UPDATE
ACI, AA~ IBC 2009 Codes Version
~QIO A
cp
b,
o.:J L5
bv
bw
in. in a plane parallel to plane of reinforcement generating shear in the joint. The joint
depth shall be the overall depth of the column.
Where a beam frames into a support of larger
width, the effective width of the joint shall not
exceed the smaller of:
(a) beam width plus the joint depth
(b) twice the smaller perpendicular distan ce
from the longitudinal axis of the beam to
the column side.
total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion, in. 2
A 0h
Nuc'
in.
column, capital, or bracket measured transverse to the direction of the span for which
moments are being determined, in.
centroid of tension reinforcement, in.
d'
treme tension fiber to center of bar or wire located closest thereto, in.
dP
Ec
Es
Eps
= area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting torforcement (stirrup or tie) within a spacing s
and perpendicular to plane of bars being
spliced or developed, in. 2
Av
Avh
b0
de
Av
c2
strand, in.
A,
column, capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the span for which moments are
being determined, in.
db
zone, in. 2
A's
Aps
c1
A0
An
ment.
fer
f~, =
V f~
required average compressive strength of concrete used as the basis for selection of concrete proportions, psi.
of concrete, psi.
f~; =
V f~;
/,,
f,
;
fy
yt
h
I
lb
fer
le
Ig
Kb
Kc
Kec
Ks
K1
ldh
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Nu
= facto red axial load normal to cross section occurring simultaneously with Vu; to be taken as
positive for compression, negative for tension,
and to include effects of tension due to creep
and shrinkage.
Nuc
Pb
ity.
Pcp
Ph
Vs
Vu
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
A Fundamental Approach
Edward G. Nawy
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River Boston Columbus San Francisco New York
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Abow rhe Cover: The new T35W bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Designed for the Minnesota Departmem of Transportation by FTGG, this new bridge incorpora tes aesthetics selccted by the communy using a theme of "ArchesWaterRelection" to complement the sitc across tbe Mississipi Ri ver. Curved, 70' tall concrete piers meet thc swceping parabolic arch of the 504' precast, prcstresscd concre te main span ovcr thc river to create a modern bridge. Tbc new 10lane
intcrstalc bridge was constructcd by FlatironManson, N and opcned to traffic on September 18, 2008. The bridge was
dcsigned and buill in l l months. The bridge incorporales the first use of LED highway lighting, the frst major use in the
Unitcd States of nanotechnology cernen! that cleans the air (gateway sculptures) and "smart bridge" technology with 323
sensors embedded lhroughout thc concrete to provide valuable data for the future. The photograph of the new I35W
bridge is courtcsy of FlGG.
Copyright 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1996, 1989 by Pearson Education, lnc., Upper Saddle River, New J ersey 07458. AlJ
rights rcserved. Manufacrurcd in the United States of Amcrica. This publication is protected by Copyright and
pcrmissions should be obtaincd from thc publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storagc in a rctrieval system,
or transmissioo in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, pho tocopying, recording, or likewise.
To obtain pcrmission(s) to use matcrials frorn this work, pleasc submit a written request to Pearson Higher Education.
Pcrmissions Department, l Lakc Strcet, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
The au thor and publishcr of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. Thcsc cfforts include the
dcvclopment. research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their efectiveness. Thc author and
publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or the documentation
contained in this book. Thc author and publisher shall not be liablc in any event for incidental or consequential
damages in connection with, or arising out of. the furnishing, performance. or the use of thesc programs.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Nawy, Edward G.
Prcstressed concrete: a fundamental app roach I Edward G. Nawy. 5th ed.
p. cm.
ISBN 0136081509
1. Prestressed concrete. l. Title.
T A683.9.N39 2009
624. l '83412dc22
2009024405
Prentice Hall
is an imprint of

l09 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
PEARSON
www.pearsonhlghered.com
ISBN13: 9780136081500
0136081509
ISBN10:
To
Rachel E. Nawy
For her highlimit state of stress endurance over the years,
which made the writing of this book in its severa/ editions a reality.
CONTENTS
PREFACE
BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
xix
1
lntroduction 1
1.1.1 Comparison with Reinforced Concrete 2
1.1.2 Economics of Prestressed Concrete 4
Historical Development of Prestressing 5
Basic Concepts of Prestressing 7
1.3.1 lntroduction 7
1.3.2 Basic Concept Method 1O
1.3.3 CLine Method 12
1.3.4 LoadBalancing Method 15
Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method
CLine Computation of Fiber Stresses 21
LoadBalancing Computation of Fiber Stresses 22
SI Working Stress Concepts 23
Selected References 28
Problems 28
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
Concrete 31
2.1.1 lntroduction 31
2.1.2 Parameters Affecting the Quality of Concrete 31
2.1.3 Properties of Hardened Concrete 32
StressStrain Curve of Concrete 36
Modulus of Elasticity and Change in Compressive Strength with Time
2.3.1 HighStrength Concrete 38
2.3.2 lnitial Compressive Strength and Modulus 39
Creep 43
2.4.1 Effects of Creep 45
2.4.2 Rheologial Models 45
Shrinkage 48
Nonprestressing Reinforcement 50
Prestressing Reinforcement 53
2.7.1 Types of Reinforcement 53
2.7.2 StressRelieved and LowRelaxation Wires and Strands 54
2.7.3 HighTensileStrength Prestressing Bars 55
2.7.4 Steel Relaxation 56
2.7.5 Corrosion and Deterioration of Strands 58
19
31
36
vii
Contents
viii
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
73
lntroduction 73
Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) 75
3.2.1 Pretensioned Elements 75
3.2.2 PostTensioned Elements 78
Steel Stress Relaxation (R) 78
3.3.1 Relaxation Loss Computation 80
3.3.2 AClASCE Method of Accounting for Relaxation Loss 80
Creep Loss (GR) 80
3.4.1 Computation of Creep Loss 82
Shrinkage Loss (SH) 83
3.5.1 Computation of Shrinkage Loss 84
Losses Dueto Friction (F) 85
3.6.1 Curvature Effect 85
3.6.2 Wobble Effect 86
3.6.3 Computation of Friction Loss 87
AnchorageSeating Losses (A) 88
3.7.1 Computation of AnchorageSeating Loss 89
Change of Prestress Due to Bending of a Member (Mp8 ) 90
StepbyStep Computation of Ali TimeDependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 90
StepbyStep Computation of Ali TimeDependent Losses in a PostTensioned Beam 96
LumpSum Computation of TimeDependent Losses in Prestress 99
SI Prestress Loss Expressions 100
13.12.1 SI Prestress Loss Example 101
Selected References 104
Problems 105
lntroduction 106
Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components
4.2.1 General Guidelines 108
4.2.2 Minimum Section Modulus 108
108
Contents
ix
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.1 O
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
Contents
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.1 O
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
223
lntroduction 223
Behavior of Homogeneous Beams in Shear 224
Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections 227
Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 228
5.4.1 Modes of Failure of Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 229
5.4.2 Flexura! Failure [F] 229
5.4.3 Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexure Shear, FS] 229
5.4.4 Shear Compression Failure [Web Shear, WS] 231
Shear and Principal Stresses in Prestressed Beams 232
5.5.1 FlexureShear Strength [Ve] 233
5.5.2 WebShear Strength [ Vewl 236
5.5.3 Controlling Values of Vei and Vew for the Determination of Web Concrete
Strength Ve 237
WebShear Reinforcement 238
5.6.1 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy 238
5.6.2 Web Steel Resistance 238
5.6.3 Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups 241
Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction 242
5.7.1 ServiceLoad Level 242
5.7.2 UltimateLoad Level 243
5.7.3 Design of CompositeAction Dowel Reinforcement 245
Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear 246
Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of DowelAction Vertical Steel
in Composite Sections 249
Dowel Steel Design for Composite Action 250
Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an lnverted TBeam 251
Shear Strength and WebShear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam 253
WebShear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures 256
Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double TBeam 259
Brackets and Corbels 263
5.15.1 Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels 264
5.15.2 Horizontal Externa! Force Effect 266
5.15.3 Sequence of Corbel Design Steps 269
5.15.4 Design of a Bracket or Corbel 270
5.15.5 SI Expressions for Shear in Prestressed Concrete Beams 272
5.15.6 SI Shear Design of Prestressed Beams 27 4
Torsional Behavior and Strength 278
5.16.1 lntroduction 278
5.16.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements 279
Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 284
5.17 .1 SkewBending Theory 285
5.17 .2 Space Truss Analogy Theory 287
5.17 .3 Compression Field Theory 289
5.17.4 Plasticity Equilibrium Truss Theory 293
5.17.5 Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Shear,
and Bending in Accordance with the ACI 31808 Code 298
5.17.6 SlMetric Expressions for Torsion Equations 303
Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear 304
Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear
in Prestressed Beams 308
Contents
xi
5.20
5.21
INDETERMINATE PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 340
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
lntroduction 340
Disadvantages of Continuity in Prestressing 341
Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams 341
Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity 344
6.4.1 lntroduction 344
6.4.2 Support Displacement Method 344
6.4.3 Equivalent Load Method 347
Examples lnvolving Continuity 347
6.5.1 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of CLine for Draped Tendons 347
6.5.2 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of CLine for Harped Tendons 352
Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons 354
6.6.1 Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem 355
6.6.2 Concordance Hypotheses 358
Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure of Continuous Beams 358
6. 7 .1 General Considerations 358
6.7.2 Moment Redistribution 361
Tendon Profile Envelope and Modifications 362
Tendon and CLine Location in Continuous Beams 362
Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity 373
Design for Continuity Using Nonprestressed Steel at Support 378
lndeterminate Frames and Portals 379
6.12.1 General Properties 379
6.12.2 Forces and Moments in Portal Frames 382
6.12.3 Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames 386
6.12.4 Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame 389
Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 401
6.13.1 Method of lmposed Rotations 402
6.13.2 Determination of Plastic Hinge Rotations in Continuous Beams 405
6.13.3 Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges 408
6.13.4 Calculation of Available Rotational Capacity 411
6.13.5 Check for Plastic Rotation Serviceability 412
6.13.6 Transverse Confining Reinforcement for Seismic Design 413
6.13.7 Selection of Confining Reinforcement 414
Selected References 415
Problems 417
1ntroduction
418
Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations
419
418
Contents
xii
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.1 O
7.11
7.12
7 .13
7.14
7 .15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21
lntroduction 500
Prestressed Compression Members: LoadMoment lnteraction in Columns
and Piles 501
Strength Reduction Factor cf> 507
Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Prestressed
Compression Members 508
500
xiii
Contents
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.1 O
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
8.17
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
554
535
xiv
Contents
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.1 O
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
10
10.6
10.7
10.8
11
lntroduction 632
Tolerances 633
Composite Members 633
Reinforced Concrete Bearing in Composite Members 634
10.4.1 Reinforced Bearing Design 638
DappedEnd Beam Connections 640
10.5.1 Determination of Reinforcement to Resist Failure 641
10.5.2 DappedEnd Beam Connection Design 644
Reinforced Concrete Brackets and Corbels 647
Concrete Beam Ledges 647
10.7.1 Design of Ledge Beam Connection 649
Selected Connection Details 651
Selected References 659
Problems 659
lntroduction 660
Design Principies and Procedures 661
11.2.1 Interna! Loads 661
11.2.2 Restraining Moment M0 and Radial Shear Force Q0 at Freely Sliding Wall Base Due
to Liquid Pressure 664
11.2.3 General Equations of Forces and Displacements 669
11.2.4 Ring Shear Q0 and Moment M0 Gas Containment 673
Contents
xv
Moment M0 and Ring Force 0 0 in Liquid Retaining Tank 67 4
Ring Force Oy at lntermediate Heights of Wall 676
Cylindrical Shell Membrane Coefficients 677
Prestressing Effects on Wall Stresses for Fully Hinged, Partially Sliding and Hinged,
Fully Fixed, and Partially Fixed Bases 679
11.6.1 Freely Sliding Wall Base 694
11.6.2 Hinged Wall Base 694
11.6.3 Partially Sliding and Hinged Wall Base 695
11.6.4 Fully Fixed Wall Base 695
11.6.5 Partially Fixed Wall Base 699
11.7
Recommended Practice for SituCast and Precast Prestressed Concrete Circular
Storage Tanks 704
11.7.1 Stresses 704
11.7.2 Required Strength Load Factors 705
11.7.3 Minimum WallDesign Requirements 706
11.8
Crack Control in Walls of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks 708
11.9
Tank Roof Design 708
11.9.1 Membrane Theory of Spherical Domes 709
11.1 O Prestressed Concrete Tanks with Circumferential Tendons 715
11.11 Seismic Design of Liquid Containment Tank Structures 715
11.12 StepbyStep Procedure for the Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks
and Dome Roofs 720
11.13 Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete WaterRetaining Tank
and lts Domed Roof 727
Selected References 7 40
Problems 7 41
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
12
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
750
xvi
Contents
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.1 O
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
13
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13. 7
854
Contents
xvii
13.8
13.9
13.1 O
13.11
13.12
13.13
13.14
13.15
943
PREFACE
XX
Preface
ACI 31808 Code requirements for ultimate load design, thereby producing a good feel
for the reserve strength and safety factors inherent in the design expressions. Chapter 4
in this edition contains the latest design procedure with numerical examples for the design of end anchorages of posttensioned members as required by the latest ACI and
AASHTO codes.
An extensive Chapter 5 presents, with design examples, the provisions on torsion
combined with shear and bending, which include a unified approach to the topic of torsion in reinforced and prestressed concrete members. SI Units examples are included in
the text in addition to having equivalent SI conversions for the major steps of examples
throughout the book. Additionally, a detailed theoretical discussion is presented on the
mechanisms of shear and torsion, the various approaches to the torsional problem and
the plastic concepts of the shear equilibrium and torsional equilibrium theories and their
interaction. A totally new section is added on the strutandtie modeling of forces in deep
beams and corbels, with detailed design examples as required by the latest ACI Code
provisions.
Furthermore, inclusion in this edition of design examples in SI Units anda listing of
the relevant equations in SI format extends the scope of the text to cover wider applications by the profession. In this manner, the student as well as the practicing engineer can
avail themselves with the tools for using either the lbin. (PI) system or the international
(SI) system.
Chapter 6 on indeterminate prestressed concrete structures covers in detail continuous prestressed beams as well as portal frames, consistent with the increased use of continuous members in bridge structures. Numerous detailed examples illustrate the use of
the basic concepts method, the Cline method, and the balancing method presented in
Chapter l. Chapter 7 discusses in detail the design for camber, deflection, and crack control, considering both short and longterm effects using three different approaches: the
PCI multipliers method, the detailed incremental time steps method, and the approximate time steps method. A stateoftheart discussion is presented, based on the author's
work, of the evaluation and control of flexura} cracking in partially prestressed beams.
Severa! design examples are included in the discussion. Chapter 8 covers the proportioning of prestressed compression and tension members, including the buckling behavior
and design of prestressed columns and piles and the PLi effect in the design of slender
columns.
Chapter 9 presents a thorough analysis of the service load behavior and yieldline
behavior of twoway action prestressed slabs and plates. The service load behavior utilizes, with extensive examples, the equivalent frame method of flexura! design (analysis)
and deflection evaluation. A detailed discussion is presented on the shearmoment transfer at column support section in twoway action prestressed concrete plates, and on deflection of twoway plates. Extensive coverage is presented of the yieldline failure
mechanisms of all the usual combinations of loads on floor slabs and boundary conditions, including the design expressions for these various conditions. Chapter 10 on connections for prestressed concrete elements covers the design of connections for
dappedend beams, ledge beams, and bearing, in addition to the design of the beams and
corbels presented in Chapter 5 on shear and torsion. It is revised to accommodate the
new load and strength reduction factors required in the ACI 31808 Code.
This book is also unique in that Chapter 11 gives a detailed account of the analysis
and design of prestressed concrete tanks and their shell roofs. Presented are the basics of
the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical shells for use in the design of prestressed concrete tanks for the various wall boundary conditions of fixed, semifixed,
hinged, and sliding wall bases, as well as the incorporation of vertical prestressing, using
wrapped wires as well as tendons. Chapter 11 also discusses the theory of axisymmetrical
shells and domes that are used in the design of domed roofs for circular tanks.
Preface
xxi
The extensive Chapter 12, added to the previous edition, has been updated to accommodate the latest LRFD and Standard AASHTO 2009 specifications far the design
of prestressed bridge deck girders far flexure, shear, torsion, and serviceability, including
the design of anchorage blocks. Several extensive examples are given using bulbtees and
box girder sections. It also includes the AASHTO requirements far truck and lane loadings and load combinations as stipulated both by the LRFD and the Standard specifications.
Chapter 13, dealing with the seismic design of prestressed precast structures in high
seismicity zones, has been updated based on the new ACI 31808 and the significantly
modified International Building Code, IBC 2009, on seismic design of reinfarced and
prestressed concrete structures. It contains several design examples and a detailed discussion of ductile momentresistant connections in highrise buildings and parking garages
in high seismicity zones. A unique approach far the design of such ductile connections in
precast beamcolumn joints in highrise building structures was extended and updated to
confarm to the new load and strength reduction factors. It also contains examples of the
design of shear walls and hybrid connectionsall based on the state of the art in this
field.
Selected photographs involving various areas of the structural behavior of concrete
elements at failure are included in all the chapters. They are taken from research work
conducted and published by the author with many of his MS and PhD students at Rutgers University over the past faur decades. Additionally, photographs of sorne majar prestressed concrete landmark structures are included throughout the book to illustrate the
versatility of design in pretensioned and posttensioned prestressed concrete. Appendices have also been included, with monograms and tables on standard properties, sections and charts of flexural and shear evaluation of sections, as well as representative
tables far selecting sections such as PCI doubletees, PCI/AASHTO bulbtees, box
girder and AASHTO standard sections far bridge decks. Conversion to SI metric units is
included in the examples throughout most chapters of the book.
In summary, the tapies of this updated fifth edition of the book have been presented in as concise a manner as possible without sacrificing the need far instructional
details. The majar portions of the text can be used without difficulty and equally in an advanced senior level and at the graduate level far any student who has had a prior course
in reinfarced concrete. The contents should also serve as a valuable guideline far the
practicing engineer who has to keep abreast of the stateoftheart in prestressed concrete and the latest provisions of the ACI 31808 Building Code and PCI Standards,
AASHTO 2009 Standards, and the International Building Code (IBC 2009), as well as
the designer who seeks a concise treatment of the fundamentals of linear and circular
prestressing.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Preface
xxii
using this textbook since 1988 in major universities in the United States and their valuable comments, and to the engineers worldwide who have adopted this book as a standard reference on the uptodate analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures.
Acknowledgment is also made to the many experts who reviewed the manuscript of
the first edition including Professors Carl E. Ekberg of Iowa State University; Thomas T.
