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HIGHER ALGEBRA A SEQUEL TO ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA FOR SCHOOLS BY H. 8S. HALL, MA, FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF “CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASTER OF THR MILITARY AND ENGINEERING SIDE, CLIFTON COLLEGE ; AND 8. R. KNIGHT, B.A., FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, LATE ASSISTANT-MASTER AT MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE. FOURTH EDITION. Dondon: MACMILLAN AND CO. AND NEW YORK. 1891 { . u (he Right of Translation is reserved.\ LIBRARY OF THE _ -ecAND STANFORD JUNiG2 \ UNIVERSITY. 4 A 310% First Printed 1887. Second Edition with corrections 1888. Third Edition revised and enlarged 1889. Reprinted 1890. Fourth Edition 1891. “PREF ACE.. THE present work j is intended as a sequel to our Elementar Algebra for Schools. The first few chapters are devoted t a fuller discussion of Ratio, Proportion, Variation, and th Progressions, which in the former work were treated in a elementary manner; and we have here introduced theorem and examples which are unsuitable for a first course < reading. From this point the work covers ground for the mos part new to the student, and enters upon subjects of speci importance: these we have endeavoured to treat minutel and thoroughly, discussing both bookwork and example with that fulness which we have always found necessary i our experience as teachers. It has been our aim to discuss all the essential part as completely as possible within the limits of a singl volume, but in a few of the later chapters it has been im possible to find room for more than an introductory sketch in all such cases our object has been to map out a suitabl first course of reading, referring the student to special treatise ‘for fuller information. In the chapter on Permutations and Combinations w are much indebted to the Rev. W. A. Whitworth for pe mission to make use of some of the proofs given in hi Choice and Chance. For many years we have used the proofs in our own teaching, and we are convinced Yoeh! vi PREFACE. part of Algebra is made far more intelligible to the beginner by a system of common sense reasoning from first principles than by the proofs usually found in algebraical text-books. The discussion of Convergency and Divergency of Series always presents great difficulty to the student on his first reading. The inherent difficulties of the subject are no doubt considerable, and these are increased by the place it has ordinarily occupied, and by the somewhat inadequate treatment it has hitherto received. Accordingly we have placed this section somewhat later than is usual; much thought has been bestowed on its general arrangement, and on the selection of suitable examples to illustrate the text; and we have endeavoured to make it more interesting and intelligible by previously introducing a short chapter on Limiting Values and Vanishing Fractions. In the chapter on Summation of Series we have laid much stress on the “ Method of Differences” and its wide and important applications. The basis of this method is a well- known formula in the Calculus of Finite Differences, which in the absence of a purely algebraical proof can hardly be con- sidered admissible in a treatise on Algebra. The proof of the Finite Difference formula which we have given in Arts. 395, 396, we believe to be new and original, and the development of the Difference Method from this formula has enabled us to introduce many interesting types of series which have hitherto been relegated to a much later stage in the student's reading. ‘We have received able and material assistance in the chapter on Probability from the Rev. T. C. Simmons of Christ’s College, Brecon, and our warmest thanks are due to him, both for his aid in criticising and improving the text, and for placing at our disposal several interesting and original problems. It is hardly possible to read any modern treatise on Azalytical Conics or Solid Geometry without some know- PREFACE, vii ledge of Determinants and their applications. We have , therefore given a brief elementary discussion of Determi- nants in Chapter xxxuu., in the hope that it may provide the student with a useful introductory course, and prepare him for a more complete study of the subject. The last chapter contains all the most useful propositions in the Theory of Equations suitable for a first reading. The Theory of Equations follows so naturally on the study of Algebra that no apology is needed for here introducing pro- positions which usually find place in a separate treatise. In fact, a considerable part of Chapter xxxv. may be read with advantage at a much earlier stage, and may conveniently be studied before some of the harder sections of previous chapters. It will be found that each chapter is as nearly as possible complete in itself, so that the order of their succession can be varied at the discretion of the teacher; but it is recom- mended that all sections marked with an asterisk should be reserved for a second reading. In enumerating the sources from which we have derived assistance in the preparation of this work, there is one book to which it is difficult to say how far we are indebted. Todhunter’s Algebra for Schools and Colleges has been the recognised English text-book for so long that it is hardly possible that any one writing a teat-book on Algebra at the present day should not be largely influenced by it. At the same time, though for many years Todhunter’s Algebra has been in constant use among our pupils, we have rarely adopted the order and arrangement there laid down; in many chapters we have found it expedient to make frequent use of alternative proofs; and we have always largely sup- plemented the text by manuscript notes. These notes, which now appear scattered throughout the present work, | have been collected at different times during the lost twent HH. A. v viii PREFACE. years, so that it is impossible to make definite acknowledge- ment in every case where assistance has been obtained from other writers. But speaking generally, our acknowledge- ments are chiefly due to the treatises of Schlémilch, Serret, and Laurent; and among English writers, besides Todhunter’s Algebra, we have occasionally consulted the works of De Morgan, Colenso, Gross, and Chrystal. To the Rev. J. Wolstenholme, D.Sc., Professor of Mathe- matics at the Royal Indian Engineering College, our thanks are due for his kindness in allowing us to select questions from his unique collection of problems; and the consequent gain to our later chapters we gratefully acknowledge. It remains for us to express our thanks to our colleagues and friends who have so largely assisted us in reading and correcting the proof sheets; in particular we are indebted to the Rev. H. C. Watson of Clifton College for his kindness in revising the whole work, and for many valuable suggestions in every part of it. May, 1887. H. S. HALL, 8S. R. KNIGHT. PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. Iw this edition the text and examples are substantially the same as in previous editions, but a few articles have been recast, and all the examples have been verified again. We have also added a collection of three hundred Miscel- Janeous Examples which will be found useful for advanced students. These examples have been selected mainly but not exclusively from Scholarship or Senate House papers ; much care has been taken to illustrate every part of the subject, and to fairly represent the principal University and Civil Service Examinations. March, 1839, CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. ratio. PAGE Commensurable and incommensurable quantities . » @ Ratio of greater and less inequality . . 8 1 a_c_e@_ _ (partge”+ren+...\™ 4 aa fF \ po edt erfet...] * . Ay + Og t+ Ogt... $y conan b+, 40, +..45, lies between greatest and least of fractions bo Be Cross multiplication . . e a fl 7 ‘i c 8 Eliminant of three linear eruatons 5 9 Examples I. . . 10 CHAPTER II. proportion. Definitions and Propositions 13 Comparison between algebraical and geometrical d definitions . 16 Case of incommensurable quantities : . 17 Examples II. 19 CHAPTER III. variation. It Ac B, then A=mB . 21 Tnverse variation . 22 Joint variation . 28 It Aa B when C is constant, and AG “2£eo when Bis | constant, then A=mBC . . . . . . » @wW Illustrations, Examples on joint variation 5 2S Examples IIT, . b& x CONTENTS. CHAPTER IV. ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION, PAGE Sum of n terms of an arithmetical series. : poner 5 - 28 Fundamental formule . . eee) . . . . +. 29 _Insertion of arithmetic means. : : 5 ‘i 5 . . 81 Examples IV. a. . : . . . . 81 Discussion of roots of ant + e- a n- Qs= o e . . . . 33 Examples IV. b. . 5 fi a o c 7 . 35 CHAPTER V. GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION. Insertion of geometric means 5 c c 5 5 - 38 Sum of n terms of a geometrical series . ; a : a O . 39 Sum of an infinite geometrical series. 5 : _ 5 : » 40 Examples V.a. . : a a » 421 Proof of rule for the reduction ofa , recurring ; decimal o a O » 43 Sum of n terms of an arithmetico-geometric series 5 : O - 44 Examples V.b. . 5 : . : : a D 5 . . 45 CHAPTER VI. HARMONICAL PROGRESSION, THEOREMS CONNECTED WITH THE PROGRESSIONS. Reciprocals of quantities in H. P. are in A. P. 7 7 : 7 » 47) Harmonic mean . re) Formul connecting AM., @: M., H. Mu. 5 fe . . 5 » 49 Hints for solution of questions in Progressions. . a 5 » -49 Sum of squares of the natural numbers : 7 7 . . . 50 _ Sum of cubes of the naturalnumbers . . 2. ww wsCOL Z notation . 5 . : 0 . . 5 - . - 52 Examples VI. a. . . o . 5 » 659 Number of shot in pyramid or ona panera base. : : : f . 54 Pyramid on a triangular base e 5 a : 5 : . Bf Pyramid on a rectangular base. 5 fi I 5 . . . B44 Incomplete pyramid. : S i : : : c . . 55 Examples VI. b. . . . . . . . ; ‘i . 56 CHAPTER VII. scares oF NOTATION, Explanation of systems of notation 5 : a : : o . 57 Examples VII, a. o S : 5 » 59 £xpression of an integral number i ina propoeed scale so . » 59 expression of a radix fraction in a proposed seale. 9. sw CONTENTS. ifference between a number and the sum of its digits is divisible yr-1. eee ee of rule for «casting out the nines’? fi c 5 i . of divisibility byr+1 . . . : ‘i 5 “6 . ‘ples VIL. b. . eee . CHAPTER VIII. surps AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. aalising the denominator of aalising factor of Ya+{/b ‘e root of a+ /b+/c+r/d : : ‘i . 5 root ofat/b . _ . . . : : . nr) ples VIL a. nary quantities ‘x /-b=- ‘ 4b=0, then a=0, b . tb=c+id, then a=c,b=d . 5 lug of product is equal to eae of moduli . root of a+ib . sofi . . roots of unity ; ltotet= 0. sofw . . . . ples VII. b. a Nbt+Je+/d xi PAGE RSs HAPTER IX. THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS. Aratic equation cannot have more than two roots ‘tions for real, equal, imaginary roots of roots= — 2 3’ product of roots=<¢ ation of equations when the roots are given . o tions that the roots of a quadratic should be (1). oan in magni. ade and opposite in sign, (2) reciprocals . ‘ a ples IX. a. 2al values of z the expression az be+e has i in general tho same ign as a; exceptions . . . . . S . ples IX. b. . . . . tions of function, variable, rational integral function 5 tion that az?+ 2hry+ by?+ 292+ 2fy+c may be resolved into two near factors . . . . tion that az?+br+e=' 0 and tava =0 may have a common ales Ke a : . _ A . . . . . Rk 888 88 2RRB & xii CONTENTS. CHAPTER X. MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS, Equations involving one unknown ee Reciprocal equations. . 7 Examples X. a. Equations involving two unknown quantities Homogeneous equations . . . . . a Examples X.b. . O 5 5 a . . Equations involving several unknown quantities . cS . . Examples X.c. . . . 5 . . Indeterminate equations; ey numerical al oxamples Examples X. d. . : CHAPTER XI. PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS. Preliminary proposition . . . . . . Number of permutations of n things r at a time . . 