which x
travels.
(a?)
is
Examples.
63
EXAMPLES.
Find the multiple roots of the equation
1.
xi
f(x)
12# 3
f
32#2
f
 24#
AT
^*.
Show
2.
0.
(*
/(*)
4 6*
2)*.
z*  a
Show
x  nqx
will
4.
= r
if q n
(n
1)
4
x6
bpi? +
f
5
4jt?
5j0
and that
if it
3 IIz
+ G=
The
last
6.
vanish.
to
H vanish
\
4 1/ 3 = 0.
when
the cubic
If o,
/'()+/'
<;au
biquadratic/^)
08)
0,
prove that
+/'(?) +/'($)
Am.
8.
If
a, 0, 7, 5,
(a+ 3
7
5) (a f
0,
and
7
J8
5)(a
f
j3
&c., of/'
7).
(x]
0,
prove
and that each is equal to the absolute term in the equation whose roots are the
squares of the diil'ereuces.
9. If the equation
& + pi
a,
3C
n 1
f
p2 X"~
prove that a
is
I
....
f
p n l X + pH
SB
164
Show
10.
that the
ax*
3bx*
3cx
+d
Vwhere
is
2fir P
+ A =
0,
the discriminant.
If the curve representing the polynomial f(x) be moved parallel to the axis of y
(see Art. 10) through a distance equal to a max. or min. value p, the axii of x wiU
will have equal roots.
Hence
become a tangent to it, i.e. the equation/ (x)
p =
the max. and min. values are obtained by forming the discriminant of f(x)
p, or
'
by putting d  p for d in G* + 111 = 0.
11.
4fcc* f 6<?*2
4dz
ay where
is
3(a
J 9^2
3 (a/ 2
f
p*
 l&HJ)
 A=
0,
f(x) s
x*
~
7a
f
Ibx*  13;r
f
4.
"We have
f
2 (6**
/<(*)
Here /a
is
(sr)
the
first
30ar
 21* +
13,
16),
24.
when ^ =
and/a
(1) is
What
the theorem proves is, that for a value a little less than 1 the signs
f , and for a value a little greater than 1 they are all
of/, /j, /2, /a are +
are able from this series of signs to trace the functions/, /i, &c., in
negative.
the neighbourhood of the point x = 1. Thus the curve representing/^) is above
negative.
We
the axis before reaching the multiple point x = 1, and is below the axis immediately
and the axis must be regarded as cutting the curve in three
3
coincident points, since (x
I) is a factor in /(#).
Again, the curve corresponding
below the axis both before and after the passage through the point x = 1.
The curve representing fi(x] is above the axis
It touches the axis at that point.
to /i (x) is
before,
after,
CHAPTER
VIII.
IVewtou's
We
of the Roots.
I* o were
now resume
and proceed
to prove
f(x)
x 
af^ 1 +
jW
ai) (x
aj,)
"'
(f
We
2
proceed to calculate Sa
the usual notation, *,, s s > . . s m
3)
Sa
We
+ ...+;?
.
3
,
(x
Sa m
a*)
;
or,
0.
adopting
x
(w
we
/()
x  a
find, dividing
= xn  1 +
+ Pi
by
f
the
a
4
method
of Art. 8,
f
3
(I
j0^,
166
Symmetric Functions of
If, in this
cii,
a2
we
f(x]
we
by adding
= nvn 1 4
Xn
np
all
*
r
replace a
and put sp
n in succession,
have,
equation,
the Roots.
\
S2
=
i
0,
4 4;7 4
... 4
The
first
the second
We
(n
0.
way
p\
4 2p 2 * 
64
=  Pi 6
find in this
 Pi,
0,
coefficients,
2,
4/> 4 ,
(tfp^pi
*3>
i
we proceed now
f
jp
) ;
&o.
can be calculated in
to extend our results
167
Newton's Theorem.
to the
For
sums of
this
powers of the
all positive
sm ,
purpose we have
'
Xm n f(x) a Xm
a n , in succes
+ J0l*roi +
*m
Now, giving
JVroa
0.
jP a sa
+ P^ni +
+ JpiSn+i +
n+2
JV'inn
/>2*n
+ wp
0,
0, &C.
f;r$i
+ ^n
.S'
0,
transforming the equation into one whose roots are the recia n and applying the above formulas,
procals of ai, aj, a 8
,
we may
PROP.
78.
root* of
of the
coefficients.
single fraction
both
j^W
a/ a s
r
.
where
is
We
function
fiai
p a a9
Saf a 2 q =
sp s
(1)
168
Symmetric Functions of
To prove
we multiply
this,
8P
sq
= af
f
+ a 2*
cu
the Roots.
together sp and
a? +
+
af
/ +
sq ,
where
a,/,
<in
9
;
whence
or
We
proceed
now
function, viz.,
f
Multiplying togetlier
we
^ai p a 2 9 and
sr ,
(2)
where
a fa!
Sa^W,
viz.
Honoe
Substituting these
Sa/a 2
the series
values,
we
find
the
triple
function
$3 , ss>
&c.
169
Newton?* Theorem.
can be
made
depend on the
$
&c.
and
a
to
ultimately on
s i9
*afa<paf 9 and
triple function
so on.
Whence,
finally,
can be so expressed.
The formulas (1) and (2) require to be modified
of the exponents become equal.
p=
if
Thus,
*$,
&o.,
when any
 
Zafaf
if
8,
a fa?  a/<u*,
Similarly,
every
expressed
**q
s
2ai'Wa
r in
ai
770
* o
(V
W8
2p ).
r
3
become
all
equal
hence
in general,
And,
repeated 1
if t
I
is
times.
EXAMPLES.
1.
Prove
2iPa2a3 r a4* =
2.
SpSgSr*,
 2sp sqt>
+a
22^,^>r 4
f
Prove
jn>
The
value
of
sr ,
in
expressed
terms
J\\
Since
an +^?
putting
^"
for
4 p&P~* +
a?
4
jt?
(a?
 m) (a?
of
I...
+ pnyn 
(1
we
a,)
find
(^
 a n ),
170
Now, taking
&c.
P^y+p%
1
...
Pip*
1
PIP*
whc re
j
Pr
is
in both expansions,
^/
w
//
From
6> (r les.s
J.
it
p^
may
be seen that
.
f> 2 , jt> 3 ,
;> r
only
To express the
80.
powers
coefficients
in terms
of the roots.
Sin oe
1 + piy
+ ^ 2 y2 +
. . .
+ p^T a
(1
ojy) (1
atf/)
... (1
 an
//),
we have
log (1 +jpjy +
and, therefore,
..
+p H t/)
  yi 
*8
 y
*r
 . ;
(1)
171
Newton's Theorem.
which becomes by expansion
1
"a*
r
and we
see that
pr
Now, comparing
we
...;
involves no
Bum
of powers
beyond
sr .
is
any
coefficient in
coefficients,
and
for
where
ai,
a2
as
...
(ai)
<J>
(nz) f
a,,
h
0,
a ><)
and
is
integral function of x.
We haye
fM
ft
1
"
"T"
f(x)
and
"
"/>"J
J (X)
0,1
X
X~
an
any
rational
and
172
Performing the division, and retaining only the remainders on both sides of thii
we have
equation,
"
'
_.
x 
f(x)
on
4>
(an)
whence
IiV'
+ flu"' 2 +
!
x n~ l
2<J>
on both
Ho 2.
3.
is
(ai) (s
02)
(a;
...
03)
 o)
(a
5<p (ai).
ad'~
in the
same quo
tient
where
denotes the
2,
prove
values from
all
to
inclusive.
r=l
We
A\
(a;)
/,
f(x)
(F)
<^>
:
^(ar)
.
p
^'(^2)
x  a*
01, 03,
_ (2J
<
^_
ai
4?
a>2
and putting x
(ai)
(ai)
a\
in succession,
1
(<*)
^_ B ^
.f.
f\on}
&n
whence
When
^> (a;) is
function of ,
We
it
of the degree
n  2
expressing the
is
first side
of the equation as
no term without x
as a multiplier.
As f may be any
we have
rational
2
n3

/^__^
(a)
0,,
(a)
a
... 3 ^rpr
(a)
0,,
2 JTJ/
(a)
0.
 2f
*.
2 *r =
0,
r1
* .
rn
rn
r/
express the
173
0*
Xr =

