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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY of CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS ESOL Examinations ee <1) Objective Advanced Student's Book with answers era eu ce Cla euler ar eae Cents B Ee MEER Ca Ait Cor) Unit 22 pages 136-139 Reading ‘a Amixture— there are facts about what scientists have discovered and predictions about the future which are educated guesses. Three: the IPCC, Dr Wainwright and Mark Gibson of Environmental Watch, «¢ IPCC: debate about how high the rise In temperature will be; discovery that Earth is less able to absorb carbon dioxide; predictions about what-a 4°C increase ‘would mean Dr Wainwright: feedbacks in global carbon cycle and ‘what that means; humans to blame for increase in, temperature ‘Mark Gibson: 4°C rise not inevitable; ways to mitigate predicted rise in temperature 2. This question deals with recognising how sure people are when they present facts and opinions. cc ‘is more likely sure hhave discovered sure ‘It would wipe out sure ‘would be displaced sure isikely sure Dr Wainwright | have discovered sure seem to be adding not so sure’ ‘ould mean not so dure ‘there sittieroom fordoubt | sure ‘Mark Gibson | isnot inevitable sure If we could cut __ sure Vocabulary 2 a5 b6 c4 di e2 f3 g9 h7 18 3 Sra See lssendefencer below freezing Interpreting and comparing gsi, Westhes ealves ns deieoae asco visibility 5 pollution 6temperatures 7 humidity. 8 Buenos Ares 1C 2A 3D 48 224\\ ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS 3 yontheotherhand zindeed 3whereas g contrary to sHowever 6 because 4 a Incconclusion, we can say that the world’s temperature hhas risen significantly over the last couple of decades, (On the whole it may be sald that we are experiencing ‘more extreme weather conditions. Therefore, it can be concluded that scientists following all climate changes with increased interest. Given this, it may be deduced that unless countries reduce carbon emissions, the climate is under threat. 4 Listening ‘they don’t mention endafigered animals or pollution Recording script eter: Some poopie Sy, good, it’s great if the world’s ‘warming up, Weill have better holidays. But if they stopped to think for a second, they'd realise it’s serious. L meanpif it gets warmer, it stands to reason that more water will evaporate from the oceans and surely that ‘means mote storms somewhere else. There’s evidence that there are more storms, hurricanes and so on and. that they're more intense. Now that more accurate records are kept we can see that global warming isa fact. Another aspect of global warming is how this will affect the sea level - itl definitely rise, { read something recently which suggested thatthe sea might rise by as much as half ‘a metce over this century, you know, because asthe ice ‘melts, the oceans expand, Imagine what effect that'll have ‘on low-lying areas around the world. Another thing that gets me is that we know allthis and yet we're not reducing our greenhouse gas emissions anything. like fast enough to stop the effects of climate change. We ‘might be able to slow it down a bit but I think that’s all, ‘Anna: 1 know it seems as if there are more cases of extreme ‘weather, like floods and droughts, but I wonder if it’s only that we heat about them more than before ‘because of the news on TV and the fact that now it’s ‘easier to communicate world events to everyone and very quickly. Surely there's always been severe weather Storms are a natural phenomenon, after all admit there is evidence of global warming, but is there evidence to show that that’s what’s causing severe weather? Maybe we would have had these typhoons and floods anyway? I mean no one even really knows how storms form and the path they'll take. You see, what it is, Is that the consequences are much greater these days. The world is more densely populated so in terms of the effect on population and financial oss the results are més deviating, Brerybody’s heard of Nino and La Nita but fom ‘what I ear, wes don't know whether its global warming that's making things wore. Vocabulary 1 vincrease arise 3 decrease 4decline 5 reduction 6 fall 7drop a upwards: increase, rise downwards: decrease, decline, eduction fall, drop 3 “fluctuation means something can go up or down =it describes an uncertain, unsteady change. 4 ‘minimal: sight, small steady: gradual marked: significant, steep, sharp quid pid, sudden Writing folder 9 pages 140-141 Persuasive writing 1+ You will be trying to persuade readers ofthe college magazine of the importance ofthe issue of climate change. You want to persuade them because you feet passionately about the subject. Arguments you might use ~ everyone needs to play their part Ifthe problem is. to be solved, the problems will be far greater if we do not take action now, 2 Youwil be trying to persuade readers ofthe website of your opinion of the album. You want to persuade them because its something that you feel strongly about = you want to share\your enthusiasm, perhaps. Arguments ‘you might use=the quality and originality of the music. 