5 Number of tombinations of n things r at a time The number of combinations of n things r at a time is equal to the number of combinations of n things n-r at a time Number of ways in which m+n+p+... things can be divided into : classes containing m, n, p, ... things severally Examples XI. a. . Signification of the terme “ike? and‘ unlike’ : Number of arrangements of n things taken all at a time, when P things are alike of one kind, q things are alike of a second kind, &e. . Number of permutations of n things r at a time, when each may be The total number of combinations ofn things a c a a To find for what value of r the expression *C, is greatest Ab initio proof of the formula for the number of combinations of n things r atatime . Total number of selections of ae qtrt+.. . things, whereof 7 pare alike of one kind, g alike of a secund kind, &c. ac O 7 . . Examples XI.b. . : o 0 : c CHAPTER XII. marwematicaL INDUCTION. astrations of the method of proof Product of n binomial factors of the form z +a @xzamples XI. PAGE 100 101 103 104, 106 107 109 111 113 115 115 117 119 120 122 124 125 126 127 127 128 129 131: ; 138 134 . we CONTENTS. xiii CHAPTER XIII. sBINoMIAL THEOREM. POSITIVE INTEGRAL INDEX. PAGE Expansion of (z+a)*, when n is a eee cs . . 187 General term of the expansion. * 139 The expansion may be made to depend aronl ‘the case in n which the frst term is unity . . . . . . . . . . 140 Second proof of the binomial theorem . c e 141 Examples XIII. a. . a 142 The coefficients of terms equidistant from the begining and end are equal. . . . . . + 148 Determination of the greatest term 143 Sum of the coefficients. : . 146 ~ Sum of coefficients of odd terms is equal to sum of coefficients of even terms. . . . . . . . . » 6 Expansion of multinomials e 5 5 146. Examples XII. b. oO eaneee) 147 CHAPTER XIV. BINOMIAL THEOREM. ANY INDEX. Euler’s proof of the binomial theorem for any index 160 General term of the expansion of (1+=)* 153 ‘Examples XIV. a. . D 155 Expansion of (1+ 2)" is only arithmetically intelligible ‘when Z <1 155 The expression (x+y)" can always be ae by the binomial theorem . . . . 0 0 157 General term of the eepaaeionl of a- a" 157 Particular cases of the expansions of (1 -)-" 158 Approximations obtained by the binomial theorem 159 Examples XIV. b. c : 7 161 Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (ta). 162 Number of homogeneous Ce of r dimensions formed out of n letters . . 164 Number of terms in the expansion ‘of a multinomial 165 Number of combinations of n things r at a time, repetitions being allowed 166 Examples XIvV.c.. : 167 CHAPTER XV. MULTINOMIAL THEOREM. General term in the ume of (a+ ba+ca*+dz3+...)?, when p isa positive integer . . General term in the expansion of (eta teats at. * aro w isa rational quantity . . . . . 5 . wu Examples XV. y xiv CONTENTS. CHAPTER XVI. tocarirums. Definition. N=alogeN . Elementary propositions Examples XVI. a. Common Logarithms Determination of the characteristic by inspection . Advantages of logarithms to base 10 Advantages of always keeping the mantissa positive Given the logarithms of all numbers to base a, to find the logarithms to base b. log.bxlogaa=1 Examples XVI. b. . PAGE 175 176 178 179 - 180 181 182 183 183 185 CHAPTER XVII. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC SERIES. Expansion of a*. Series for e . eis the limit of (145); when 1 is infinite Expansion of log, (1+ 2) . Construction of Tables of Logarithms O Rapidly converging series for log, (n + 1) - ee n The quantity e is incommensurable Examples XVII. CHAPTER XVIII. rterEsT AND ANNUITIES. Interest and Amount of a given sum at simple interest. . Present Value and Discount of a given sum at simple interest Interest and Amount of a given sum at compound interest . Nominal and true annual rates of interest Case of compound interest payable every moment Present Value and Discount of a given sum at compound interest. Examples XVIII.a. . c o ‘ : p o 7 Annuities. Definitions. 5 Amount of unpaid annuity, simple interest : Amount of unpaid annuity, compound interest a . Present value of an annuity, compound interest . : : : } amber of years’ purchase Present valine of a deferred annuity, compound interest. Fine for the renewal of a lease ener Ysamples XVIII, b, 187 188 191 192 194 195 195 198 198 199 201 202 203 203 204 CONTENTS. xv CHAPTER XIX. requatitizs. PAGE {Elementary Propositions . : . . 208 -‘VArithmetic mean of two positive quantities i is frosty than the geometric 1 mean . 209 ‘The sum of two quantities being given, their product is greatest ‘when they are equal: aa being cont the sum is least when they are equal . 210 ‘The arithmetic mean of 8 number of positive quantities is greater than the geometric mean 5 . . 211 Given sum of a, b, ¢,...; to find the greatest value of am bre? are » 212 Easy cases of maxima and minima. . 5 5 5 5 . 212 Examples XIX. a.. e 218 The arithmetic mean of the me powers of a * aumber of poaitive . quantities is greater than m‘* power of their arithmetic mean, except when m lies between 0 and 1 a . a 5 + 214 Ifa and b.are positive integers, and a>b,: (1+ 2\"> (ust) .. 216 Itz "/ity If 1>2>y>0, Jt > /Pt ee BIT wo > (Sry ee ee 2 317 Examples XIX. b. . 5 . : ‘ . . . . . . 218 CHAPTER XX. LIMITING VALUES AND VANISHING FRACTIONS. Definition of Limit . . 5 . « 220 Limit of a) +0,2+ 4,27 age... is oe is zero. : 222 By taking z small enough, any term of the series Gy +ayE-+0qt* +... may be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all that follow it; and by taking large enough, any term may be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all that precede it . oo + 222 Method of determining the Limits of vanishing fractions . 224 Discussion of some peculiarities in the solution of simultaneous equations . . o . « 226 Peculiarities in the solution of qusarati enuaton : : : . 227 Examples xx, . . a 0 . . 5 . 228 VCHAPTER XXI. CONVERGENCY AND DIVERGENCY OF SERSES. { Cage of terms alternately positive and negative . D : + Series ia convergent if Lim — ig less than 1 . . . 6 oO! ‘a -1 xvi CONTENTS. PAGE Comparison of Zu, with on auxiliary series Zu, . . 5 9 - 234 eas peer 1 The auxiliary series + 4 2+ 2 theese e : : o : 5 235 (8 Application to Binomial, Exponential, Logarithmic Series . . . . 287)" { Limits of ee andnz*whennisinfnite . . . . . . 238f Product of an infinite number of factors 0 e 5 eer . aad Examples XXL. a,. q 5 . . . . . . . . 241) weeries is convergent when v-series is convergent, if ra >aa - 243 1 On Series is convergent if Lim Jn ( - 1)f>1 . . I : . 244 Ml Beries is convergent if Lim (n log Fass Ste. ee 45 +1. Series Z¢ (n) compared with series Za"¢(n) . : s c : - 247 on a 1 The auxiliary series = adognP * : a : : a o . 248 Series is convergent if Lim [f= (=. - 1) - 1} tog n] ol... 24g . +1 Product of two infinite series : . . oo. . . . 249 Examples XXI. b.. c c ‘i 9 0 a : G 5 . 252 CHAPTER XXII. UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS. If the equation f(t)=0 has more than n roots, it isan identity . » 254 Proof of principle of undetermined coefficients for finite series. . 254 Examples XXII. a. . 5 . 256 Proof of principle of undetermined coefficients for “infinite series . . 257 Examples XXII, b. . . . . . er) : 5 + 260 CHAPTER XXIII. ParTIAL FRACTIONS. Decomposition into partial fractions . . . ae . . 261 Use of partial fractions in expansions . : . . A 5 . 265 Examples XXIII. . 5 . . : : ‘i 5 : o - 265 CHAPTER XXIV. recurRING SERIES. Scale of relation . . . oo . : a . . . 267 Sum of a recurring series. s . . - : 5 ‘ + 269 Generating fanction . . «6 ww te 2808 Examples XXIV, , . . . . : : ee ew BAD CONTENTS. xvii = CHAPTER XXV. coNnTINVED FRACTIONS. PAGE }) Conversion of a fraction into a continued fraction : 273 , Convergents are alternately less and greater than the continued fraction 275 Law of formation of the successive convergents . ‘i a 0 - 275 Padi Paadn=(~-W®- se ww ee 28 Examples XXV. a. . « 277 The convergents gradually approximate to the continued fraction. . 278 Limits of the error in taking any convergent for the continued fraction 279 Each convergent is nearer to the continued fraction than a fraction with smallerdenominator .. . . oe cr) » 280 PP 2 ra aq” or <2’, according a> or a , 7 5 G a : + 281 Examples XXV. b. : 5 0 : 5 : o : +» ot. 281 CHAPTER XXVI. INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE. Bolution of az-by=c . . a : - «284 Given one solution, to find the general solution 5 5 5 eI . 286 Solution of az+by=c oo. er - 286 Given one solution, to find the general solution 0 5 5 . . 287 Number of solutions of az+by=c. . . . . . + 287 Solution of az+by+cz=d, darvyteond : . a . + 289 Examples XXVI. . : 5 5 : o 5 . 290 CHAPTER XXVII. RECURRING CONTINUED FRACTIONS. Numerical example . . . . 292 A periodic continued fraction i is equal to a quadratic surd o : - 293 Examples XXVII. a. . . . : » 204 Conversion of a quadratic surd into a continued fraction 5 : . 295 ‘The quotients recur. 5 02 6 of 9 oer) The period ends with a partial quotient “20, oe . + 297 The partial quotients equidistant from first and last are vega . + 298 The penultimate convergents of the aan 0 5 . . ~ 299 Examples XXVIL b. : : o . . . . . 30: CHAPTER XXVIII. INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS OF THE SECON DEGREE. Solution of ar7+ 2hay + by" + 29x + 2fy+c=0 : . : : o The equation z4- Ny?=1 can always be solved xviii CONTENTS. PAGE Bolution of s*-Ny?=-1 . . . : 5 5 : : . 305 General solution of 2?-Ny?=1 . z c c ‘i . : . 3806 Solution of z?-nty?=a c . 5 a : : : . 808 Diophantine Problems... . . . : : i ‘ . 309 Examples XXVIIL. . 5 : . . 5 oO . . Bil CHAPTER XXIX. suMMATION OF SERIES. Summary of previous methods. . . . . . . . 812 1, the product of n factors in A. P. . ‘ : 5 . 814 u, the reciprocal of the product of n factors i in A. P, c C . 816 Method of Subtraction. . . ee ee 818 Expression of u,, as sum of faotoriala . . 48 . . « 818 — Polygonal and Figurate Numbers . : Fi c . : . - 819 Pascal’s Triangle . . . . oe . . : _ . 3820 _ Examples XXIX,a, . nr) . : . . : 5 - 3821 Method of Differences . : . 322 Method succeeds when 1, is a , rational integral fanetion ofn n _ 826 If a, is 8 rational integral function of n, the series Za,2* is a recurring series . . . . . . . . « 827 Farther cases ‘of recurring series. 7 . : 5 : . 829 Examples XXIX.b, «te See ee BBB Miscellaneous methods of summation . soe . . a » 334 Sum of series 1° +2743" +...+n". cee se - « 836 - Bernoulli's Numbers . . : see ee 887 Examples XXIX.c, . és 5 : : : ji : 5 . 338 CHAPTER XXX. THEORY OF NUMBERS. Statement of principles . I : 5 : c : 5 I . 341 Number of primes is infinite . 5 G 5 . - 342 No rational algebraical formula can represent primes only 5 ‘ . 343 A number can be resolved into prime factors in only one way =. - 342 Number of divisors of a given integer . . . . 348 Number of ways an integer can be resolved into two factors . . +, + 343 Sum of the divisors ofa given integer . . . 54 . . 344 Highest power ofa prime contained in Jn... / ww. 845 Product of r consecutive integers is divisible by |r . . B45 Fermat's Theorem N-1—1=. =™() ae is prime and N prime stop 347 Examples XXX.a, . ; - 848 nition of congruent . 5 eee ee BRD ee CONTENTS. xix } PAGE ‘$f a is prime to 5, then a, 2a, 3a,...(b-1)a@ when divided by b leave different remainders. 7 5 7 7 a . . . 350 G(abed...)=$(a) (I) be) OA) ee BER 1 1 1 o(w)=N (1-3) ) (1-3)... See ee 858 Wilson’s Theorem: 1+|p~1=M (p) where pisa prime . a . 864 A property peculiar to prime numbers . a a a a : . 854 Wilson’s Theorem (second proof) . 5 . . 5 . 5 . 3855 Proofs by induction . . : oo : . . a . 356 Examples XXX. b. . : S 5 . 5 : 5 . . 3867 CHAPTER XXXI. THE GENERAL THEORY OF CONTINUED FRACTIONS, Law of formation of successive convergents . . . . . . 