Está en la página 1de 26

Estrategia Internacional

Modelos de entrada

Presiones de la integracin global y la


diferenciacion nacional
Alto

Organizacion
global
Organizacion
transnacional

Fuerzas de
la
integracion
global

bajo
bajo

Organizacion
internacional
Fuerzas de la
diferenciacion
nacional

Organizacion
multinacional
alto
see C. Bartlett (1986)

Ventajas y desventajas
Estrategia Ventajas
Internacional

Desventajas

tranferir distintas competencias

perdida de responsabilidad

local
perdida de posicionamiento
local

Multi-domestico

aclientar ofertas y mercadeo perdida de posicion local


(multi-national)
no explota la curva de export
no puede transferir las
competencias diferenciadoras

Global

explota la curva de experiencia


explota economia local

Trasnacional

pierde responsabilidad local

explota curva de experiencia,

locales
localiza economias, aclienta y genera
beneficios globales de aprendizaje

afectacion de problemas

Decisiones bsicas de
entrada
Que mercado atacar?
Cuando entrar a los
mercados?
A que escala entrar?

14-2

Porque entrar en
mercados extranjeros?
Favorable beneficio-costo-riesgo-intercambio:
Naciones desarrolladas o en desarrollo con
estabilidad politica.
Sistemas de libre mercado
No dramaticos altibajos economicos ni inflacionarios.

Desfavorable
Naciones en desarrollo politicamente inestables con
una mezcla de economias controladas o donde las
burbujas de la especulacion financiera tienen un
exceso de prestamos (ej. Ultima crisis Argentina, EU,
union Europea)

14-3

Tiempos adecuados de
entrada
Ventajas de entrada temprana:
Ser el primero en el mercado.
Construir volumen de ventas.
Manejar la curva de experiencia y lograr la
ventaja de costos.
Crear costos de arranque.

Desventajas:
Desventaja en costos de ser el primero
(costos pioneros).
Cambios en politicas de gobierno.
14-4

Escala de entrada
Gran Escala
Compromisos Estrategicos una decisin causa
efecto en el largo plazo y es dificil de revertirse
Puede causar rivalidades que requieran
replantear estrategias.
Puede generar una respuesta competitiva del
mercado local.
Pequea escala:
Tiempo para aprender del mercado.
Reduce el riesgo de verse totalmente expuesto.

14-5

Modos de entrar
Exportacion
Proyectos llave en mano
Licencias
Franquicias
Joint Ventures
subisidiarias
14-7

Exportacin
Ventajas:
Evitar costos de establecimiento de plantas
productivas.
Puede ayudar a desarrollar una curva de
experiencia en destino para despues pasar a otro
nivel.

Desventajas:
Puede tener competencia interna por costos bajos.
Posibilidad de altos costos de transporte.
Barreras arancelarias.
Perdida de control del mercadeo de sus productos
en destino.
14-8

Turnkey Projects
Advantages:
Can earn a return on knowledge asset.
Less risky than conventional FDI.

Disadvantages:
No long-term interest in the foreign
country.
May create a competitor.
Selling process technology may be
selling competitive advantage as well.
14-9

Licensing
Advantages:
Reduces costs and risks of establishing
enterprise.
Overcomes restrictive investment barriers.
Others can develop business applications
of intangible property.

Disadvantages:
Lack of control.
Cross-border licensing may be difficult.
Creating a competitor
14-10

Franchising
Advantages:
Reduces costs and risk of establishing
enterprise.

Disadvantages:
May prohibit movement of profits from
one country to support operations in
another country.
Quality control.
14-11

Joint Ventures
Advantages:
Benefit from local partners knowledge.
Shared costs/risks with partner.
Reduced political risk.

Disadvantages:
Risk giving control of technology to partner.
May not realize experience curve or
location economies
Shared ownership can lead to conflict.
14-12

Wholly Owned Subsidiary


Advantages:
No risk of losing technical
competence to a competitor.
Tight control of operations.
Realize learning curve and location
economies.

Disadvantage:
Bear full cost and risk.
14-13

Advantages and Disadvantages of


Entry Modes
Entry Mode

Advantage

Exporting

Ability to realize location and


experience curve economies

Turnkey
contracts

Ability to earn returns from


process technology skills in
countries where FDI is
restricted

Licensing

Low development costs and


risks

Disadvantage
High transport costs
Trade barriers
Problems with local marketing
agents
Creating efficient competitors
Lack of long-term market
presence
Lack of control over technology
Inability to realize location and
experience curve economies
Inability to engage in
global strategic
coordination

14-14

Advantages and Disadvantages of


Entry Modes
Entry Mode

Advantage

Disadvantage

Franchising Low development costs and Lack of control over quality


risks
Inability to engage in global strategic
coordination
Joint
ventures

Access to local partners


Lack of control over technology
knowledge
Inability to engage in global strategic
Sharing development costs
coordination
and risks
Inability to realize location and
Politically acceptable
experience economies

Wholly
Protection of technology
High costs and risks
owned
Ability to engage in global
subsidiaries strategic coordination
Ability to realize location and
experience economies
Table 14.1b

14-15

Como seleccionar el modelo de


entrada
Know-How Tecnologico

Bueno para una subsidiaria, excepto:


1.El acuerdo es estructurado para
reducir riesgos de perdida de
tecnologia
2. La ventaja tecnologica es transitoria.
En estos casos es mejor la licencia y el

Administracion
estrategica del KnowHow
Presin para reducir
costos

Joint Venture.

Franquicia y subsidiaria

Combinacin de exportacin y
subsidiaria.

14-16

Modelo de entrada y ventaja


competitiva
Ventaja competitiva basada en el knowhow tecnologico
Exportacion, Licencia, or subsidiaria
Examples: Honda, Intel

Ventaja competitiva basada en la


administracion estrategica del KnowHow
Franquicia, Joint Venture, Subsidiaria
Examples: McDonalds, Marriott

Alianzas Estrategicas
Acuerdos de cooperacion entre competidores
Actuales o potenciales
ventajas:
Facilitan la entrada al mercado.
Comparten costos fijos.
Desarrollan habilidades conjuntas que de otra
manera no seran posibles.
Establecen estandares en la industria.

Desventajas:
La competencia aprende de ellos y pueden
ganarles mercados locales por bajos costos.
14-17

Alliances Are Popular


High cost of technology
development
Company may not have skill, money
or people to go it alone
Good way to learn
Good way to secure access to
foreign markets
Host country may require some
local ownership
14-18

Global Alliances, however, are different


Companies join to attain world
leadership
Each partner has significant strength
to bring to the alliance
A true global vision
Relationship is horizontal not vertical
When competing in markets not part
of alliance, they retain their own
identity
14-19

Partner Selection
Get as much information as possible
on the potential partner
Collect data from informed third
parties
former partners
investment bankers
former employees

Get to know the potential partner


before committing
14-20

Structuring the Alliance to Reduce


Opportunism

Walling off
critical technology

Establishing
contractual
safeguards

Opportunism by partner
reduced by:

Figure 14.1

Agreeing to swap
valuable skills
and technologies

Seeking credible
commitments

14-21

Characteristics of a Global Alliance


Players are independent prior to
the creating of the alliance
Players share
benefits of the alliance
control over operations

Players continue to contribute


technology
products
14-22

Characteristics of a Strategic Alliance

Benefits

Independence of
Participants

Technology
Products

Control

Shared
Benefits

Ongoing
Contributions

Markets
Cooperation

14-23

Problems with Strategic Alliances


Have to give up some
authority/control
Could be strengthening a future
competitor
Technology transfer
Management practices
Operating procedures

14-24