3 Youwil be trying to persuade the management of a tour company of the need to give your friend the job ‘they ave advertised. You want to persuade them of this bbecauseyou want to help your friend, Arguments you ‘might use your friend is ideally suited for the job, he or she |s totally trustworthy, gets on well with people and 4 You willbe trying to persuade fellow students of what ‘you consider the best ways to prepare for exams. You ‘want to persuade them of this because you want to help ‘them do well. Arguments you might use ~ preparing, effectively will mean less stress, better marks, etc. You willbe trying to persuade English-speaking visitors ‘to your area that certaln walks are worth doing, You want to persuade them of this because you want them to share places that you have enjoyed. Arguments you ‘might use —they wil find these walks beautiful, they will see things that many tourists never discover. You willbe trying to persuade your teacher to your point of view about the suitability ofthe set text for future classes. You want to persuade him or her ofthis because ‘you either want or do not want other students to share: ‘your experiences of the text. Arguments you might use = Ftdoes (not) help with English studies its (708) enjoyable and interesting. You will be trying to persuade the company that they should either give you your moneyback or a replacement gadget. You want to persuade thera of ths because of ‘your disappointment that the gadget ao longer works. ‘Arguments you might use the gadget does not do what Itclaims on the box /in the adverts, the company has a good reputation. You will be trying to persuade the principal ofthe college ‘to agree with your opinion about how the funding should be spent. You want to persuade him or her of this because you want yourself and / or other students. to benefit from the funding. Arguments you might use = wihat you suggest will help students in their studies, it ul ertance the college’s reputation, is better as bis Far too dismissive for a sensible ‘argument on a serious topic. bis better it gives far more information and is more reasoned, bis better ast is using more meaningful vocabulary. Italso provides sounder reasons for offering Anna the job. a is betteras it makes a practical suggestion rather than being rude about people who do not take the ‘approach recommended, as rudeness is likely to antagonise readers. a is betteras it explains things using more interesting, vocabulary and structures. 2. is better because itis more polite and is offering a constructive suggestion rather than being negative. a is better because itis polite while still being firm while b is unnecessarily aggressive for an initial letter of complaint. fis better as it sounds polite and gives a convincing, reason for the opinion. ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS 225 Contfibution; college magazine; climate changes serious concern; measures students could take to improve fellow students lively and entertaining climate change as serious issue: effect on food production; effect on populations in different parts ‘of the world; flooding; effects on wildlife; melting ice caps; more serious climate events (hurricanes, drought, etc] measures students can take: recycle; reduce carbon. footprint; walk or ycle rather than drive; take train, rather than fly; use low-energy light bulbs; switch things off when not in use, et, sa Introduction: how climate appears to be changing ‘Second paragraph: the impact that climate change may. have on the world in general Third paragraph: the impact that climate change may have on the country where you are Fourth paragraph: what students can do to help combat the impact of climate change Conclusion: a final strongly worded encouragement for students to do as you recommend 1b There are no right and wrong answers to part bt would bbe quite possible to use all these forms in answer to this task but which ones you select will depend on your own View of how you are going to approach the task. The important point is that you should be aware ofthe need for variety in terms of structure as well as vocabula‘y, Unit 23 pages 142-145 Reading 2 1D 2H 3F 4a 5G 6c Phrasal verbs (2) ‘gear up = gét ready fol You can use an object but you need to add for e.g. gear up for bate) This phrasal verb is inseparable. Jind out = get to know/discover. You can use an object. This phrasal verb is separable. ‘go ahead = continue/do what you intend to do. You cannot use an object. This phrasal verb Is inseparable. {aity out = do for real/execute, You can use an object. This Phrasal verb s separable, 226\\ ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS 2 av b ‘looked through the guarantee but | couldn't find out how long it was valid for. cv av {@ Wedor’t hold out much hope, but we are still trying to {get compensation, F Trying