2a ^=
"
M" 3
0,
r1
r1
variables in terms of
Xl
f <Xr
^2
.
of the roots [see Art. 28] is called the weight of the function.
highest degree in which each root enters the function is
The
The
2 8
weight, for example, of Sa/3 7 is six, and
It has been proved (Art. 28) that in the value
order three.
sum
We
of the function.
to
to the
pn
of
term
is
equal to the
of the
weight
symmetric functions,
ficients pi y pt,
proposition relating
The degree in terms of the coef
viz.
the value of
is
equal
any
root in the
degree in
first
which
is also
the order
>
a*
#i> #2>
^ ae f
rm i n which
Pn
a\
by
,
ff a
,....
174
Symmetric Functions of
Now,
if
a2 ,
(cti,
the Roots.
we have
roots,
divisible
by
We require
now
show that h
to
For
the order of $.
is
this
= F(a
(,,...)
fl/
0fA/>
n,
a^,
(1)
) ;
Cl 2
also
/I 1
7 T'
~
1
'
(oi, a.,
a3
where p
is
<//
sible
(1),
we have
af $
From
(ai, a,,
ficients
F(a n
a n _^
iu a
F(a n
h, ip
and
*>
,
# M _i,
(a h a 2
if it
)
).
p is equal to h for if p
a M ) would be divisible by the
a t P~ h
...
were
would be
less,
divisible
by
a n> both of
which
Roots.
Any
We
shall show
the examples which follow the present Article.
also, when this subject is resumed in the second volume of this
may
be
made
of
many
instances
the
175
The number
is
of terms in
easily determined.
2!
a* a 3 of the equation
degree
(n
1)
number
being the
together.
different, the
number
of
Thus Sa 2 /3y
Ex.
two permutations
since the
6, p. 48),
a/3y, ayj3
2
2
The student
give only one distinct term, viz., a /3y, in 2a /3y.
acquainted with the theory of permutations will have no diffi
these
reductions in
culty
in
When
effecting
any
case.
particular
taining
roots,
and
i/
n(nl)(n2)
i
(n
w+
is
1)
.2. a ...v
When the highest power iu whiuh any one root enters into
the symmetric function of the roots is small, i.e. when the order
of
the function
Art.
(see
illustrated in Art.
27
calculation of the
symmetric function.
It
is
may
its
weight)
is n, is
calculated
equation of the
n th degree, its value for an equation of any higher degree (the
numerical coefficients being all equal to unity) is precisely the
same
no
p n for the
higher degrees.
It
is
coefficient
same
m (lower than n)
176
th
equation of lower degree can be derived from that of the n by
putting the coefficients beyond p m equal to zero ; and the corre
roots crnm
EXAMPLES.
1.
Calculate
2j 2 0203
l
pi x"~
a?" 4
4
pi x*
4
. .
4
p n ,\x
pn =
0.
times, arising
and
of 04
by
by ai3i)
0.1
of
0.3
by
ai
Hence
oiajos.
2a>~ 02
a.i 4
4^ai
therefore
2ai
aa ag
^^iy'a
(Compare Ex.
4pi.
2ar
which
leads,
03
ai
= i2 s^ 
*i $3
J*2
4
we
6,
Art. 27.)
should have
4,
2.
&o., introduce a
Calculate
number
2Sara2
Squaring
2ai as  pz,
we have
2oi
In squaring
a2
2
4
22ai~ a2 03
4
62aj ag as
= pz*
ai 02
by
as a $,
it is
or of 0103
by
as a*, or of
177
Examples.
3. Calculate
We have,
as in
Ex.
9, Art. 27,
results,
2ai a2
= p\ *pt
2
2/?2
 pi pa
f
4/?4.
4.
The result will be the same as if the calculation were made for the equation of
the fifth degree.
To obtain the symmetric function we multiply together 20102 and 2010203 ; and
consider what types of terms, involving the five roots 01,02, an, en, as, can result.
The term ai 2 02 2 as will occur only once in the product, since it can only arise by
multiplying 0102 by aitwas. Terms of the type 01020304 will occur, each three
since ai 2 oj084 will arise
ia204, or of aiom
010203;
by
We have,
five roots.
and
2ai022aia203
2ai 2 02 2 O3
f
[We can verify this equation when n = 5, just as in Ex. 9, Art. 27 for the
product of two factors, each consisting of 10 terms, will contain 100 terms. These
2
are made up of the 30 terms contained in 2oi 2 a2 03 along with the 20 terms con;
taken three
tiniefc ?
times.]
Thus the
;
calculation
for
which we
of the required
2oi 201020304
Henee,
The
easily find
Soi 02ai04 f
620102030405.
ti,
j a , Ace.,
many
terms
result.
6.
We
Terms
a.
only once.
178
or of 0105
ttie^asas,
2oi02 ^01020304
We have again,
2ai 2 02 2 a304
2ai 20102030405
Hence,
finally,
2oi 2 a22 a3 04
2
6.
4
42ai 2 a2a304O5
times,
6201030*040600.
5ai 02030405,
2ai 2 020s04a5
62ai 0208040500.
2oi o2 03
equation.
2010203 2ai0203
from which
we have
2010203,
Squaring
we
2at
O2 os
4
202010203040504,
find
2
2
2
2ai a2 o 3
83.
*
Homogeneous Products.
There
in
are,
general,
a n which
several symmetric functions of n quantities m, a 2
have the same weight, and amongst these may be included two
,
II r is
(1
+ aiX f
aiV + ...)(!
2^ + a a
V + ...)...(!+ a x + a V +
n
.).
EXAMPLES.
1.
Prove
n^
"^Tw*
,__!
a"**" 1
We have
*
__
"
f(x)
(1
aiy)(l
'
(1
iV+..)( l
2
W eW
,
o 2 y) ...
4
...
I
179
Examples.
Also
v> ^1
^/'M
whence
/(a:)
?L m
/(*)
result follows
'
y ^!L.
^f'(a)
a" 4^ 1
J
.
^ /'(a)
^9
ay
by comparing
coefficients of
y.
Express the sums of the homogeneous products of the roots in terms of the
coefficients of an equation, and vice versd.
2.
Since
we have
+ Piy 4 Jfejf 2
...
4
4 JW H )(1 4
Hi?/
U2y* + ...)!,
4
whence
l>i f
ni
=B
These equations
determine pi pi, .
.
By means
tric functions
pz 4 Uz 4 j^iOi
0,
which p\
(in
may be found
n r by
Representing by
ing,
we
the
du
n2
&c.
and
n,
7>)'
j2ni
are
0,
&c.
interchangeable)
vic^ versd.
aiy)(l
a" 4 1
/R
a
= 2 1
w =
also
We have,
(1 f
&0>
roots.
a*y)
(1 a,,y),
aSd
differentiat
1 4
Da,
*=
*2y
4
...
*33r
ay
Oiy
t
H2 y2
therefore,
Uiy 4
n zy 2 4
.) (*i
jt?iH 2 4
find
udy
n2
H2
an
 the product (1
III,
f
a"
Express
+ Hs
jp a
of this
*7w'
5.
jt> 2 ,
0,
in terms of HI,
pn
4 *sy 2 4
HI
+ 2n2y 4 3n3 y2 4
of
powers of
y,
..
we have
*i, *2,
&,
&c.
2.
na
&c.,
by
CHAPTER
IX.
LIMITS OF
Definition of limits.
real roots of
number
nearest to  oo
When we
The
principal methods in use for this latter purpose will form the subject of the next chapter.
The following Propositions all relate to the superior limits
are situated.
85.
Proposition
JL
In any equation
^x + pn
if the first negative term be
 p r %n~*', and
0,
181
Propositions.
coefficient be
jpk +
p*, then
a superior
1 ia
limit
of ike positive
roots.
Any
will,
by
the following
or
or
af
"J
(x
1)
is satisfied
by the following :
(alr'C*!)^*
since plainly
of"
We have, therefore,
>
(x
I)'"
finally
r
(a? l)
= or>jf?
x  or >
or
jfe
4
jpk*
Proposition II.
86.
If in any equation each negative coefand divided by the sum of all the positive
which precede it, the greatest quotient thus formed inis a superior limit of the positive root*.
creased by unity
aX
general,
viz.
Let each
means
 ar
and we consider
. . . .
+ an
0,
coef
positive
of the formula
 am
(x
term in
this equation
be transformed by
182
which
is
#"x
1
x
a?
We
now regard
&\
Any
is
1)
&o.
sufficient to
make
(00
4
0t
. . .
flri) (a?
1)
>
flr,
&0.
Hence
.a
f
00
And
to ensure every
positive,
1, dbo.
we must take
183
Practical Applications.
Practical Applications.
87.
The
propositions in the
both methods, and take the smaller limit. Prop. I. will usually
be found the more advantageous when the first negative coefficient is
coefficients, so that r is
and Prop.
large ;
before the
first
when
II.
In general, Prop.
We
II.
by
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find a superior
x*
Prop.
I.
8+1,
gives
Find a superior
I.
40^2
3x 4
Hence
or 6.
1,
6 is a superior limit.
a:
8# 2  5l#
and 6
f
+ 341
1,
is,
and 12
3.
4x*
3.r
9x*
4.
+ 5# 4 
0.
is
a limit,
0.
6*
4 fa  8
lla: 2
fractions
1+4*
the third
18
therefore, a limit.
In
o.
or 9, as limit.
\/51 +
gives
Of the
8r + 23
#5 +
Prop.
5^3
is
11
6'
+ 4+5'
Find a superior
#8
Prop.
I.
gives 5.
20*7
4^6
_ Ha^ _
120^*
13z
25
0.
6.
8#*
22;e 3
98# 2
73# 4
Ans. Prop.
5=0.
I. trives
20.
3.
184
The form
The equation
a?
(#
8)
x (3* 3
+ a? +
61)
18
0.
3, or
hence 3
is
a superior
limit.
The equation
7.
x6
x
or
3,
of Ex. 4
(ar
may be
11)
I
arranged thus
20#* (x 5
6)
4# 6
+ 13#  26 =
positive
0.
hence 3
if
a limit.
8.
* 4  4*3 +
33a:2
"2x
18
0.
xz (x* ~ 4x
Now
the trinomial x
4x
Hence x =
of x (Art. 12).
The
f
5)
f 5,
f
28r (x
 &) +
having imaginary
18
0.
a superior limit.
way of a quadratic whose roots are imaginary, or of one
1 is
introduction in this
9.
bx*
among
7)
+ x9
(x*
317 =
 10) f x*
(*
In
limit.
10.
#*
When
 x3 
2x*
 4x 
24
0.
there are several negative terms, and the coefficient of the highest term
convenient to multiply the whole equation by such a number as will
it is
plying by 4,
a? ( x
and 4
power of
unity,
0.
is
4)
a superior limit.
32 (s
8)
f
(x
16)
f
give 26.
96
0,
Here, multi
185
Propositions.
88.
Proposition III.
Any number
. .
/(#)
0.
A)
./(A) +/,(*) y +
If
now h be such
as to
make
<6
all
_L
ft
'
the coefficients
is
is
#*
2* s
3# 2
16*
3.
of procedure
IB
as follows:
the
new
it
again
if
hould become negative ; and so on, till an integer is reached which renders all the
functions in the series positive.
In the present example the series of funt tions is
f(x)
/i
Ibx
4s  6* 2  6* 
1$,
= x*
22?
2
3:r
(x)
*/(*)
6*2
*/s(*)
4* 2,
6* 3.
3,
186
makes /a (x) positive. "We try then the effect of the substitution x = 1
makes ft (x) negative. Increase by 1 and x = 2 makes /2(#) positive.
Try the effect of x = 2 in J\ (x) it gives a negative result. Increase by 1 and
K = 3 makes f\ (x} positive. Proceeding upwards, the substitution x = 3 makes
Here x
It
in/a().
f (x) negative
Hence
is
number
number
make them positive so that there is no occasion to try the effect of the
on the functions lower down in the series. This is evident from the
number
higher
will also
equation
t>
(taking
<f>
(a+
(a)
$>
<p
(a)
and h
It
also positive,
may be
<j>
(a
f
h}
must be
A2
+ </>"(
to represent
(x)
h)
<f>
series,
are
all positive,
positive.
f or
lies
between
and
Roots.
To
4,
we know
The
the
.
4.
must be
equation
*
limit
89.
in y.
Thus
lies.
for
for since
y <
.11.
h,
~ >
7,
h
y
i.e.
x>
1
r.
To find limits of the negative roots, we have only to transform the equation by the substitution x   y. This transforLet the
mation changes the negative into positive roots.
Superior and inferior limits of the positive roots of the equation
Then  h and  A' are the limits of he negain y be h and A'.
tive roots of the proposed equation.
187
Limiting Equations.
90.
Limiting liquations.
f
equation f(x)
the
could be found,
number of real
If
it
all
the
would be possible
to
determine
0.
When any
successive
and by the
A', 4
oo.
same
sign, there
is,
by
0.
In the same
case,
lie
Equations of
degree of
it is
this
of the
immediately derived.
It
is
is
the
188
Examples.
EXAMPLES.
Prove that any derived equation ft*
1.
(x)
may have more real roots, than the equation f(x) = from which it is derived.
From this it follows that, if any of the derived functions be found to have
imaginary roots, the same number at least of imaginary roots must enter the
but
original equation.
2.
jf
should have
3.
qx + r
When
q
>
When
q
 nqx +
<
or
=*
two
0.
r" 1 .
or
(x
<
r" 1 .
1)
and
n (n
1)
*"&^' + T^
Show
similarly
and
2^1) *"*""
n (n
1)
fi(nl)L ~nt.
X*  n
.
root* real
its
equation
__
_
.1.
2(2l)
6.
l)
is
>
(a
is
The equation xn
*
6.
=B
An&.
4.
&>
the
*
&C.
0.
to zero,
aquation
(x
7.
a) (x~l)
'
(* e)  Wmn
to?
2**
12* 4 p
0,
is less
than 
7,
two roots
are real
and when
p is greater than 9,
the roots are all imaginary. The equation has two equal roots when, p =  7, and
two pairs of equal roots when p  9.
9, all
CHAPTER
X.
lie.
equation
to
By the
91.
to find limits
any particular
which
it is
roots.
from the intervals which contain the remainpresent chapter will be occupied with certain
situated
The
ing
theorems whose object is to determine the number of real roots
between any two arbitrarily assumed values of the variable. It
plain that if this object can be effected, it will then be possible
to tell not only the total number of real roots, but also the limits
within which the roots separately lie.
is
of
more laborious
that
it is
number
tities
number
Budan
gives only a
a and
b,
f(x) and
of which a
is
it$ successive
the
less,
derived functions,
viz.,
'(*),/.()./(*),.../.(*);
190
the number of real roots which lie between a and b cannot le greater
than the excess of the number of changes of sign in the series when
a is substituted for x, over the number of changes when b is substituted for
x ; and when
This
number of
the
it
will be by
an even number.
is
when we
less,
is
one or
that a
is
=
equation f(x)
0.
(3).
(4).
(2). It
_^=0or/
(x]
is
0.
omitted after
for con
venience.
In the
(1).
first
case
it
is
evident,
= 0, one
passing through a root of the equation f(x)
change
for / and /\ have unlike signs immediately
of sign is lost
;
before,
and
like signs
immediately
after, the
passage through
the root.
(2).
root of f(x]
for,
by Art.
sign
functions
J\\ fi> f*9
yri>
fr
+,
and
iriimediately
19/
In the
(3).
lost,
(4).
(let
us say
a)
to vanish.
which causes not only /m but also fm +i fm+*i
., /m+ri
It is evident from the theorem of Art. 76 that during the passage
a number of changes of sign will always be lost. The definite
9
number may be
collected
The following
(a).
by considering the
series of functions
If r be odd, r
(b).
We
of changes
of/m (4
It will be observed that (1) is a particular case of (2), and
= 1. Since, however, the cases (1) and (3)
of
(3)
(4), i.e. when r
are those of ordinary occurrence, it is well to give them a separate classification,
192
The form
in
which
numbers of which a is
between a and b cannot
number of
real roots
number of
number in
the less
then
the
This
is
y*
is,
that
theorem in
we can apply
this
form
is
the expeditious
above
convenient
method
of
Find the
x6
 3^ 
24# 3 4 95# 2
 46s 
101
0.
1,
0,
I,
10;
t
of calculation.
Diminution
193
Examples.
of the roots
equation
by
1,
26,
2,
78.
65,
16,
the transformed
positive
8,
1,
In diminishing by
that the signs will be
2,
 10 we
are
60.
291,
139,
all positive
will be
alternately positive
changed they
The
and negative.
:
(1)
+ +
+ 
(0)
f
(1)
_,
(10)
+.
(10)
+

