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7K vistas579 páginasHIGHER ALGEBRA- A Sequel to Elementary Algebra for Schools by H.S. HALL & S.R. KNIGHT
কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় সিলেবাস নির্দেশিত পুস্তক
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HIGHER ALGEBRA- A Sequel to Elementary Algebra for Schools by H.S. HALL & S.R. KNIGHT
কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় সিলেবাস নির্দেশিত পুস্তক
4th Edition 1891 AD
579 pages
25.70 MB PDF

© All Rights Reserved

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7K vistas579 páginasHIGHER ALGEBRA- A Sequel to Elementary Algebra for Schools by H.S. HALL & S.R. KNIGHT
কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় সিলেবাস নির্দেশিত পুস্তক
4th Edition 1891 AD
579 pages
25.70 MB PDF

© All Rights Reserved

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HIGHER ALGEBRA
A SEQUEL TO
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA FOR SCHOOLS
BY
H. 8S. HALL, MA,
FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF “CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
MASTER OF THR MILITARY AND ENGINEERING SIDE, CLIFTON COLLEGE ;
AND
8. R. KNIGHT, B.A.,
FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
LATE ASSISTANT-MASTER AT MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE.
FOURTH EDITION.
Dondon:
MACMILLAN AND CO.
AND NEW YORK.
1891 {
. u
(he Right of Translation is reserved.\LIBRARY
OF THE
_ -ecAND STANFORD JUNiG2
\ UNIVERSITY. 4
A 310%
First Printed 1887.
Second Edition with corrections 1888.
Third Edition revised and enlarged 1889.
Reprinted 1890. Fourth Edition 1891.“PREF ACE..
THE present work j is intended as a sequel to our Elementar
Algebra for Schools. The first few chapters are devoted t
a fuller discussion of Ratio, Proportion, Variation, and th
Progressions, which in the former work were treated in a
elementary manner; and we have here introduced theorem
and examples which are unsuitable for a first course <
reading.
From this point the work covers ground for the mos
part new to the student, and enters upon subjects of speci
importance: these we have endeavoured to treat minutel
and thoroughly, discussing both bookwork and example
with that fulness which we have always found necessary i
our experience as teachers.
It has been our aim to discuss all the essential part
as completely as possible within the limits of a singl
volume, but in a few of the later chapters it has been im
possible to find room for more than an introductory sketch
in all such cases our object has been to map out a suitabl
first course of reading, referring the student to special treatise
‘for fuller information.
In the chapter on Permutations and Combinations w
are much indebted to the Rev. W. A. Whitworth for pe
mission to make use of some of the proofs given in hi
Choice and Chance. For many years we have used the
proofs in our own teaching, and we are convinced Yoeh!vi PREFACE.
part of Algebra is made far more intelligible to the beginner
by a system of common sense reasoning from first principles
than by the proofs usually found in algebraical text-books.
The discussion of Convergency and Divergency of Series
always presents great difficulty to the student on his first
reading. The inherent difficulties of the subject are no
doubt considerable, and these are increased by the place it
has ordinarily occupied, and by the somewhat inadequate
treatment it has hitherto received. Accordingly we have
placed this section somewhat later than is usual; much
thought has been bestowed on its general arrangement, and
on the selection of suitable examples to illustrate the text;
and we have endeavoured to make it more interesting and
intelligible by previously introducing a short chapter on
Limiting Values and Vanishing Fractions.
In the chapter on Summation of Series we have laid
much stress on the “ Method of Differences” and its wide and
important applications. The basis of this method is a well-
known formula in the Calculus of Finite Differences, which in
the absence of a purely algebraical proof can hardly be con-
sidered admissible in a treatise on Algebra. The proof of the
Finite Difference formula which we have given in Arts. 395,
396, we believe to be new and original, and the development
of the Difference Method from this formula has enabled us to
introduce many interesting types of series which have hitherto
been relegated to a much later stage in the student's reading.
‘We have received able and material assistance in the
chapter on Probability from the Rev. T. C. Simmons of
Christ’s College, Brecon, and our warmest thanks are due
to him, both for his aid in criticising and improving the
text, and for placing at our disposal several interesting and
original problems.
It is hardly possible to read any modern treatise on
Azalytical Conics or Solid Geometry without some know-PREFACE, vii
ledge of Determinants and their applications. We have
, therefore given a brief elementary discussion of Determi-
nants in Chapter xxxuu., in the hope that it may provide
the student with a useful introductory course, and prepare
him for a more complete study of the subject.
The last chapter contains all the most useful propositions
in the Theory of Equations suitable for a first reading. The
Theory of Equations follows so naturally on the study of
Algebra that no apology is needed for here introducing pro-
positions which usually find place in a separate treatise. In
fact, a considerable part of Chapter xxxv. may be read
with advantage at a much earlier stage, and may conveniently
be studied before some of the harder sections of previous
chapters.
It will be found that each chapter is as nearly as possible
complete in itself, so that the order of their succession can
be varied at the discretion of the teacher; but it is recom-
mended that all sections marked with an asterisk should be
reserved for a second reading.
In enumerating the sources from which we have derived
assistance in the preparation of this work, there is one book
to which it is difficult to say how far we are indebted.
Todhunter’s Algebra for Schools and Colleges has been the
recognised English text-book for so long that it is hardly
possible that any one writing a teat-book on Algebra at the
present day should not be largely influenced by it. At the
same time, though for many years Todhunter’s Algebra has
been in constant use among our pupils, we have rarely
adopted the order and arrangement there laid down; in
many chapters we have found it expedient to make frequent
use of alternative proofs; and we have always largely sup-
plemented the text by manuscript notes. These notes,
which now appear scattered throughout the present work,
| have been collected at different times during the lost twent
HH. A. vviii PREFACE.
years, so that it is impossible to make definite acknowledge-
ment in every case where assistance has been obtained from
other writers. But speaking generally, our acknowledge-
ments are chiefly due to the treatises of Schlémilch, Serret,
and Laurent; and among English writers, besides Todhunter’s
Algebra, we have occasionally consulted the works of De
Morgan, Colenso, Gross, and Chrystal.
To the Rev. J. Wolstenholme, D.Sc., Professor of Mathe-
matics at the Royal Indian Engineering College, our thanks
are due for his kindness in allowing us to select questions
from his unique collection of problems; and the consequent
gain to our later chapters we gratefully acknowledge.
It remains for us to express our thanks to our colleagues
and friends who have so largely assisted us in reading and
correcting the proof sheets; in particular we are indebted to
the Rev. H. C. Watson of Clifton College for his kindness in
revising the whole work, and for many valuable suggestions
in every part of it.
May, 1887. H. S. HALL,
8S. R. KNIGHT.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
Iw this edition the text and examples are substantially
the same as in previous editions, but a few articles have
been recast, and all the examples have been verified again.
We have also added a collection of three hundred Miscel-
Janeous Examples which will be found useful for advanced
students. These examples have been selected mainly but
not exclusively from Scholarship or Senate House papers ;
much care has been taken to illustrate every part of the
subject, and to fairly represent the principal University and
Civil Service Examinations.
March, 1839,CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I. ratio.
PAGE
Commensurable and incommensurable quantities . » @
Ratio of greater and less inequality . . 8
1
a_c_e@_ _ (partge”+ren+...\™ 4
aa fF \ po edt erfet...] * .
Ay + Og t+ Ogt... $y conan
b+, 40, +..45, lies between greatest and least of fractions bo Be
Cross multiplication . . e a fl 7 ‘i c 8
Eliminant of three linear eruatons 5 9
Examples I. . . 10
CHAPTER II. proportion.
Definitions and Propositions 13
Comparison between algebraical and geometrical d definitions . 16
Case of incommensurable quantities : . 17
Examples II. 19
CHAPTER III. variation.
It Ac B, then A=mB . 21
Tnverse variation . 22
Joint variation . 28
It Aa B when C is constant, and AG “2£eo when Bis | constant, then
A=mBC . . . . . . » @wW
Illustrations, Examples on joint variation 5 2S
Examples IIT, .
b&x CONTENTS.
CHAPTER IV. ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION,
PAGE
Sum of n terms of an arithmetical series. : poner 5 - 28
Fundamental formule . . eee) . . . . +. 29
_Insertion of arithmetic means. : : 5 ‘i 5 . . 81
Examples IV. a. . : . . . . 81
Discussion of roots of ant + e- a n- Qs= o e . . . . 33
Examples IV. b. . 5 fi a o c 7 . 35
CHAPTER V. GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
Insertion of geometric means 5 c c 5 5 - 38
Sum of n terms of a geometrical series . ; a : a O . 39
Sum of an infinite geometrical series. 5 : _ 5 : » 40
Examples V.a. . : a a » 421
Proof of rule for the reduction ofa , recurring ; decimal o a O » 43
Sum of n terms of an arithmetico-geometric series 5 : O - 44
Examples V.b. . 5 : . : : a D 5 . . 45
CHAPTER VI. HARMONICAL PROGRESSION, THEOREMS CONNECTED
WITH THE PROGRESSIONS.
Reciprocals of quantities in H. P. are in A. P. 7 7 : 7 » 47)
Harmonic mean . re)
Formul connecting AM., @: M., H. Mu. 5 fe . . 5 » 49
Hints for solution of questions in Progressions. . a 5 » -49
Sum of squares of the natural numbers : 7 7 . . . 50
_ Sum of cubes of the naturalnumbers . . 2. ww wsCOL
Z notation . 5 . : 0 . . 5 - . - 52
Examples VI. a. . . o . 5 » 659
Number of shot in pyramid or ona panera base. : : : f . 54
Pyramid on a triangular base e 5 a : 5 : . Bf
Pyramid on a rectangular base. 5 fi I 5 . . . B44
Incomplete pyramid. : S i : : : c . . 55
Examples VI. b. . . . . . . . ; ‘i . 56
CHAPTER VII. scares oF NOTATION,
Explanation of systems of notation 5 : a : : o . 57
Examples VII, a. o S : 5 » 59
£xpression of an integral number i ina propoeed scale so . » 59
expression of a radix fraction in a proposed seale. 9. swCONTENTS.
ifference between a number and the sum of its digits is divisible
yr-1. eee ee
of rule for «casting out the nines’? fi c 5 i .
of divisibility byr+1 . . . : ‘i 5 “6 .
‘ples VIL. b. . eee .
CHAPTER VIII. surps AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES.
aalising the denominator of
aalising factor of Ya+{/b
‘e root of a+ /b+/c+r/d : : ‘i . 5
root ofat/b . _ . . . : : . nr)
ples VIL a.
nary quantities
‘x /-b=- ‘
4b=0, then a=0, b .
tb=c+id, then a=c,b=d . 5
lug of product is equal to eae of moduli .
root of a+ib .
sofi . .
roots of unity ; ltotet= 0.
sofw . . . .
ples VII. b.
a
Nbt+Je+/d
xi
PAGE
RSs
HAPTER IX. THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS.
Aratic equation cannot have more than two roots
‘tions for real, equal, imaginary roots
of roots= — 2 3’ product of roots=<¢
ation of equations when the roots are given . o
tions that the roots of a quadratic should be (1). oan in magni.
ade and opposite in sign, (2) reciprocals . ‘ a
ples IX. a.
2al values of z the expression az be+e has i in general tho same
ign as a; exceptions . . . . . S .
ples IX. b. . . . .
tions of function, variable, rational integral function 5
tion that az?+ 2hry+ by?+ 292+ 2fy+c may be resolved into two
near factors . . . .
tion that az?+br+e=' 0 and tava =0 may have a common
ales Ke a : . _ A . . . . .
Rk 888 88 2RRB
&xii CONTENTS.
CHAPTER X. MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS,
Equations involving one unknown ee
Reciprocal equations. . 7
Examples X. a.
Equations involving two unknown quantities
Homogeneous equations . . . . . a
Examples X.b. . O 5 5 a . .
Equations involving several unknown quantities . cS . .
Examples X.c. . . . 5 . .
Indeterminate equations; ey numerical al oxamples
Examples X. d. . :
CHAPTER XI. PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS.
Preliminary proposition . . . . . .
Number of permutations of n things r at a time . . 5
Number of tombinations of n things r at a time
The number of combinations of n things r at a time is equal to the
number of combinations of n things n-r at a time
Number of ways in which m+n+p+... things can be divided into :
classes containing m, n, p, ... things severally
Examples XI. a. .
Signification of the terme “ike? and‘ unlike’ :
Number of arrangements of n things taken all at a time, when P things
are alike of one kind, q things are alike of a second kind, &e. .
Number of permutations of n things r at a time, when each may be
The total number of combinations ofn things a c a a
To find for what value of r the expression *C, is greatest
Ab initio proof of the formula for the number of combinations of n
things r atatime .
Total number of selections of ae qtrt+.. . things, whereof 7 pare alike
of one kind, g alike of a secund kind, &c. ac O 7 . .
Examples XI.b. . : o 0 : c
CHAPTER XII. marwematicaL INDUCTION.
astrations of the method of proof
Product of n binomial factors of the form z +a
@xzamples XI.
PAGE
100
101
103
104,
106
107
109
111
113
115
115
117
119
120
122
124
125
126
127
127
128
129
131: ;
138
134
. weCONTENTS. xiii
CHAPTER XIII. sBINoMIAL THEOREM. POSITIVE INTEGRAL INDEX.