to get a satisfactory to my queries took up the: whole morning av hy 3 plucked up 2get on with 3make out 4 stick up for Stoputactoss 6sinkin 7took to 8 turned out / turns out Listening iC 28 3A 9A 5B 6c Recording script COnoofthe most important situations in our professional life ipwhemwe feel we have to ask for a pay rise. It can bbe awkward but if you aren't assertive and you don't say what's on your mind, it may lead to you feeling. Lundlervalued and having a negative attitude to your work and workplace, A positive attitude, forward planning and perfect timing are the keys to getting a pay tise. You may be asking for a number of reasons, ranging from a bigger workload or the increased cost of living to the fact that you've found ut that a colleague is getting more than you. But these arguments will be secondary to your worth to the company. Start by taking an objective look at your career. Are you good at your job? Are you punctual and reliable? Do people know who you are, and for the right reasons? Are you worth more than you're getting paid? If so, how much? Are there any problems that you need to address? Ifso, make the changes subtly, over a period of time. Bosses are not stupid, and sudden bouts of punctuality just prior to a pay negotiation will seem like the worst type of creeping, When planaing your negotiation, don’t base it on your gripes. Even if you think your future in the company doesn't look too rosy, bear in mind the ‘what's in it for sme? factor. You may want extra money for all those things that are on your want list, for a holiday or a car, but your boss will be more convinced by an argument based on your quality of work and dedication. To strengthen your viewpoint, plan for potential objections. If your boss is going to resist, what points is he or she likely to bring up? You could raise some first, along with arguments in your defence. For example, the sort of Tine you could take is, ‘I know most pay rises are linked to set grades in this company, but I believe that my job has changed sufficiently to make this an exceptional case.” Bartering can be embarrassing, but you will need to feel and sound confident. Remember that negotiations are a normal part of business life, Never pluck a sum out of the air. Know exactly what you will ask for and what you will etl for. The timing of your communication can be crucial. Keep an eye on the finances and polities of the company to avoid any periods of layofls or profit dips. If your boss can be moody, get an appointment for his or her most mellow time of the day. Never approach the subject casually. Being spontaneous might make your boss nervous. ‘There's always the chance that you won’t get what you ask for. This is often the point at which reasonable demands and negotiations can turn into conflict. Never issue ultimatums, and don’t say youl resign if you don't mean it, Boost your confidence and your argument by having, a backup plan (that is, what you'll do if you don’t get the pay rise you want). Plan for the fat re, asking when you could next apply and what can be done in the meantime to help your case. by staying p Exam folder 10 pages 146-147 The Speaking test ‘This Exam folder provides practice in all four parts ofthe Speaking test (Papers). Examiners are looking fot a range of accurate grammar and vocabulary, discourse management, clear pronundation, and ability to display interactive ‘communication, For further information about these assessment criteria goto the Advanced Handbook at wrmw.cambridgeesol.or 4 There are many differént things that you can say about these images, of course. Fist, you could think about what teach person ie doing. In Ay the person is rock-limbing; in B, decorating a new flat, taking a driving lesson. Think about why each person might be doing the activity, and how they are feeling. Make sure you answer the question by giving possible reasons as to why each person chose to doveach activity. 5 It's hard to imagine how a chess set would be of use in Janguage learning as chess is largely played in silence. But, you should be able to think of ways in which all the other pictures illustrate something that would have a place in a selPaccess centre, Unit 24 pages 148-151 Reading 1c 28 3C Vocabulary 4 identified beascade ccraving dresist found Fdeactivate gartificial h expose a aresist deactivate ccraving darifcial e cascade Fexpose 3 aq bs c do e3 4 ‘conducting ah experiment 2 come to the conclusion 3 iskingthelr health 4 raised the possibility § find it hard Listening athursday bTheGolden Age ciifestyle dural ‘eeducation fopinion poll gdiscussion h poverty Recording script ’d like to finish this week’s edition of News Weekly by telling you a little about what's happening in next week's programme, Because of next week's sports events, News Weekly is being broadcast on Thursday rather than ‘Tuesday. It will be shown at its usual time of half past ight. The programme’s entitled "The Golden Age’ and it's an extended