_,
+,
the eqtutiioa
,
f
itself,
These signs are the signs taken by/(#) and the several derived f unctions /i,/2,
on the substitution of the proposed numbers but it is to be observed that
/>> fi> ft
they are here written, not in the order of Art. 92, but in the reverse order, viz.
From
between
of sign
BO
we draw
these
10 and
is lost
between
between
is at least
10
f
and
lies
and
lies
between ;
and
and between
10 and
between
0, since
and
but we are
1,
must
lie
is lost
changes of sign
in doubt as to the nature of
left
real
10.
evident that the calculations for this purpose might, if the roots were nearly
This is the weak side of the theorem of Fourier and
equal, become very laborious.
Budan. Both writers have attempted to supply this defect, and have given methods
but
it is
of determining the nature of the roots in doubtful intervals ; but as these methods
we do not stop to explain them the more especially as the theorem
are complicated,
of Sturm effects fully the purposes for which the supplementary methods of Fourier
and Budan were invented.
194
2.
The
and
lie
100, viz.,
1, p.
* + **
2*
between
0.
ICfu).
jkVhen
ever the roots of an equation are all real, the signs of Fourier's function^&ffermine
the exact nuraher of real roots hetween any two proposed integers. We" obtjin thd
following result
The
(2,!);
3.
Ans.
Two
(1,0);
3, p.
(1,2).
100, viz.,
of the intervals ( 1, 0)
4.
1),
(0, 1)
(1, 2).
0.
The equation can have no negative roots. Diminish the roots hy 10 several times
obtain the
in succession till the signs of the coefficients become all positive.
We
following result
+  + +,
+ _ + + _,
 + +,
+
+ + +  +,
+ + + 4 +.
(0)
(10)
(20)
(30)
(40)
Thus, there
is
and
10,
Between SO and 40
the proposed equation has a third real root in the interval (32, 33), and a fourth in
%e
94.
Application
of the
Theorem
to
Imaginary
Roots.
knowing
195
Example*.
so small that
equation /(a?)
may
it
0.
EXAMPLES.
1.
f(x)
We
shall
examine
z*
 4#3 
this function
3#
23
0.
0, 1, 10.
The
trans
A/4 (0)
the
first
*'
+ */
(0) **
0,
(10)z+/(10) =
0,
Making the
calculations
= 0,
(0)
 +,
(1)
  +,
+ + + +
(10)
+.
We may now
first
than that which gives the zero coefficients, the signs being determined by the
It must be remembered that in the above scheme
principle established in Art. 76.
the signs representing the derived functions are written in the reverse order to that
The scheme will then stand as follows, h being used to
of the Article referred to.
represent a very small positive quantity:
{h
(0)
(
(1)
(10)
hi
\\~\
(l + A
+  + 
+,
_ _ _ +
+ +
'
__+,
+ +
+,
similar
manner
O 9
196
Now since a pair of changes is lost in the interval ( A, + A), and since the
h and I A, we have proved the existence of s
equation has no real root between
Two changes of sign are lost between 1 + h and 10, so
pair of imaginary roots.
that this interval either includes a pair of real roots, or presents an indication of a
Which
of these
still
doubtful.
*6
The
is
we may
h and
signs corresponding to
0.
f
are,
f
by the theorem

(_A)
(+ h)
+ + + + + + .
f
of Art. 76,
The number
of imaginary roots in
in
this
way.
3. Find the character of the roots of the equation
x?
10.r 3 f
f
0.
x we
obtain the
(A)
+  +
f
f
,
'
(0)
+ ,
The
Since six changes of sign are here lost, there are six imaginary roots.
remaining two roots are, by Art. 14, real One positive, and the other negative.
and 1.
The negative root lies between 2 and
1, and the positive between
:
4.
#83*2*'+
There are two imaginary
In
this
way we
Whenever,
roots.
0.
we
it is
find on diminishing
by 
that
1 is itself
a root,
and writing down the signs corresponding to a value a little greater than
observe an indication of a second negative root between  1 and 0.
6.
1,
wo
at
+ ** 
25*
36
0.
c
two
one
reai!
positive root
2), ( 2,
between 2 and 3
1).
and
Corollaries
95.
from
the
Corollaries
Budau.
197
The method
imaginary
The
eessire
roots
rule
we proceed to show.
De Gua's Rule for finding Imaginary
may he stated
generally as follows
Roots.
When 2m
suo
2m +
2, or 2m imaginary roots, according as the two terms between which the deficiency occurs have like or unlike xigns.
This
follows as in case (4j, Art. 92, by examining the number of
has
changes of sign lost during the passage of # from a small negative value  h to a small
value h.
positive
Cor. 2.
When
is
substituted
for
x in
the
series
of
functions
fn (),fni (#),
/(#)> /i (#)/(#), the signs are the same as the
rt w1
of
the
a n of the proposed
coefficients
a , a\, a t
signs

equation
arid
when +
number
that
is
This
oo is substituted
number
number
the
number
all positive.
of roots between
from
a,,
to
a3
oc,
an
way by changing
the
When
eacli of
oc
198
96.
that
Sturm's Theorem.
it is
possible
f(x] and
common measure
of a polynomial
It
is
The
where no
We
cases.
class
to
The
common measure
We
change
what follows that the sign of each
remainder is changed before it becomes the next divisor.
Confining our attention for the present to the case where no
shall suppose therefore in
Theorem.
for x
in the series
may
be stated as follows
ofn +
be substituted
1 functions
/i(*), /.(*),
and
199
Sturm's Theorem.
then the
is
substituted for x
a and
b.
The mode
which
<?,,
ja,
qn\
represent
(1)
remainder /(#)
is
numerical.
It
is essential
for
the proof of the theorem to observe also, that in the case now
under consideration no two consecutive functions in the series
can have a
common factor
for if they
had we
could,
by reason
ing similar to the above, show from the equations that this factor must exist also in f(x) and/t (o?) ; and such, according to our
and the
200
different cases in
the following
when x
(1).
/()
(2).
when x
(3).
when x
o,
(1).
of /(a?) = 0,
it
follows from
fr (x)
0.
From
/ri'tf)
we have
satisfies
the equation
the equation
/ri(a)
= qrfr(%)
= /r +i('
~/r+i(#),
,
which proves that this value of x gives to fr\{x\ and /r+i(#) the
same numerical value with different signs. In passing from a
value a little less than a to one a little greater, we can suppose
the interval so small that it contains no root of /ri(#) or/ (a*) ;
hence, throughout the interval under consideration, these
two
of
no alteration in the
is
r (x)
changes, but no
/r+
(a?),
and
after
+ + ,
201
Sturm's Theorem.
We
and if not,
hav
is
fore, that
when x
passes through a
no other
root
Hence
'.of
from
flTto b
\&j*fc&/m
Betwee
Befclfe pogy^Siiig to\he case of equal roots, we add a few
theorem.
sijnjple eSiwwfiTes to illustrate the application of Sturm's
It
is
first
oo
0,
oo in
and of positive roots. To separate the negative roots, the inte 1,  2,  3, &o., are to be substituted in succession till we
gers
reach the
of 
oo
&c.,
till
EXAMPLES,
1.
f(x)
We find
fi(x)
3r>
(00)
(0)
Hence there
is
a;
 2* 
fz (r) =
2,
oo
4* +
f oo
of x y
 +
 
0,
16,
/,(*)
=
643.
we have
,
+ ,
+ + + 
(+ 00 )
only one real root, and
it is
positive.
The
student often finds a difficulty in perceiving in what way a record is preferred in Sturm's series of the number of changes of sign lost, since the only loss takes
place between the
difficulty to observe,
through
a,
that as
become again
through &.
202
Separation of the
>
(3)
+ + + 
2.
we hare
or,
(2)
(1)
The
3 of
2,
 + +
 + +
and
,
3.
We easily obtain
/, (x)
/a
1x
3*
0.
7,
(*)** 3,
whence
(00)
 + 
(0)
+
oo
(+
Hence
all
We have,
+,
+ + +
+.
f
(2)
 + + + + + 
(1)
+  
+,
(1)
+,
(2)
+ +
(3)
4 and
+,
(4)
Here
+,
f,
f,
+.
The negative
between 1 and 2.
these.
This example illustrates the superiority of Sturm's method over that of Fourier.
The substitution of 1 and 2 in Fourier's functions gives, as can be immediately
From
Fourier's theorem
(1)
 +
(2)
+ +
+.
we
two
roots
between
must, of course,
3.
and
make
2.
If
we have
two
2s8
3#8
f
lOx
4 =
0.
roots,
we
Sturm? s'Theorem.
We
obtain,
= 8* 3,
/,(*)
1433.
[N.B.
equations
203
Equal Roots.
(1), to
finding the o. o. M. ; taking care, however, that these are positive, so that the signs
of the remainders are not thereby altered.]
We have the
 4
(0)
(4
Hence
roots.
there are
To
two
GO

real roots,
.
+ + +
it is
is
We
ne negative root.
easily find in this way that the negative root
2 and  3, and the positive root between
and 1.
97.
Sturm's Theorem.
Equal Roots.
lies
between
tion for finding the greatest common measure of /(#) and f(x]
be performed, the signs of the successive remainders being
by the
process.
Let the
series of functions
be:
/(#) /i(*)
/i(#)>
......
MX).
viz.
/ /
t,
t,
is lost
by the Oor.,
and we pro
r
Suppose there exists an inmulevident from the equations (i) of Art. 96,
.
204
(y
....
^2,
*" 1
a)
$r
we
Neither, therefore,
/i>/2>
/;
is
lost or
any change
is
gained in the
 a)" in the
series
1 "" 1
passage
either to
change the
m  1 is odd)
 1 is even)
or of none (when
of the functions
2
1?
$ r and changing the signs of all
these functions cannot increase or diminish the number of
signs of all (when
variations.
We
when x
a change of sign is
We
theorem as follows for the case of equal roots
The difference between the number of changes of sign when a and b
root of /(a?)
state the
lad of
/r>
./
6,
is
EXAMPLES.
1.
We easily obtain
/i
 6^ +
9#2  7*
= 4s 3
(x)
15#
/ (*)* 2*+
/a (x) divides f\ (x) without remainder
f
18$
0.
1;
series stops at
205
Examples.
To
number
find the
The
4,
(4
+.
2.
which
(x),
substitute
oo
and 4
oo
result is
(00)
we
equal to (x
is
I)
is
a triple
*  6*
 12* +
13*2
0.
Here
/! (*)
is
3*4
*2
/2 (*)
4* 8
(_co)
co
(+
1,
is
2;
I
4,
444.
In
(x
1) (*
2),
each of
a double root.
Here
a*
2.r*
/,
4 *3 
5* 4
8.r
x*
 2* 2
4 3*
/ = 2a; 4 7^ 2 4 12z
/3 =  #  Ca;  5.
3
2x
7,
0.
2,
Since
y*s
\Ve have
0,
a;
is
/4
=*
/6
1,
0.
1.
also
_+,
(00)
_ +
(4 oo
+ + +
__.
Hence there are two real distinct roots. The equation has, therefore, beside the.
double root, one other real root, and two imaginary roots.
4.
Hwe
 7#8 4
/i (x)
/a (#)
/s(s)
15**
 40* 4 48* 
16
=* 0.
=r
6* 5
13**
5
ic
 84a?3 4 192* 
76* 4 48,
 6* 4 12* 8 n (*2} ?
2
roots,
206
98.
In the case
oi
pay attention
fore to
what
to certain observations
fn,
to vanish
It is in
signs to/n_2 and/*.
calculation what would be the sign of the result if the root of
Thus in Ex. 3, Art. 96, if
substituted in /*(#).
Ai (a?) = were
o
the value  5, which is the root of /(#) = 0, be substituted for
o
x in 9x*  27% 411, the result
sign of
/n (x)
 1433
given
is ,
for
and there
fn (x)
When it is possible
(2).
roots of
any one
is
in the
example referred
in
any way
to.
we need
number
changes when two quantities a and b are substituted is independent of whatever variations of sign may exist in that part of
the series which consists of the function in question and those
With a view to the application of this observation
following it.
it
is
(ax*
and the absolute term have the same sign (otherwise the roots
could not be imaginary), whether the condition 4ac > b* is fulfilled ; if so, we know that the roots are imaginary, and tha
x*
change
its
207
Examples.
EXAMPLES.
1
s*4 3*8 +
We find
/2 (*) = /8 (*) = 
29*'
+ 1*0,
78*
from 
makes
ft (x)
roots.
real,
f8. 1},
{1, 0).
little
J,
14,
which differs
There are two
2.
10*
1086* 481,
N /*(*)
Here we
7**
positive;
The
 4*
**
We
3*
23
0.
find
/<(*)=
Here
/,(*)
*=
gives
>
>
274
The
3.
{2, 3},
>
,
and
=

makes
also.
(3, 4}.
13*2 +
10*
19
0.
Hero
/!W =
fi(x)
Sinoe
>
4 x 13 x 38
15 2 ,
4* 13*6,
IS*2
15*
38.
Substituting
oo
we
+00,
0,
(00)
(0)
+

