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Universal Gravitation1

Chapter 13
Universal Gravitation
Multiple Choice
1.

A satellite circles planet Roton every 2.8 h in an orbit having a radius of 1.2 107 m. If the radius of Roton is
5.0 106 m, what is the magnitude of the free-fall acceleration on the surface of Roton?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2.

The period of a satellite circling planet Nutron is observed to be 84 s when it is in a circular orbit with a
radius of 8.0 106 m. What is the mass of planet Nutron?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

3.

63 N
58 N
68 N
73 N
50 N

0.41 D
0.33 D
0.37 D
0.29 D
0.14 D

What is the magnitude of the free-fall acceleration at a point that is a distance 2R above the surface of the
Earth, where R is the radius of the Earth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

6.

## 106 m. What is the

Two stars of masses M and 6M are separated by a distance D. Determine the distance (measured from M) to
a point at which the net gravitational force on a third mass would be zero.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

5.

6.2 1028 kg
5.0 1028 kg
5.5 1028 kg
4.3 1028 kg
3.7 1028 kg

A 50-kg satellite circles planet Cruton every 5.6 h in an orbit with a radius of 12
magnitude of the gravitational force on the satellite by planet Cruton?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

4.

31 m/s2
27 m/s2
34 m/s2
40 m/s2
19 m/s2

4.8 m/s2
1.1 m/s2
3.3 m/s2
2.5 m/s2
6.5 m/s2

A satellite is in a circular orbit about the Earth at an altitude at which air resistance is negligible. Which of the
following statements is true?
a.

## There is only one force acting on the satellite.

b.
c.
d.
e.
7.

Three 5.0-kg masses are located at points in the xy plane as shown in the figure. What is the magnitude of the
resultant force (caused by the other two masses) on the mass at the origin?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

8.

## 106 m, mass = 6.0

1024

88 N
55 N
36 N
98 N
18 N

A spaceship of mass m circles a planet (mass = M) in an orbit of radius R. How much energy is required to
transfer the spaceship to a circular orbit of radius 3R?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

12.

2.6 108 N
2.0 108 N
2.9 108 N
2.3 108 N
2.1 108 N

What is the gravitational force on a 20-kg satellite circling the Earth (radius = 6.4
kg) with a period of 5.0 h?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

11.

2.2 108 N
1.9 108 N
1.4 108 N
1.6 108 N
2.5 108 N

Three 5.0-kg masses are located at points in the xy plane, as shown. What is the magnitude of the resultant
force (caused by the other two masses) on the mass at x = 0, y = 0.30 m?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

10.

2.7 108 N
2.1 108 N
1.8 108 N
2.4 108 N
2.9 108 N

Three 5.0-kg masses are located at points in the xy plane, as shown. What is the magnitude of the resultant
force (caused by the other two masses) on the mass at x = 0.40 m, y = 0?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

9.

There are two forces acting on the satellite, and their resultant is zero.
There are two forces acting on the satellite, and their resultant is not zero.
There are three forces acting on the satellite.
None of the preceding statements are correct.

GmM/(2R)
GmM/(3R)
GmM/(4R)
GmM/(6R)
3GmM/(4R)

A spacecraft (mass = m) orbits a planet (mass = M) in a circular orbit (radius = R). What is the minimum
energy required to send this spacecraft to a distant point in space where the gravitational force on the
spacecraft by the planet is negligible?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

GmM/(4R)
GmM/R
GmM/(2R)
GmM/(3R)
2GmM/(5R)

13.

A projectile is launched from the surface of a planet (mass = M, radius = R). What minimum launch speed is
required if the projectile is to rise to a height of 2R above the surface of the planet? Disregard any dissipative
effects of the atmosphere.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

14.

An object is released from rest at a distance h above the surface of a planet (mass = M, radius = R < h). With
what speed will the object strike the surface of the planet? Disregard any dissipative effects of the atmosphere
of the planet.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

15.

What is the kinetic energy of a 200-kg satellite as it follows a circular orbit of radius 8.0
Earth? (Mass of Earth = 6.0 1024 kg.)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

16.

2.9 108 J
3.5 108 J
4.1 108 J
4.7 108 J
5.9 108 J

Planet Roton has a mass of 4.0 1023 kg and a radius of 2.0 106 m. With what speed should a space probe
be launched from the surface of Roton so as to achieve a maximum distance of 3.0 106 m from the center of
Roton?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

19.