PAGE
Expansion of (z+a)*, when n is a eee cs . . 187
General term of the expansion. * 139
The expansion may be made to depend aronl ‘the case in n which the frst
term is unity . . . . . . . . . . 140
Second proof of the binomial theorem . c e 141
Examples XIII. a. . a 142
The coefficients of terms equidistant from the begining and end
are equal. . . . . . + 148
Determination of the greatest term 143
Sum of the coefficients. : . 146 ~
Sum of coefficients of odd terms is equal to sum of coefficients of even
terms. . . . . . . . . » 6
Expansion of multinomials e 5 5 146.
Examples XII. b. oO eaneee) 147
CHAPTER XIV. BINOMIAL THEOREM. ANY INDEX.
Euler’s proof of the binomial theorem for any index 160
General term of the expansion of (1+=)* 153
‘Examples XIV. a. . D 155
Expansion of (1+ 2)" is only arithmetically intelligible ‘when Z <1 155
The expression (x+y)" can always be ae by the binomial
theorem . . . . 0 0 157
General term of the eepaaeionl of a- a" 157
Particular cases of the expansions of (1 -)-" 158
Approximations obtained by the binomial theorem 159
Examples XIV. b. c : 7 161
Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (ta). 162
Number of homogeneous Ce of r dimensions formed out of n
letters . . 164
Number of terms in the expansion ‘of a multinomial 165
Number of combinations of n things r at a time, repetitions being allowed 166
Examples XIvV.c.. : 167
CHAPTER XV. MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
General term in the ume of (a+ ba+ca*+dz3+...)?, when p isa
positive integer . .
General term in the expansion of (eta teats at. * aro w
isa rational quantity . . . . . 5 . wu
Examples XV. yxiv CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XVI. tocarirums.
Definition. N=alogeN .
Elementary propositions
Examples XVI. a.
Common Logarithms
Determination of the characteristic by inspection .
Advantages of logarithms to base 10
Advantages of always keeping the mantissa positive
Given the logarithms of all numbers to base a, to find the logarithms
to base b.
log.bxlogaa=1
Examples XVI. b. .
PAGE
175
176
178
179 -
180
181
182
183
183
185
CHAPTER XVII. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC SERIES.
Expansion of a*. Series for e .
eis the limit of (145); when 1 is infinite
Expansion of log, (1+ 2) .
Construction of Tables of Logarithms O
Rapidly converging series for log, (n + 1) - ee n
The quantity e is incommensurable
Examples XVII.
CHAPTER XVIII. rterEsT AND ANNUITIES.
Interest and Amount of a given sum at simple interest. .
Present Value and Discount of a given sum at simple interest
Interest and Amount of a given sum at compound interest .
Nominal and true annual rates of interest
Case of compound interest payable every moment
Present Value and Discount of a given sum at compound interest.
Examples XVIII.a. . c o ‘ : p o 7
Annuities. Definitions. 5
Amount of unpaid annuity, simple interest :
Amount of unpaid annuity, compound interest a .
Present value of an annuity, compound interest . : : :
} amber of years’ purchase
Present valine of a deferred annuity, compound interest.
Fine for the renewal of a lease ener
Ysamples XVIII, b,
187
188
191
192
194
195
195
198
198
199
201
202
203
203
204CONTENTS. xv
CHAPTER XIX. requatitizs.
PAGE
{Elementary Propositions . : . . 208
-‘VArithmetic mean of two positive quantities i is frosty than the geometric
1 mean . 209
‘The sum of two quantities being given, their product is greatest ‘when
they are equal: aa being cont the sum is least when they are
equal . 210
‘The arithmetic mean of 8 number of positive quantities is greater than
the geometric mean 5 . . 211
Given sum of a, b, ¢,...; to find the greatest value of am bre? are » 212
Easy cases of maxima and minima. . 5 5 5 5 . 212
Examples XIX. a.. e 218
The arithmetic mean of the me powers of a * aumber of poaitive .
quantities is greater than m‘* power of their arithmetic mean,
except when m lies between 0 and 1 a . a 5 + 214
Ifa and b.are positive integers, and a>b,: (1+ 2\"> (ust) .. 216
Itz "/ity
If 1>2>y>0, Jt > /Pt ee BIT
wo > (Sry ee ee 2 317
Examples XIX. b. . 5 . : ‘ . . . . . . 218
CHAPTER XX. LIMITING VALUES AND VANISHING FRACTIONS.
Definition of Limit . . 5 . « 220
Limit of a) +0,2+ 4,27 age... is oe is zero. : 222
By taking z small enough, any term of the series Gy +ayE-+0qt* +...
may be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all
that follow it; and by taking large enough, any term may be
made as large as we please compared with the sum of all that
precede it . oo + 222
Method of determining the Limits of vanishing fractions . 224
Discussion of some peculiarities in the solution of simultaneous
equations . . o . « 226
Peculiarities in the solution of qusarati enuaton : : : . 227
Examples xx, . . a 0 . . 5 . 228
VCHAPTER XXI. CONVERGENCY AND DIVERGENCY OF SERSES. {
Cage of terms alternately positive and negative . D : +
Series ia convergent if Lim — ig less than 1 . . . 6 oO!
‘a -1xvi CONTENTS.
PAGE
Comparison of Zu, with on auxiliary series Zu, . . 5 9 - 234
eas peer 1
The auxiliary series + 4 2+ 2 theese e : : o : 5 235 (8
Application to Binomial, Exponential, Logarithmic Series . . . . 287)"
{
Limits of ee andnz*whennisinfnite . . . . . . 238f
Product of an infinite number of factors 0 e 5 eer . aad
Examples XXL. a,. q 5 . . . . . . . . 241)
weeries is convergent when v-series is convergent, if ra >aa - 243
1 On
Series is convergent if Lim Jn ( - 1)f>1 . . I : . 244
Ml
Beries is convergent if Lim (n log Fass Ste. ee 45
+1.
Series Z¢ (n) compared with series Za"¢(n) . : s c : - 247
on a 1
The auxiliary series = adognP * : a : : a o . 248
Series is convergent if Lim [f= (=. - 1) - 1} tog n] ol... 24g
. +1
Product of two infinite series : . . oo. . . . 249
Examples XXI. b.. c c ‘i 9 0 a : G 5 . 252
CHAPTER XXII. UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
If the equation f(t)=0 has more than n roots, it isan identity . » 254
Proof of principle of undetermined coefficients for finite series. . 254
Examples XXII. a. . 5 . 256
Proof of principle of undetermined coefficients for “infinite series . . 257
Examples XXII, b. . . . . . er) : 5 + 260
CHAPTER XXIII. ParTIAL FRACTIONS.
Decomposition into partial fractions . . . ae . . 261
Use of partial fractions in expansions . : . . A 5 . 265
Examples XXIII. . 5 . . : : ‘i 5 : o - 265
CHAPTER XXIV. recurRING SERIES.
Scale of relation . . . oo . : a . . . 267
Sum of a recurring series. s . . - : 5 ‘ + 269
Generating fanction . . «6 ww te 2808
Examples XXIV, , . . . . : : ee ew BADCONTENTS. xvii
=
CHAPTER XXV. coNnTINVED FRACTIONS.
PAGE
}) Conversion of a fraction into a continued fraction : 273
, Convergents are alternately less and greater than the continued fraction 275
Law of formation of the successive convergents . ‘i a 0 - 275
Padi Paadn=(~-W®- se ww ee 28
Examples XXV. a. . « 277
The convergents gradually approximate to the continued fraction. . 278
Limits of the error in taking any convergent for the continued fraction 279
Each convergent is nearer to the continued fraction than a fraction
with smallerdenominator .. . . oe cr) » 280
PP 2 ra
aq” or <2’, according a> or a , 7 5 G a : + 281
Examples XXV. b. : 5 0 : 5 : o : +» ot. 281
CHAPTER XXVI. INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST
DEGREE.
Bolution of az-by=c . . a : - «284
Given one solution, to find the general solution 5 5 5 eI . 286
Solution of az+by=c oo. er - 286
Given one solution, to find the general solution 0 5 5 . . 287
Number of solutions of az+by=c. . . . . . + 287
Solution of az+by+cz=d, darvyteond : . a . + 289
Examples XXVI. . : 5 5 : o 5 . 290
CHAPTER XXVII. RECURRING CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
Numerical example . . . . 292
A periodic continued fraction i is equal to a quadratic surd o : - 293
Examples XXVII. a. . . . : » 204
Conversion of a quadratic surd into a continued fraction 5 : . 295
‘The quotients recur. 5 02 6 of 9 oer)
The period ends with a partial quotient “20, oe . + 297
The partial quotients equidistant from first and last are vega . + 298
The penultimate convergents of the aan 0 5 . . ~ 299
Examples XXVIL b. : : o . . . . . 30:
CHAPTER XXVIII. INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS OF THE SECON
DEGREE.
Solution of ar7+ 2hay + by" + 29x + 2fy+c=0 : . : : o
The equation z4- Ny?=1 can always be solvedxviii CONTENTS.
PAGE
Bolution of s*-Ny?=-1 . . . : 5 5 : : . 305
General solution of 2?-Ny?=1 . z c c ‘i . : . 3806
Solution of z?-nty?=a c . 5 a : : : . 808
Diophantine Problems... . . . : : i ‘ . 309
Examples XXVIIL. . 5 : . . 5 oO . . Bil
CHAPTER XXIX. suMMATION OF SERIES.
Summary of previous methods. . . . . . . . 812
1, the product of n factors in A. P. . ‘ : 5 . 814
u, the reciprocal of the product of n factors i in A. P, c C . 816
Method of Subtraction. . . ee ee 818
Expression of u,, as sum of faotoriala . . 48 . . « 818
— Polygonal and Figurate Numbers . : Fi c . : . - 819
Pascal’s Triangle . . . . oe . . : _ . 3820
_ Examples XXIX,a, . nr) . : . . : 5 - 3821
Method of Differences . : . 322
Method succeeds when 1, is a , rational integral fanetion ofn n _ 826
If a, is 8 rational integral function of n, the series Za,2* is a recurring
series . . . . . . . . « 827
Farther cases ‘of recurring series. 7 . : 5 : . 829
Examples XXIX.b, «te See ee BBB
Miscellaneous methods of summation . soe . . a » 334
Sum of series 1° +2743" +...+n". cee se - « 836
- Bernoulli's Numbers . . : see ee 887
Examples XXIX.c, . és 5 : : : ji : 5 . 338
CHAPTER XXX. THEORY OF NUMBERS.
Statement of principles . I : 5 : c : 5 I . 341
Number of primes is infinite . 5 G 5 . - 342
No rational algebraical formula can represent primes only 5 ‘ . 343
A number can be resolved into prime factors in only one way =. - 342
Number of divisors of a given integer . . . . 348
Number of ways an integer can be resolved into two factors . . +, + 343
Sum of the divisors ofa given integer . . . 54 . . 344
Highest power ofa prime contained in Jn... / ww. 845
Product of r consecutive integers is divisible by |r . . B45
Fermat's Theorem N-1—1=. =™() ae is prime and N prime stop 347
Examples XXX.a, . ; - 848
nition of congruent . 5 eee ee BRD
eeCONTENTS. xix
} PAGE
‘$f a is prime to 5, then a, 2a, 3a,...(b-1)a@ when divided by b leave
different remainders. 7 5 7 7 a . . . 350
G(abed...)=$(a) (I) be) OA) ee BER
1 1 1
o(w)=N (1-3) ) (1-3)... See ee 858
Wilson’s Theorem: 1+|p~1=M (p) where pisa prime . a . 864
A property peculiar to prime numbers . a a a a : . 854
Wilson’s Theorem (second proof) . 5 . . 5 . 5 . 3855
Proofs by induction . . : oo : . . a . 356
Examples XXX. b. . : S 5 . 5 : 5 . . 3867
CHAPTER XXXI. THE GENERAL THEORY OF CONTINUED
FRACTIONS,
Law of formation of successive convergents . . . . . . 359
1 bt hae a definite value if Lim Smt Set oe ee BER
qt at
The convergents to a a ane BFE. positive proper fractions in ascend-
ing order of magnitude, ifa,t1+b, . e . 863
General value of convergent when a,, and b,, are constant D . 864
Cases where general value of convergent can be found . co a . 365
a te ini it On
a4 af is incommensurable, if os <1. - fi : . 366
Examples XXXL a. © - zi - c _ - 367
Series expressed as continued fractions . c . 7 7 . 369
Conversion of one continued fraction into another : : . 871
Examples XXXI.b. . : : c aC . a 7 - . 372
CHAPTER XXXII. prozasinity.
Definitions and illustrations. Simple Events . : : : . 373
Examples XXXII.a, . : . . : . : : ‘i . 3876
Compound Events : fi . 377
Probability that two independent events will both happen i is pp’ : . 878
The formula holds also for dependent events s : - 3879
ce of an event which can happen in matually exclusive ways . 881
Examples XXXII. b. : . eanr) I . 383
Chance of an event happening exactly r ‘times inn . trials ‘ : . Wo
Expectation and probable value. : 7 5 : . : . IW
“Problem of points”. anne . . an BWxx CONTENTS.
Examples XXXII.c. a 0 : : : 5 : .
Inverse probability a . Fi : 7 ‘i FI c
Statement of Bernoulli’s Theorem . : : ; 6
—_PrPr
Proof of formula eS (eP) 5 : 1 0 ‘I c
Concurrent testimony . 7 0 .
Traditionary testimony . . 7 : 0 : 5 . O
Examples XXXII. d. . . : 5 : _ .
