- Voltage drop calculation: voltage change during drive start
- Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks
- Shunt Capacitors
- 30917947 Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks
- Harmonic Filter Design
- Reactive Power Compensation
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power Supply
- Extra High Voltage Ac
- Static FC/TCR compensator
- Electrical-Design-A-Good-Practice-Guide
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalance
- Reactive Power Compensation
- Voltage Dip Immunity of Equipment and Installations
- Measuring earth resistance
- Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor
- Siemens Power Engineering Guide
- Protection Manual for Precommissioning-6
- Lightning Protection Guide
- Short Circuit Calculations
- Wind Power Integration - Connection and System Operational Aspects (Iet Power and Energy)
- Short Circuit Calculation
- High Voltage Breakers
- Capacitor Bank
- TL Compensation
- ISEI 2010-Diagnostics Techniques of Power Transformers
- FINAL GIS
- Power System Harmonic Analysis (Jos Arrillaga Bruce Smith, Neville Watson & Alan Wood)
- Electric Cables Handbook 3rd Ed - C. Moore Black Well, 1997) WW
- @Practical Guide to Electrical Grounding, 1st Edition, 1999
- Current Transformer f2
- Energy Management Self Assessment
- Ventilation & Air Conditioning
- Energy Efficiency in the Food and Beverages Industry
- Integrated Home Systems Course: Flexible electrical installations for more functionality
- The maintenance manager's guide to circuit protection
- Environmental Performance in Low Carbon Electricity Systems
- Power Quality Control In An Industrial Estate
- State-of-the-art safety circuits likely to stop functioning during a fire. Proper methodology for cable selection and sizing provides solution.
- Electrical Safety in the Home
- Intelligent E-Transportation Management
- Voltage Dip Immunity of Equipment and Installations
- Insulation & Heating
- Measuring earth resistance
- Dementia and Technology
- Inspection of Electrical Installations in Homes
- Low Carbon Electricity System
- Housing for the elderly – a guide to best practice
- One Step to Citizenship
- Energy Efficient Motor Systems
- Static FC/TCR compensator
- Energy Efficiency in Hotels
- Power Quality for Healthcare Facilities
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power Supply
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalance
- Energy Efficient Distribution Transformers
- Retail sector suffers from power disturbances
- Slum Electrification and Loss Reduction Brazil Case Study
- No electric power, no media power
- Renewables Support Schemes and Grid Integration Policies
- Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor

Power Quality

Krzysztof Piatek

AGH-University of Science & Technology

Centralised reactive power compensation in case of harmonic pollution

I (n)

n X tr

Xc n

Power Quality

Power Quality

http://www.leonardo-energy.org

Problem

A 400V switchboard is fed from the transformer with rated power SN=400kVA and short-circuit voltage e%=4.5%. The switchboard supplies loads with total active power ranging from P=190 kW to 208kW and a power factor varying from 0.62 to 0.68. The load current is distorted; maximum values of harmonic currents are given in the table below. n I(n) [A] 5 10 7 7.14 11 5.13 13 4.1

Determine the maximum and minimum compensator power in order to compensate reactive power to the power factor value of 0.92. Check the voltage distortion is maintained within allowed limits and calculate the series reactor impedance, if needed. For the purpose of this calculation the power system short-circuit capacity, resistances of components and compensator active power losses can be neglected. Assume the supply voltage is non-distorted.

**Reactive power compensation
**

The reactive power needed to compensate a load can be calculated from the reactive power balance. As the active power does not change in result of compensation, the following formula can be used Qk = P ( tan ϕn − tan ϕ d ) where: Qk – reactive power necessary for compensation; P – the load active power; tanϕn – non-compensated tangent value; tanϕd – tangent value that should be achieved by the compensation. As the active power varies also the power factor and the load reactive power are variable. Since there is no information on the correlation between the power factor and the active power, we shall assume extreme cases and calculate both the maximum and minimum compensating power for the given tangent value. The maximum power is drawn at the maximum active power and the maximum difference between tangent values, i.e. at the minimum power factor of 0.62. Correspondingly, the minimum power occurs for the minimum active power and maximum power factor 0.68. Therefore, we obtain Qk ,min =190 (1.078 − 0.426 ) =123.93 kVAr Qk ,max = 208 (1.265 − 0.426 ) =174.61 kVAr Thus the compensator reactive power has a certain constant value of Qst = 123,93 kVAr, whereas the regulation range is Qreg = 50,61 kVAr. Since the load current is distorted, there is a possibility a resonance may occur. Moreover, neglecting the resistance implies that attenuation introduced by certain elements will not be taken into account. It should be noted that harmonic currents values are small compared to the 400 kVA transformer rated current. For high harmonic frequencies the transformer, capacitor bank and the load form a parallel circuit as shown in figure below.

I (n)

n X tr

Xc n

Where: I(n) – n-th harmonic source current; Xtr – the transformer reactance calculated for the first harmonic; Xc – the compensator reactance the first harmonic; n – relative frequency (with respect to the fundamental — a harmonic order).

