MEU 07603

Occupational safety and health
 Workplace accidents and accident
investigationRisk managementPrinciples of accident preventionPersonal protective equipment-PPE
Safe use and handling of chemicalsDangerous goods
Workshop safety inspections

Welding safety
Eye injuries and conditions at the
work place
Common fire hazards
First aid in workshops
Industrial ergonomics
Industrial waste disposal


OSHA-Occupational Safety and
Health Administration
• Introduction
• Workers get injured, suffer diseases or
die in the work every day.
• It is because of unsafe environment
which include:
– Inadequate safety measures
– Poor design of machines and work systems
– Poor house-keeping/lightning
– Lack of training, awareness and information

– Poor supervisions
– The Occupational accidents and diseases are
economic burden.
– Hence there is a need to promote and
maintain OHS
– to create a working environment free from
accidents and occupational illness
– OSH has not been a priority for many workers.
– Wage issues are one of their immediate


– A healthy and safe working
environment will help improve working
relations, reduce costs and boost morale
of workers.
– It is important that stakeholders pursue
safe and healthy work environments for
the workers.

What is OHS?

• Discipline with a broad scope involving
many specialized fields aiming at securing
the well being of workers
• Functions
• Deals with the promotion and maintenance
of safe and health working conditions
• Promoting and maintaining the highest
degree of physical, mental and psychosocial
well being of workers in all occupations.

• Prevent adverse effects of working conditions
on the safety and health of workers.
• Place and maintain workers in working
environment that is adapted to their physical
and mental requirements.
• Adapt work to the worker (not the worker to
• The focus is elimination of risk factors rather
than using PPEs

Why is Occupational Health Important?

• Due to Increasing accidents and
occupational diseases rates
• Most people spend at least 8 hrs in the
• Medical and compensation payments
• Repair or replacement of damaged
• Interruption in production
• Increased training expenses

Why is Occupational Health Important?

Reduction in the quality of work
Negative effects on others
Workers are faced with multitude of hazards
Need for improving productivity
Factors Influencing OH &S
Profit and productivity
Demands for improving working conditions
Health status of workers

Why is Occupational Health Important?

Industrial/labour process
Availability of OH &S policy
Education and training programmes for workers
Costs of occupational injuries/ disease
Pain and suffering
Loss of income
Loss of job
Health care costs

Why is Occupational Health Important?

Burden to family members
Payment for work not performed
Medical and compensation payments
Repair or replacement of damaged
Interruption in production
Increased training expenses
Reduction in the quality of work
Negative effects on others

Magnitude of OHS Problem

• Over 1M work related deaths occur
annually worldwide
• 250M accidents occur every year (685,000
accidents daily, 475 every minute, 8 every
• Working children suffer 12 million
occupational accidents and an estimated
12,000 of them are fatal.
• 3,000 people are killed by work every day,
2 every minute.

Magnitude of OHS Problem

• Identifying the cause of occupational
disease is very often difficult to determine.
The latency period (the fact that it may
take years before the disease produces an
obvious effect on the worker's health).
may be too late to do anything about it.
• What hazards the worker was exposed to
in the past. changing jobs, or personal
behaviours (such as smoking tobacco or
drinking alcohol

Some Occupational Diseases

– crocidolite (blue asbestos),
– amosite (brown asbestos)
– Chrysotile (white asbestos).

• lead poisoning (caused by lead,
which is common in battery
plants, paint factories, etc.);

Health Problems Associated With Poor Working Conditions

• Heart disease;
• Musculoskeletal disorders such as
permanent back injuries or muscle
• Allergies;
• Reproductive problems;
• Stress-related disorders.


What is Personal Protection?

• Personal Protection can be used to
protect people from dirty (harmful
/hazardous) condition or to protect the
product from contamination by people.
• The aim of Personal Protection
• Is keeping the worker healthy and safe
by protecting him against exposure to
occupational at the workplace.


Methods of personal protection:

There are two methods of personal
• By providing personal protective
equipment and protective clothing
• Encouraging personal hygiene

Rationale for use of PPE

• The real value of PPE is that a
properly protected worker will have a
much reduced risk from either an
accident or intended exposure to
workplace hazards. As a result the
severity of any accident or
occupational disease will be either
diminished or eliminated.

• Now days a range of PPE is extensive
and be provided to protect most parts
of the body from hazards at the
• It should be noted that the use of PPE
does not remove the hazard from the
workplace. It is for this reason that
PPE is favored only as a last resort in
control of workplace hazards.

• for example the use of eye protector
prevent foreign bodies from entering
into the eyes or use of hearing
protection diminishes or removes the
chances of developing noise induced
hearing loss.