Local Probability. Geometrical methods 5 5 : : ‘i c
Miscellaneous examples c 5
Examples XXXIL e.
CHAPTER XXXIII. pererminants.
Eliminaut of two homogeneous linear equations . 7 : _ - 409
Eliminant of three homogeneous linear equations . o eee +» 410
Determinant is not altered by interchanging rows and columns 0 . 410
Development of determinant of third order . D 411
Sign of a determinant is altered by interchanging two adjacent rows or
columns . . . 412
If two rows or olunnets are identical, the determinant vanishes e . 412
A factor common to any row or column may be placed outside. . 412
Cases where constituents are made up of a number of terms. . » 418
Reduction of determinants by simplification of rows or columns . - 414
Product of two determinants . . . : 0 . . - 417
Examples XXXIII.a. . . . : . 419
Application to solution of simultaneous ‘equations. . . . - 422
Determinant of fourth order . : 0 5 zi 5 : 5 - 428
Determinant of any order. zi 7 : : amr : . 423
Notation Za bcd, . ‘i 0 _ _ ‘i . : + 1. 495
Examples XXXIII.b. . 7 c ‘ 0 : : 0 . 427
CHAPTER XXXIV. MiscELLANEOUS THEOREMS AND EXAMPLES,
Review of the fundamental laws of Algebra . 5 5 Fi 0 . 429
F(z) when divided by 2-a leaves remainder f(a) . : . . « 482
Quotient of f (x) when divided by z-a . . O : : - 483 —
Method of Detached Coefficients . . : a . i : - 434 |
Horner’s Method of Synthetic Division . : : : : . 434
Symmetrical and Alternating Functions . 0 . c 5 . 435
Zxamples of identities worked out : ee 48
List of nsefal formule . : ; ee ARS.' CONTENTS. xxi
PAGE
Examples XXKIV.a, . . . 5 . - 438
Identities proved by properties of cube roots of anity a : 7 . 440
Linear factors of a? +08 +c - 8abe . . ar) . 6 . 441
Value of a®+0"+e"whena+b+c=0 . . . .« « « . 448
Examples XXXIV.b. . . . . . . . . . - 442
Elimination... : ee ee
Elimination by symmetrical functions o ao a 7 a c . 444
Euler’s method of elimination =. . S O a 5 « 445
Sylvester's Dialytic Method. 6 ww ewww
Bezout’s method . . eae : . . - 446
Migcellaneous examples of elimination . 5 5 c a 6 ' . 447
Examples XXXIV.c. . : z 5 s 5 5 8 - . 449
CHAPTER XXXV. THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Every equation of the n‘* degree has n roots and no more. a . 452
Relations between the roots and the coefficients . . . . . 452
These relations are not sufficient for the solution. . . . « 464
Cases of solution under given conditions . 5 O : a . 454
Easy cases of symmetrical functions of the roots . 5 : a . 455
Examples XXXV. a. e : 5 O 5 : . 456
Imaginary and surd roots occur in pairs . f 0 ce . . 457
Formation and solution of equations with surd roots . . « 458
Descartes’ Rule of Signs . 2 5 e G9 5 . 459
Examples XXXV.b. . . 5 : : . _ . 460
Value of f(z+h). Derived Functions . . . . . . . - 462
Calculation of f(2+h) by Horner's process . . . . . - 468
J (z) changes its value gradually . . 464
If f(a) and f(b) are of ce signs, f. (y= 0 acl a root between
aandb. . . . : » 464
An equation of an odd degree has ¢ one real root . Smee 465
An equation of an even degree with its last term nce has two real
roots. . - 465
It f (z)=0 has r roots eqnal to a, f " @)= 0 hes re 1 roota equal to a. 466
Determination of equal roots . . a 5 : e . 467
f@)_ 1 1 1
Fiayzaateseteeet te 888
Sum of an assigned power of the roots . : c 7 : 5 . 468
Examples XXXV.c. . .. ao A . D : : » AW,
Transformation of equations. . a : . AT
Equation with roots of sign opposite to ‘those of f (x)= “0 a : . ATA
uation with roots multiples of those of SF (x) =0 - ~ At
yxxii CONTENTS.
Equation with roots reciprocals of those of f (z)=0
Discussion of reciprocal equations . O
Equation with roots squares of those of f (= Oo.
Equation with roots exceeding by h those of f (z)=0
Removal of an assigned term. o
Equation with roots given fanctions of those of (= 0
Examples XXXV.d. . a .
Cubic equations, Cardan’s Solution : G 5 7
Discussion of the solution . . : . .
Solution by Trigonometry in the irreducible ¢ case .
Biquadratic Equations. Ferrari’s Solution .
Descartes’ Solution . eee
Undetermined multipliers .
Discriminating cubic; roots all real
Solution of three simultaneous equations ——
Examples XXXV. e.
Miscellaneous ee
Answers
ye
aan toon tapith aeHIGHER ALGEBRA.
CHAPTER I.
RATIO.
‘1. Derivrtion, Ratio is the relation which one quantity
bears to another of the same kind, the comparison being made by
considering what multiple, part, or parts, one quantity is of the
other.
The ratio of A to B is usually written 4: B, The quantities
A and B are called the terms of the ratio. The first term is
called the antecedent, the second term the consequent.
2. To find what multiple or part A is of B, we divide A
by B; hence the ratio A : B may be measured by the fraction
$ , and we shall usually find it convenient to adopt this notation.
In order to compare two quantities they must be expressed in
terms of the same unit. Thus the ratio of £2 to 15s. is measured
. 2x20 8
by the fraction ip 5°
Nore. A ratio expresses the number of times that one quantity con-
tains another, and therefore every ratio is an abstract quantity.
3. Since by the laws of fractions,
a ma
5 mb?
it follows that the ratio a : 6 is equal to the ratio ma \ mb
that is, the value of @ ratio remains unaltered if the antecedent
and the consequent are multiplied or divided by the same quantity.
4 FT. H, A rV2 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
4, Two or more ratios may be compared by reducing their
equivalent fractions to a common denominator. Thus suppose
= ang 2. 5
bby’ yy by
the ratio a : 6 is greater than, equal to, or less than the ratio
a : y according as ay is greater than, equal to, or less than ba.
a:band2: y are two ratio, Now 3 hence
5. The ratio of two fractions can be expressed as a ratio
of two integers. Thus the ratio ¢ 5 is measured by the
bid
a
fracti & ad . we .
raction a) OF 53 and is therefore equivalent to the ratio
d
ad : be.
6. If either, or both, of the terms of a ratio be a surd
quantity, then no two integers can be found which will eaaetly
measure their ratio. Thus the ratio ,/2:1 cannot be exactly
expressed by any two integers.
7. Derinition. If the ratio of any two quantities can be
expressed exactly by the ratio of two integers, the quantities
are said to be commensurable; otherwise, they are said to be
incommensurable.
Although we cannot find two integers which will exactly
measure the ratio of two incommensurable quantities, we can
always find two integers whose ratio differs from that required
by as small a quantity as we please. 1
2. ve
a AB _ POBO68 559017...
V5 _ 559017 559018 -
and therefore “ft 7 1000000 and < 1000000’
so that the difference between the ratios 559017 : 1000000 and
/5 : 4 is less than (000001. By carrying the decimals further,
closer approximation may be arrived at.
8. Derinition. Ratios are compounded by multiplying to
gether the fractions which denote them; or by multiplying to
gether the antecedents for a new antecedent, and the consequent
for a new consequent,
4zanple, Find the ratio compounded of the three retion a
2a: 3b, Gab : 58, cra) RATIO. 3
A - 2a 6ab_¢
The required ratio= 55 x pax se
_4a
Re
9. Derinition. When the ratio a:b is compounded with
itself the resulting ratio is a’ : b*, and is called the duplicate ratio
of a:b. Similarly a’: b° is called the triplicate ratio of a:b.
Also at : 64 is called the subduplicate ratio of a : b.
Examples. (1) The duplicate ratio of 2a : 8b is 4a? : 987.
(2) The subduplicate ratio of 49 : 25 is 7: 5.
(3) The triplicate ratio of 2x : 1 is 823 : 1.
10. Derinrrion. A ratio is said to be a ratio of greuter
inequality, of less inequality, or of equality, according as the
antecedent is greater than, less than, or equal to the consequent.
ll. A ratio of greater inequality is diminished, and a ratio of
less inequality ts increased, by adding the same quantity to both
tts terms.
Let i be the ratio, and let 2+* be the new ratio formed by
b+a
adding x to both its terms.
Now @ ate _ av—be
6 b+au b(b+z)
_2(a-2),
“ebre))
and a—6 is positive or negative according as a is greater or
less than b.
7 @ ata
Hence if a > 8, Bbee?
; a ata,
and if a** kb, 5
sk; o. a, > kb;
5,
and so on;
., by addition,
A, +O, t,t veers +a,>(b, +b, 48+ 2. Fb) KS
G++ Oy+ rere +O, 7 oo
* 548, 48,4 ne +b,” i that is > 5°.
Similarly we may prove that
+4, +0, +».
6, +0, +0, +
where Z is the greatest of the given fractions.
In like manner the theorem may be proved when all the
denominators are negative.
15. The ready application of the general principle involved
in Art, 12 is of such great value in all branches of mathematics,
that the student should be able to use it with some freedom in
any particular case that may arise, without necessarily introducing
an auxiliary symbol,
at eee
Example 1. Ue Syenaadanb ate ,
“rove that atyte_x(y+a)t+y (e+2)+2(2+y)
atb+c 2 (ax + by +cz)RATIO.
. 0 sum of numerators
Each of the given fractions = of denominatora Jenominat
att ty te
FDR be Te teen eeeeeeentenee (1).
Again, if we multiply both numerator and denominator of the three
given fractions by y+2,2+2, z+y respectively,
. a (y +2) = y(z+2) = z(z+y)
each fraction= 73) @4e=a) ~ Fa) (Faq) ~ (ery) (@4d—<)
sum of numerators
~ gum of denominators
a (y+2)+y (e+2) +2 (e+y)
2az + Qby + 2cz
.. (2).
«*. from (1) and (2),
tyte 2 (ytaty (eta)te(z+y)
at+b+c_ 2 (ax + by +¢z)
= y ——
Esample 2, Ut fae a aeee e
1 m
Prove that 2 (by+e2—az)~ y (ce-+az—by)— ier)
cz)"
2 y 2
7 m™ n
Wehave = pypnenla nerlamb latmb—ne
ye
a
~ 2a
=two similar expressions;
nytme lene _mo+ly
a@ ob ¢°
Multiply the first of these fractions above and below by z, the second by
y, and the third by z; then
nay tmae _ lyst ney _ moet lye
1
= (by+cz— Twa) = ye baee by) # Gaatysay8 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
16, If we have two equations containing three unknown
quantities in the first degree, such as
az+by+e2=0
ag+by+ez=0...
we cannot solve these completely; but by writing them in the
form
a, () +, () +e, =0,
a, (2) +b, () +¢,=0,
we can, by regarding = and ¥ as the unknowns, solve in the.
ordinary way and obtain
w _ dyc, — bye, Y _ Cry C40, |
% ab,-a,b,’ 2 a,b,—-a,b,’
or, more symmetrically,
—*_._ ¥ =
bc,- 8c, ¢4,-¢,@, a,b,- a,b, °°" (3).
. It thus appears that when we have two equations of the t;
represented by (1) and (2) we may always by the above form
write down the ratios x:y:2 in terms of the coefficients of the
equations by the following rule:
‘Write down the coefficients of x, y, z in order, beginning with
those of y; and repeat these as in the diagram. .
b, ¢, a, 6,
b, C, a, b,
Multiply the coefficients across in the way indicated by the
arrows, remembering that in forming the products any one
obtained by descending is positive, and any one obtained by
ascending is negative. The three results
bye, ,¢,, 64, —6,0,, 4,5, — a,b,
are proportional to 2, y, 2 respectively.
This is called the Rule of Cross Multiplication,RATIO,
Example 1, Find the ratios of z : y : z from the equations
Ja=4y +82, 82=122+1ly,
By transposition we have 72 - 4y - 8z='
122+ 1ly -32=0.
Write down the coefficients, thus
-4 -8 7 -4
ll -3 2 1,
whence we obtain the products
(+4) x(-8)-11x(-8),
(-8)x12-(-8)x7, 7x11~12x(-4),
or 100, -75, 125;
oY
100° -75 125’
i tly _*
that is, G7 cat
Example 2. Eliminate 2, y, z from the equations
act by +ez=0..
Agr + bay + gz
Ago + Dgy +0 g2 =O... ceeccessstreeeeeeeeeeeee (8).
From (2) and (3), by cross multiplication,
z
y
byey— dye Cog — Cgg
2 :
* aby a5,
jenoting each of these ratios by k, by multiplying up, substituting in (1),
ind dividing out by k, we obtain
% (byey— Dyes) + dy (Cyi4g — C504) +4 (Agby — A403) =0.
This relation is called the eliminant of the given equations,
Example 3. Solve the equations
az+by+cz=0.
ft yt z=
bea + cay + abz=(b—¢) (6-4) (A—D)..eeererererreerrerrers (3).
From (1) and (2), by cross multiplication,
= =_Y _ *# _, -
b=ee-aa—b ? SUPPOBES
“. e=k(b-c), y=k(c—a), 2=k (a—b).