programme lasting an hour rather than the usual 40 minutes, The theme is contemporary youth. [News Weekly is conducting an investigation into modern teenagers and their lifestyles. We usually record our programmes in London but next week, we'll be focusing on young people in rural parts of the country. There are plenty tof programmes about young people in urban areas ~ this is something different and we've sure you'll find the results fascinating. Tt touches on a number of issues ~ modern teenagers! attitudes to work, to friendship, to leisure, among other things. It looks most deeply at how young people feel about education and it comes up with some surprising conclusions, At the end of the programme there will be an ‘opinion poll which we're hoping that all our viewers will take part in ~ you'll be able to call in on the usual number. ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS 227 There is also a special website dedicated to this programme. This'll host a discussion after the programme has been broadcast, dealing with issues that it raises. News Weekly is planning to investigate a number of other controversial issues over the coming months. It will, for example, dedicate a couple of programmes to the complex relationship between erime and poverty 3 ‘Who: Sir Philip Craven; John Furlong Topic: Closing ceremony of the Winter Paralympics Recording script The night sky lt up lastnight in a glowing fireworks finale ofa winter games that oxganisers sy boosted the Paralympic Games to a new level worldwide. Sir Philip Craven, President of the International Paralympic Committe, old the closing ceremony that these Winter Games had been ‘the best ever. ‘Amid a glittering display of skiers beating torches down the mountain, dance and sports demonstrations, the official lag ofthe games was lowered to the sound of the Paralympic theme. “Many of you will go home as champions, you all go home as winners; John Furlong, CEO of the organising committe, told more than 500 athletes and hundreds more officials from 44 countries, as well as thousands of spectators before an outdoor stage ‘You have been remarkable ambassadors ofthe human, spirit” added Furlong Officials said these Paralympic Winter Gamasthad day an international audience via national television broadcasts and internet viewers that set records oF both winter and summer games, while a record 8596/oFall tickets were sold for alpine skiing, bathalon and etss-country skiing, wheelchair curling and ice-sledge hockey events 4 » closing ceremony ofthe Winter Paralympic games fireworks, skiers bearing torches down the mountain, dance andsports demonstrations, andthe lowering of ‘the official fag athletes, cfficials and spectators. ‘he size of oth TV and live audiences for the games and tickets sold for certain events. 228\\ ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS employing children and not paying workers the ‘minimum wage Workers are working illegally and therefore don't want to complain or they are so desperate for the work that they think it's better to have any job rather than no job atall, Her boss said he would report her to the authorities and say she had lied about her age, a Recording script ‘Working undercover, | have discovered that. many companies throughout the world af flosting he child labour laws and minimum-wagellawe. And you can’t pin this down to one particular part of the world or say that it only happens in big cities as Oppesed to country areas, have witnessed with mown eyes child labour with workers being paid well belay the legal requirements in every type of work youscanlimagine, from agriculture to clothes factories. Unfortunately it’s very difficult to get workers to complain aid the reasons are numerous, from theyre ‘working illegally and therefore don't want to complain or they/te so desperate forthe work that they think it's better to have any job rather than no job at all. And unscrupulous ‘employers are cashing in on this. This overcrowded, noisy factory isin a city where, outside, [people are eating pepper steaks in expensive restaurants, driving fast cars and earning fortune. Inside here it's a different picture; it’s like something from another age, rows and rows of women sewing clothes in a factory down a back alley just off a fashionable shopping street. This is what you call sweatshop labour: people working unimaginable hours, for half the minimum wage. talked to a girl ere, let's call her Janine, she's 14 and instead of going to school, she ‘comes here to work to earn money so that she can help out with the finances at home. At frst she'd intended to do it for just a couple of weeks during the holiday, but when she stuggested that she might leave, her boss told her that if she left, he'd report her and tell the authorities that she'd led to him about her age. And of course, the more school she missed, the harder it was to go back. A vicious circle. Connecting words as 2because 3 Then 450 sDespite 6 even but 