C. Hsu of the University of Houston; Daniel P. Jenny, formerly of the PCI; and Clifford
L. Freyrmuth, formerly of the PTI. Thanks are also due to Robert M. Nawy, BA, BS,
MBA, Rutgers Engineering class of 1983, who assisted in the work on the first edition,
and to Engineer Gregg Romano, MS Rutgers 1999, for his contribution to the last edition's Chapter 12 on LRFD design of bridge decks. For the third edition of this book,
particular thanks are dueto Professor Thomas Hsu for again reviewing the revised portions on torsional theory and examples and the shear LRFD section; Professor Alex
Aswad of Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg for his valuable input on precast
shear walls in seismic regions; George Nasser, formerly EditorinChief, and Paul Johal,
Research Director, both of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, for their support;
Mr. Khalid Shawwaf, Vice PresidentEngineering, Dywidag Systems International, for
his cooperation and advice; and Dr. Robert E. Englekirk, President, Englekirk Consulting Engineers, and Visiting Professor at the Universities of California, Los Angeles, and
San Diego, for his extensive input, discussions and advice on the subject of ductile
momentresisting frame connections in high sesimicity zones. Thanks also go to Ms.
Linda Figg, President and CEO, FIGG Bridge Engineers, for her input into this and previous editions of this book.
Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the Prentice Hall officers and staff: Marcia Horton, Vice President and Editorial Director, and Vincent O'Brien, Director of
TeamBased Project Management, who both have given me continuous encouragement
and support over the years; Holly Stark, Senior Engineering Editor, for her cooperation
in processing this updated version; Scott Disanno, Senior Managing Editor, for his continuous guidance in the successful and prompt production of the book; Jane Bonnell,
Production Liaison, for her coordinating efforts; Bruce Kenselaar, of the Prentice Hall
Art Department, for his admirable artwork on the book cover for this and prior editions
of the textbook; and Patty Donovan, Senior Project Coordinator, Laserwords Maine, for
commendable efforts over the years in bringing to fruition the several editions of this
book. Last but not least, the author is grateful to Mayrai Gindy, Nakin Suksawang, and
James Giancastro, all PhD, Rutgers, for their assistance in the fifth edition, and to Joseph
Davis, PhD, Rutgers, for his past help and diligent computational and processing work in
the new sections of this edition.
EDWARD
G.
NAWY
Rutgers University
The State University of New Jersey
Piscataway, New Jersey
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension: its tensilc strenglh varies from 8
to 14 perccnt of ils compressive strength. Due to such a low tcnsile capacity. tlexural
cracks develop at early slages of loading. In order to reduce or prevent such cracks from
devcloping, a conccnlric or eccentric force is imposed in lhc longitudinal direction of the
structural ciernen t. This force prevents the cracks from dcvcloping by climinating or considerably reducing thc tensile stresses at the critica! midspan and support scctions at service load, thcreby raising lhe bending, sbear, and torsional capacities of thc sectioos. Tbe
sections are then a ble lo behave elastically, and almosl lhc full capacity of lhe concrete in
comprcssion can be efficiently utilized across lhe entire dcpth of the concrete sections
whcn ali loads act on the structure.
Such an imposed longitudinal force is called a prestressing force, i.e., a compressive
force that prestresses the sections along the span of the structural element prior to the
application of the Lransverse gravily dead and live loads or transienl horizontal live loads.
Thc lype of prestressing force involved, together with its magnilude, are determined
mainly on the basis of the type of system to be constructed and the span length and slenderncss dcsired. Since the prestressing force is applied longitudinally along or parallel to
The Diamond Baseball Stadium. Richmond, Virginia. Situ cast and precast posttensioned prestressed structure. (Courresy, Prestressed Concrete Tnslitutc.)
1
Individual
blocks
o:c='~~~!
L=LI_.l__,_____=J=:====:==,I
__.__...__ =:==j~
.;...,...p
=
=' ..L_=r
fe
Longitudina1
prestressing
force
fe
Sec. C
Elevation
Sec. A, B
(b)
(a)
staves
pressure
Metal
bands
A wooden barre!
(e)
(d)
(e)
Figure 1.1 Prestressing principie in linear and circular prestressing. (a) Linear
prestressing of a series of blocks to form a beam. (b) Compressive stress on
midspan section C and end section A or B. (c) Circular prestressing of a wooden
barrel by tensioning the metal bands. (d) Circular hoop prestress on one wooden
stave. (e) Tensile force Fon half of metal band dueto interna! pressure, to be balanced by circular hoop prestress.
the axis of the member, the prestressing principie involved is commonly known as linear
prestressing.
Circular prestressing, used in liquid containment tanks, pipes, and pressure reactor
vessels, essentially follows the same basic principies as <loes linear prestressing. The circumferential hoop, or "hugging" stress on the cylindrical or spherical structure, neutralizes the tensile stresses at the outer fibers of the curvilinear surface caused by the interna!
contained pressure.
Figure 1.1 illustrates, in a basic fashion, the prestressing action in both types of
structural systems and the resulting stress response. In (a), the individual concrete blocks
act together as a beam due to the large compressive prestressing force P. Although it
might appear that the blocks will slip and vertically simulate shear slip failure, in fact they
will not because of the longitudinal force P. Similarly, the wooden staves in (c) might appear to be capable of separating as a result of the high interna! radial pressure exerted on
them. But again, because of the compressive prestress imposed by the metal bands as a
form of circular prestressing, they will remain in place.
1.1.1 Comparison with Reinforced Concrete
From the preceding discussion, it is plain that permanent stresses in the prestressed structural member are created befare the full dead and live loads are applied, in order to eliminate or considerably reduce the net tensile stresses caused by these loads. With
reinforced concrete, it is assumed that the tensile strength of the concrete is negligible
1.1 lntroduction
Photo 1.1 Bay Area Rapid Transit (BA RT). San Francisco and Oakland, California. Guideways consist of prestressed precast simplcspan box girders 70 ft long and
11 ft wide. (Courtesy, Bay Area Rapid Transit Districl, Oakland, California.)
and disregarded. This is because the tensile forces resulting from tbe bending moments
are resisted by the bond created in the reinforcement process. Cracking and delcction
are therefore essentially irrecoverable in reinforced concrete once thc mcmber has
reached its limit state at service load.
T he reinforcement in the renforced concrete member does not excrl any force of
its own on the member, contrary to tbe action of prestressing steel. Thc steel required to
produce the prestressing force in the prestressed mcmber actively preloads thc member,
permitting a relatively high controUed recovcry of cracking and deflection. Once the lex
Photo L3
tute.)
ural tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded, the prestressed member starts to act like
a reinforced concrete eJement.
By controlling tbe amount of prestress, a structural system can be made eitber flexible or rigid witbout inOuencing its strength. In reinforced concrete, such a flexibility in
behavior is considerably more difficuJt to achieve if considerations of economy are to be
observed in the design. Flexible structures such as fender piles in wbarves have to be
highly energy absorbent, and prestressed concrete can provide the required resiliency.
Structures designed to withstand beavy vibrations, sucb as machine foundations, caneasily be made rigid through the contribution of the prestressing force to the reduction of
their otherwise flexible deformation behavior.
1.1.2 Economics of Prestressed Concrete
Prestressed members are shaUower in deplh than their reinforced concrete counterparts
for the same span and loading conditions. In general, tbe depth o( a prestressed concrete
member is usuaJJy about 65 to 80 percent of Lhe depth of tbe equivaJent rein:forced concrete member. Hence, the prestressed member requires less concrete, and about 20 to 35
percent of the amount of reinforcement. Unfortunately, this saving in material weight is
balanced by the higher cost of tbe higber quaJity materiaJs needed in prestressing. Also,
regardless of the system used, prestressing operations themselves result in an added cost:
Formwork is more complex, since Lbe geometry of prestressed sections is usuaUy composed of flanged sections with thin webs.
In spite of these additional costs, if a large enougb number of precasl units are manufactured, tbe difference between at least the initial costs of prestressed and reinforced
concrete systems is usually not very large. And the indirect longterm savings are quite
substantial, beca use less maintenance is needed, a longer working life is possible dueto
better quality control of lhe concrete, and lightcr foundations are achievcd due to the
smaller cumulative weight of the superstructurc.
Once the beam span of reinforced concrete cxcecds 70 to 90 fect, thc dcad weight
beam becomes excessive. resulting in hcavicr members and. consequently, greater
the
of
longterm dcflcction and crackjng. Tbus. for largcr spans, prestressed concrete becomes
mandatory since arches are expensive to construct and do not perform as wcll c.lue to the
severe longtcrm shrinkage and creep they undcrgo. Very large spans such as segmcotal
bridges or cablestayed bridges can 011/y be constructcd through the use of prcstressing.
1.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESTRESSING
Prestressed concrete is noL a new concept, dating back to 1872. when P. 1 r. Jackson. an
engineer (rom California, patented a prestressing system that used a tie rod Lo construct
beams or arches from individual blocks. [Sec Figure 1.l(a).] In 1888, C. W. Ooehring of
Germany obtained a patent for prestressing slabs with me tal wires. But thcse early attempts al prestrcssing were not really succcssful bccause of the loss of thc prcstress with
time. J. Lund of Norway and G. R. Steiner of thc United States tricd early in thc twentietb century to solve this problem, but to no avail.
After a long lapse of tjme during which littlc progress was madc because of the unavailability of highstrength steel to overcomc prcstress losses, R. E. Dill of Alexandria,
Nebraska, recognized the effect of the shrinkage and creep (transverse material low) of
concrete on the loss of prestress. He subseq uently developed the idea that successive
posttensioning of 1111bonded rods would compensate for lhe timedepcndcnl loss of
stress in the rods due to the decrease in the lcngth of the mernber beca use of creep and
shrinkage. Ln thc carly l 920s, W. H. Hewetl of Minneapolis developed thc principies of
circular prcstressing. He hoopstressed horizontal reinforce ment arouncl walls of concrete tanks through the use of turnbuckles to prcvcnl cracking due lo interna! liquid pres
Photo 1.5
tute.)
sure, thereby achieving watertighteness. Thereafter, prestressing of tanks and pipes developed al an accelerated pace in the United States. with Lhousands of tanks of water. liquid, and gas storage buill and mucb mileage of prestressed pressurc pipe laid in the two
to three decades that followed.
Linear prestressing continued lo develop in Europe and in France, in particuJar
through the ingenuity of E ugene Freyssinet, who proposed in 1926 through 1928 methods
to overcome prestress losses through thc use of highstrength and highductility steels. ln
1940, be introduced the now wellknown and wellaccepted Freyssinet system comprising
tbe conical wedge anchor for 12wire tendons.
During World War ll and thereaftcr, it became necessary to reconstruct in a
prompt manner many of the main bridgcs that were destroyed by war activities. G. Magnel of Ghent, Bclgiurn, and Y. Guyon of Paris cxtensively developed and used the concept of prestressing for the design and construction of numerous bridgcs in western and
central Europe. The Magnel system also uscd wedges to anchor thc prestressing wires.
They differed from the original Freyssinet wedges in that tbey wcre lat in shape, accommodating the prestressing of two wires ata time.
P. W. A beles of England intToduced and developed the conccpl of partial prestressing between the l930s and 1960s. F. Leon hardt of Germany, V. Mikhailov of Russia, and
T. Y. Lin of the United States also contributcd a great <leal to the arl and scicnce of the
design of prestrcssed concrete. Lin's loadbalancing metbod descrvcs particular mention
in this regard, as it considerably simplified thc design process, particularly in continuous
structures. Thesc twenliethcentury developments have led to the extcnsive use of prestressing thro ughout the world, and in the Unitcd States in particular.
Photo 1.6 SLraord "B'. Condeep offshore ol drilling platform. Norway. (Courtesy, the late Ben C. Gerwick.)
Today, prestressed concrete is used in buildings. underground structurcs. TV towers, loating storage and offshore structures, power stations, nuclear reactor vessels, and
numerous types of bridge systems including segmenta! and cablestayed bridges. Note
the variety of prestressed structures in the photos throughout the book: they demonstrate
the versatility of the prestressing concept and its allencompassing applications. The success in the development and construction of ali these landmark structures has been due
in no small measure to Lhe advances in the technology of materia Is, particularly prestressing slecl, and the accumulated knowledge in estimating the short and longtenn losses in
the prcstressing forces.
The prestressing force P tbat satisfies the particular conditions of geometry and loading
of a given element (see Figure 1.2) is determined from the principies of mechanics aod of
stressstrain relatiooships. Sometimes simplification is necessary, as when a prestressed
beam is assumed to be homogeneous and elastic.
Consider, theo, a simply supported rectangular beam subjectcd to a concentric prestrcssing force P as shown io Figure l.2(a). Tbe compressive stress on the beam cross section is uniform and has an inteosity
Photo 1.7 Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa Bay. Florida. Designcd by Figg and
Muller Engineers, lnc.. the bridge has a 1,200ft cablestayed main span with a single pylon, 175ft vertical clearance, and total length of 21 ,878 ft. lt has twin 40ft
roadways and has 135ft spans in precast segmental sections and high approaches to
elevation + 130 ft. (Courtesy, Figg aod Muller Engineers, Jnc.. now FJGG Engineers)
f =
Ac
(1.1)
wbere Ac =bh is the crosssectional area of a beam section of width b and lota! depth h.
A minus sigo is used for compression and a plus sign for tension throughout the text.
Also, bending moments are drawn on tbe tensile side of the member.
If externa! transverse loads are applied to tbe beam. causing a maximum moment
M at midspan, the resulting stress becomes
(l.2a)
and
(1.2b)
wbere
Equation l.2b indicates that lhe presence of prestressingcompressive stress  PIA is reducing tbe tensile flexura[ stress Mdf to tbe extent inlended in tbe design, either elimi
(d)
Figure 1.2 Concrete fiber stress distribution in a rectangular beam with straight tendon.
(a) Concentric tendon, prestress only. (b) Concentric tendon, selfweight added. (c) Eccentric tendon, prestress only. (d) Eccentric tendon, selfweight added.
nating tension totally (even inducing compression), or permitting a level of tensile stress
within allowable code limits. The section is then considered uncracked and behaves elastically: the concrete's inability to withstand tensile stresses is effectively compensated for
by the compressive force of the prestressing tendon.
The compressive stresses in Equation l.2a at the top fibers of the beam due to prestressing are compounded by the application of the loading stress  Me!!, as seen in Figure l.2(b ). Hence, the compressive stress capacity of the beam to take a substantial
externa! load is reduced by the concentric prestressing force. In order to avoid this limitation, the prestressing tendon is placed eccentrically below the neutral axis at midspan, to
induce tensile stresses at the top fibers due to prestressing. [See Figure 1.2( c), (d).] If the
tendon is placed at eccentricity e from the center of gravity of the concrete, termed the
cgc fine, it creates a moment Pe, and the ensuing stresses at midspan become
10
Photo 1.8 The new l3SW bridge, Minneapols, Minnesota. Designcd by FIGG, thc 10lane interstate bridge has a 504' prccast, prestressed concrete span over the Mississippi Rivcr, with 75' vertical clearance. The span's 120 precast concrete segmenls, each 45' widc, up lo 25' deep and
weighing 200 lons, achieved an average concrete strength of 7600 psi. Thesc segments for Lhe main
span were assembled in one directional cantilever from the main piers in just 47 days. The bridge
has 50,000 cubic yards of concrete and nearly 3 mi Ilion pounds of postLensioning steel that runs the
length of lhe lwin 1.214' bridges. This new interstate bridge was designed and built in 11 months.
openfog on Scplember 18. 2008. (Courtesy of FIGO. the bridge designer)
18
18
Pee
Me
A c
111
TK
Jb =     + 
(1.3a)
(l.3b)
Since thc support section of a simply supported beam carries no momenl from the externa! transverse load, high tensile fiber strcsscs at the top fibers are caused by the eccentric
prestressing force. To limit such stresses, thc eccentricity of che prestressing tendon profile, the egs fine, is made less at thc support section than at the midspan scction, or eliminated altogether, or else a negative eccentricity above the cgc lioe is used.
1.3.2 Basic Concept Method
In the basic concept method of designing prestressed concrete elcments, the concrete
fiber slrcsses are directly computed from thc externa! forces applied to the concrete by
longitudinal prcstressing and the externa! transverse load. Equations l.3a and b can be
modified and simplified for use in calculating stresses al tbe initial prestressing stage and
at service load levels. lf P; is the initial prestressing force before stress losses, and P~ is the
effective prestressing force after losses, then
p~
'Y = 
(1.3c)
P,
can be defined as the residual prestress factor. Substituting? for l/Ac in Equations 1.3,
wbere r is the radius of gyration of thc gross section, the exprcssions for stress can be
rewritten as follows:
(a) Prestressing Force Only
A,\
r2
(l.4a)
11
Photo 1.9 Tianjin YongHc cablestayed prestressed concrete bridge, Tianjin. China, the largest
span bridge in Asia, with a total lenglh of 1,673 ft and a suspended lenglh of l.535 ft, was completed in 1988. (Credit~ Owner: Tianjin Municipal Engineering Burcau. General contractor: Major
Bridge Enginccring Bu rea u of Ministry of Railways of China. Engineer for projcc1 dcsign and coostruction control guidancc: Tianjin Municipal Enginccring Survey and Design lnstilulc, Chief
Bridge Engineer, Bangyan Yu.)
ec1,)
,
Jih = A c 1 + , 2
( 1.4b)
where e, and cb are the distances from the center of gravity of che section (the cgc Line) to
the extreme top and bollom fibers. respectivety.
(b) Prestressi11g Plus Selfweight
U the beam sclfweight causes a momcnt M 0 at the section undcr consideration,
Equations 1.4a and b, respectively, become
,_
P1 (
f f\
e
i 
ec,) Ms
,2
(1.Sa)
and
(1.5b)
12
~i
cg_c_ _r_
/cgs
Twk,_ _ _ _tec==f=~~+'
(a)
itd
(b)
Figure 1.3
where S 1 and Sb are the moduli of the sections far the top and bottom fibers, respectively.
The change in eccentricity from the midspan to the support section is obtained by
raising the prestressing tendon either abruptly from the midspan to the support, a process
called harping, or gradually in a parabolic form, a process called draping. Figure 1.3(a)
shows a harped profile usually used far pretensioned beams and far concentrated transverse loads. Figure 1.3(b) shows a draped tendon usually used in posttensioning.
Subsequent to erection and installation of the floor or deck, live loads act on the
structure, causing a superimposed moment M 8 The full intensity of such loads normally
occurs after the building is completed and sorne timedependent losses in prestress have
already taken place. Hence, the prestressing force used in the stress equations would
have to be the effective prestressing force Pe. If the total moment due to gravity loads is
MT, then
MT
where
MD + MSD + ML
(1.6)
MT
= Pe
 ( 1 + ecb)
2 + Ac
Sb
(1.7b)
Sorne typical elastic concrete stress distributions at the critica! section of a prestressed flanged section are shown in Figure 1.4. The tensile stress in the concrete in part
(c) permitted at the extreme fibers of the section cannot exceed the maximum permissible in the code, e.g., ft =
at midspan in the ACI code. If it is exceeded, bonded nonprestressed reinforcement proportioned to resist the total tensile force has to be
provided to control cracking at service loads.
6W
In this lineofpressure or thrust concept, the beam is analyzed as if it were a plain concrete
elastic beam using the basic principles of statics. The prestressing force is considered an ex
13
ec,)
(.
1
Ac
r2
(a)
P,.
Ac
ecb)
(1+r2
'
Mo
P,.
sb
Ac
+
ec .
(1 +
r:)
Mo
+Ss
(b)
_ P.
