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UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST CALOOCAN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Laboratory Work No. 3


Voltage Divider

Engr. Antonio C. Rebong


NEE 220-1CMF 7:30-12:30
Passed by: Solis, Dave Vic DG.
Date Preformed:
Feb. 9, 2016

Jan. 15, 2016

SN:20141108045
Date Submitted:

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS:


Unitrain-I intrerface SN: S04203-2A
The UniTrain-I Interface is the central unit of the UniTrain-I system. It incorporates all
inputs and outputs, switches, power and signal sources and measurement circuitry
needed to perform experiments.
Equipment:

32-bit processor with storage memory for measurements


USB interfaces, transfer rate 12 Mbits/s
Simultaneous connection of any number of Experimenters via serial bus
system
Analog output, +/- 10 V, 0,2 A, DC 1 MHz, via BNC and 2-mm sockets
2 Analog differential amplifier inputs with 4 MHz bandwidth, safe for voltages
up to 100 V, sampling rate 40 megasamples, 9 measuring ranges, memory
depth 2 x 16 k x 10 bit, inputs via BNC or 2-mm socket
16-bit digital signal output, of which 8 bits are accessed via 2-mm sockets,
TTL / CMOS, clock frequency 0 100 kHz, electric strength +/- 15 V
16-bit digital signal input, of which 8 bits are accessed via 2-mm sockets,
memory depth 16 bit x 2 k, TTL / CMOS, sampling rate 0 100 kHz, electric
strength +/- 15 V,
8 Relays 24V DC / 1 A, of which 4 are accessed via 2-mm sockets
Dimensions: 28 x 19 x 9 cm
Weight: 1.7 kg
External power supply with wide range input 100-250 V, 50-60 Hz, outputs 2
x +/- 15 V/0.4 A; 2 x 5 V/1 A
Virtual instruments (meters and sources):

2 x Voltmeter VI, 2 x Ammeter VI: AC, DC, 9 ranges 100mV to 50V, true RMS,
AV
1 x VI with 8 relays, 1 x Multimeter VI: multimeter display (optional LM2330,
LM2331 or LM2322) in LabSoft
1 Dual-channel oscilloscope: band width 4MHz, 22 time ranges, 9 ranges 20
mV/div to 10 V/div, trigger and pre-trigger, XY and XT modes
1 x Adjustable DC voltage VI 0 - 10 V
1 x Function generator VI: 0.5 Hz - 1MHz, 0 - 10 V, sine, square, triangular,
1 x Arbitrary generator VI, 1 x Pulse generator VI
1 x VI with 16 digital outputs, 1 x VI with 16 x digital inputs, 1 x VI with 16
digital input/outputs. Display modes: binary, hex, decimal and octal numerals
1 x Three-phase power supply VI 0 - 150 Hz, 0 - 14 Vrms, 2 A (requires
SO4203-2B and SO4203-2D)
1 x Adjustable DC power supply VI 3 x (-20 V - +20 V), 2 A (requires SO42032B and SO4203-2D)
1 x Three-phase power supply VI with additional phase-shift and clock rate
adjustment (requires SO4203-2B/-2D)

Unitrain-I Experimenter SN: S04203-2B


UniTrain-I Experimenter for coupling to the UniTrain-I Interface or to other
Experimenter modules.
Equipment:

Connects to the UniTrain-I Interface and additional Experimenters via


UniTrain-I bus
UniTrain-I bus connection for experiment cards
Direct connection to the standard UniTrain-I power supply for use without an
UniTrain-I Interface
Fixed and variable voltages available via 8 2-mm sockets
Accommodates UniTrain-I experiment cards
Accommodates a breadboard for experimenting with discrete components
and integrated circuits
Accommodates a multimeter using IrDa interface
Dimensions: 28 x 19 x 9 cm
Weight: 0.5 kg

Experiment Card DCCL No. 2 SN: S04203-2F


The same with other circuit cards, this card contains circuits and electronic parts
that are needed for the Voltage Divider Experiment. It is the platform connected
by conductive deposits which make up a complete circuit. It is inserted in UniTrain-I
experimenters.