Different types of PPE

• Protection against physical and
chemical hazards in the workplace
is most commonly employed for the
following PPE
•  5.1. Head Protection

Helmets, Hard Hats, Head Caps, and
Head Covers.
– Ear and Hearing Protection

Ear muffs, earplugs, enclosing helmets

Eye and Face Protection
• Should be protected against foreign
bodies, flying particles, chemical
splashes, Radiation, irritant or
corrosive gases or vapors by using
goggles or spectacles, Full face
protection and shields e.g. welding

Hand and Arms Protection
• Protection from direct skin contact,
penetrating sharp materials,
chemicals, Heat, ionizing radiation
etc .
• Use of gloves should not impair the
free movement of hands and fingers
gloves can be made of leather,
fabric, rubber, leaded rubber, or
plastic depending on type of hazard

Foot and Leg Protection
• Protection against accidents to legs
and feet is necessary in many
different occupations where there is
a risk of injury by heavy or sharp
falling objects, burns, sparks,
splashing of molten metal or
corrosive chemicals, or nail
penetrating the footwear

Foot and Leg Protection
• Ordinary footwear like slippers gives
virtually no protection against falling
heavy or sharp objects. Even solid
leather shoes give only limited
protection. Steel toe-caps, and
sometimes instep guards made of
metal or reinforced plastic, in leather
shoes or boots are required on
construction sites puncture-proof
soles are necessary to protect

Foot and Leg Protection
• Shoes and boots made of rubber or
plastic are good protectors,
especially against corrosive
chemicals. Workers should be
advised, however, not to tuck their
trousers inside the boots, but over
them, to prevent spillage inside the

Heat and cold protection
• Protective clothing for very hot
environment (fire fighting), ice vests
for continuous work in hot
environment, radiant reflective
coatings for heat and protective
insulating clothing for cold
environments etc.

Respiratory Protection
• These may include dust masks to
protect against dusts, chemical
respirators to protect against
chemicals - they have a cartridge
which contains activated charcoal.
This cartridge can be replaced when
it has expired

Respiratory Protection

• Air or oxygen supplied respirators are
used to give maximum protection
against inhalation of particles and
where toxic chemical vapors can be
expected e.g. in cleaning of tanks.

Selection of PPE

• Personal protective equipment must
be selected to provide adequate
protection to combat the particular
danger against which it is being used.
• It should be done by a person who is
suitably trained to select suitable PPE


Class 1and Class 2:
• ►Class 1: Explosives
• ►Explosive Dangerous Goods have
compatibility group letters assigned to
facilitate segregation during transport
• ►Class 2: Gases
• Flammable Gas: acetylene and hydrogen.
• Non-Flammable Gases: nitrogen and neon.
• Poisonous Gases: fluorine, chlorine, and
hydro cyanide

Class 3:
• Class 3: Flammable Liquids
• ►Packing Group I, boiling point of
35°C or less diethyl ether or carbon
• ►Packing Group II, boiling point
greater than 35°C such as gasoline
(petrol) and acetone;
• ►Packing Group III, if the criteria
for inclusion in Packing Group I or II
are not met, such as kerosene and

Class 4:
• ►Class 4: Flammable Solids
• 4..1 Flammable Solids: easily ignited
and readily combustible (nitrocellulose,
• 4..2 Spontaneousll Combustiiblle:
(aluminum alkyls, white phosphorus).
• 4..3 Dangerous when Wet: (sodium,,
calcium,, potassium,, calcium carbide

Class 5:
• Class 5: Oxidizing Agents and
Organic Peroxides
• 5.1 Oxidizing agents other than organic
peroxides (calcium hypochlorite,
ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide,
potassium permanganate).
• 5.2 Organic peroxides, either in liquid
or solid form (benzoyl peroxides,
cumene hydro peroxide).

Class 6:
• Class 6: Toxic and Infectious Substances
• 6.1a Toxic substances which are liable to
cause death or serious injury to human health
if inhaled, swallowed or by skin absorption
(potassium cyanide, mercuric chloride).
• ► 6.1b (Now PGIII) Toxic substances which are
harmful to human health (N.B this symbol is
no longer authorized by the United Nations)
(pesticides, methylene chloride).

Class 6:
• ► 6.2 Bio hazardous substances;
(WHO) divides this class into two
categories: Category A: Infectious;
and Category B: Samples (virus
cultures, pathology specimens, used
intravenous needles

Class 7:
• Class 7: Radioactive Substances
• Radioactive substances comprise substances
emitting ionizing
• radiation (uranium, plutonium).


Class 8:and Class 9
• Class 8: Corrosive
• 8.1 Acids: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid
• 8.2 Alkalis: potassium hydroxide, sodium
•  Class 9: Miscellaneous
• Hazardous substances that do not fall into
the other categories
• (asbestos, air-bag inflators, self-inflating
life rafts, dry ice).

