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Encyclopedia of Electronic Circuits Volume 1

Encyclopedia of Electronic Circuits Volume 1

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1938 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

EL CTRONIC CIRCUITS

VOLUME 1 RUDOLF F. GRAF

~I flJJ JJ. 11-'41 - ~ JIJ~I ~ ~ )1 it,

l;Jj5J~'~ (;jjJJ r -, ~):PJ'1~ .. :i~J .. +~'~ J~; (til i!iS" t:jjjJ ~i,~~ ~\A1i ioJ\!' ~i ,~t ~ t 1):ill ~.r.~ i,~~ J)y.-J I~'

2239468.,slJ 2.22116"-2451161 ~u. - ~~JJ4J'i ~ t)~ - ~~ ,- ~J

E.'mail;,'oazir,@matni.com www.matni.corn

NAZIR IMATNI ELIECTRiONICS

EALBOUNJ", MOS,ALAM BAROlTDI sra, DH\,B; ,BLDO.FUtP.O.BO'X: 1207~

D A "'Ail A, 'SCU'~ S·'V"'1Y'iil" ',-

.cIJ.-y~ ',. .. " I. ~~ L_ ' . .I.,,~

TEL:+9'iSI3'-~, ,~, - 2l~2'11 ~ 1 lE~M:ai1: nazir@.tDatbllii.eolm

...

,F',:AX :+963~ .n ·22'3;9'46 s www.:matni.com

Importers I Exporters I Distri'butors l Retailers I A{ailoHlers :

I . kinds Elecir-onic Components ~ Parts , Devices, ".' ' .. ' ..

Contents

Acknowledgments Introduction

Common Schematic Symbols 1 Alarms

2 Amateur -Radio 3 Amplifiers

4 Analog-to-Digital Converters 5 Attenuatars

6 Audio Mixers

7 Audio Oscillators

8 Audio Power Amplifiers 9 Audio Signal Amplifiers

10 Automotive

11 Battery Chargers 12 Battery Monitors 13 Buffers

14 Capacitance (Touch) Operated Circuits -15 Carrier Current Circuits

16 Comparators

17 Converters

18 Crossover Networks 19 Crystal Oscillators

20 Current Measuring Circuits 21 Current -Sources and Sinks

vi vii viii

1 14 26 43 51 54 61 71 83 93

110 119 125 129 139 147 158 171 174 200 204

22 Dc/dc and dc/ac Converters 23 Decoders

24 Delay Circuits 25 Detectors

26 Digital-to-Analog Converters 27 Dip Meters

28 Displays

29 Dividers

30 Drivers

31 Fiber Optic Circuits 32 Field Strength Meters 33 Filters

34 Flashers and Blinkers

35 Frequency Measuring Circuits 36 Frequency Multlpiiers

37 Frequency-to-Voltage Converters 38 Fuzz Circuits

39 Games

40 Gas/Vapor Detectors 41 Indicators

42 Infrared Circuits

43 Instrumentation Amplifiers 44 Light Activated Circuits

45 Light Controls

46 Light-Measuring Circuits 47 liquid Level -Detectors 48 logic Circuits

49 Measuring Circuits 50 Metal Detectors

51 Metronomes

52 Miscellaneous CircuLts 53 Mixers and Multiplexers 54 Modulation Monitors

55 Modulators

56 Moisture and Rain Detectors 57 Motor Controls

58 Multivibrators

59 Noise Generators

--SO Oscilloscope Circuits

-61 Phase Sequence and Phase Shift Circuits

207 212 216 221 236 245 249 256 260 267 272 277 298 309 312 315 319 323 331 334 3~0 345 356 368 381 385 392 396 407 410 414 424 429 432 441 444 459 466 470 475

62 Photograpby Related Circuits 478

63 Power Measuring Circuits 486

64 Power Supplies (Fixed) 490

65 Power Supplies (Variable) 504

66 Power Supply Protection Circuits 514

67 Probes 519

68 Pulse Generators 528

69 Radiation Detectors 533

70 Ramp Generators 538

71 Receivers -541

72 Resistance and Continuity Measuring Circuits 548

73 RF Amplifiers 553

74 RF Oscillators 569

75 Remote Control Circuits 573

76 Safety and Sec_urlty Circuits 578

77 Sample and Hold Circuits 584

78 Schmitt Triggers 591

79 Smoke and Flame Detectors 594

80 Sound Effect Circuits 597

81 Sound (Audio) Operated Circuits 607

82 Square Wave Oscillators 611

83 Stereo Balance Circuits 617

84 Switches 620

85 Telephone Related Circuits 624

86 Temperature Controls 637

87 Temperature Sensors 645

-88 Timers 659

89 Tone Control Circuits 669

90 Transmitters 678

91 Ultrasonic Circuits 682

92 Video Amplifiers 686

93 Voltage and Current Sources and Reference

Circuits 693

94 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators 700

95 Voltage-to~Frequency Converters 705

96 Voltmeters 709

97 Waveform and Function Generators 717

98 Zero Crossing Detectors 7-27

Sources 730

Index 749

Introduction

This volume of timely and practical circuits highlights the creative work of many people. Featured here are many circuits that appeared only briefly in some of our finer periodicals or limited-circulation publications. Also included are other useful and unique circuits from more readily available sources.

The source for each circuit is given in the sources section at the back of the book.

The-bold figure number that appears inside the box of each circuit is the key to the source. For example, the High Stability Voltage Reference circuit-shown below is Fig. 93-10. If you tum to the Sources section and look for Fig. 93-10 you will find that .Precision Monolithics supplied this circuit frorn-p. 6-142 of their Full Line Catalog.

HIGH STABILITY VOLTAGE REFERENCE

.,

_f

Fig. 93·9: Reprinted with the permission of NaJional Semiconductor Co1fJTransistor Dat(i:book, 1982, p. 11-25. Fig. 93·10: Precision Monoiithics Incorporated, 1981 Full Line Catalog, p. 6-142.

Fig. 93-11: Precision Monolithicdncorporated, 1981 Full Line Catalog,p. 10-lB.

Many circuits are accompanied by a brief explanatory text. Those that do not have textcan be readily understood from similar circuits in that chapter, or else they may be too complex to be explained briefly. The sparseness of text is deliberate so as to allow for more circuits which, after all, is what this book is all about.

The Index and Contents will be a time saver for the reader who knows exactly what he is looking for. The first page of each chapter lists the circuits in the order that they appear. The browser will surely discover many ideas and circuits that may well turn out to be most rewarding and great fun to put together.

The Common Schematic Symbols chart will help you identify circuit components.

~I i:~

R~ I'~ :o\l~)

RJ~ , ~ 10 J

All "V!:L· 16

Fig. 93-10

vii

Com-moo Schematic Symbols

+ + ---0 ----------- -<:f"\P- ----f01-
VOLTAGE TO VOLTAGE FUSE CRYSTAL
NO tOHNECTtON CO~NECTION ORSIGHAL SOURCE OR SIGNAL ~
SOURCE (]J
.. ---
VOLJAGE OR
::=Jl GROUND SIGNAL I.
----:;;.>- --.___., MICRO'HONE
SPEAKER
MALE FEMALE __r-
BOARD PHONE PHONE ----..- ~ ®- 17 ©
CONNECTORS PLUG .)AGK I DIODE ZENER 60
PIN DIODE
rr r -@ "'HER HEADPHONES
-@- -I -<# -.y @ A~TENNA
PttONO /'!tOND DR AC -@r
PLUG JACK Q:: SOCKET I LED '"OTO DIODE €{
VARACTOR ~
0- -----4-- I -S: -t!f --([)-
'T' AC
aANANA PLUG CONSTANT IHCANDESCENT NEON
JACK SHIELDED SCA TRIAC CURRENT LAMP LA'"
CABLE SOURCE N-CHANN EL E NHANe EMEMT
8~ N-CHANNEL NCHANNEL WOSfET
G~D E~Bl ~DSUB
o S B' G S
E
B-©, P-CHANNEl P-CHANNEL
.-@~ E ---@=B2 *SUB
81
BIPOLAR JUNCTION FET UNIJUNCTION P-CHANNEL ENHANCEMENT
MOSFET ~ :~I ~I I ---------- ~
I RESISTOR CAPACITOIII
-L -)I--=----
INDUCTOR INDUCTOR INDUCTOR I
lAIR CORU IIRDN COREl (ADJUST ABLE) I CAPACITOR
POTE NTiO METE R (ELECTROLYTIC)
--l!- ~E-
CAPACITOR
(NON-POLARIIEDI
]~[ E POTENTIOMETER ~-
,TRIMMERI
CAPACITOR
,VARIABLE)
TRANSFORMER =t1 ~
RELAY CAPACITOR
'TRIMMERI ./~ ~
0- ~ D
&PST SPDT SPOT
SWITCH SWITCH SLIDE
SWITCH
D 0
0 1 ~
0 0
0 0 PUSHBUTTON
ROTARY SWITCH
SWITCH N-CHANNEL ENHANCEMENTJ DEPLETION MOSFET

f'ilr:1__D_ SUB ~~

~

C

PHaro TRANSISTOR

viii

fIiI:J!l SU B G~

P-CHANNEL E~HANCEMENTJ DEPLETION MOSFET

-----i~

BATTERY (SINGLE CElLI

THERMISTOR

-il----IF BATTERV 'MULT! CELL)

VARISTOR

LIGHT-DEPENDENT RESISTOR

AMPLIFIERJ8iJFfEA

INVUTiNQ

A~PLIH ERfBUFFER

~"

GATE

-OR-GATE

"NOR" ~ATE

-EXClUSIVE~R" GATE

1

Alarms

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

Computalarm

Automotive Burglar Alarm Security Alarm

Vehicle Security -System

Home Security Monitor System Antitheft Device

Auto Burglar Alarm Tamper-Proof Burglar Alarm Latching Burglar Alarm

Motion-Activated Motorcycle or Car Alarm Boat Alarm

Blown Fuse Alarm Auto Burglar Alarm

Continuous-Tone 2 kHz Buzzer with Bridge Drive. Gated on by a Logic 0 Pulsed-Tone Alarm, Gated by a High Input,

with Direct-Drive Output Piezoelectric Alarm

Gated 2 kHz Buzzer

Burglar Alarm

Latching Burglar Alarm Sun - Powered Alarm

Freezer Meltdown Alarm

COMPUTALARM

JEV
TO '11 V
AT BATTER V
18!~~~-1 0
l
COOl RI
~ SWITCH 1_ QK
TO S(NSIIIC (II
SWITCH~S - rnUNJ Rl
USE AS MANY ( SWITCH 19k •
AS REQUIREO 01
HOOD Rl
SWITCH -In ~~~~~~----------~

~Z -

Fig. 1·1

R6

SCR I

R4

•. 1 k

UV 10V

ZlJO 0100£ ZEi'£A O·IOOE

REEll R[LAY

I A 0

~

~ I, K2 tH£RMAL RElAy - B0110M ViEW

(Ii. 112 SOli, SCRl

aotlOM VI[W BOTTOM V lEW

Circuit Notes

The circuit has a built-in, self-arming fea- mately 1 to 2 seconds apart) for a period of one

ture. The driver turns off the ignition, presses minute. Then the Computalarm automatically

the arm button on the.Computalarm, and leaves shuts itself off (to .save your battery) and re-

the car. Within 20 seconds, the alarm arms arms. If a door, the trunk lid, or the hood re-

itself-all automatically! The circuit will then mains ajar, the alarm circuit retriggers and

detect the opening of any monitored door, the another period of horn blasts occurs. The Com-

trunk lid, or the hood on the car. Once acti- putalarm has a "key" switch by which the

vated, the circuit remains dormant for 10 sec- driver can disarm the alarm circuit within a

onds. When the 10-second time delay has run lO-second period after he enters the door. The

out, the circuit will close the car's hom relay key switch consists of a closed circuit jack, 11,

and sound the horn in periodic blasts (appro xi- and a mating miniature plug.