Metrahit Multimeter (by Gossen Metrawatt)


The METRAHIT provides users with all the measuring functions of a highly diverse
multimeter: convincing technology with all voltage, resistance, current and
temperature measuring ranges, and additional measuring functions and automatic
functions.
Resolution: 6000 digits (3 6/7 place) and analog bar graph
TRMS measuremnts VAC and IAC
Basic accuracy: 0.5% VDC
Patented automatic blocking sockets (ABS)
Voltage: VDC 100 to 600 V and VAC 100 to 600 V
Current: IDC 10 to 10 A (16 A 30 sec.) and IAC 10 to 10 A (16 A 30 sec.)
Resistance: 100 mOhm to 40 MOhm
Temperature: -200.0 to +400.0 C, type K thermocouple
Frequency measurement: 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz
Continuity and diode testing
Min-Max measured value storage and DATA hold

Leads and Connection Plugs

An extension cord, power extender, or extension lead is a length of flexible power


cable with a plug on one end and one or more sockets on the other end usually at
the same type as the plug.

Extension cord, power extender, drop cord or extension


lead
A length of flexible electrical power cable (flex) with a plug on one end and one or
more sockets on the other end (usually of the same type as the plug). The term
usually refers to mains (household AC)extensions but is also used to refer to
extensions for other types of cabling. If the plug and power outlet are of different
types, the term "adapter cord" may be used.

DATA
Run 1(A)
VOLTAGE
DIVIDER OUTPUT
HIGH-VOLTAGE OUTPUT
LOW-VOLTAGE OUTPUT

UNLOADED CONDITIONS
V(Volts)
A(mAmps)
7.9
2
4
1.991

Run 2(B)
VOLTAGE
DIVIDER OUTPUT
HIGH-VOLTAGE
LOW-VOLTAGE

HIGH-RESISTANCE LOAD
V(Volts)
A(mAmps)
3.4
3.088
3.2
2.248

LOW-RESISTANCE LOAD
V(Volts)
A(mAmps)
3.3
3.3
3.0
2.298

Run 2(A)
POTENTIOMETER
SETTING
VOLTAGE OUTPUT
TOTAL CURRENT

MINIMUM (CCW MOST)

MAXIMUM (CW MOST)

9.9
0.366

0.5
0.845

Run2(B)
LOADING
CONDITION
VOLTMETER READING
AMMETER READING

HIGH-RESISTANCE LOAD
INITIAL
AFTER
5.7
8
1.778
2.379

LOW-RESISTANCE LOAD
INITIAL
AFTER
7.7
8
2.708
2.806

EXCERCISES
Exercise #1:
In the voltage divider circuit from page 3-10(Figure 2.1-A), compute for the output
voltage if the values for the circuit parameters are as follows:
Vin=24V, R1=50,

Vin=24V, R1=100 ,

Vin=24V, R1=100 ,

R2=100

R2=50

R2=100

Vout=Vt/(R1+R2)R2

Vout=Vt/(R1+R2)R2

Vout=Vt/(R1+R2)R2

Vout=24V/(50+100)

Vout =24V/(100+50) 50

Vout =24V/(100+100)

100

Vout= 8V

Vout= 16V

100
Vout= 12

Exercise #2:
In the voltage divider circuit from page 3-10(Figure 2.1-B), compute for the output
voltage if the values for the circuit parameters are as follows:

a.) Vin=24V, R1=20,

V out = 14.99V

R2=100 , RL=50
V out

b.) Vin=24V, R1=20,


=

R2=100 , RL=100
V out

Vt / R 1+(R 2 RL)

( R 2+RL)

24 /20+(100 50)

24 /20+(100 100)

V out = 17.14 V

=
c.) Vin=24V, R1=20,
R2=100 , RL=200

Vt / R 1+(R 2 RL)

( R 2+RL)

V out

Vt / R 1+(R 2 RL)

( R 2+RL)
=

24 /20+(100 200)

V out = 18.46 V

Questions & Problems


1.) What are the factors that affect the output voltage of a voltage divider circuit?
There are numerous factors when it comes to the variance of the resulting
voltage in a voltage divider. One practical consideration is that a larger value of R2
compared to R1 will give you a larger output voltage. But if your load resistance RL
is smaller than R2, you will diminish the output voltage and require a larger current
and total power from the power supply. The other factor is that what type of
resistors you are using, what electrical component, what temperature you are
having and many more factors.
2.) In the Voltage divider circuit, is it possible to obtain an output voltage that is
greater than the input voltage? Explain.
No, its not possible that the output voltage will be greater than the input voltage.
It is well known that the voltage divider is a unidirectional device . if we apply the
input voltage throughout the circuit and measure the voltage of one of the resistors,
the result will be the ratio of its current to the resistance. Therefore, the voltage
output will always be lesser that the input voltage.
3. Cite some applications of a voltage divider circuit.
POTENTIOMETER: A potentiometer is a variable resistor which can be used
to create an adjustable voltage divider. Internal to the pot is a single resistor and a
wiper, which cuts the resistor in two and moves to adjust the ratio between both
halves. Externally there are usually three pins: two pins connect to each end of the
resistor, while the third connects to the pots wiper.
READING RESISTIVE SENSORS: Many sensors in the real world are simple
resistive devices. A photocell is a variable resistor, which produces a resistance
proportional to the amount of light it senses. Other devices like flex sensors, forcesensitive resistors, and thermostats, are also variable resistors.
READING RESISTIVE SENSORS: Many sensors in the real world are simple
resistive devices. A photocell is a variable resistor, which produces a resistance
proportional to the amount of light it senses. Other devices like flex sensors, forcesensitive resistors, and thermostats, are also variable resistors.