• We may break now
and thank you…


Risk to welder and co-workers

Welding jobs are carried out in many
The risks involve not only the welder doing the
job but also those who are working nearby.
• The risks include:
• Eye damage
• Skin injuries
• Burns
• Inhalation of toxic gases
• Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs)

• On all welding jobs the welder should wear
suitable protective goggles or face masks to
protect his eyes against the welding arc,
protective gloves, cover coats etc
• The work area should be partitioned off so
that the people nearby are not exposed to
the arc.
• Types of welding (electric arc welding)
• In electric arc welding the light- arc radiates
invisible ultraviolet and infra-red rays.

• These can damage the eyes and the skin
therefore in such cases the eyes should be
protected with a special type of filter glasses
• Some types of welding require effective air
extraction from the work area. This is
important when the welding is carried out on
metals covered with an alloy of lead,
mercury zinc etc.
• Welding on such alloys leads to build up of
dangerous fumes and gases.

Gas welding.

• Gas welding in a confined space, especially
when heating or straightening, can cause an
accumulation of nitric gases, containing
dangerous nitric oxides.
• In cases where effective local ventilation cannot
be arranged, the welder should be provided
with respiratory protection and a supply of fresh
• Welding and the risk of fire
• Welding in or near a room where flammable
material is stored should never be allowed.

• Welding should not take place in a
tank, container, or similar apparatus
which is used for storing flammable
• The tank must be thoroughly
cleaned, preferable using pressurized


• Welding fumes are the most serious problem in
all types of electric welding.
• The fumes contain a number of hazardous
• Use local suction exhaust when working in doors,
particularly in enclosed areas. The exhaust
should be placed as close to the point of the
weld as possible
• Screen off the work area to protect other people
from welding glare.


Before a fire can occur, these three
components must be present.
• Fuel (a combustible material such as
wood, gasoline, paper or cloth).
• Heat (sufficient to raise the fuel to its
“ignition temperature’).
• Oxygen, usually in the form of air (to
sustain combustion).

The fire triangle

• Without one of these three
elements, there is nothing to burn.
• Much can and should be done to
prevent disasters of this kind by those
responsible for the building of
factories; but the workers, too have a
very responsibility for ensuring the
effectiveness of fire prevention.

Common fire hazards

• flammable liquids,
• poor housekeeping,
• electric wiring,
• Welding and soldering equipment etc


• Water. If supplied in sufficient
quantity, has a great cooling effect.
• Portable fire extinguishers. These are
suitable for putting out fire involving
live electrical equipment or flammable
• The proper kind of potable
extinguisher should be provided to
deal with the risk concerned.

Structural features and exits

• The first line of defense against fire is
the construction of the building itself.
• Industrial building should be sufficiently
fire resistant.
• Exits are most important, and should
conform to the following general rules:
• Each floor should have at least two exits
• Exits should be signposted and well lit

Fire extinguishing equipment

Buckets of water/sand
Sprinkler systems
Fire alarms
Portable fire extinguishers
Buckets of water/sand
Sprinkler systems
Fire alarms
Portable fire extinguishers

Fire prevention organization

• Organization and training of fire
• Precaution against explosions
• - Organic dust such as those of flour,
sugar, starch and some metallic
dusts such as those of Al, Mg may be
explosive when mixed with air.

• Recharge after use
• Inspect at least yearly
• One very common fire precaution is the “no
smoking” rule.
• Provision of special rooms for an occasional
• Flammable liquids can be safely stored in
underground tanks. to avoid from extremely


Safety Inspections/Audits
• A common form of analysis to prevent accidents.
• Inspections are part of a preventive or proactive
approach to accident prevention.
• They are performed to detect actual faults and
• They are conducted to evaluate work environment
regarding occupational safety and health.
• The companies which perform safety audits have
fewer accidents than those that do not perform
• The use of safety inspections/audits has been shown
to contribute positively to loss prevention initiatives.

Types of Inspection

• General inspection – wide range of
deficiencies are looked for.
• Specialized inspection – very
specific conditions are searched for.
• Inspections may be scheduled
• (e.g. statutory) or unscheduled (e.g.
random visits).

Purposes of Safety Inspections

• To identify hazardous and defective
• To check compliance with company rules
and regulations (industry best practice).
• To check compliance with OSHA rules
• To determine the health and safety
conditions of workplace.
• To determine the safety condition of
equipment and machinery.