2

AUTOMOTiVE BURGLAR ALARM

2N3!l06

RI

0.1

J:

51

+I2V~~

ON

.r

e2

~

EXCEPT AS INOlt AT ED, OECIMAL VALUES OF CAPAC ITANCE ARE

IN MICROFARADS I)JF) ; OTHERS ARE IN PICOFARADS I pF OR )J)JF1; RESISTANCES ARE IN OHMS;

k '1000, M' I 000 000

762

DISC'" TRIO,

THflSHO. 0'0

TIMER

UI ANO U2, VIEWED FROM THE TOP

'DB

--2 7

3 6

4 5

EO

c·-

E f'::\s c~

(BOTTOM VIEW)

Q2. 03, Q4, DEPENDING ON CASE STYLE

Fig. 1·2

Circuit Notes

Alarm triggers on after a 13 second delay and stays on for l-lY.! minutes. Then it resets automatically. It can also be turned off and reset by opening and reclosing Sl.

TO 51

3

'"
UJ
"" f-
sg c{
... u.. C!)
'" M _>I. C
+ U~ Z
<
Z
f-
~
)1 e,
z
u.J ,
f-U- N
=>"" 0
~~ "!:
~Z =>
~~ d
, t- C;
tl ..
0
u
I
N
~ e,
0
0
"7t;
::a c;>""
~f-
~ 0
--'
:s u
-<
~ :>:
F-- u
~ f-
e.:
_J
;:J Cl
C!) u.J
U w :r;:
~ ,....:::E ere
"'- «
CIJ
>-
O<!
z--'
0""
uO
.... uJ:Z:
elim "'u
J,t:
~ -- -'
C!J
-""
"'~
... c:
a:~
.. 4

.". "- --' c r.t:

Clt-Z

~~~

;;::::ZCC w-w "- t-

o co t-

VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM

01 2N2222A

AI5 12K

~7 I

L ~:______ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1-' NOTE CONNECT DOME LlG~T CIRCUIT

TOeD OR ®AS APPROPRIUE, BUT NOT BOTH

DOME LIGHT

Fig. 1·4

Circuit Notes

This alarm gives a 15-20 second exit and entrance delay. After being triggered, the alarm sounds for five minutes and then shuts off. Once triggered, the sequence is automatic and is not affected by subsequent opening or closing of doors.

5

HOME SECURITY MONITOR SYSTEM

~~------~--._~ N/O

52 1M

~ -J:- ~~

All diodes = 1 N9148

For siren. horn, etc.

Fig. 1-5

Circuit Notes

This circuit. provides normally open (NO) and normally closed (N C) contacts S 1, S2, and S3 to tum on the alarm after a 30 second delay. S4 and S5 operate instantly. The CANCEL switch resets the alarm.

6

ANTITHEFT DEVICE

C2 _+

21. ;;J;,

VIBRATION SENSOR

.---+----- ---.

15V

_ .... ----

I I

-BUZlER I RELAV :

I ,

!---- ... ..'

, I

L.- __ +- I

02

NOTE.

ICl.2 .AE 401, 01 IS 1N4148 02 IS ,_,

COIjNECT UNUSED INPUTS _ TO OV OR +15V

R1 10M

C3 470.

Fig. 1-6

Circuit Notes

Any momentary break in the protective loop or tripping of the normally closed vibration sensor, causes alarm to sound for 20 seconds. If the circuit is open all the time, the alarm will sound continuously.

AUTO BURGLAR ALARM

DPDT key switch

~---_ --,

\ \

\

3.3kO lW

Hidden reset switch

1000p,F 35V

.___----....._-+-tlll----- 9V battery

To auto ground

~I

+

r- -,
I I
Reed I J Shaker
switch I I switch 2
I J
1... +

Auto dome light

To horn wire in steering wlleel

To door switch

About 50 turns of No. 26 wire wrapped around reed switch

Fig. 1·7

Circuit Notes

Dome light current.through L1 closes reed switch and sounds alarm. Shaker switch also activates alarm.

.7

TAMPER-PROOF BURGLAR ALARM

---,

EXISTING BURGLAR ALARM 1

1 I I I I I

OPTO- ._ OUPLER -._

R2 10k

+12V

,.,OTE;

IC1,2 ARE 741 Q1 IS TIP122

01,2 ARE GENERAL PURPOSE DIODES

Circuit Notes

If-R2 is opened or shorted, the alarm sounds,

OV

RELAY I

CONTACTS r

r r r

--_j

Fig. 1-8

-6V .... --l-,

N.C. Door SWITCHES

LATCHING BURGLAR ALARM

R2i

C1

b

Q1

Fig. 1-9

8

A1

WINDOW FOIL

TO PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT

Circuit Notes

When the protective circuit is interrupted (opened), the alarm sounds. To set the circuit. adjust R2 (with protective circuit open) for 1 V across RL

MOTION-ACTI-V ATED MOTORCYCLE OR CAR ALARM

01

NOTE

110, .. 7400 01 i, BeY]1 R~la~ to.uit

Fig. 1-10

Fig. 1-11

Circuit Notes

Trembler (motion activated) switch sounds the alarm for 5 seconds. Then it goes off. Circuit is timed out for 10 seconds to allow the trembler switch to settle.

Notes:

• See text for details +12Vdc to Pin 4 of 324

12V ground to Pin 11 of 324

Circuit Notes

Removing R1 or R2 from the circuit (i.e., the potential thief breaks a hidden wire that connects R1 to + 12 V and R2 to ground) activates the alarm for about five minutes.

+12V

R1"

BOAT ALARM

10K lOOK

33K

+12V

?

Alarm -relay

A2'

9

BWWN-FUSE ALARM

+l~y.o---------~~--------------------~----------------_'

PNP

FLASH

~R_A_T_E r- __ l~il: .~

f~1Sn

~lED

Fig. 1-12

-l~v.O---------~~----------~------------------~------~

Circuit Notes

If the fuse blows, the LED indicator starts to blink.

AUTO BURGLAR ALARM

SHORT DURATION TIMERS ARE NEEDED TO ALLOW fN1'RY ANO EXIT

JOO

9

lmog!l

2

6 1/2 NES56 5

10

14

1/2 NE556 8

HORN RELAY

Fig. 1-111

lmegll

DOOR SWITCHES

10

I

PB1 ,6 (PRESS kr FOR ON) I

I I

Fig. 1·14

Tx PB-2720

...------j IJ 1-----,

CONTINUOUS·TONE 2 kHz.BUZZER WITH BRIDGE DRIVE, GATED ON BY A LOGIC 0

I I J I

PB1 : (PRESS 10 FOR 0

ON) :

I r

GATE R1 100k_

Fig. 1-15

,....----1 ...... -----0 +3V TO 18V

C1

PULSED- TONE ALARM, -GATED BY A HIGH INPUT, WITH DIRECT ,DRIVE OUTPUT

ICla

NOTE:

IC1 is4011B

C2 4n7

R1 100k

+3V TO 18V .------,-0()

C1 100n

NOTE:

IC1 IS -4011 B

11

PIEZOELECTRIC ALARM

IV

IlIIIk

BURGLAR ALARM

IV

XTAL fRED

ON .n,

tvOff

LDI-------I

Fig. 1-16

Fig. 1.18

22K

4,7":'

(""

GATED 2 kHz BUZZER ,---- ...... .---0 +3V TO 18V

I

PBl I

(PRESS ~ FOR ON).

I I

C1 4n7

LATCHING BURGLAR ALARM ~~~----~--------~

+6V Sl

-6V

~

R1

Cl

NOTE:

IC1 IS 40118

Fig. 1-17

To N.D. PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT

Fig. 1·19

Circuit Notes

Closing the protective circuit (i.e., Rl to R2) applies positive voltage to the gate of SCRI and sounds the alarm . .It can only be turned off with S1.

12

SUN-POWERED ALARM

Circuit Notes

Circuit turns on when light (sunlight) strikes photocell. Potentiorneter.R sets light level at which the alarm sounds. Painted tube (black on inside) may be used on photocell to aim at the sun.

seR

R

2N3906 PNP

Fig. 1-20

Tube (painted black inside) ¢

I 9== Photocell

\

Photocell J

Fig. 1-21

Circuit Notes

The meltdown is a magnet held to a small stand by ice. A reed switch is below the magnet. When the ice melts, the magnet falls on the switch, closing it, and completing the alarm circuit.

FREEZER MELTDOWN ALARM

Speaker

M.gnel_ with ice

8

14 13 +Supply

4011

13

2

Amate-ur Radio

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section-beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

Code Practice Oscillator Produces Automatic

Dits and Dahs

Rf Power Meter In-Line Wattmeter CW Signal Processor

Two-Meter Preamplifier for Handitalkies Repeater Beeper

Electronic Keyer

Code Practice Oscillator Automatic Tape Recording

14

Self-Powered CW Monitor Remote Rf Current Readout Code Practice Oscillator SWR Warning Indicator Subaudible Tone Encoder Audio Mixers

Rf Powered Sidetone Oscillator Harmonic Generator

Automatic TTL Morse-Code Keyer Remote Rf Current Readout

CODE--PRACTICE OSCILLATOR PRODUCES AUTOMATIC DITS AND DABS

J.lKn

.0

SP;:i(J

Fig. 2-1

IODKn

.---¥th---T-- ~.;v-. ....... m~

Straight hand key

1000n

10K!!

c

lN414B

IN4148

o+9v.

+

looon

1.3K!1 lJ.lf

4.7K!1

a

> J

To Pm 14 0' +9v. --7 4011 .lId 4081

To Pm 1 01 ~ 4011 ond 4081

,------ .....

I

"DAIf' I 1 "OtT' ,

I L .!A!_D~E ~ _ J

CiFcuit Notes

The circuit consists of a basic oscillator (above dashed line) and an automatic keyer (below dashed line). The unit can be used with a straight hand key ora paddle key for automatic operation.

15

RF POWER METER

~ __ ~!I!~~.E.2~~O~~H!£~O~_ ~

IN ~-4~------~+-_-_-_--_--_-_-_--_-_--_--_-_--_-_--_-_--_~~--'_~. OUT

~T1

SKT1

AFC 1

Fig. 2-2

C1 1~

O:l OA95

A2 150R

~3 150R

SKT2

03 OA95

F

POWER

04& 05 '1N914 .

Circuit Notes

+ 5O"A F.S 2k

Reflectometer (SWR Power Meter) covers three decades-from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. It can be constructed for rf powers as low as 500 mW or up to 500 watts.

16

IN-LINE WATTMETER

C,

R, 56n

CR1 lN34AI lN60 or similar

r; :ngie 7a.T;: - - - - - - - - - 1

: FORO~RE' I

I M

I

I

I

-L J

NOTES:

L, = 2 turn Imk

L1 - T·50·2 torctd. wound full core with No. 28 wore.

, 11' space between windings 10 allow for L, space.

C, - C2 See text.

I

·1

reactance of L2 so as to avoid any significant effect on the L2 current which is induced by the transmission line current flowing through Ll. The lower frequency limit of the bridge is set by the RI-R2!Ls ratio, and the cutoff is at the point where the value of Rl-Rz.becomes significant with reference to the reactance of L2 at that frequency point.

IN 34AJ 1N60or similar