359 1 bt hae a definite value if Lim Smt Set oe ee BER qt at The convergents to a a ane BFE. positive proper fractions in ascend- ing order of magnitude, ifa,t1+b, . e . 863 General value of convergent when a,, and b,, are constant D . 864 Cases where general value of convergent can be found . co a . 365 a te ini it On a4 af is incommensurable, if os <1. - fi : . 366 Examples XXXL a. © - zi - c _ - 367 Series expressed as continued fractions . c . 7 7 . 369 Conversion of one continued fraction into another : : . 871 Examples XXXI.b. . : : c aC . a 7 - . 372 CHAPTER XXXII. prozasinity. Definitions and illustrations. Simple Events . : : : . 373 Examples XXXII.a, . : . . : . : : ‘i . 3876 Compound Events : fi . 377 Probability that two independent events will both happen i is pp’ : . 878 The formula holds also for dependent events s : - 3879 ce of an event which can happen in matually exclusive ways . 881 Examples XXXII. b. : . eanr) I . 383 Chance of an event happening exactly r ‘times inn . trials ‘ : . Wo Expectation and probable value. : 7 5 : . : . IW “Problem of points”. anne . . an BW xx CONTENTS. Examples XXXII.c. a 0 : : : 5 : . Inverse probability a . Fi : 7 ‘i FI c Statement of Bernoulli’s Theorem . : : ; 6 —_PrPr Proof of formula eS (eP) 5 : 1 0 ‘I c Concurrent testimony . 7 0 . Traditionary testimony . . 7 : 0 : 5 . O Examples XXXII. d. . . : 5 : _ . Local Probability. Geometrical methods 5 5 : : ‘i c Miscellaneous examples c 5 Examples XXXIL e. CHAPTER XXXIII. pererminants. Eliminaut of two homogeneous linear equations . 7 : _ - 409 Eliminant of three homogeneous linear equations . o eee +» 410 Determinant is not altered by interchanging rows and columns 0 . 410 Development of determinant of third order . D 411 Sign of a determinant is altered by interchanging two adjacent rows or columns . . . 412 If two rows or olunnets are identical, the determinant vanishes e . 412 A factor common to any row or column may be placed outside. . 412 Cases where constituents are made up of a number of terms. . » 418 Reduction of determinants by simplification of rows or columns . - 414 Product of two determinants . . . : 0 . . - 417 Examples XXXIII.a. . . . : . 419 Application to solution of simultaneous ‘equations. . . . - 422 Determinant of fourth order . : 0 5 zi 5 : 5 - 428 Determinant of any order. zi 7 : : amr : . 423 Notation Za bcd, . ‘i 0 _ _ ‘i . : + 1. 495 Examples XXXIII.b. . 7 c ‘ 0 : : 0 . 427 CHAPTER XXXIV. MiscELLANEOUS THEOREMS AND EXAMPLES, Review of the fundamental laws of Algebra . 5 5 Fi 0 . 429 F(z) when divided by 2-a leaves remainder f(a) . : . . « 482 Quotient of f (x) when divided by z-a . . O : : - 483 — Method of Detached Coefficients . . : a . i : - 434 | Horner’s Method of Synthetic Division . : : : : . 434 Symmetrical and Alternating Functions . 0 . c 5 . 435 Zxamples of identities worked out : ee 48 List of nsefal formule . : ; ee ARS. ' CONTENTS. xxi PAGE Examples XXKIV.a, . . . 5 . - 438 Identities proved by properties of cube roots of anity a : 7 . 440 Linear factors of a? +08 +c - 8abe . . ar) . 6 . 441 Value of a®+0"+e"whena+b+c=0 . . . .« « « . 448 Examples XXXIV.b. . . . . . . . . . - 442 Elimination... : ee ee Elimination by symmetrical functions o ao a 7 a c . 444 Euler’s method of elimination =. . S O a 5 « 445 Sylvester's Dialytic Method. 6 ww ewww Bezout’s method . . eae : . . - 446 Migcellaneous examples of elimination . 5 5 c a 6 ' . 447 Examples XXXIV.c. . : z 5 s 5 5 8 - . 449 CHAPTER XXXV. THEORY OF EQUATIONS. Every equation of the n‘* degree has n roots and no more. a . 452 Relations between the roots and the coefficients . . . . . 452 These relations are not sufficient for the solution. . . . « 464 Cases of solution under given conditions . 5 O : a . 454 Easy cases of symmetrical functions of the roots . 5 : a . 455 Examples XXXV. a. e : 5 O 5 : . 456 Imaginary and surd roots occur in pairs . f 0 ce . . 457 Formation and solution of equations with surd roots . . « 458 Descartes’ Rule of Signs . 2 5 e G9 5 . 459 Examples XXXV.b. . . 5 : : . _ . 460 Value of f(z+h). Derived Functions . . . . . . . - 462 Calculation of f(2+h) by Horner's process . . . . . - 468 J (z) changes its value gradually . . 464 If f(a) and f(b) are of ce signs, f. (y= 0 acl a root between aandb. . . . : » 464 An equation of an odd degree has ¢ one real root . Smee 465 An equation of an even degree with its last term nce has two real roots. . - 465 It f (z)=0 has r roots eqnal to a, f " @)= 0 hes re 1 roota equal to a. 466 Determination of equal roots . . a 5 : e . 467 f@)_ 1 1 1 Fiayzaateseteeet te 888 Sum of an assigned power of the roots . : c 7 : 5 . 468 Examples XXXV.c. . .. ao A . D : : » AW, Transformation of equations. . a : . AT Equation with roots of sign opposite to ‘those of f (x)= “0 a : . ATA uation with roots multiples of those of SF (x) =0 - ~ At y xxii CONTENTS. Equation with roots reciprocals of those of f (z)=0 Discussion of reciprocal equations . O Equation with roots squares of those of f (= Oo. Equation with roots exceeding by h those of f (z)=0 Removal of an assigned term. o Equation with roots given fanctions of those of (= 0 Examples XXXV.d. . a . Cubic equations, Cardan’s Solution : G 5 7 Discussion of the solution . . : . . Solution by Trigonometry in the irreducible ¢ case . Biquadratic Equations. Ferrari’s Solution . Descartes’ Solution . eee Undetermined multipliers . Discriminating cubic; roots all real Solution of three simultaneous equations —— Examples XXXV. e. Miscellaneous ee Answers ye aan toon tapith ae HIGHER ALGEBRA. CHAPTER I. RATIO. ‘1. Derivrtion, Ratio is the relation which one quantity bears to another of the same kind, the comparison being made by considering what multiple, part, or parts, one quantity is of the other. The ratio of A to B is usually written 4: B, The quantities A and B are called the terms of the ratio. The first term is called the antecedent, the second term the consequent. 2. To find what multiple or part A is of B, we divide A by B; hence the ratio A : B may be measured by the fraction $ , and we shall usually find it convenient to adopt this notation. In order to compare two quantities they must be expressed in terms of the same unit. Thus the ratio of £2 to 15s. is measured . 2x20 8 by the fraction ip 5° Nore. A ratio expresses the number of times that one quantity con- tains another, and therefore every ratio is an abstract quantity. 3. Since by the laws of fractions, a ma 5 mb? it follows that the ratio a : 6 is equal to the ratio ma \ mb that is, the value of @ ratio remains unaltered if the antecedent and the consequent are multiplied or divided by the same quantity. 4 FT. H, A rV 2 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 4, Two or more ratios may be compared by reducing their equivalent fractions to a common denominator. Thus suppose = ang 2. 5 bby’ yy by the ratio a : 6 is greater than, equal to, or less than the ratio a : y according as ay is greater than, equal to, or less than ba. a:band2: y are two ratio, Now 3 hence 5. The ratio of two fractions can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Thus the ratio ¢ 5 is measured by the bid a fracti & ad . we . raction a) OF 53 and is therefore equivalent to the ratio d ad : be. 6. If either, or both, of the terms of a ratio be a surd quantity, then no two integers can be found which will eaaetly measure their ratio. Thus the ratio ,/2:1 cannot be exactly expressed by any two integers. 7. Derinition. If the ratio of any two quantities can be expressed exactly by the ratio of two integers, the quantities are said to be commensurable; otherwise, they are said to be incommensurable. Although we cannot find two integers which will exactly measure the ratio of two incommensurable quantities, we can always find two integers whose ratio differs from that required by as small a quantity as we please. 1 2. ve a AB _ POBO68 559017... V5 _ 559017 559018 - and therefore “ft 7 1000000 and < 1000000’ so that the difference between the ratios 559017 : 1000000 and /5 : 4 is less than (000001. By carrying the decimals further, closer approximation may be arrived at. 8. Derinition. Ratios are compounded by multiplying to gether the fractions which denote them; or by multiplying to gether the antecedents for a new antecedent, and the consequent for a new consequent, 4zanple, Find the ratio compounded of the three retion a 2a: 3b, Gab : 58, cra ) RATIO. 3 A - 2a 6ab_¢ The required ratio= 55 x pax se _4a Re 9. Derinition. When the ratio a:b is compounded with itself the resulting ratio is a’ : b*, and is called the duplicate ratio of a:b. Similarly a’: b° is called the triplicate ratio of a:b. Also at : 64 is called the subduplicate ratio of a : b. Examples. (1) The duplicate ratio of 2a : 8b is 4a? : 987. (2) The subduplicate ratio of 49 : 25 is 7: 5. (3) The triplicate ratio of 2x : 1 is 823 : 1. 10. Derinrrion. A ratio is said to be a ratio of greuter inequality, of less inequality, or of equality, according as the antecedent is greater than, less than, or equal to the consequent. ll. A ratio of greater inequality is diminished, and a ratio of less inequality ts increased, by adding the same quantity to both tts terms. Let i be the ratio, and let 2+* be the new ratio formed by b+a adding x to both its terms. Now @ ate _ av—be 6 b+au b(b+z) _2(a-2), “ebre)) and a—6 is positive or negative according as a is greater or less than b. 7 @ ata Hence if a > 8, Bbee? ; a ata, and if a kb, 5 sk; o. a, > kb; 5, and so on; ., by addition, A, +O, t,t veers +a,>(b, +b, 48+ 2. Fb) KS G++ Oy+ rere +O, 7 oo * 548, 48,4 ne +b,” i that is > 5°. Similarly we may prove that +4, +0, +». 6, +0, +0, + where Z is the greatest of the given fractions. In like manner the theorem may be proved when all the denominators are negative. 15. The ready application of the general principle involved in Art, 12 is of such great value in all branches of mathematics, that the student should be able to use it with some freedom in any particular case that may arise, without necessarily introducing an auxiliary symbol, at eee Example 1. Ue Syenaadanb ate , “rove that atyte_x(y+a)t+y (e+2)+2(2+y) atb+c 2 (ax + by +cz) RATIO. . 0 sum of numerators Each of the given fractions = of denominatora Jenominat att ty te FDR be Te teen eeeeeeentenee (1). Again, if we multiply both numerator and denominator of the three given fractions by y+2,2+2, z+y respectively, . a (y +2) = y(z+2) = z(z+y) each fraction= 73) @4e=a) ~ Fa) (Faq) ~ (ery) (@4d—<) sum of numerators ~ gum of denominators a (y+2)+y (e+2) +2 (e+y) 2az + Qby + 2cz .. (2). «*. from (1) and (2), tyte 2 (ytaty (eta)te(z+y) at+b+c_ 2 (ax + by +¢z) = y —— Esample 2, Ut fae a aeee e 1 m Prove that 2 (by+e2—az)~ y (ce-+az—by)— ier) cz)" 2 y 2 7 m™ n Wehave = pypnenla nerlamb latmb—ne ye a ~ 2a =two similar expressions; nytme lene _mo+ly a@ ob ¢° Multiply the first of these fractions above and below by z, the second by y, and the third by z; then nay tmae _ lyst ney _ moet lye 1 = (by+cz— Twa) = ye baee by) # Gaatysay 8 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 16, If we have two equations containing three unknown quantities in the first degree, such as az+by+e2=0 ag+by+ez=0... we cannot solve these completely; but by writing them in the form a, () +, () +e, =0, a, (2) +b, () +¢,=0, we can, by regarding = and ¥ as the unknowns, solve in the. ordinary way and obtain w _ dyc, — bye, Y _ Cry C40, | % ab,-a,b,’ 2 a,b,—-a,b,’ or, more symmetrically, —*_._ ¥ = bc,- 8c, ¢4,-¢,@, a,b,- a,b, °°" (3). . It thus appears that when we have two equations of the t; represented by (1) and (2) we may always by the above form write down the ratios x:y:2 in terms of the coefficients of the equations by the following rule: ‘Write down the coefficients of x, y, z in order, beginning with those of y; and repeat these as in the diagram. . b, ¢, a, 6, b, C, a, b, Multiply the coefficients across in the way indicated by the arrows, remembering that in forming the products any one obtained by descending is positive, and any