Substituting in (3),
k {be (b-¢) +. ca (c — a) + ab (a ~ b)} =(b-c) (ca) (a-d),
k {-(b-¢) (¢- a) (a -1)} = (0c) (¢-a) (2-2)
we kal
z=c-b, y=a-¢,z=b-a.
whence10 HIGHER ALGEBRA,
17. If in Art, 16 we put 2 =1, equations (1) and (2) become
azt+by+c,=0,
a,e+by+e,=0;
and (3) becomes
ee a
be, 7 be, - oa, 7 Ca, - a,b, 7 a, ,
Oi = 240,
™ “aha,
Hence any two simultaneous equations involving two un-
knowns in the first degree may be solved by the rule of cross
multiplication.
Ezample. Bolve 52 -8y-1=0, «+2y=12.
By transposition, 5a-3y- 1=0,
w+2y-12=0;
ye
“* 3642 -1+60 1043’
whence ont, ya,
EXAMPLES, I.
1, Find the ratio compounded of
(1) the ratio 2a : 36, and the duplicate ratio of 95? : ab.
(2) the subduplicate ratio of 64 : 9, and the ratio 27 : 56,
2
(3) the duplicate ratio of ee p Ghd , and the ratio 3ax : Qby.
2. Ifv+7 : 2(¢+14) in the duplicate ratio of 5 : 8, find 2.
* 3, Find two numbers in the ratio of 7: 12 so that the greater
exceeds the less by 275.
4, What number must be added to each term of the ratio 5 ; 37
to make it equal to 1 : 3?
& Ife: y=83 ; 4, find the ratio of 7r—4y : Br+y.
6 Ifis (224 —y3) = Tay, find the ratio of 2 + y.RATIO. 11
. @ ie e
1. If Bacup
Qatb? + Baret—5etf a
“BO5+ Bb? — BFF ~ BA
8 If $737 3 prove that S is equal to
b'c+ a4 + Bcd?”
ee
oe qt+r-p r+p-q ptq-r’
shew that ‘(q-1) a+(r-p)y+(p-g)2=0.
to, If 2 —24* _” find the ratios of x: y: &
a-z 2 y’
ll. If yte atu _ aty
shew that _2@+9+2) _ (bte)w+ (cta)y+(atd)z
at+bte be+ca+ab
12, If ey Lt
show that St@ , #40 | tte _(otyte)P+(atb+e)
apa * AEB FLA” (ety tet (arbre?
13, If ay tSe— 22+ 20— y tyne z
shew that oe = 4. 4
2b4+2c-a I+2a—b Ba+2b—c°
WA, Tf (a2 4 b2 +o) (x8 +9229) = (an+dy + c2)%,
shew that w@ra=y:b=z:0
WY 45, If U (my +nz—Le) =m (nz+Le— my) =n (le + my — 02),
ytene _atany _ety-2
om TH
prove
16. Shew that the eliminant of
ax+cy+bz=0, or+by+az=0, br+ay+cz=0,
in @+B+40-3abc=0.
17, Eliminate , y, 2 from the equations
arthy+gz=0, he+by+fe=0, gurfy+c=0.12 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
18, If w=eythz, y=az+cx, z=br+ay,
a yf a
ee 1a 1-8 7 1ra°
19. Given that a(y+z)=2, b(z+2)=y, e(x+y)=2,
prove that be+ca+ab+2abe=1.
Solve the following equations :
20. 32—4y+7z= 0, 21, aty= 4
Qe-y-2= 0, 3r-Qy+1liz= 0,
328 - Y+8=18. w+ 3y8 + 228 = 167.
22, ‘Ty2 + Ben day, 23, 3uvt—2y?+528=0,
Qlyz - 32r=42y, ‘724 — 3y?— 1528=0,
w+2y+3z=19. 5a—4y+72=6.
t m n
m4. If Yan ns b= sca sc= Jame
n
Jann - Jerwe * Sera”
t m n
shew that< — ———— = —————____ = —________,,
(a—b)(e—ab) (b—c)(a—WVbc) (c—a) (b- Vac)
Solve the equations:
25. an+ by+cz=0,
bex+ cay + abz=0,
wy2+ abe (aix + by + 8z)=0,
26. az+by+ce=aiz+ Py+c2=0,
w@+y+2+(b—c)(c—a) (a—b)=0.
27. If a(y+s)=2, b(2+2)=y, c(e+y)=z,
at x Ea
a(1—be) ~b(l=ca a) ~¢(1—ab)"
2 If axthy+gz=0, het byt+fe=0, grtfy+cz=0,
prove that
prove that
q) ef 8
be— ft capi ab
(2) (bo-F?) (ca - 9*) (ab— 23) = ( fy — ch) (gh—af)) (hf - bg).CHAPTER II.
PROPORTION.
18. Derinition. When two ratios are equal, the four
quantities composing them are said to be proportionals. Thus
if ; =) then a, b,c, d are proportionals, This is expressed by
saying that a is to b as c is to d, and the proportion is written
:d;
or id.
The terms a and d are called the extremes, b and c the means.
19. If four quantities are in proportion, the product of the
extremes is equal to the product of the means.
Let a, b, c, d be the proportionals.
Then by definition
whence ad = be.
Hence if any three terms of a proportion are given, the
fourth may be found. Thus if a, ¢, d are given, then b = =
Conversely, if there are any four quantities, a, b, c, d, such
that ad = be, then a, 6, c, d are proportionals ; a and d being the
extremes, b and c the means; or vice versa,
20. Derinition. Quantities are said to be in continued
proportion when the first is to the second, as the second is
to the third, as the third to the fourth; and so on. Thus
a, b, c, d,...... are in continued proportion when
a a
6 oe aor14 HIGHER ALGEBRA,
1f three quantities a, 6, ¢ are in continued proportion, then
a:b=b:c; /
ac =". [Art. 18.]
Tn this case 6 is said to be a mean proportional between a and
¢; and c is said to be a third proportional to a and 6.
21. If three quantities are proportionals the first is to the
third in the duplicate ratio of the first to the second.
Let the three quantities be a, b, c; then ; =.
Now a_a,b
e be
mom amar
“oO
that is, aicaa':B.
Tt will be seen that this proposition is the same as the definition
of duplicate ratio given in Euclid, Book v.
22. Ifa:b=e:d and e: f=g:h, then will ae : bf=cg : dh.
For po gand oa $s
uo
RF ah
or ae: bf=cg: dh.
Cor. If a:b=e:d,
and b:aadiy,
then Gix=ery.
This is the theorem known as ex equali in Geometry.
23, If four quantities a, 6, c, d form a proportion, many
other proportions may be deduced by the properties of fractions.
The results of these operations are very useful, and some of
them are often quoted by the annexed names borrowed from
Geometry. .PROPORTION. 15
(1) If a:b=c:d, then b:a=d:c. [Znvertendo.]
For 2 therefore 1 +
ba a
that is
or 6:
(2) If a:b=0:4d, the
For ad = be; therefore
e
=bid, [Alternando.]
that is,
or a:c=b:id.
(3) Ifa:b=c:d, then a+b:b=c+d:d. [Componendo.]
For =p therefore Ftla=S+hs
F a+b_c+d,
that is Sr
or atb:b=ct+d:d.
(4) Ifa:b=e:d, then a-b:b=c-d:d, [Ditidendo.]
a c
For i = 53 therefore #-1=5-1;
f a-b_ c-d
that is, er ae
or a-b:b=c-d:d.
(5) If a:b=e:d, then a+b:a-b=c+d:c-d
at+b_c+d
For by (3) “yg
-~b_c-d
and by (4) +r
pone a+b c+d
. by division, ab era?
or a+b:a-b=c+d:e-d.
This proposition is usually quoted as Componendo and Div
0.
Several other proportions may be proved in a similar way.16 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
24. The results of the preceding article are the algebraica
equivalents of some of the propositions in the fifth book of Euclid
and the student is advised to make himself familiar with then
in their verbal form. For example, dividendo may be quoted a
follows :
When there are four proportionals, the excess of the first abov
the second ia to the second, as the excess of the third above th
fourth is to the fourth.
25. ‘We shall now compare the algebraical definition of pre
portion with that given in Euclid.
Euclid’s definition is as follows :
Four quantities are said to be proportionals when if any equt
multiples whatever be taken of the first and third, and also an;
equimultiples whatever of the second and fourth, the multiple o
the third is greater than, equal to, or less than the multiple of th
fourth, according as the multiple of the first is greater than, equa
to, or less than the multiple of the second.
In algebraical symbols the definition may be thus stated :
Four quantities a, 8, c, d@ are in proportion when po=g
according as pa = qb, pand q being any positive integers whatever
I. To deduce the geometrical definition of proportion fron
the algebraical definition.
Since 5 = 5) by multiplying both sides by?, we obtain’
pa _ pe,
gb gd?
hence, from the properties of fractions,
pee q@ according as pa=qb,
which proves the proposition.
II. To deduce the algebraical definition of proportion frox
the geometrical definition.
Given that pe = gd according as pu = 6, to prove
¢
7
oaPROPORTION, 17
1S is not equal to oa one of them must be the greater.
Suppose oo ; then it will be possible to find some fraction £
which lies between them, g and p being positive integers. P
Hence Seles saecereeteecees 1
: a7) Q),
and See ccecccceetetaneteees 2).
oe @)
From (1) pa>qgo;
from (2) pe**G, therefore G>H; that is, the arithmetic, geometric, and
harmonic means between any two positive quantities are in descending
order of magnitude,
66. Miscellaneous questions in the Progressions afford scope
for skill and ingenuity, the solution being often neatly effected
by some special artifice. The student will find the following
hints useful.
1. If the same quantity be added to, or subtracted from, all
the terms of an A P., the resulting terms will form an A.P. with
the same common difference as before. (Art. 38.]
2. If all the terms of an A.P. be multiplied or divided by
the same quantity, the resulting terms will form an A.P., but
with a new common difference, [Art. 38.]
3. If all the terms of a G.P. be multiplied or divided by the
same quantity, the resulting terms will form a G.P. with the
same common ratio as before. [Art. 51.]
4. Ifa, b,¢,d... are in G.P., they are also in continued pro-
portion, sizice, by definition,
abe
zye-=
Sinvolad Gaaae
sim
Conversely, a series of quantities in continued proportion may
be represented by a, x7, ar",...... 5
Example 1. If a’, 27, c? are in A.P., shew that b+c, ct+a, a+b are
in H.P,
By adding ab +ac + bc to each term, we see that
@+abt+tactbe, b?+bat+be+ac, c?+ca+cbh+ab are in A.P.;
thatis (a +B) (a+¢), (b-+e)(b-+a), (c+) (¢+b) are in A. P.
«'., dividing each term by (a +b) (b+¢) (¢+a),
1 1 1 F
ye’ aya’ appre AP.;
that is, b+¢,c+a, a+b arein H.P.
AHA 450 HIGHER ALGEBRA,
Example 2. If 1 the last term, d the common difference, and s the sum
of n terms of an A. P. be connected by the equation 8ds=(d +203, prove that
d=2a.
Since the given relation is true for any number of terms, put n=1; then
a=les,
Hence by substitution, 8ad=(d + 2a)*,
or (4-2a)*=0
o. d=2a,
Ezample 8. If the p*, q",r,s* terms of an A.P. are in G. P., shew that
P-% 4-7, 7-8 are in G.P.
With the usual notation we have
[Art. 66. (4)];
.. each of these ratios
_ {a+(p-1) 4} -{a+(q-1) 4} _ {a+(q-1) d} - {a+(r-1) 4}
{a+ (q-1) 4} - {a+ (r—1) a} {a+ (7-1) a} - {a4 (6-1) a}
Hence p-q, 9-1, 7-8 are in G.P.
67. The numbers 1, 2, 3,...... are often referred to as the
natural numbers; the n‘” term of the series is n, and the sum of
the first n terms iss (n +1).
68. Zo find the sum of the squares of the first n natural
numbers.
Let the sum be denoted by S; then
Sal 4 24 34 000... +n'.
We have n? — (n—1)'= 3n*- 3n+1;
and by changing n into »— 1,
(n- 1)? — (n — 2)° = 3(n— 1)? -3(n-1) +1;
similarly (n—2)°— (n — 3)? = 3(n — 2)*— 3(n— 2) +1;
3° 27 =3.3°-3.34+1;
-1?=3.2°-3.24+1;
_ 1-0? =3.17-3.14+1.THE NATURAL NUMBERS. 51
Hence, by addition,
n? = 3(17 + 274+ 3% +... +m) —-3(142434+...4¢n) tn
=35- 2+),
n+ n(n)
=n(n+1)(n—1 +3);
_ (n+) (2n4+1)
ae.
o. 88=n—
a
69. To find the swum of the cubes of the first n natural
numbers.
Let the sum be denoted by S; then
Sa 14243 +. tn%
We have n‘— (n—1)* =4n? — 6n? +4n-1;
(n—1)* - (n- 2)* =4 (n— 1)? - 6 (n— 1)? +4 (n—1)-1;
(n— 2) — (n— 3)*=4 (n— 2)? - 6 (n—2)° +4 (n—2)-1;
3*— 24= 4. 37-6. 3°44.3-1;
8 14=4,2°-6,.979+4.2-1;
1*-0*=4,1°-6.1°+4.1-1.
Hence, by addition,
n= 45-6 (194+ 2%+...4n%)+4(1424+.. tn)—n;
o 4S=nt+nt6 (184+ 2°40. 4n")-4(1424...4¢0)
=nt+ntn (n+ 1) (204 1) —2n(n+1)
=n(n+1) (nt —-n+14+2n4+1-2)
=n(n+1)(n*+n);
; gam (ntl _ {ree Dy
at coerce eno aeaiia
Thus the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is
equal to the square of the sum of these numbers.