2

**Centralised reactive power compensation in case of harmonic pollution
**

http://www.leonardo-energy.org

In this case the equivalent impedance (actually the reactance, assuming the resistance is neglected) is −nX X Z z (n)= 2 c tr n X tr − X c The resonance conditions are related to the zeros of the numerator or denominator. For positive values of circuit components only the numerator can become zero. This occurs for n2 X tr = X c and is the condition of a parallel resonance; the resonance frequency is nr = Xc X tr U2 Qk ,max U2 Qk ,max 400 147.61⋅103 400 123.93⋅103

The reactance values can be determined from simple formulas: X c ,min = X c ,max = X tr = = = 0.916 Ω =1.291 Ω

=

e% U 2 400 = 0.045⋅ =18 mΩ 100 Str 400⋅103

As the compensator reactive power varies also its reactance does and, consequently, the resonance frequency is varying. Substituting the above values we determine the maximum and minimum resonance frequency: • • nr, max = 8.47 nr, min = 7.13 for Qr, min, Xr, max for Q r, max, X r, min

Since the 7th harmonic is present in the load current, a resonance can occur when the capacitor bank is loaded with maximum power. This will result in an increase in the 7th harmonic current and, consequently, significant voltage distortion at the point of common coupling (at the switchboard bus-bars). In order to check whether the capacitor bank operation is possible under such conditions, the maximum total harmonic voltage distortion THD should be calculated. The resonance will obviously occur at the frequency nr equal 7.13, i.e. for the capacitor maximum reactive power. Knowing maximum harmonic current values, the voltage drops and hence the voltage THD can be calculated. The table below shows the values calculated for each harmonic. n I(n) [A] Z(n) [Ω] U(n) [V] 5 10 0.177 1.768 7 7.14 3.365 24.03 11 5.13 0.144 0.738 13 4.1 0.1 0.414

Total harmonic voltage distortion THD can be determined from these values according to the definition THD=

∑U

UN (1)

2 (n)

⋅100%

where UN(1) – rms value of the phase voltage (the first harmonic); U(n) – rms value of the n-th harmonic voltage drop. The calculated value of total harmonic distortion THD will be 1.7682 + 24.032 + 0.7082 + 0.414 2 ⋅100% =10.48% 230 This value exceeds the limit of 8% set forth in standard EN 50160 with regard to low voltage. Such high a voltage distortion occurs only at the maximum capacitor bank power, therefore either the power needs to be reduced or a series reactor should be connected. THD=

3

Power Quality

http://www.leonardo-energy.org

**Voltage harmonics suppression
**

Connecting a series reactor creates conditions for series resonance. The equivalent circuit for this case is shown in figure below.

I (n) n X tr

n Xd

Xc n

Where Xd – is the reactance of the series reactor. The equivalent impedance of this circuit is Z z (n)= n2 ( X tr + X d )− X c nX tr (n2 X d − X c )

Two options are possible when the numerator or denominator equals zero. The nominator becomes zero if the relationship n2 X d − X c = 0 is satisfied, which is the condition of series resonance. If the resonance frequency is known the reactor reactance can be calculated from Xd = Xc

2 ns

For the denominator we obtain the relationship n2 ( X tr + X d )− X c = 0 which is the condition of parallel resonance. The resonance frequency is nr = Xc X tr + X d

It should be noted that the parallel resonance frequency has been shifted toward lower frequencies compared to that of the circuit without the series reactor. Therefore, when choosing the reactor the series resonance frequency should be selected to match the lowest harmonic present — in this case the 5th. Choosing the series resonance frequency for e.g. the 7th harmonic will shift the parallel resonance frequency towards the 5th harmonic. This may increase the voltage distortion compared to that of the circuit without the reactor. As an example, choosing the reactor for the 7th harmonic and using the values given in this problem, we obtain Xd = Xc

2 ns

=

0.919 72

=18.55 mΩ

But the parallel resonance will occur for the frequency nr = Xc = 4.99 X tr + X d

**and, in consequence, the voltage distortion THD will be approximately 146%.
**

4

**Centralised reactive power compensation in case of harmonic pollution
**

http://www.leonardo-energy.org

Therefore the reactor shall be chosen for the frequency equal to the 5th harmonic. Then we obtain Xd = Xc

2 ns

=

0.919 52

= 36.76 mΩ

The parallel resonance frequency will vary within the range nr ,max = 4.86 nr ,min = 4.09 It is thus sufficiently far from the current harmonics (namely the 5th harmonic). Now we calculate the maximum voltage distortion THD which will occur for the minimum compensator power, i.e. at the resonant frequency 4.86. The calculations are tabulated below: n I(n) Z(n) U(n) Total voltage distortion THD is THD= 4.482 + 0.3272 + 0.62 + 0.5922 ⋅100% =1.99% 230 5 10 0.448 4.48 7 7.14 0.046 0.327 11 5.13 0.117 0.6 13 4.1 0.144 0.592

which is far below the admissible value. The graph of the modulus of impedance versus frequency is shown in figure 1b. The correct selection of the compensator components, i.e. the capacitors and reactor, requires determining their operating conditions. The current in the compensator branch can be found employing Kirchhoff current law. If ( n ) = I( n ) n2 ( X tr + X d )− X c n2 X tr

where: I(n) – rms n-th harmonic current, Xd, Xtr, Xc – components reactances for the fundamental harmonic. The fundamental harmonic current we calculate from the formula: If (1) = U 3 ( Xc − Xd ) = 262.53 A