DISCUSSION
Voltage Divider
In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a passive
linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input
voltage (Vin). Voltage division is the result of distributing the input voltage among
the components of the divider. A simple example of a voltage divider is two resistors
connected in series, with the input voltage applied across the resistor pair and the
output voltage emerging from the connection between them.

Resistor voltage dividers are commonly used to create reference voltages, or to


reduce the magnitude of a voltage so it can be measured, and may also be used as
signal attenuators at low frequencies. For direct current and relatively low
frequencies, a voltage divider may be sufficiently accurate if made only of resistors;
where frequency response over a wide range is required (such as in an oscilloscope
probe), a voltage divider may have capacitive elements added to compensate load
capacitance. In electric power transmission, a capacitive voltage divider is used for
measurement of high voltage.

A voltage divider referenced to ground is created by connecting two electrical


impedances in series, as shown in Figure 1. The input voltage is applied across the
series impedances Z1 and Z2 and the output is the voltage across Z2. Z1 and Z2 may
be composed of any combination of elements such
as resistors, inductors and capacitors.
If the current in the
output wire is zero then
the relationship
between the input
voltage, Vin, and the

Proof (using Ohm's

output voltage, Vout, is:

Law):

The transfer

the divider's voltage

function (also known as

ratio) of this circuit is:

In general this transfer function is a complex, rational function of frequency.

Applications
Voltage dividers are used for adjusting the level of a signal, for bias of active
devices in amplifiers, and for measurement of voltages. A Wheatstone bridge and a
multimeter both include voltage dividers. A potentiometer is used as a variable
voltage divider in the volume control of many radios.
Sensor measurement
Voltage dividers can be used to allow a microcontroller to measure the resistance of
a sensor.[1] The sensor is wired in series with a known resistance to form a voltage
divider and a known voltage is applied across the divider. The microcontroller's
analog-to-digital converter is connected to the center tap of the divider so that it
can measure the tap voltage and, by using the measured voltage and the known
resistance and voltage, compute the sensor resistance.
High voltage measurement
High voltage resistor divider probe.
A voltage divider can be used to scale down a very high voltage so that it can be
measured by a volt meter. The high voltage is applied across the divider and the
divider outputwhich has a lower voltage that is within the meter's input rangeis
measured by the meter. High voltage resistor divider probes designed specifically
for this purpose can be used to measure voltages up to 100 kV. Special high-voltage
resistors are used in such probes as they must be able to tolerate high input
voltages and, to produce accurate results, must have matched temperature
coefficients and very low voltage coefficients. Capacitive divider probes are typically
used for voltages above 100 kV, as the heat caused by power losses in resistor
divider probes at such high voltages could be excessive.
Level shifting
A voltage divider can be used as a level shifter to safely interface different circuits
which use different reference voltages. For example, an Arduino microcontroller
works at 5 V logic, while many sensors require 3.3 V logic. Directly interfacing the
Arduino with a 3.3 V sensor may cause permanent damage to the sensor. By using a

level shifter with a ratio of 3.3/5 resistor values on each pin connected to the
sensor, an Arduino board can safely communicate with the sensor.

Conclusion
I therefore conclude that by connecting varying values of resistors in a circuit,
you can produce specific voltages needed by specific parts of the circuit. This also
implies that the larger the resistor, the lower the voltage it will output, and vice
versa. On the other hand, the current remains constant though out the circuit in a
series configuration. For the parallel on the other hand, we just need to apply the
rules of parallel and series circuits to obtain the current and then proceed to the
calculations for the voltage divider.
I also conclude that each individual resistors have their own individual
voltages. Hence, there is a ratio between the resistance value of the resistors to the
voltage in the whole circuit, or the input voltage.

Refferences:
https://www.gossenmetrawatt.com/english/ugruppe/multimeters.htm
http://www.lucasnuelle.ae/index.php/fuseaction/download/lrn_file/bedienungsanleitung_unitrain_i_en.
pdf
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/voldiv.html
https://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/mastascu/eLessonsHTML/Resist/Resist3.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_divider