The formule of this and the two preceding articles may be
applied to find the sum of the squares, and the sum of the cubes
of the terms of the series
C @ 240, a420,.........
4—252 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
70. In referring to the results we have just proved it will
be convenient to introduce a notation which the student will fre-
quently meet with in Higher Mathematics. We shall denote the
series
14+24+3+4...+0 by 3n;
174294 3% +... +n" by Sn’;
1°4+2°4+3°+... 40" by Sn’;
where % placed before a term signifies the sum of all terms of
which that term is the general type.
Example 1, Sum the series
1.24+2.3+43.4+...t0 n terms,
n term= eee =n*+n; and by writing down each term in a
imine form we shall have two columns, one consisting of the first n natural
nambers, and the other of their squares.
.. the sam=2Zn*+ In
n(n+1)(2n+1) n(n+1)
sae
__ %(n+1) (n+2)
2:
Ezample 2, Sum to n terms the series whose n™ term is 2*-! + 8n° - 6n*,
Let the sum be denoted by S; then
S=Z 2" 48En3-6En"
2-1, San 41)? _ Gn (n+) Qn+])
2-1 4 6
~ Lin (n+1){3n(n+1)- (an+1)}
=2"~14n (n+1) (2n?-1).
EXAMPLES. VI. a.
1, Find the fourth term in each of the following series:
(1) 2 8, 34,..
(2) 2, 2$, 3,...
(3) % 2b, 3h...
2, Insert two harmonic means between . and ne
3 Insert four harmonic means between 2 3 and 7 5EXAMPLES ON THE PROGRESSIONS, 53
4. If 12 and 9% are the geometric and harmonic means, respect-
ively, between tao tunsbers find them.
5. If the harmonic mean between two quantities is to their geo-
metric means as 12 to 13, prove that the quantities are in the ratio
of 4 to 9.
6. Ifa, 6, ¢ be in H. P., shew that
. a:a—b=ate:a-c
7. If the m" term of a H. P. be equal to n, and the n term be
equal to m, prove that the (m+n) term is equal to ws :
8. If the p", ¢**, r** terms of a H. P. be a, b, ¢ respectively, prove
that "q-n)be+ (r—p) cat (p—g) ab=0. ,
9. If6 is the harmonic mean between a and ¢, prove that
1 1 11
b-atb—cmate:
Find the sum of n terms of the series whose n“* term is
10, 3n?-n. 11. n43 n, 12, n(n+2).
13, n*(2n43). 14, 38-2, 15. 3(4"42n?)—4n3,
16. If the (m+1)", (n+1)*, and (r+1)" terms of an A. P. are in
G. P., and m,n,r are in H. P., shew that the ratio of the common
difference to the first term in the A. P. is ~2.
17. If 1, m, mare three numbers in G. P., prove that the first term
of an A. P. whose 2, m, and x“ terms are in. P. is to the common
difference as m+1 to 1.
18. If the sum of n terms of a series be a+bn-+cn’, find the n
term and the nature of the series.
19, Find the sum of x terms of the series whose n“ term is
An (n3 +1) —(6n?+1).
20. If between any two quantities there be inserted two arithmetic
means A,, A,; two geometric means @,, @,; and two harmonic means
H,, Hy; shew that GG, : H,H,=A,+A, : H,+Aj.
21. If p be the first of » arithmetic means between two numbers,
and g the of x harmonic means between the same two numbers,
prove that the value of g cannot lie between p and a Dp.
22. Find the sum of the cubes of the terms of an A. P., and chew
that it is exactly divisible by the sum of the terms.54 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Pires or SHor anp SHELLS.
71. To find the number of shot arranged in a complete
pyramid on a square base.
Suppose that each side of the base contains n shot; then the
number of shot in the lowest layer is n*; in the next it is (n—1)*;
in the next (n—-2)*; and so on, up to a single shot at the
top.
wo. Santt(n-1)+(n—-2)+...41
= n+ Gn+) [Art 68,]
72. To find the number of shot arranged in a complete
pyramid the base of which is an equilateral triangle.
Suppose that each side of the base contains n shot; then the
number of shot in the lowest layer is
n+ (m—1)+(m-2)+...... +1;
that is, = (us 1) or pnt +n).
In this result write n — 1, —2,...... for m, and we thus obtain
the number of shot in the 2nd, 3rd,...... layers.
o. S=}h (Sn? + Bn)
_n(nt+1)(n+2)
sao
[Art. 70.]
73. To find the number of shot arranged in a complete
pyramid the base of which is a rectangle.
Let m and n be the number of shot in the long and short side
respectively of the base.
The top layer consists of a single row of m—(n—1), or
m—n+1 shot;
in the next layer the number is 2(m—n +2);
in the next layer the number is 3 (m —n + 3) ;
and so on;
~
in the lowest layer the number is n(m—n +m).PILES OF SHOT AND SHELLS. 55
o. S=(m—n+1)4+2(m—n + 2)4+3(m—n+ 3) +... +n(m—n+n)
=(m—n)(1+24+34...4n)+ (19+ 294+ 3%+... 40%)
_(m—n)n(n+1) n(m+1) (2n+1)
QB
= ae) {3 (m—n) + 2n4 1}
_ 2 (n+1) (3m-n+1)
=e
74. To find the number of shot arranged in an incomplete
pyramid the base of which is a rectangle.
Let a and 6 denote the number of shot in the two sides of the
top layer, n the number of layers.
In the top layer the number of shot is ab ;
in the next layer the number is (a + 1) (6 + 1) ;
in the next layer the number is (a + 2) (b + 2) ;
and so on;
in the lowest layer the number is (a +n — 1) (b+ -1)
or ab + (a + b)(n-1) + (n—1)*.
o. S= abn + (a+b) 3% (n—1)+ 3 (n—- 1)?
= abn U(r), (mon@ noi s))
=F (Gab + 3 (a + 8) (n- 1) +(n—1) (2n— 1}
75. In numerical examples it is generally easier to use the
following method.
Ezample. Find the number of shot in an incomplete square pile of 16
courses, having 12 shot in each side of the top.
If we place on the given pile a square pile having 11 shot in each side of
the base, we obtain a complete square pile of 27 courses; .
27 x 28 x 55 _
“pe
11x12x23_
3 =
and number of shot in the complete pile= 6930; [Art. 71.]
algo number of shot in the added pile=
506 ;
+, number of shot in the incomplete pile = 6424.56 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES. VI. b.
Find the number of shot in
1, A square pile, having 15 shot in each side of the base,
2, A triangular pile, having 18 shot in each side of the base.
3. A rectangular pile, the length and the breadth of the base con-
taining 50 and 28 shot respectively.
4, An incomplete triangular pile, a side of the base having 25 shot,
and a side of the top 14,
5. An incomplete square pile of 27 courses, having 40 shot in each
side of the base.
6, The number of shot in a complete rectangular pile is 24395; if
hah are 34 shot in the breadth of the base, how many are there in its
ngth 7
7. The number of shot in the top layer of a square pile is 169,
and in the lowest layer is 1089; how many shot does the pile contain ?
8. Find the number of shot in a complete rectangular pile of
15 courses, having 20 shot in the longer side of its base.
9. Find the number of shot in an incomplete rectangular pile,
the number of shot in the sides of its upper course being 11 and 18,
and the number in the shorter side of its lowest course being 30.
10, What is the number of shot required to complete a ea
pile having 15 and 6 shot in the longer and shorter aide, respectively, of
its upper course?
11, The number of shot in a trian pile is greater by 150 than
half the number of shot in a square pile, the number of layers in each
being the same; find the number of shot in the lowest layer of the tri-
angular pile.
12, Find the number of shot in an incomplete square pile of 16
courses when the number of shot in the upper course is 1005 less than
in the lowest course.
13. Shew that the number of shot in a square pile is one-fourth the
number of shot in a triangular pile of double the number of courses.
14, If the number of shot in a triangular pile is to the number of
shot in a square pile of double the number of courses as 13 to 175; find
the number of shot in each pile,
15. The value of a triangular pile of 16 lb. shot is £51; if the
value of iron be 10s. 6d. per cwt., find the number of shot in the
lowest layer.
16. If from a complete square pile of courses a triangular pile of
the same number of courses be formed ; shew that the remaining shot
will be just sufficient to form another triangular pile, and find the
_ number of shot in its side,CHAPTER VII.
SCALES OF NOTATION.
76, The ordinary numbers with which we are acquainted in
Arithmetic are expressed by means of multiples of powers of 10;
for instance
25=2x10+5;
4705 =4 x 10°+7 x 10°+0x10+5.
This method of representing numbers is called the common or ~
denary scale of notation, and ten is said to be the radix of the
scale. The symbols employed in this system of notation are the
nine digits and zero,
In like manner any number other than ten may be taken as
the radix of a scale of notation ; thus if 7 is the radix, a number
expressed by 2453 represents 2x 7°+4x79+5x7+3; and in
this scale no digit higher than 6 can occur.
Again in a scale whose radix is denoted by r the above
number 2453 stands for 2r° + 4r*+57r+3. More generally, if in
the scale whose radix is r we denote the digits, beginning with
that in the units’ place, by a,, a,, a,,...a,; then the number so
formed will be represented by
arta, +a, r+... +4artart+a,,
where the coefficients a,, a,_,,...a, are integers, all less than 1, of
which any one or more after the first may be zero.
Hence in this scale the digits are + in number, their values
ranging from 0 to r—1.
77, The names Binary, Ternary, Quaternary, Quinary, Senary,
Septenary, Octenary, Nonary, Denary, Undenary, and Duodenary
are used to denote the scales corresponding to the values two,
three,...twelve of the radix,58 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In the undenary, duodenary,... scales we shall require symbols
to represent the digits which are greater than nine, It is unusual
to consider any scale higher than that with radix twelve; when
necessary we shall employ the symbols ¢, e, 7’ as digits to denote
‘ten’, ‘eleven’ and ‘twelve’.
It is especially worthy of notice that in every scale 10 is the
symbol not for ‘ten’, but for the radix itself.
78. The ordinary operations of Arithmetic may be performed
in any scale; but, bearing in mind that the successive powers of
the radix are no longer powers of ten, in determining the carryiny
Jgures we must not divide by ten, but by the radix of the scale
in question.
Example 1. In the scale of eight subtract 371532 from 530225, and
multiply the difference by 27.
530225 186473
871532 27
136473 1226235
7 276166
4200115
Explanation, After the first figure of the subtraction, since we cannot
take 3 from 2 we add8; thus we have to take 3 from ten, which leaves 7; then
6 from ten, which leaves 4; then 2 from eight which leaves 6; and so on.
Again, in multiplying by 7, we have
3 x T=twenty one=2 x 8+5;
we therefore put down 5 and carry 2.
Next 7x7+2=fifty one=6 x 8+3;
put down 3 and carry 6; and so on, until the multiplication is completed.
In the addition,
84+6=nine=1x8+1;
we therefore put down 1 and carry 1.
Similarly 24+6+41=nine=1x8+1;
and 6+1+1=eight=1x8+0;
and so on.
Example 2. Divide 15et20 by 9 in the scale of twelve.
9)15¢t20
1¢e96...6.
Explanation. Since 15=1x T+5=seventeen=1x9+8,
we put down 1 and carry 8.
Also 8 x T +e=one hundred and seven=e x 9+8;
ve therefore put down e and carry 8; and 80 on.SCALES OF NOTATION. 59
Ezample 8. Find the square root of 442641 in the scale of seven.
449641 (546
34
1384/1026
602
1416/12441
12441
EXAMPLES. VIL a.
Add together 23241, 4032, 300421 in the scale of five.
Find the sum of the nonary numbers 303478, 150732, 264305.
Subtract 1732765 from 3673124 in the scale of eight.
From 34756 take 2e46¢2 in the duodenary scale.
. Divide the difference between 1131315 and 235143 by 4 in the
scale of six.
6, Multiply 6431 by 35 in the scale of seven.
7. Find the product of the nonary numbers 4685, 3483.
8. Divide 102432 by 36 in the scale of seven.
9. In the ternary scale subtract 121012 from 11022201, and divide
the result by 1201.
10. Find the square root of 300114 in the quinary scale.
11. Find the square of tttt in the scale of eleven.
12. Find the G. C. M. of 2541 and 3102 in the scale of seven.
13. Divide 14332216 by 6541 in the septenary scale.
14. Subtract 20404020 from 103050301 and find the square root of
the result in the octenary scale.
15. Find the square root of ee¢001 in the scale of twelve.
16, The following numbers are in the scale of six, find by the ordi-
nary rules, without transforming to the denary scale:
(1) the G. C, M. of 31141 and 3102;
(2) tho L. C. M. of 23, 24, 30, 32, 40, 41, 43, 50.
oP epr
79. To express a given integral number in any proposed scale.
Let W be the given number, and r the radix of the proposed
scale.
Let a,, a, @,,...a, be the required digits by which WV is to be
expressed, beginning with that in the units’ place; then
Naas" +a," "'+... +a +ar+a,
We have now to find the values of a,, @,, dg)...60 , HIGHER ALGEBRA,
Divide NW by r, then the remainder is a,, and the quotient is
a +O, + FO + Oy.