5

Power Quality

http://www.leonardo-energy.org

The worst-case calculation results are tabulated below n I(n) If(n) 5 10 59.81 7 7.14 4.54 11 5.13 2.1 13 4.1 1.57

The rms current value we calculate from the formula: RMS = This yields: RMS = 262.532 + 59.812 + 4.54 2 + 2.12 +1.572 = 269.31 A This value should be smaller than the admissible current value Irms =1.8⋅ICN where ICN is the rated capacitor current. The capacitor voltage increase can be found from the Kirchhof voltage law, or using the calculated values of the compensator branch current. Thus we obtain: n If(n) XC(n) UC(n) 5 59.81 0.183 10.94 7 4.54 0.131 0.59 11 2.1 0.083 0.17 13 1.57 0.07 0.11

∑I

2 (n)

From the voltage divider the capacitor fundamental harmonic voltage rms value is UC (1) = Xc U = 416.67 V Xc − Xd

which yields the rms value: RMS = 240.562 +10.94 2 + 0.592 + 0.172 + 0.112 = 240.81 V This value should be less than the maximum permissible continuous voltage, determined as UC ,rms <1.2UCN where UCN – the rated capacitor voltage. The peak capacitor voltage is determined from the formula MAX = This yields

∑U

(n)

MAX = 240.56 +10.94 + 0.59 + 0.17 + 0.11= 252.37 V This value should be less than the maximum permissible peak voltage, which is UC ,max <1.1UCN Using these parameters we can specify the size and type of capacitors and reactors appropriate for the given compensator requirements.

This publication is subject to copyright and a disclaimer. Please refer to the Leonardo ENERGY website.

6

- Voltage drop calculation: voltage change during drive startCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor BanksCargado porARVIND
- Shunt CapacitorsCargado porapi-3845081
- 30917947 Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor BanksCargado porweikotoRC
- Harmonic Filter DesignCargado porsry20780
- Reactive Power CompensationCargado porSyed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power SupplyCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Extra High Voltage AcCargado porLuis Vasquez Restrepo
- Static FC/TCR compensatorCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Electrical-Design-A-Good-Practice-GuideCargado porAnonymous xX7na2J
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalanceCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Reactive Power CompensationCargado pormohdnaveed
- Voltage Dip Immunity of Equipment and InstallationsCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Measuring earth resistanceCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motorCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Siemens Power Engineering GuideCargado porteamlc
- Protection Manual for Precommissioning-6Cargado porsupermannon
- Lightning Protection GuideCargado porGeFi
- Short Circuit CalculationsCargado pormomilitante_enexph
- Wind Power Integration - Connection and System Operational Aspects (Iet Power and Energy)Cargado porjimmiilong
- Short Circuit CalculationCargado porbhoirsandeep
- High Voltage BreakersCargado porAnonymous u0wETydF
- Capacitor BankCargado porE.Avinash
- TL CompensationCargado porlam9021
- ISEI 2010-Diagnostics Techniques of Power TransformersCargado porAli Naderian
- FINAL GISCargado poreliaseee
- Power System Harmonic Analysis (Jos Arrillaga Bruce Smith, Neville Watson & Alan Wood)Cargado porAngel Pm
- Electric Cables Handbook 3rd Ed - C. Moore Black Well, 1997) WWCargado porSDumas
- @Practical Guide to Electrical Grounding, 1st Edition, 1999Cargado porcyong7788
- Current Transformer f2Cargado porMohammedSaadaniHassani

- Energy Management Self AssessmentCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Ventilation & Air ConditioningCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Energy Efficiency in the Food and Beverages IndustryCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Integrated Home Systems Course: Flexible electrical installations for more functionalityCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- The maintenance manager's guide to circuit protectionCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Environmental Performance in Low Carbon Electricity SystemsCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Power Quality Control In An Industrial EstateCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- State-of-the-art safety circuits likely to stop functioning during a fire. Proper methodology for cable selection and sizing provides solution.Cargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Electrical Safety in the HomeCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Intelligent E-Transportation ManagementCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Voltage Dip Immunity of Equipment and InstallationsCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Insulation & HeatingCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Measuring earth resistanceCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Dementia and TechnologyCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Inspection of Electrical Installations in HomesCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Low Carbon Electricity SystemCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Housing for the elderly – a guide to best practiceCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- One Step to CitizenshipCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Energy Efficient Motor SystemsCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Static FC/TCR compensatorCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Energy Efficiency in HotelsCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Power Quality for Healthcare FacilitiesCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power SupplyCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalanceCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Energy Efficient Distribution TransformersCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Retail sector suffers from power disturbancesCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Slum Electrification and Loss Reduction Brazil Case StudyCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- No electric power, no media powerCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Renewables Support Schemes and Grid Integration PoliciesCargado porHans De Keulenaer
- Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motorCargado porHans De Keulenaer