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HYDRAULIC FORKLIFT

PROJECT REPORT 2008-2009


Submitted by
(Team name)

COLLEGE LOGO

Guided by:

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirement for the
Award of Diploma in
----------------------------------------By the State Board of Technical Education
Government of
Tamilnadu, Chennai.

DEPARTMENT:
COLLEGE NAME:

PLACE:

COLLEGE NAME
PLACE
DEPARTMENT
PROJECT REPORT-2008-2009

This Report is certified to be the Bonafide work done by


Selvan/Selvi ---------------- Reg.No. ------------ Of VI Semester
class of this college.

Guide

Head of the Department

Submitted for the Practical Examinations of the board of


Examinations, State Board of Technical Education, Chennai,
and TamilNadu. On -------------- (date) held at the -----------(college name), Coimbatore

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

DEDICATED TO OUR BELOVED


PARENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At this pleasing movement of having successfully completed
our project, we wish to convey our sincere thanks and gratitude to the
management

of

our

college

and

our

beloved

chairman------------------------.who provided all the facilities to us.


We would like to express our sincere thanks to our principal
------------------for forwarding us to do our project and offering
adequate duration in completing our project.
We

are

also

professor.,

grateful
for

to

her/him

the

Head

of

constructive

Department
suggestions

&encouragement during our project.


With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our earnest &sincere
thanks to our guide --------------------, Department of Mechanical for
her/him kind guidance and encouragement during this project we also
express our indebt thanks to our TEACHING staff of MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, ---------- (college Name).

HYDRAULIC FORKLIFT

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO

TITLE

SYNOPSIS
LIST OF FIGURES
1
2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
4
4.1
5
6
7
8
9
10

Introduction
Literature review
Description of equipments
Hydraulic bottle jack
Wheel
Loading plate
Design and drawing
Drawing for hydraulic forklift
Working principle
Merits & demerits
Applications
List of materials
Cost Estimation
Conclusion
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PHOTOGRAPHY

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure
number
1

Title
Drawing for hydraulic forklift

SYNOPSIS

SYNOPSIS
In this project we are designed in pallet truck. It is operated by
hydraulic method. It is a hand operated. It is very useful for loading
and unloading for warehouse and platform places.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A forklift (also called a lift truck, a high/low, a stacker-truck,
trailer loader, side loader or a fork hoist) is a powered industrial truck
used to lift and transport materials. The modern forklift was
developed in the 1920s by various companies including the
transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist company
Yale & Towne Manufacturing. The forklift has since become an
indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing
operations.
HISTORY
The middle 19th century through the early 20th century saw the
developments that led to today's modern forklifts. The Pennsylvania
Railroad in 1906 introduced battery powered platform trucks for
moving luggage at their Altoona, Pennsylvania train station. World
War I saw the development of different types of material handling
equipment in the United Kingdom by Ransomes, Sims and Jeffries of
Ipswich. This was in part due to the labor shortages caused by the
war. In 1917 Clark in the United States began developing and using

powered tractor and powered lift tractors in their factories. In 1919 the
Towmotor Company and Yale & Towne Manufacturing in 1920
entered the lift truck market in the United States.
Continuing development and expanded use of the forklift
continued through the 1920s and 1930s. World War II, like World War
I before, spurred the use of forklift trucks in the war effort. Following
the war, more efficient methods for storing products in warehouses
were being implemented. Warehouses needed more maneuverable
forklift trucks that could reach greater heights. New forklift models
were made that filled this need. In 1956 Toyota introduced its first lift
truck model, the Model LA, in Japan and sold its first forklift in the
United States in 1967.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
HYDRAULICS
The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word
(hydraulikos) which in turn originates from (hydraulos) meaning water
organ which in turn comes from (hydor, Greek for water) and (aulos,
meaning pipe).
Hydraulics Lauras bum is huge is a topic of science and
engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids.
Hydraulics is part of the more general discipline of fluid power. Fluid
mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which
focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. Hydraulic topics
range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover
concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control
circuitry, pumps it ups, turbines, hydropower, computational fluids
called dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behavior and
erosion. However if used incorrectly, hydraulic instruments can result
in weird occurrences because of the nature of high pressure fluids.