7.8 km/s
3.5 km/s
5.4 km/s
6.9 km/s
4.8 km/s

A 50-kg satellite circles the Earth in an orbit with a period of 120 min. What minimum energy is required to
change the orbit to another circular orbit with a period of 180 min? (Earth: radius = 6.4 106 m, mass = 6.0
1024 kg)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

18.

5.0 109 J
1.0 1010 J
1.5 1010 J
2.0 1010 J
2.5 109 J

An object is released from rest when it is a height h above the surface of a planet of mass M and radius R.
What is the speed of the object just before striking the surface of the planet? Neglect any air resistance. Let h =
4.0 106 m, R = 5.0 106 m, and M = 4.0 1024 kg.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

17.

## 106 m around the

4.2 km/s
3.9 km/s
3.0 km/s
3.4 km/s
6.0 km/s

Planet Zero has a mass of 5.0 1023 kg and a radius of 2.0 106 m. A space probe is launched vertically from
the surface of Zero with an initial speed of 4.0 km/s. What is the speed of the probe when it is 3.0 106 m from
Zeros center?
a.
b.
c.

3.0 km/s
2.2 km/s
1.6 km/s

d.
e.
20.

What is the escape speed from a planet of mass M and radius R if M = 3.2
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

21.

3.7 km/s
5.9 km/s
1023 kg and R = 2.4

106 m?

5.5 km/s
4.2 km/s
5.2 km/s
4.8 km/s
3.7 km/s

A satellite of mass m circles a planet of mass M and radius R in an orbit at a height 2R above the surface of
the planet. What minimum energy is required to change the orbit to one for which the height of the satellite is
3R above the surface of the planet?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

22.

Planet Zero has a mass of 4.0 1023 kg and a radius of 2.0 106 m. A 10-kg space probe is launched
vertically from the surface of Zero with an initial kinetic energy of 8.0 107 J. What maximum distance from the
center of Zero is achieved by the probe?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

23.

Two satellites are placed in geosynchronous orbits, orbits with a period of 24 hours, where each satellite
hovers over a spot on the Earths equator. Satellite B has three times the mass of satellite A. What is the
relationship between the magnitudes of the gravitational forces of the Earth on the two satellites?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

24.

## There is no gravitational force on the satellite.

There is no acceleration toward the center of the Earth.
The satellite is in a state of free fall toward the Earth.
There is a tangential force that helps the satellite keep up with the rotation of the Earth.
The force toward the center of the Earth is balanced by a force away from the center of the Earth.

Two identical planets orbit a star in concentric circular orbits in the stars equatorial plane. Of the two, the
planet that is farther from the star must have
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

26.

F B = F A.
F B = F A.
F B = F A.
FB = 3FA.
FB = 9FA.

A satellite is placed in a geosynchronous orbit. In this equatorial orbit with a period of 24 hours, the satellite
hovers over one point on the equator. Which statement is true for a satellite in such an orbit?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

25.

3.2 106 m
4.0 106 m
6.0 106 m
5.0 106 m
2.5 106 m

## the smaller period.

the greater period.
the smaller gravitational mass.
the larger gravitational mass.
the larger universal gravitational constant.

Which of the following quantities is conserved for a planet orbiting a star in a circular orbit? Only the planet
itself is to be taken as the system; the star is not included.
a.
b.
c.
d.

## Momentum and energy.

Energy and angular momentum.
Momentum and angular momentum.
Momentum, angular momentum and energy.

e.
27.

The figure below shows a planet traveling in a counterclockwise direction on an elliptical path around a star
located at one focus of the ellipse. When the planet is at point A,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

28.

## its speed is constant.

its speed is increasing.
its speed is decreasing.
its speed is a maximum.
its speed is a minimum.

The figure below shows a planet traveling in a clockwise direction on an elliptical path around a star
located at one focus of the ellipse. When the planet is at point A,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

32.

## its speed is constant.

its speed is increasing.
its speed is decreasing.
its speed is a maximum.
its speed is a minimum.

The figure below shows a planet traveling in a counterclockwise direction on an elliptical path around a star
located at one focus of the ellipse. When the planet is at point A,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

31.

## its speed is constant.

its speed is increasing.
its speed is decreasing.
its speed is a maximum.
its speed is a minimum.

The figure below shows a planet traveling in a counterclockwise direction on an elliptical path around a star
located at one focus of the ellipse. When the planet is at point A,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

30.

## its speed is constant.

its speed is increasing.
its speed is decreasing.
its speed is a maximum.
its speed is a minimum.