Ac
1_
ec,) _ M 0
r2
\
P.
Ac
ecb)
(1+r2
Mso
S,
Mo
+
sb
+ ML
_ P.
s,
Ac
1_
ec,) _ Mr
S,
r2
r
Mso
+ ML
sb
P.
Ac
ecb)
(1+r2
Mr
+
sb
(e)
Figure 1.4 Elastic fiber stresses due to the various loads in a prestressed beam.
(a) lnitial prestress before losses. (b) Addition of selfweight. (e) Service load at effective prestress.
ternal compressive force, with a constant tensile force Tin the tendon throughout the span.
In this manner, the effects of externa! gravity loads are disregarded. Equilibrium equations
'i.H =O and 'i.M =O are applied to maintain equilibrium in the section.
Figure 1.5 shows the relative line of action of the compressive force C and the tensile force T in a reinforced concrete beam as compared to that in a prestressed concrete
beam. It is plain that in a reinforced concrete beam, T can have a finite value only when
transverse and other external loads act. The moment arm a remains basically constant
throughout the elastic loading history of the reinforced concrete beam while it changes
from a value a =O at prestressing to a maximum at full superimposed load.
Taking a freebody diagram of a segment of a beam as in Figure 1.6, it is evident
that the Cline, or centerofpressure line, is at a varying distance a from the
Tline. The moment is given by
14
<t.
w= O
<t.
w= O
___________ __,____I
__............_


+
1" T = P
C= P
a=O
Y,
112~
(a)
(b)
<t.
w= w1
<t.
w= w1
tL_i_~~ltr
C=P
; .=~.<. ~
(e)
(d)
<t.
w=w
<t.
w=w
iI
k  i T =
T2
Y,
(e)
(f)
Figure 1.5 Comparative freebody diagrams of a reinforced concrete (R.C.) beam and a
prestressed concrete (P.C.) beam. (a) R.C. beam with no load. (b) P.C. beam with no load.
(c) R.C. beam with load w 1. (d) P.C. beam with load w 1 (e) R.C. beam with typical load w.
(f) P.C. beam with typical load w.
M =Ca= Ta
(1.8)
(l.9a)
e'= M  e
(1.9b)
(l.la)
(l.lb)
15
Figure 1.6
Pe
P~e'c,
Ac
/"
Pe
Pee'cb
A,
/"
=  
P~:
so
fb=  +  
(l.lla)
(l.11 b)
r=APe" ( i +e'c,)
r
(l.12a)
e'ch)
Pe (
b =A, 1 7
(l.12b)
Equations 1.12a and b and Equations l.7a and b should yield ideotical values for lhe fiber
stresses.
1.3.4 LoadBalanclng Method
A third useful approach in lhe design (analysis) of conlinuous prestressed beams is tbe
loadbalancing method dcvcloped by Lin and mentioned earlier. This technique is based
on utilizing the vertical force of the draped or harped prestressing tendon to couoteract
or balance the imposed gravity loading to which a beam is subjected. Hence. it is applicable to oonstraight prcslressing tendons.
Photo 1.10 East Huntington Bridge over Ohio River. A segmentally assembled
precast prestressed concrete cablestayed bridge spanning 200900608 ft. (Courtesy, Arvid Grant and Associates. lnc.)
16
W
1mposed load W
tttttttttttt
p~ttllll\~p
(a)
Figure 1.7
(b)
Figure 1.7 demonstrates the balancing forces for both harped and drapedtendon
prestressed beams. The load balancing reaction R is equal to the vertical component of
the prestressing force P. The horizontal component of P, as an approximation in longspan beams, is taken to be equal to the full force P in computing the concrete fiber
stresses at midspan of the simply supported beam. At other sections, the actual horizontal component of Pis used.
1.3.4.1 LoadBalancing Distributed Loads and Parabolic Tendon Profile.
sider a parabolic tendon as shown in Figure 1.8. Let the parabolic function
Ax2
+ Bx + C
Con(1.13)
represent the tendon drape; the force T denotes the pull to which the tendon is subjected.
Then for x = O, we have
y=O
C=O
dy
=O
dx
B=O
y=a
But from calculus, the load intensity is
a2y
q= T 
(1.14)
ax2
Finding 2Py!CJx2 in Equation 1.13 and substituting into Equation 1.14 yields
q
T4a X 2
2
8Ta
2
ttttttt
T....._
1.
Figure 1.8
(l.15a)
17
or
ql2
T=
(1.15b)
ql2
Ta=8
(1.15c)
8a
Hence, if the tendon has a parabolic profile in the prestressed beam and the prestressing
force is denoted by P, the balancedload intensity, from Equation l.15a, is
8Pa
(1.16)
wb=y
Figure 1.9 gives a freebody diagram of the forces acting on a prestressed beam with a
parabolic tendon profile. Clearly, the two sets of equal and opposite transverse loads wb
cancel each other, and no bending stress is produced. This is reasonable to expect in the
loadbalancing method, since it is always the case that T = C, and Chas to cancel T to satisfy the equilibrium requirement that 'LH = O. As there is no bending, the beam remains
straight, without having a convex shape, or camber, at the top face.
The concrete fiber stress across the depth of the section at midspan becomes
f/,
P'
=   =~
(1.17)
This stress, which is constant, is due to the force P' = P cos 8. Figure 1.10 shows the superposition of stresses to yield the net stress. Note that the prestressing force in the loadbalancing method has to act at the center of gravity (cgc) of the support section in simply
supported beams and at the cgc of the free end in the case of a cantilever beam. This condition is necessary in arder to prevent any eccentric unbalanced moments.
When the imposed load exceeds the balancing load wb such that an additional unbalanced load wub is applied, a moment Muh = wub/2/8 results at midspan. The corresponding fiber stresses at midspan become
Mubc
P'
t
fb=::::Ac
(1.18)
fe
= _
P' _ Mub
51
(l.19a)
Ac
Pk::
1i...c =
a
112
Figure 1.9
18
Photo 1.11 Walt Disney World Monorail. Orlando, Florida. A series of hollow
precast prestressed concrete 100foot box girders individually posttensioned to
provide sixspan conlinuous structure. Designed by ABAM Enginccrs, Tacoma,
Wasl1ington. (Courtesy, Walt Disney World Corporation.)
and
f, = _ P' + M,,11
'
Ac
(l.19b)
S,
Equations 1.19 will yield the samc values of fiber stresses as Equations 1.7 and 1.12. Keep
in mind tbat P' is taken to be equal lo P at tbe midspan section because thc prestressing
force is horizontal al this section. i.e., e== o.
~
A'<
(a)
~
+1
(b)
~
1
(e)
~
A'
(d)
19
A pretensioned simply supported 10LDT24 double Tbeam without topping has a span of
64 ft (19.51 m) and the geometry shown in Figure 1.11. It is subjected to a uniform superimposed gravity deadload intensity WsD and liveload intensity WL summing to 420 plf (6.13
kN/m). The initial prestress before losses is fp; 0.70 fpu = 189,000 psi (1,303 MPa), and the effective prestress after losses is fpe = 150,000 psi (1,034 MPa). Compute the extreme fiber
stresses at the midspan due to
= 4,800 psi (33.1 MPa) =concrete compressive strength at time of initial prestress
fe;= 0.6 f~; = 2,880 psi (19.9 MPa) = maximum allowable stress in concrete at initial
prestress
fe= 0.45 f ~ = maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete at service
Assume that tenhn.dia. Sevenwirestrand (ten 12.7mmdia strand) tendons with a 108Dl
strand pattern are used to prestress the beam.
Ac = 449 in. 2 (2,915 cm 2)
le = 22,469 in. 4 (935,347 cm4 )
r2
W50
= Ij Ac = 50.04 in. 2
t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t
r~_;,=
64'0"
(19.51 m)
10'0"
2"
53/4"
j_
topping
2"
ti
24"
j
5'0"
Figure 1.11
Example 1.1
20
Photo L12 Prcstrcssed lightwcight concrete midbody for Arctic offshore drilling
platform. Global Marine DevelopmenL (Counesy, the late Ben C. Gerwick.)
sh =
w" =
Solution:
(i) I nitial Co11dltio11s at Prestressi11g
A p,
w/ 2 359 (64) 2
Mo = 8 =
X 12 = 2,205,696 in.lb. (249 kNm)
8
From Equatio11s 1.5 and 1.7,
1( 1  ec,)
=  A,
ri
= _ 289.170 (
449
=
M"

S'
ecb)
M"
fb= P, ( 1+2 + A,
__ 289, 170 (
449
l
Sh
14.77 X 17.77)
50.04
2,205,696
1,264
21
load is
Msv + ML =
420 (64) 2
8
12 = 2,580,480 m.lb
f t =_Pe
Ac
= _
(l _
(l _
ec1 )  MT
,2
si
229,500
449
Pe ( 1 +ecb)

=
r2
Ac
= _ 229,500
(l
449
+MT
Sb
= 3,192 + 3,786
Pe = 229,500 lb
MT = 4,786,176 in.lb
MT
=;; =
.
4,786,176
229,500 = 20.85 m.
P
= "
Ac
(i
e'c)
t
+_
,2
.
X 6.23) = _
 898 psi ( C)
50.04
= _ 229,500 ( 1 + 6.08
449
= _
Notice how the Cline method is shorter than the basic method used in Example 1.1.
22
Photo 1.13 Dauphin lsland Bridge. Mobile County, Alabama. (Courtesy, PoslTensioning lnstitute.)
Solution:
P' = P, = 229,500 lb at midspan
= 1.231
Al midspan, a = e, = 14.77"
ft
W = g Pa = 8
f2
229,500 X 1.231
(64)2
Thus, if the total gravity Load would have bcen 552 plf, only thc axial load P' /A would act if
the beam had a parabolically draped tendon with no ccccntricily al thc supports. This is be
cause lhe gravily load is balanced by the lendon al thc midpan. H cncc,
Total load to which the beam is subjcctcd = W D
+ Wso + W 1..
W uh
wuh(/) 2
227(64) 2
= 
  X 12
8
= 1,394.688 in.lb
From Equations 1.19.
229,500
f , = P' Mu,,
 =A,
S'
449
1,394.688
3,607
23
1lcidrun Offshore Oil Drilling Platorm in the North Sea weighing 2.9
million Kg. lt mcasurcs 110 m on each side; has four slipform constructcd hulls and
modulesupport 50rt. span beams (Courtesy, C. E. Morrison. CONOCO !ne..
Houston, Texas.)
Photo 1.14
=5ll 387==898psi(C)
[,, = _ P' +
M,,h _
S,,
Ac
= 511
~ f,
229,500 + 1.394,688
449
Given
Stress Data
J:""
41.4MPa
f,,
1,860 MPa
11 
fp1
= 0.70fpu = 0.70 X
J,.,
= 1,520 MPa
1264
24
Photo L15 Hibemfa Platform. Grand Ban ks. Newfoundland, 1997: 80 m water
de pth. 165,000 m3, 70 MPa strength concrete and 8,000 tons of prcstressng tcndons;
frst platform desgned for iceberg impacts (Courtesy, Dr. Gcorge C Hoff. Moble
Research and Dcvelopment Corp.)
,w = 1,034 MPa
Section Geometry
Try 108DJ Strand Pattern
A , = 2897 cm 2
fe = 935.346 cm 2
r2
25
Pboto L16 Picr 37 Rebuild, Seattle Washington: a 1200fllong by 40ft wide picr
consisting of 20fllong prestressed concrete deck panel supported by situcast concrete pile caps and prestressed concrete piles (Designed by BERGER/ABAM Engineers, Federal Way, Washington, courtesy Robert Mast, Chairman)
cb = 45.1 cm
e, = 15.8 cm
ec = 37.5 cm
e, = 19.74 cm
S' = 59,108 cm 3
sb =
20,713 cm3
W 0 = 5.24 kN/m
WSD
+ Wl
= 6.13 kN/ m
/ = 19.51 m
Solution:
= 990 X
1,303 = 1,290 kN
= AP.JP = 900 X
P 1 = Ap/p,
P,
M0
w/ 2
= 8 =
5.24 (19.51)2
= 249 kNm
26
Md
(l _ec')S'
r
1290 (i _37.5 15.8)  249 102 kNcm
59,108 cm
! , = AP;,
=_
323
2897
= +0.37 
<Id O.K.
ecb)
Mo
P, (
fb =   1 +  2 + Sb
r
A,
= _ 1290
2897
Photo 1.17 Pararnount Apartmeots. San Francisco, CA: the first hybrid precast
prestresscd concrete momentresistant 39 loor highrise frame building in high
seismicity zone, 2002. (Courtcsy Charles Pankow Lid., Oesign/Build contractors.
Structural Engineers: Robcrt Englekirk Jnc.; Oesign Architects: Elkus/Manfredi;
Executivc Architect: Kwan Hcnmi, lnc.; Owner: The Related Companics)
27
Photo 1.18 Rendering of the New Maumce River Bridge. Toledo. Thc design includes a uniquc single pylon ciad with glass cmilling LED arrays al night, single
plane of stays, and a main span of 612 feet in both directions. Courtesy of the designer, FIGG Engineers ofTallahassee, Florida.
<
= 11.0 x 106 N/ m2
allowablc/d
= 6.13 kN/ m
M so+L
6. 13(19.51)2
= 292 kNm
I r= 
P.
Ac
(1  ec')r
S'
(i _
Mr
= _ 1024
2897
<
L6 N/ m2
P. (
ecb) Mr
lb=1 +2 + 
A.
1024 (
2897
=  1
S1,
+ 37.5
= (2.20 + 2.16)
X 45.l)
323
X 107
541 X l2 kNcm
+   3 
N/ m2
20,713 cm
= +4.1 X I6 N/ m2
28
SELECTED REFERENCES
1.1 Freyssinet, E. The Birth of Prestressing. London: Public Translation, Cement and Concrete Association, 1954.
1.2 Guyon, Y. Limit State Design of Prestressed Concrete, vol. l. HalstedWiley, New York, 1972.
1.3 Gerwick, B. C., Jr. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. WileyInterscience, New York,
1993, 591 p.
1.4 Lin, T. Y., and Burns, N. H. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. 3d ed. John Wiley & Sons,
New York, 1981.
1.5 Nawy, E. G. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach. 6th ed., PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle
River, NJ: 2009, 936 p.
1.6 Dobell, C. "Patents and Code Relating to Prestressed Concrete." Journal of the American Concrete
Institute 46, 1950, 713724.
1.7 Naaman, A. E. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design. McGraw Hill, New York, 1982.
1.8 Dill, R. E. "Sorne Experience with Prestressed Steel in Small Concrete Units." Journal of the
American Concrete Institute 38, 1942, 165168.
1.9 lnstitution of Structural Engineers. "First Report on Prestressed Concrete." Journal of the Institution of Structural Engineers, September 1951.
1.10 Magnel, G. Prestressed Concrete. London: Cement and Concrete Association, 1948.
1.11 Abeles, P. W., and BardhanRoy, B. K. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. 3d ed. Viewpoint Publications, London, 1981.
1.12 Nawy, E. G., Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York,
2001, pp. 460.
1.13 Nawy, E. G., editorinchief, Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL, 2008, 1560 p.
PROBLEMS
1.1 An AASHTO prestressed simply supported 1beam has a span of 34 ft (10.4 m) and is 36 in.
(91.4 cm) deep. Its cross section is shown in Figure Pl.l. It is subjected to a liveload intensity
WL = 3,600 plf (52.6 kN/m). Determine the required!in.dia stressrelieved sevenwire strands to
resist the applied gravity load and the selfweight of the beam, assuming that the tendon eccentricity at midspan is ec = 13.12 in. (333 mm). Maximum permissible stresses are as follows:
= 0.45J~
1'0"
~
6"
3"
3'0"
6"
1'3"
6"
6"
1'6"
Figure P1.1
Problems
29
=
t
fpu
fp;
fpe
= 15.83 in.
sb = 3,220 in3
S'
2,527 in3
WD
384 plf
WL = 3,600 plf
4274 in. 3
13,128 in. 3
1234 plf
82 psf
2.45 in.
109,621 in.
25.65 in.
8.35 in.
lg
cb
e,
VIS
( ~~:~'_
14
4'
F3'B718'+..
i ll3'8718"~
.._ _ _ _ _
2I.f 1.~illl:i...ill!I2
UJ
'
'
_Ul
''~~~~~
Figure P1.3
30
Design the prestressing steel needed using !in.dia stressrelieved sevenwire strands. Use the
three methods of analysis discussed in this chapter in your solution.
1.4 A Tshaped simply supported beam has the cross section shown in Figure Pl.4. It has aspan of 36 ft
(11 m), is loaded with a gravity liveload unit intensity WL = 2,500 plf (36.5 kN/), and is prestressed
with twelve !in.dia (twelve 12.7mmdia) sevenwire stressrelieved strands. Compute the concrete fiber stresses at service load by each of the following methods:
(a) Basic concept
(b) Cline
(e) Load balancing
Assume that the tendon eccentricity at midspan is ec = 9.6 in. (244 mm). Then given that
f~
fpe
r2 =
cb
= 12.43 in.
sb
= 2,981 in. 3
S'
2,109 in. 3
WD = 525 plf
ec
Aps =
9.6 in.
twelve ~in.dia, sevenwire stressrelieved strands
1'0"
r=1
~
+
==~'ll
l2'o"1
S"
24LT30
30"
Figure P1.4
1.5 Solve problem 1.4 if fe= 7,000 psi (48.3 MPa) andfpe = 160,000 psi (1,103 MPa).
2.1 CONCRETE
2.1.1 lntroduction
Strenglh and endurance are two major qualities that are particularly important in prestressed concrete structures. Longterm detrimental effects can rapidly reduce the prestressing forces and could result in unexpected failu re. Hence, measures bave to be taken
to ensure strict quality control and quality assurance at the various stages of production
PascoKcnnewick Intercity Bridge. SegmentaUy assembled prestressed concrete cablestayed
bridge. spans 407981407 ft. (Courtesy, Arvid Grant and Associates, lnc.)
31
Chapter 2
32
Resistance to weathering
and chemicals
Resistance to wear
deterioration
Strength
Economy
Figure 2.1
and construction as well as maintenance. Figure 2.1 shows the various factors that result
in goodquality concrete.
2.1.3.1 Compressive Strength. Depending on the type of mix, the properties of aggregate, and the time and quality of the curing, compressive strengths of concrete can be
obtained up to 20,000 psi or more. Commercial production of concrete with ordinary ag
2.1 Concrete
33
Photo 2.1 Concrete cylinders tested to failurc in compression. Specimen A. lowepoxycement content; specimen B. hjgbepoxycemen1 content. (Tests by Nawy, Sun. and Sauer.)
gregate is usually in tbe range 4.000 to 12,000 psi, with thc most common concrete
strengths being in the 6.000 psi level.
The compressive strength /~ is based on standard 6 in. by 12 in. cylinders cured
under standard laboratory conditions and tested at a specified rate of loading al 28 days
of age. The standard specifications used in the United States are usually taken from
ASTM C39. The strengtb of concrete in the actual structure may not be the same as that
of the cylinder because of the difference in compaction and curing conditions.