8Andwhat’smore ginal 10Bythen Useful vocabulary stride (verb) =a long step in running or walking take something in one’s stride = to deal with something, calmly Jostle (verb) = knock or push past someone ina crowd bbe awash with (verb) = be covered with plucky (a) = brave hhaze (noun) = thin fog (here means that things were ‘unclear because of the pain) ‘lagging = becoming tired tingle (verb) = havea feeling asia lt of sharp pins or needles are being put quick into your body unravel verb) = understand be encased (verb)= covered or enclosed Writing folder 10 pages 152-153 Articles ‘a report (topic, phrases like In conclusion, faitly formal, very clear language) bb article (topic, rather literary vocabulary like balmy, chugged) € article informal style, eg. never in a million years, use of suspense) 4. report (topic, formal vocabulary, e.g. ascertain) @ article (topic, rather informal style) 2 ‘tices Reports Whoitls | awie audience who» | aboss or some other usually yourden'’ know and | person in authority written for | whowill oly read itif ‘Reatehstheirinterest Whatits aims | tojnteest, eaten or | to inform usually are | inform readers ‘Any special | willuBuallyhave an | informative tiie and characterises | eye-catching ttle and | subheadings: may use ofits layout | subheadings bullet points in oder tomake ts structure clemer ‘Anvaperiat | may beany register | neutral or formal ~itdepends on the teadership characterises fits register Tany ter | the writer will try to be | must be absolutely special interesting, amusing | clear and ambiguous Characteristics | ororignalin order | in whatit says; usually ofitsstyle | tocatchand held the | hasa clear introduction readers’ interest and presenting what itis soing to say and usually comes to some distin’ ‘conclusion atthe end ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS 3 ‘A.Lucky Escape’ sounds far more dramatic and interesting than ‘My Holiday’ 4 1a sounds more intriguing than abt seems more likely to ‘make the reader continue reading. The use of inversion is effective in 1a. 2a is much more interesting, 2bis rather boring as an. ‘opening sentence. The use of a question in 2a helps make for an effective opening sentence for an article 3b is better because it uses much mare vivid anel interesting vocabulary. 5 Sentence bis a much stronger closing sentenee, it's not a {good idea for the writer to commest that they themselves ‘eel they haven't done a very good jo, Unit 25 pages 154-157 Reading 3. The answers are all revealed inthe article Vocabulary 1 systematic zinvestigate 3 observe involve Sinfiuence 6establish 7procedure 8 consider illustrate 10 distinguish a2 bi co ds e6 f4 g3 h8 i7 3 1B 2A 3A 4D 5C 68 7¢ 8A 9D 108 4. Point out that all the gapped words collocate with another word in the text. Sometimes the word appears before the gap, sometimes after. Encourage students to notice collocations every time they read or listen to a text ke this. ‘prove beyond (all) doubt 2 come as (no) surprise 3forecasta result incredibly accurate / accurate Prediction 5 demonstrate intelligence / above-average intelligence 6 simple procedure / follow a procedure ‘controlled experiment / scientific experiment 8 lack of evidence / concrete evidence 9 cast doubt (over) 10 learn From (yout) mistakes 229 Complex sentences and adverbial clauses 1. Point out the use ofthe conjunctions every time, wherever, by, because and if, which signal what type of information wil Follow. ‘The adverbial clause gives more information about: how often something happened. Where something happened, how something happened. ‘why something happened. a possible situation and its consequence, ’ « d a b d f hhe could answer any question he was asked. someone other than his owner asked the questions. hhe could not see the questioner. ‘carefully observing what happened. many people were suspicious of his owner and his act. he could see them. stening 1 ‘Emotional intelligence’ is defined as the ability to understand the way people feel and react. This can be used to make good judgements and solve problems. a3 bs ec) da eq Recording script Speaker 1: I was rally intrigued the other day When a friend of mine told me I had good ‘ertotiGnal intelligence’. EQ, Not 1Q, but EQ. Ud never heard of the term so {asked her what she meant She Said that whenever she was feeling a bitsloyens/bsetmed to say exactly the right thing to cliet her up. She remembered the time she didn’t get aécepted cn a course she'd applied for and said that Vd come up with good suggestions aboutWhat to do ~ and actually she did get on the course later I think it’s true that I can tell what people are thinking or feeling even before they say anything. 'm sort of ‘tuned in’ to people. Speakes.2: At college, I've noticed most people, when they ‘ects they kiss each other on the cheek or hug each ‘thet And, well, I mean, it makes them seem really friendly but I fel a bit awkward when they expect me {0 act like that too, I don’t know if it’s a man thing or ‘whether it's just me but i's just not my thing to hug or kiss when I meet someone, I never know what to do anyway — kiss on both cheeks, or just one? And which one? What's the rule? Why doesn’t anyone teach you this kind of thing? 