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Oscillatory Motion21

Chapter 15
Oscillatory Motion
Multiple Choice
1.

A body of mass 5.0 kg is suspended by a spring which stretches 10 cm when the


mass is attached. It is then displaced downward an additional 5.0 cm and
released. Its position as a function of time is approximately
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2.

y = .10 sin 9.9t


y = .10 cos 9.9t
y = .10 cos (9.9t + .1)
y = .10 sin (9.9t + 5)
y = .05 cos 9.9t

A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x-axis. Its displacement
varies with time according to the equation x = 5.0 sin (t). The acceleration (in
2

m/s ) of the body at t = 1.0 s is approximately


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3.

3.5
49
14
43
4.3

A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x axis. Its displacement
varies with time according to the equation x = 5 sin (t + /3). The phase (in rad)
of the motion at t = 2 s is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

7/3
/3

5/3
2

22CHAPTER 15

4.

A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x axis. Its displacement
varies with time according to the equation x = 5.0 sin (t + /3). The velocity (in
m/s) of the body at t = 1.0 s is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

5.

The motion of a particle connected to a spring is described by x = 10 sin (t). At


what time (in s) is the potential energy equal to the kinetic energy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

6.

0
0.25
0.50
0.79
1.0

The amplitude of a system moving with simple harmonic motion is doubled. The
total energy will then be
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

7.

+8.0
8.0
14
+14
5.0

4 times larger
3 times larger
2 times larger
the same as it was
half as much

A mass m = 2.0 kg is attached to a spring having a force constant k = 290 N/m as


in the figure. The mass is displaced from its equilibrium position and released.
Its frequency of oscillation (in Hz) is approximately

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

12
0.50
0.01
1.9
0.08

Oscillatory Motion23

8.

The mass in the figure slides on a frictionless surface. If m = 2 kg, k1 = 800 N/m
and k2 = 500 N/m, the frequency of oscillation (in Hz) is approximately

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
9.

6
2
4
8
10

Two circus clowns (each having a mass of 50 kg) swing on two flying trapezes
(negligible mass, length 25 m) shown in the figure. At the peak of the swing, one
grabs the other, and the two swing back to one platform. The time for the
forward and return motion is

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

10 s
50 s
15 s
20 s
25 s

24CHAPTER 15

10.

A uniform rod (mass m = 1.0 kg and length L = 2.0 m) pivoted at one end
oscillates in a vertical plane as shown below. The period of oscillation (in s) is
approximately

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
11.

4.0
1.6
3.2
2.3
2.0

A horizontal plank (m = 2.0 kg, L = 1.0 m) is pivoted at one end. A spring


3

(k = 1.0 10 N/m) is attached at the other end, as shown in the figure. Find the
angular frequency (in rad/s) for small oscillations.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

39
44
55
66
25

Oscillatory Motion25

12.

The figure shows a uniform rod (length L = 1.0 m, mass = 2.0 kg) suspended from
a pivot a distance d = 0.25 m above its center of mass. The angular frequency (in
rad/s) for small oscillations is approximately

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
13.

In the figure below, a disk (radius R = 1.0 m, mass = 2.0 kg) is suspended from a
pivot a distance d = 0.25 m above its center of mass. The angular frequency (in
rad/s) for small oscillations is approximately

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
14.

1.0
2.5
1.5
4.1
3.5

4.2
2.1
1.5
1.0
3.8

In the figure below, a hoop (radius R = 1.0 m, mass = 2.0 kg) having four spokes
of negligible mass is suspended from a pivot a distance d = .25 m above its center
of mass. The angular frequency (in rad/s) for small oscillations is approximately

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

4.0
2.5
1.5
1.0
0.5

26CHAPTER 15

15.

A torsional pendulum consists of a solid disk (mass = 2.0 kg, radius = 1.0 m)
suspended by a wire attached to a rigid support. The body oscillates about the
support wire. If the torsion constant is 16 N m. What is the angular frequency
(in rad/s)?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
16.

2
4
6
8
7

The mass in the figure below slides on a frictionless surface. When the mass is
pulled out, spring 1 is stretched a distance x1 from its equilibrium position and
spring 2 is stretched a distance x2. The spring constants are k1 and k2 respectively.
The force pulling back on the mass is:

a.

k2x1.

b.

k2x2.

c.