For a strength test. lhe ACI code specifies using thc average of two cylinders from
the samc sample tested at the same age, which is usually 28 days. As for the frequency of
testing, the code specifies that the strength of an individual class of concrete can be considercd satisfaclory if (1) the average of all sets of three consccutive strenglh tests equals
or excceds the required /~, and (2) no individual strength test (average of two cylinders)
falls below the required /~ by more tban 500 psi. The average concrete strength for wbich
a concrete mixture must be designecl sbouJd exceed f ~ by an amount thal depends on lhe
uniformity of plant production.
Note that the design f ~ should not be the average cylindcr strcngth, but ratber the
mnimum conceivable cylinder strengtb.
2.1.3.2 Tensile Strength. The tensile strength of concrete is re latively low. A good
approximation for tbe tensile strength fe1is0.10/~ <fe,< 0.20/~. lt is more difficult to measure tensile strengtb than compressive strength because of thc gripping problems with
testing machines. A number of methods are available for tension testing, the most commonly used metbod being the cylinder splitting, or Brazilian, test.
For members subjected to bending, the value of the modulus of rupture f, rather
than the tensile splitting strength f; is used in design. The modulus of rupture is measured by testing to failure plain concrete beams 6 in. square in cross section. having a
34
Chapter 2
Photo 2.2 Electron microscope photographs of concrete rom specimcns A and B in the
preceding photograph. (Tests by Nawy et al.}
span of 18 in., and loaded at their third points (ASTM C78). The modulus of rupture has
for
a higher value than the tensile splitting strength. The ACl spccifics a value of 7.5
the modulus of rupture of normalweight concrete.
In most cases, lightweigbt concrete has a lower tensile strength than does normalweight concrete. The foUowing are the code slipulations for lightweigbt concrete:
Vf::
2.1 Concrete
35
Photo 2.3 Fracture surfaces in tensile sptting tests of concretes wilh djfferent w/c
contents. Specimens CT and CIV bave higher wlc con ten t. bence more bond failures
lhan specimcn CVT. (Tests by Nawy et al.)
(2.1)
2. lf fc, is not specified, use a factor of 0.75 for alllightweight concrete and 0.85 for
sandlightweight concrete. Linear interpolaLion may be used for mixtures of natural
sand and lightweight fine aggregate.
2.1 .3.3 Shear Strength. Shear strength is more difficult to determine experimcntally
than the tests discussed previously because of the difficully in isolating shear from other
stresses. This is one of the reasons Cor the largc variation in shearslrength valucs reported in the literature, varying from 20 percenl of thc compressive strength in normal
loading to a considerably hjgher percentage of up to 85 percenl of the compressive
strength in cases wherc direct shear exists in combination with compression. Control of a
structural design by shear strength is significant only in rare cases, since shear stresses
must ordinarily be limited to continually lower values in order to protect the concrete
from failure in diagonal tension.
Chapter 2
36
Strain, e
Figure 2.2
Knowledge of the stressstrain relationship of concrete is essential for developing all the
analysis and design terms and procedures in concrete structures. Figure 2.2 shows a typical stressstrain curve obtained from tests using cylindrical concrete specimens loaded in
uniaxial compression over several minutes. The first portion of the curve, to about 40
percent of the ultima te strength f ~, can essentially be considered linear for all practica!
purposes. After approximately 70 percent of the failure stress, the material loses a large
portion of its stiffness, thereby increasing the curvilinearity of the diagram. At ultimate
load, cracks parallel to the direction of loading become distinctly visible, and most concrete cylinders (except those with very low strengths) suddenly fail shortly thereafter.
Figure 2.3 shows the stressstrain curves of concrete of various strengths reported by the
Portland Cement Association. It can be observed that (1) the lower the strength of concrete, the higher the failure strain; (2) the length of the initial relatively linear portion increases with the increase in the compressive strength of concrete; and (3) there is an
apparent reduction in ductility with increased strength.
Since the stressstrain curve shown in Figure 2.4 is curvilinear at a very early stage of its
loading history, Young's modulus of elasticity can be applied only to the tangent of the
curve at the origin. The initial slope of the tangent to the curve is defined as the initial
tangent modulus, and it is also possible to construct a tangent modulus at any point of the
curve. The slope of the straight line that connects the origin to a given stress (about
0.4 f ~)determines the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete. This value, termed in design calculation the modulus of elasticity, satisfies the practica! assumption that strains occurring during loading can be considered basically elastic (completely recoverable on
unloading), and that any subsequent strain dueto the load is regarded as creep.
The ACI building code gives the following expressions for calculating the secant
modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec
Ec
33w~.5~
for 90
<
Wc
<
155 lb/ft3
(2.2a)
3
3
where wc is the density of concrete in pounds per cubic foot (1lb/ft =16.02 kg/m ) and f ~
is the compressive cylinder strength in psi. For normalweight concrete,
     Analytical
7000
.&Ll.o<>
Experimental
f~, compressive
strength (psi)
12,000
6000
f~ =
11,450
10,000
5000
;;;
~ 4000
;;;
c.
!l!
ci
ci
6000
3000
f'
2000
1000
. . ....~.fj/,,,,...
'.l.
0.001
4000
60 O e Analytical
2000
f~, compressive
strength (psi)
= 930
0.002
0.003
Strain ( in./in.1
Figure 2.3
......
~} E,.,.n~ol
= 1900
/ ~~
f'e
(,)
8000
0.004
0.001
0.002
0.003
Strain (in./in.l
0.004
Chapter 2
38
Strain, e
Figure 2.4
Ec
or
Ec
0.043wl. 5 ~ MPa
(2.2.b)
Highstrength concrete is termed as such by the ACI 318 Code when the cylinder compressive strength exceeds 6,000 psi (41.4 MPa). For concrete having compressive
strengths 6,000 to 12,000 psi (4284 MPa), the expressions for the modulus of concrete
(Refs. 2.11, 2.35, 2.38)
Ec (psi) = [40,000~ + 106 ] (
14
)1.5
(2.3a)
[3.32v'.{;
+ 6,895] (
23 0
)1.5
(2.3b)
39
grind the cylinder ends, then cap them with high strength capping compound for load
testing, or to apply the load directly to the ground ends of the cylinder or through a removable steel cap with a hard neoprene pad bearing directly on the ground specimen
ends. Preparation of the cylinders should resemble as closely as possible the field conditions of concrete placement. Mockup placement of the highstrength concrete is advisable in arder to evaluate the construction procedures and performance of the concrete in
field conditions and to identify potential problems with batching, placement, and testing
of the concrete at early ages. Corrective measures should be taken immediately.
A good example of the use of highstrength concrete in the range 20,000 psi
(138 MPa) at 56 days anda concrete modulus Ec = 7.8 x 106 psi (53.8 x 103 MPa) is the
Two Union Square Building, Seattle, Washington (Ref. 2.11, 2.38). Actual typical mixture obtained is listed in Table 2.1, with the design mixture values in parentheses.
A slump of 8 in. with w/c = 0.22 resulted from the mix proportions indicated. A typical compressive vs. age plot for the indicated mixture based on 4 in. x 8 in. cylinder tests
is shown in Figure 2.5.
Recent work at Rutgers (Refs. 2.36, 2.37) on highstrength composite construction
has resulted in considerable enhancement of the ductility of highstrength reinforced
concrete beams. Prestressed concrete prisms of highstrength concrete were used in lieu
of the normal mild steel bar reinforcement. The mixture proportions in lb/yd 3 were as
shown in Table 2.2. The mixture was designed for a sevenday compressive strength of
12,000 psi (84 MPa). The ratio of the cementations/fine/coarse aggregate was 1:1.22:2.06
and the slump varied between 4 to 6 in. (100150 mm). The prestressing strands were
stressrelieved 270K (1900 MPa) 7 wire !in. (9.5 mm) diameter strands. Figure 2.6 shows
the cross section of the composite beams. Concrete achieved in sorne of the mixtures a
7 day strength of 13,250 psi (91.4 MPa). The tested specimens were instrumented with a
fiberoptic system developed by the author using Bragg Grating sensors both internally
and externally.
2.3.2 lnitial Compressive Strength and Modulus
Since prestressing is performed in most cases prior to concrete's achieving its 28 days'
strength, it is important to determine the concrete compressive strength f ~; at the prestressing stage as well as the concrete modulus Ec at the various stages in the loading history of the element. The general expression for the compressive strength as a function of
time (Ref. 2.18) is
f" J ci 
Table 2.1
f~
f'I
(2.4a)
+ 3t J e
Coarse
aggregate
(iin.)
(lb)
Fine
aggregate
(paving sand)
(lb)
Cement
(lb)
Water
(lb)
Silica fume
(gal)
1872
1894
(1805)
1165
1165
(1100)
957
956
(950)
217
217
(w/c = 0.22)
13
13
(70 lb)
W. R. Grace
Dartard
Mighty
40
150
(oz/100 lb cement)
2.1
2.1
(6.0)
9.8
16.4
(Up to 24)
Weight of solid silica fume only. Water contained as part of the emulsion must be subtracted from the total
water allowed.
Chapter 2
40
21
20
19
o
X
;
c.
18
17
.;:;
e
'
16
~
"'>
~
"'5.
E
o
u
~
15
14
e
e
;;.. 13
(.)
12
11
Figure 2.5
where
f~
f~;
Table 2.2
J:'
t
4.00 + 0.85t e
Water
Powder
silica fume
force10,000
Liquid
super
plasticizer
(Grace)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
720
288
180
54
3
0m.
Fine
aggregate
(natural
sand)
Portland
cement
type 111
(1)
(2)
1851
1100
Coarse
aggregate
(2.4b)
so
60#
48.
48"
B
4 #3@4
6.o
1os.ow
1os.o
:iJ.~
1:14
3 #5
2 rxrprism
I
1 #5
6.o
14:1
( 2
'
3 2x2prism
)
AA(C1)
AA(C2)
....
Figure 2.6
(Ref. 2.37).
.....
""'
B~
(C4)
Highstrength flanged sections reinforced with prestressed concrete prisms instrumented with fiberoptic sensors
Chapter 2
42
E' =
'"
E~
is
stress
elastic strain + creep strain
(2.5)
Ec,,
= 1 + "11
(2.6a)
The creep ratio y, has upper and lower limits as follows for prcstressed quality concrete:
Upper:
"11
Lower:
'Yt
H)
= 0.75 + 0.75 ( 10050 H)
(2.6b}
(2.6c}
43
2.4 Creep
Limited work exists on the determination of the modulus of elasticity in tension because the lowtensile strength of concrete is normally disregarded in calculations. It is,
however, valid to assume within those limitations that the value of the modulus in tension is equal to that in compression.
2.4 CREEP
Creep, or lateral material flow, is the increase in strain with time dueto a sustained load.
The initial deformation due to load is the elastic strain, while the additional strain due to
the same sustained load is the creep strain. This practica! assumption is quite acceptable,
since the initial recorded deformation includes few timedependent effects.
Figure 2.7 illustrates the increase in creep strain with time, and as in the case of
shrinkage, it can be seen that creep rate decreases with time. Creep cannot be observed
directly and can be determined only by deducting elastic strain and shrinkage strain from
the total deformation. Although shrinkage and creep are not independent phenomena, it
can be assumed that superposition of strains is valid; hence,
An example of the relative numerical values of strain due to the foregoing three
factors for a normal concrete specimen subjected to 900 psi in compression is as follows:
Immediate elastic strain, Ee
Shrinkage strain after 1 year, Esh
Creep strain after 1 year, Ec
E1
=
=
These relative values illustrate that stressstrain relationships for shortterm loading lose
their significance and longterm loadings become dominant in their effect on the behavior of a structure.
Figure 2.8 qualitatively shows, in a threedimensional model, the three types of
strain discussed that result from sustained compressive stress and shrinkage. Since creep
is time dependent, this model has to be such that its orthogonal axes are deformation,
stress, and time.
Numerous tests have indicated that creep deformation is proportional to applied
stress, but the proportionality is valid only for lowstress levels. The upper limit of the relationship cannot be determined accurately, but can vary between 0.2 and 0.5 of the ulti
..
e'
E,
eE
(elastic strain)
Time, t
Figure 2.7
Straintime curve.
Chapter 2
44
Figure 2.8
mate strength f ~ This range in the limit of the proportionality is due to the large extent
of microcracks at about 40 percent of the ultimate load.
Figure 2.9a shows a section of the threedimensional model in Figure 2.8 parallel to
the plane containing the stress and deformation axes at time t 1. It indicates that both elastic and creep strains are linearly proportional to the applied stress. In a similar manner,
Figure 2.9b illustrates a section parallel to the plane containing the time and strain axes
at a stress f 1; hence, it shows the familiar relationships of creep with time and shrinkage
with time.
As in the case of shrinkage, creep is not completely reversible. If a specimen is unloaded after a period under a sustained load, an immediate elastic recovery is obtained
which is less than the strain precipitated on loading. The instantaneous recovery is followed by a gradual decrease in strain, called creep recovery. The extent of the recovery
e:
o
Static strain
~t"'"""'"~~~+~~~1+~~~~~~~~~
Stress
Time
1
1 Shrinkage
Shrinkage
f<   
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.9 (a) Section parallel to the stressdeformation plane. (b) Section parallel to the deformationtime plane.
2.4 Creep
45
Specimen under a
constant load
Unloading
e. 1 = immediate elastic
deformation
~_...,~......,.
Creep recovery
Residual strain
Time, t
Figure 2.10
depends on the age of the concrete when loaded, with older concretes presenting higher
creep recoveries, while residual strains or deformations become frozen in the structural
element (see Figure 2.10).
Creep is closely related to shrinkage, and as a general rule, a concrete that resists
shrinkage also presents a low creep tendency, as both phenomena are related to the hydrated cement paste. Hence, creep is influenced by the composition of the concrete, the
environmental conditions, and the size of the specimen, but principally creep depends on
loading as a function of time.
The composition of a concrete specimen can be essentially defined by the water/cement ratio and water/cementitious ratio when admixtures are used, aggregate and cement types, and aggregate and cement contents. Therefore, like shrinkage, an increase in
the water/cement ratio and in the cement content increases creep. Also, as in shrinkage,
the aggregate induces a restraining effect such that an increase in aggregate content reduces creep.
2.4.1 Effects of Creep
As in shrinkage, creep increases the deflection of beams and slabs and causes loss of prestress. In addition, the initial eccentricity of a reinforced concrete column increases with
time due to creep, resulting in the transfer of the compressive load from the concrete to
the steel in the section.
Once the steel yields, additional load has to be carried by the concrete. Consequently, the resisting capacity of the column is reduced and the curvature of the column
increases further, resulting in overstress in the concrete, leading to failure.
2.4.2 Rheological Models
Rheological models are mechanical devices that portray the general deformation behavior and flow of materials under stress. A model is basically composed of elastic springs
and ideal dashpots denoting stress, elastic strain, delayed elastic strain, irrecoverable
strain, and time. The springs represent the proportionality between stress and strain, and
the dashpots represent the proportionality of stress to the rate of strain. A spring and a
dashpot in parallel form a Kelvin unit, and in series they form a Maxwell unit.
Two rheological models will be discussed: the Burgers model and the Ross model.
The Burgers model in Figure 2.11 is shown since it can approximately simulate the stressstraintime behavior of concrete at the limit of proportionality with sorne limitations.
This model simulates the instantaneous recoverable strain, a; the delayed recoverable
Chapter 2
46
P(t)......
Maxwell unit
Kelvin unit
Figure 2.11
Burgers model.
elastic strain in the spring, b; and the irricoverable timedependent strains in the dashpots, e and d. The weakness in the model is that it continues to deform at a uniform rate
as long as the load is sustained by the Maxwell dashpota behavior not similar to concrete, where creep reaches a limiting value with time, as shown in Figure 2.7.
A modification in the form of the Ross rheological model in Figure 2.12 can eliminate this deficiency. A in this model represents the Hookian direct proportionality of
stresstostrain element, D is the dashpot, and B and C are the elastic springs that can
transmit the applied load P(t) to the enclosing cylinder walls by direct friction. Since each
coil has a defined frictional resistance, only those coils whose resistance equals the applied load P(t) are displaced; the others remain unstressed, symbolizing the irrecoverable
deformation in concrete. As the load continues to increase, it overcomes the spring resistance of unit B, pulling out the spring from the dashpot and signifying failure in a concrete element. More rigorous models, such as Roll's, have been used to assist in
predicting the creep strains. Mathematical expressions for such predictions can be very
rigorous. One convenient expression due to Ross defines the creep C under load after a
time interval t as
C=ta + bt
(2.7)
Cu= PuEc
or average Cu
= 2.35.
e
P(t)
Figure 2.12
Ross model.
2.4 Creep
47
Branson's model, verified by extensive tests, retales the creep coeUicient C, at any
lime to the ultimate creep coefficient (for standard conditions) as
,o.6
e, = 10 + , o.6 c.,
(2.10)
or, allernatively,
p, = 10
(2.11)
+ ,o.6
where t is the time in days and p, is the time multiplier. Standard conditions as defined by
Branson pertain to concretes of sJump 4 in. (10 cm) or less and a rclative humidity of 40
percent.
Whc n conditions are not standard, creep corrcction factors have to be applied to
Eq uations 2.1Oor2.11 as follows:
ka = 1.25t
0.118
(2.12)
ka
= l.l 3t  0.095
(2.13)
For greater tban 40 percent relative humidity, a further multiplier correction factor of
Photo 2.5
lnstitute.)
(2.14)
Chapter 2
48
has to be applied in addition to those of Equations 2.12 and 2.13, where H = relative humidity value in percent.
2.5 SHRINKAGE
Basically, there are two types of shrinkage: plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage. Plastic shrinkage occurs during the first few hours after placing fresh concrete in the forms.
Exposed surfaces such as floor slabs are more easily affected by exposure to dry air because of their large contact surface. In such cases, moisture evaporates faster from the
concrete surface than it is replaced by the bleed water from the lower layers of the concrete elements. Drying shrinkage, on the other hand, occurs after the concrete has already attained its final set and a good portian of the chemical hydration process in the
cement gel has been accomplished.
Drying shrinkage is the decrease in the volume of a concrete element when it loses
moisture by evaporation. The opposite phenomenon, that is, volume increase through
water absorption, is termed swelling. In other words, shrinkage and swelling represent
water movement out of or into the gel structure of a concrete specimen due to the difference in humidity or saturation levels between the specimen and the surroundings irrespective of the external load.
Shrinkage is not a completely reversible process. If a concrete unit is saturated with
water after having fully shrunk, it will not expand to its original volume. Figure 2.13 relates the increase in shrinkage strain Esh with time. The rate decreases with time since
older concretes are more resistant to stress and consequently undergo less shrinkage,
such that the shrinkage strain becomes almost asymptotic with time.
Several factors affect the magnitude of drying shrinkage:
1. Aggregate. The aggregate acts to restrain the shrinkage of the cement paste; hence,
concretes with high aggregate content are less vulnerable to shrinkage. In addition,
the degree of restraint of a given concrete is determined by the properties of aggregates: Those with a high modulus of elasticity or with rough surfaces are more resistant to the shrinkage process.
2. Water/cement ratio. The higher the water/cement ratio, the higher the shrinkage effects. Figure 2.14 is a typical plot relating aggregate content to water/cement ratio.