If this quotient is divided by r, the remainder is a, ;
if the next quotient ...... eeeeerenl te seteeesssceessscenees Ogi
and so on, until there is no further quotient.
Thus all the required digits a,, a,, a,,...a, are determined by
successive divisions by the radix of the proposed scale.
Example 1, Express the denary number 5218 in the scale of seven.
7)6218
1)744......5
7)106......2
Die 1
Bl
Thus ° 6218 =2 x 44+1x P41 x P4+2x7+5;
and the number required is 21125.
Example 2. Transform 21125 from scale seven to scale eleven.
attas
«*. the required number is 820¢.
Explanation. In the first line of work
21=2x7+1 = fifteen=1xe+4;
therefore on dividing by e we put down 1 and carry 4.
Next 4x 7+1=twenty nine=2xe+7;
therefore we put down 2 and carry 7; and so on.
Example 3. Reduce 7215 from scale twelve to scale ten by working in
scale ten, and verify the result by working in the scale twelve,
7215
12
86
In scale
of ten 2.
1033
12
12401
Thus the result is 12401 in each case,
Explanation. 7215 in scale twelve means 7 x 123+ 2x 1274+1x12+65 in
scale ten. The calculation is most readily effected by writing this expression
in the form [{(7x 12+ 2)}x12+1]x12+5; thus we multiply 7 by 12, and
add 2 to the product; then we multiply 86 by 12 and add 1 to the product;
-an 1083 by 12 and add 5 to the product.SCALES OF NOTATION. 61
80. Hitherto we have only discussed whole numbers; but
fractions may also be expressed in any scale of notation ; thus
ap 2,5. tae.
25 in scale ten denotes 75 + 53;
+25 in scale six denotes + é 8
‘25 in scale r denotes 2 ao
ror
Fractions thus expressed in a form analogous to that of
ordinary decimal fractions are called radix-fractions, and the point
is called the radix-point. The general type of such fractions in
scale r is
4 8, 4
fry 7a 4 28 ;
ett Bt ee A
where 4,, },, b,,... are integers, all less than 7, of which any one
or more may be zero.
81. To express a given radix fraction in any proposed scale.
Let F be the given fraction, and r the radix of the proposed
scale.
Let 5,, 5,, 6,,... be the required digits beginning from the
left ; then
6 4
ra OO
‘We have now to find the values of 6,, 3,, 3,,......
Multiply both sides of the equation by r; then
a , 4,
rF=b, ++ 4+ seeaee 3
Hence 5, is equal to the integral part of r¥'; and, if we denote
the fractional part by F,, we have
Multiply again by +; then, as before, 8, is the integral part
of r¥; and similarly by successive multiplications by r, each of
the digits may be found, and the fraction expressed in the pro-
posed scale,62 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If in the successive multiplications by r any one of the
products is an integer the process terminates at this stage, and
the given fraction can be expressed by a finite number of digits.
But if none of the products is an integer the process will never
terminate, and in this case the digits recur, forming a radix-
fraction analogous to a recurring decimal.
Example 1, Express i as a radix fraction in scale six.
. . 4.5,1,38
.. the required fraction=5 + gt gat gi
= 14513,
Ezample 2. Transform 16064-24 from scale eight to scale five,
‘We must treat the integral and the fractional parts separately,
5)16064 124
5)2044...0 5
54 TH
5)71... 5
5)18 er
i 5
+e
5
024
After this the digits in the fractional part recur; hence the required
number is 212340-i240,
82. In any scale of notation of which the radix: is r, the sum
of the digits of any whole number divided by r—1 will leave the
same remainder as the whole number divided by r — 1.
Let WV denote the number, a,, a,, @,,......a, the digits begin-
ning with that in the units’ place, and S the sum of the digits;
then
Naa,tartagr +... a_ tag";
Sasa, +0, +, 4 04,
ni + @,
: W-S=a, (r-1) +a, (r*—1)+ sta,_, ("= 1) +a, (r"-1).SCALES OF NOTATION. 63
Now every term on the right hand side is divisible by r— 1;
V-S .
“Sry =an integer ;
f NV Ss
that is, mat ,
where J is some integer ; which proves the proposition.
Hence & number in scale r will be divisible by r— 1 when the
sum of its digits is divisible by r—1.
83. By taking +=10 we learn from the above proposition
that a number divided by 9 will leave the same remainder as the
sum of its digits divided by 9. The rule known as “ casting out
the nines” for testing the accuracy of multiplication is founded
on this property.
_ The rule may be thus explained :
Let two numbers be represented by 94+6 and 9c+d, and
their product by P; then .
P= Blac + 9be + 9ad + bd.
P a bd
Hence , has the same remainder as > and therefore the
sum of the digits of P, when divided by 9, gives the same
remainder as the sum of the digits of bd, when divided by 9. If
on trial this should not be the case, the multiplication must have
been incorrectly performed. In practice 5 and d are readily
found from the sums of the digits of the two numbers to be
multiplied together.
Ezample. Can the product of 831256 and 8427 be 263395312?
The sums of the digits of the multiplicand, multiplier, and product are 17,
21, and 84 respectively; again, the sums of the digits of these three numbers
are 8, 38, and 7, whence bd=8x8=24, which has 6 for the sum of the
digits; thus we have two different remainders, 6 and 7, and the multiplication
is incorrect.
84. If N denote any number in the scale of r, and D denote
the difference, supposed positive, between the sums of the digits in the
odd and the even places ; then N-—D or N+D is a multiple of
r+l.64 HIGHER ALGEBRA,
Let a,, a,,@,,......@, denote the digits beginning with that
in the units’ place; then
Nea, tartar tar t+... tar +ar.
o. N-a,+4,-a,+4,-... =a, (r +1) +a, (r*-1) +4, (° +1)+...;
and the last term on the right will be a, (r"+1) or a, (r*— 1)
according as ” is odd or even. ‘Thus every term on the right is
divisible by r+ 1; hence
N-(a,-4,+4,-4,+......) 7
oT an integer.
Now a,—G@,+4,-@,+......=%D;
NwxD. ‘
are rH is an integer ;
which proves the proposition.
Cor. If the sum of the digits in the even places is equal to
the sum of the digits in the odd places, D = 0, and W is divisible
by r+1.
Ezample 1. Prove that 4°41 is 9 square number in any scale of notation
whose radix is greater than 4,
Let r be the radix; then
4.1 1\°
aatadyS 45 = (2+) :
thus the given number is the square of 21.
Ezample 2, In what scale is the denary number 2°4375 represented by
2:13?
Let r be the scale; then
1 3 _ous75=0e,
245+ {= 24975= 875;
whence Tr* -16r — 48=0;
that is, (Tr +12) (r- 4) =0.
Hence the radix is 4.
Sometimes it is best to use the following method.
Example 3. In what scale will the nonary number 25607 be expreased
by 101215? etl
The required scale must be less than 9, since the new number appears
the greater; also it must be greater than 5; therefore the required scale
must be 6, 7, or 8; and by trial we find that it is 7,SCALES OF NOTATION. . 65
Ezample 4. By working in the duodenary scale, find the height of a
whose volume is 864 cub. ft. 1048 cub, in., and the area of
whose base is 46 sq. ft. 8 sq. in.
The volume is 364} $4 cub. ft., which expressed in the scale of twelve is
264-734 cub. ft.
The area is 46,%, sq. ft., which expressed in the scale of twelve is 8t-08,
‘We have therefore to divide 264-734 by 3-08 in the scale of twelve.
3t08)26473-4(7-e
22248
36274
36274
Thus the height is 7ft. 1lin.
SE ANMSAPepy
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18,
EXAMPLES. VII. b.
Express 4954 in the scale of seven.
Express 624 in the scale of five. _
Express 206 in the binary scale.
Express 1458 in the scale of three.
Express 5381 in powers of nine.
Transform 212231 from scale four to scale five.
Express the duodenary number 398¢ in powers of 10.
Transform 6¢12 from scale twelve to scale eleven.
Transform 213014 from the senary to the nonary scale.
Transform 23861 from scale nine to scale eight.
Transform 400803 from the nonary to the quinary scale.
Express the septenary number 20665152 in powers of 12.
Transform ttteee from scale twelve to the common scale.
Express 2 as a radix fraction in the septenary scale.
10
Transform 17:15625 from scale ten to scale twelve.
Transform 200211 from the ternary to the nonary scale.
Transform 71-03 from the et to the octenary scale.
Express the septenary fraction 1552 eis adenary vulgar fraction
4
in its lowest terms.
19,
20.
21,
Find the value of -4 and of -42 in the scale of seven.
In what scale is the denary number 8 denoted by 2227
In what scale is the denary fraction 2°. [58 5 denoted by (03023
HH A, . s66 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
92. Find the radix of the scale in which 554 represents the square
of 24,
23, In what scale is 511197 denoted by 1746335?
24, Find the radix of the scale in which the numbers denoted by
479, 698, 907 are in arithmetical progression.
25. In what scale are the radix-fractions ‘16, ‘20, ‘28 in geometric
progression?
26, The number 212542 is in the scale of six; in what scale will it
be denoted by 17486?
27, Shew that 148-84 is a perfect square in every scale in which the
radix is greater than eight.
28. Shew that 1234321 is a perfect square in any scale whose radix
is greater than 4; and that the square root is always expressed by the
same four digits.
29, Prove that 1:331 is a perfect cube in any scale whose radix is
greater than three.
80, Find which of the weights 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,... lbs, must be used to
weigh one ton.
81. Find which of the weights 1, 3, 9, 27, 81,... lbs. must be used
to weigh ten thousand lbs., not more than one of each kind being used
but in either scale that is necessary.
32, Shew that 1367631 is a perfect cube in every scale in which the
radix is greater than seven.
33, Prove that in the ordinary scale a number will be divisible by
8 if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by eight.
34. Prove that the square of rrzr in the scale of s is rxrg0001, where
9,7, 8 are any three consecutive integers,
35, If any number J be taken in the scale r, and a new number WV’
be formed by altering the order of its digits in any way, shew that the
difference between WV and WV’ is divisible by r—1.
36, If a number has an even number of digits, shew that it is
divisible by r+1 if the digits equidistant from each end are the same.
87. If in the ordinary scale S, be the sum of the digits of a number
WN, and 3S, be the sum of the digits of the number 3, prove that the
difference between S, and S, is a multiple of 3,
38, Shew that in the ordinary scale any number formed by
writing down three digits and then repeating them in the same order
is a multiple of 7, 11, and 13,
_ 39, In a scale whose radix is odd, shew that the sum of the
digits of any number will be odd if the number be odd, and even if
the number be even.
40, If n be odd, and a number in the denary scale be formed
by writing down n digits and then repeating them in the same order,
shew that it will be divisible by the number formed by the n digits,
and also by 9090...9091 containing n- 1 digits, .CHAPTER VIII.
SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES.
85. Inthe Elementary Algebra, Art. 272, it is proved that
‘the denominator of any expression of the form Jord can be
rationalised by multiplying the numerator and the denominator
by ,/b— ,/e, the surd conjugate to the denominator.
Similarly, in the case of a fraction of the form orgerga ,
where the denominator involves three quadratic surds, we may by
two operations render that denominator rational.
For, first multiply. both numerator and denominator by
b+ J/e—J/d; the denominator becomes (/b+,/c)*—(,/d)* or
b+c-—d+2,/bc. Then multiply both numerator and denominator
by (6+¢-d)—2 Jbc; the denominator becomes (5 + ¢ - d)*— 4be,
which is a rational quantity.
Example. Simplify EE 5
. 12 (84/5 -+2n/2)
The expression =G+ are ae
12 (844/58 + 2n/2)
- 6+6/5
2 B+n/5+ 2n/2) (5-1)
(V5 +1) (5-1)
_242n/5-+2/10~ 2/2
ater Ne
=14/5-+/10- 4/2.
5—268 HIGHER ALGEBRA,
86. To find the factor which will rationalise any given bino-
mial surd.
Case I. Suppose the given surd is 7/a—,/b.
Let Y/a=a, Yb=y, and let n be the t.c.m, of p and g; then
a" and y are both rational.
Now 2*—y" is divisible by 2—y for all values of n, and
a my" = (e—y) (a +a" yrey+ een +y"").
Thus the rationalising factor is
a T* + of 8y + oP 8g? eo... +95
and the rational product is a" — y".
Case II. Suppose the given surd is 2/a + 2/b.
Let a, y, n have the same meanings as before; then
(1) If n is even, x" — y" is divisible "ve a+y, and
ay" = (at y) (a — a ty to. ay"*—y"").
. Thus the ae factor is
ay te tayo;
and the rational roel is 2" — ‘¥.
(2) If m is odd, x" + y* is divisible by x+y, and
at y= (ety) (ee a fy to, — ay" +"),
Thus the rationalising factor is
and the rational product is a" + y*.
Example 1. Find the factor which will rationalise ,/3 + 2/5.
2 1
Let <=3?, y=5%; then 2‘ and y® are both rational, and
a8 y= (wy) (28 — aly tay? — ay? + nyt 8);
thus, substituting for z and y, the required factor is
B42 8 2 3 3 1
3? — 82, 534 3? . 58 38, 584.87, 53 — 58,
5 2 3 3 laos
or. 82-9. 53437, 58-15 438, 535i
6 6
4nd the rational product ia 3 - 53 = 3? - 5°=2,SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES, 69
14 as
Example 2, Express (83498) = (5i_98)
as an equivalent fraction with a rational denominator.