Purposes of Safety Inspections

• Evaluate supervisors’ safety and
health performances
• Evaluate workers’ safety and health
• Evaluate progress regarding safety
and health issues and problems.
• Determine the effectiveness of new

Who Should Do the Inspection?
• In some cases, detailed training, knowledge and
experience are necessary to be able to recognize
the problem.
• In other cases, nearly any one can be taught to
identify unsafe conditions and activities.
• Some inspections may require the use of special
instruments and tools, and therefore someone
who knows how to use such instruments.
• Some inspections need to be done by someone
who is not directly involved in performing work
on the item or area being inspected .

• The use of an external inspector may be necessary if
an independent look is desirable.
• External inspector removes bias, can easily see
mistakes by other people.
• In some cases two inspectors are necessary.
• A person who performed the work must be the first
inspector, and a co-worker, supervisor or specialist
should be the second inspector.
• The second inspector may be more knowledgeable
and experienced.
• Inspectors can be workers, co-workers, supervisors,
safety specialists or specials team.

• In some cases inspectors need to be certified.
• Re-certification is also important to make sure
that inspection skills are kept high and Daily –
prior to the start of each shift
• The supervisor in conjunction with SHE [safety
and health exucutive] officer should determine
the required frequency of the inspections.
• The frequency need to be based on the level and
complexity of anticipated work activities and on
the hazards associated with such activities.
• Knowledge is up to date.

What Needs to Be Inspected?
• The complexity of the worksite, areas,
equipment, tasks, materials, and
requirements can make the contents of
most inspections overwhelming!
• You might want to inspect specific
occupations, tasks, team, operator,
part of worksite, compliance with an
OSHA regulation, or complete worksite.

What Needs to Be Inspected?

• You may want to perform an audit if
any of the previous lists have unique
identifiable hazards, new tasks
involved, increased risk potential,
changes in job procedures, areas
with unique operations, etc.

Inspections Discoveries

• May verify job procedures are being
• May identify work practices that are
both positive or negative.
• May detect exposure factors

When to Inspect?
• Daily – prior to the start of each shift
• The supervisor in conjunction with SHE
officer should determine the required
frequency of the inspections.
• The frequency need to be based on the
level and complexity of anticipated work
activities and on the hazards associated
with such activities.

Inspection Tools
• The most common tool for inspection is a
• Humans are not good at remembering, so
the checklist helps remove memory errors!
• A checklist helps the inspector to keep
• Note: when the visual inspection is not
sufficient, special tools and instruments
are needed.

Checklist Contents
• List of items to be checked.
• Means for marking which items have
been inspected and what was found.
• Place for inspector’s signature

Place for remarks
• What is covered in the Checklist?
• People responsible for safety inspection
should have a basic understanding of the
occupational hazards associated with their
industry and a working knowledge of
acceptable levels of hazards control as
prescribed by industry or Government
• A checklist should cover all hazards
anticipated in the workplace.

What is covered in the Checklist?
• Control Subjects
• Improvement requirement (Measure
Needed/Measure Not needed)
• Level of priority (High/Medium/Low)
• Remarks (positive/negative

How to Use the Checklist
• If the measure is “Not needed” –meaning
improvement need not be considered.
• If the measure is “Needed” meaning
improvement is necessary. If the measure
has been taken but needs further
improvement, the box “Needed” should
also be checked.
• If the measure is needed and is urgent,
check the space under High Priority

Control Subjects
• These may vary from one worksite to
• Emergency exists
• Passageways and barriers
• Housekeeping and storage
• Waste Disposal
• Material handling
• Hazardous objects
• 7. Machine guards

Control Subjects

8. Electrical safety
9. Ventilation
10. Lighting
11. Noise
12. Hazardous substances

Control Subjects

Lifting and postures
Working surface

Control Subjects

Skills and training
Working time and rest
Sanitary Facilities
Welfare facilities
Health Programme

Another Way of Looking at Control Subjects

1. Policies and procedures
2. Premises
3. Material storage, handling and disposal
4. Workstations
5. Machine safety
6. Work organization
7. Facilities
8. PPE

Yet another Way of Looking at
Control Subjects

Material handling
Parking lot and outside sidewalks

Yet another Way of Looking at
Control Subjects

Elevated runways and platforms
Electrical installations
Cranes, hoists
Motor vehicles

Yet another Way of Looking at
Control Subjects

Fire doors
Fire escapes
Rail road trucks
Special inspections
First Aid

Tips on How to Use the Checklist

• Ask , managers, workers
• Define work area to be checked
• Read through the checklist – spend few
minutes’ walk around before filling the
• Read each item carefully - mark required
• For those marked YES, choose those that
require PRIORITY action
• Re-check before you sign off.

Ergonomic Checkpoints

Ergonomic Checkpoints

Material storage and handling
 Hand tools
Productive machine safety
Improving workstation design


• Thank you for