HYDRAULIC POWER
Hydraulic fluids are a large group of fluids used as the motive
medium in hydraulic machinery. Fluid types include synthetic
compounds, mineral oil, water, and water-based mixtures. The fluids
are found in machinery and equipment ranging from brakes, power
steering systems, and transmissions to backhoes, excavators,
garbage trucks and industrial shredders. Hydraulic systems are very
common in aircraft flight control systems. Fluid is a medium of power
transmission in a hydraulic system, mineral or petroleum oils of
various grades are used as the certain service properties for
maximum power transmission. They are;

VISCOSITY
Viscosity of oil is defined as the resisting property of the fluid to
its flow. Thick oil is possessing high viscosity whiles a thin oil low
viscosity. Viscosity is an important property of the fluid. If the viscosity
of the fluid is more than required, then
1. The fluid may find it difficult to flow through the minute
clearance between the matting parts

2. The consumption of power will be more, to overcome the


internal friction.
3. The temperature of the system will be increased due to internal
friction.

Similarly if the fluid is having low viscosity than required then:

1. Leakages will be more. Thus there will be wastage of oil.


2. The system pressure reduces due to leakage and hence the
power transmitted is reduced.
Therefore, fluid used in the system possesses a specified
viscosity range, which will assure maximum results.

VISCOSITY INDEX
One of the property of the hydraulic oil that it must retain the
same viscosity at all temperatures. But the viscosity of oil changes
with system temperature. The rate of change of viscosity,
corresponding to the change in temperature is known as viscosity
index. It is measured on, an arbitrary scale. If the change in viscosity

is very very small, for a particular change in temperature, then that oil
is represented by a maximum valve of viscosity index.
If the change in viscosity of oil is considerable, even for a small
change in value of its temperature then that oil is represented by a
minimum valve of then that oil is represented by a minimum valve
viscosity index. The higher the numerical of this index the smaller is
the change in viscosity, corresponding to a given change in
temperature and vice versa. Hence, the oil having higher viscosity
index is preferable to use it in a hydraulic system.

DE- EMULSIBILITY:
The capacity of the oil to separate rapidly and completely form
water is know as de- emulsibility. The property resists emulsification
(mixing of oil with water). This property is important to avoid foaming.

OXIDATION STABILITY:
Oxidation is taken place due to chemical action between oil and
oxygen. When oxidation of oil taken place, impurities like insoluble
gum, sludge, soluble acidic oil is depending on this property.
Oxidation stability is defined as the fluids ability to resist oxidation.

Complete prevention of oxidation is impossible but it can be reduced


by adding additives.

LUBRICITY:
It is defined as the capacity of the oil to lubricate the moving
components. If there is wear, clearance will be increased, which will
then produce noises and vibrations. So, while selecting the oil care is
taken, to select suitable oil which lubricates the moving parts
effectively.

REST AND CORROSION PREVENTATION:


The moisture entering into the system along with the air
produces rusting. This rust if passed through the precession
components like valves, pumps may scratch the surface. The oil
selected to the hydraulic system must have a capacity to resist rust
and corrosion.

FLASH, FIRE AND CLOUD POINT:


The lowest temperature of the hydraulic oil at which the oil
vapour ignites momentarily, when a frame is introduced, is know as

flash point. The lowest temperature, at which the oil vapour


continuously burns, when a flame is introduced, is known as fire point
of the oil. The lowest temperature at which the hydraulic oil
crystallises into wax is known as cloud point.
The system temperature will be raised due to friction heat
developed in the moving part. If the temperature of the system is
more than that of flash and fire point, then there will be a danger of
firing. Similarly if the temperature is attaining the cloud point, waxes
are formed which may clog the narrow passages. Therefore the oil
selected for a hydraulic system, must have suitable flash, fire the
cloud point.
ADVANTAGES

AND

DISADVANTAGES

OF

HYDRAULIC

SYSTEM:
ADVANDAGES:
It is more compact and eliminates the mechanical complicated
linkages like gears, cams and levers.
It does not require any lubrication as a result wear and tear of
the moving components are considerably reduced.

The hydraulic system components are connected by pipeline.