1
Sty; then since 2!—yt=(—y) (2+ fy +2y74+y3)
1 1 1
To rationalise the denominator, which is equal to 5?-84, put 5?=2,
2, 212 2 3 8
the required factor is 53+ 53. 34+ 53. 844. 34;
4 4
and the rational denominator is 5?— 84=5?- 8=22.
(Bro) a8 shad. del
. the expression = 5+ — +57, 3443
4 see WH 203 3
_ 57+2. 57, 8442. 57. 3442.57. 84434
~ 22
3 1 2 1 3
_ 14459, 8445 . 874 57. 34
- ll
87. We have shewn in the Elementary Algebra, Art. 277,
how to find the square root of a binomial quadratic surd. We
may sometimes extract the square root of an expression contain-
ing more than two quadratic surds, such as a+ /b+ /ce+ /d.
Assume Ja+ Jb+Je+ Jd=Ju+Jyt J;
atlb+ for fdaatryte+2,/ay +2 Jaat2 Jyz.
Ifthen 2 ,Jzy=Jb, 2fzz= Jo, 2./yz= Jd,
and if, at the same time, the values of a, y, z thus found satisfy
a +y+z=a, we shall have obtained the required root.
Example. Find the square root of 21 — 4,/5 + 8,/3 - 4,/15.
Assume = 21 - 4.5 + 88-415 =z + /y-W/23
we 21-4) /5 +8)/8 - 4/1 =a ty +2 +2n/ zy — Qn) xe — 2n/ yz.
Put 2n/ zy =8)/3, Infzz =4/15, 2n/yz= 4/5;
by multiplication, zyz=240; that is /zyz=4,/15;
whence it follows that ,/z=2,/3, /y=2, /#=,/5.
And since these values satisfy the equation x+y +2=21, the required
root is 3/3+3-/5. 2 ,70 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
88. If Jat /b=x+ Jy, then will t/a Jb=x- Jy.
For, by cubing, we obtain
a+ Jb =a? + 3a? Jy + 3ayty Jy.
Equating rational and irrational parts, we have
aaa + 3xy, /b=32" Jy+y Jy;
oe @— b= 2? — 32? /y + 3xy-y Jy5
that is, Ja- Jo=a- Jy.
Similarly, by the help of the Binomial Theorem, Chap. XIII.,
it may be proved that if
Ya+ Jb=a+,/y, then Ja—Jb=x-,/y,
where is any positive integer.
89. By the following method the cube root of an expression
of the form a+ ,/b may sometimes be found.
Suppose Jax fo=a+ Jy;
then Va - Jb=a- Jy.
LP RB a af HY eee eeecccrteteeteeeees (1).
Again, as in the last article,
GHP BEY. eect erect steteeseees (2).
The values of « and y have to be determined from (1) and (2).
In (1) suppose that {/a*—b =c; then by substituting for y in
(2) we obtain
a =a + 3a: (a* —c) ;
that is, 42° — 3cex = a.
If from this equation the value of x can be determined by
trial, the value of y is obtained from y=" — c.
Nore. We do not here assume ,/r+,/y for the cube root, as in the
extraction of the square root; for with this assumption, on cubing we should
have
a+ fb=a/z+Ba/y + 8yJ/zt+ yy,
and since every term on the right hand side is irrational we cannot equate
. 4ational and irrational parts.SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 71
Ezample. Find the cube root of 72 - 82/5.
Assume 872-325 =2-Jy;
then YiB+ 826 = 2+ Jy.
By multiplication, 3/5184—1024x5=a?-y;
that is,
Again 72 — 32,/5 = 23 — 32°, /y + Bay —y/y
whence 72=23 + Bay (2).
From (1) and (2), 72 = 25 + 8x (x?- 4);
that is, a3 —8e=18.
By trial, we find that s=3; hence y=5, and the cube root is 3 - ,/5.
90. When the binomial whose cube root we are seeking
consists of two quadratic surds, we proceed as follows.
Example. Find the cube root of 9,/3 + 11,/2.
JaJrT= x/ ay (8+ 54/3)
=v3a/ 8+ ie we
By proceeding as in the last article, we find that
57, tl 2 2
84 3/5} + 9/33
.*. the required cube root =,/8 (a + J 3)
=N8 +2
91. We add a few harder examples in surds.
Example 1. Express with rational denominator woeri 5
The expression = ——
33-3341
4 ( 3 + 1)
(3841) (3841)
_ (341) ; F |
=33
B71 =85 41,72 HIGHER ALGEBRA,
Ezample 2. Find the square root of
Rle-1) 4/9 Ted,
The expression = 4 {80-842 /@e+1)(e-4)}
= H(2z4+1)+(e-4)+2,/Gz Fi) eH};
hence, by inspection, the square root is
a (Jaz41+ J/2-4).
Example 3. Given ,/5=2-23607, find the value of
v3= Jo __
N24+/7-3)5°
Multiplying numerator and denominator by ,/2,
the expression
EXAMPLES. VIIL a.
Express as equivalent fractions with rational denominator :
1) 2 — v2
* THJ2—,/3 ° " FO4+J/3-5°
1 4 aVatl
Jat b+Va+b Va-1-V2a+Va+1 |
J104+./5-/3 g, W8+v5) (J5-+4/2)
N3+,/10-J5° ° J24+/84+)5 *
Find a factor which will rationalise:
1
7. §3-/2. 8 54-32. 9. ahh
IQ f3-1. 11, 24A/7. WwW Yo- 43.SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 73
Express with rational denominator :
¥3-1 99-98 J2.2/3
13. W341" gorge 1B. F342"
w3 8+ 9/4 27
1 BSI: ms: 1 5:
Find the square root of
19, 16-2,/20-2,/284+2,/35. 20, 2444,/15-4,/21-2,/35,
21, 6+,/12—./24-/8. 22, 5-./10-J15+/6.
23, a4+3b+44+4J/a—4/3b-24/3ab.
A, 214+3./8-6/3—-6,/7— 2/24 - /564+2,/21.
Find the cube root of
25. 10+6,/3. 2%. 384+17/5. 27. 99-70 /2.
2B, 38J14-100/2 29, 54/3+4175. 30. 135,/3-87,/6.
Find the square root of
B81. ate+V/2art+2. 32. 2a—»/3a?— 2Qub — b.
2 ay
33, l+a%+(1+a%+at)?, 34 14+(1-a*) %
35.. Ifa= find the value of 7a? + 11ab — 78°.
1 4.1
a—J3? 924,73?
36, If one, 9433 , find the value of 32°- 5ay + 3y*.
Find the value of
26-15 ./3 6+2V3
a 5 J/2—-V38+5/3 33-19 /3
2 2
39, (28- 10/3)! (744 3) 40, (26415 J/3)3— (26 + 15/3) 3
41, Given ,/5=2-23607, find the value of
10/2/10 +18
V18-V84+N5 J84+V3— 5
Divide 2341430 92 by e—1+2/2.
Find the cube root of 9ab? + (8? + 24a”) »/6?— 3a%.
BB
ati _ 1
44, Bvaluste Ra when Be=Jat7, ’74 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
IMAGINARY QUANTITIES.
92. Although from the rule of signs it is evident that a
negative quantity cannot have a real square root, yet imaginary
quantities represented by symbols of the form ,/—a, ./—1 are of
frequent occurrence in mathematical investigations, and their
use leads to valuable results. We therefore proceed to explain
in what sense such roots are to be regarded.
When the quantity under the radical sign is negative, we can no
longer consider the symbol ,/ as indicating a possible arithmetical
operation ; but just as ,/a may be defined as a symbol which obeys
the relation ,/a x ,/a =a, 80 we shall define ,/—a to be such that
J=ax./-a=-a, and we shall accept the meaning to which this
assumption leads us.
It will be found that this definition will enable us to bring
imaginary quantities under the dominion of ordinary algebraical
rules, and that through their use results may be obtained which
can be relied on with as much certainty as others which depend
solely on the use of real quantities.
93. By definition, J—-1x/-1=-1.
we fa J=1x Ja. J-1=a(-1);
that is, (Ja..J/=1)*=-a.
Thus the product ,/a../—I may be regarded as equivalent to
the imaginary quantity /—a.
94. It will generally be found convenient to indicate the
imaginary character of an expression by the presence of the
symbol ,/—1; thus
Jha fT) 2 FT.
J=Ta! = J 7a? x (=) =a /7 HT.
95. We shall always consider that, in the absence of any
statement to the contrary, of the signs which may be prefixed
before a radical the positive sign is to be taken. But in the use
of imaginary quantities there is one point of importance which
‘serves notice,SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 75
Since (- a) x (—b) =a,
by taking the square root, we have
[ax f=ban fab
Thus in forming the product of ,/— a and ,/—6 it would appear
that either of the signs + or — might be placed before ,/ab.
This is not the case, for
JaaxJ=b=Ja. J=1x¥b.J/=1
= fa (=I)
=~ fab.
96. It is usual to apply the term ‘imaginary’ to all expres-
sions which are not wholly real. Thus a+6,/—1 may be taken
as the general type of all imaginary expressions. Here a and b
are real quantities, but not necessarily rational.
97. In dealing with imaginary quantities we apply the laws
of combination which have been proved in the case of other surd
quantities.
Ezamplel. a+b)/-14(c+d./-1)=axc+(bad)/—1.
Example 2. The product of a+ b./—i and c+d./-1
=(a+b/=1) (e+4,/=7)
=ac—bd + (be-+ad) J =1.
98. Ifa+bJ-1=0, thena=0, and b=0.
For, if a+bJ/-1=0,
then b/-i=-a;
o -Baa’;
- &+8=0.
Now a? and 6° are both positive, therefore their sum cannot
be zero unless each of them is separately zero; that is, a=0,
and b=0.
99. Ifa+b/—-I=c+d/-l, thena=c, andb=d.
For, by transposition, a —¢ +(b—d),/-1=0;
therefore, by the last article, a—c=0, and b-d=0,; #
that is a=c, and 6=d,76 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Thus in order that two imaginary expressions may be equal tt
is necessary and sufficient that the real parts should be equal, and
the imaginary parts should be equal.
100. Derinirion. When two imaginary expressions differ
only in the sign of the imaginary part they are said to be
conjugate.
Thus a—b,/—1 is conjugate toa+6,/—1.
Similarly /2+3,/—1 is conjugate to /2—-3,/—1.
101. The sum and the product of two conjugate imaginary
expressions are both real.
For a+b J-T+a-b,J=1 = 2a,
Again (a+6,J=1) (a-6,/=1) = a? (-8°)
=a +6%
102. Derinition. The positive value of the square root of
a’ +0 is called the modulus of each of the conjugate expressions
a+b J=T and a-bJ—1.
103. The modulus of the product of two imaginary expres-
sions is equal to the product of their moduli.
Let the two expressions be denoted by a+b/=1 and e+d,/—1.
Then their product =ac—bd+(ad+be),/—1, which is an
imaginary expression whose modulus
= Mer 8) (+ a)
=JaaB x (Ord;
which proves the proposition.
104, If the denominator of a fraction is of the form a+6 1,
it may be rationalised-by multiplying the numerator and the
denominator by the conjugate expression a—b ai.SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 77
For instance
e+dJ/=1 _(¢+dJ=1)(a-b,/-1)
a+bf-1 (a+b,J/-1)(a-b/=1)
_ac+bd+ (ad ~ be), J=1
~ at +b
ac+bd ad-—be ;,—~
abt ate
Thus by reference to Art. 97, we see that the sum, difference,
product, and quotient of two imaginary expressions is in each case
an imaginary expression of the same form.
105. To find the square’root of a +b,/—1.
Assume Ja+bV¥—l=x+yV-l,
where x and y are real quantities.
By squaring, a+b —laa'—y'+2ay,/-1;
therefore, by equating real and imaginary parts,
woyaa....
2ay =b
o (+ yf = (ey) + Ray)
=a' +b;
oo tees [F4B.,
From (1) and (3), we obtain
Jetta J@+b—a
a= 3 y
. ona eee, you {feel
Thus the required root is obtained.
Since x and y are real quantities, 27+ y? is positive, and therefore in (3)
the positive sign must be prefixed before the quantity ,/a?+ b%,
Also from (2) we see that the product zy must have the same sign 88 b4
hence x and y must have like signs if b is positive, and unlike wigna it b ia
negative.78 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Example 1, Find the square root of — 7-24 ,/=1.
Assume J-1-%4)-l=ety /71;
then -7-24,/—1=29-y2422y,/=1;
tay? =-7,
and ary = — 24,
oe (att y= (a? - 78+ (2ay)?
=49 +576"
=625; -
weet +yt= O56.
From (1) and (2), 2?=9 and y2=16;
2a £3, y= 4,
Since the product zy is negative, we must take
a=3, y=-4; orz=-3, y=4.
Thus the roots are 8-4,/—Land -34+4,/-1;
that is, J =7-24,f—1= #(3-4,/ 71). ”
Example 2. To find the value of 4/— 64a‘,
STU [tet JA
= /2 J 2J=1.
It remains to find the value of /+,/—1.
Assume At JnisetyJ/ Tis
then tf lato? 4 2ay J=T;
22 y?=0 and Q2y=1;
1 1 1 1
whence . tay Y= TR oo ae aaa /al
o Va )=T=4 ltd).