~~~myF~rL~ 'OO __ '~ ~~ ~

HI

Fig. 2-3

Circuit Notes

The circuit is not frequency sensitive. Its calibration will be accurate over a wide frequency spectrum, such as the entire amateur hf spectrum, if the values of L2, the voltage divider capacitors Cl-2 and C3, and the resistances of Rl-2 are chosen properly. Rl-2 and CRl-2 should be matched for best results. Generally, Rl-2 must be small compared to the

17

--------

-CW SIGNAL PROCESSOR

60HWS

2>0

J.9t

o

Circuit Notes

This circuit provides interferenced rejec- vate the circuit. For periods of loss of signal, tion for the CW operator. The 567 phase- circuit B wiU automatically switch back to live locked loop is configured to respond to tones receiver audio after a suitable delay. (If a relay from 500 to 1100 Hz. The Schmitt trigger re-with a 5-volt coil is not available, the circuit can duces the weighting effect caused by the output also be powered from + 12 volts.) When circuit of the PLL remaining low after removal of the B is used, th€ contacts on relay K1 replace 51. audio-signal. Ten to 15 millivolts of audio acti-

18

L:c.

${

KI

Circuit Notes

This simple, inexpensive, wide band rf amplifier provides 14 dB gain on two meters without the use of tuned circuits.

Preamplifier RS 470

Transceiver

TWO-METER PREAMPLIFIER ·FOR HANDIT ALKIES

aC:E. FREOUENCY ~ 2"K

)0.

+lSV lOrnA.

Fig. 2-5

-s-rsv

REPEATER BEEPER

C5

1;001

INPU~ I---j-""' .............. I-O--".,....,VV\'*-"! .001

BEEP DELAY

BEEP LENGTH

D) IN914

~ooo

Fig. 2-6

Circuit Notes

The signal from COR triggers VI which produces a beep-gate pulse that enables the analog gate consisting of D2 and D3 to pass the beep tone generated by V2.

"0

DELAY RA."'GE 0 I~ to 5 £ECO~OS

BuRST IU~GE 0 15 TO 5 SECONDS

TONE RANGE 500 TO 1400·tU

19

ELECTRONIC KEYER

DOT

-Fig. 2-7

PADDLE

'I

12vDC

DASH

+

PARTS LIST FOR HAM'S KEYER C 1-3-uF, 6-YDC electrolytic capacitor

C2-10-uF, 6-VDC electrolytic capacitor

Dl-1N60 diode

Kl-12-VDC relay

Ql-HEP-2S3 pnp transistor Rl-10,OOO-ohm linear

potentiometer R2-50,OOO-ohm potentiometer R3-1200-Ohm, "'-watt resistor R4-560-ohm, Y>"watt resistor R5-50DO-ohm potentiometer

Circuit Notes

This circuit automatically produces Morse code dots and dashes set by time constants involving Cl and C2. Rl sets dot/dash ratio and R2 sets the speed. R5 sets the relay drop-out point.

CODE PRACTICE OSCILLATOR

Fig. 2-8

VOLTAGE DIVIDER

Circuit Notes

Ion

This simple cpo uses the 7404 low-power Schottky hex inverter, C is a 5- to 30-ILF electrolytic se lecte d for the desired pitch. The speaker is a 2-inch, 8-ohm unit.

GND

20

AUTOMATIC TAPE RECORDING

MICROPHONE INPUT

TO ~CJlSSETTE RECORDER

R~ 300Klt

~

LREMOTE

INPUT

3

10(

lei SK368e OR LM3900 OP AMP

ICZ SK4049 INVERTING MEX SUfFER

Fig. 2-9

Circuit Notes

Amateurs don't have to miss the action while away from the rig. This circuit turns on a tape recorder whenever the receiver's squelch is broken. After signal loss, the recorder will shut off following a slight delay.

SELF-POWERED CW MONITOR

a

L

Magnetic heaaphones

Fig. 2-10

R

c

Circuit Notes

Position L near the transmitter output tank to hear the key-down tone. Then tape the coil in place.C = .047 ILF, R = 8.2 K, Q = HEP 253 (or equal), T = 500: 500 ohm center tapped transformer. L = 2 to 6 turns on W' coil form.

21

Fig. 2-11

REMOTE RF CURRENT READOUT

200 OHio! SHUNT

Circuit Notes

A suitable pilot.lamp is illuminated by a small sample of rf and energizes an inexpensive solar cell; the de current generated by the cell is a measure of relative rf power, and may be routed to a low-current meter located at any convenient point. A sensitive, low-current pilot lamp is desirable to cause minimum disturbance to normal rf circuit conditions. The number 48 or 49, 60 rnA lamp is suitable for use with transmitters above l-watt output.

CI

CODE -PRACTICE OSCILLATOR

Circuit Notes

RI

Fig. 2-12

SPI

Oscillator, works with2 to 12--vdc (but 9 to 12 volts gives best volume and clean keying). Rl can be replaced with a 500 K pot and the circuit will sweep the entire audio frequency range.

TO ANTENNA

FROM TRANSMITIER

Fig. 2-13

\\

SWR WARNING INDICATOR

+6

3900

Circuit Notes

Op amp with de input from SWR meter can be adjusted to preset the SWR reading at which the LED lights.

22

2MO

10KO

SWI

SUBAUDIBLE TONE ENCODER

I'll 68K

~ ~ +8 TO 15VDC

!.LCI ...l...C2

T\~<J'F I 02 .. F

L .... __ -_,_ GND

QI 2N.4124

1'13 36K

C4 .005

+. ~ -C P. S. OUTPUT TO INSE RTION

- POINT ON TRANSMITTER "UOIO BOARD. INSERTION POINT WILL REOUIRE A LOADING RESISTOR. [VALUE DEPENDING ON RIG USED. 10K TO .~ MEG FOUND EXPERIMENTJlLLV)