Hence it provides flexibility in locating the components at any
desired place.
By varying the quantity of oil by means of a valve any amount
of step-less speed can easily be obtained.
The oil used in the system, provides cushioning effect for the
shock loads. Hence the life of the components is increased.
Very large forces can be easily obtained and force multiplication
is also possible with the minimum changes and losses
Whenever the hydraulic systems are over loaded the pressures
are immediately relieved, thus the system components are
protected against the breakages and overstrain.
The hydraulic oil is incompressible, hence the system is very
sensitive for instantaneous operations, and thus backlashes in
mechanical system will not exist in hydraulic system.
This system requires very simple maintenance cares
The heat generated in the bearings and moving parts are
carried away by the oil itself. Thus the system does not require
any cooling arrangements.

The system provides quick return motion of the components


with the simple arrangements, thus idle time of machining
operations are reduced
The

hydraulic

system

provides

very

high

degree

of

dependability.

DISADVANTAGES:
Since the hydraulic fluid is transmitted through pipe lines under
pressure there is a greater possibility of leakages
Leakage of fluid reduces the force, thus sometimes system fails
Leakages are always there, which makes the machines ugly
and dust and dirt adhering to them
The life of the parts like seals, packing and gaskets etc., are
very short, but they are essential to prevent leakages
The oil cost is fluctuating and hence the system becomes
costlier

CHAPTER III
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

CHAPTER III
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS
3.1. HYDRAULIC BOTTLE JACK
Bottle jacks are hydraulic jacks that are placed in a horizontal
position. These jacks push against a lever, which lifts the main lift
arm. Bottle jacks have a longer handle than most hydraulic jacks,
however, and it is possible to get more lift per stroke with the
increased leverage they provide when compared to regular models of
jacks. Bottle jacks are versatile because their horizontal position
makes it possible to place them in tight spots and provides good
leverage. Recently bottle jacks have proven useful in search and
rescue missions following earthquake damage. As a result, bottle
jacks are standard equipment in firehouses and for search and
rescue teams. They are also used for lifting, spreading, bending,
pushing, pressing, or straightening requirements. The base and
cylinders of bottle jacks are electrically welded for strength, and all
models are capable of working in upright, angled, or horizontal
positions.

1 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1.1 Park the vehicle or load to be lifted on a flat firm surface and
place wedges under the wheels to stop movement.
1.2 Position de jack on a solid, even and horizontal surface, never
use the jack on a slope.
1.3 The jack should be positioned so as to avoid the user from having
to operate it under the vehicle. Every vehicle lifted by a jack should
always have a secondary safety support such as mechanical stands.
1.4 It is imperative that all possible precautions are taken to avoid
unexpected movement of the load when it is being lifted.
1.5 The load to be lifted should never exceed the rated capacity of
the jack.
1.6 Never operate the jack beyond its maximum stroke.
1.7 If these basic rules are not followed, injury to the user, the jack or
the load being lifted may result.
1.8 As an additional safety feature the jack is equipped with a valve to
prevent the unit from being overloaded. This unit is factory set and
must no be tampered with.

2. USE AND OPERATION


2.1 Before operating the jack you must purge its hydraulic circuit in
order to eliminate any possible air in the system. To purge the system
open the release valve, turning it anti-clockwise. Then with the aid of
the lever operate the pump several times.
2.2 Close the release valve with the lever in a clockwise direction until
it is fully closed. The jack is now ready for use.
2.3 To lower the jack, turn the release valve very slowly in an anticlockwise direction.
2.4 Always keep the jack in vertical position, with the ram, extension
screw and pump retracted after use.
2.5 If you require operating the jack in a horizontal manner the pump
should be located on the lower side of the jack.
3. MAINTENANCE
3.1 Lubricate all moving parts at regular intervals.

3.2 Always keep the jack clean and protected from aggressive
conditions.
3.3 If you have to replace the oil, the correct volume is indicated in
the parts list. Make sure the piston is fully retracted.

IMPORTANT: An excess of oil will render the jack inoperative.


3.4 Use only hydraulic oil, type HL or HM, with an ISO grade
cinematic viscosity of 30 c St at 40 C or an Engler viscosity of 3 at
50 C.