Similarly
ota a 3a)
and finally nf ~ Bata 2.20 (14/=1).SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 79
106. The symbol ,/— 1 is often represented by the letter 4; but
until the student has had a little practice in the use of imaginary
quantities he will find it easier to retain the symbol ,/—I. It is
useful to notice the successive powers of ,/— 1 ori; thus
W/=Ty=/-1, isd;
(J=1)*=-1, *
WJ-Te=-J=1, #=-85
(J=i)'=1, a1;
and since each power is obtained by multiplying the one before it
by ./=1, or i, we see that the results must now recur.
107. We shall now investigate the properties of certain imagi-
nary quantities which are of very frequent occurrence.
Suppose a= 2/1; then 2*=1, or 2 -1=0;
that is, (@—1) (a? +%+4+1)=0.
* either w—-1=0, ora*+a+1=0;
whence a=1, or ga ats=§,
It may be shewn by actual involution that each of these
values when cubed is equal to unity, Thus unity has three cube
roots,
pris =8 t1e=3,
? Oma ’ 2 >
two of which are imaginary expressions.
Let us denote these by a and 8 ; then since they are the roots
of the equation
w'+a+1=0,
their product is equal to unity ;
that is, aB=1;
@B=a';
that is, B=a', since a’ =1.
Similarly we may shew that a =p.
108. Since each of the imaginary roots is the square of the
other, it is usual to denote the three cube roots of unity by 1, ©, o.80 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Also o satisfies the equation a*+a2+1=0;
l+a+a’=0;
that is, the sum of the three cube roots of unity is zero.
Again, ow = =1;
therefore (1) the product of the two imaginary roots is unity ;
(2) every integral power of w* is unity.
109. It is useful to notice that the successive positive
integral powers of w are 1, , and w*; for, if n be a multiple of 3,
it must be of the form 3m; and w*=w™= 1.
If n be not a multiple of 3, it must be of the form 3m +1 or
3m + 2.
If n=3m+1, ow =o" a0",
If n= 3m+2, oe = ot =
110. We now see that every quantity has three cube roots,
two of which are imaginary. For the cube roots of a® are those
of a*x 1, and therefore are a, aw, aw*, Similarly the cube roots
of 9 are 2/9, w ¥/9, w* 2/9, where 2/9 is the cube root found by the
ordinary arithmetical rule. In future, unless otherwise stated,
the symbol Ya will always be taken to denote the arithmetical
cube root of a.
=I) —
Eaample 1. Reduce @+3/=1) to the form 4+ BZ.
24+J-1
The expression 479412, /-T
2+4,/-1
_(-5+12,/=1) (2-,/=1)
@+ /-1)(2-/-1)
_ -104+12+29,/=1
441
2,29
=gtgvii
which is of the required form.
Example 2, Resolve x*+-y8 into three factors of the first degree.
eo) B+y= (ety) (o-2y+y)
vB +ys=(e+y) (z+ wy) (z+ wy);
for w+o'= -1, and w=1,SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES, 81
Example 3. Shew that
(a+ «b+ we) (a+ wd + we) =a? +b? +409— be -ca—ab.
In the product of a+wb+uw%e and a+w%d+we,
the coefficients of b? and c? are w*, or 1;
the coefficient of be =u8+ot=u?+0=-1;
the coefficients of ca and ab=w?+w=-1;
os (4+ 0b + we) (a+ wb + we) =a? + L240? - be - ca — ad.
Example 4, Shew that
(L+o- 0%) ~ (1-04 ut)'=0.
Bince 1+w+w*=0, we have
(1+ 0) - (1-0 + 0) = (— 20%) — (- Qu)?
= - 88 + But
=-8+8
=0.
EXAMPLES. VIII. b.
r
Multiply 2./—34+3/—2 by 4./—3-5/—3.
Multiply 3 —7-5/—2 by 3\/—7+5—2.
Multiply eV=1 46-V-1 by eV=1—e-N=1,
Multiply x—2+¥=3 by #-tov=8
9 po
3 .
Express with rational denominator:
5. 1 6 BV —-242f-5
* 3-7-2" * g7-2-27-5°
7 3427-1 3-2-1 a eteval_a-aWV=1
* 9-57=1 245/-1- a-aV¥-1 atay-1
9, (EVERY (w-W=I! yg (atV=T—(@-V=TP
teal eb ad (at TP (@= 1h
11, Find the value of (—4/—1)'"*3, when 7 is a positive integer.
12, Find the square of /9 +40 /—1+/9—40N 1.
BEA 682 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the square root of .
13 -54127-1, 1 -11-60V7-1. 15, -474+87-3.
16. -8/-1. 17. a§-142a/71.
18 4ab—2(a?- b*) /-1.
Express in the form 4+7B
3450 J3-iJ2 1+é
19, 223i" 20, 2/312" 21, Tor
(1+7)? (a+? (a-ib?
2 S-i B. G-ih ~ at
If 1, w, w? are the thrce cube roots of unity, prove
%, (1+0%)t=o. 25. (l-@+e?) (l+o—o%)=4,
26. (1-a) (1-") (1-04) (1-05) =9.
27. (2+50+202)' = (2+ 2w +50?) = 729.
28, (1-w +o) (1—w? +0) (1—o!+0.).., to 2n factors = 2%,
29, Prove that
B+ P+ 3 —Bny2=(e+y+z) (etyo + 20%) («1 +yo?+z20).
30. If a=atb, y=aot+be’, z=aw*+ bo,
shew that
(Ql) ayz=ai +B
(2) #+y?+2=6ab.
(3) #8 +y3+23=3 (a3 +09),
Sl. If axteyt+be=X, cxtbyt+az=Y, brt+ayta=Z,
shew that (a? +0? +o —be—ca—ab) (x+y? +2?—ys—20—ay)
=X24 24 77- YZ-XZ-XY.CHAPTER IX.
THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS.
111. Arter suitable reduction every quadratic equation may
be written in the form
Gat? +b CHO oe eecce cee e seen (1),
and the solution of the equation is ~,
rere tpg
—b=/b*- 4uc
“= =e Pte peeees eee seeeeesseaese (2).
‘We shall now prove some important propositions connected
with the roots and coefficients of all equations of which (1) is
the type.
112. A quadratic equation cannot have more than two roots.
For, if possible, let the equation ax*+ba+c=0 have threo
different roots a, B, y. Then since each of these values must
satisfy the equation, we have
a + bat CHO eceeccctteteeeeeeeeeee
af*+bB+c=0.
ay'+by+e=0..
From (1) and (2), by subtraction,
a (a? — B*) + b(a—f)=0;
divide out by a— 8 which, by hypothesis, is not zero; then
a(a+f)+b=0.
Similarly from (2) and (3)
a(B+ y)+b=0;
.. by subtraction a(a-y)=0;
which is impossible, since, by hypothesis, a is not zero, and o is
not equal to y. Hence there cannot be three different roots.
6—284 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
113. In Art. 111 let the two roots in (2) be denoted by a and
B, 80 that :
_-b+,/6*—4ac pare veda,
— 2a , 2a ,
then we have the following results :
(1)_ If 8*-4ac (the quantity under the radical) is positive,
a and £ are real and unequal.
(2) Jf b*-4ac is zero, a and B are real and equal, each
reducing in this case to — 5a"
(3) 1£b*—4ac is negative, a and f are imaginary and unequal.
(4) If b"'—4ac is a perfect square, a and f are rational and
unequal,
By applying these tests the nature of the roots of any
quadratic may be determined without solving the equation.
Example 1. Shew that the equation 2z?-6x+7=0 cannot be satisfied
by any real values of x.
Here a=2, b= -6, c=7; so that
UW - 4ac=(-6)?-4.2.7= -20.
‘Therefore the roots are imaginary.
Example 2. If the equation 27+ 2 (k+2) 2+9k=0 has equal roots, find k.
The condition for equal roots gives
(k+2)9=9k,
K-5k4+4=0,
(k-4)(k-1)=0;
. k=4, or 1,
Example 3. Shew that the roots of the equation
23 —Qpz+p*—q?+2gr-r?=0
are rational.
The roots will be rational provided (--2p)*~4(p*-q?42qr—r%) is a
perfect square, But this expression reduces to 4 (q?-2qr+r%), or 4(q—r)%.
Hence the roots are rational.
114. Since Soe ERT pa wai fae fn tee
we have by addition
a4 pares MBH dae — b~ f= dae
2a
SBT Tg ert rereeereees (1);THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS. 85
and by multiplication we have
(<3 + J/6¥ = 4a0) (— b— ,/6* = 4ac)
a8 = tai
_ (-2)*- (0 - 4ac)
4a’
4ac_¢
i i (2).
By writing the equation in the form
at+ a +n 0,
a a
these results may also be expressed as follows.
In a quadratic equation where the coefficient of the first term is
unity,
(i) the sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient of a with
its sign changed ;
(ii) the product of the roots is equal to the third term.
Nore. In any equation the term which does not contain the unknown
quantity is frequently called the absolute term.
A b ¢
115. Since ~g70tB, and a7
the equation a*+ S at < =0 may be written
(at B) FOB HD oo. ecreeeeeeeeee (1).
Hence any quadratic may also be expressed in the form
a’ — (sum of roots) a+ product of roots=0......... (2).
Again, from (1) we have
(@— a) (2 — B) =O ..eeeeeeeeeeeeeteeeeeee (3).
We may now easily form an equation with given roots.
Ezample 1, Form the equation whose roots are 8 and — 2.
The equation is («- 8) (2+2)=0,
or a-2-6=0.
When the roots are irrational it is easier to use the following
method,86 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Ezample 2, Form the equation whose roots are 2+,/3 and 2 -,/3,
‘We have sum of roots=4,
product of roots=1;
.*. the equation is a-424+1=0,
by using formula (2) of the present article.
116. By a method analogous to that used in Example 1 of
the last article we can form an equation with three or more given
roots.
Example 1, Form the equation whose roots are 2, - 8, and ee
The required equation must be satisfied by each of the following sup-
positions ;
2-2=0, 2+8=0, a-1=0;
therefore the equation must be
(22) (248) (2-3) =05
that is, (# - 2) (+8) (52-7) =0,
or 5a3 — 227-372 4+42=0,
Example 2. Form the equation whose roots are 0, +a, ; a
The equation has to be satisfied by
¢
#20, t=a, 2=-4, 225
therefore it is
#(e+a)(2~a) ( ~$)=0;
that is, & (2? - a?) (ba -c)=0,
or bat — ex3 - aba? + aex=0.
117. The results of Art. 114 are most important, and they
are generally sufficient to solve problems connected with the
roots of quadratics, In such questions the roots should never be
considered singly, but use should be made of the relations ob-
tained by writing down the sum of the roots, and their product,
in terms of the coefficients of the equation.
Example 1. If a and £ are the roots of «*-px+q=0, find the value of
(1) a?+ 6%, (2) a3 + 6%.
We have | at+p=p,
ap=q.
+. al+ p= (a+8)?- 208
=p*—2q.THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS, 87
Again, aS + B*= (a+) (a*+ B* - a8)
=p {(a +6)? — Bag}
=p (p?-39).
Ezample 2. If a, B are the roots of the equation lz?+mz+4+n=0, find the
ane aB
equation whose roots are 2 —
We have sum of roots =* + BL ids ,
Boa ap
product of roots =<
.. by Art. 115 the required equation is
2
2 (3) z+1=0,
ap
or aBa? — (a? + 6°) 2+ aB=0.
2
As in the last example ayp=™ -. and ap=4-
Aah n m?-2nl on
.*. the equation is [e- et 7=%
or nlz? — (m3 —2nl) x+nl=0.
Example 8. When 2StbV =} )find the valuc of 223 4229-72472;
and shew that it will be unaltered pbc belt NV! - 11 substituted for 2.
Form the quadratic equation whose roots are Ee vai,
the sum of the roots =8;
the product of the roots = a,
hence the equation is 2a? -62+17=0;
.*. 22%-62+417 is a quadratic expression which vanishes for either of the
values
Now 2a342c%—Tx+72=2 (229-G2+17) +4 (22?-6x+4+17)+4
=2x0+4x044
=4;
which is the numerical value of the expression in each of the supposed cose88 HIGHER ALGEBRA.
118. To find the condition that the roots of the equation
ax’+bx+c=0 should be (1) equal in magnitude and opposite
in sign, (2) reciprocals, .
The roots will be equal in magnitude and opposite in sign if
their sum is zero; hence the required condition is
- e =0, or 6=0,
a
Again, the roots will be reciprocals when their product is
unity ; hence we must have
¢
-=1, orec=a,
a
The first of these results is of frequent occurrence in Analyti-
cal Geometry, and the second is a particular case of a more
general condition applicable to equations of any degree.
Example. Find the condition that the roots of az?+bz+c=0 may be (1)
both positive, (2) opposite in sign, but the greater of them negative.
b e
‘We have a+p=-c, op=s.
. Qa the roots are both positive, a8 is positive, and therefore ¢ anda
have like signs.
Also, since a+ is positive, e is negative; therefore b and a have unlike
Hence the required condition is that the signs of a and ¢ should be like,
and opposite to the sign of b.
(2) If the roots are of opposite signs, af is negative, and therefore c and
a have unlike signs, .
Also since a+ has the sign of the greater root it is negative, and there-
fore HB is positive; therefore 6 and a have like signs,
Hence the Ra ae condition is that the signs of a and b should be like,
and opposite to the sign of c.
EXAMPLES, IX. a.
Form the equations whose roots are
none one p-q _ptg
Loa om 3 pry?" p-4
4 7425. 5 +2,/3-5, 6. —p+2V2q.

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