Fig_ 2-14

SW2

• C TONE SEL SWITCII

~~~~---------

1'15 lOOK 1%

C6 1" .047

C7 m M'r'L"R CS

022 MYL"R .022 MYLAR

Circuit Notes

This twin- T oscillator produces six preset subaudible tones from 93 to 170 Hz in three ranges.

10K TRIMPOTS FREo AOJ

~> IN I )
~> IN 2 )

~> IN 3 )

~> IN 4 )

~) IN 5 )

-Fig. 2·15 AUDIO MIXER

RJ

R2

R3

R4

12K

+12-JaV

R5

12K

Circuit Notes

The 741 op amp is used as a summing amplifier to combine several audio inputs.

Overall gain is set by RI.

23

RF-POWERED SIDETONE OSCILLATOR

+9 Vdc

R2 SDK

C1 ,05

,~

SHORT TELESCOPING WHIP' ANTENNA

!Jl lC4

001 01 1N60

.... Dt-_~_--._4., AST

2

7

8

IC1 555

Fig. 2-16

--PORTABLE RADIO REPLACEMENT TYPE

Circuit Notes

A sidetone oscillator is a special audio astable multivibrator. Keying is accomplished oscillator that istumed on and off with the by applying a positive de potentia!, developed transmitter. The oscillator is rf-driven and bat- from the rf signal, to the reset terminal of the tery operated. It uses a 555 Ie timer as an '555.

HARMONIC GENERATOR

TD251

1

l"

INPUT FROM XTALOSC

50!'V HARMONIC OUTPUT

Fig. 2-17

Circuit Notes

This circuit will produce 50 J.t V harmonics through 1296 MHz with an input of 0.15-1 V from a 100 or 1000 kHz crystal oscillator. With a germanium diode instead.of a tunnel diode, harmonics can be heard up to about 147 MHz.

24

AUTOMATIC TTL MORSE-CODE KEVER

+5V

- -

cor DASH

SW2

MECCANO BRACKETS

OV

".ICRO$WITCHES

RULERS

Iii ... }

H":2. 6- AAE 14)''1. ICJ, 5- ARf 7400 IC4 is 741D~

lSI

7S OHMS

SWI ~~~+-~---;~~----~----------~ -~~~----~----~~

ov

Fig. 2-18

Circuit Notes

Automatically generated dits and dabs are produced over a speed range of 11 to 39 wpm. Tbe upper limit can be raised by decreasing R2. SWI and SW2 can be a "homebrew" paddle operated key.

25

Amplifiers

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in-the box of each circuit correlates tothe source entry in the Sources section.

High Impedance Differential Amplifier Unity Gain Follower

Voltage Controlled Variable Gain Amplifier Power Booster

Logarithmic Amplifier

Voltage Controlled Variable Gain Amplifier Discrete Current Booster

Precision Process Control Interface Voltage Controlled Amplifier Absolute Value Amplifier

Programmable Gain Noninverting Amplifier

with Selectable Inputs x 1000 Amplifier Circuit

Inverting Amplifier with Balancing Circuit Switching Power Amplifier

Precision Power Booster

Noninverting -Voltage Follower

Color Video Amplifier

Fast Voltage Follower

Isolation Amplifier-for Capacitive Loads Cable Bootstrapping

Current Booster

Wide band Unity Gain Inverting Amplifier in a 75 Ohm System

High-Speed Current to Voltage Output Amplifier

Gated Amplifier

Reference Voltage Amplifier Fast Summing Amplifier

Adjustment-Free Precision Summing Amplifier Summing Amplifier witt Low Input Current

x 10 Operational Amplifier Using L161

x 100 Operational Amplifier Using Ll61 Precision Absolute Value Circuit Ultra-Law-Leakage Preamp

De to Video Log Amplifier

±lOO V Common Mode Range Differential Amplifier

Wide Bandwidth. Low Noise, Low Drift

Amplifier

Signal Distribution Amplifier Audio Distribution Amplifier

High Input Impedance, High Output Current Voltage Follower

Precision Amplifier

Preamplifier and High-to-Low Impedance Converter

Noninverting Amplifier

High Impedance, High Gain, High Frequency Inverting Amp

Log-Ratio Amplifier

Inverting Amplifier

Logarithmic Amplifier

26

HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

R6

A3

Rl = R4 R2 = R5

R6 2Rl

GaIn'" R2(1 + R3)" C-(1 + a +_b)

R4

VOUT = C (1 + a +b)(V2 -VI)

R2 R6

R5 == R7 for best CMRR

R7

Fig. 3-1

UNITY GAIN FOLLOWER

+15V

O.Ol)1.F

-~

Fig. 3-2

27

VOLT AGE CONTROLLED VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER

U1897E or 2N4091

U1897E or 2~091

VIDEO OUTPUT

VIDEO INPUT

I

I ...J...

-10VO- ...... --,

Fig. 3-3

U1897E or 2N4091

I-·OCU~F

Circuit Notes

The tee attenuator provides for optimum dynamic linear range attenuation up to 100 dB, even at f = 10.7 MHz with proper layout.

.....------ ..... ----o+v Circuit Notes

Power booster is capable of driving moderate loads. The circuit as shown uses -a NE5535 device. Other amplifiers may be substituted only if Rl values are changed because of the Icc current required by the amplifier. Rl should be calculated from the following expression:

POWER BOOSTER

2N3638

R1

~-------------'_--~-V

All resistor values are in ohms.

Fig. 3-4

600 mW Rl =

28

Icc

1K

2N697

LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER

C2 41. pF

Fig. 3·5

AU I. tl'

'" I •. '.

1~

a. Set Rll tor VOUT" O·at liN'" 100 ~A.

I. b. Set R8 lor Vour- 3V at liN = 100 ~ c. Set R3 for VOUT- - 4V .t lIN'" 10pA

VOUT

t 33OO.ppW·C. Type 0209 avall.bl.

- trom Tellabe. mc., Manchntet, N.H.

Circuit Notes

Unusual frequency compensation gives this logarithmic converter a 100 /Lstime constant from 1 rnA down to 100/LA, increasing from 200 /LS to 200 ms from 10 nA to 10 pA. Optional bias current compensation can give 10 pA resolution from - 55°C to 100 °C. Scale factor is 1V / decade and temperature compensated.

VOLT AGE CONTROLLED VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER

A2

Circuit Notes

The 2N5457 acts as a voltage variable resistor with an RI.(oo) of 800 ohms max. Since the differential voltage on the LMIOI is in the low mV range, the 2N5457 JFET will have linear resistance over several decades of resistance providing an excellent electronic gain control.

29

C2 VIN 0--{ t--""""'- ........... ----I

Fig. 3-7

Rg
33
VOUT
- R10
-
33 -DISCRETE CURRENT BOOSTER

0103 MPS6560 02 MPS6562

PRECISION PROCESS CONTROL INTERFACE

,..------------ .... ,__- .... ---- ,,~v

o I r

r

10

Fig. 3-8

40 100 "'V

JF~D·.=] "II-If lAA...,,~,..JITT~ ..

SI~I'11 AM '0.1 t ~OG4~

30

>- ..... - vcur IOV FGA 20 rnA OVfOA4mA

4 20 mtr.

I~"UT t

1

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED AMPLIFIER

111 lOll

Vine -GYTO-6V

Ql 2N390S

v."A ",.N.~ IV

VOUI • lJiJ,. av

NOTE NO OUTPUT WHEN VIR C IS NEGATIVE

Fig. 3-9

Circuit Notes

This circuit is basically an op amp with annal (±lO mY) between pin 2 and 3 and by

extra input at pin 5. A current Issc is injected controlling the current on pin 5, the level of the

into this input and this controls the gain of the signal output (pin 6) is controlled.

device Iinerly. Thus by inserting an audio sig-

ABSOLUTE VALUE AMPLIFIER

DC

lOt(

Fig. 3-10

Circuit Notes

The circuit generates a positive output The accuracy is poor for input voltages under 1 voltage for either polarity of input. For positive V, but for tess stringent applications, it can be signals, it acts as a noninverting amplifier and effective.

for negative signals, as an inverting amplifier.

31

PROGRAMMABLE GAIN NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER WITH SELECT ABLE INPUTS

Fig. 3-11

+HiV -l5V

~~--------------~~--~----~-----,--GVOUT

.. ,5\1
'V.,_,
CH, GAIN,
18K!! 8.SKu 100Kn
V,Pj 2 ;4 15
lOX
CH2 II GAIN2 18
VIN 1 11 10
l00X
CHJ • GA1N3
VI,.. 4
-100DX
C"_ GAIN,
2Kn loon loon
";" ':" -=- x 1000 AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

D1 +15V IN757A

R7 75k!r

R4 5O1l

+15V

R9 50[1

C1 R8 S"F 1.Skll

ALL RESISTORS 1%

R6 SOkO

Fig. 3-12

32

INVERTING AMPLIFIER WITH BALANCING CIRCUIT

INPUT

PRECISION POWER BOOSTER

+15V

IC = LM101

C, JOpF

2400

Fig. 3-13

Circuit Notes

R.,q may be zero or equal to the parallel combination of Rl and R2 for minimum offset.

Fig. 3-15

TYPICAL PERFORMANCE:

SLEW RATE------------ ... '6V/~EC

0.1% SETIUNG-------4 .. SEC (1\ = 500"1 QUIESCENT SUPPLY CURRENT ---1.5mA

SWITCHING POWER AMPLIFIER

INPUT A1

10 II

A310ctk

NONINVERTING VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

Fig. 3-14

I,

L

VI J

--~

Chartttllittiu

IVD-V,",1D1·~--+------' I. % Err&r.:; ----v;;- - or O_OO1'M,

II., •• 10-4 II.' <)0 K,

til '1 ~ 30 M"ohrnJ. F -; 20 f'h

IV lOS' 100 mAd, VEE

Fig. 3-16

33

COLOR VIDEO AMPLIFIER

'soU

+v

1 __ ea L088-'

75!!

Ie ~ NE5529

Fig.3ml7

FAST VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

6

">---4~- VOUT

-C2

300 pF

Fig. 3-18

-R' 10K

Power Bandwidth: 15 kHz Slew Rate: 1 V / ILS

ISOLATION AMPLIFIER FOR CAPACITIVE LOADS

IUTPUY

Vee

• O\Je"noot-6%

• ',- 11>, ..

• Whln driving lar~ eLI the VOU1 ,lew rlU i, dlt.rmlnad by CL and 'outlm •• ':

-Fig. 3·19

CABLE BOOTSTRAPPING

r-.n'

34

Fig. 3-20

Circuit Notes

Bootstrapping input shield for a follower reduces cable capacitance, leakage. and spurious voltages from cable flexing. Instability can be avoided with small capacitor on input.

'15 V 7
I 100 k
__ L_ V, >0
--
R2
Vo
- - vo = ~ lin 1K2V,l
33 k 1. OffSET
A01UST
-
Fig. 3-22 Fig. 3-24 CURRENT BOOSTER

~OUT

GAIH.~. ,.~

M")U"'UM l-OAD CUARfHT. rlQrftA nov;. 200111

Fig. 3·21

WIDEBAND UNITY GAIN INVERTING AMPLIFIER IN A 75 OHM SYSTEM

HIGH-SPEED CURRENT TO VOLT AGE OUTPUT AMPLIFIER

Fig. 3-23

LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER

35

"GA TED AMPLIFIER

>---0-----. OUTPUT

DM

Fig. 3-25

FAST SUMMING AMPLIFIER

C2

r-----A-I' :~

30K

A1

30K VIN """,,,,""~II--""';=-I

C1 150 pF

Power Bandwidth: 250 kHz

Smali Signal Bandwidth: 3.5 MHz Slew Rate: 10V/J,ts

Fig. 3-27