one obtained by ascending is negative. The three results bye, ,¢,, 64, —6,0,, 4,5, — a,b, are proportional to 2, y, 2 respectively. This is called the Rule of Cross Multiplication, RATIO, Example 1, Find the ratios of z : y : z from the equations Ja=4y +82, 82=122+1ly, By transposition we have 72 - 4y - 8z=' 122+ 1ly -32=0. Write down the coefficients, thus -4 -8 7 -4 ll -3 2 1, whence we obtain the products (+4) x(-8)-11x(-8), (-8)x12-(-8)x7, 7x11~12x(-4), or 100, -75, 125; oY 100° -75 125’ i tly _* that is, G7 cat Example 2. Eliminate 2, y, z from the equations act by +ez=0.. Agr + bay + gz Ago + Dgy +0 g2 =O... ceeccessstreeeeeeeeeeeee (8). From (2) and (3), by cross multiplication, z y byey— dye Cog — Cgg 2 : * aby a5, jenoting each of these ratios by k, by multiplying up, substituting in (1), ind dividing out by k, we obtain % (byey— Dyes) + dy (Cyi4g — C504) +4 (Agby — A403) =0. This relation is called the eliminant of the given equations, Example 3. Solve the equations az+by+cz=0. ft yt z= bea + cay + abz=(b—¢) (6-4) (A—D)..eeererererreerrerrers (3). From (1) and (2), by cross multiplication, = =_Y _ *# _, - b=ee-aa—b ? SUPPOBES “. e=k(b-c), y=k(c—a), 2=k (a—b). Substituting in (3), k {be (b-¢) +. ca (c — a) + ab (a ~ b)} =(b-c) (ca) (a-d), k {-(b-¢) (¢- a) (a -1)} = (0c) (¢-a) (2-2) we kal z=c-b, y=a-¢,z=b-a. whence 10 HIGHER ALGEBRA, 17. If in Art, 16 we put 2 =1, equations (1) and (2) become azt+by+c,=0, a,e+by+e,=0; and (3) becomes ee a be, 7 be, - oa, 7 Ca, - a,b, 7 a, , Oi = 240, ™ “aha, Hence any two simultaneous equations involving two un- knowns in the first degree may be solved by the rule of cross multiplication. Ezample. Bolve 52 -8y-1=0, «+2y=12. By transposition, 5a-3y- 1=0, w+2y-12=0; ye “* 3642 -1+60 1043’ whence ont, ya, EXAMPLES, I. 1, Find the ratio compounded of (1) the ratio 2a : 36, and the duplicate ratio of 95? : ab. (2) the subduplicate ratio of 64 : 9, and the ratio 27 : 56, 2 (3) the duplicate ratio of ee p Ghd , and the ratio 3ax : Qby. 2. Ifv+7 : 2(¢+14) in the duplicate ratio of 5 : 8, find 2. * 3, Find two numbers in the ratio of 7: 12 so that the greater exceeds the less by 275. 4, What number must be added to each term of the ratio 5 ; 37 to make it equal to 1 : 3? & Ife: y=83 ; 4, find the ratio of 7r—4y : Br+y. 6 Ifis (224 —y3) = Tay, find the ratio of 2 + y. RATIO. 11 . @ ie e 1. If Bacup Qatb? + Baret—5etf a “BO5+ Bb? — BFF ~ BA 8 If $737 3 prove that S is equal to b'c+ a4 + Bcd?” ee oe qt+r-p r+p-q ptq-r’ shew that ‘(q-1) a+(r-p)y+(p-g)2=0. to, If 2 —24* _” find the ratios of x: y: & a-z 2 y’ ll. If yte atu _ aty shew that _2@+9+2) _ (bte)w+ (cta)y+(atd)z at+bte be+ca+ab 12, If ey Lt show that St@ , #40 | tte _(otyte)P+(atb+e) apa * AEB FLA” (ety tet (arbre? 13, If ay tSe— 22+ 20— y tyne z shew that oe = 4. 4 2b4+2c-a I+2a—b Ba+2b—c° WA, Tf (a2 4 b2 +o) (x8 +9229) = (an+dy + c2)%, shew that w@ra=y:b=z:0 WY 45, If U (my +nz—Le) =m (nz+Le— my) =n (le + my — 02), ytene _atany _ety-2 om TH prove 16. Shew that the eliminant of ax+cy+bz=0, or+by+az=0, br+ay+cz=0, in @+B+40-3abc=0. 17, Eliminate , y, 2 from the equations arthy+gz=0, he+by+fe=0, gurfy+c=0. 12 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 18, If w=eythz, y=az+cx, z=br+ay, a yf a ee 1a 1-8 7 1ra° 19. Given that a(y+z)=2, b(z+2)=y, e(x+y)=2, prove that be+ca+ab+2abe=1. Solve the following equations : 20. 32—4y+7z= 0, 21, aty= 4 Qe-y-2= 0, 3r-Qy+1liz= 0, 328 - Y+8=18. w+ 3y8 + 228 = 167. 22, ‘Ty2 + Ben day, 23, 3uvt—2y?+528=0, Qlyz - 32r=42y, ‘724 — 3y?— 1528=0, w+2y+3z=19. 5a—4y+72=6. t m n m4. If Yan ns b= sca sc= Jame n Jann - Jerwe * Sera” t m n shew that< — ———— = —————____ = —________,, (a—b)(e—ab) (b—c)(a—WVbc) (c—a) (b- Vac) Solve the equations: 25. an+ by+cz=0, bex+ cay + abz=0, wy2+ abe (aix + by + 8z)=0, 26. az+by+ce=aiz+ Py+c2=0, w@+y+2+(b—c)(c—a) (a—b)=0. 27. If a(y+s)=2, b(2+2)=y, c(e+y)=z, at x Ea a(1—be) ~b(l=ca a) ~¢(1—ab)" 2 If axthy+gz=0, het byt+fe=0, grtfy+cz=0, prove that prove that q) ef 8 be— ft capi ab (2) (bo-F?) (ca - 9*) (ab— 23) = ( fy — ch) (gh—af)) (hf - bg). CHAPTER II. PROPORTION. 18. Derinition. When two ratios are equal, the four quantities composing them are said to be proportionals. Thus if ; =) then a, b,c, d are proportionals, This is expressed by saying that a is to b as c is to d, and the proportion is written :d; or id. The terms a and d are called the extremes, b and c the means. 19. If four quantities are in proportion, the product of the extremes is equal to the product of the means. Let a, b, c, d be the proportionals. Then by definition whence ad = be. Hence if any three terms of a proportion are given, the fourth may be found. Thus if a, ¢, d are given, then b = = Conversely, if there are any four quantities, a, b, c, d, such that ad = be, then a, 6, c, d are proportionals ; a and d being the extremes, b and c the means; or vice versa, 20. Derinition. Quantities are said to be in continued proportion when the first is to the second, as the second is to the third, as the third to the fourth; and so on. Thus a, b, c, d,...... are in continued proportion when a a 6 oe aor 14 HIGHER ALGEBRA, 1f three quantities a, 6, ¢ are in continued proportion, then a:b=b:c; / ac =". [Art. 18.] Tn this case 6 is said to be a mean proportional between a and ¢; and c is said to be a third proportional to a and 6. 21. If three quantities are proportionals the first is to the third in the duplicate ratio of the first to the second. Let the three quantities be a, b, c; then ; =. Now a_a,b e be mom amar “oO that is, aicaa':B. Tt will be seen that this proposition is the same as the definition of duplicate ratio given in Euclid, Book v. 22. Ifa:b=e:d and e: f=g:h, then will ae : bf=cg : dh. For po gand oa $s uo RF ah or ae: bf=cg: dh. Cor. If a:b=e:d, and b:aadiy, then Gix=ery. This is the theorem known as ex equali in Geometry. 23, If four quantities a, 6, c, d form a proportion, many other proportions may be deduced by the properties of fractions. The results of these operations are very useful, and some of them are often quoted by the annexed names borrowed from Geometry. . PROPORTION. 15 (1) If a:b=c:d, then b:a=d:c. [Znvertendo.] For 2 therefore 1 + ba a that is or 6: (2) If a:b=0:4d, the For ad = be; therefore e =bid, [Alternando.] that is, or a:c=b:id. (3) Ifa:b=c:d, then a+b:b=c+d:d. [Componendo.] For =p therefore Ftla=S+hs F a+b_c+d, that is Sr or atb:b=ct+d:d. (4) Ifa:b=e:d, then a-b:b=c-d:d, [Ditidendo.] a c For i = 53 therefore #-1=5-1; f a-b_ c-d that is, er ae or a-b:b=c-d:d. (5) If a:b=e:d, then a+b:a-b=c+d:c-d at+b_c+d For by (3) “yg -~b_c-d and by (4) +r pone a+b c+d . by division, ab era? or a+b:a-b=c+d:e-d. This proposition is usually quoted as Componendo and Div 0. Several other proportions may be proved in a similar way. 16 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 24. The results of the preceding article are the algebraica equivalents of some of the propositions in the fifth book of Euclid and the student is advised to make himself familiar with then in their verbal form. For example, dividendo may be quoted a follows : When there are four proportionals, the excess of the first abov the second ia to the second, as the excess of the third above th fourth is to the fourth. 25. ‘We shall now compare the algebraical definition of pre portion with that given in Euclid. Euclid’s definition is as follows : Four quantities are said to be proportionals when if any equt multiples whatever be taken of the first and third, and also an; equimultiples whatever of the second and fourth, the multiple o the third is greater than, equal to, or less than the multiple of th fourth, according as the multiple of the first is greater than, equa to, or less than the multiple of the second. In algebraical symbols the definition may be thus stated : Four quantities a, 8, c, d@ are in proportion when po=g according as pa = qb, pand q being any positive integers whatever I. To deduce the geometrical definition of proportion fron the algebraical definition. Since 5 = 5) by multiplying both sides by?, we obtain’ pa _ pe, gb gd? hence, from the properties of fractions, pee q@ according as pa=qb, which proves the proposition. II. To deduce the algebraical definition of proportion frox the geometrical definition. Given that pe = gd according as pu = 6, to prove ¢ 7 oa PROPORTION, 17 1S is not equal to oa one of them must be the greater. Suppose oo ; then it will be possible to find some fraction £ which lies between them, g and p being positive integers. P Hence Seles saecereeteecees 1 : a7) Q), and See ccecccceetetaneteees 2). oe @) From (1) pa>qgo; from (2) peG, therefore G>H; that is, the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means between any two positive quantities are in descending order of magnitude, 66. Miscellaneous questions in the Progressions afford scope for skill and ingenuity, the solution being often neatly effected by some special artifice. The student will find the following hints useful. 1. If the same quantity be added to, or subtracted from, all the terms of an A P., the resulting terms will form an A.P. with the same common difference as before. (Art. 38.] 2. If all the terms of an A.P. be multiplied or divided by the same quantity, the resulting terms will form an A.P., but with a new common difference, [Art. 38.] 3. If all the terms of a G.P. be multiplied or divided by the same quantity, the resulting terms will form a G.P. with the same common ratio as before. [Art. 51.] 4. Ifa, b,¢,d... are in G.P., they are also in continued pro- portion, sizice, by definition, abe zye-= Sinvolad Gaaae sim Conversely, a series of quantities in continued proportion may be represented by a, x7, ar",...... 5 Example 1. If a’, 27, c? are in A.P., shew that b+c, ct+a, a+b are in H.P, By adding ab +ac + bc to each term, we see that @+abt+tactbe, b?+bat+be+ac, c?+ca+cbh+ab are in A.P.; thatis (a +B) (a+¢), (b-+e)(b-+a), (c+) (¢+b) are in A. P. «'., dividing each term by (a +b) (b+¢) (¢+a), 1 1 1 F ye’ aya’ appre AP.; that is, b+¢,c+a, a+b arein H.P. AHA 4 50 HIGHER ALGEBRA, Example 2. If 1 the last term, d the common difference, and s the sum of n terms of an A. P. be connected by the equation 8ds=(d +203, prove that d=2a. Since the given relation is true for any number of terms, put n=1; then a=les, Hence by substitution, 8ad=(d + 2a)*, or (4-2a)*=0 o. d=2a, Ezample 8. If the p*, q",r,s* terms of an A.P. are in G. P., shew that P-% 4-7, 7-8 are in G.P. With the usual notation we have [Art. 66. (4)]; .. each of these ratios _ {a+(p-1) 4} -{a+(q-1) 4} _ {a+(q-1) d} - {a+(r-1) 4} {a+ (q-1) 4} - {a+ (r—1) a} {a+ (7-1) a} - {a4 (6-1) a} Hence p-q, 9-1, 7-8 are in G.P. 67. The numbers 1, 2, 3,...... are often referred to as the natural numbers; the n‘” term of the series is n, and the sum of the first n terms iss (n +1). 68. Zo find the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers. Let the sum be denoted by S; then Sal 4 24 34 000... +n'. We have n? — (n—1)'= 3n*- 3n+1; and by changing n into »— 1, (n- 1)? — (n — 2)° = 3(n— 1)? -3(n-1) +1; similarly (n—2)°— (n — 3)? = 3(n — 2)*— 3(n— 2) +1; 3° 27 =3.3°-3.34+1; -1?=3.2°-3.24+1; _ 1-0? =3.17-3.14+1. THE NATURAL NUMBERS. 51 Hence, by addition, n? = 3(17 + 274+ 3% +... +m) —-3(142434+...4¢n) tn =35- 2+), n+ n(n) =n(n+1)(n—1 +3); _ (n+) (2n4+1) ae. o. 88=n— a 69. To find the swum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers. Let the sum be denoted by S; then Sa 14243 +. tn% We have n‘— (n—1)* =4n? — 6n? +4n-1; (n—1)* - (n- 2)* =4 (n— 1)? - 6 (n— 1)? +4 (n—1)-1; (n— 2) — (n— 3)*=4 (n— 2)? - 6 (n—2)° +4 (n—2)-1; 3*— 24= 4. 37-6. 3°44.3-1; 8 14=4,2°-6,.979+4.2-1; 1*-0*=4,1°-6.1°+4.1-1. Hence, by addition, n= 45-6 (194+ 2%+...4n%)+4(1424+.. tn)—n; o 4S=nt+nt6 (184+ 2°40. 