230 ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS Speaker 3: Its interesting, my brother, who's a doctor, can never remember my birthday. IChe's smart enough to become a doctor, why does he struggle with a simple date every 12 months? Someone once told me ‘there's more than one type of intelligence’, which explains alt. Some people have a visual intelligence ~ they need to see information to be able to understand. There are auditory learners ~ they ean absorb information best by lise toiit. And then there are kinaesthetic learners who need to physically do something in order to learn. did a quiz ones, and it turns out 'm mainly visual and but also Kinaesthetic. I doubt whether this would help'ine find the quickest way of studying anything, but wel se. Speaker 4: Tonce took an ineligence test Lats of numbers, and shapes. I gave up after ten minutes. How is that supposed to measure my 10 Maybe you do enough intelligence tests, you bedéine gout at them, and then you get a huge score.('m not good at numbers anyway. My wife is. She's ikem humsan calculator. Ask her to ‘rite something though, and she panics. She doesn't have muchgonfeénce when it comes to writing. Maybe someone sai she wasn't good at it once, and she never bothered developing it. Some people are hopeless at re4dinggmaps, my mother for example, but my dad can’t snderstanl vehy she can’t use one. Does it mean my dad ismiore intelligent than my mung I don’t think so. Speaker: When I hear a song, once I've heard it just a couple of times, Ican remember all the words. It’s like a photographic memory, but with sounds, But don’t know whether it’s the actual sounel, or it's just because when hear a song, the music communicates a certain fecting ‘maybe thats what Hatch ont. I get caught up in it and the words get attached to that feeling Ir’ ike when people can remember exactly what muse was playing at important times, ke a soundtrack to thei ives Revision Units 21-25 pages 158-159 Grammar a0 that’s wy = result tosummarse = summing up Reading 2 ‘diplomat 2 challenge? innovator 4 challenger Sinnovator diplomat. 6judge yexpert 8 expert 5 judge / diplomat Vocabulary atest bdrive cpath dgap ease ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS 231 The Cambridge English Corpus Development ofthis publication has made use of the Cambridge English Corpus (CEC) The CEC isa computer database of contemporary spoken and written English, which currently stands at over one billion words. It includes British English, American English and other varieties of English. It also includes the Cambridge Learner Corpus, developed {in collaboration with the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations, Cambridge University Press has built up the CEC to provide evidence about language use that helps to produce better language teaching materials ‘The authors and publishers would like to thank the teachers and writers who have contributed to this third edition ofthe course: Argentina: Flabiana Blanchard; Germany Lorna Richerby; Greece: Gillian Sakallarious The Netherlands: Gill Matthews Serbia Isidora Wattles Spain: Pilar Aguado, Nick Shaw; UK: Garry Newman, Rosie Ganne, Peter Sunderland, Tom Bradbury, Kathryn Alevizos, The authors would ike to extend their thanks to Andrew Reid for his calm and thorough work on the materials an for his support throughout the whole process, and to Lynn Townsend for guiding the project. ‘The publishers are grateful to Annette Capel and Wendy Sharp for permission to reproduce their original course book concept in Objective Advanced and in all other ‘Objective examination course books, 232\ THE CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH CORPUS Tee ee eeu ee Re Re og Objective CAE course, which prepares students for Cambridge English: ee ae ene Cee ries mre rd English exam for professional and academic success. Its short units focus on lively topics and genres, and combine systematic and thorough examination practice with improving students’ overall language level. RR ae ee Pet cere ne colette ne end tere uC kid covered in the Student's Book, and includes wordlists which may be used either with or without definitions. 25 units, each focusing on a different topic and genre make preparing for Cambridge English: Advanced a manageable task. Rt ne ee en ee a ea Pete eee ccs Peer neUee Ie ccc TU ees Loc a enn ner ene TIEN CORFU technique for the range of skills needed for Paper 2. Thao ght Comet eee eee Zeger ter eo Meet De SOUT etuca tmnt eee ater es ee Nee eee ee Cena Corpus Spots use examples ftom the Cambridge English Corpus to ‘CAMBRIDGE QUALITY GUARANTEE target areas that commonly cause difficulties and train students to Eek Stren eteeo Secunia Pear Che CaO aa Certs 0 ital PN i rey aa