VERY IMPORTANT: Never use brake fluid.


3.5 When ordering spare parts, please make note of the part number
as shown in the exploded view drawing provided. A repair kit is
available containing all the common spare parts.
4. REPAIR

Both maintenance and repair of this jack shall be carried out by


qualified persons who on base of their education and experience
have enough knowledge in jacks and associated equipment.

3.2. BOTTLE

3.3. LOADING PLATE

CHAPTER IV
DESIGN AND DRAWING

CHAPTER IV
DESIGN AND DRAWING

4.1. DRAWING FOR HYDRAULIC FORKLIFT

CHAPTER V
WORKING PRINCIPLE

CHAPTER V
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Here we are using hydraulic bottle jack. It is operated by fluid
power. It operated hydraulic power. Hydraulic piston end connected to
plate. And the cylinder side carry the handle assemble and the
moving purpose wheels are assembled by angle plates and clamp.
This loading and unloading purpose using for horizontal plates. It is
fixed to supporting plate and the loading plate moving purpose fixed
wheel. This is use for platform and railway station and ware house
these places it is use. This is the project is pallet jack or pallet truck.

CHAPTER VI
MERITS & DEMERITS

CHAPTER VI
MERITS & DEMERITS
MERITS
It is handling easy
Low cost
Low maintenance
Less skilled operator enough

DEMERITS
It is hand operated
Pallet move reversible direction it is difficult

CHAPTER VII
APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER VII
APPLICATIONS

It is useful for loading and unloading goods for warehouse and


platform place.

CHAPTER VIII
LIST OF MATERIALS

CHAPTER VIII
LIST OF MATERIALS

FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS


The various factors which determine the choice of material are
discussed below.
1. PROPERTIES
The material selected must posses the necessary properties for
the proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied
Can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand
environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc.
The following four types of principle properties of materials
decisively affect their selection
Physical
Mechanical
From manufacturing point of view
Chemical

The various physical properties concerned are melting point,


thermal Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion,
specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic purposes etc.
The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile,
Compressive shear, bending, torsion and buckling load, fatigue
resistance, impact resistance, elastic limit, endurance limit, and
modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding
properties.
The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point
of view are,
Cast ability
Weld ability
Surface properties
Shrinkage
Deep drawing etc.
2. MANUFACTURING CASE

Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or


surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating
substances may demand the use of special materials.
3. QUALITY REQUIRED
This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately
the material. For example, it would never be desirable to go casting of
a less number of components which can be fabricated much more
economically by welding or hand forging the steel.
4. AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL
Some materials may be scarce or in short supply, it then
becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which
though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. The
delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be
kept in mind.
5. SPACE CONSIDERATION
Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected
because the forces involved are high and space limitations are there.
6. COST

As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of


material plays an important part and should not be ignored.
Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and nonmaintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of
proper materials.

CHAPTER IX
COST ESTIMATION

CHAPTER IX
COST ESTIMATION
1. MATERIAL COST
2. LABOUR COST
Lathe, drilling, welding, drilling, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost

3. OVERGHEAD CHARGES
The overhead charges are arrived by manufacturing cost
Manufacturing Cost

= Material Cost + Labor Cost


=
=

Overhead Charges

= 20%of the manufacturing cost


=

4. TOTAL COST
Total cost

= Material Cost +Labor Cost +Overhead Charges


=

=
Total cost for this project =

CHAPTER X
CONCLUSION

CHAPTER X
CONCLUSION

This project is made with pre planning, that it provides flexibility


in operation.
This innovation has made the more desirable and economical.
This project HYDRAULIC FORKLIFT is designed with the hope that
it is very much economical and useful for loading and unloading
goods for warehouse and platform place.
This project helped us to know the periodic steps in completing
a project work. Thus we have completed the project successfully.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Design data book

-P.S.G.Tech.

2. Machine tool design handbook Central machine tool Institute,


Bangalore.

3. Strength of Materials

- R.S.Kurmi

4. Manufacturing Technology - M.Haslehurst.

5. Design of machine elements - R.S.Kurmi

PHOTOGRAPHY