4n")-4(1424...4¢0) =nt+ntn (n+ 1) (204 1) —2n(n+1) =n(n+1) (nt —-n+14+2n4+1-2) =n(n+1)(n*+n); ; gam (ntl _ {ree Dy at coerce eno aeaiia Thus the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is equal to the square of the sum of these numbers. The formule of this and the two preceding articles may be applied to find the sum of the squares, and the sum of the cubes of the terms of the series C @ 240, a420,......... 4—2 52 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 70. In referring to the results we have just proved it will be convenient to introduce a notation which the student will fre- quently meet with in Higher Mathematics. We shall denote the series 14+24+3+4...+0 by 3n; 174294 3% +... +n" by Sn’; 1°4+2°4+3°+... 40" by Sn’; where % placed before a term signifies the sum of all terms of which that term is the general type. Example 1, Sum the series 1.24+2.3+43.4+...t0 n terms, n term= eee =n*+n; and by writing down each term in a imine form we shall have two columns, one consisting of the first n natural nambers, and the other of their squares. .. the sam=2Zn*+ In n(n+1)(2n+1) n(n+1) sae __ %(n+1) (n+2) 2: Ezample 2, Sum to n terms the series whose n™ term is 2*-! + 8n° - 6n*, Let the sum be denoted by S; then S=Z 2" 48En3-6En" 2-1, San 41)? _ Gn (n+) Qn+]) 2-1 4 6 ~ Lin (n+1){3n(n+1)- (an+1)} =2"~14n (n+1) (2n?-1). EXAMPLES. VI. a. 1, Find the fourth term in each of the following series: (1) 2 8, 34,.. (2) 2, 2$, 3,... (3) % 2b, 3h... 2, Insert two harmonic means between . and ne 3 Insert four harmonic means between 2 3 and 7 5 EXAMPLES ON THE PROGRESSIONS, 53 4. If 12 and 9% are the geometric and harmonic means, respect- ively, between tao tunsbers find them. 5. If the harmonic mean between two quantities is to their geo- metric means as 12 to 13, prove that the quantities are in the ratio of 4 to 9. 6. Ifa, 6, ¢ be in H. P., shew that . a:a—b=ate:a-c 7. If the m" term of a H. P. be equal to n, and the n term be equal to m, prove that the (m+n) term is equal to ws : 8. If the p", ¢**, r** terms of a H. P. be a, b, ¢ respectively, prove that "q-n)be+ (r—p) cat (p—g) ab=0. , 9. If6 is the harmonic mean between a and ¢, prove that 1 1 11 b-atb—cmate: Find the sum of n terms of the series whose n“* term is 10, 3n?-n. 11. n43 n, 12, n(n+2). 13, n*(2n43). 14, 38-2, 15. 3(4"42n?)—4n3, 16. If the (m+1)", (n+1)*, and (r+1)" terms of an A. P. are in G. P., and m,n,r are in H. P., shew that the ratio of the common difference to the first term in the A. P. is ~2. 17. If 1, m, mare three numbers in G. P., prove that the first term of an A. P. whose 2, m, and x“ terms are in. P. is to the common difference as m+1 to 1. 18. If the sum of n terms of a series be a+bn-+cn’, find the n term and the nature of the series. 19, Find the sum of x terms of the series whose n“ term is An (n3 +1) —(6n?+1). 20. If between any two quantities there be inserted two arithmetic means A,, A,; two geometric means @,, @,; and two harmonic means H,, Hy; shew that GG, : H,H,=A,+A, : H,+Aj. 21. If p be the first of » arithmetic means between two numbers, and g the of x harmonic means between the same two numbers, prove that the value of g cannot lie between p and a Dp. 22. Find the sum of the cubes of the terms of an A. P., and chew that it is exactly divisible by the sum of the terms. 54 HIGHER ALGEBRA. Pires or SHor anp SHELLS. 71. To find the number of shot arranged in a complete pyramid on a square base. Suppose that each side of the base contains n shot; then the number of shot in the lowest layer is n*; in the next it is (n—1)*; in the next (n—-2)*; and so on, up to a single shot at the top. wo. Santt(n-1)+(n—-2)+...41 = n+ Gn+) [Art 68,] 72. To find the number of shot arranged in a complete pyramid the base of which is an equilateral triangle. Suppose that each side of the base contains n shot; then the number of shot in the lowest layer is n+ (m—1)+(m-2)+...... +1; that is, = (us 1) or pnt +n). In this result write n — 1, —2,...... for m, and we thus obtain the number of shot in the 2nd, 3rd,...... layers. o. S=}h (Sn? + Bn) _n(nt+1)(n+2) sao [Art. 70.] 73. To find the number of shot arranged in a complete pyramid the base of which is a rectangle. Let m and n be the number of shot in the long and short side respectively of the base. The top layer consists of a single row of m—(n—1), or m—n+1 shot; in the next layer the number is 2(m—n +2); in the next layer the number is 3 (m —n + 3) ; and so on; ~ in the lowest layer the number is n(m—n +m). PILES OF SHOT AND SHELLS. 55 o. S=(m—n+1)4+2(m—n + 2)4+3(m—n+ 3) +... +n(m—n+n) =(m—n)(1+24+34...4n)+ (19+ 294+ 3%+... 40%) _(m—n)n(n+1) n(m+1) (2n+1) QB = ae) {3 (m—n) + 2n4 1} _ 2 (n+1) (3m-n+1) =e 74. To find the number of shot arranged in an incomplete pyramid the base of which is a rectangle. Let a and 6 denote the number of shot in the two sides of the top layer, n the number of layers. In the top layer the number of shot is ab ; in the next layer the number is (a + 1) (6 + 1) ; in the next layer the number is (a + 2) (b + 2) ; and so on; in the lowest layer the number is (a +n — 1) (b+ -1) or ab + (a + b)(n-1) + (n—1)*. o. S= abn + (a+b) 3% (n—1)+ 3 (n—- 1)? = abn U(r), (mon@ noi s)) =F (Gab + 3 (a + 8) (n- 1) +(n—1) (2n— 1} 75. In numerical examples it is generally easier to use the following method. Ezample. Find the number of shot in an incomplete square pile of 16 courses, having 12 shot in each side of the top. If we place on the given pile a square pile having 11 shot in each side of the base, we obtain a complete square pile of 27 courses; . 27 x 28 x 55 _ “pe 11x12x23_ 3 = and number of shot in the complete pile= 6930; [Art. 71.] algo number of shot in the added pile= 506 ; +, number of shot in the incomplete pile = 6424. 56 HIGHER ALGEBRA. EXAMPLES. VI. b. Find the number of shot in 1, A square pile, having 15 shot in each side of the base, 2, A triangular pile, having 18 shot in each side of the base. 3. A rectangular pile, the length and the breadth of the base con- taining 50 and 28 shot respectively. 4, An incomplete triangular pile, a side of the base having 25 shot, and a side of the top 14, 5. An incomplete square pile of 27 courses, having 40 shot in each side of the base. 6, The number of shot in a complete rectangular pile is 24395; if hah are 34 shot in the breadth of the base, how many are there in its ngth 7 7. The number of shot in the top layer of a square pile is 169, and in the lowest layer is 1089; how many shot does the pile contain ? 8. Find the number of shot in a complete rectangular pile of 15 courses, having 20 shot in the longer side of its base. 9. Find the number of shot in an incomplete rectangular pile, the number of shot in the sides of its upper course being 11 and 18, and the number in the shorter side of its lowest course being 30. 10, What is the number of shot required to complete a ea pile having 15 and 6 shot in the longer and shorter aide, respectively, of its upper course? 11, The number of shot in a trian pile is greater by 150 than half the number of shot in a square pile, the number of layers in each being the same; find the number of shot in the lowest layer of the tri- angular pile. 12, Find the number of shot in an incomplete square pile of 16 courses when the number of shot in the upper course is 1005 less than in the lowest course. 13. Shew that the number of shot in a square pile is one-fourth the number of shot in a triangular pile of double the number of courses. 14, If the number of shot in a triangular pile is to the number of shot in a square pile of double the number of courses as 13 to 175; find the number of shot in each pile, 15. The value of a triangular pile of 16 lb. shot is £51; if the value of iron be 10s. 6d. per cwt., find the number of shot in the lowest layer. 16. If from a complete square pile of courses a triangular pile of the same number of courses be formed ; shew that the remaining shot will be just sufficient to form another triangular pile, and find the _ number of shot in its side, CHAPTER VII. SCALES OF NOTATION. 76, The ordinary numbers with which we are acquainted in Arithmetic are expressed by means of multiples of powers of 10; for instance 25=2x10+5; 4705 =4 x 10°+7 x 10°+0x10+5. This method of representing numbers is called the common or ~ denary scale of notation, and ten is said to be the radix of the scale. The symbols employed in this system of notation are the nine digits and zero, In like manner any number other than ten may be taken as the radix of a scale of notation ; thus if 7 is the radix, a number expressed by 2453 represents 2x 7°+4x79+5x7+3; and in this scale no digit higher than 6 can occur. Again in a scale whose radix is denoted by r the above number 2453 stands for 2r° + 4r*+57r+3. More generally, if in the scale whose radix is r we denote the digits, beginning with that in the units’ place, by a,, a,, a,,...a,; then the number so formed will be represented by arta, +a, r+... +4artart+a,, where the coefficients a,, a,_,,...a, are integers, all less than 1, of which any one or more after the first may be zero. Hence in this scale the digits are + in number, their values ranging from 0 to r—1. 77, The names Binary, Ternary, Quaternary, Quinary, Senary, Septenary, Octenary, Nonary, Denary, Undenary, and Duodenary are used to denote the scales corresponding to the values two, three,...twelve of the radix, 58 HIGHER ALGEBRA. In the undenary, duodenary,... scales we shall require symbols to represent the digits which are greater than nine, It is unusual to consider any scale higher than that with radix twelve; when necessary we shall employ the symbols ¢, e, 7’ as digits to denote ‘ten’, ‘eleven’ and ‘twelve’. It is especially worthy of notice that in every scale 10 is the symbol not for ‘ten’, but for the radix itself. 78. The ordinary operations of Arithmetic may be performed in any scale; but, bearing in mind that the successive powers of the radix are no longer powers of ten, in determining the carryiny Jgures we must not divide by ten, but by the radix of the scale in question. Example 1. In the scale of eight subtract 371532 from 530225, and multiply the difference by 27. 530225 186473 871532 27 136473 1226235 7 276166 4200115 Explanation, After the first figure of the subtraction, since we cannot take 3 from 2 we add8; thus we have to take 3 from ten, which leaves 7; then 6 from ten, which leaves 4; then 2 from eight which leaves 6; and so on. Again, in multiplying by 7, we have 3 x T=twenty one=2 x 8+5; we therefore put down 5 and carry 2. Next 7x7+2=fifty one=6 x 8+3; put down 3 and carry 6; and so on, until the multiplication is completed. In the addition, 84+6=nine=1x8+1; we therefore put down 1 and carry 1. Similarly 24+6+41=nine=1x8+1; and 6+1+1=eight=1x8+0; and so on. Example 2. Divide 15et20 by 9 in the scale of twelve. 9)15¢t20 1¢e96...6. Explanation. Since 15=1x T+5=seventeen=1x9+8, we put down 1 and carry 8. Also 8 x T +e=one hundred and seven=e x 9+8; ve therefore put down e and carry 8; and 80 on. SCALES OF NOTATION. 59 Ezample 8. Find the square root of 442641 in the scale of seven. 449641 (546 34 1384/1026 602 1416/12441 12441 EXAMPLES. VIL a. Add together 23241, 4032, 300421 in the scale of five. Find the sum of the nonary numbers 303478, 150732, 264305. Subtract 1732765 from 3673124 in the scale of eight. From 34756 take 2e46¢2 in the duodenary scale. . Divide the difference between 1131315 and 235143 by 4 in the scale of six. 6, Multiply 6431 by 35 in the scale of seven. 7. Find the product of the nonary numbers 4685, 3483. 8. Divide 102432 by 36 in the scale of seven. 9. In the ternary scale subtract 121012 from 11022201, and divide the result by 1201. 10. Find the square root of 300114 in the quinary scale. 11. Find the square of tttt in the scale of eleven. 12. Find the G. C. M. of 2541 and 3102 in the scale of seven. 13. Divide 14332216 by 6541 in the septenary scale. 14. Subtract 20404020 from 103050301 and find the square root of the result in the octenary scale. 15. Find the square root of ee¢001 in the scale of twelve. 