(k1x1 + k2x2).

d.

e.

k1 k 2
( x1 x 2 ) .
2
k1 k 2
( x1 x 2 ) .

k1k 2

Oscillatory Motion27

17.

A hoop, a solid cylinder, and a solid sphere all have the same mass m and the
same radius R. Each is mounted to oscillate about an axis a distance 0.5 R from
the center. The axis is perpendicular to the circular plane of the hoop and the
cylinder and to an equatorial plane of the sphere as shown below. Which is the
correct ranking in order of increasing angular frequency ?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
18.

hoop, cylinder, sphere


cylinder, sphere, hoop
sphere, cylinder, hoop
hoop, sphere, cylinder
sphere, hoop, cylinder

Three pendulums with strings of the same length and bobs of the same mass are
pulled out to angles 1, 2 and 3 respectively and released. The approximation
sin = holds for all three angles, with 3 > 2 > 1. How do the angular
frequencies of the three pendulums compare?

19.

a.

3 > 2 > 1

b.
c.
d.

Need to know amplitudes to answer this question.


Need to know g/L to answer this question.
1 > 2 > 3

e.

1 = 2 = 3

A weight of mass m is at rest at O when suspended from a spring, as shown.


When it is pulled down and released, it oscillates between positions A and B.
Which statement about the system consisting of the spring and the mass is
correct?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

The gravitational potential energy of the system is greatest at A.


The elastic potential energy of the system is greatest at O.
The rate of change of momentum has its greatest magnitude at A and B.
The rate of change of gravitational potential energy is smallest at O.
The rate of change of gravitational potential energy has its greatest
magnitude at A and B.

28CHAPTER 15

20.

An object of mass m is attached to string of length L. When it is released from


point A, the object oscillates between points A and B. Which statement about the
system consisting of the pendulum and the Earth is correct?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
21.

The gravitational potential energy of the system is greatest at A and B.


The kinetic energy of mass m is greatest at point O.
The greatest rate of change of momentum occurs at A and B.
All of the above are correct.
Only (a) and (b) above are correct.

A graph of position versus time for an object oscillating at the free end of a
horizontal spring is shown below. A point or points at which the object has
positive velocity and zero acceleration is(are)

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

B
C
D
B or D
A or E

Oscillatory Motion29

22.

A graph of position versus time for an object oscillating at the free end of a
horizontal spring is shown below. The point at which the object has negative
velocity and zero acceleration is

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
23.

A
B
C
D
E

A graph of position versus time for an object oscillating at the free end of a
horizontal spring is shown below. The point at which the object has zero velocity
and positive acceleration is

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

A
B
C
D
E

30CHAPTER 15

24.

A graph of position versus time for an object oscillating at the free end of a
horizontal spring is shown below. The point at which the object has zero velocity
and negative acceleration is

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
25.

In an inertia balance, a body supported against gravity executes simple harmonic


oscillations in a horizontal plane under the action of a set of springs. If a 1.00 kg
body vibrates at 1.00 Hz, a 2.00 kg body will vibrate at
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

26.

A
B
C
D
E

0.500 Hz.
0.707 Hz.
1.00 Hz.
1.41 Hz.
2.00 Hz.

At sea level, at a latitude where g 9.80

m
, a pendulum that takes 2.00 s for a
s2

complete swing back and forth has a length of 0.993 m. What is the value of g in
m/s2 at a location where the length of such a pendulum is 0.970 m?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

0.0983
3.05
9.28
10.0
38.3

Oscillatory Motion31

Suppose it were possible to drill a frictionless cylindrical channel along a


diameter of the Earth from one side of the Earth to another. A body dropped into
such a channel will only feel the gravitational pull of mass within a sphere of
radius equal to the distance of the mass from the center of the Earth . The density

27.

2
kg
11 N m
of the Earth is 5.52 10 3 and G 6.67 10
. The mass will oscillate
kg 2
m

with a period of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

84.4 min.
169 min.

24.0 h.
1130 h.
27.2 d.

A 2.00 m-long 6.00 kg ladder pivoted at the top hangs down from a platform at
the circus. A 42.0 kg trapeze artist climbs to a point where her center of mass is at
the center of the ladder and swings at the systems natural frequency. The angular
frequency (in s1 ) of the system of ladder and woman is

28.

a.
b.
c.

d.
e.