3. Size of the concrete element. Both the rate and the total magnitude of shrinkage decrease with an increase in the volume of the concrete element. However, the duration of shrinkage is longer for larger members since more time is needed for drying
to reach the internal regions. lt is possible that 1 year may be needed for the drying
Time, t
Figure 2.13
Shrinkagetime curve.
49
2.5 Shrinkage
Aggregate
content by
volume percent
...., 1200
e
'.~
/~80
o .....______,____.._______,_____._______,
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
Water/cement ratio
Figure 2.14
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
process to begin at a depth of 10 in. from the exposed surface, and 10 years to begin
at 24 in. below the externa! surface.
Medium ambient conditions. The relative humidity of the medium greatly affects
the magnitude of shrinkage; the rate of shrinkage is lower at high states of relative
humidity. The environment temperature is another factor, in that shrinkage becomes stabilized at low temperatures.
Amount of reinforcement. Reinforced concrete shrinks less than plain concrete; the
relative difference is a function of the reinforcement percentage.
Admixtures. This effect varies depending on the type of admixture. An accelerator
such as calcium chloride, used to accelerate the hardening and setting of the concrete, increases the shrinkage. Pozzolans can also increase the drying shrinkage,
whereas airentraining agents have little effect.
Type of cement. Rapidhardening cement shrinks somewhat more than other types,
while shrinkagecompensating cement minimizes or eliminates shrinkage cracking
if used with restraining reinforcement.
Carbonation. Carbonation shrinkage is caused by the reaction between the carbon
dioxide (C0 2) present in the atmosphere and that present in the cement paste. The
amount of the combined shrinkage varies according to the sequence of occurrence
of carbonation and drying processes. If both phenomena take place simultaneously,
less shrinkage develops. The process of carbonation, however, is dramatically reduced at relative humidities below 50 percent.
Branson (Ref. 2.18) recommends the following relationships for the shrinkage strain as a
function of time for standard conditions of humidity (H =40 percent):
(a) For moistcured concrete any time t after 7 days,
E
where
EsH,u
SH,t 
5+(teSH,u )
3
(2.15)
50
Chapter 2
SN.r 
E
55 + t
S/1,11
(2.16)
For otber than standard bumidity. a correction factor has to be appLied to Equations 2.15
and 2.16 as follows:
(a) For 40 < H $ 80 percent,
= 1.40 
O.OlOH
(2.l7a)
(2.17b)
ks11
(b) For80<H$100percent,
Steel reinforcement for concrete consists of bars, wires, and welded wire fabric, aU of
which are manufactured in accordance witb ASTM standards. The most important properties of reinforcing steel are:
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Young's modulus, Es
Yield strength, fy
Ultimate strength,f,,
Steel grade designation
Size or diameter of tbe bar or wire
To increase tbe bond between concrete and steel, projections called deformations
are rolled onto tbe bar surface as shown in Figure 2.15, in accordance witb ASTM specifications. The deforrnations shown rnust satisfy ASTM Specification A61676 for the bars
to be accepted as deformed. D eformed wire has indentations pressed in to lhe wire or bar
to serve as deformations. Except for wire used in spiral reinforcement in colurnns, only
deformed bars, deforrned wires, or wire fabric made from smooth or deformed wire may
be used in reinforced concrete under approved practice.
51
800
100
600
;;
80
60
en
400
40
200
20
0.01
0.015
Figure 2.16
Figure 2.16 shows typical stressstrain curves for grades 40, 60, and 75 steels. These
have corresponding yield strengths of 40,000, 60,000, and 75,000 psi (276, 345, and 517
N/mm 2, respectively) and generally have welldefined yield points. For steels that lack a
welldefined yield point, the yieldstrength value is taken as the strength corresponding
to a unit strain of 0.005 for grades 40 and 60 steels, and 0.0035 for grade 80 steel. The ultimate tensile strengths corresponding to the 40, 60, and 80 grade steels are 70,000, 90,000,
and 100,000 psi (483, 621, and 690 N/mm 2), respectively, and sorne steel types are given in
Table 2.3. The percent elongation at fracture, which varies with the grade, bar diameter,
and manufacturing source, ranges from 4.5 to 12 percent over an 8in. (203.2mm) gage
length.
Welded wire fabric is increasingly used for slabs because of the ease of placing the
fabric sheets, the control over reinforcement spacing, and the better bond. The fabric reinforcement is made of smooth or deformed wires which run in perpendicular directions
Table 2.3
Ultimate
strength, fu
(psi)
40,000
60,000
70,000
90,000
40,000
60,000
70,000
90,000
60,000
80,000
75,000
70,000
85,000
80,000
70,000
65,000, 56,000
80,000
75,000, 70,000
Table 2.4
en
1\)
U.S. customary
W&Dsize
Smooth
Deformed
W31
W30
W28
D31
D30
D28
W26
W24
W22
D26
D24
D22
W20
W18
W16
D20
D18
D16
D14
W14
W12
D12
Wll
Dll
Wl0.5
WlO
W9.5
W9
W8.5
W8
W7.5
W7
W6.5
W6
W5.5
W5
W4.5
W4
W3.5
W3
W2.9
W2.5
W2
Wl.4
DlO
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
Nominal
diameter
(in.)
Nominal
a rea
(in. 2 )
Nominal
weight
{lb/ft)
10
12
0.628
0.618
0.310
0.300
0.280
1.054
1.020
1.86
1.80
0.465
0.45
0.42
0.372
0.366
0.336
0.312
0.31
1.68
1.56
1.44
1.32
0.93
0.90
0.84
0.78
0.62
0.60
0.952
0.934
0.816
0.748
1.24
1.20
1.12
1.04
0.680
0.612
0.544
1.20
1.08
0.96
0.84
0.96
0.88
0.80
0.72
0.66
0.60
0.54
0.597
0.575
0.553
0.529
0.504
0.478
0.451
0.422
0.390
0.374
0.366
0.356
0.348
0.338
0.329
0.319
0.309
0.298
0.288
0.276
0.264
0.252
0.240
0.225
0.211
0.195
0.192
0.178
0.159
0.135
0.260
0.240
0.220
0.200
0.180
0.160
0.140
0.120
0.110
0.105
0.100
0.095
0.090
0.085
0.080
0.075
0.070
0.065
0.060
0.055
0.050
0.045
0.040
0.035
O.30
0.029
0.025
0.020
0.014
0.476
0.408
0.374
0.357
0.340
0.323
0.306
0.289
0.272
0.255
0.238
0.221
0.204
0.187
0.170
0.153
0.136
0.119
0.102
0.098
0.085
0.068
0.049
0.72
0.66
0.63
0.60
0.57
0.54
0.51
0.48
0.45
0.42
0.39
0.36
0.33
0.30
0.27
0.24
0.21
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.12
0.084
0.72
0.64
0.56
0.48
0.44
0.48
0.42
0.36
0.33
0.42
0.40
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32
9.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.116
0.10
0.08
0.056
0.315
0.30
0.285
0.27
0.255
0.24
0.225
0.21
0.195
0.18
0.165
0.15
0.135
0.12
0.105
0.09
0.087
0.075
0.06
0.042
0.56
0.52
0.48
0.44
0.40
0.36
0.32
0.28
0.39
0.36
0.33
0.30
0.27
0.24
0.21
0.18
0.24
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.165
0.157
0.15
0.142
0.135
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.058
0.05
0.04
0.028
0.127
0.12
0.112
0.105
0.097
0.09
0.082
0.075
0.067
0.06
0.052
0.045
0.043
0.037
0.03
0.021
0.288
0.264
0.24
0.216
0.192
0.168
0.144
0.132
0.126
0.12
0.114
0.108
0.102
0.096
0.09
0.084
0.078
0.072
0.066
0.06
0.054
0.048
0.042
0.036
0.035
0.03
0.024
0.017
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.105
0.10
0.095
0.09
0.085
0.08
0.075
0.07
0.065
0.06
0.055
0.05
0.045
0.04
0.035
0.03
0.029
0.025
0.02
0.014
53
Table 2.5
Bar
deslgnation
number
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ll
14
18
Weight
per foot
(lb)
0.376
0.668
1.043
l.502
2.044
2.670
3.400
4303
5.313
7.65
13.60
Crosssectional
area, A b (ln.2 )
Perimeter
(in.)
0.375 (10)
0.500 (l3)
0.625 (16)
0.750 (19)
0.875 (22)
1.000 (25)
1.128 (29)
l.270 (32)
1.410 (36)
1.693 (43)
2.257 (57)
0.11
0.20
0.31
0.44
0.60
0.79
1.00
1.27
1.56
2.25
4.00
1.178
1.57 l
1.963
2.356
2.749
3.142
3.544
3.990
4.430
5.32
7.09
and are welded Logether at intersections. Table 2.4 presenLs gcometrical properties for
sorne standard wire reinforcement.
For most mild steels, tbe bebavior is assumed to be elastoplastic and Young's modulus is caken as 29 x 106 psi (200 x 106 MPa). Table 2.3 prcsents the reinforcementgrade
strengths, and Table 2.5 presents geometrical properties of thc various sizes of bars.
2.7 PRESTRESSING REINFORCEMENT
2.7.1 Types of Reinforcement
Becausc of the high creep and shrinkage losses in concrete, effcctive prestressing can be
achieved by using very highstreugth steels in the range of 270,000 psi or more (1,862
MPa or higher). Such bighstressed steels are able Lo countcrbalance these losses in the
Photo 2.6 Prestressed concrete Valdez aoating dock. Designed by ABAM Engincers. built in two pieces in Tacoma, Washington, Lhen towcd to Alaska by deploymenl. (Co11rtesy, ABAM Engineers, Tacoma. Washington.)
54
Chapter 2
surrounding concrete and have adequate leftover stress levels to sustain the required prestressing force. The magnitude of normal prestress losses can be expected to be in the
range of 35,000 to 60,000 psi (241to414 MPa). The initial prestress would thus have to be
very high, on the arder of 180,000 to 220,000 psi (1,241 to 1,517 MPa). From the aforementioned magnitude of prestress losses, it can be inferred that normal steels with yield
strengths fy = 60,000 psi (414 MPa) would have little prestressing stress left after losses,
obviating the need for using very highstrength steels for prestressing concrete members.
Prestressing reinforcement can be in the form of single wires, strands composed of
severa} wires twisted to form a single element, and highstrength bars. Three types commonly used in the United States are:
Uncoated stressrelieved or lowrelaxation wires.
Uncoated stressrelieved strands and lowrelaxation strands.
Uncoated highstrength steel bars.
Wires or strands that are not stressrelieved, such as the straightened wires or oiltempered wires often used in other countries, exhibit higher relaxation losses than stressrelieved wires or strands. Consequently, it is important to account for the appropriate
magnitude of losses once a determination is made on the type of prestressing steel required.
Stressrelieved wires are colddrawn single wires conforming to ASTM standard A421;
stressrelieved strands conform to ASTM standard A 416. The strands are made from
seven wires by twisting six of them on a pitch of 12 to 16wire diameter around a slightly
larger, straight control wire. Stressrelieving is done after the wires are woven into the
strand. The geometrical properties of the wires and strands as required by ASTM are
given in Tables 2.6 and 2.7, respectively.
To maximize the steel area of the 7wire strand for any nominal diameter, the standard wire can be drawn through a die to form a compacted strand as shown in Figure
2.17(b ); this is opposed to the standard 7 wire strand in Figure 2.17(a). ASTM standard A
779 requires the minimum strengths and geometrical properties given in Table 2.8.
Figure 2.18(a) shows a typical stressstrain diagram for wire and strand prestressing
steels, while Figure 2.18(b) shows values relative to those of mild steel.
Table 2.6
Min. stress at 1%
extension (psi)
Nominal
diameter (in.)
Type BA
TypeWA
Type BA
0.192
0.196
240,000
250,000
250,000
204,000
0.250
240,000
240,000
0.276
235,000
235,000
TypeWA
212,500
204,000
199,750
212,500
204,000
199,750
55
Nominal
diameter of
strand (in.)
Nominal steel
area of strand
(sq in.)
Breaking strength
of strand
(min. lb)
Nominal weight
of strands
{lb per 1000 ft)*
Minimum load
at 1% extension
{lb)
122
197
272
367
490
737
7,650
12,300
17,000
23,000
30,600
45,900
290
390
520
740
19,550
26,350
35,100
49,800
GRADE250
t(0.250)
&(0.313)
i(0.375)
k(0.438
!(0.500)
Ho.600)
9,000
14,500
20,000
27,000
36,000
54,000
0.036
0.058
0.080
0.108
0.144
0.216
GRADE270
i(0.375)
k{0.438)
!(0.500)
H0.600)
23,000
31,000
41,300
58,600
0.085
0.115
0.153
0.217
Hightensilestrength alloy steel bars for prestressing are either smooth or deformed, and
are available in nominal diameters from i in. (19 mm) to Hin. (35 mm). They must conform to ASTM standard A 722. Cold drawn in order to raise their yield strength, these
bars are stress relieved as well to increase their ductility. Stress relieving is achieved by
heating the bar to an appropriate temperature, generally below 500C. Though essentially the same stressrelieving process is employed for bars as for strands, the tensile
strength of prestressing bars has to be a minimum of 150,000 psi (1,034 MPa), with a minimum yield strength of 85 percent of the ultimate strength for smooth bars and 80 percent
for deformed bars.
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.17 Standard and compacted 7wire prestressing strands. (a) Standard
strand section. (b) Compacted strand section.
56
Chapter 2
Table 2.8
Nominal
diameter (in.)
Nominal
Breaking strength
of strand (min. lb)*
Nominal
steel area
(in. 2 )
Nominal weight
of strand
(per 1,000 ftlb)
47,000
67,440
85,430
0.174
0.256
0.346
600
873
1176
0.6
0.7
Table 2.9 lists the geometrical properties of the prestressing bas as required by
ASTM standard A 722, and Figure 2.18 shows a typical stressstrain diagram for such
bars.
2.7.4 Steel Relaxation
Stress relaxation in prestressing steel is the loss of prestress when the wires or strands are
subjected to essentially constant strain. It is identical to creep in concrete, except that
creep is a change in strain whereas steel relaxation is a loss in steel stress. Where t = time,
~ 150
~
ci
100
Strand EP = 27.5 X 106 psi
Wire EP = 29.0 X 106 psi
Bar EP = 27.0 X 106 psi (186.2 X 103 MPa)
50
1% Elongation
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
Strain
Figure 2.1 Sa
in/in
57
'1Es:
240
1
1
1
200
160
"'o
X
'Cii
c.
140
en
en
120
C...,
100
............
.....Q.
fs
...........
fy 
40
0.04
0.02
0.06
0.08
(in.fin.)
Strain
Figure 2.18(b) StressStrain Diagram for Prestressing Steel Strands in Comparison with Mild Steel Bar Reinforcement.
in hours, after prestressing, the loss of stress dueto relaxation in stressrelieved wires and
strands can be evaluated from the expression
flfR
Table 2.9
log t (pi
)
fpi W
fpy  .55
(2.18)
Bar type*
Smooth Alloy
Steel Grade
145or160
(ASTMA722)
Deformed
Bars
Nominal
diameter (in.)
Nominal
steel area (in. 2 )
0.750
0.875
1.000
1.125
1.250
1.375
0.625
1.000
1.250
0.442
0.601
0.785
0.994
1.227
1.485
0.280
0.852
1.295
58
Chapter 2
.....................

___...__
Lowrelaxation

~~
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Time (hours)
Figure 2.19 Relaxation loss vs. time for stressrelieved lowrelaxation prestressing steels at 70 percent of the ultimate. ( Courtesy, PostTensioning lnstitute.)
provided that fp/fpy ~ 0.55 and fpy 0.85 fpu for stressrelieved strands and 0.90 far lowrelaxation strands. Also, fp; = 0.82 fpy immediately after transfer but fp;::; 0.74 fpu for pretensioned, and 0.70 fpu for posttensioned, concrete. In general, fp; =0.70 fpuIt is possible to decrease stress relaxation loss by subjecting strands that are initially
stressed to 70 percent of their ultimate strength fpu to temperatures of 20C to lOOC far
an extended time in order to produce a permanent elongationa process called stabilization. The prestressing steel thus produced is termed lowrelaxation steel and has a relaxation stress loss that is 25 percent of that of normal stressrelieved steel.
The expression far stress relaxation in lowrelaxation prestressing steels is
flfR
fp;
log t ([P;
45 v;; 
0.55
(2.19)
Figure 2.19 shows the relative relaxation loss far stressrelieved and lowrelaxation steels far 7wire strands held at constant length at 29.5C.
2. 7 .5 Corros ion and Deterioration of Strands
Protection against corrosion of prestressing steel is more critica! than in the case of nonprestressed steel. Such precaution is necessary since the strength of the prestressed concrete element is a function of the prestressing force, which in turn is a function of the
prestressing tendon area. Reduction of the prestressing steel area due to corrosion can
drastically reduce the nominal moment strength of the prestressed section, which can
lead to premature failure of the structural system. In pretensioned members, protection
against corrosion is provided by the concrete surrounding the tendon, provided that adequate concrete cover is available. In posttensioned members, protection can be obtained
by full grouting of the ducts after prestressing is completed or by greasing.
Another form of wire or strand deterioration is stress corrosion, which is characterized by the formation of microscopic cracks in the steel which lead to brittleness and fail
59
ure. This type of reduction in strength can occur only under very high stress and, though
infrequent, is difficult to prevent.
2.8 ACI MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE ANO REINFORCEMENT
Following are definitions of sorne important mathematical terms used in this section:
fpy = specified yield strength of prestressing tendons, in psi
fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, in psi
fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons, in psi
f ~ = specified compressive strength of concrete, in psi
f ~; = compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress
2.8.1 Concrete Stresses in Flexure
Stresses in concrete immediately after prestress transfer (befare timedependent prestress losses) shall not exceed the following:
(a) Extreme fiber stress in compression ............................... .
0.60 f~
3\ii:;
6\ii:;
(e) Extreme fiber stress in tension at ends of simply supported members ... .
Where computed tensile stresses exceed these values, bonded auxiliary reinforcement
(nonprestressed or prestressed) shall be provided in the tensile zone to resist the total
tensile force in concrete computed under the assumption of an uncracked section.
Stresses in concrete at service loads ( after allowance for all prestress losses) shall
not exceed the following:
(a) Extreme fiber stress in compression due to prestress plus sustained load,
where sustained dead load and live load are a large part of the total
service load ................................................... .
(b) Extreme fiber stress in compression dueto prestress plus total load, if the
live load is transient ............................................ .
(e) Extreme fiber stress in tension in precompressed tensile zone ......... .
(d) Extreme fiber stress in tension in precompressed tensile zone of members
0.45 f~
0.60f~
6v7:
12v11;
but not greater than the lesser of 0.80 fpu and the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of prestressing tendons or anchorages.
(b) Immediately after prestress transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
but not greater than 0.74 fw
(e) Posttensioning tendons, at anchorages and couplers, immediately after
tendon anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.94 fpy
0.82 fpy
O. 70 fpu
60
Chapter 2
Compression
Pretensioned members ........................................ . 0.60[~;
Posttensioned members ...................................... . 0.55 f~;
Tension
Precompressed tensile zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No temporary
allowable stresses are specified.