16, The following numbers are in the scale of six, find by the ordi- nary rules, without transforming to the denary scale: (1) the G. C, M. of 31141 and 3102; (2) tho L. C. M. of 23, 24, 30, 32, 40, 41, 43, 50. oP epr 79. To express a given integral number in any proposed scale. Let W be the given number, and r the radix of the proposed scale. Let a,, a, @,,...a, be the required digits by which WV is to be expressed, beginning with that in the units’ place; then Naas" +a," "'+... +a +ar+a, We have now to find the values of a,, @,, dg)... 60 , HIGHER ALGEBRA, Divide NW by r, then the remainder is a,, and the quotient is a +O, + FO + Oy. If this quotient is divided by r, the remainder is a, ; if the next quotient ...... eeeeerenl te seteeesssceessscenees Ogi and so on, until there is no further quotient. Thus all the required digits a,, a,, a,,...a, are determined by successive divisions by the radix of the proposed scale. Example 1, Express the denary number 5218 in the scale of seven. 7)6218 1)744......5 7)106......2 Die 1 Bl Thus ° 6218 =2 x 44+1x P41 x P4+2x7+5; and the number required is 21125. Example 2. Transform 21125 from scale seven to scale eleven. attas «*. the required number is 820¢. Explanation. In the first line of work 21=2x7+1 = fifteen=1xe+4; therefore on dividing by e we put down 1 and carry 4. Next 4x 7+1=twenty nine=2xe+7; therefore we put down 2 and carry 7; and so on. Example 3. Reduce 7215 from scale twelve to scale ten by working in scale ten, and verify the result by working in the scale twelve, 7215 12 86 In scale of ten 2. 1033 12 12401 Thus the result is 12401 in each case, Explanation. 7215 in scale twelve means 7 x 123+ 2x 1274+1x12+65 in scale ten. The calculation is most readily effected by writing this expression in the form [{(7x 12+ 2)}x12+1]x12+5; thus we multiply 7 by 12, and add 2 to the product; then we multiply 86 by 12 and add 1 to the product; -an 1083 by 12 and add 5 to the product. SCALES OF NOTATION. 61 80. Hitherto we have only discussed whole numbers; but fractions may also be expressed in any scale of notation ; thus ap 2,5. tae. 25 in scale ten denotes 75 + 53; +25 in scale six denotes + é 8 ‘25 in scale r denotes 2 ao ror Fractions thus expressed in a form analogous to that of ordinary decimal fractions are called radix-fractions, and the point is called the radix-point. The general type of such fractions in scale r is 4 8, 4 fry 7a 4 28 ; ett Bt ee A where 4,, },, b,,... are integers, all less than 7, of which any one or more may be zero. 81. To express a given radix fraction in any proposed scale. Let F be the given fraction, and r the radix of the proposed scale. Let 5,, 5,, 6,,... be the required digits beginning from the left ; then 6 4 ra OO ‘We have now to find the values of 6,, 3,, 3,,...... Multiply both sides of the equation by r; then a , 4, rF=b, ++ 4+ seeaee 3 Hence 5, is equal to the integral part of r¥'; and, if we denote the fractional part by F,, we have Multiply again by +; then, as before, 8, is the integral part of r¥; and similarly by successive multiplications by r, each of the digits may be found, and the fraction expressed in the pro- posed scale, 62 HIGHER ALGEBRA. If in the successive multiplications by r any one of the products is an integer the process terminates at this stage, and the given fraction can be expressed by a finite number of digits. But if none of the products is an integer the process will never terminate, and in this case the digits recur, forming a radix- fraction analogous to a recurring decimal. Example 1, Express i as a radix fraction in scale six. . . 4.5,1,38 .. the required fraction=5 + gt gat gi = 14513, Ezample 2. Transform 16064-24 from scale eight to scale five, ‘We must treat the integral and the fractional parts separately, 5)16064 124 5)2044...0 5 54 TH 5)71... 5 5)18 er i 5 +e 5 024 After this the digits in the fractional part recur; hence the required number is 212340-i240, 82. In any scale of notation of which the radix: is r, the sum of the digits of any whole number divided by r—1 will leave the same remainder as the whole number divided by r — 1. Let WV denote the number, a,, a,, @,,......a, the digits begin- ning with that in the units’ place, and S the sum of the digits; then Naa,tartagr +... a_ tag"; Sasa, +0, +, 4 04, ni + @, : W-S=a, (r-1) +a, (r*—1)+ sta,_, ("= 1) +a, (r"-1). SCALES OF NOTATION. 63 Now every term on the right hand side is divisible by r— 1; V-S . “Sry =an integer ; f NV Ss that is, mat , where J is some integer ; which proves the proposition. Hence & number in scale r will be divisible by r— 1 when the sum of its digits is divisible by r—1. 83. By taking +=10 we learn from the above proposition that a number divided by 9 will leave the same remainder as the sum of its digits divided by 9. The rule known as “ casting out the nines” for testing the accuracy of multiplication is founded on this property. _ The rule may be thus explained : Let two numbers be represented by 94+6 and 9c+d, and their product by P; then . P= Blac + 9be + 9ad + bd. P a bd Hence , has the same remainder as > and therefore the sum of the digits of P, when divided by 9, gives the same remainder as the sum of the digits of bd, when divided by 9. If on trial this should not be the case, the multiplication must have been incorrectly performed. In practice 5 and d are readily found from the sums of the digits of the two numbers to be multiplied together. Ezample. Can the product of 831256 and 8427 be 263395312? The sums of the digits of the multiplicand, multiplier, and product are 17, 21, and 84 respectively; again, the sums of the digits of these three numbers are 8, 38, and 7, whence bd=8x8=24, which has 6 for the sum of the digits; thus we have two different remainders, 6 and 7, and the multiplication is incorrect. 84. If N denote any number in the scale of r, and D denote the difference, supposed positive, between the sums of the digits in the odd and the even places ; then N-—D or N+D is a multiple of r+l. 64 HIGHER ALGEBRA, Let a,, a,,@,,......@, denote the digits beginning with that in the units’ place; then Nea, tartar tar t+... tar +ar. o. N-a,+4,-a,+4,-... =a, (r +1) +a, (r*-1) +4, (° +1)+...; and the last term on the right will be a, (r"+1) or a, (r*— 1) according as ” is odd or even. ‘Thus every term on the right is divisible by r+ 1; hence N-(a,-4,+4,-4,+......) 7 oT an integer. Now a,—G@,+4,-@,+......=%D; NwxD. ‘ are rH is an integer ; which proves the proposition. Cor. If the sum of the digits in the even places is equal to the sum of the digits in the odd places, D = 0, and W is divisible by r+1. Ezample 1. Prove that 4°41 is 9 square number in any scale of notation whose radix is greater than 4, Let r be the radix; then 4.1 1\° aatadyS 45 = (2+) : thus the given number is the square of 21. Ezample 2, In what scale is the denary number 2°4375 represented by 2:13? Let r be the scale; then 1 3 _ous75=0e, 245+ {= 24975= 875; whence Tr* -16r — 48=0; that is, (Tr +12) (r- 4) =0. Hence the radix is 4. Sometimes it is best to use the following method. Example 3. In what scale will the nonary number 25607 be expreased by 101215? etl The required scale must be less than 9, since the new number appears the greater; also it must be greater than 5; therefore the required scale must be 6, 7, or 8; and by trial we find that it is 7, SCALES OF NOTATION. . 65 Ezample 4. By working in the duodenary scale, find the height of a whose volume is 864 cub. ft. 1048 cub, in., and the area of whose base is 46 sq. ft. 8 sq. in. The volume is 364} $4 cub. ft., which expressed in the scale of twelve is 264-734 cub. ft. The area is 46,%, sq. ft., which expressed in the scale of twelve is 8t-08, ‘We have therefore to divide 264-734 by 3-08 in the scale of twelve. 3t08)26473-4(7-e 22248 36274 36274 Thus the height is 7ft. 1lin. SE ANMSAPepy 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18, EXAMPLES. VII. b. Express 4954 in the scale of seven. Express 624 in the scale of five. _ Express 206 in the binary scale. Express 1458 in the scale of three. Express 5381 in powers of nine. Transform 212231 from scale four to scale five. Express the duodenary number 398¢ in powers of 10. Transform 6¢12 from scale twelve to scale eleven. Transform 213014 from the senary to the nonary scale. Transform 23861 from scale nine to scale eight. Transform 400803 from the nonary to the quinary scale. Express the septenary number 20665152 in powers of 12. Transform ttteee from scale twelve to the common scale. Express 2 as a radix fraction in the septenary scale. 10 Transform 17:15625 from scale ten to scale twelve. Transform 200211 from the ternary to the nonary scale. Transform 71-03 from the et to the octenary scale. Express the septenary fraction 1552 eis adenary vulgar fraction 4 in its lowest terms. 19, 20. 21, Find the value of -4 and of -42 in the scale of seven. In what scale is the denary number 8 denoted by 2227 In what scale is the denary fraction 2°. [58 5 denoted by (03023 HH A, . s 66 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 92. Find the radix of the scale in which 554 represents the square of 24, 23, In what scale is 511197 denoted by 1746335? 24, Find the radix of the scale in which the numbers denoted by 479, 698, 907 are in arithmetical progression. 25. In what scale are the radix-fractions ‘16, ‘20, ‘28 in geometric progression? 26, The number 212542 is in the scale of six; in what scale will it be denoted by 17486? 27, Shew that 148-84 is a perfect square in every scale in which the radix is greater than eight. 28. Shew that 1234321 is a perfect square in any scale whose radix is greater than 4; and that the square root is always expressed by the same four digits. 29, Prove that 1:331 is a perfect cube in any scale whose radix is greater than three. 80, Find which of the weights 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,... lbs, must be used to weigh one ton. 81. Find which of the weights 1, 3, 9, 27, 81,... lbs. must be used to weigh ten thousand lbs., not more than one of each kind being used but in either scale that is necessary. 32, Shew that 1367631 is a perfect cube in every scale in which the radix is greater than seven. 33, Prove that in the ordinary scale a number will be divisible by 8 if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by eight. 34. Prove that the square of rrzr in the scale of s is rxrg0001, where 9,7, 8 are any three consecutive integers, 35, If any number J be taken in the scale r, and a new number WV’ be formed by altering the order of its digits in any way, shew that the difference between WV and WV’ is divisible by r—1. 36, If a number has an even number of digits, shew that it is divisible by r+1 if the digits equidistant from each end are the same. 87. If in the ordinary scale S, be the sum of the digits of a number WN, and 3S, be the sum of the digits of the number 3, prove that the difference between S, and S, is a multiple of 3, 38, Shew that in the ordinary scale any number formed by writing down three digits and then repeating them in the same order is a multiple of 7, 11, and 13, _ 39, In a scale whose radix is odd, shew that the sum of the digits of any number will be odd if the number be odd, and even if the number be even. 40, If n be odd, and a number in the denary scale be formed by writing down n digits and then repeating them in the same order, shew that it will be divisible by the number formed by the n digits, and also by 9090...9091 containing n- 1 digits, . CHAPTER VIII. SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 85. Inthe Elementary Algebra, Art. 272, it is proved that ‘the denominator of any expression of the form Jord can be rationalised by multiplying the numerator and the denominator by ,/b— ,/e, the surd conjugate to the denominator. Similarly, in the case of a fraction of the form orgerga , where the denominator involves three quadratic surds, we may by two operations render that denominator rational. For, first multiply. both numerator and denominator by b+ J/e—J/d; the denominator becomes (/b+,/c)*—(,/d)* or b+c-—d+2,/bc. Then multiply both numerator and denominator by (6+¢-d)—2 Jbc; the denominator becomes (5 + ¢ - d)*— 4be, which is a rational quantity. Example. Simplify EE 5 . 