REFERENCE VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER

ADJUSTMENT-FREE PRECISION SUMMING AMPLIFIER

R4 1000n

Rl
Vo = I' +:-~) VREF 101<n
£,
R2
r5DPF" 101<n
E2
Rl 6
-=- 101<n EO
t+v E3 FEATURES

MINIMUM BIAS CURRENT IN REFERENCE .cELL :2 SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

IC = HA-OP07

Fig. 3-26

36

.Circuit Notes

This circuit produces continuous outputs that are a function of multiple input variables.

SUMMING AMPLIFIER WITH LOW INPUT CURRENT

INPUT Rl

l50 k

CS(2)

R~

x 100 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER USING LI6t

(1) Pow~ Bandwidth: 250 kHz

S,.".II Signll 81ndwidlh: 3.5 MHz

Slew Aile: I 0 V /1"1

(21 CS : 6 X 10-9

RI

(31 I n add ilion to i n,reasing speed. the LM10l A raises high and low frequ4In,y gain, in"eases output drive capability and elirnInales thermal feedback.

+15 V

Fig. 3-31

Fig. 3-29

x 10 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER USING LI6t

-3 V

IN

IceOMP 0.001

ICCOMP 0.003

220Kn

Circuit Notes

Amplifier has gain-bandwidth product of 20 MHz with slew rate of O.3V / JL sec.

PRECISION ABSOLUTE VALUE CIRCUIT

R3 1000n

A5 'OI!n

9,oK !l

1'1, 1001( !1

Circuit Notes

Amplifier is 3 dB down at 100 kHz andhas a slew rate of O.02V / JL sec.

0' FD~

Dl FDSS)

fQIIT1I1I'_T

1. 11",'0. 1120 ... 01 ON

2. 10' (~). (==).I,N8

" .TH,.,. ,,:I ... 4 • M! 10-· 11'-1 .. 110. ltI_ INC~UDIO.

10'11111' 2Voa

IIIIII"'TIIiI 'WUT

t. D' Of'. DI ON

~ ~·D+~

.I. I:O·~A (,+~)

... "'.TH 10. R4 • Ai: EO. 1.'''.

•. - Eo • - ("II ~:~;2 ~4~~'~5~~:N

.. WITH "1 • l1li2 .. RJI • Ft. 1:0· -I: IN

1. 11011 UROII INCLUDfO

10 • -[IN + '.IV0S2 - 0.5VOS1

.. FOR aoTIl 'NOUTS (0" i'N

Fig. 3·32

37

ULTRA-LOW-LEAKAGE PREAMP

UOSl

r---~------------~~~~-Oll~

Fig. 3-33

Circuit Notes

Input leakage-2 pA at 75°C.

DC TO VIDEO LOG AMPLIFIER

Fig. 3-34

38

±IOOV COMMON MODE RANGE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

_Rl 50 kO

R3 5kO

R4 5 xn

INPUTS

J

390

Pin numbers are shown for melal package only.

Fig. 3·35

WIDE BANDWIDTH, LOW NOISE, LOW DRIFT AMPLIFIER

"2

Al

f"'.M ~-240 kH. 10 V/"'o. C ~\J

6 -10 v

s,

• Pow., BW~ 'MI .... 2"Vp iI 24.0 kHz

• P.rnitlc ''''put capac-ltl"C. ICl a: 3 pF tOt L.F'55. ~F '56, and LF 157 plUl Anv tddltlona' Ilvour e:aplcHI"Cll .nt:.r6CU W,lh " .. db.ck ".m."ta end cr •• te, und.'I,.bl. nigi'l fr.Qu.ncy pOI. To compen •• !. add C2 luch tna'. A2C-2 ill! "tC 1.

:Fig. 3-36

SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER

Fig. 3-37

Chirlll:11t'1ItlCl

I PoWIt' IlIPIPIII.If. ptCl.fetld trG"'-lht gllt.put flU", lOS· 200 rnA

U. T"'llhIlllflpul curr.,.' wlwl CASE 111 DUIPut curr..,. I.,nil (0.5 mA.) .iII •• ttI VC. VO' Ind 1102

'ra ... 1It ... IU, ve 1.

1M ..

Vcc+

V~_Y'

AUDIO DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER

11'F INPUT 0---11--+-- .... -1

lODkn

Fig. 3-38

lODI'F r

100kO 1001cn

~-~--~~-----OVCC+

- 100kO

-

-

39

HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE, HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

r---------------~r---------~-.vcc

V,

" ,25GM~~

Fig. 3-39

OFFSET A~JUST

:r: 470 pF

10 _. 1001'~!

10 " 100 rnA Irna~)

Fig. 3·40

~--._--------------~--------~-.VEE ~

·PRECISION AMPLIFIER

50 M!!

10 kn

Pin numbers are shown for metal package only.

40

50 M!!

Char act.rlaties

AV = 1000 '= 60 dB DC Gain Error = 0.05%

Bandwidth = 1 kHz for -0.05% error Dill. Input Res. '" 1 MU

Typical amplifying capability

etN"" 10 IlV on VCMt = 1.0 V Caution: Minimize Stray Capacitance AVCL = 1000

00 kn

eOUT

1.001 "F

470 n

PREAMPLIFIER AND HIGH- TO-LOW IMPEDANCE CONVERTER

+t2V

9

Fig. 3-41

TO

CERAMIC 2M2

CARTRIDGE

INPUTS

lk OUTPUT

OV

Circuit Notes

Thiscircuit matches the very high imped- characteristics are such as to quite closely

ance of ceramic cartridges, unity gain, and low compensate for the RIAA recording curve. The

impedance output. By "loading" the cartridge output from this preamp may be fed to a level

with a 2M2 input resistance, the cartridge pot for mixing ..

NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER

Cb

Fig. 3-42

(liZ

A, I • ) RI

CI

V

HIGH IMPEDANCE, HIGH GAIN, HIGH FREQUENCY INVERTING AMP

lOOK

BW ~ 100KHz AV ~ 100

Z,n'2xw9n

Fig. 3-43

-isv

o .15V Ie = HA2650/2655

41

GAIN

>l5V

LOG-RATIO AMPLIFIER

"' \lOUT - -IV LOG,a 1,12

lk I OR -lV LOGlO Vt 'V 2

~Rl

r- •'54k J

NOTES

CIRCUIT SHOWN FOR NEGATIVE V OR tiN

15V FOR POSITIVE INPUTS 01 PiliP AND VA 15V

Fig. 3-44

154.

1.

ATe TEL LABS • 350ppprn 081

INVERTING AMPLIFIER

lOOk

Fig. 3-45

R2 Rl

42

4

Analog-to-Digital Converters

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in the box of each Circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

8-Bit MD Converter

Successive Approximation AID Converter 8-Bit AID Converter

8- Bit Tracking AID Converter

8~Bit Successive Approximation AID Converter

Four Channel Digitally Multiplexed Ramp

AID Converter

Three Decade Logarithmic AID Converter Tracking (Servo Type) AID Converter 3lh Digit AID Converter with LCD Display Fast Precision AJD Converter

High Speed 3-Bit AID Converter

Three IC Low Cost AID Converter

43

I-
;:)
«Q.Z ~
I-I-°UJ ...J
«;:)Ci)tii « UJ
aOa: 01- ...J I-
..J~UJ...J ...J ;:)
~U>Q. ;i;:) ««Q.
a:OZ~ _Q. a:1-1-
UJ...Joo a:!- III a:~5 III
w=>
(l)UUU (1)0 _{J) (I)
...J s
I I ot )..
N 0 0
0
01 CD
N Q.al
:::.., U x:
I ~ o Q.« u :..:::

Q.'" t 0
UJ JI-Q. P-~ N
~C o J' o 0
0
I I 0)
14 ~!
I a: r-- J .....
Q. >- W U
:::> I- 9
~ Z
<b :::> <t
.... Z <, o
M CD 0
01 U IX)

-,U

U

II

o

.-

.-

I

r---- >
l!)
> "- IX) + .... ~
w NN- 0:1. --{> -ill
-0 0: "-_ r-H--111
... > «M
:1. »
"-r-- .0.0
1:)'0
..." ..,$
0 Cii l!!
~,_,j t.D (J~
.:.< .- '0
IX) '01:
III c: .-
...J LtU~ 00
«
~ ZZ
-o e
::I- I") I"-Nl ill _01
=> ..... - !!~~
.....
u, .:.< « 0.21 c
IX) :I.. ZO«
A""
''V 44

SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION AID CONVERTER

- + ,-----___;-o_ VIN ~

J....oIIL HP2800

I

1""""1 39kll .A

~D>r

~ A3

f - +5V

24 26~ 23

.. • H!'2800

~

Il:Z·

':' -15V

221 18

25

19

20

21

1 CS DGND V~L

~-

~WR

~Ao

27

~ A, MSB

Ill?

PROG V· AGNOF RFB lOUT

ICL7134B

~SB _ LSBI __ ~+ sv +;V

t-~~-+~-r-------~-+-r-r'_+-<-)I ~ - -~~n

.._H,..--+--+-+-----------1-+-+-+--+-+--O DATA A2

+-t--H-t---------HH-t-+-+-<>· OUT LM311

+-+-~-----------+_~H-+-+-O ~-+

+-+-I---------+-+-t-H-+--o -15V

t-r---------+-r;-+-~-O

18 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

B 7 6 5 4

~ ~.-
IN 827A ~ t I I
~
: I
-.__
~
:
-15V 15 13 12 11 8 5 4 3
+5V~ a; Oe •••• • 00 CC 2
P AM25L03
• CP 9
m 5 D [
10 7 -

"-+-1--+-+-0_ • 130n

-

~+~ ~ r--oMSB 14 13 12 11 8 6 4j_

~ ............ -tl E Q1· • • • • 0, ~+5V

B(N+t)

9 CP AM2Sl03 8
S CC ~ SHORT
0 I CYCLE
7 10 :2 LINE
.....
....-.
1N4148 STATUS

Fig. 4-2

Circuit Notes

A bipolar input, high speed ND converter uses two AM25L03s to form a 14-bit successive approximation register. The comparator -is a two-stage circuit with an HA2605 front-end amplifier used to reduce settling time problems at the summing node. Careful offset-nulling of this amplifier is needed.

45

8.BIT AJD-CONVERTER

+5
)- ~ 47kO
Analog 1kO
Input 15kfl )o~l~

O.22jLF ~ s,,''''.
1 8
1 16 .....oj F.S.R_ 4 -
+
'---- 2 15 - 3~ 6

3 14
4 13 t !71N914
~
I 5 12 ~ -511
15k!}
,-6 11 7 2
14
r- 7 10 - ZN7400E res
8 9-
ZN425E: 47pF r0-
B Bil Dlgilal
Output I I
Oil 4
.... 13
11 I
6 'Statu
12 5
4765/4 II

s

Fig. 4-3

Clock

-----u-

Conver! Command

8·BIT TRACKING AJD CONVERTER

.. 15V CLOCt( IN

I 8: C B'D 8 I C MAXIMUM CLOCK RATE ~ 1.OMH.

~~ 8 3Lc 1 -t. lit +SVTRACK

['_~HD 1 'l747t 10 wol 828. I, 6 - 8284 ~1 HOLO

CMP Ole r .... PE "0' r.---~"::'l UP/DOWN n 2 OUT UP/DOWN 0----,

2G(1' 2 FLiPfLOP 15 61 COUNTER tiN CARR .... J COUNTER 2 ....L

1 I 10 g 5 4 III 9 5 4

F -:" 6 -lSV

DIGITAL OUTPUT

1+5

D OJ

I

1-'5

JO.02

1-15 JOo,

.L POWER -::- GROUND

I AIIIAlOa rh aAOU~D

f--------

T = 3RC

:rO

~.'~3~'2~'~'O~ ~.~ •• 7~·il'.;.~1 .• -~~-~·5V

3 /MS8 LSB

DAC lOOCCOJ

\ lb·8jT 'U'A CONVERTE~

4118'"

1'/::?"~L

VIN ~ 0 TO -101.1 __

RI'" 48.11~~

~N4l0GINPUTO----------_' __ ~ ~

P.4AXIMUM FULL SCALE

SINE WAVE INPuT

IS '[JOD~J

16

FUll 5CAlE ~,-._.,_ll -o. 15\1

Fig. 4-4

46

8·BIT SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION AID CONVERTER

BIPOLAR IllEFEREPKE ANALOG

+ tllY INPUT INflUT

.t5Y • ! 1 ... + 1!V

G.D',,' 1~F

I!lOY I lOy

--,- ....... --t-4~- ANALOG m ! ~~. ~~OUND

08'.,' ...c 'JI'

I!lav I"v

-1SV - - -15\1

Fig. 4·5

,URT __'

~ ....J

~~ .. ---------------~

FOUR CHANNEL DIGITALLY MULTIPLEXED RAMP AID CONVERTER

DAC.oI

)IHOITAL

ounu!

I

I

I

QUAO

LATCH

.... , .''''''A~ COUNTlA

+-------j-I- 'TATU. .,T

ON' IHOT

Fig. 4·6

~

I

I

47

THREE-DECADE LOGARITHMIC AID CONVERTER

Fig. 4--'1

A, B, C, D = LM324A

48

tO~ 1-11 mV TO -~~~~ O-"""M ...... H

tOl< til

-tv ItFS~I-.JV"""""..-.j ADI

TRACKING (SERVO TYPE) AID CONVERTER

r------------------------~---------------------------~-MA~X~IM~U~M~C~UX~K~R~A~T£ ~~: c

POll CLOCK 1UlTf. - J._ Co • 4111pF

.sv +15\1

1 .1

l D.02 tlF -l 0.02 a.a.F

+l11V

-tSV

rl,

ANALOG QIIOUND

Fig. 4·8

3V2 DIGIT AJD CONVERTER WITH LCDDISPLA Y

CI _1

'C/'

0 .. :.1

I I

~ .....

tt 1\ 10 Q

,.,.

'"

.-1'"

to .......

TEL EOYNE 8750 CMOS

J 1720lGIT AIDCONVERT£R

Fig. 4-9