Other Areas
In tension areas with no bonded reinforcement ................. 200 psi or 3 ~
Where the calculated tensile stress exceeds this value, bonded reinforcement
shall be provided to resist the total tension force in the concrete computed on
the assumption of an uncracked section. The maximum tensile stress shall not exceed ........................................................... 7.5~
2.9.2 Concrete Stresses at Service Load after Losses
Compression ................................................... .
Tension in the precompressed tensile zone
(a) For members with bonded reinforcement .................... .
For severe corrosive exposure conditions, such as coastal areas ..
(b) For members without bonded reinforcement ................. .
0.40 f ~
6Vf;
3~
7.5~
6.3~
5.5~
0.70 fpu
Hence for 270 K tendons used in the book, fp; at transfer = 0.70 x 270,000 = 189,000 psi
(1300 MPa) is applied for uniformity.
2.9.4 Relative Humidity Values
Figure 2.20 gives the mean annual relative humidity values for all regions in the United
States in percent, to be used for evaluating shrinkage losses in concrete.
Figure 2.20
61
62
Chapter 2
l ~"
q, strand
[ h   S t r a n d chuck
Center hale
hydraulic jack
~Strandchuck
anchors
Harped strand
group
In posttensioning, the strands, wires, or bars are tensioned after hardening of the concrete. The strands are placed in the longitudinal ducts within the precast concrete ele
63
Vertical
bulkhead
Harping
holdup point
Prestressing
bed slab
Figure 2.22
Harping
holddown point
Precast
concrete element
ment. Thc prestressing force is transferred through end anchorages such as the Supreme
Products chucks shown in Figure 2.24. The tendons of strands should not be bonded or
grouted prior to fu ll prestressing.
2.10.3 Jacking Systems
One of the fundamental components of a prestressing operation is the jacking system applied, i.e., the manner in whicb tbe prestressing force is transfcrred to the steel tendons.
Such a force is applied tbrougb the use of hydraulic jacks of capacity 10 to 20 tons and a
stroke from 6 to 48 in., depeoding on wbetber pretensioning or posttensioning is used
and whether individual tendons are being prestrcssed or ali the tendons are being
stressed simultaneously. In the latter case, largecapacity jacks are necded, with a stroke
of at least 30 in. (762 mm). Of course, tbe cost will be higher than sequential tensioning.
Figure 2.28 shows a 500ton multistrand jack for simultaneous jacking through a center
hole.
Figure 2.23
64
Chapter 2
In order to provide permaneot protection for the posttensioned steel aod to develop a
bond between che prestressing steel and the surrounding concrete, the prestressing ducts
have to be filled under pressure with the appropriate cement grout in an injection process.
2.10.4.1 Grouting materiaIs
l. Ponland Cemeot. Portland cement should conform to one of the following specifications: ASTM C150, Type I, II, or Ill.
(c)
Figure 2.24 (a) Stress Strand Anchor, (b) Monostrand anchor, (c) Suprema
Products anchorage chuck. (Courtesy, PostTensioning lnstitute.)
65
(d)
(e)
(f)
Figure 2.24 (continued) Multiple anchorages, couplers and ductile connectors (Courtesy Dywidag Sysems lnternational): (d) Multiple anchorage, (e) Coupler, (f) Dywidag ductile connectors
(DDC) for ductlle precast beamcolumn connections in seismic zones. See also details in Figures
13.9and 13.10.
66
Chapter 2
Figure 2.25
Cement used for grouting should be fresh and should not contain any Jumps
or other indications of hydration or " pack set."
2. Water. T he water used in the grout should be potable. clean, and free of injurious
quantities of substances known to be harmful to portland cement or prestressing
steel.
3. Admixtures. Admixtures. if used. should impart the properties of low water content, good flow, mnimum bleed, and expansion if desired. Their formulation
should contain no chemicals in quantities that may have a harmful effect on tbe prestressiog steel or cement. Admixtures containing chlorides (as Cl in excess of 0.5
percent by weighL of admixture, assuming l lb of admixture per sack of cement),
fl uorides, sulphites, or nitrales should nol be used. AJuminum powder o( the proper
fineness and quantity, or any other approved gasevolving material whicb is well
dispersed through the other admixture, may be used to obtain 5 to 10 percent unrestrained expansion of the grout (see Refs. 2.11, 2.38).
2.10.4.2 Ducts
l. Forming.
(a) Formed Ducts. Ducts formed by sheath left in place should be of a type that
does not permit the entrance of cement paste. They should transfer bond
Figure 2.26 lntermediate connections between trames of the prestressing system for continuous beams (Nawy et al.).
67
LA
1"
j
1"
r
(a)
k24'2"+'~
~___..Ejt
(b)
AA
Figure 2.27 Dimensioning details of the pretensioning or posttensioning laboratory system used for research at Rutgers (Nawy et al.).
stresses as required and should retain their shape under the weight of the concrete. Metallic sheaths should be of a ferrous metal, and they may be galvanized.
(b) Cored Ducts. Cored ducts should be formed with no constrictions which would
tend to block the passage of grout. All coring material should be removed.
68
Chapter 2
2. Grout Openings or Vents. Ali ducts should have grout openings at botb ends. For
draped cables, all high points should ha ve a grout vent except where the cable curvature is small, such as in continuous slabs. Grout vents or drain boles should be
provided at low poiots if the tendon is to be placed, stressed, aod grouted in a freezing climate. All grout openings or vents shouJd include provisions for preventing
grout leakage.
3. Duct Size. For tendons made up of a plurality of wires, bars, or strands, tbe duct
area should be at least twke the nel area of the prestressing steel. For tendons
made up of a single wire, bar, or strand, the duct diameter should be al leasttin.
larger than the nominal diameter of the wire, bar, or strand.
4. Placement of Ducts. After the placement of ducts, reinforcement, and forming are
complete, an inspection should be made to locate possible duct damage. Ducts
should be securely fastened at close enough intervals to avoid displacement during
concreting. Ali boles or openings in tbe duct must be repaired prior lo placement of
concrete. Grout openings and vents must be securely anchored to the duct and to
69
either lhe forms or the reinforcing steel, to prevent displacement during concreteplacing operations.
2.10.4.3 Grouting Process
l. Ducts with concrete walls (cored ducts) should be flushed to ensurc that Lhc con2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Figure 2.29 Prestressing of preload circular tank. (Courtesy, N.A. Legates, Preload Technology, lnc., New York.)
70
Chapter 2
The fallowing ten principles are taken from Abeles (Ref. 2.32) and applicable not only to
prestressing concrete but to any endeavor that the engineer is called upan to undertake:
l. You cannot have everything. (Each solution has advantages and disadvantages that
have to be tallied and traded off against each other.)
2. You cannot have something far nothing. (One has to pay in one way ar another far
something which is offered as a "free gift" into the bargain, notwithstanding a solution's being optimal far the problem.)
3. It is never too late (e.g., to alter a design, to strengthen a structure befare it collapses, or to adjust ar even change principles previously employed in the light of increased knowledge and experience ).
4. There is no progress without considered risk. (While it is important to ensure sufficient safety, overconservatism can never lead to an understanding of novel structures.)
5. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. (This is in direct connection with the previous principle indicating the necessity of tests.)
6. Simplicity is always an advantage, but beware of oversimplification. (The latter may
lead to theoretical calculations which are not always correct in practice, or to a failure to cover all conditions.)
7. Do not generalize, but rather qualify the specific circumstances. (Serious misunderstandings may be caused by unreserved generalizations.)
8. The important question is how good, not how cheap an item is. (A cheap price
given by an inexperienced contractor usually results in bad work; similarly, cheap,
unproved appliances may have to be replaced.)
9. We live and learn. (It is always possible to increase one's knowledge and experience.)
10. There is nothing completely new. (Nothing is achieved instantaneously, but only by
stepbystep development.)
SELECTED REFERENCES
2.1 American Society for Testing and Materials. Annual book of ASTM Standards: Part 14, Concrete
and Mineral Aggregates. Philadelphia: ASTM, 1994.
2.2 Popovices, S. ConcreteMaking Materials. New York: McGrawHill, 1979, 1997.
2.3 ACI Committee 221. "Selection and Use of Aggregate for Concrete." Journal of the American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1992.
References
71
2.4 American Concrete lnstitute, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, 2008. Materials. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2009.
2.5 Portland Cement Association. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, 13th ed. PCA, Skokie, Ill.,
1994.
2.6 ACI Committee 212. "Admixtures for Concrete," in ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 1983. ACI,
Farmington Hills, MI, 1995, ACI 212.1 R81.
2.7 Nawy, E. G., Ukadike, M. M., and Sauer, J. A. "High Strength Field Modified Concretes," Journal
of the Structural Division, ASCE, 103, No. ST12, December 1977, 23072322.
2.8 American Concrete Institute. Superplasticizers in Concrete, ACI Special Publication SP62. ACI,
Farmington Hills, MI, 1979.
2.9 ACI Committee 211. "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and
Mass Concrete," ACI 211.192. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1992.
2.10 ACI Committee 211. "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete," ACI 211.192. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
2.11 Nawy, E. G. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach. PrenticeHall, Inc., Upper Saddle
River, NJ, 6th ed., 2009, 936 p.
2.12 ACI Committee 318. "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31808) and
Commentary (318 R08) American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2005, pp. 442.
2.13 American Society for Testing and Materials. Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and
Concrete Making Materials, Special Technical Publication 169B. ASTM, Philadelphia, 1978.
2.14 Ross, A. D. "The Elasticity, Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete," in Proceedings of the Conference
on Nonmetallic Brittle Materials. Interscience Publishers, London, 1958.
2.15 Neville, A. M. Properties of Concrete, 4th ed. Pitman Books, London, 1996.
2.16 Freudenthal, A. M., and Roll, F. "Creep and Creep Recovery of Concrete under High Compressive Stress," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Proc. 54, Farmington Hills, MI, June 1958,
11111142.
2.17 Ross, A. D., "Creep Concrete Data," Proceedings, Institution of Structural Engineers, London,
1937, 314326.
2.18 Branson, D. E. Deformation of Concrete Structures. New York, McGrawHill, 1977.
2.19 Branson, D. E. "Compression Steel Effects on Long Term Deflections," Journal of the American
Concrete Institute, Proc. 68, Farmington Hills, MI, August 1971, 555559.
2.20 Mindess, S., and Young, J. F. Concrete. Upper Saddle River, N.J., PrenticeHall, lnc., 1981.
2.21 Nawy, E. G., and Balaguru, P. N. "High Strength Concrete," Chapter 5 in Handbook of Structural
Concrete. London: Pitman Books, McGrawHill, New York, 1983, pp. 51to533.
2.22 Mehta, P. Kumar. ConcreteStructure, Properties, and Materials, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1993.
2.23 American Society for Testing and Materials. "Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain
BilletSteel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, A6 1579." ASTM, Philadelphia, 1980, 588599.
2.24 American Society for Testing and Materials. "Standard Specification for RailSteel Deformed and
Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, A61679." ASTM, Philadelphia, 1980, 600605.
2.25 American Society for Testing and Materials. "Standard Specification for Axle Steel Deformed and
Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, A6 l 779." ASTM, Philadelphia, 1980, 607611.
2.26 American Society for Testing and Materials. "Standard Specification for ColdDrawn Steel Wire
for Concrete Reinforcement, AS 279." ASTM, Philadelphia, 1980, 154157.
2.27 American Society for Testing and Materials. "Standard Specification for LowAlloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, A70679." ASTM, Philadelphia, 1980, 755760.
2.28 ACIASCE Committee 423, "Recommendation for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons" (ACI 423.3R83). Concrete International 5 (1983): 6176.
2.29 PostTensioning Institute. "Guide Specifications for PostTensioning Materials." In PostTensioning Manual, 5th ed. PostTensioning Institute, Phoenix, Ariz., 2000.
2.30 AASHTO. Standard Specifications far Highway Bridges, 17th ed. American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 2002.
72
Chapter 2
2.31 Nawy, E. G .. and Potyondy, J. G. "Momenl Rotation. Cracking. and Delection of Spirally Bound
Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams." E11gi11eeri11g Researc/1 8111/etin No. 51. New
Brunswick. N.J.: Bureau of Engineering Rcscarch. Rutgers University, 1970, pp. 1 97.
2.32. A beles, P. W., and BardhanRoy, B. K. Presiressed Concrete Designers 1Jandbook. 3d ed. London:
can Socicty of Civil Engineers, New York, Dec. J994, pp. 34563470.
2.38 Nawy, E. G. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete, 2nd cd. John Wiley & Sons, New York,
2001, pp. 460.
2.39 Nawy, E. G .. EditorinChief, Concrete Constrttction Engineering Ha11dbook. Boca Raton, FL:
CRC Press, 1998. 1250 p.
Photo 2.8 Route 35, Yiclory Bridge over the Rarilan Rivcr. connecting Perth Amboy and Sayerville, New Jersey. A variable depth precasl segmenta( concrete bridge with spans of
330'440'330' built in balanccd cantilever, the main 440 ft. span being the longest precast cantilever segmenta( conslruction in the Uaited States. (Courtcsy of FIGG, the bridge designcr)
3.1 INTRODUCTION
It is a wellestablished fact that tbe initial prestressing force applied to lhe concrete ele
73
Chapter 3
74
Table 3.1
f~ = 4,000 psi
(27.6 N/mm2 )
Type of
prestressing steel
Pretensioning strand
Posttensioning wire or strand
Bars
Losses due to friction are excluded. Such losses should be computed according to Section 6.5 of the
AASHTO specifications.
lfpT
Table 3.2
lfpES
(3.la)
Slabs
Bar
Note: This table of approximate prestress losses was developed to provide a common posttensioning industry basis for determining tendon requirements on projects in which the magnitude of prestress losses
is not specified by the designer. These loss values are based on use of normalweight concrete and on average values of concrete strength, prestress leve], and exposure conditions. Actual values of losses may
vary significantly above or below the table values where the concrete is stressed at low strengths, where
the concrete is highly prestressed, or in very dry or very wet exposure conditions. The table values do not
include losses due to friction.
Source: PostTensioning Institute.
75
Type of
prestress loss
Elastic shortening of
concrete (ES)
Relaxation of tendons (R)
Creep of concrete (CR)
Shrinkage of concrete (SH)
Friction (F)
Anchorage seating loss (A)
Total
Pretensioned
members
Posttensioned
members
At transfer
At sequential
jacking
Before and
after transfer
After transfer
After transfer
Life
where AfpR
t0
t1,
t5
Total or
during lite
f:..fpES
After transfer
After transfer
After transfer
Atjacking
At transfer
f:..fpR(f, t)
t:..fpc(t, t)
t:..fps(t;, t)
Life
t:..fn(t;, t)
f:..fpR
f:..fpcR
f:..fpSH
f:..fpF
t:..fpA
f:..fpT
Hence, computations for steel relaxation loss have to be performed for the time interval
t 1 through t2 of the respective loading stages.
As an example, the transfer stage, say, at 18 h would result in t1, = t2 = 18 h and
t0 = t 1 =O. If the next loading stage is between transfer and 5 years (17,520 h), when losses
are considered stabilized, then t2 = ts = 17 ,520 h and t 1 = 18 h. Then, if fp; is the initial prestressing stress that the concrete element is subjected to and fpJ is the jacking stress in the
tendon, then
(3.lb)
(ii) Posttensioned Members
AfpT
AfpA
(3.lc)
where AfpES is applicable only when tendons are jacked sequentially, and not simultaneously.
In the posttensioned case, computation of relaxation loss starts between the transfer time t 1 = t1, and the end of the time interval t2 under consideration. Hence
(3.ld)
3.2 ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE (ES)
Concrete shortens when a prestressing force is applied. As the tendons that are bonded
to the adjacent concrete simultaneously shorten, they lose part of the prestressing force
that they carry.
3.2.1 Pretensioned Elements
Far pretensioned (precast) elements, the compressive force imposed on the beam by the
tendon results in the longitudinal shortening of the beam, as shown in Figure 3.1. The
unit shortening in concrete is EEs = AEslL, so
Chapter 3
76
Tendon
Figure 3.1 Elastic shortening. (a) Unstressed beam. (b} Longitudinally shortened beam.
fe
Ec
EES = 
P;
AcEc
(3.2a)
= 
!ifpES
nP;
EsP;
EsEEs =A E =A= nfcs
(3.2b)
The stress in the concrete at the centroid of the steel due to the initial prestressing is
P;
cs =A
(3.3)
If the tendon in Figure 3.1 has an eccentricity e at the beam midspan and the selfweight
moment M D is taken in to account, the stress the concrete undergoes at the midspan section at the level of the prestressing steel becomes
cs
P; (
= 
2
)
Ac 1 + r2 +
Mve
T
(3.4)
where P; has a lower value after transfer of prestress. The small reduction in the value of
P1 to P; occurs because the force in the prestressing steel immediately after transfer is less
than the initial jacking prestress force P1 . However, since it is difficult to accurately determine the reduced value of P;, and since observations indicate that the reduction is only a
few percentage points, it is possible to use the initial value of P; before transfer in Equations 3.2 through 3.4, or reduce it by about 10 percent for refinement if desired.
3.2.1.1 Elastic shortening loss in pretensioned beams
Example 3.1
A pretensioned prestressed beam has aspan of 50 ft (15.2 m), as shown in Figure 3.2. For this
beam,
f~ =
fpu
Eps
10 
= 10
0.153
27
77
1
r
+;;~:;+
50'~
1.
D
TH
.1
(15.2 m)
T3o"
_L
_t62mm)
15"
(381 mm)
Section 11
Figure 3.2
Calculate the concrete fiber stresses at transfer at the centroid of the tendon for the midspan
section of the beam, and the magnitude of loss in prestress due to the effect of elastic shortening of the concrete. Assume that prior to transfer, the jacking force on the tendon was
75% pu
Solution:
Ac
I
= 15
30
= 450 in. 2
15(30)3
4
= 12 = 33750in.
e
'
r2
Aps
ee
. 2
= Je = 75m.
Ac
= 10
0.153
= 1.53 in. 2
30
= 2  4 = 11 in .
P; = 0.75fpuAps = 0.75
MD =
wl
15 X 30
X
144
270,000
(50)
1.53 = 309,825 lb
15~ X
12 = 1,757,813 in.lb
From Equation 3.4, the concrete fiber stress at the steel centroid of the beam at the
moment of transfer, assuming that P; P1 , is
P;(
MDe
28 days' strength Ec
28 days' modular ratio n
27 X 106
= 7.06
3.824 X 106
= 57,000V6,00Q = 4.415
27 X 106
X
4 15 106
= .4
X 106
psi
= 6.12
X 106 psi
Chapter 3
78
In posttensioned beams, the elastic shortening loss varies from zero if all tendons are
jacked simultaneously to half the value calculated in the pretensioned case if several sequential jacking steps are used, such as jacking two tendons ata time. If nis the number
of tendons or pairs of tendons sequentially tensioned, then
(3.5)
where j denotes the number of jacking operations. Note that the tendon that was tensioned last <loes not suffer any losses due to elastic shortening, while the tendon that was
tensioned first suffers the maximum amount of loss.