12 (84/5 -+2n/2) The expression =G+ are ae 12 (844/58 + 2n/2) - 6+6/5 2 B+n/5+ 2n/2) (5-1) (V5 +1) (5-1) _242n/5-+2/10~ 2/2 ater Ne =14/5-+/10- 4/2. 5—2 68 HIGHER ALGEBRA, 86. To find the factor which will rationalise any given bino- mial surd. Case I. Suppose the given surd is 7/a—,/b. Let Y/a=a, Yb=y, and let n be the t.c.m, of p and g; then a" and y are both rational. Now 2*—y" is divisible by 2—y for all values of n, and a my" = (e—y) (a +a" yrey+ een +y""). Thus the rationalising factor is a T* + of 8y + oP 8g? eo... +95 and the rational product is a" — y". Case II. Suppose the given surd is 2/a + 2/b. Let a, y, n have the same meanings as before; then (1) If n is even, x" — y" is divisible "ve a+y, and ay" = (at y) (a — a ty to. ay"*—y""). . Thus the ae factor is ay te tayo; and the rational roel is 2" — ‘¥. (2) If m is odd, x" + y* is divisible by x+y, and at y= (ety) (ee a fy to, — ay" +"), Thus the rationalising factor is and the rational product is a" + y*. Example 1. Find the factor which will rationalise ,/3 + 2/5. 2 1 Let <=3?, y=5%; then 2‘ and y® are both rational, and a8 y= (wy) (28 — aly tay? — ay? + nyt 8); thus, substituting for z and y, the required factor is B42 8 2 3 3 1 3? — 82, 534 3? . 58 38, 584.87, 53 — 58, 5 2 3 3 laos or. 82-9. 53437, 58-15 438, 535i 6 6 4nd the rational product ia 3 - 53 = 3? - 5°=2, SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES, 69 14 as Example 2, Express (83498) = (5i_98) as an equivalent fraction with a rational denominator. 1 Sty; then since 2!—yt=(—y) (2+ fy +2y74+y3) 1 1 1 To rationalise the denominator, which is equal to 5?-84, put 5?=2, 2, 212 2 3 8 the required factor is 53+ 53. 34+ 53. 844. 34; 4 4 and the rational denominator is 5?— 84=5?- 8=22. (Bro) a8 shad. del . the expression = 5+ — +57, 3443 4 see WH 203 3 _ 57+2. 57, 8442. 57. 3442.57. 84434 ~ 22 3 1 2 1 3 _ 14459, 8445 . 874 57. 34 - ll 87. We have shewn in the Elementary Algebra, Art. 277, how to find the square root of a binomial quadratic surd. We may sometimes extract the square root of an expression contain- ing more than two quadratic surds, such as a+ /b+ /ce+ /d. Assume Ja+ Jb+Je+ Jd=Ju+Jyt J; atlb+ for fdaatryte+2,/ay +2 Jaat2 Jyz. Ifthen 2 ,Jzy=Jb, 2fzz= Jo, 2./yz= Jd, and if, at the same time, the values of a, y, z thus found satisfy a +y+z=a, we shall have obtained the required root. Example. Find the square root of 21 — 4,/5 + 8,/3 - 4,/15. Assume = 21 - 4.5 + 88-415 =z + /y-W/23 we 21-4) /5 +8)/8 - 4/1 =a ty +2 +2n/ zy — Qn) xe — 2n/ yz. Put 2n/ zy =8)/3, Infzz =4/15, 2n/yz= 4/5; by multiplication, zyz=240; that is /zyz=4,/15; whence it follows that ,/z=2,/3, /y=2, /#=,/5. And since these values satisfy the equation x+y +2=21, the required root is 3/3+3-/5. 2 , 70 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 88. If Jat /b=x+ Jy, then will t/a Jb=x- Jy. For, by cubing, we obtain a+ Jb =a? + 3a? Jy + 3ayty Jy. Equating rational and irrational parts, we have aaa + 3xy, /b=32" Jy+y Jy; oe @— b= 2? — 32? /y + 3xy-y Jy5 that is, Ja- Jo=a- Jy. Similarly, by the help of the Binomial Theorem, Chap. XIII., it may be proved that if Ya+ Jb=a+,/y, then Ja—Jb=x-,/y, where is any positive integer. 89. By the following method the cube root of an expression of the form a+ ,/b may sometimes be found. Suppose Jax fo=a+ Jy; then Va - Jb=a- Jy. LP RB a af HY eee eeecccrteteeteeeees (1). Again, as in the last article, GHP BEY. eect erect steteeseees (2). The values of « and y have to be determined from (1) and (2). In (1) suppose that {/a*—b =c; then by substituting for y in (2) we obtain a =a + 3a: (a* —c) ; that is, 42° — 3cex = a. If from this equation the value of x can be determined by trial, the value of y is obtained from y=" — c. Nore. We do not here assume ,/r+,/y for the cube root, as in the extraction of the square root; for with this assumption, on cubing we should have a+ fb=a/z+Ba/y + 8yJ/zt+ yy, and since every term on the right hand side is irrational we cannot equate . 4ational and irrational parts. SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 71 Ezample. Find the cube root of 72 - 82/5. Assume 872-325 =2-Jy; then YiB+ 826 = 2+ Jy. By multiplication, 3/5184—1024x5=a?-y; that is, Again 72 — 32,/5 = 23 — 32°, /y + Bay —y/y whence 72=23 + Bay (2). From (1) and (2), 72 = 25 + 8x (x?- 4); that is, a3 —8e=18. By trial, we find that s=3; hence y=5, and the cube root is 3 - ,/5. 90. When the binomial whose cube root we are seeking consists of two quadratic surds, we proceed as follows. Example. Find the cube root of 9,/3 + 11,/2. JaJrT= x/ ay (8+ 54/3) =v3a/ 8+ ie we By proceeding as in the last article, we find that 57, tl 2 2 84 3/5} + 9/33 .*. the required cube root =,/8 (a + J 3) =N8 +2 91. We add a few harder examples in surds. Example 1. Express with rational denominator woeri 5 The expression = —— 33-3341 4 ( 3 + 1) (3841) (3841) _ (341) ; F | =33 B71 =85 41, 72 HIGHER ALGEBRA, Ezample 2. Find the square root of Rle-1) 4/9 Ted, The expression = 4 {80-842 /@e+1)(e-4)} = H(2z4+1)+(e-4)+2,/Gz Fi) eH}; hence, by inspection, the square root is a (Jaz41+ J/2-4). Example 3. Given ,/5=2-23607, find the value of v3= Jo __ N24+/7-3)5° Multiplying numerator and denominator by ,/2, the expression EXAMPLES. VIIL a. Express as equivalent fractions with rational denominator : 1) 2 — v2 * THJ2—,/3 ° " FO4+J/3-5° 1 4 aVatl Jat b+Va+b Va-1-V2a+Va+1 | J104+./5-/3 g, W8+v5) (J5-+4/2) N3+,/10-J5° ° J24+/84+)5 * Find a factor which will rationalise: 1 7. §3-/2. 8 54-32. 9. ahh IQ f3-1. 11, 24A/7. WwW Yo- 43. SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 73 Express with rational denominator : ¥3-1 99-98 J2.2/3 13. W341" gorge 1B. F342" w3 8+ 9/4 27 1 BSI: ms: 1 5: Find the square root of 19, 16-2,/20-2,/284+2,/35. 20, 2444,/15-4,/21-2,/35, 21, 6+,/12—./24-/8. 22, 5-./10-J15+/6. 23, a4+3b+44+4J/a—4/3b-24/3ab. A, 214+3./8-6/3—-6,/7— 2/24 - /564+2,/21. Find the cube root of 25. 10+6,/3. 2%. 384+17/5. 27. 99-70 /2. 2B, 38J14-100/2 29, 54/3+4175. 30. 135,/3-87,/6. Find the square root of B81. ate+V/2art+2. 32. 2a—»/3a?— 2Qub — b. 2 ay 33, l+a%+(1+a%+at)?, 34 14+(1-a*) % 35.. Ifa= find the value of 7a? + 11ab — 78°. 1 4.1 a—J3? 924,73? 36, If one, 9433 , find the value of 32°- 5ay + 3y*. Find the value of 26-15 ./3 6+2V3 a 5 J/2—-V38+5/3 33-19 /3 2 2 39, (28- 10/3)! (744 3) 40, (26415 J/3)3— (26 + 15/3) 3 41, Given ,/5=2-23607, find the value of 10/2/10 +18 V18-V84+N5 J84+V3— 5 Divide 2341430 92 by e—1+2/2. Find the cube root of 9ab? + (8? + 24a”) »/6?— 3a%. BB ati _ 1 44, Bvaluste Ra when Be=Jat7, ’ 74 HIGHER ALGEBRA. IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 92. Although from the rule of signs it is evident that a negative quantity cannot have a real square root, yet imaginary quantities represented by symbols of the form ,/—a, ./—1 are of frequent occurrence in mathematical investigations, and their use leads to valuable results. We therefore proceed to explain in what sense such roots are to be regarded. When the quantity under the radical sign is negative, we can no longer consider the symbol ,/ as indicating a possible arithmetical operation ; but just as ,/a may be defined as a symbol which obeys the relation ,/a x ,/a =a, 80 we shall define ,/—a to be such that J=ax./-a=-a, and we shall accept the meaning to which this assumption leads us. It will be found that this definition will enable us to bring imaginary quantities under the dominion of ordinary algebraical rules, and that through their use results may be obtained which can be relied on with as much certainty as others which depend solely on the use of real quantities. 93. By definition, J—-1x/-1=-1. we fa J=1x Ja. J-1=a(-1); that is, (Ja..J/=1)*=-a. Thus the product ,/a../—I may be regarded as equivalent to the imaginary quantity /—a. 94. It will generally be found convenient to indicate the imaginary character of an expression by the presence of the symbol ,/—1; thus Jha fT) 2 FT. J=Ta! = J 7a? x (=) =a /7 HT. 95. We shall always consider that, in the absence of any statement to the contrary, of the signs which may be prefixed before a radical the positive sign is to be taken. But in the use of imaginary quantities there is one point of importance which ‘serves notice, SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 75 Since (- a) x (—b) =a, by taking the square root, we have [ax f=ban fab Thus in forming the product of ,/— a and ,/—6 it would appear that either of the signs + or — might be placed before ,/ab. This is not the case, for JaaxJ=b=Ja. J=1x¥b.J/=1 = fa (=I) =~ fab. 96. It is usual to apply the term ‘imaginary’ to all expres- sions which are not wholly real. Thus a+6,/—1 may be taken as the general type of all imaginary expressions. Here a and b are real quantities, but not necessarily rational. 97. In dealing with imaginary quantities we apply the laws of combination which have been proved in the case of other surd quantities. Ezamplel. a+b)/-14(c+d./-1)=axc+(bad)/—1. Example 2. The product of a+ b./—i and c+d./-1 =(a+b/=1) (e+4,/=7) =ac—bd + (be-+ad) J =1. 98. Ifa+bJ-1=0, thena=0, and b=0. For, if a+bJ/-1=0, then b/-i=-a; o -Baa’; - &+8=0. Now a? and 6° are both positive, therefore their sum cannot be zero unless each of them is separately zero; that is, a=0, and b=0. 99. Ifa+b/—-I=c+d/-l, thena=c, andb=d. For, by transposition, a —¢ +(b—d),/-1=0; therefore, by the last article, a—c=0, and b-d=0,; # that is a=c, and 6=d, 76 HIGHER ALGEBRA. Thus in order that two imaginary expressions may be equal tt is necessary and sufficient that the real parts should be equal, and the imaginary parts should be equal. 100. Derinirion. When two imaginary expressions differ only in the sign of the imaginary part they are said to be conjugate. Thus a—b,/—1 is conjugate toa+6,/—1. Similarly /2+3,/—1 is conjugate to /2—-3,/—1. 101. The sum and the product of two conjugate imaginary expressions are both real. For a+b J-T+a-b,J=1 = 2a, Again (a+6,J=1) (a-6,/=1) = a? (-8°) =a +6% 102. Derinition. The positive value of the square root of a’ +0 is called the modulus of each of the conjugate expressions a+b J=T and a-bJ—1. 103. The modulus of the product of two imaginary expres- sions is equal to the product of their moduli. Let the two expressions be denoted by a+b/=1 and e+d,/—1. Then their product =ac—bd+(ad+be),/—1, which is an imaginary expression whose modulus = Mer 8) (+ a) =JaaB x (Ord; which proves the proposition. 104, If the denominator of a fraction is of the form a+6 1, it may be rationalised-by multiplying the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate expression a—b ai. SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 77 For instance e+dJ/=1 _(¢+dJ=1)(a-b,/-1) a+bf-1 (a+b,J/-1)(a-b/=1) _ac+bd+ (ad ~ be), J=1 ~ at +b ac+bd ad-—be ;,—~ abt ate Thus by reference to Art. 97, we see that the sum, difference, product, and quotient of two imaginary expressions is in each case an imaginary expression of the same form. 105. To find the square’root of a +b,/—1. Assume Ja+bV¥—l=x+yV-l, where x and y are real quantities. By squaring, a+b —laa'—y'+2ay,/-1; therefore, by equating real and imaginary parts, woyaa.... 2ay =b o (+ yf = (ey) + Ray) =a' +b; oo tees [F4B., From (1) and (3), we obtain Jetta J@+b—a a= 3 y . ona eee, you {feel Thus the required root is obtained. Since x and y are real quantities, 27+ y? is positive, and therefore in (3) the positive sign must be prefixed before the quantity ,/a?+ b%, Also from (2) we see that the product zy must have the same sign 88 b4 hence x and y must have like signs if b is positive, and unlike wigna it b ia negative. 78 HIGHER ALGEBRA. Example 1, Find the square root of — 7-24 ,/=1. Assume J-1-%4)-l=ety /71; then -7-24,/—1=29-y2422y,/=1; tay? =-7, and ary = — 24, oe (att y= (a? - 78+ (2ay)? =49 +576" =625; - weet +yt= O56. From (1) and (2), 2?