+,
+,
+.
(+00)
There are two
4.
Here
real roots,
obtain
5**
+ *s  4*2  3* 6  0.
+ 8*8 + 3*2  Sx
/a(*)
6**
/8 (*)
/(*)
m ae6 +
/i (*)
2ar*
66**
116*2
+ 44* +
57*
110,
223.
we
proceed no
208
Sinee
>
4 x 116 x 223
substituting
oo
we may
(OD)
(0)
(+
00
We find,
4.
and one
roots,
 2# 3  7*2
f
,.
,
10*+
10
= 0.
all real,
{2, 3}.
xs
It will be
3*4
4.
2*s
3a .a
2*
0.
found that the calculation may cease with the quadratic remainder.
Ans. There
7.
or
+00,
0,
57 2 ,
is
in the interval
{ 1
2}
=0.
181
We find
f*(x)
= 854* 
2751,
numoer than might have been expected from the magnitude of the coefficients in/s(#).
In fact when the root of ft (x) is substituted in/i (a?) the positive part is nearly equal
This is always an indication that two roots of th* proposed
to the negative part.
There are injthe present instance two positive roots beequation are nearly equal.
tween 3 and 4. Subdividing the internals, we find the two roots still to lie between
3*2 and 3'3
which
illustra
The
quadratic function
is
Ans. One
real root
between
{0,
0.
roots.
1
209
Examples.
9.
&  6*
We find
 30* + 12* 
/(*) and as
this
has clearly
all
20**
0.
4
imaginary
An s. Two
6**
real roots
may
in the intervals
stop here.
1
2,
{6,7}.
0),
{5, 6).
10.
2*
18**
60**
I
120*'
We find
 30* 2 +
2
/2(*)6**f 220* +
may