3.2.2.1 Elastic shortening loss in posttensioned beam
Example 3.2
Salve Example 3.1 if the beam is posttensioned and the prestressing operation is such
that
(a) Two tendons are jacked at a time.
(b) One tendon is jacked ata time.
(e) Ali tendons are simultaneously tensioned.
Solution:
(a) From Example 3.1, 11fpE = 8,659.2 psi. Clearly, the last tendon suffers no loss of pre
stress due to elastic shortening. So only the first four pairs have losses, with the first
pair suffering the maximum loss of 8,659.2 psi. From Equation 3.5, the loss dueto elastic shortening in the posttensioned beam is
/::;.fpES =
~~
/::;.fpES =
(b)
45
90
(8,659.2)
.
(8,659.2) = 4,330 psi (29.9 MPa)
In both cases the loss in prestressing in the posttensioned beam is half that of the pretensioned beam.
(e) /::;.fpES = 0
Stressrelieved tendons suffer loss in the prestressing force due to constant elongation
with time, as discussed in Chapter 2. The magnitude of the decrease in the prestress depends not only on the duration of the sustained prestressing force, but also on the ratio
79
fp/fpy of the initial prestress to the yield strength of the reinforcement. Such a loss in
stress is termed stress relaxation. The ACI 31805 Code limits the tensile stress in the prestressing tendons to the following:
(a) Far stresses due to the tendon jacking force, fp 1 = 0.94 f PY' but not greater than the
lesser of 0.80 fpu and the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of the
tendons and anchorages.
(b) Immediately after prestress transfer, fp; = 0.82 fPY' but not greater than 0.74 fpu
(e) In posttensioned tendons, at the anchorages and couplers immediately after force
transfer = 0.70 fw
The range of values of fpy is given by the following:
Prestressing bars: fpy = 0.80 fpu
Stressrelieved tendons: fpy = 0.85 fpu
Lowrelaxation tendons: fpy = 0.90 fpu
If fpR is the remaining prestressing stress in the steel after relaxation, the following ex
(3.6)
In this expression, lag t in hours is to the base 10, fp/fpy exceeds 0.55, and t = t2  t1. Also,
far lowrelaxation steel, the denominator of the lag term in the equation is divided by 45
instead of 10. A plot of Equation 3.6 is given in Figure 3.3.
An approximation of the term (lag t2  lag t1) can be made in Equation 3.6 so that
lag t = log(t2  t1) without significant loss in accuracy. In that case, the stressrelaxation
loss becomes
il_fpR
(f;;
lag t
f;rlQ fpy  0.55
(3.7)
where f;; is the initial stress in steel to which the concrete element is subjected.
100
90
....e:
.,~
f.
~ =0.6
80
fpy
0.7
0.8
c.
.;__Q.
70
0.9
....Q.
60
50
10
100
1000
10,000
100,000
Time, hours
Chapter 3
80
If a stepbystep loss analysis is necessary, the loss increment at any particular stage
can be defined as
Llf,
pR
= f'. (log t2
pi
log
lQ
t) (f~f,  o55)
(3.8)
py
where t 1 is the time at the beginning of the interval and t2 is the time at the end of the interval from jacking to the time when the loss is being considered.
For low relaxation steel, the divider is 45 instead of 10 in Equation 3.8, as shown in
Equation 2.19.
3.3.1 Relaxation Loss Computation
Example 3.3
Find the relaxation loss in prestress at the end of 5 years in Example 3.1, assuming that relaxation loss from jacking to transfer, from elastic shortening, and from longterm loss due to
creep and shrinkage over this period is 20 percent of the initial prestress. Assume also that
the yield strengthfpy = 230,000 psi (1,571 MPa).
Solution:
0.75
270,000
= (1  0.20)
365
)
log 44,000 (162,000 _
_
230 ,000 0.55
10
 162,000
= 162,000
0.4643
The ACIASCE method uses the separate contributions of elastic shortening, creep, and
shrinkage in the evaluation of the steel stressrelaxation loss by means of the equation
LlfpR
The values of K,& J, and C are given in Tables 3.4 and 3.5.
Experimental work over the past half century indicates that flow in materials occurs with
time when load or stress exists. This lateral flow or deformation due to the longitudinal
stress is termed creep. A more detailed discussion is given in Ref. 3.9. It must be emphasized that creep stresses and stress losses result only from sustained loads during the loading history of the structural element.
81
Table 3.4
Values of C
fp/fpu
Stressrelieved
strand or wire
Stressrelieved bar
or lowrelaxation
strand or wire
1.45
1.36
1.27
1.18
1.09
1.00
0.94
0.89
0.83
0.78
0.73
0.68
0.63
0.58
0.53
0.49
1.28
1.22
1.16
1.11
1.05
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.66
0.61
0.57
0.53
0.49
0.45
0.41
0.37
0.33
0.80
0.79
0.78
0.77
0.76
0.75
0.74
0.73
0.72
0.71
0.70
0.69
0.68
0.67
0.66
0.65
0.64
0.63
0.62
0.61
0.60
Table 3.5
Values of
KRE
and J
Type of tendon
KRE
20,000
18,500
17,600
5,000
4,630
4,400
6,000
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.040
0.037
0.035
0.05
Chapter 3
82
EcR
e=EEL
(3.9a)
e= 10 + t0.60 eu
t
(3.9b)
or
(3.llb)
Compute the loss in prestress due to creep in Example 3.1 given that the total superimposed
load, excluding the beam's own weight after transfer, is 375 plf (5.5 kN/m).
Solution:
57,000
\/6,00o =
n = Es = 27.0 X 10 = 6_12
4.415 X 106
Ec
MSD
375(50)2
X 12
8
83
csd
Msne
;=
l,406,250 X 11
,
33 750
.
458.3 psi (3.2 MPa)
/1fpcR
As with concrete creep, the magnitude of the shrinkage of concrete is affected by several
factors. They include mixture proportions, type of aggregate, type of cement, curing time,
time between the end of externa! curing and the application of prestressing, size of the
member, and the environmental conditions. Size and shape of the member also affect
shrinkage. Approximately 80 percent of shrinkage takes place in the first year of life of
the structure. The average value of ultimate shrinkage strain in both moistcured and
steamcured concrete is given as 780 x 106 in.fin. in ACI 209 R92 Report. This average
value is affected by the length of initial moist curing, ambient relative humidity, volumesurface ratio, temperature, and concrete composition. To take such effects into account,
the average value of shrinkage strain should be multiplied by a correction factor 'YsH as
follows
EsH =
780
10 6 'YsH
(3.12)
Components of 'YsH are factors for various environmental conditions and tabulated in
Ref. 3.12, Sec. 2.
The Prestressed Concrete Institute stipulates for standard conditions an average
value for nominal ultimate shrinkage strain (EsH)u = 820 x 106 in.fin. (mm/mm),
(Ref. 3.4). If EsH is the shrinkage strain after adjusting for relative humidity at volumetosurface ratio VIS, the loss in prestressing in pretensioned member is
(3.13)
For posttensioned members, the loss in prestressing due to shrinkage is somewhat less
since sorne shrinkage has already taken place befare posttensioning. If the relative humidity is taken as a percent value and the VIS ratio effect is considered, the PCI general
expression for loss in prestressing due to shrinkage becomes
V)
(3.14)
10
20
30
60
0.92
0.85
0.80
0.77
0.73
0.64
0.58
0.45
Chapter 3
84
where Ks11 = 1.0 for pretensiooed members. Table 3.6 gives the values of Ks11 for postteosioned members.
Adjustment of shrinkage losses for standard conditions as a function of time t in
days after 7 days for moist curing and 3 days for steam curing can be obtained frorn the
following exprcssions
(a) Moist curing, after 7 days
(3.15a)
where (Es 11)., is the ultimate shrinkage strain, t =time in days after shrinkage is considered.
(b) Steam curing, after 1 to 3 days
{
(Es11)1
= 55 + 1 (esu)u
(3.15b)
85
Solution A
K5nmethod
Solution B
Timedependent method
= _ t _ EsH =  3 5
35 + t
u
+7
= EsH,t Es = 130
X 780 X 10 6
X 10 6 X 27 X 106
= 130
X 10 6 in/in
Loss of prestressing occurs in posttensioning members due to friction between the tendons and the surrounding concrete ducts. The magnitude of this loss is a function of the
tendon form or alignment, called the curvature effect, and the local deviations in the
alignment, called the wobble effect. The values of the loss coefficients are often refined
while preparations are made for shop drawings by varying the types of tendons and the
duct alignment. Whereas the curvature effect is predetermined, the wobble effect is the
result of accidental or unavoidable misalignment, since ducts or sheaths cannot be perfectly placed.
It should be noted that the maximum frictional stress loss would be at the far end of
the beam if jacking is from one end. Hence frictional loss varies linearly along the beam
span and can be interpolated for a particular location if such refinement in the computations is warranted.
3.6.1 Curvature Effect
As the tendon is pulled with a force F 1 at the jacking end, it will encounter friction with
the surrounding ductor sheath such that the stress in the tendon will vary from the jacking plane to a distance L along the span as shown in Figure 3.4. If an infinitesimal length
of the tendon is isolated in a freebody diagram as shown in Figure 3.5, then, assuming
that denotes the coefficient of friction between the tendon and the duct due to the curvature effect, we have
or
dF1
=,da
F1
(3.16a)
,a
(3.16b)
Chapter 3
86
Befo re
anchorage
.......
"'e:
:i
.!t
e:
.g
e:
!!.
Figure 3.4
If a = LIR, then
(3.17)
Suppose that K is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and the surrounding concrete due to wobble effect or length effect. Friction loss is caused by imperfection in
alignment along the length of the tendon, regardless of whether it has a straight or
draped alignment. Then by the same principles described in developing Equation 3.16,
logeF1
(3.18)
KL
Tendon
ld
(a)
P, = F 1 da
F~i:F
,~~,
da
<!;;]
F 1 da
F,
(b)
(e)
Figure 3.5 Curvature friction loss. (a) Tendon alignment. (b) Forces on infinitesimal length where F1 is at the jacking end. (c) Polygon of forces assuming F1 = F2
over the infinitesimal length in (b).
87
or
F2
(3.19)
F1eKL
f2
_ ne
: aKL
(3.20)
= !1  !2 =
f1(l 
ewKL)
(3.21)
Assuming that the prestress force between the start of the curved portian and its end is
small (=: 15 percent), it is sufficiently accurate to use the initial tension for the entire
curve in Equation 3.21. Equation 3.21 can thus be simplified to yield
1:1fpF
fi(a + KL)
(3.22)
where L is in feet.
Since the ratio of the depth of beam to its span is small, it is sufficiently accurate to
use the projected length of the tendon for calculating a. Assuming the curvature of the
tendon to be based on that of a circular are, the central angle a along the curved segment
in Figure 3.6 is twice the slope at either end of the segment. Hence,
a
m
2m
tan==2
x/2
X
If
1
y= m
and
a/2 = 4y/x
then
a = 8y/x radian
(3.23)
Table 3.7 gives the design values of the curvature friction coefficient and the wobble or
length friction coefficient K adopted from the ACI 318 Commentary.
3.6.3 Computation of Friction Loss
Example 3.6
Assume that the alignment characteristics of the tendons in the posttensioned beam of Example 3.2 are as shown in Figure 3.7. If the tendon is made of 7wire uncoated strands in flexible metal sheathing, compute the frictional loss of stress in the prestressing wires due to the
curvature and wobble effects.
Figure 3.6
Chapter 3
88
Table 3.7
Type of tendon
Wobble coefficient,
Kperfoot
Curvature
coefficient, .
0.00100.0015
0.00050.0020
0.00010.0006
0.150.25
0.150.25
0.080.30
0.0002
0.150.25
Masticcoated tendons
Wire tendons and 7wire strand
0.00100.0020
0.050.15
Pregreased tendons
Wire tendons and 7wire strand
0.00030.0020
0.050.15
Solution:
P; = 309,825 lb
fp;
309,825
l. 53
=  
.
202,500 psi
a. = ~ =
8 X 11
X
50 12
.
0.1467 radian
= 0.0020 and = 0.20. From Equation 3.22, the prestress loss dueto
!l.fpF
202,500(0.20
= 202,500
0.1467
0.1293
+ 0.0020
50)
~25'0"_______j
~50'0"
Figure 3.7
1%
(15.2 m)<oi
89
expected when the prestressing force is transferred to these beds. A remedy for this loss
can be easily effected during the stressing operations by overstressing. GeneraUy, the
magnitude of anchorageseating loss ranges between i in. and i in. (6.35 mm and 9.53
mm) for the twopiece wedges. The magnitude of the overstressing lhat is necessary depends on the anchorage system used since each system has its particular adjustment
needs, and the manufacturer is expected to supply the data on the slip expected due to
anchorage adjustment. If aA is the magnjtude of the slip, L is the tendon length, and Eps
is the modulus of the prestressing wires, tben the prestress loss due to anchorage slip
beco mes
(3.24)
= 27 X llf psi
AfpA =
""
X 27 X lv =
X
LAA Eps =SO0.25
12
Note that the percentage of loss dueto anchorage slip becomes very high in shortbeam elements and thus becomes of major significance in shortspan beams. In such cases, it becomes
difficult to posttension such beams with high accuracy.
Chapter 3
90
(b)
(a)
Figure 3.8 Change in beam longitudinal shape. (a) Dueto prestressing. (b) Due
to externa! load.
As the beam bends due to prestress or external load, it becomes convex or concave depending on the nature of the load, as shown in Figure 3.8. If the unit compressive strain in
the concrete along the level of the tendon is E0 then the corresponding change in prestress in the steel is
f)..fpB = EcEps
where Eps is the modulus of the steel. Note that any loss due to bending need not be
taken into consideration if the prestressing stress level is measured after the beam has already bent, as is usually the case.
Figure 3.9 presents a flowchart for stepbystep evaluation of timedependent prestress losses without deflection.
3.9 STEPBYSTEP COMPUTATION OF ALL TIMEDEPENDENT LOSSES
IN A PRETENSIONED BEAM
Example3.8
A simply supported pretensioned 70ftspan lightweight steamcured double Tbeam as
shown in Figure 3.10 is prestressed by twelve Hn. diameter (twelve 12.7 mm dia) 270K
grade stressrelieved strands. The strands are harped, and the eccentricity at midspan is 18.73
in. (476 mm) and at the end 12.98 in. (330 mm). Compute the prestress loss at the critica! section in the beam due to dead load and superimposed dead load. Assume the critica! section
to be at 0.40 L of the span considering that it can sometimes govern in cases of moving loads
and also in continuous spans.
(a) stage 1 at transfer
(b) stage 11 after concrete topping is placed
(e) two years after concrete topping is placed
Suppose the topping is 2 in. (51 mm) normalweight concrete cast at 30 days. Suppose also
that prestress transfer occurred 18 h after tensioning the strands. Given
f~ =
f~; =
cb
sb
START
t;,
Anchorageseating loss
AfpA =
LAA
Eps
Net fp;
=fp
 AfpA
Elasticshortening loss
_
f
es
P
=Ae
e2)
1+r2
e
+MJe0 
AfpES = 
fes
Ee;
Posttensioned
Sequential jacking
Af ES =
P
.!_
.
n ,.,
(AfpES)
Creep loss
Pretensioned
KcR = 2(X 0.8 for lightweight concrete)
Posttensioned
KcR = 1.6(X 0.8 for lightweight concrete)
. factor KcR = 2.35 ( t0.60
Alternat1ve
_)
060
10_ +t.
Figure 3.9
91
Chapter 3
92
Shrinkage loss
llfpSH =
0.06V/S)(100  RH)
K 5H
= 1 for pretensioned
KsH
Alternatively
(t)
EP, t + 35
55
moist curing
dfpR  fp
,
py
0.55
ll f
pR
= f .
pi
109 t (
10
fp;
fpy
0.55)
flfpT = flfpES
(ii) Posttensioned
flfpT = flfpA
Figure 3.9
Continued
93
e.=
ec
12rf=
18.7}" (476
mm)
#~g_cyL3118,";;ml
70'0"
(21.3
m)
(a)
r . v  . . v
1~~17!"
~1
l5'0"
.r
~
l+4: .
(b)
Figure 3.10
section.
Wv (no topping)
fp;
0.70fpu
0.82fpy
0.82
0.85fpu := 0.70fpu
28
103 MPa)
f;;
3,500 psi
106 psi
106 psi
Eci
Chapter 3
94
Wv~(L 
Mv
= 491 (2:}70
x)
 28)
P; = Ap/p; = 12
~
=
Ac
59 72
'
615
= 9711. in
 .=P;( l+
e )
Mve
t
+
cs
Ac
le
+ (17.58)
= _ 313,956 l
615
=
n=
2,135.2
Eps
Ec;
+ 3,464,496
97.11
17.58
59,720
= 28
X 1066 = 11.62
2.41 X 10
If fp; = 189,000 psi is used, then the net fp; = 189,000  12,958 = 176,042 psi, and we ha ve
cs
= 2,135.20
176,042
OOO
171 ,
vs. 12,985 psi in the refined solution, a small difference of 6 percent. Thus, an assumption of 10percent loss at the beginning in estimating P; 0.9P1 would have been adequate.
fpy
230,000 psi
fp; = 189,000 psi (or net fp; = 171,000 psi could be used)
t
18 hours
/::,.fpR  fp;
(log t2
= 189,000 (
log t1 ) (fp; _
)
O
,
0.55
py
log 18)(189,000
w230,000 
= 6,446.9 psi
0.55
= 6,447 psi
/::,.fpCR
/::,.fpSH = 0
The stage1 total losses are
95
The strand stress fp; at the end of stage 1=189,000  19,405 = 169,595 psi (1,169 MPa),
giving P; = 311,376 psi.
Ec = 2.88
106 psi
n =
Ec
fes
28 X 106
2.88 X 106
= 9.72
1,115.3 psi
WSD =
2
X 10 X 150 = 250 plf
12
Msv
csd
= Wsv
G)
MSDe
=  1 =
e
(L  x)
28
= 25o( 2 )
1,764,000 X 17.58
59 ' 720
(70  28) X 12
= 519.3 psi
Although 30 days' duration is short for longterm effects, sufficient approximation can
be justified in stage 11 using the creep factor KCR of Equation 3.11 to account for stage
III as well (see stage111 creep calculations).
For lightweight concrete, use KCR = 2.0 x 80% = 1.6. Then, from Equation 3.10, the
prestress loss due to longterm creep is
!ifpcR
= nKCR(Jcs
= 9.72
 lcsd)
X 1.6(1,115.3  519.3)
(b) Shrinkage Loss. Assume relative humidity RH = 70%. Then, from Equation 3.14, the
prestress loss due to longterm shrinkage is
!ifpSH = 8.2
RH)
615
t1 = 18 hours
t2
fps
= 30 days = 30
=
24
= 720 hours
!ifpR = 169,595 (
lifpT
= lifpcR +
!ifpsH + !ifpR
Chapter 3
96
fsv = nfcsd = 9.72
= 154,093(
)
log 17,520  log 720)(154,093
0,000  0.55
10
23
Summary of Stresses
Steel stress, psi
Percent
189,000
12,958
9,269
6,190
14,101
5,048
151,530 psi (1,045 MPa)
100.0
6.9
4.9
3.3
7.5
2.7
80.1
Percentages oftotal losses = 100 80.1=19.9%, say, 20% for this pretensioned beam.
l"
),_A=
L = 70 ft
0.25"
/),.A
Ep5 =
0.25
X
70 12
28
.