FAST PRECISION AID CONVERTER

Fig. 4-1(}

tHPUT MANon
......... 81po1., COftl'lllll:t EIIJII.,.O.AC ZJUl
010+10 •• INPUT TO A 2.l6llU
oro+6 .,. 1P.I'U'f"TO A ..... 0
D TO +20 ". tNPUT ro e t,fJi!IIII11
II TO DA.C cut 49

HIGH" SPEED 3-BIT AID CONVERTER

Inpul yoltage range: -3_5 V TYPical conversion speed: 30 ns

-Fig. 4-11

THREE IC LOW COST AID CONVERTER

ANALQCi

CONNECT 'PSTA"T' TO "CONVEAliIjON COMIl"L.-""T' FOA CDl'IIl'l"'~OV$ CONYEASUO~S

Fig. 4-12

50

5

Attenuators

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

Digitally Selectable Precision Attenuator Variable Attenuator

Digitally Controlled Amplifier! Attenuator Programmable Attenuator (1 to _G.OOOl)

51

DIGITALLY SELECTABLE PRECISION ATTENUATOR

RI I_

Fig. 5-1

All resistors 1 % tolerance

AI -A2 A3 Vo
ATTENUATION
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 -I dB
I 0 0 - 2 dB
I 0 I 1 -3 dB
0 0 -4 dB
0 -5 dB
I 0 - 6 dB
I -7 dB
I AZ

AI

6V-n-OFf 1V...J L.. DN

ATfUUATIDN $El£nIN'U15

• Accuracy of better tllan 0.4% witll standard 1 % value resistorl

• No offset adju stmer\t neceslBry

• E xpandabl e 10 any nu mber of stages

• Verv high i npu 1 1mpedal'lce

VARIABLE ATTENUATOR

VlDW DUTPU1

I ...J...

Circuit Notes

The PN4391 provides a low &ls(on) (less than 30 ohms). The tee attenuator provides for optimum dynamic linear range for attenuation and if complete tum-off is desired, attenuation of greater than 100 dB can be obtained at 10 MHz providing proper rf construction techniques are employed.

-IOVO- ...... .....,

\ -.L...o

Fig. 5-2

52

DIGITALLY CONTROLLED AMPLIFlERIATTENUATOR

IllS! UI AI Al A1 At ~j AI AI AI 4~ Atl

15V

[AI A2

- .. _.

• 4

Al0 1

+ 1024

('02J-N) or VOUT' VREF --N--

Aili

+ -- 1024

whe-e 0 s iii s 1023

N - 0 faf AN .. aU J8rO$ N-llorAl()- I.Al-A9~0

PROGRAMMABLE ATTENUATOR (1 TO 0.0001)

YOUT

UIII lOIk ~'OII giO
I 1~ " 8
~
2,7.10,11 SW.olFQ
-~
1 r e \ I
-10 ·1110 ·Ik ~ 'Ok Fig. ;5-4

.LECT $I LECT $I LEcr I( LECT ,., ATTENUATIOIiI ,,"I" ALL SWITC"ES (IFF)

53

6

Audio Mixers

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730 . The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

Four Input Stereo Mixer High-Level Four-Channel Mixer Two Channel Panning Circuit CMOS Mixer

Mixer Preamplifier with Tone Control

Passive Mixer

One Transistor Audio Mixer Silent Audio Switching/Mixing Hybrid Mixer

Four Channel Mixer

54

FOUR-INPUT STEREO MIXER

INfluT 1
UNITY
GAlfotI
~J~ .. 7 ,-

UVHl
'00.
..7
INPUT '2
GAl'_' i\f;APPRO)O ALL OP·AMPS. POWER(:O F"OM ~ 12v
AX IN K I LOI-IMS
.>7 1001<
ru~
PAN 2
, ..
100111 - Io. . ... ,-
LEV!r:!. 2
'00' •• 7
,_
PAN> [ ,_
ADD MORE IPtlI'1.iTS
I'~S RJ:QU~AIfD "",.
PANi { ,00. ~~ "
•• R
,W
~ O·U\,I
12 + RIGHT DUTPuT.

Four (or more) inputs can-be mixed and produce stereo output. Gain of each stage can be boosted by adding RX, but it should be kept below 50 (RX above 2.2 K) to avoid poor frequency, response. If more than four stages are

used, decrease RX to 6.8 K for six inputs, or 4.7 K for eight inputs. The op amps are 741 or other lower noise types. The power supply

- circuit is also given.

Circuit Notes

Fig. 6--1

55

HIGH-LEVEL FOUR~CHANNEL MIXER

CI 0----;1 f------I INPUT

C2+

200J,lF I

RI 100

R3 ~...JI.N\.~ ...... --o 101(

OUTPUT

+ 12VDC

PARTS LIST FOR HI·LEVEL MIXER -C1-0.1-uF, 3 VOC capacitor C2-200-uF, 3 VDC capacitor C3-0.05-uF. 75 vee disc capacitor C4-1-uF, 15 vee capac1tor CIS-O.l-uF, 15 VOCeapaeltor

1

NOTCH

~ i6 15 14 13 12 " 10 9

I ~:::::::I

2345678 lei

TOP VIEW

Fig. 6-2

IC1-RCA CA 3052 Rt-1OO-ohms, ~·watt resistor R2-47-ohms, !AI-watt resistor R3-Potentiometer. 10,OOO-ohms

audio taper

R4-10,OOO-ohms, !AI-watt resistor

Circuit Notes

To provide good signal-to-noise ratio, this crophone but not with crystal or ceramic mikes four channel mixer amplifier controls the signal because the Ie input impedance is low. Note levels after the amplifiers, and then mixes that all four circuits are identical but that only them to offer a combined output. The circuit one is shown complete.

works with any 50 ohm to 50 K dynamic mi-

56

TWO CHANNEL PANNING CIRCUIT

Fig. 6-3

CHANNEl 1 OUTPUT

CHANNEl Z DUTPUT

Circuit Notes

This panning circuit (short for panoramic soles. Panning is how recording engineers

control circuit) provides the ability to move the manage to pick up your favorite pianist and

apparent position of one microphone's input "float" the sound over to the other side of the

between two output channels. This effect -is stage and back again.

often required in recording studio mixing con-

CMOS MIXER

.------------- ........ --+----o •• -15V

NOTH

Ie, IS 4011 01 IS 8C149 02 15 ElC147

A7 ,,..

OUTPUT

AV2 1Il110

'"

~--~--~----~~-~-----------------~_o.v

Fig. 6-4

Circuit Notes

Four inputs can --be mixed by duplicating the circuit to the left of C3 and using the fourth gate of leI. Two gates are used in a touchoperated switching circuit that controls the

voltage on the base of switching transistor Q2. Touching TPI and TP2 alternately turns the circuit on ana off.

57

MIXER PREAMPLIFIER WITH TONE CONTROL

. , n.

•• ., ..

CI. , .. '

•• :u.

.,. nDn

.7 U'

Al .Ie

VQL .... ·r

RVS

~~--~~~+<~~

el 11.0n,..,

•• II •

.. n.

Fig. 6·5

Circuit Notes

General purpose preamplifier/mixer accepts up to four inputs, has a gain of 1600, and provides bass and treble controls that can be varied ± 10 dB at 100 Hz and 10 kHz respectively. IC1 and IC2 = LM301A.

PASSIVE MIXER

L input

L + R output

R input

Fig. 6·6

Circuit Notes

This simple circuit can be used to combine stereo signals to produce a monaural output. R1 and R2 isolate both circuits and R3 controls the level of the combined output signal.

58

ONE TRANSISTOR AUDIO MIXER

n~10k INPUT1~ 1.

-

-

OUTPUT

01

Be 109_

-

-

-

-

Circuit Notes

Three or more inputs with individual level controls feed into the base of Ql that provides a voltage gain of 20.

SILENT AUDIO SWITCHING/MIXING

Q1

47k

SWITCH TIME CONSTANT 47mS

ON =OV OFF = -15V;;Jjj7n

Fig. 6-8

Circuit Notes

Two or more signals can be switched and/or mixed without annoying clicks by using FETs and a low input-impedance op amp circuit.

Fig. 6-7

59

HYBRID MIXER

R9 +6-15V

2201<

12(10)

Fig. 6-9

NOTE:

ici rs 4011A IGIS 747

OV

Circuit Notes

ICla and b are biased into the linear regions by R3 and R4. (leI must be 4011A).

Outputs from gates are combined by op amp IC2, which provides low impedance output.

FOUR _CHANNEL MIXER +9V to +24V Output o

'~i

Fig. 6·10

n

Circuit Notes

High gain.op amp combines up to fourindividually controlled input signals. The de power source should be well filtered (battery is ideal), and the circuit should be well shielded to prevent hum pickup.

60

7

Audio Oscillators

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlatesto the source entry in the Sources section.

Wien Bridge Oscillator Wien Bridge Oscillator Wien Bridge Oscillator

Very Low Frequency Generator Audio Oscillator

Sine Wave Oscillator

Easily Tuned Sine/Square Wave Oscillators Wien Bridge Sine Wave Oscillator

Phase Shift Oscillator

Tone Encoder Feedback Oscillator Phase Shift Oscillator 800 Hz Oscillator

Tunable Single Comparator Oscillator Wide Range Oscillator (Frequency Range

of 500 to 1)

Wien Bridge Oscillator

Wien Bridge Sine Wave Oscillator

61

R 470 kn 1%

R 470 krl 1%

WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

1
'JOJ f = 2iiRc
+15 V f = 1.0 kHz
1%
6
R2
47 kG
1% .. I

-= (
R4 R5 Fig. 7-1
22 k{J
1%
R3 01
Rl 1 kO FD600 Circuit Notes

Field effect transistor, Ql, operates in the linear resistive region to provide automatic gain control. .Because the attenuation of the RC network is one-third at the zero phase-shift oscillation frequency, the amplifier gain determined by resistor R2 and equivalent resistor Rl must be just equal to three to make up the unity gain positive feedback requirement needed for stable oscillation. ResistorsRd and R4 are set to approximately 1000 ohm less than

the required Rl resistance. The FET dynamically provides the trimming resistance needed to make Rl one-half of the ·resistance of R2. The circuit composed of R5, D1, and C1 isolates, rectifies, and filters the output sine wave, converting it into.a de potential to control the gate of the FET. For the low drain-tosource voltages used, the FET provides a symmetrical linear resistance for a given gateto-source voltage.

62

WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

rI

I

I

I I I I I I I I

L

660

RANSE _rat

DUrPUT

It .00

OHMS

Circuit Notes

Wien bridge sine-wave oscillator using two RCA CA3140 op amps covers 30 Hz to 100 kHz with less than 0.5 percent total harmonic distortion. The 10k potis adjusted for the best waveform. Capacitor C1 and C2 are a two-gang, 450-pF variable with its frame isolated from ground. Maximum output into a 600-ohm load is about 1 volt nTIS.

WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

SOlI

~.'O"HZ

, r 50

y~-

Fig. 7-3

CIwK'.""oa

10• --'- "D'" 0 01 Hz 10 10 kHz 1·,oCo

II IQS'l00mA

63

R1

VERY LOW FREQUENCY GENERATOR

s, .".,_ ,52

S2A I FRED

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 12

: '. fff Offfffff ~~~.

CA2 lN914

R13 -I
,K
VAR _r-
....-
(b s. Jl
~ OUTPUT
52 FREQ VALUE
POS Hz CAPACITOR ,_,.F