0.
stop.
Two
Ana.
11.
18*
real roots
in the intervals
{
1,
Here
The
/i(*)
x1

f
bx 
numbers 
oo
7, 6,
f
oo
14,
(_oo)
+,
(7)
(6)
+,
f
+.
(f 00
Whenever,
as in this example,
f,
7 satisfies f\ (x)
0),
may
no
alteration in the
number
The
tween 12.
and
There
is
oo
and
6.
 6*3 
8*
0.
We find
As/f#)
is
may
cease.
{1, 0},
{1, 2).
210
In certain
cases,
function, some
owing
real), all
must
all
when x  
In order that
of an
th
degree should be real, the leading coefficients of
equation of the n
all
1,
must
be positive.
EXAMPLES.
1.
=
Ans.
uc
>
0.
should be
When
which
bz
all real
<?
and unequal.
this cubic has its roots all real, it is evident that the general cubic
from
derived (Art. 36) has also its roots all real ; so that in investigating the
conditions for the reality of the roots of a cubic in general, it is sufficient to discui/
the form here written.
it is
We find
/iW =
22
4
//,
(z)
2
positive factor 2.Zr .]
and GP +
viz.,
G2
f
4J5T 3 negative.
211
We find
0.
GHz* 4 4Gz + a 2 /  35" 2
=  ZHz* ZGz (a2 /  3JT 1 ),
=  (2J7J 3a/)z  GI,
I
2 (z)
f (z)
/ (*)/27/
s
2
.
by
difficulty
Before dividing /i by/z, multiply by the positive factor 3.S" 2 and when the remainder is found, remove the positive factor a 2 . Before dividing^ by^g, multiply
;
(2HI
3aJ)
2
;
is
down
can write
negative,
2III  3aJ
negative,
J 3  27 J
positive.
is
when
is negative and A positive, the further con2HI 3aJ negative implies the condition 3Jr 12J9r2
prove that
dition
it
a 2!  12 H~
we
H and
when
necessarily negative.
observe that when aj is positive
I is
when aj
since
positive
is
And
is
2HI 
2HI
3aJ
is still
negative
3a J
is
negative,
positive ; and
negative, since the
negative
2HI exceeds the positive part  3aJ, as may be
2
2
shown
readily
by the aid of the inequalities 12H > a / and
8
>
/
27J*.
negative part
212
EXAMPLES.
1.
**
16*3
69* a
70*
42
0.
Ant. Boots in intervals {1, 0}, {2, 3}, {4, 6), {9, 10}.
2.
6*
0.
In analysing a biquadratic of this nature which has clearly two real roots, when
a Sturmian remainder is reached whose leading coefficient is negative, the calculation
may
may
Two
roots imaginary
Ans.
3.
Two
Ans.
roots imaginary
21
2,
+ 3* 3
&
3*
11
0.
all
imaginary.
Find, by Sturm's method, the number and positions of the real roots of the
equation
x*
Ant. Boots
all real
{1,
6.
0.
Ans. Boots
5.
0},
 6* 
4.
{1,
0}
10*3
one
63
o.
{0,
},
3,
Calculate Sturm* s functions for the following equation, and show that
4}.
all
the
5xl  0.
7.
show that
four'
5*3
0.
This and the preceding example are instances in which, as the student will
common to two f Sturm's remainders which are not
consecutive.
8. Calculate
clusioni of
Ex.
23, p. 104,
x6
bpx*
+ 6>2* f
1q
= 0.
213
Examples.
Prove that, if *
I.
lias
3
<?
2*
f
10.
ip3
are
and solve
all real,
it
a2
when two
02)
2flfo
of the quantities
a, b, c
become equal.
II.
/(*)
has a triple factor,
it
may
a 3/(ar)3
12. Verify,
filled
when the
by means
ax*
4bx*
6<?s*
+ idx 4
ax
+ V^lf} 3
b 3V^lf}.
{ax +
example
which mustbe
ful
is
in that case
a\f(x)= {{ax
b)
+3H}
2
.
'
1 3.
imaginary
ooufficients
/ are
all
and that under the same conditions the quintic written with binomial
has only one real root.
(MR. M. ROBERTS, Dublin Exam. Papers, 1862.)
original
Stunnians; and
if
equation
a function be reached
may be
discussed in a similar
manner.
are real, prove that all the roots of
17. If all the roots of any equation f(x] =
every one of Sturm's auxiliary functions aie also real.
This can be established by reasoning similar to that of Art. 96. Consider the
jfef* remainder
This and the m functions which follow
jfo, and let its degree be m.
constitute
series of
There
are, therefore,
m changes
of sign to be lost as
oo
=
oo
x passes from 
When
f
oo
through a root of
Since a value of x which causes any of the functions to vanish gives opposite
signs to thje two adjacent functions, it is easily inferred that any equation of the
series is
it.
214
18. If the real roots of any one, /(), of the Sturmian auxiliary functions be
known, prove that the number and positions of the roots of the original equation
may be determined without the aid of the functions below fm(x}Let the real roots, in order of magnitude, of/m (#) =
the
.
be a,
TJ, 9
,
fm (x) may be
disregarded.
greater than
to one a
The same
little less
than
iy
and similarly
for the
little
remaining intervals.
{a, f oo },
19. If any one of Sturm's auxiliary functions has imaginary roots, the original
(Mil. F. PURSER.)
equation has at least an equal number of imaginary roots.
This can be inferred from the preceding example by examining the greatest
possible number of changes which can be lost in the series terminating with fm (x),
oo to f oo
remembering that, so far as the limited
during the passage of x from
series is concerned, a change of sign may be gained on the passage through each
;
rcul root of
fm (x) =
0.
20.
/(a)
aar'f
/*(*)
7?i
The
and
E
(0, 1).
of x in
8.1
f
4 14*
Ox*
29/
7* ^
78jf
10*+
f
1,
10,
14.
The equation
4a
98.
=
=
E\ is negative.
functions above written are sufficient to determine the existence and situations of
roots in the intervals (00,
3)
and (2,
0).
of the last
sary to
know
and
it
way the
it is
two
real
calculation
not neces
the actual roots of the quadratic function, but only the intervals in
situated.
CHAPTER XL
SOLUTION OF NUMERICAL KQUATIONS.
There
Algebraical and Numerical liquations.
an essential distinction between the solutions of algebraical
and numerical equations. In the former the result is a general
formula of a purely symbolical character, which, being the general
101.
is
signs J,
roots of
by the radical
become practicable and when the square and cube
these symmetric functions are extracted, the whole
*J
imaginary quantities.
In the case of numerical equations the roots are determined
separately by the methods we are about to explain and, before
;
The
root.
mensurajble or inoompiawirable
integers, fractions,
may
be either cpwr
216
The
decimals.
Theorem.
102.
term
first
is
unity,
An
and
For,
a fraction in
its
is
not a whole
lowest terms, be
n ~*
+ ....+
p x
2
p^x
+ pn 
we have then
Now
an
not divisible by
is
is
an
b,
w~l
we
obtain
integer.
Hence
We have,
therefore, a frac
an integer, which
The
is
impossible.
real roots of
numbers
(Art. 31)
so that in this
217
We proceed to
103.
Suppose h
an
to be
+ .... + an .ix + a n =
Let the quotient, when the polynomial
in which J
0.
(1)
divided by x 
is
#1,
flo
fln2
be
A,
b 0y
bi
cii
= b n _ t  A6 n _3,
fl
 hb
n _!
ai
b2
 hb l9 ....
= &_!  A^ n ,
=  hb ni*
sum
again divisible
by
A,
and the
se
we perform
satisfy the
step,
and a
equation.
Those which
a
equal to
at
any
When
the coefficient a
1,
the
are
If a be
218
not =
1,
tion as
it
to unity.
we
Divisors,
manner
~/^n2
The
first
//^3
~//i,
'hi,
b^}
is
obtained
by
When we succeed in
The numbers
divisors of #m
and 
It is
is
a root.
219
Examples.
EXAMPLES.
1.
By grouping
roots lie
and
f
5.
commence with
The operation
we
a root
24
2,
2,
is
a root
all
the
4.
3,
2
38
13
6
32
5
number
is
38
13
2
8
10
1
1
30
3
3
0;
coefficients of the
integer, 2,
we make
use, as
810
3
1
62
hence 2 also
0.
 5
stops here, for since
is
+ 38* 
13*'
24
hence 3
The
3,
24
We
between
4,
WQ
2*3
0;
431
6;
hence  2
is
it
is
it
4.
[We might at once have struck out 3 as not being a divisor of the absolute
term 8 of the, reduced polynomial. This remark will often be of use in ^^^inhing
the
number
of divisors.]
220
4.
1
Thus  4 is a root.
The equation has, therefore, the integer
roots 3, 2,
and the
last stage of
the operation shows that when the original polynomial is divided by the binomials,
x  3, x
Hence the original
1 ; so that 1 is also a root.
2, x + 4, the result is a?
is
polynomial
2.
equivalent to
roots of
3**
The
 23* 3
1
and
35**
+ 31* 
30
0.
we have
hence
2, 3, 5, 6.
is
30
hence 3
The
is
is
For
a root.
a root
quotient,
3523
31
hence 6
not a root.
25
40
16
we have
6
8
1
3
3
9
when
83
0;
0;
is
not a root.
divided by (x
is
5) (x
3), is,
from
3*2
of this 1 is not a root,
The
1 is
+ *2;
a root.
Hence
all
1, 3, 5.
an integer,
3.
and 
is
Find
is .
It is a
commensurable root
all
+ *  2*2 + 4* 
24
0.
4, 3.
^^
Ant. Rooti
 S,
2,
Vf.
Method of Limiting
4.
Find
all
roots lie
 2* 
between  6 and
We find that
is
Number of Divisors.
221
The
the
hence 2
2, 3,
is
19*2 + 68*  60
0.
6.
5 are roots,
a douhle root.
The polynomial
(*2)( 3) (* +
is
left after
therefore equivalent to
).
105.
It
is
possible of course to
whether any of the divisors of a n are roots of the proposed equation ; but Newton's method has the advantage, as the aboveexamples show, that some of the divisors are rejected after very
little labour.
It has a further advantage which will now be
the number of divisors of a n within the limits
When
explained.
is important to be able, before proceeding
with the application of the method in detail, to diminish the
number of these divisors which need be tested. This can be
done as follows
If h
and the
is
0,
f(x)
by x h,
was above
divisible
is
We
h must be an integer.
take, for convenience,
the simplest integers 1 and  1 ; and, before testing any divisor h,
we subject it to the condition that /(I) must be divisible by
ing value of x
must
222
EXAMPLES.
**
1.
The
between
roots lie
We have the
4,
281a?2
257*
440 
0.
and 24.
10,
8,
6,
11,
22.
20,
easily find
=840,
/(I)
We
+ 160*8 
following divisors
2,
We
23ar*
/(I) =648.
and
when diminished by
1,
do
The first
not divide 840; and which, when increased by 1, do not divide 648.
condition excludes 10 and 20, and the second 4 and 22.
Applying the Method of
Divisois to the remaining integers 2, 6, 8, 11, we find that 5, 8, and 11 are roots,
Hence the given polynomial is equiand that the resulting quotient is x 2 + x + 1
.
valent to
(*
J3 
2.
The
/(I)
f(
=0;
i)
We
as
 2,
so
124
1 is
(*
6)
29.i
between
roots lie
Divisors
8)
(*
11) (*
+ *+!).
0.
and 32.
a root.
is
and 30 are
equivalent to
roots,
(x
all
(x
2
30) (x + 2) (# f
106.
2, 3, 30.
final quotient is
t2 +
1.
1).
The Method
found to be a root is a divisor of the absolute term of the reduced polynomial, we must proceed to try whether it is also a
root of the latter, in which case it will be a double root of the
is
so on.
*
one multiple root, r times repeated, it can be found in this
way
for the common measure of f(x) and f(x) will then be of the
form
(x
1*" 1
a)
mensurable
if
and the
a were incommensurable.
not be con*
223
The Cubic.
In
is
In
The Biquadratic.
is
For the
a perfect square.
being repeated
is
(x
a)' (,r
/3,.',
i'ect
incommensurable
The
it
has equa^
roots.
Qidntic.
In the
cannot be incommensurable
but the
former
may
surable roots,
it
If
it
be found to
among
224
EXAMPLES.
Find
1.
all
31*2 +
2*3
The
roots lie
between the
therefore a root.
is
The
1, 16.
Proceed
0.
divisors are 2, 4, 8.
31
15
2
120
16
112
64
limits
112* + 64
now with
8
0;
16
2
 16
8
is
is
2#
f 1
Am. /(*).(2*+l)(*8)'.
Find the commensurable and multiple roots of
2.
xi
The
roots lie
30^2
limits,
6,
12.
between the
x*
76a
56
0.
Ant.
f(x)
(x
2}^ (x
7).
3.
40*
10
f
0.
Limits
We
to (x~
12#
x* llx
120a?
f
f
15.
find
following
4.
6,
9) (x
4)
The
12*
f
32*  24s
m 0.
225
1.
The only divisors to he tested are, therefore,
has no commensurable root.
the
proequation
2,
4,
This can be done by
ceed to try whether the given function is a perfect square.
find
extracting the square root, or by applying the conditions of Ex. 3, p. 125.
The
roots lie
We
We find that
1.
We
that
it is
has two
6.
roots of
8* 2 +
The
We find
that
3
is
The only
is
4, 4.
4* 3 + 8*
no other commensurable
f
(x*
/(*)
8**
~2*
2)*(* +
An*.
In general
The
it
is
13**
f
obvious that
h as a factor,
67**
if
here
800**
this
f(x)m
18
(*
0.
+ l)(*2) (*3) a
find
+ 210*  108 =
them
0.
22
33 .
Hence,
and h
if
x+
102**
neither
3.
The equation
In
+ 21* 
this
3).
different roots
171*'
when
roots of
22* 3  26*
f
therefore,
is,
It is
/(*)
ficient.
0,
root.
must contain
h 3 must be a
7.
12=0.
282:
&
6.
is
nor
1 is
a root,
easily verified.
example
it
i*w5aikyenient to
Ant.
/(*)(10*8)(6l)(4*+l).
The method
of approximation,
commonly
ascribed to Newton,*
at the
is
valuable as
226
in a
known
/ (a +
h)
or
*+
A +
first
is
By
t6
any
/w
The
found to
cannot
lie
and 3 (Ex.
between 2 and
differ
2'2.
1,
Art. 96).
We take 2'1
f
Narrowing the
easily
.
f'(a)
f'(2l)
limits,
the root
1123
00543
0*1.
by a.
We
if
It
find
flrtt
approximation
is,
therefore,
2
Taking
this as 4,
227
1000643 20946.
we obtain
and calculating the
fraction"^,
r = 209466148'
/
and
I*)
so on.
it,
the fraction
is,
in general, rapid.
is
accompanied by
r is
not necessarily
small, since the value of either of the nearly equal roots reduces
case of this kind requires special
f(x) to a small quantity.
tions.
By
this
The
root
is
evolved figure
number of places required if it be incommensurable. The process is similar to the known processes of extraction of the square
and cube
which
root,
equations.
The main
is
the suo
by known
manner explained in Art. 33.
The great
the method is, that the successive transformations
quantities, in the
advantage of
roots
by simple examples.
will
be
In the
228
some additional
explained.
1.
The
first step,
flrtt figure of
 85s 2  85* 
87
0.
the root.
We now
and 10.
between
It is
found by
trial to lie
between 3 and
4.
will
We
now
diminish
the roots of the transformed equation by 3 ; so that the roots of the proposed equation will be diminished by 43.
The second transformed equation will have one xoot
and
between
that
its
1.
On
absolute term
IB
is
its
The
We
(43*
173
1
174
The broken lines mark the conclusion of eacri transformation, and the figures in
dark type are the coefficients of the successive transformed equations (see Art. 33).
Thus
2* 8 + 165* 2
+ 2716*  11487
229
Example*.
b the equation whose roots are each less by 40 than the roots of the given equation,
and whose positive root is found to lie between 3 and 4. If the second transformed
equation had not an exact root *5 but one, we shall suppose, between '6 and 6, the
;
5
by
and so on.
Find the positive root of the equation
2.
31*
276
0.
We first write down the arithmetical work, and proceed to make certain observation*
On
it
31
276
66
210
35
24
35
210
65
61392
245
13608
13608
1196
25696
1212
26908
308
272*16
614
2
616
first
g*
The
two
Dimmish
root
the roots
by
between 6 and
6.
1.
The equation
+ 59s + 246*  66
and
1.
It is
found by
trial to lie
between
*2
and 3.
figures
of
This can
When
of the figure in the second column, three to the right of that in the third and so on,
Lf there be more columns (as there will of course be in equations of a degree higher
;
The
The
root becomes
*..., and
230
the process
is
To
continued as before.
In
all
illustrate this
we
adopted:
(626
6160
3.
20z
The
7
ab
'
equation
When
 121*  HI =
121*'
between
and
7,
8.
0.
It
is,
therefore, of the
and multiplied by
form
is
0.
The positive root of this is a I . . and aR the root clearly lies between and 1,
therefore place zero as the first figure in the decimal part of
we have a = 0.
the root, and multiply the roots again by 10, before proceeding to the second trans.
We
formation.
Am.
706.
When
the calculation
is of greater
length, if it
the
successive
were necessary to find
figures by substitution, the
labour of the process would be very great. This, however, is
early stage.
is
now be
explained.
The
first)
itself suggests
principle of
231
109.
We have seen
in
Now
the
h is obtained by dividing /(a) by f(a}.
successive transformed equations in Uorner's process are the
results of transformations of this kind, the last coefficient being
cal value of
f(a),
last
f(a)
or three steps have been completed, so that the part of the root
remaining bears a small ratio to the part already evolved, we
may expect to be furnished with two or three more figures of the
root correctly
fore, if
we
Newton's
last
transformed equation.
In liorner's method
number
In
2690800.
is
this
correctly suggested
by the
terms becomes
less
and
less
as
the
evolution
of
the root
proceeds.
EXAMPLES.
1.
I
a;
4
x  100
and proceed
to
make
observations on
between 4 and
it
6.
We write
232
(42644
13792
First diminish the roots
by
As the decimal
4.
part is
now
about to appear,
The figure to
that the trial divisor will give a good indication of the next figure.
he adopted in every case as part of the root is that highett number which in th* pro
cm
Here 2
of transformation will not change the sign if the absolute Urm.
In diminishing by 2 the roots of the transformed equation
if
tilt
proper figure.
**
ISO*2
its
become
+ 6700* 
sign ( 4072).
positive, the
We must take
16000 
0,
we had
II
first
transformation (the
reason of this restriction will appear in the next example), the absolute term preserves its sign throughout the operation.
If we were to take by mistake a number
233
Examples.
and
this will
show
itself in
it is
the work
The equation
10644
**
by the change
and 2
234
the root.
The
fifth
transformation that 9
is
trialdivisor
We
has
We have to
tion.
determine what
the equation
few
& + 80*3 4
show that
trials
subsequent
trials
we
is
HOD* 2  3000*
 60000
of
0.
Hence the
number of which we are in search. In the
numbers 3, 6, 9, in succession, which allow
and 6
is
the
we
that
result, 4
1,
and
there
is
6.
In
all
subsequent transfonnations,
we keep helow
the root, the sign of the absolute term must be the same
This supposes of course that no
as the sign resulting from the substitution of 1.
This supposition we have
rout lies between 1 and that of which we are in search.
so long as
already
made
When two
roots exist
one of them
lies
between
i.e.
when
the equation has a pair of roots nearly equal, certain precautions must be observed
which will form the subject of a subsequent Article.
3.
places.
Commence by multiplying by
1,
40,
400,
The
10.
and
to
four decimal
11000,
40000;
10000
0,
Ans. 9'886.
110.
Contraction of
235
Hornets Process.
Contraction of
Homer s
Process.
In the
ordi
divisor, so that
number
depending on the number of figures it conresulting quotient will differ from the true quotient
In
figure only, or at most in the last two figures.
of steps
The
tains.
in the last
liorner's contracted
which are
is
the same.
We
effective in contributing to
way
The
In addition
to the contraction
now
much importance
method
to
is
complete without
it.
236
EXAMPLES.
Find the root between
1.
last Artiolk
Assuming the
Example
referred to,
we
shall
work stands
as follows
26165788
18936
17649439
16213090
(1
63691367ft
3156
3162
6
255733
285
9161
2560181
76SO
1471
12SO
191
179
12
Here the
last coefficient, 14
altogether the
by 6 as
if
first coefficient
the coefficients
of a cubic equation.
1,
last,
of the biquadratic.
We proceed to
 17649439 which
3150, 2516578,
After the diminution by 6 has been completed, we cut off again in the transformed
cubic 7 from the last coefficient but one, 68 from the last but two, and the first
minates, the
two
QJ^
number
to
figures.
carried before the contracted process is
places required
*A th* 1nft
may be depended p" "p
which the evolution of the root must b*
The extent
three
Find
to
 12*
which
lies
between 2 and
3.
237
Examples.
ThJ* equation can have only two positive roots  one lies between
and 1, and
For the evolution of the latter we have the following
the other between 2 and 3.
:
223180
BUJS
On
this
we remark,
by
2,
"go
lies
between
nod
1.
Ans. 693685829.
4.
 67613* 3761*2758=0.
When the coefficients of the proposed equation contain decimal points, it will
be found that they soon disappear in the work in consequence of the successive
multiplications by 10 after the decimal part of the root begin* to apponr.
Ann. 111973222.
6.
**12* 2 +12'
8 =
When
And
it is
Ant.
39073735.
238
Ex.
Horner's method
it
7,
is
By
more labour
than
is
under consideration
the
till
first
EXAMPLES.
I
The equation
*3
and 2
lx + 7
(see Ex.
Art. 96)
2,
find
decimal places.
by
we
1,
10), viz.
x * + 30*2 _ 400*
must have two
3
and
4,
roots
between
and
1000
0,
10.
7.
The
roots are
now
lie,
one between
separated,
and we
proceed with each separately in the manner already explained. If the roots were
not separated at this stage, we should find the leading figure common to the two,
and, having diminished the roots by it, find in what intervals the roots of the
resulting equation were situated
2.
and so on.
Am.
135689584,
169202147.
lie
We
239
Examples.
f
(232131277
206^91
The diminution
is
sent concerned.
of the roots
The
roots
exists
a^ 1U
~ 102*+
181
we have
The
substitution of each of
to guide us^in our search for the proper figure as in former cases, viz. a change of
have, however, a different criterion which enables
sign in the absolute term.
We
240
us to find
4 23a
x*
lie
f
34a?4
between
and
we
we
If
4.
diminish
root* lie
by
4,
of sign.
two
4.
They are, therefore, not
The next transformed equation
200s*
If
tie.
we
between 3 and
4
root
roots
its
number
proceed to diminish by 3.
&
is
181
ind
102*
11**
yet separated;
 900# 4 1000
roots
its
between 2 and 3
the diminution by
2 leaving two changes of sign in the coefficients of the transformed equation (as in
So far, then,
the above work), and the diminution by 3 giving all positive signs.
diminish again by 2.
the two roots agree in their first three figures, viz. 23*2.
We
and 2
and 3
2060jr2
 8800* 4 1261000 =
The
roots are
now
its
We
proceed, as
the above work, to approximate to the lesser root, by diminishing the roots of this
To approxithe trial divisor becoming effective at the next step.
equation by 1
mate to the greater root, we must diminish by 2 the roots of the same equation,
;
separated.
in
taking care that in the subsequent operations the negative sign, to which the preThe second
viously positive sign of the absolute term now changes, is preserved.
root will be found to be 232295212.
So long
as the
two
may be obtained by
2e
them
o
is
2x
is
suggested by
181
;
10 'Z
or.b
Thus, in the
lrt ,2x
1000
.
900
In this way we can generally, at the first attempt, find the two integers between
which the pair of roots lies. We shall have also an indication of the separation of
the roots by observing when the numbers suggested in this way by the last three
coefficients
3.
become
different,
i.e.
when
2c
suggests a different
number from
Calculate to three decimal places eacli of the loots lying between 4 and 6 of
the equation
at 4 8# 3
70x*
144*
4 936 =
0.
Am.
4.
2a
4*242
4246.
692s 2
4 649*
.
1446
Am. The
0.
2125.
241
Here we
find that the two roots are not separated at the third decimal place.
diminish by 5, the absolute term vanishes, showing that 2*125 is a
and proceeding with this diminution the second last coefficient also vanishes.
When we
root
Hence 2125
is
a double root.
When
Lagrange
has given a method of expressing the root of a numerical equaAs this method is, for
tion in the form of a continued fraction.
practical purposes,
much
inferior to that of
Homer, we
shall
it.
Let the equation f(x) = have one root, and only one root,
between the two consecutive integers a and a + 1. Substitute
a +  for x in the proposed equation.
in y has one positive root.
lie
in
y by the substitution y 
The
.
found by trial to lie between c and c+ 1. Continuing this process, an approximation to the root is obtained
in the form of a continued fraction, as follows
equation in
z is
a + r1
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find
in the
*  2*  6 =
The
between 2 and
3.
the transformation
root lies
To make
We
,
we
then find
diminishing jthe roots by 2.
reciprocals of the roots of the transformed.
0.
first
242
The equation
in
is
way found
in this
10v
to
be
 6y 
0.
Make now
the substitution
The equation
in z
y=
and
94*'
20*
Take
2.
0.
.
f
+ 25w 2  89w 
and 2
61
0,
and so on.
10
2.
.
is
54
We
is
61* 3
The equation
10
6a?
13
0.
Ant. 3
113.
II i quadra tie.
It is
by the methods of the present chapter, there are cerwhich it is convenient to employ the methods
When a
of Chap. VI. for the resolution of the biquadratic.
leads
a
^cubic
to
which
has a
reducing
biquadratic equation
effected
tain cases in
commensurable
which
will usually be
243
Examples.
EXAMPLES.
Resolve the quartio
I.
a*
6**
3* 2
4
+ 22*  6
we
easily obtain
p+p'S, q+4+lpp'=Z,
pq'+p'q =
Making
also
/ and
/,
q qf
6,
+ <fl)\
*=\pp'^\(q
and, calculating
\\,
<p is
* T * 226
T *
Ill
we
4,
*
By
these,
0.
is easily
PP'
t,
450
lilt
From
if 4^>
have,
'
2,
 