=9 and y2=16; 2a £3, y= 4, Since the product zy is negative, we must take a=3, y=-4; orz=-3, y=4. Thus the roots are 8-4,/—Land -34+4,/-1; that is, J =7-24,f—1= #(3-4,/ 71). ” Example 2. To find the value of 4/— 64a‘, STU [tet JA = /2 J 2J=1. It remains to find the value of /+,/—1. Assume At JnisetyJ/ Tis then tf lato? 4 2ay J=T; 22 y?=0 and Q2y=1; 1 1 1 1 whence . tay Y= TR oo ae aaa /al o Va )=T=4 ltd). Similarly ota a 3a) and finally nf ~ Bata 2.20 (14/=1). SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES. 79 106. The symbol ,/— 1 is often represented by the letter 4; but until the student has had a little practice in the use of imaginary quantities he will find it easier to retain the symbol ,/—I. It is useful to notice the successive powers of ,/— 1 ori; thus W/=Ty=/-1, isd; (J=1)*=-1, * WJ-Te=-J=1, #=-85 (J=i)'=1, a1; and since each power is obtained by multiplying the one before it by ./=1, or i, we see that the results must now recur. 107. We shall now investigate the properties of certain imagi- nary quantities which are of very frequent occurrence. Suppose a= 2/1; then 2*=1, or 2 -1=0; that is, (@—1) (a? +%+4+1)=0. * either w—-1=0, ora*+a+1=0; whence a=1, or ga ats=§, It may be shewn by actual involution that each of these values when cubed is equal to unity, Thus unity has three cube roots, pris =8 t1e=3, ? Oma ’ 2 > two of which are imaginary expressions. Let us denote these by a and 8 ; then since they are the roots of the equation w'+a+1=0, their product is equal to unity ; that is, aB=1; @B=a'; that is, B=a', since a’ =1. Similarly we may shew that a =p. 108. Since each of the imaginary roots is the square of the other, it is usual to denote the three cube roots of unity by 1, ©, o. 80 HIGHER ALGEBRA. Also o satisfies the equation a*+a2+1=0; l+a+a’=0; that is, the sum of the three cube roots of unity is zero. Again, ow = =1; therefore (1) the product of the two imaginary roots is unity ; (2) every integral power of w* is unity. 109. It is useful to notice that the successive positive integral powers of w are 1, , and w*; for, if n be a multiple of 3, it must be of the form 3m; and w*=w™= 1. If n be not a multiple of 3, it must be of the form 3m +1 or 3m + 2. If n=3m+1, ow =o" a0", If n= 3m+2, oe = ot = 110. We now see that every quantity has three cube roots, two of which are imaginary. For the cube roots of a® are those of a*x 1, and therefore are a, aw, aw*, Similarly the cube roots of 9 are 2/9, w ¥/9, w* 2/9, where 2/9 is the cube root found by the ordinary arithmetical rule. In future, unless otherwise stated, the symbol Ya will always be taken to denote the arithmetical cube root of a. =I) — Eaample 1. Reduce @+3/=1) to the form 4+ BZ. 24+J-1 The expression 479412, /-T 2+4,/-1 _(-5+12,/=1) (2-,/=1) @+ /-1)(2-/-1) _ -104+12+29,/=1 441 2,29 =gtgvii which is of the required form. Example 2, Resolve x*+-y8 into three factors of the first degree. eo) B+y= (ety) (o-2y+y) vB +ys=(e+y) (z+ wy) (z+ wy); for w+o'= -1, and w=1, SURDS AND IMAGINARY QUANTITIES, 81 Example 3. Shew that (a+ «b+ we) (a+ wd + we) =a? +b? +409— be -ca—ab. In the product of a+wb+uw%e and a+w%d+we, the coefficients of b? and c? are w*, or 1; the coefficient of be =u8+ot=u?+0=-1; the coefficients of ca and ab=w?+w=-1; os (4+ 0b + we) (a+ wb + we) =a? + L240? - be - ca — ad. Example 4, Shew that (L+o- 0%) ~ (1-04 ut)'=0. Bince 1+w+w*=0, we have (1+ 0) - (1-0 + 0) = (— 20%) — (- Qu)? = - 88 + But =-8+8 =0. EXAMPLES. VIII. b. r Multiply 2./—34+3/—2 by 4./—3-5/—3. Multiply 3 —7-5/—2 by 3\/—7+5—2. Multiply eV=1 46-V-1 by eV=1—e-N=1, Multiply x—2+¥=3 by #-tov=8 9 po 3 . Express with rational denominator: 5. 1 6 BV —-242f-5 * 3-7-2" * g7-2-27-5° 7 3427-1 3-2-1 a eteval_a-aWV=1 * 9-57=1 245/-1- a-aV¥-1 atay-1 9, (EVERY (w-W=I! yg (atV=T—(@-V=TP teal eb ad (at TP (@= 1h 11, Find the value of (—4/—1)'"*3, when 7 is a positive integer. 12, Find the square of /9 +40 /—1+/9—40N 1. BEA 6 82 HIGHER ALGEBRA. Find the square root of . 13 -54127-1, 1 -11-60V7-1. 15, -474+87-3. 16. -8/-1. 17. a§-142a/71. 18 4ab—2(a?- b*) /-1. Express in the form 4+7B 3450 J3-iJ2 1+é 19, 223i" 20, 2/312" 21, Tor (1+7)? (a+? (a-ib? 2 S-i B. G-ih ~ at If 1, w, w? are the thrce cube roots of unity, prove %, (1+0%)t=o. 25. (l-@+e?) (l+o—o%)=4, 26. (1-a) (1-") (1-04) (1-05) =9. 27. (2+50+202)' = (2+ 2w +50?) = 729. 28, (1-w +o) (1—w? +0) (1—o!+0.).., to 2n factors = 2%, 29, Prove that B+ P+ 3 —Bny2=(e+y+z) (etyo + 20%) («1 +yo?+z20). 30. If a=atb, y=aot+be’, z=aw*+ bo, shew that (Ql) ayz=ai +B (2) #+y?+2=6ab. (3) #8 +y3+23=3 (a3 +09), Sl. If axteyt+be=X, cxtbyt+az=Y, brt+ayta=Z, shew that (a? +0? +o —be—ca—ab) (x+y? +2?—ys—20—ay) =X24 24 77- YZ-XZ-XY. CHAPTER IX. THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS. 111. Arter suitable reduction every quadratic equation may be written in the form Gat? +b CHO oe eecce cee e seen (1), and the solution of the equation is ~, rere tpg —b=/b*- 4uc “= =e Pte peeees eee seeeeesseaese (2). ‘We shall now prove some important propositions connected with the roots and coefficients of all equations of which (1) is the type. 112. A quadratic equation cannot have more than two roots. For, if possible, let the equation ax*+ba+c=0 have threo different roots a, B, y. Then since each of these values must satisfy the equation, we have a + bat CHO eceeccctteteeeeeeeeeee af*+bB+c=0. ay'+by+e=0.. From (1) and (2), by subtraction, a (a? — B*) + b(a—f)=0; divide out by a— 8 which, by hypothesis, is not zero; then a(a+f)+b=0. Similarly from (2) and (3) a(B+ y)+b=0; .. by subtraction a(a-y)=0; which is impossible, since, by hypothesis, a is not zero, and o is not equal to y. Hence there cannot be three different roots. 6—2 84 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 113. In Art. 111 let the two roots in (2) be denoted by a and B, 80 that : _-b+,/6*—4ac pare veda, — 2a , 2a , then we have the following results : (1)_ If 8*-4ac (the quantity under the radical) is positive, a and £ are real and unequal. (2) Jf b*-4ac is zero, a and B are real and equal, each reducing in this case to — 5a" (3) 1£b*—4ac is negative, a and f are imaginary and unequal. (4) If b"'—4ac is a perfect square, a and f are rational and unequal, By applying these tests the nature of the roots of any quadratic may be determined without solving the equation. Example 1. Shew that the equation 2z?-6x+7=0 cannot be satisfied by any real values of x. Here a=2, b= -6, c=7; so that UW - 4ac=(-6)?-4.2.7= -20. ‘Therefore the roots are imaginary. Example 2. If the equation 27+ 2 (k+2) 2+9k=0 has equal roots, find k. The condition for equal roots gives (k+2)9=9k, K-5k4+4=0, (k-4)(k-1)=0; . k=4, or 1, Example 3. Shew that the roots of the equation 23 —Qpz+p*—q?+2gr-r?=0 are rational. The roots will be rational provided (--2p)*~4(p*-q?42qr—r%) is a perfect square, But this expression reduces to 4 (q?-2qr+r%), or 4(q—r)%. Hence the roots are rational. 114. Since Soe ERT pa wai fae fn tee we have by addition a4 pares MBH dae — b~ f= dae 2a SBT Tg ert rereeereees (1); THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS. 85 and by multiplication we have (<3 + J/6¥ = 4a0) (— b— ,/6* = 4ac) a8 = tai _ (-2)*- (0 - 4ac) 4a’ 4ac_¢ i i (2). By writing the equation in the form at+ a +n 0, a a these results may also be expressed as follows. In a quadratic equation where the coefficient of the first term is unity, (i) the sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient of a with its sign changed ; (ii) the product of the roots is equal to the third term. Nore. In any equation the term which does not contain the unknown quantity is frequently called the absolute term. A b ¢ 115. Since ~g70tB, and a7 the equation a*+ S at < =0 may be written (at B) FOB HD oo. ecreeeeeeeeee (1). Hence any quadratic may also be expressed in the form a’ — (sum of roots) a+ product of roots=0......... (2). Again, from (1) we have (@— a) (2 — B) =O ..eeeeeeeeeeeeeteeeeeee (3). We may now easily form an equation with given roots. Ezample 1, Form the equation whose roots are 8 and — 2. The equation is («- 8) (2+2)=0, or a-2-6=0. When the roots are irrational it is easier to use the following method, 86 HIGHER ALGEBRA. Ezample 2, Form the equation whose roots are 2+,/3 and 2 -,/3, ‘We have sum of roots=4, product of roots=1; .*. the equation is a-424+1=0, by using formula (2) of the present article. 116. By a method analogous to that used in Example 1 of the last article we can form an equation with three or more given roots. Example 1, Form the equation whose roots are 2, - 8, and ee The required equation must be satisfied by each of the following sup- positions ; 2-2=0, 2+8=0, a-1=0; therefore the equation must be (22) (248) (2-3) =05 that is, (# - 2) (+8) (52-7) =0, or 5a3 — 227-372 4+42=0, Example 2. Form the equation whose roots are 0, +a, ; a The equation has to be satisfied by ¢ #20, t=a, 2=-4, 225 therefore it is #(e+a)(2~a) ( ~$)=0; that is, & (2? - a?) (ba -c)=0, or bat — ex3 - aba? + aex=0. 117. The results of Art. 114 are most important, and they are generally sufficient to solve problems connected with the roots of quadratics, In such questions the roots should never be considered singly, but use should be made of the relations ob- tained by writing down the sum of the roots, and their product, in terms of the coefficients of the equation. Example 1. If a and £ are the roots of «*-px+q=0, find the value of (1) a?+ 6%, (2) a3 + 6%. We have | at+p=p, ap=q. +. al+ p= (a+8)?- 208 =p*—2q. THE THEORY OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS, 87 Again, aS + B*= (a+) (a*+ B* - a8) =p {(a +6)? — Bag} =p (p?-39). Ezample 2. If a, B are the roots of the equation lz?+mz+4+n=0, find the ane aB equation whose roots are 2 — We have sum of roots =* + BL ids , Boa ap product of roots =< .. by Art. 115 the required equation is 2 2 (3) z+1=0, ap or aBa? — (a? + 6°) 2+ aB=0. 2 As in the last example ayp=™ -. and ap=4- Aah n m?-2nl on .*. the equation is [e- et 7=% or nlz? — (m3 —2nl) x+nl=0. Example 8. When 2StbV =} )find the valuc of 223 4229-72472; and shew that it will be unaltered pbc belt NV! - 11 substituted for 2. Form the quadratic equation whose roots are Ee vai, the sum of the roots =8; the product of the roots = a, hence the equation is 2a? -62+17=0; .*. 22%-62+417 is a quadratic expression which vanishes for either of the values Now 2a342c%—Tx+72=2 (229-G2+17) +4 (22?-6x+4+17)+4 =2x0+4x044 =4; which is the numerical value of the expression in each of the supposed cose 88 HIGHER ALGEBRA. 118. To find the condition that the roots of the equation ax’+bx+c=0 should be (1) equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, (2) reciprocals, . The roots will be equal in magnitude and opposite in sign if their sum is zero; hence the required condition is - e =0, or 6=0, a Again, the roots will be reciprocals when their product is unity ; hence we must have ¢ -=1, orec=a, a The first of these results is of frequent occurrence in Analyti- cal Geometry, and the second is a particular case of a more general condition applicable to equations of any degree. Example. Find the condition that the roots of az?+bz+c=0 may be (1) both positive, (2) opposite in sign, but the greater of them negative. b e ‘We have a+p=-c, op=s. . Qa the roots are both positive, a8 is positive, and therefore ¢ anda have like signs. Also, since a+ is positive, e is negative; therefore b and a have unlike Hence the required condition is that the signs of a and ¢ should be like, and opposite to the sign of b. (2) If the roots are of opposite signs, af is negative, and therefore c and a have unlike signs, . Also since a+ has the sign of the greater root it is negative, and there- fore HB is positive; therefore 6 and a have like signs, Hence the Ra ae condition is that the signs of a and b should be like, and opposite to the sign of c. EXAMPLES, IX. a. Form the equations whose roots are none one p-q _ptg Loa om 3 pry?" p-4 4 7425. 5 +2,/3-5, 6. —p+2V2q.