1.01.
2.01.
4.03.
8.05.
16.2.

Ellen says that whenever the acceleration is directly proportional to the


displacement of an object from its equilibrium position, the motion of the object
is simple harmonic motion. Mary says this is true only if the acceleration is
opposite in direction to the displacement. Which one, if either, is correct?

29.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Ellen, because 2 is directly proportional to the constant multiplying the


displacement and to the mass.
Ellen, because 2 is directly proportional to the mass.
Mary, , because 2 is directly proportional to the constant multiplying the

displacement
and to the mass.
Mary, because 2 is directly proportional to the mass.
because the second derivative of an oscillatory function like sin(t)
Mary,
cos(t) always is the negative of the original function.
or

32CHAPTER 15

30.

John says that the value of the function cos[ (t T) ] , obtained one period T
after time t, is greater than cos(t ) by 2 . Larry says that it is greater by
the addition of 1.00 to cos(t ) . Which one, if either, is correct?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

31.

Simple harmonic oscillations can be modeled by the projection of circular motion


angular velocity onto a diameter of the circle. When this is done, the
at constant

the diameter of the centripetal acceleration of the particle executing


analog along
circular motion is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

32.

John, because T 2 .
John, because
T 1radian .
Larry, because
.
T 2

Larry, because T 1radian .


Neither,
because cos( 2 ) cos .

the displacement from the center of the diameter of the projection of the
position of the particle on the circle.
the projection along the diameter of the velocity of the particle on the circle.
the projection along the diameter of tangential acceleration of the particle on
the circle.
the projection along the diameter of centripetal acceleration of the particle
on the circle.
meaningful only when the particle moving in the circle also has a non-zero
tangential acceleration.

When a damping force is applied to a simple harmonic oscillator which has


angular frequency 0 in the absence of damping, the new angular frequency
is such that

a.

.
0

b.

0 .

c.

.
0

d.

T T .
0 0

e.

T T .
0 0

Oscillatory Motion33

33.

34.

When a damping force is applied to a simple harmonic oscillator which has


period T0 in the absence of damping, the new period T is such that
a.

T T .
0

b.

T T .
0

c.

T T .
0

d.

T T .
0 0

e.

T T .
0 0

To double the total energy of a mass oscillating at the end of a spring with
amplitude A, we need to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

increase the angular frequency by 2 .


increase the amplitude by 2 .
increase the amplitude by 2.
increase the angular frequency
by 2.

increase the amplitude


by 4 and decrease the angular frequency by
.
2

Open-Ended Problems
35.

An automobile (m = 1.00 10 kg) is driven into a brick wall in a safety test. The
6

bumper behaves like a spring (k = 5.00 10 N/m), and is observed to compress a


distance of 3.16 cm as the car is brought to rest. What was the initial speed of the
automobile?
36.

The mat of a trampoline is held by 32 springs, each having a spring constant of


5000 N/m. A person with a mass of 40.0 kg jumps from a platform 1.93 m high
onto the trampoline. Determine the stretch of each of the springs.

37.

An archer pulls her bow string back 0.4 m by exerting a force that increases
uniformly from zero to 240 N. What is the equivalent spring constant of the bow,
and how much work is done in pulling the bow?

34CHAPTER 15

38.

An ore car of mass 4000 kg starts from rest and rolls downhill on tracks from a
mine. A spring with k = 400 000 N/m is located at the end of the tracks. At the
springs maximum compression, the car is at an elevation 10 m lower than its
elevation at the starting point. How much is the spring compressed in stopping
the ore car? Ignore friction.

39.

The motion of a piston in an auto engine is simple harmonic. If the piston travels
back and forth over a distance of 10 cm, and the piston has a mass of 1.5 kg, what
is the maximum speed of the piston and the maximum force acting on the piston
when the engine is running at 4200 rpm?

Oscillatory Motion35

36CHAPTER 15

Chapter 15
Oscillatory Motion
1.

21.

2.

22.

3.

23.

4.

24.

5.

25.

6.

26.

7.

27.

8.

28.

9.

29.

10.

30.

11.

31.

12.

32.

13.

33.

14.

34.

15.

35.

2.23 m/s (5 mph)

16.

36.

9.97 cm

17.

37.

600 N/m, 48 J

18.

38.

1.4 m

19.

39.

22 m/s, 14 500 N

20.

Oscillatory Motion37