j/
1,
hence
5.
we
get
= 
6.
p  
1,
?'
Whn
the values of q and #'are found, the equation giving the value of p<f I p'q
determines which value of q goes with p 9 and which with p\ in the quadratic
The
factors.
quartic
is
in
of the other
we caa resolve
we can do the same
two values of
or
<f>
The equation
for
<f>
x*
is
12* 2
+ 60* +
63.
is
4^ which
8a^
195<j>
 475 
0,
6.
Ans. f(x)
R2
(*
 2* 
2
3)(a;
6*
21).
244
3.
20*fl.
The reducing cubic
found to be
is
217
_
or, multiplying the roots
by
8186
6,
661* +3186 m
4* 3
0,
hence
<t>
s
o
^4n*.
ss
./"(a?)
(r
4* 4
2)(ar
4ar
3).
m x4 
6ar
 $x z + 66*  22.
is
40 _
___
^_
hence
=
~2*
^w*. f(x)
(jr
 11)(^  6* +
2).
f(x)
x*
 8s8 + 2U2
 26* + 14.
4w*. f(x)
6.
ss
2*
(a?

2)(**
 6* +
7)
^*.
7.
(*
a;V6
+ 3+
V<J)(*
+ 3
 V6).
 J5) 
3\/7}.
*\/6
 8z 3 
Ans. {*
12#
(see
+ 84*  63 *
Ex.
0,
18, p. 34),
2#(2 + V/7)
f
3 v/7}
{ic
2dr(2
245
Miscellaneous Examples
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
1.
 6* 
x*
13
0.
^lw. 3176814393.
2.
 2* 
4J. 2094561483.
The equation
2*  6608*3 + 6*  1627
find
it.
4.
+ 1896*  457 =
4J 3  180# 2
0.
Ans. 2862127738.
6.
Find
x*
between 2 and
+ ess* _
49*2
3 of the equation
1379 ^0.
Ans. 2557351.
6.
Find to
3 =
**  12.r 2 ^ 12*
0.
Ans. 2*868053.
7.
of the
equation
Ans. 8766.
Ant. 14.
10.
Find
all
JF
The equation
x*
x*
0,
3*
I
0.
Am. The
187988,
Find
all
is
1, 0.
To
16320*.
divide a hemi
(See Ex.
034729,
100.)
**
 2* 
 0.
Ans.  1*80194,
0*44604,
1*24698.
246
12.
Find
between
and
(see
Ex.
3,
a*
#*
 4*8  3*2 4 3*
I
0.
Am. 3.
0*28468.
**
We find
that there
is
The deprtM
found to be 78.
0.
By
two
d equation furnishes
Horner'a process
it IB
by
Am.
14
78,
347,
11727*4 40386 =
0.
An*. 346692,
is
110.
x* 
This equation
given by
Mr
214S067.
riseom Spheroid, and on the Remote History of the Earth. Phil. Trans., Part ii.
The roots are " the two values of the cube root of the earth's rota1879, p. 608.
T
tion for
1
all
rigid
body."
20**  24*' + 3
Am.
0.
031469,
044608,
1*06866.
Towneend'e
al its
 9* 
10
0.
An*. 086906.
The equations
17.
in the investigation of
of this
questions relative to
0.
Am.
18.
091*36.
0.
Am.
06486068038.
247
Miscellaneous Examples.
19.
Find
all
x6
/(*)
2.r
0,
Ant. f(x)
(x*
+ x+
3) (*
4)
(*
7).
f(x]
mx*~
32.t*
116s 8
<4fi.
21.
should have
its roots
16* 2
115a?
/(*)
(a;
1) (*
84
be positive,
When
when
has
[f(x)Y
3) (9
HI +
ZaJ
3,
28).
Art. 99.
positive.
(since then
/ must
prove
Gl
a *^
f(x)
(*
1)
JET
4
identity o Art. 37).
by the
when
is fulfilled
0.
thai,
imaginary.
Ant.
This condition
has
all its
all
its
roots imaginary.
a.
The
AJ?
A'a.**"
f
aV 2
two imaginary
at least
two
roots
consct utive
but
aH the
roots of
two
/(a?)
Am.
ax*
bx*
JKi
a
Jfc
a Ax* + BX+
2a,r
;i
3for
ex
+ d=
cx
0.
6rf,
C,
where
B&
5Qa ft 
SaH ~ 60^,
4
A  75M.
of the third
Retaining this notation, it is easy to calculate the coefficients D,
remainder
Dx I in terms oi a, b, ct tl, A, , C; and, finally, 4 in termt
3
of A, $ t j; D, ^.
248
Remove
27.
coefficients,
the second term from the general quintic written with binomial
coefficients of the first two of Sturm'i
an equation of the
n*h degree
* + ax*~*
No
coefficients
for
bx*~*
c*"4
f
&c.
we
readily find
J
29.
g1
s ~
s 
Remove
with binomial
2'/.r
 3kr 3
2;
u'
4r*'<
bnac
f
9^
&c.
2
{
/?"
&c.
the second term from the general equation of the n* h degree * ritten
and prove that tlie leading coefficients oi the first two
coefficients,
 H,
nHI+
l<
n  2) o/.
These expressions are easily derived from the preceding example by aid of the
transformation of Art. 35 the values of ^2, ^3, ^i being given by the equations
;
G* being replaced by
its
omitted.
30. Calculate Sturm's functions for Euler's cubic (see Art. 61).
We find,
after
positive factors,
s 21* f
All the conditions of Art. 68, with respect to the nature of the roots of the
may be derived from these results, by the aid of Ex. 4, p. 125. And
will be observed that the conditions for reality of all the roots as given in
biquadratic,
it
Art 100, as well as in the Article already referred to, are both obtained here
together ; for, in order that Euler's cubic should have all its roots real and positive,
the substitution of
for
2JET/
a;
 307
sign,
and
CHAPTER
XII.
of the occurrence
among
quantities of the
form a +
Such an expression,
the square root of a negative number.
consisting of a positive or negative real units, and b positive or
negative imaginary units, is called a complex number (see Art.
The imaginary
J
15
!.
unit
of
We
explain a
proceed to
* 
t*
mode
will
1.
of representing
complex
The
expression a + ib
/u
may
(cos
a +
sin a),
where