1 1 C1 =C12= .5 + 1
2 2 C2=C13= _15 + J5
3 4 C3=C14= _15
4 6 C4=C15= 1
5 8 C5=C16= _066 + 0068
6 10 C6=C17= _D5 + D1
7 12 C7=C18- .05
8 14 C8=C19= 033 +.01
9 16 C9=G20= 0_33 +_0047
10 18 C10=C21 = _033
11 20 en ",C22= _015+ 015 12

Circuit Notes

Wien bridge oscillator generates frequen- tenuator allows the output level to be set with a

cies of 1 Hz and -2 to 20 Hz in 2 Hz steps. fair degree of precision to any value within a

Maximum output amplitude is 3 volts rms of 8.5 range of 5 decades.

volts peak-to-peak. A pot-and-switch at-

117 Fig. 7-4

~A8

.c. lOOK

Circuit Notes

Almost any transistor will work.

Rl and Cl will vary the tone.

A UDIO OSCILLATOR

RI 5K-150K

+ ~9V

Q2 2N3638

4-8tl

Fig. 7-5

64

SINE WAVE OSCILLATOR

Cl 00' jJf ''I

Fig. 7-6

C5 lOoF

Dl Ilv

ftl 11M '11

01 6.lV

R4 5D~

Circuit Notes

The oscillator delivers a high-purity sinusoid with a stable frequency and amplitude.

EASILY TUNEDSINE/SQUARE WAVE OSCILLATORS

Rl 330K

A2 59K

C1t C2c

1.

+ 15-11~"----, AS' lK

C4 01"F

R7

lK SQUARE >--- .... OUTPUT

Fig. 7-7

SINE OUTPUT

-IS

R6 tCl;C2

I OM ~ Frequency Adjust • Amplitude AdJus'

Fo; t

2lTC,~

Circuit Notes

This circuit will provide both a sine and square wave output for frequencies from below 20 Hzto above 20 kHz. .The frequency of oscillation is easily tuned by varying a single resistor.

65

WIEN BRIDGE SINE WAVE OSCILLATOR

Peak output voltage Vp:,V1.+1V

Fig. 7.8

Circuit Notes

Using the 2N5457 JFET as a voltage variable resistor in the amplifier feedback loop, produces a low distortion, constant amplitude sine wave getting the amplifier loop-gain just right. The LMI03 zener diode provides the voltage reference for the peak sine wave - amplitude.

PHASE·SHIFT _OSCILLATOR

.hF

h

-

-

tK lK

lK

f", 4kHz

T" T·t

":' -

-

--

Fig. '·9

Circuit Notes

Circuit .uses a simple RC network to produce an exceptionally shrill tone from a miniature speaker. With the parts values shown, the circuit oscillates at a frequency of 3.6 kHz and drives a miniature 21f./' speaker with earpiercing volume. The output waveform is a square wave with a width of 150 /LS, sloping rise and fall times, and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 4.2 volts (when powered by 9 volts). Current drain of the oscillator is 90 rnA at 9 volts, and total power dissipation at this voltage is 0.B1 watt. which is well below the 1.25 watts the 14-pin version will absorb (at room temperature) before shutting down.

_66

TONE ENCODER

POWER SWITCH

~-H~

9VBATTEAY

10K

.005,,1

.--------~t--___j ( <AUDIO

OUTPUT

lOOK

\ MOMENTARY SPSTSWITCHES

I

Fig. 7·10

Circuit Notes

A basic twin-T circuit uses resistors for accurately setting the frequency of the output tones, selected by pushbutton. Momentary switches produce a tone only when the button is depressed.

FEEDBACK OSCILLATOR

C

.------i I OUT~UT

_j_

Circuit Notes

Circuit oscillates because the transistor shifts the phase of the signal 180° from the base to the collector. Each of the RC networks in the circuit is designed to shift the phase 60° at the frequency of oscillation for a total of 180°. The appropriate values of R and C for each network is found from f = 1/2v31TRC); that equation allows for the 60° phase shift required QY the design.

Fig. 7-11

67

PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR

R2 470k

OUTPUT

Fig. 7-12

47n R4 -4.7k

MJ

250 Hz

Circuit Notes

A single transistor makes a simple phase shift oscillator. The output is a sine wave with distortion of about 104. The sine wave purity can be increased by putting a variable resistor (25 ohms) in the emitter lead of Ql (x), The

-resistor is adjusted so the circuit is only just oscillating, then the sine wave is relatively pure. -Operating frequency may be varied by

putting a 10 K variable resistor in series with R3, or by changing Cl , C2, and C3. Making C1, 2,·3 equal to 100 nF will halve the operating frequency. Operating frequency canalso be voltage controlled by a FET in series with R3. or optically controlled by an LDR in series with R3.

800 Hz OSCILLATOR

47K !lSA

'[]r !~~

..

OUTPUT

.r

Fig. 7-13

Circuit -Notes

The following transistors may be used:HEP-254, 0.C-2, SK-3004. AT30H. To increase the frequency. decrease the value of the capacitors in the ladder network.

68

Circuit Notes

Varying the amount of this comparator circuit's hysteresis makes it possible to vary output frequencies in the 740-Hz to 2.7-kHz range smoothly. The amount of hysteresis together with time constant R6C1 determines how much time it takes for C1 to charge or discharge to the new threshold after the output voltage switches.

TUNABLE SINGLE COMPARATOR OSCILLATOR

Cs

Rs 4.7 kO

WIDE RANGE OSCILLATOR (FREQUENCY RANGE OF 5000 TO 1)

Fig. 7-14

Circuit Notes

Timing resistor R may be adjusted to any value between 10 K and 50 M to obtain a frequency range from 400 kHz to 100 Hz. Returning the timing resistor to the collector of Ql ensures that Ql draws its base current only from the timing capacitor Ct. The timing capacitor recharges when the transistors are off, to a voltage equal to the base emitter voltage of Q2 plus the base emitter drops of Ql and Q2.-The transistors then start into conduction. Capacitor Cs is used to speed up the transition. A suitable value would be in the region of 100 pF.

Fig. 7-15

69

Fig. 7-16

WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

50k

1

f --o 2'" FlC

fo - 1 kHz PI : 18 kn C· 0.01 UF

Fig. 7-17

WIEN BRIDGE SINE WAVE OSCILLATOR

AI 7iII

-

-

.L1 -10V - 14.mA bulb ELOEMA 1869 Rl "R2

Cl ~ C2

I

f:--

2w H2 Cl

70

8

Audio Power Amplifiers

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning onpage 730. The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

Low Cost 20 W Audio Amplifier

75 Watt Audio Amplifier with Load Line

Protection Bridge Amplifier

Noninverting Amplifier Using Single Supply Noninverting Amplifier Using Split Supply

6 W, 8 Ohm Output Transformerless Amplifier 12 W Low-Distortion Power Amplifier

10 W Power Amplifier

Stereo Amplifier with Av = 200 AM Radio Power Amplifier

470 mW Complementary-Symmetry Audio Amplifier

Novel Loudspeaker Coupling Circuit Noninverting Ac Power Amplifier Inverting Power Amplifier Noninverting Power Amplifier

4 W Bridge Amplifier

Phono Amplifier with a "Common Mode"

Volume and Tone with Control Phono Amplifier

Phonograph Amplifier (Ceramic Cartridge) Inverting Unity Gain Amplifier

Bridge Audio Power Amplifier

Phono Amplifier

High Slew Rate Power Op Amp/Audio Amp

16 W Bridge Amplifier

71

LOW COST 20 W AUDIO AMPLIFIER

©

RS 1K

40V

R7 4.7K

I I I I

-----------

01 02

SE9301

C2 15/-tF 50V

INPU~ r-+_,,'U'''""_ G1 10/-tF:2.5V

01-03==1 N4148

Fig. 8-1

-I .--------------1~-. I

I J I I I I

SE94Q1

Circuit Notes

This simple inexpensive audio amplifier can be constructed using a couple of TO-220 monolithic Darlington transistors for the push-pull output stage. Frequency response is flat within 1 dB from 30 Hz to 200 kHz with typical harmonic distortion below 0.2%. The amplifier requires only 1.2 Vrms for a full 20W output into an 8 ohm load. Only one other transistor is needed, the TO-92 low-noise high-gain 2N5961 (Ql). to provide voltage gain for driving the output Darlingtons. Its base

72

(point B) is the tie point for ac and dc feedback as well as for the signal input. Input resistance is 10 K. The-center voltage at point A is set by adjusting resistor R4. A bootstrap circuit boosts the collector supply voltage of Ql (point C) to ensure sufficient drive voltage for Q2. This also provides constant voltage across R7, which therefore acts as a current source and, together with diodes DI-D3. reduces lowsignal crossover distortion.

~ o ..

r'}----,I· ·8~'6"11.

I"IIIn l'"\N

-O~ -IE'- - -,

1 Ir

r - - - - -~~~- - --

1"'11 CON

... - .. N " N

r---I

I ~ I "'i;l Go

I-

I

I

I

--~---

I "'.

.... J<r

·
!! ...
IE ...
·
! ...
lEN
..
0
·
::! ....
lEN ...

uTr I'

:;T

d®-----"

73

BRIDGE AMPLIFIER

v.

na

27D

-Fig. 8-3

Vs -- 8V AL• 4il Pa" U. v, .. 12V AL• In '1). l.1W

Circuit Notes

This circuit is for low voltage applications de levels wilLbe within a-few tenths of a volt of requiring high power outputs. Output power each other. Where critical matching is required levels of 1.0 W into 4 ohm from 6 V and 3.5 V the 500 K potentiometer is added and adjusted into 8 ohm from 12 V are typical. Coupling for zero de current flow through the load. capacitors are not necessary since the output

NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER USING SINGLE SUPPLY

2.

IUD.

'.1 YRo--j

• (LM1Il1 QNL~)

e - RESISTORI • - CArACITIIIIS

Fig. 8·4

74

NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER USING SPLIT SUPPLY

Zk lOOk 2.7' O.I.u~·
II> fi
• r--~--"" -
~5~
14 I
-=- I TYPICAL SPLIT SUPPLY

I

L ..J

'!LMI877 ONLY)

4 - RE$ISTO RS

4 - CAPACITORS

Fig. 8·5

6 W,8 'OHM·OUTPUT TRANSFORMERLESS AMPLIFIER

IICC • 2411

1201(

''gUT I Ql NB021EY
01 Q2 N8211YY
d;~ U3 N-ROOIE
U4 NA41U
US -NA42U
"':' Fig. 8~6

75

12 -W LOW-DISTORTION POWER AMPLIFIER

N.C. -+-13V
Jl
JD
25
ii I.
4n ~
IPKR s 15
I. ;i, F,UOUfNtV 1i41)

Fig. 8-7

to W POWER AMPLIFIER

lOO~~
~. '26V o.47"F
MVLAR
q
lOOk
o l"f
~
loOO"F
.~:,


-
-
2. lOOk 35 30

