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Unit: Properties of Matter

A. Content Outline: States of Matter (2.5)


I.

Definitions:
A. Solid any substance with definite shape and volume.
B. Liquid any substance with definite volume but no definite shape.
C. Gas any substance with no definite shape or volume

II. Kinetic Energy (energy of motion) of Each State:


A. Solid particles vibrate in fixed positions. Solid particles have a low kinetic energy.
B. Liquid particles are able to move past each other, allowed to move more than a
solid. Liquid particles have a higher kinetic energy than a solid.
C. Gas particles move randomly. Gas particles have the highest kinetic energy.
III. Changes in State:
A. Melting going from a solid to a liquid. Must have an increase in energy. They
absorb energy. This is an endothermic process.
B. Freezing going from a liquid to a solid. Must have a decrease in energy. They
release energy. This is an exothermic process.
C. Boiling going from a liquid to a gas below the liquids surface. Must have an
increase in energy. This is an endothermic process.
D. Evaporation going from a liquid to a gas at the liquids surface. Still must have
an increase in energy and is endothermic.
E. Sublimation going from a solid to a gas. Requires an increase in energy and is
endothermic.
F. Condensation going from a gas to a liquid. Requires a decrease in energy,
energy is released and is exothermic.
IV. Thermal Energy/Heat/Temperature:
A. Thermal Energy the total amount of kinetic and potential energy of an object.
B. Heat the movement of thermal energy from hot to cold. Heat always moves from
hot to cold.
C. Temperature the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object.

Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created or destroyed;


but only transferred or transformed.

Unit : Properties of Matter


B. Content Outline: Physical & Chemical Properties and Changes (2.6)

1) Physical Property:
a. Definitions a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without
changing its identity.
b. Examples of Physical Properties: Changes in state, hardness, texture, color,
solubility, __________, __________.
c. Size dependent properties properties that depend on the amount of the object, ex.
Length, width, height, volume, and mass.
d. Size independent properties properties that are independent of the amount of the
object, ex. Density, color, state, temperature.
2) Chemical Property:
a. Definition: a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change
into another substance change its identity.
b. Examples: Burning (combustion), ____________, tarnishing.
3) Physical Change:
a. Definition: a change that results in a change in appearance or form but not identity.
b. Example: change in state, bending, crushing, breaking, ____________
4) Chemical Change:
a. Definition: a change that results in a change in the identity of a substance.
b. Example: burning, cooking, _____________.
c. Chemical reaction is a change in matter that produces one or more new substances.
d. Chemical changes occur when bonds (attractions that holds compounds together)
break and new bonds form.
e. Evidence of chemical changes: formation of a new substance and a change in
energy.
i. Formation of a precipitate (solid formed from two solutions)
ii. Change in color
iii. Production of a gas bubbles or odor
iv. Change in heat or light
1. Endothermic reaction energy is absorbed, feels colder to touch
(Endo = in to)
2. Exothermic reaction energy is released, feels hotter to touch. (Exo
= out of)
VI. Density
A. This is the amount of matter within a given amount of space.
1. The amount of matter is measured in grams.
2. The volume is measured in cubic meters.
a. Cubic means (length X width X height) as atoms and objects are 3 dimensional.
B. Density is calculated with the following formula:
Density = Mass
Volume
VII. Radioactive Decay
-Some atoms have unstable nuclei. These atoms will emit various particles from their nuclei to
become more stable in a process called radioactive decay.
-They may also emit energy in these transitions. The time it takes for a sample to decay is
specific to the type of atom that is decaying.
-The amount of time it takes for one half of a radioactive sample to decay is called its half-life.