u =
The quantity
amplitude, of the
la
+ 6%
/u is
cos a
MM
a
= ,
sin a
b
= 
TT.
250
the
OT
X OA =
We
=
IUL
11
such
a,
7) be taken,
and a
//.
OM
have then
cos a = a, and
sin o
(fig.
that
OA =
and
Complex Variable.
AM
=6.
The
if
expression f ib may
therefore be represen ted graphically by
~~
fo
j
lg "
XOA
vanishes (that
is,
when
and
modulus
are equal
h
multiple of
Jii
what follows we
of a
mod.
Complex
IV
ib
OA
OA
',
f
(a
amp.
ib},
(a
ib).
umber*.
ib'
be represented by the
so that
= mod.
We proceed
modulus
by the notation
by
~TT.
and amplitude
115.
differ
(a'
ib'),
XOA
to determine the
a +
ib
mode
+ a +
ib'.
 amp.
(a
4 iV).
of representing the
sum
and
Multiplication
Writing
sum
this
in the
251
Division.
form a +
a'
(b
6'),
we
observe,
it
will be
AB
a\
BP
are equal to
and equal to OA' since AP,
the required point, and we have
 mod. \a + a' + i (b + V) J, JTOft = w/>. {a + *' + (6 + *')J
parallel
b',
OB
is
them
and, at
we draw
therefore,
its
OA
to
AB to
represent
equal to the modulus,
and the angle it makes with
equal to the amplitude, of
the second)
then OB represents the sum of the two complex
is,
so that its
extremity,
is
length
OX
numbers.
OB
Since
is
OA
f
AB,
to]
it
is less
follows that
tin
may be extended to
the addition
+
OA\ UA'\
we may conclude
in general
quantities
is less
OA
OL
OA
and OA'
will represent the difrepresents the sum of
To subtract two complex numbers,
ference of OB and OA'.
^
OX
We
extremity of this line to find the right line which represents the
difference of the two given complex numbers.
116. Multiplication
and
t*6,
a),
Division.
+
a'
ib',
we
ib'
write
To multiply
them
j/ (cos a'
in the
4 1
the
form
sin a')
252
We
have then, by
De
ib'}
(a
ib) (of
the
Complex Variable.
Moivre's theorem,
{cos (a
JJLJJL
+ a)
sin (a
4 i
is
(he product
of
a') },
numbers
is
a com
and
product of
all the
To
all
amplitudes.
divide a + ib by a' +
w
a +
ib
we have
,
cos (a  a +
fuL
= 
7
il/ 9
sum
of
similarly
.
the
is
sin
 a, )},
f
JJL
which proves that the quotient of two complex numbers is a complfx number, whose modulus is the quotient of the two moduli, and
whose amplitude
It
the difference
is
when a product
of
all
that the
117.
From
any
a zn + a i*11
whose
coefficients are
"1
rtjss"*
f
complex (including
real)
nvmbers, a
The Complex
complex quantity a +
ib
253
Variable.
be substituted for
*,
+ ill.
expressed in the standard form
It is not proposed in the present chapter to discuss any
functions of complex numbers beyond the rational integral
function of the kind hitherto treated in this work.
It
is
easy,
118. Tlie
Complex Variable.
the present work the variation of a polynomial was studied corresponding to the passage of the variable through real values
numbers
cients are
f(z)
we may study
of
s,
where
both take
a Q z n + di% n 1 +
its
r/ 2
n "2
,_!*
f
an
z has the
principles of Art.
114 we
may
0.
In accordance
witli the
OP
to
(fig. 8) drawn from a fixed origin
the point whose coordinates are x, y.
Or we may say, x + iy is
Thus all possible values of x + iy
represented by the point P.
x +
iy
by the
line
will be represented
254
a plane.
in
We
variation of x +
conceive the
iy to take place
for
continuous manner;
example, by
Complex Variable.
We
representation
x + iy itself.
in
the
along a curve. If OP
and OP' represent two consecupoint
x, y>
we
sin 0},
z'
Fig.
myf +
?>/
8.
/ (cos 0' +
sin 9').
OP
OP'
//
may
it
A,
sn
where p = PP', and $
The
OP
/>
(cos
returns to
its
P'OP
When
original value
point O is exterior to the curve, or
;
is
is
increased
by
2ir if
is
If the complex variable describes the same line in two opposite directions, the variations of its amplitude are equal and of
From this we
is nothing.
opposite signs, i.e. the total variation
can derive a property of the variation of the amplitude of the
in our
complex variable, which will be found of importance
succeeding investigations.
Let a plane area be divided into any number of parts by lines
the amplitude
JBD, AF, EC, &c. (fig. 9) ; then the variation of
is
to
oj*its variations relatively
all
when

to describe all
the same
in
areas
sense,
Fig. 9.
in opposite directions
AFD in
the figure.
When
the point describes these areas in the sense indicated by the
vanishes.
arrows, the total variation relatively to the line
ABF,
AF
119.
Continuity of a
Variable.
fixed value s
Function of the
Complex.
we have
/(*) = /(*
A)
/()
/'( Sc) )
h +
+
'J^A'
1
.
coefficients of the
by
z in
&o.,
/o
//)
/(c
),
is
powers of h are
all
and
since,
sum
of the moduli,
of/()
is less
it
of a
4
is less
than the
than
ap
sum
1
bp* op + &o.
256
Now
the
Complex Variable.
may
(viz.
the
itself.
Variation of the Amplitude of /() corresponding to tbe description of a small Closed Carve by the
Complex. War i able. Corresponding to a continuous series of
values of z we have a continuous series of values of /(*), which
120.
* itself,
by points
in a
0'
Fig. 10.
position.
Let
Variation of Amplitude
</o>
oases
*
*o
#b
We
*y<>.
ofj(z\
257
fyc.
When
(1).
iy* is
f
different
is
(2).
When
x +
from
0,
1.0.
when/(a
zero.
i^ is a root of /(a)
0, or
/(s
0.
In the
AP'
represents the increment of /(a) corresponding to the increment ^4P of a. By (he previous Article
it
appears that values so small may be assigned to p, that the
represent /(a)
modulus
then
namely
A'F may be
always
than the assigned quantity 0'A\ hence P may be supposed
describe round A a closed curve so small that the correspond,
less
to
It
of
a small closed curve, which does not contain a point satisfying the
equation f(z)
0,
is
nothing.
(2).
In the second
=
equation /(a)
suppose
case,
repeated
ir
times, and
H
is
///
a root of the
let
/()(*s,,r^(*);
then
/(a)
= h m iL(z} = p w
*
(cos mty
f
and when
P describes
a closed curve
amp.
f (a)
m$
+ amp.
i//
(a)
258
increment
is
nothing by
(1),
the
Complex Variable.
by P
ment
is
when
It follows that
2mir.
amplitude of f(z)
121.
is
two opposite
responding line in
0, repeated
times, the
increased by 2ni7r.
Cauchy's Theorem.
line in a plane in
its
When
describes
s
the same
It follows
that, if
% of all
is
XY
it
to the description
perimeter
is
nothing.
Suppose, in
PQRS
be
described
point.
The
variation of amp.
tion
by
z of the
variations
round
corresponding
ABCPSR, CDAltQP,
'
whole perimeter,
to
Fi
this
the
PQ21S.
is
equal to the
sum
of its
of
the
areas
description
variations
2w7r.
Similarly,
if
the
area includes
additiohal points
259
Equation.
The number of
ix
plane area,
amplitude of
this polynomial
corresponding
of
by means
are enabled
to
the perimeter
Number of Hoot*
122.
We
roots
of the area.
Let
/(*)
ft
rtis
n~l
fljs"'
# n _iS
+ an
/ (a)
we can suppose
s',
whose modulus
4
f/
 zn
<i>
it.
(V),
If,
then,
a& + a&* +
where
a n z'}
,
is
will
*,
Jesmibe a small circle containing a portion of the plane corresponding to the part outside of the circle described by z ; and
uo root of
<p
will
(z')
Hence, corresponding
the variation of
amp.
be included within
f (z')
0,
md
9 is
if
r (cos
)f
sin 9)
whole
circle
by
s,
and therefore
variation of amp. z n
or z
= r" (cos
nti
f
sin w0),
increased by
It follows
by
z, i. e.
the total
260
number
is
of roots of the
Complex Variable.
the
equation/ (z)
0, is n
proved.
may
now
to show.
123.
If
We
///
/(*o 4 *)
/'(s
),
+/()
Bj hypothesis
f'**Qj
&c.,
be/w (s
h 4
may
),
''
do
V'
Let the
so.
and
let
(cos
am 4
first
of these
us suppose
i sin
a,,,),
complex expression, we
4 A)
=/(s
may
write
261
is
easily inferred
in$ +
X'tfA' +
TT
(fig.
+ //) is to move
=
P' from 8 to a point T at a distance 8 T p and whatever the
O'T
direction of this movement, i.e. whatever the amplitude
<
that
have
.4'
We
is
since 8T< SA'.
proved, therefore,
effect of the last expression in the value of f(z Q
;
&A
>
is
other value different from zero can be the least possible value
of the modulus of /(*).
increment of/(s
to// is
ui
t
/sin en).
at a
writers
262
presents no difficulty
the
Complex Variable.
iy) be equated separately to zero, and from the two resulting equations one of the variables eliminated, an equation
is obtained from which a real value of the remaining one can
f(x +
method
that this
We
is
Articles to
a?
+ pop
qx +
may
be assumed to be
remaining
equation
sums
necessary.
I
of the even
zero, as
We
the
form
this
equation,
since
is
f
der ZahlenGleichungen,
M. E.
263
Examples.
p*
30, viz.,
/'(a)
+/'(A +
/' ( h +
also
+/'(**) =
*)
+ /' (A
A)
A)
2
jt?
3?;
whence immediately,
/'(o)
+ 4*'=jt>3 ?
f (a)
witli
very
little
labour, since
roots will
EXAMPLES.
1.
tf
First
the
calculate
real
f
positive
2#2
23#
root,
70
0.
1,
44341896.
7G609868,
17402,
Remembering that the roots have been three times multiplied by 10, we find
the values of /(a) and /"() by cutting off nine figures from the right in the former
It is well to carry
case, and six in the latter, and supplying the decimal point.
the approximation a couple of steps further by the contracted method, and thus get
a more accurate value of /'(a).
find, in this way,
We
/'(a)
Subtracting this
number from;? 2
4* 2
766286.
3#,
which
is
equal to 73,
we
find
36286.
tfcis is negative, we have proved that the remaining roots are imaginary.
the ascertained value of a, viz. 5*13457, the value of h is found immediately
Since
From
264
to
be
finally the
two complex
by
4,
and taking
its
we have
square root,
09624 v/^T.
35672
2.
;r
2#  6 
0.
 1116078;
*
hence
the former
ii>
1290195,
and the remaining two roots (thus proved imaginary) are found to be
 104727 + 113594 x/ 1
Find the remaining two roots
3.
x
We
find
/'(a)
640841,
k*
of the
x
= 
x  100
f
40646
p. 231, viz.,
0.
1652102,
26322
1.
roots are
\/^T.
Dividing by 20, ana applying Homer's process to find the root of the equa2 ^
s 15 =
1 2.r
and 1, we find a = 04460366, and
.r
lying between
tion
/'(a)
 047364.
We
4#
henre
k2
'47841,
have therefore
= pi 
3q /'(a)
144
+ 0*47364
real.
We
find
37698
and adding and subtracting &, the other roots are found to be 1*06865 and
 031469 id. Ex. 15, p. 246).
5.
&
1x + 7
0.
Change the signs of all the roots, and calculate the positive root a betweer
3 and 4 of the transformed equation f(x)
0, thus obtaining a = 30489173, and
hence k 2 = 0281575, and Jc = 1678. Also h =  1624458
/(a) = 2088737
;
f
k and h 
Jc ;
all
the roots
30489,
13666,
16922.
are sufficient to
(Of.
Ex.
1,
Art. 111.)
this
amount
may
of
work required
to decide in this
way whether
the two
265
We
extremely small.
is
proceed
now
to biquad
ratic equations.
1^5.
When
a biquadcan be solved in a
ratic equation
manner analogous
tage.
and

/*'/,
+ px*
.r
f
qx
f
rx +
0,
/3
may
sented by h + k and h 
 6/
f (a) f
(/3)
JTT
Again, we have, as
"
+ /'
is
we
find,
8
8
 4A +3p/i +
fy/i
without
difficulty,
+r
easily proved,
(h +
k)
+/' (A 
*)
= 
;>
4 4
W  8r,
and
/'(A
4
f
k)
f (h 
7c)
whence immediately

4#(4A +
p)
/'(a)
+/
(/3)
+ p s  4pj +
8r.
1
/3
4
The second
)3.
266
Complex Variable,
the
EXAMPLES.
Solve completely the equation
1.
 3*3 + 7z 2 
a,
l(te
therefore be a second,
we
which
is
found to
between
lie
0.
between
and
and
1.
There must
By Homer's process
2.
find
a
/'(a)
& =
0107767,
= 859078,
1923262,
= 1209133;
/'(/3)
whence we have
/'(a)
z
+/'() + p  4pq +
0, and^, h
a,
=
8r
19*49945.
0484485, and 4A
f
p =  1*06206;
therefore
_
~
1949946^
1OG206
It is now proved that the remaining two roots are imaginary, and their values
can be ascertained by calculating k from this formula. Logarithmic Tables will
The roots are found to be
assist in the calculation.
21424
04845
2.
&
We
 YLx
1.
0.
find
<*
a
/'(a)
059368,
= 
j8
204727,
223180;
/\/3
111635,
roots
 132048
3.
4
\/ 
v/^T
20039
13s 2
i
2,
When
=
j8
(a)
19
is
a4
G5:r 2
0, it is to
f
0.
positive,
of f(x)
10#
5#
way by
first
95
/'(a)
245733.
32409,
.
6473
Fl46?
by the
final
=  303055,
66936;
/'()
ft
whence
~ ** "
10924
negative.
0.
(ft)
y7
/'(jS),
we must
transformation
267
Solution of Biquadratic.
4. Solve the equation
There
lie
/'
(a)
and
18664,
/'
whence
1,
is
easily seen to
We find
035098,
=
0.
and a second
(jB)
=