l 15

I.

I

o II

Fig. 8.8

76

10
\Is· '13V
.2 RL =-4!1
"

U Po ~ nOm w~
~ 5W
~ D.6
iJ111W
D'
..2
1. tOO 1k 1111 1000
F REDUENtv lHI~
Diatortlon fo, Ampllfle, r-
'0-- law
I- -
I
-

-
-Va' BV
RI. ·.tn
Will I II. , ..

n

FRfOUnlCY 1H,)

Frequency R...--

STEREO AMPLIFIER WITH Av = -200

vso- ... -..,

D.I ~F

T

INk

Fig. 8-9

5tO~F

,:. 1~

-I I.IpF -

T -

13.4.5. -

~

-I *"AIGNO

I

AM RADIO POWER AMPLIFIER

Note 1: Twist supply lead and supply ground very tightly. Not. 2: Twist speaker lead and ground very tightlv.

Note 3: Ferrite bead is Ferroxcube K5-00Hl01/3B with 3 turns 01 Wire.

NOH 4: R1el bend limits inout sigRSls.

Note 5: All components must be spaced very close to IC.

Fig. 8-10

77

470 roW COMPLEMENTARY-SYMMETRY AUDIO AMPLIFIER

1j1-12V

Fig. 8-11

01·2N2429 Q2·2N2706 03·2N2430

Circuit Notes

This circuit has less than 2% distortion andisflat within 3 dB from 15 Hz to 130 kHz.

NOVEL LOUDSPEAKER COUPLING CIRCUIT

Circuit Notes

The ground side of the speaker is connected to the junction of two equal high value capacitors (1000 JLF is typical) across the supply. The amplifier output voltage will be V./2, and so will the voltage across C1 (if C1 and (2 are equal); so as the supply voltage builds up, the de voltage across the speaker will remain zero, eliminating the switch-on surge. Cl and C2 will also provide supply smoothing. The circuit is shown with the LM380, but could be applied to any amplifier circuit, providing that the dc voltage at the output is half the supply voltage.

IC1 IS LM 380

+18V +

C2

1000IL

+

C1

1000}L

OV

Fig. 8-12

78

NON INVERTING AC POWER AMPLIFIE

tr-~--~----~--------, 01

~F ~

10k

5H

NONINVERTING POWER AMPLIFIER

1.0 k

120

III 11,30 mll!lnm 1111 I " 20 HI

IV lOS" 200 rnA

Fig. 8-15

IU 10 .... <l.S ohml

RA + AS I.Av"~~20

II los'200mA

IV '1'" 1 fikonm

V BWp", LOMHI

4 W BRIDGE AMPLIFIER

v'

, .. '

Fig. 8-16

Fig. 8-13

INVERTING POWER AMPLIFIER

~B

Fig. 8~14

79

PHONO AMPLIFIER WITH "COMMON MODE" VOLUME AND TONE CONTROL

+1811

'~OR ST A"lITY WITH

HIGH CURRENT LOADS "AUDIO TAPE POlENTIOMEIlR (tG'I OF R, AT .011 ROTATIONi

Fig. --g.17

PHONOGRAPH AMPLIFIER (CERAMIC CARTRIDGE)

1.0 k 12 V

100 pF To." Control IOMega

XT.l'~_ 10 Mign

= --l+---"".,._-:-::-----.l.-~ 0_002 ~FI 0 Meg n

Volums Control

Fig. 8·19

B_OIl

PHONO AMPLIFIER

CRYSTAL CART.'DU

Fig. 8·18

INVERTING UNITY GAIN AMPLIFIER

Fig. 8-20

80

i 1.0;1;1;11.~IO~lDIAD

~ f---H+HII!!---I ~~ . 1'N++i'!ttt!t--;-"t"t"tM!

~ .. 0.1 ~lfllll~'1

C ~

LJ

Z '

~ f··aW .

~ DOl limn .• 1

:= _. ~-~ .

a . .ao 1 .......... .J....U.WI1......J...J...I..L.tLIII-..u.J,.LIIIII_...L....L. I ..........

10 100 1 k 10k lOOk

FREDUENCY (Hll

Total Harmonic Distortion vs. Frequency of Bridge Power Amplifier

115

BRIDGE AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

Rl-114 CURIIENT LIMIT "lIESISTOR O.1SQ 2W
115 FEEDBACK RESISTOR ·UQ
CASE R6 fEEDBACK RESISTOR 15kQ
R7-Rl0 INPUT RESISTORS '10kQ
Cl-C" BYPASS CAPACITORS "71A' 25 V .ELECTROLYTIC
C5-CI iYPASS CAPACITORS 10~F 25V TANTALUM
C9-C12 BYPASS CAPACITORS O.l",F 25V CERAMIC Fig. 8-21

INPUT

OUTPUT

'Iav

PHONO AMPLIFIER

Circuit Notes

Used when maximum input impedance is required or the signal attenuation of.the voltage divider volume control is undesirable.

Fig. 8-22

"""""'-.'1 V

116

'FDA STABILITY WITH HIGH CURREf>4T LOADS

81

Fig. 8-23

HIGH SLEW RATE POWER OP AMP/AUDIO AMP

30 1I

10 pF

to,., SIGNAL -.J_ INPUT "'I

Fig. 8-24

VOUT

1M

11181c

-

-

82

Pn(MAX) (I III = 'I W

-13 V 10.471'F

Feature.

• High Slew Rate 9 V I ~s

-High 3 dB Power Bandwidth 85 kHz

• 18 Watts Output Power Into an 8 n Load.

• Low Distortion - .. 2%, 10 VRMS, 1 kHz Into 8 n

16 W BRIDGE AMPLIFIER

O.2,.F

~

-

- ..

220

9

Audio Signal Amplifiers

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section beginning on page 730. The figure number contained in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.

General Purpose Preamplifier Basic Transistor Amplifier Circuits Microphone Amplifier

Transducer Amplifier

Ultra-High Gain Audio Amplifier Transformerless Microphone Preamp (Bal-

anced Inputs)

Transformerless Microphone Preamp (Unbalanced Inputs)

Magnetic Pickup Phone Preamplifier Disc/Tape Phase Modulated Readback Systems

Two-PoleFast Turn-On NAB Tape Preamplifier Tape Preamplifier (NAB Equation)

LM382 Phono Preamplifier

-Tape Recording Amplifier

Magnetic Phono Preamplifier

Phono Preamp

- Remote Amplifier

Adjustable Gain Noninverting Amplifier High Gain Inverting AC Amplifier

Flat Response Amplifier

Preamplifier with RIAA/N AB Compensation Tape Playback Amplifier

83

GENERAL PURPOSE PREAMPLIFIER

C2

lOOn

~GHT 11------<

INPUT

en RIGHT

_.lDJJrOUTPUT

R4

_ lOOk

en LEFT

+lo,.rOUTPUT

R3

_ lOOk

Rl

FUNCTION Cl 4 C5 6 C7 8 C9.10 R1.2
Phono preamp 330n 10~F 10~F ln5 1k
(RIAA)
Tape preamp 68n 10~F 10.uF - -
(NAB)
Flat 40dB gain - - 10.uF - -
Flat 55dB gain - 1OJ,JF - - -
Flat eoea gain - 10pF 10¢ - - Fig. 9-1

Circuit Notes

Not much can be said about how the LM382 works as most of the circuitry is contained within the IC. Most of the frequency-determining components are on the chip-only the capacitors are mounted externally. The LM382 has the convenient characteristic of rejecting ripple on the supply line by about 100 dB, thus greatly reducing the quality requirment for the power supply.

84

BASIC TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS

COMMON BASE

Circuit Notes

S",F >r------4 ..... +"-I(--o

0:fT

4700

Typical component values are given for use.at audio frequencies, where these circuits are used most often. The input and output phase relationships are shown.

Fig. 9-2

+911

COMMON EMITTER

4700

OUTPUT

r+:>

COMMON _COLLECTOR

+9v

-85

ELECTRONIC BALANCED INPUT MICROPHONE AMPLIFIER

Fig. 9-3

Circuit Notes

It is possible to simulate the balanced perfonnance of a transformer electronically with a different amplifier. By adjusting the presets, the resistor ratio can be balanced so that the best CMRR is obtained. It is possible to get a better CMRR than from a transformer. Use a RC4136 which is a quad low noise op amp.

TRANSDUCER AMPLIFIER

C I

o 1 "F

AS 22M

Fig. 9-4

112 19.6k ,.,~

R4 182k

l'/~

( R2) R2 .. RJ .. R4

R'N"RI ,~ A,co

. R.1 R2· R.j

Circuit Notes

This circuit is high-in put-impedance ac amplifier for a piezoelectric transducer. Input

86

resistance is 880 M. and a gain of 10 is obtained.

Circuit Notes

Sometimes called the JFET /L-amp. this circuit provides a very low power, high gain amplifying function. Since /L of a JFET increases as drain current decreases, the lower drain current is, the more gain you get. Input dynamic range is sacrificed with increasing gain. however.

ULTRA-HIGH GAIN AUDIO AMPLIFIER

r--------- ..... -~~v ~8

1M

-RI UM

Rl 1M

• ........ tnIn

Fig. 9-6

500 typical

MICROPHONE AMPLIFIER

Fig. 9-5

Circuit Notes

This circuit operates from a 1.5 Vdc source.

87

88

-TRANSFORMERLESS (BALANCE INPUTS) MICROPHONE PREAMP

..-ISV

·,5V

lOOl 0.1%

Fig. 9-7

-H.V

=

4,'0 S4dB

• - MfTAl FILM

AnJ ArFDR ~OUT' O~DC ADJ R'CFDR MAX CMAR NOISE -&ldB BEl OW

21'11\,1 INPUT

THD ~ 0 1%

TRANSFORMERLESS MICROPHONE PREAMPS (UNBALANCED INPUTS)

+24 V

R4 22Dk

~

A, ~ 52dS

• - METAL FILM NOISE' -69dB BELOW

-Ay 0 52dB

• - MET Al FILM

NOISE -SHS BELOW

2mV

2mV

THO 01"-

{b) LM387A

Fig. 9-8

HiD 0.1".

{a) LM381 AS. E. Bias

MAGNETIC PICKUP PHONO PREAMPLIFIER

1.

I~D'

24k

I~PUT
820.
,.
-=- -=-
"::" +
')0 r~O"~
2Zk
+
J~O.f IlO'
1.
-UV Fig. 9-9

7~O ,

Circuit Notes

This preamplifier provides proper loading to a reluctance phono cartridge. It provides approximately 35 dB of gain at.1 kHz (2.2 mV input for 100 m V output). It features (S + N)/N

ratio of better than -70 dB (referenced to 10 m V input at 1 kHz) and has a dynamic range of 84 dB (referenced to 1 kllz). The feedback provides for RIAA equalization.

DISC/TAPE PHASE MODULATED READBACK SYSTEMS

Fig. 9-10

o

AMPLITUDE FREQUENCV,

47 pFd

READ HEAD DIFFERENTIATORJAMPLIFlER

ZERO CROSSING DETECTOR

89

TWO-POLE FAST TURN-ON NAB TAPE PREAMPLIFIER

24V

(4,51

I

I-I

120pF

2201,

22 Ok

2k

I2JJF

Fig. 9-11

LM382 PHONO PREAMPLIFIER (RIAA)

+12V

O_0015,..F Fig. 9-13

T APE PREAMPLIFIER (NAB EQUALIZATION)

Vee

Fig. 9-12

90

TAPE RECORDING AMPLIFIER

10 KEAD

C9 470PFI

TO BIAS OSCILLATOR

Fig. 9-14

MAGNETIC PHONO PREAMPLIFIER

30V

Fig. 9-15

REMOTE AMPLIFIER

GAIN = 1 t 267~ Rl

RJ 1M -

Fig. 9-17

PHONO PREAMP (RIAA EQUALIZATION)

Vee

7,8

Fig. 9-16

ADJUSTABLE GAIN NONlNVERTING AMPLIFIER

C1 ~ __ 1_ 2" 10 Rt

fa = LOW FREQUENCY -JdB CORNER Fig. 9-18

PINS 3. 5, 6, 9, 1D, 12 All NO CONNECTION

I

I ..L

91

HIGH GAIN INVERTING AC AMPLIFIER

GAIN' _ 5.1 x '06 -Rl

CD' -,- 2d.R,

10 ' LOW FREQUENCY -JdB CORNER IC, Rl» C. ~I. INPUT IMPEDANCE ' R,

PINS 3_ 5_ 16,_12 NOT USED

Fig. 9-19

FLAT RESPONSE AMPLIFIER (FIXED GAIN CONFIGURATION)

Vee

PREAMPLIFIER WITH RIAAlNAB COMPENSATION

+lSV

>----- -OOUT.UT

HIt( e.ees

·Selec:t to PfowKiD"spectf,ed trlnldUQllr •• iRi· Our~' No ... se 0.8 mV rml ~wlth Input mOrled)

All resistor values are in ohms.

Fig. 9-21

TAPE PLAYBACK AMPLIFIER

24V

Fig. 9-20

Fig. 9-22

NAB

O.5Vrms

92

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