The figure below shows a planet traveling in a clockwise direction on an elliptical path around a star
located at one focus of the ellipse. When the planet is at point A,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

29.

## its speed is constant.

its speed is increasing.
its speed is decreasing.
its speed is a maximum.
its speed is a minimum.

The figure below shows a planet traveling in a counterclockwise direction on an elliptical path around a star
located at one focus of the ellipse. When the planet is at point A,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

## its speed is decreasing.

its angular momentum is increasing.
the gravitational force does no work on the planet..
all of the above are correct.
none of the above is correct.

33.

The period of oscillation of an object in a frictionless tunnel running through the Earth is 84.3 min. What is
the period of oscillation of an object in a similar tunnel on the Moon? (RE = 6.37 106 m; RM = 1.74 106 m;
ME = 5.98 1024 kg; MM = 7.36 1022 kg.)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

34.

Three galaxies, each of mass , lie in a plane at the corners of an equilateral triangle with sides of length. The
magnitude of the force the other two galaxies exert on each galaxy is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

35.

is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

36.

1.23.
2.45.
4.90.
7.35.
9.80.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Suppose the gravitational force of the Earth on a body was . What escape velocity would a body need to
escape the gravitational field of the Earth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

39.

Knowing that at sea level and that , we find that the value of g in at a distance from the surface of the Earth

Huyghens claimed that near the surface of the Earth the velocity downwards of an object released from rest,
, was directly proportional to the square root of the distance it had fallen, .This is true if c is equal to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

38.

.
.
.
.
.

When two solid spheres of the same material and same radius r are in contact, the magnitude of the
gravitational force each exerts on the other is directly proportional to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

37.

## 6.03 10-3 min.

0.713 min.
84.3 min.
108.5 min.
139.6 min.

.
.
.
.
.

In an isolated system of two bodies that exert gravitational forces on one another, the quantity (quantities)
that remain(s) constant is(are)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

## the total energy of the system.

the total angular momentum of the system.
the angular positions of the two bodies.
all of the above.
only (a) and (b) above.

40.

Carla and Jenny are arguing about whether or not it is possible to escape the gravitational field of the Earth.
Carla shows Jenny the system below where mass m is (not the Earths radius) distant from Earth and (not
planet Ps radius) distant from planet P. Carla states that the mass m has escaped if . Which one, if either, is
correct, and why?
a.
b.
c.
d.

## Carla, because the total gravitational force on m is zero at that point.

Carla, because there is no gravitational force from Earth on m at that point.
Carla, because there is no gravitational force on m from Earth when .
Jenny, because there is a gravitational force on m from Earth no matter how great the distance from
the Earth.
Jenny, because the gravitational force from the Earth can only be blocked by a body that is larger than
the Earth.

e.

Open-Ended Problems
41.

Isaac Newton was able to estimate a value for G, the universal gravitational constant, from the following
data: the radius of the Earth is about 6400 km, the average density of rocks is about 5.5 g/cm3, and g = 9.8 m/s2
near the surface of the Earth. What value did Newton obtain for G?

42.

At the moment of a total eclipse, the moon lies along a line from the Earth to the sun. If your normal weight
is 600 N, how much is your weight decreased by the combined pull of the sun and moon?
MSUN = 2.0
MMOON = 7.4

1030 kg,

rS-E = 1.5

## 1022 kg, rM-E = 3.8

108 km

105 km

43.

When a falling meteor is at a distance above the Earths surface of 3 times the Earths radius, what is its
acceleration due to the Earths gravity?

44.

The planet Venus requires 225 days to orbit the sun, which has a mass M = 1.99 1030 kg, in an almost
circular trajectory. Calculate the radius of the orbit and the orbital speed of Venus as it circles the sun.

45.

Imagine a hole is drilled down to the center of the Earth. A small mass m is dropped into the hole. Ignoring
the Earths rotation, and all sources of friction, find the speed of the mass just as it reaches the Earths center.
(ME = 6.0 1024 kg; RE = 6.4 106 m.)

46.

Calculate the Earths angular momentum in the approximation that treats the Earths orbit around the sun
as a circle. (MSun = 1.99 1030 kg; T = 3.156 107 s; ME = 5.98 1024 kg.)

Universal Gravitation1

Chapter 13
Universal Gravitation

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Universal Gravitation1

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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12.

13.

14.

15.

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6.65

42.

0.37 N

43.

0.613 m/s2

44.

1.08

45.

8.0

46.

2.68

1011 N m2/kg2

103 m/s
1040 kg m2/s