1275644,
52867
4133
...
63785
and are
easily
348322.
All the root* of this equation have been calculated by Homer's method
by
Young (Analyst* and Solution of Cubic and Biquadratic Equations, pp. 216221).
Our last two roots agree, to the number of places here given, with the values
arrived at
hy him.
126. Solution of
Biquadratic continued
When
the
and
in general,
rr* f
qx*
+ rx +
deprived of
0.
roots of this
__
+ qi
h
r
>
57,
"/"'(*)
whence
 4*1 =
4/<
+ 2q +
is
known.
of whioft
4/i
is
a root.
When
p.
is
152, the
268
Complex Variable.
the
root
The equation
given biquadratic.
is,
by
under
Thus 4A
is
EXAMPLES.
1.
+ x + 10 =
0.
This equation
We
3
y  40y 
0,
3
and, by Horner'n process, the positive root 63370184: hence the value of A and
,
from
it
/*
We
12586.
find then
0'7945,
fy
negative sign of
is
13362
12686
2.
This example
thungen, p. 16).
is
v/^L,
4 9a?
treated
by Spitzer
The reducing cubic is
is
6tf
12686
1*1771
is
\/T.
0.
(Allyemeine
036740.
The
03674
06663
The four
V'T,
roots are
03674
+ 29706 \/^l.
269
Examples.
3.
*  2s 3 
by
7^ +
10*
HO
0.
To remoye the second term, multiply the roots by 2, and then diminish
The reducing cubic of the transformed equation is easily found to be
roots
2
3
y  68y
320y
 256 =
0.
or negatively,
it is
5, p.
4.
2236.
0732,
2236,
is
and & 2
it
is
2x
2 (compare also
208).
# 4  7a s
This example
d leichtmgen,
f
Tt 
7a 4
0.
discussed
is
To
p. 29).
then diminish by
7.
0,
is
3
3/
To
Ex.
2732,
The
in
0.
find the situation of the positive loot, it is well to divide the roots
when readily appears that the tiansformed equation lias a root between
8 =
20591, and h
By Homer's process it is found to be 2'0591 whence 4//
it
When
by
100,
2 and 3.
f 7*17.
is
1*091,
 0*042
l'033v/~l.
 80*8 +
1998a
 14937s + 5000 m
0.
We
This
its
is
270
may have
methods.
When
instance), or
when
Complex Variable.
the
removed
(as is
is
easily
is
is
it
will usually
z*
0,
is
0.
roots
we have
we have
 3^ +
10000 =
018748
The
76*
102609,
2, p.
 4s3  3*
**
0.
f
9927
207, viz.
23
\/~T.
0.
roots are
20526,
37853,
09189
*4
Multiply the roots by
3s3
surable root
= 180
*3 3*+
14545
hence A
it is
11
3 \/5.
The
0,
solution
When Homer's
method
a commen
easily completed,
and the
of the equation of
**
\/^~l.
4,
9.
320603.
34*8321,
roots are
98860,
is
</l '92090;
The
8.
03511,
**
7.
127665,
6.
is
 A i v/3847390,
follows
134462.
sign of h
11727* + 40385
Ex.
0.
Am. 
124433
197596y/::
NOTES.
NOTE
A.
THE
and
is
was published
in 1494.
of cubic equations,
own knowledge
272
Notes.
and in the meantime himself discovered the solumx = n. This solution depends on assuming
x an expression *]t  3Jw, consisting of the difference of two radi
of the various
Arabic writers.
many
solicitations Tartaglia
rules, receiving
mises of
own.
He commenced
in 1559, before he
As
came
work
It
work
had
of his
of cubic equations.
ruies, these
in process of
of Algebraists
was given by
f
6# 2
Colla,
4
who
36 = 60#.
as in
proposed
Cardan
to
This solution
is
who published it in
known as Simpson's,
The
solution
Descartes'
contribution
to
Euler's
Algebra was
273
Notes.
published in 1770.
His solution
is
of
we
trated
these two methods are illustrated; together with a third, the concepwhich is to be traced to Vandermonde and Lagrange, who
tion of
published their researches about the same time, in the years 1770 and
The former of these writers was the first to indicate clearly
1771.
the necessary character of an algebraical solution of any equation,
viz. that it must, by the combination of radical signs involved in it,
represent any root indifferently when the symmetric functions of the
roots are substituted for the functions of the coefficients involved in
the formula (see Art. 101). His attempts to construct formulae of this
character were successful in the cases of the cubic and biquadratic,
of the quintic.
equation on which
its
way, the
274
Notes.
M. Hermite,
imagined that a similar process might be applied to the general equaThe reduction of the quintic to the trinomial form was published
tion.
by means of
which the quintic is expressed as the sum of three fifth powers a
form which gives gieat facility to the treatment of this quantic.
Other contributions which have been made in recent years towards the
discussion of quantics of the fifth and higher degrees have reference
For an account
chiefly to the invariants and covariants of these forms.
<*>
W**
of these researches, additional to what will be found in the second
volume of this work, the student is referred to Clebsch's Thtorie der
lindren algebraischen Formen, and to Salmon's Lessons Introductory to
the Modern
to Bring's reduction is Dr. Sylvester's transformation,
275
Notes.
NOTE
B.
THE
first
attempt at a general solution by approximation of numewas published in the year 1600, by Vieta. Cardan
rical equations
"regula aurea")
method were of little value.
cubic;
by him
roots
given numbers.
(x)
Q,
where Q
is
a given
of
When this
(expressed as a decimal) might be obtained by division.
value was obtained, a repetition of the process furnished the next
It will be observed that the principle
figure of the root ; and so on.
of this
method
is
is
Hjow gcaat has been the improvement in this respect may be judged
by an observation in Montucia's ffistoire des Mathtmatiques, vol. i.,
of
p. 603,
labour.
The same
as a
calculation can
work
of the
most extravagant
great ease
276
Notes.
Lagrange, in the work above referred to, pointed out the defects
methods of Yieta and Newton. AVith reference to the former
in the
he observed that
it
required too
many
trials
and that
it
could not be
depended on, except when all the terms on the lefthand side of the
equation /(#) = Q were positive. As defects in Newton's method lie
signalized
first,
its failure to
terms
method
it is
in addition to the
methods
of
Harriot
discovery was important, for it led to the observation that any integer
must be a factor of the absolute term of an equation; and Newton's Method of Divisors for the determination of such roots was
root
method
in existence.
was the
first to
recog
277
Note.
nise the negative
commenced by him
number
of imaginary roots of
Stirling,
Lagrauge observed
Waring had
previously, in
of
known
is
commensurable,
the process ceases of itself, and the root is given in a finite form.
also of
equations, and observed that if the equation had equal roots, they
could be obtained in the first instance by methods already in
existence.
Theoretically, therefore, Lagrange's solution of the problem
he proposed to himself
is
almost useless.
which
As
is
278
Notes.
by Homer's process
in the
form
of a decimal.
has brought
above stated.
it, is
free
from
It will be observed
form
to
which Horner
all
Budan, and Sturm. The researches of Budan were puband those of Fourier in 1831, after his death. There
lished in 1807
no doubt, however, that Fourier had discovered before the publication of Budan's work the theorem which is ascribed to them conjointly
is
in the text.
The
researches of
methods of separation
in 1835.
The
of the roots
explained in Chapter X.
By
we have now
by
This labour
may admit
of
some reduc
All that has been said applies only to the real roots of numerical
have referred, in a footnote on p. 262, to the chief
equations.
We
Notes.
NOTE
0.
is
what
A ROOT.
If in the equation
ti^r*
the coefficients
fli**""
+ ...+
a l9
a n are used as mere algebraical symbols
without any restriction that is to say, if they are not restricted to
denote either real numbers or complex numbers of the form treated
,
in Chapter
whose
complex (including
real)
scientific
This
quantity imaginaires dans les constructions geomttriques.
writer some years later gave an account of his researches in Gergonne's
les
Annales.
280
Notes.
lem
of the nature
researches
riques.
is
The
An
account of their
mention D'Alembert, Descartes, Euler, Foncenex, and Laplace, reand the object in
ferred only to equations with rational coefficients
view was, assuming the existence of factors of the form x  a, x  ft,
&c., to show that the roots a, /?, &c., were all either real or imagi;
founded ultimately
root in an equation
.on
with rational
coefficients,
and are
of v odd degree
with real
coefficients.
As
an
methods
of
>one
p. 20,
(Transactions of the
degree m(2m 
281
Notes.
contains the factor % $*<**
is
I****
^^
f.him
modes
mation
of the
by equating
polynomial
to zero
is
m(2t*  M.
D. 64,
Vol. II.
INDEX TO VOLUME
I.
Abel, 273.
Algebraical equations,
2,
Biauadratic
u a stormed
215.
r,
lo reciprocal, 135.
solved
of biquadratic, 121.
historical note, 271.
by symm.
functions, 139,
Bombelli, 272.
Alkhayyami, 271.
Bring, 274.
Budan, theorem
Homer's, 227.
Lagrange's, 241.
Arabians, 271.
Argand, 279.
Commensurable
roots
Complex numbers,
Ben Musa,
Binomial
271.
leading properties
solution
by
of,
92.
Descajtes', 133.
theorem, 216.
coefficients, 68.
Binomial equations
22, 249.
multiplication
and division
of, 251,
Complex
261.
Complex
variable, 253.
284
Index.
Cube
Cubic, 71.
Cardan's solution
as difference of
of,
108.
of,
260.
homograpbic relation of
roots, 120.
Graphic representation
of polynomial, 13.
De Gua,
Derived functions,
Greatheed
8.
Harley, 274.
Hermite, 274.
Homogeneous
products, 178.
Homographic transformation,
75.
Homer
Equal
roots, 25.
his
method
of solving
nume
in biquadratic, 144.
determination
by method
Equation
of,
159.
his
of divisors, 207.
of squared differences
improvements
in the solution of
of cubic, 81.
of general equation, 84.
of biquadratic, 142.
Imaginary
roots, 21.
Lagrange
on equation of differences,
142.
his approximation to roots
by con
272.
Florido: 271.
285
Index.
1
Leonardo, 271.
Limits of roots
definitions, 180.
Quintic
special
248.
impossibility of its solution, 273.
Beality of roots
Malet, on the proposition that every
equation has a root, 280.
17, 155.
of cubic, 84.
in general, 210.
tions, G2.
reciprocal form,
bis
Robei ts
two
of roots, 165.
of,
67.
cubics, 118.
of biquadratic, 144.
divisors, 217.
216.
to, 19.
imaginary, 21.
methods of approximation to
number
roots,
of, 22.
equal, 25.
note on solution
to
method of
biquadiatic
135.
Removal of tcims,
Newton
of
transformation
by method of
222.
divisors,
Method
determination
of,
275.
symmetric functions
Polynomials
general properties, 5, 6.
change of form
continuity of, 9.
graphic representation
<Ai
commensurable, 216.
of, 8.
of, 13.
17.
Index.
286
Eule
Symmetric functions
De
Gua's, 197.
Salmon, 274.
Scipio Ferreo, 271.
Tartaglia, 271.
Transformation
of equations, 60.
Simpson, 272.
of cubic, 71.
of biquadratic, 73.
Sturm:
homographic, 75.
'
by symmetric functions,
in general, 80.
exercises
on
theorem,
213,
76.
214,
248.
Sums
of powers of roots
Yandermonde, 273.
:
complex, 253.
Symmetric functions
Vieta, 276.
**
j^f
definitions, 46.
theorems relating
to, 53.
Wantzel, 273.
Weight
K*S>
OF
1*
of