106 = 8333 psi (40.2 MPa)
97
(b) Elastic shortening. Since aJI jacks are simultaneously posttensioned, the elastic shortening will precipitate during jacking. As a rcsull, no clastic shortening stress loss takes
place in lhe tendons. Hence, .fpE.S =O.
(e) Frictional loss. Assume that the parabolic tendon approximates the shape of an are of
a circle. Then, from Equation 3.23,
8y
a = ~
8(18.73  12.98)
70
12
= 0.0548 radian
From Table 3.7. use K =0.001 and . =0.25. Then, from Example 3.8,
.fpF = fp,(.a
+ KL)
= 189,000(0.25 X
The stress remaining in the prestressing steel after all initial instantaneous losscs is
Photo 3.3 Linn Cove Viaduct. Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina. A 90 cantilever anda 10 percent superelevation in one direction to a full 10 percent in the
opposite direction within 180 ft. Designed by Figg and Muller Engineers, lnc.. Tallahassee, Florida. (Courtesy, Figg and Muller Engincers, lnc., now FIGG Engineers)
98
Chapter 3
)
log 18) (164,848
f:l.fpR = 164,848 ( lO
0,000  0.55
23
f:l.fpCR = 0
(d) Shrinkage Loss
f:l.fpSH
P; = 161,398
12 X 0.153 = 296,327 lb
2
_
P; (
e )
MDe
cs =  Ac 1 + r2 + ;
= _ 296,327 (
615
+ (17.58) 2 ) + 3,464,496
97.11
17.58
59,720
= nKcRlfcs  fcsd)
=
(b) Shrinkage Loss. From Example 3.8, for KsH = 0.58 at 30 days, Table 3.6,
= 161,398 psi
99
From Example 3.8, the increase in stress in the strands due to the addition of topping, is
fsv = 5,048 psi (34.8 MPa); hence, the strand stress at the end of stage 11 is
fpe
 13,446
153,000 psi
t1 = 720 hours
t2 = 17 ,520 hours
Summary o/ Stresses
Stress level at various stages
Percent
189,000
100.0
o.o
8,333
15,819
5,933
3,590
9,817
+5,048
150,556
4.4
8.4
3.1
1.9
5.2
+2.7
79.7
*Frictional and anchorage seating losses are included in this table since the total jacking stress is given
as 189,000 psi; otherwise the tendons would have to be jacked an additional stress of such a magnitude
as to neutralize the frictional and anchorage seating losses.
Solutionfor Example 3.8. From Table 3.1, the total loss !1fpT= 45,000 psi (228 MPa). So
the net final strand stress by this method is
fpe = 189,000  45,000 = 144,000 psi (993 MPa)
Stepbystep fpe value = 151,530
Percent difference =
151,530  144,000
= 5.0%
,
151 530
100
Chapter 3
Solution for Example 3.9. From Table 3.2, the total loss ilpr= 35,000 psi (241 MPa). So
the net final strand stress by the lumpsum method is
fpe
154,000  149,232
,
154 000
2.3 %
In both cases, the difference between the stepbystep "exact" method and the approximate
lumpsum method is quite small, indicating that in normal, standard cases both methods are
equally reliable.
log t2
lQ
log t 1) (f~;
fpy  0.55
(3.8)
for stressrelieved tendons where t is in hours. The denominator 10 becomes 45 for lowrelaxation tendons.
(3.llb)
where for normal concrete
KCR
modular ratio
Eps
EPs( 1 
0.06
~)100 
RH)
(3.14)
= 1.0, pretensioned
= range of 0.92 (1 <lay) to 0.45 (60 days)
t ]E
SH,t  [ t +35 SH,u
t ]E
SH,t  [ t +55 SH,u
+ 3.28KL)
(3.22)
where L, meter.
(3.24)
101
Ec
Eci
0.043 WJ~
= wl.
= wi.
0.043 ~
MPa
3
.
(psi) 0.006895
MPa
0.113
Nm
Solve Example 3.9 using SI units for losses in prestress, considering selfweight and superimposed dead load only.
Data
f~ =
34.5 MPa
f~;
= 24.1 MPa
Ac
3,968 cm2
S'
97,670 cm3
sb =
44,520 cm3
r2 = lc/Ac = 626
cb = 55.8 cm
e'= 25.5 cm
47.6 cm
ee = 33.0 cm
ec
2
= twelve tendons, 12.7mm diameter (99 mm )
12
99
1,188 mm2
M 0 = 391 kNm
.iA
Msv
199 kNm
70%
0.64 cm
RH
V/S = 1.69
Solution:
(a) Anchorage seating loss
.iA = 0.64 cm
.iA
.ifpA =   (Eps)
1
0.64
1. X lOO
2 3
l = 21.3 m
X
193,000
= 58.0 MPa
Since ali jacks are simultaneously tensioned, the elastic shortening will simultaneously
precipitate during jacking. As a result, no elastic shortening loss takes place in the
tendons.
102
Chapter 3
Hence
~pES
= 0.
Assume that the parabolic tendon approximates the shape of an are of a circle.
Then, from Equation 3.23,
By
a=~=
8(ec  ee)
l
8(47.6  33.0)
21.3 X 100
= 0.055 radians
fp;(,a
+ 3.28KL)
109MPa
The stress remaining in the prestressing steel after all instantaneous stresses
fp;
~JA=
58 MPa
~fpR  fp;
(log t2
O
1
_0.55)
PY
_
(log 18  log
 1,133
10
(1,133 _
)
1,580 0.55
= 24.4MPa
(e) Creep Loss ~cR =O
(d) Shrinkage Loss ~SH = O
= 1,108 MPa
cs
2
P; (
e )
Mveb
=  A 1 + 2 +  1e
e
r
at tendons centroid
1.32 X 106 [
(44.6) 2 ]
1
+
3,968 X 102
626
1
100
x
103
Ec (lightweight)
= wl. 5
0.043\/34.5
= 1,8301.5
n
X 0.043\/34.5
193,000
19,770
Eps
Ec
=  =
= 
= 19,770 MPa
9.76
csd = stress in concrete at cgs due to ali superimposed dead loads after prestressing i~
accomplished.
= MSDe = 1.99
Je
Jcsd
f"
10 Ncm X 44.7
2.49 X 106
_l_ N/mm2
100
3.57 MPa
nKCR(jcs  fcsd)
= 9.76
8.2
10 6
0.58
193,000(1  0.06
1.69)(100  70)
= 24.7MPa
)
log 720  log 18) (1,108
 0.55
l,
lQ
580
!:ifsv
nfcsv
fpe
34.8 MPa
t2 = 17 ,520 hrs.
)
(log 17,520  log 720) ( 1,039 _
_
1,580 0.55
10
!:ifpR  1,039
104
Chapter 3
Photo 3.4 Route 35, Victory Bridge over Lhe Raritan River, connecting Perlh Amboy and
Sayerville, New Jersey. A variable deplb precast segmenta! concrete bridge with spans of
330'440'330' built in balanced cantilever. The first of lhe twin 3,970' bridges was completed in just 15 months. The speeding of consLruction was accomplished by erecting the approach spans \vilh spantospan construction wbile simultaneously erecling the main 440 fl.
span using balanced cantilever construction. At this time, Lhis main span is lhe longesl precast cantilever segmenta! construction in the United States. Tbe photo shows Lhe spanbyspan ereclion scheme of the approach spans. (Courtesy of FIGG, the bridge designer)
SELECTED REFERENCES
3.1 PCJ Committee on Prestress Loss. "Recommendations for Estimating Prestress Loss." Joumal of
the Prestressed Concrete lnstitute 20 (1975): 4375.
3.2 AClASCE Joint Committee 423. "Tentative Recommeodatioos for Prestressed Concrete." Jo11r11al ofthe American Concrete !nstitwe 54 (1957): 548578.
3.3 AASHTO Subcornmittee on Bridges and Structures. lnterim Specificatons Bridges. American Association of State Highway aod Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1975.
3.4 Prestressed Concrete Inslitute. PCI Design Handbook. 5th Ed. PCI, Chicago: 1999.
3.5 PostTensioning Lnstitute. PostTensioning Manual. 5th ed. PostTensioning lnstitu1e, Phoenix.
AZ,2000.
3.6 Lin, T. Y. "Cable Frictioo in PostTensioning." Joumal of Strucrura/ Division. ASCE, Ncw York,
November 1956, pp. 1107 1 to 110713.
3.7 Tadros, M. K., Ghali, A., and Dilger, W. H. "Time Dependenl Loss and Deflection in Prestressed
Concrete Members." Journal of che Prestressed Concrete lnstitute 20, 1975, 8698.
3.8 Branson, D. E. "Tbe Deforrnation of Noncomposite and Composite Prestressed Concrete Members." In Defiection of Structures. American Concrete lnstitute, Farrnington Hills, 1974, pp. 83 128.
3.9 Nawy, E. G. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamenta/ Approach. 6th ed. PrenticeHall, Uppcr Saddle
River, NJ: 2009, 936 pp.
3.10 Cobn, M. Z. Portia/ Prestressing, From Theory ro Praccice. NATOASI Applied Science Series, vols
1 and 2. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Marlinus Nijhoff, in Cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division. 1986.
3.11 ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 3 1808) and Commentary (ACJ 318 R08), American Concrete Institute, Farmington HiJls, Ml, 2008, pp. 446.
3.12 ACI Committee 435, "Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures,'' ACT Commitlee Report
R43595, E. G. Nawy, Chairman, American Concrete Tnstitute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1995, pp. 77.
105
Problems
3.13 Nawy, E. G., "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21 st. Century," Keynote
Address Paper, No. EC103, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., September 2006, pp. 123.
3.14 Nawy, E. G., "ConcreteThe Sustainable lnfrastructure Material for the 21 st. Century," Keynote
Address Paper, Proceedings, The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete
Technology, Crystal City, Washington, D.C., September 19, 2007, pp. 124.
PROBLEMS
3.1 A simply supported pretensioned beam has a span of 75 ft (22.9 m) and the cross section shown in
Figure P3.l. It is subjected to a uniform gravitational liveload intensity WL = 1,200 plf (17.5 kN/m)
in addition to its selfweight and is prestressed with 20 stressrelieved hn. dia (12.7 mm dia) 7wire
strands. Compute the total prestress losses by the stepbystep method, and compare them with the
values obtained by the lumpsum method. Take the following values as given:
= 6,000 psi (41.4 MPa), normalweight concrete
f~; = 4,500 psi (31 MPa)
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
f~
pi = 0.70fpu
Relaxation time t = 5 years
ec = 19 in. (483 mm)
Re la tive humidity RH = 75 %
__l 1
++++++++++ ++i
,,,rr{~;..'!"__ ~:~a
75'0"
>+(22.9 m) _ _ _ _ __ ,
(a)
30"
_I
(76cm)1
+ T
+ ''I
6"
50"
Tr3"~
(b)
Figure P3.1
3.2 Compute, by the detailed stepbystep method, the total losses in prestress of the 10ft (3.28m)wide flange double Tbeam in Example 1.1 which has aspan of 64 ft (19.5 m) for a steel relaxation
period of 7 years. Use RH = 70% and VIS = 3.5 in. (8.9 cm), and solve for both pretensioned and
posttensioned prestressing conditions. Assume SD load= 30% LL. In the posttensioned case, assume that the total jacking stress prior to the friction and anchorage seating losses is 189,000 psi.
3.3 Compute, by the detailed stepbystep method, the total losses of prestress in the AASHTO 36in.
(91.4 cm)deep beam used in Problem 1.1 and which has a span of 34 ft (10.4 m) for both the pretensioned and the posttensioned case. Use ali the data of Problem 1.1 in your solution, and assume
that the relative humidity RH = 70% and the volumetosurface ratio VIS= 3.2. Determine the steel
relaxation losses at the end of the first year after erection and at the end of 4 years.
3.4 Compute, by the detailed stepbystep method, the total prestress losses of the simply supported double Tbeam of Example 3.9 if it was posttensioned using flexible ducts for the tendon. Assume that
the tendon profile is essentially parabolic. Assume also that ali strands are tensioned simultaneously
and that the anchorage slip LlA = i in. (9.5 mm). Ali the data are identical to those of Example 3.8; the
critica! section is determined to be at a distance 0.4 times the span from the face of the support.
FLEXURAL DESIGN
OF PRESTRESSED
CONCRETEELEMENTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Flexura! stresses are tbe result of extemal, or imposed, bending moments. In most cases,
they control the selection of the geometrical dimensions of the prestressed concrete section regardless of whether it is pretensioned or posttensioned. The design process starts
witb the choice of a preliminary geometry, and by triaJ and adjustment it converges to a
final section with geometrical details of the concrete cross section and the sizes and alignments of the prestressing strands. The section satisfies the flexura! (bending) requiremeots of concrete stress and steel stress limitations. Tbereafter, other factors sucb as
shear and torsion capacity, deflection, and cracking are analyzed and satisfied.
While the input data far the analysis of sectioos differ from tbe data needed far design, every design is essentially an analysis. One assumes tbe geometricaJ properties of
tbe section to be prestressed and then proceeds to determine wbelher the section can
safely carry tbe prestressing forces and tbe required externaJ loads. Heoce, a good understanding of tbe fundamental principies of analysis and the altematives presented tbereby
significantly simplifies the task of designing tbe section. As seen from the discussion in
Cbapter 1, tbe basic mechanics of materials, principies of equilibrium of interna] couples,
and elastic principies of superposition have to be adhered to in ali stages of loading.
Marylaod Coacert Center parking garage, Baltimore. (Courtesy, Prestressed Concrete Institute.)
106
107
4.1 lntroduction
It suffices in the flexural design of reinforced concrete members to apply only the
limit states of stress at failure for the choice of the section, provided that other requirements such as serviceability, shear capacity, and bond are met. In the design of prestressed members, however, additional checks are needed at the load transfer and limit
state at service load, as well as the limit state at failure, with the failure load indicating
the reserve strength for overload conditions. All these checks are necessary to ensure
that at service load cracking is negligible and the longterm effects on deflection or camber are well controlled.
In view of the preceding, this chapter covers the major aspects of both the serviceload flexural design and the ultimateload flexural design check. The principies and
methods presented in Chapter 1 for service load computations are extended into stepbystep procedures for the design of prestressed concrete linear elements, taking into consideration the impact of the magnitude of prestress losses discussed in Chapter 3. Note
that a logical sequence in the design process entails first the serviceload design of the
section required in flexure, and then the analysis of the available moment strength Mn of
the section for the limit state at failure. Throughout the book, a negative sign () is used
to denote compressive stress and a positive sign (+) is used to denote tensile stress in the
concrete section. A convex or hogging shape indicates negative bending moment; a concave or sagging shape denotes positive bending moment, as shown in Figure 4.1.
Unlike the case of reinforced concrete members, the external dead load and partial
live load are applied to the prestressed concrete member at varying concrete strengths at
various loading stages. These loading stages can be summarized as follows:
Initial prestress force P; is applied; then, at transfer, the force is transmitted from
the prestressing strands to the concrete.
The full selfweight WD acts on the member together with the initial prestressing
force, provided that the member is simply supported, i.e., there is no intermediate
support.
The full superimposed dead load Wsv including topping for composite action, is applied to the member.
Most shortterm losses in the prestressing force occur, leading to a reduced prestressing force Peo
The member is subjected to the full service load, with longterm losses due to creep,
shrinkage, and strand relaxation taking place and leading to a net prestressing force
Pe.
Overloading of the member occurs under certain conditions up to the limit state at
failure.
A typical loading history and corresponding stress distribution across the depth of
the critical section are shown in Figure 4.2, while a schematic plot of load versus defor() Compressive
stress
stress
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.1 Sign convention for flexure stress and bending moment. (a) Negative
bending moment. (b) Positive bending moment.
108
Chapter 4
Compression
Tension
Prestressing
force
(a)
q
1 "compression
~ ~ f
Compression
Compression
could be zero (decompression)
(el
(d)
(b)
Tension
(e)
(f)
Figure 4.2 Flexura! stress distribution throughout loading history. (a) Beam section. (b) lnitial prestressing stage. (e) Selfweight and effective prestress. (d) Full
dead load plus effective prestress. (e) Full service load plus effective prestress. (f)
Limit state of stress at ultimate load for underreinforced beam.
mation (camber or deflection) is shown in Figure 4.3 far the various loading stages from
the selfweight effect up to rupture.
To design or choose the section, a determination of the required minimum section modulus, sb and S1, has to be made first. If
109
.: _:_:_:_:_.::~~
"'"~== .: .: .: .: 7.i
First cracking
;=!
~
m,,,,...,""" L /
i//
fer 
 .,._ 
Decompress1on
f
Tn
"'l'(,,.e
Overload
'
l~ad
Balanced
W"
Lf
   
_j_Se~!~~!oad
h
or h'1ger
~g;(f: O)
Deformation A
(deflection or camber)
Ap,
Figure 4.3
t:
t:
6\!Tc
then the actual extreme fiber stresses in the concrete cannot exceed the values listed.
Using the uncracked unsymmetrical section, a summary of the equations of stress
from Section 1.3 for the various loading stages is as follows.
Stress at Transfer
(4.la)
110
Chapter 4
Photo 4.1 Ninian Central oil drilling platform. Cheiron, England, and C. G. Doris.
Scotland. (Courtesy, Ben C. Gerwick.)
ecb) Mv
=  AP;, ( 1 + ::i
+ S,: ~ c;
(4.lb)
where P; is the initial prestressing force. While a more accurate value Lo use would be the
horizontal component of P;, it is reasonable for all practica! purposes to disregard such
refinement.
(4.2a)
(4.2b)
(4.3a)
(4.3b)
wbere
M r=Mv+M50 +ML
P; = initial prestress
Pe= effective prestress after losses
t denotes the top, and b denotes the bottom fibers
e= eccentricity of tendons from the concrete section center of gravity, cgc
f2 =square of radius of gyratioo
S'!Sb = top/bottom section modul us vaJue of concrete section
The decompression scage denotes the increase in steel stra in due to the increase in
load from tbe stage when the effective prestress Pe acts alone to the stage when the addi
111
tional load causes the compressive stress in the concrete at the cgs level to reduce to zero
(see Figure 4.3). At this stage, the change in concrete stress dueto decompression is
,2
A: 1+ e2)
p (
ctecomp =
(4.3c)
This relationship is based on the assumption that the strain between the concrete and the
prestressing steel bonded to the surrounding concrete is such that the gain in the steel
stress is the same as the decrease in the concrete stress.
Beams are prestressed with eiis usually at the midspan coneccentricity
maximum
The
tendons.
ther draped or harped
the effective prestressing
that
Assuming
case.
supported
simply
trolling section for the
force is
Pe= yP;
= (1
P;  Pe
(a)
 y)P;
If the actual concrete extreme fiber stress is equivalent to the maximum allowable stress,
the change in this stress after losses, from Equations 4.la and b, is given by
Mv)
6.f t = (1  y) ( ti + Si
6.fb
(1  y{tci +
(b)
~:)
(c)
From Figure 4.4(a), as the superimposed deadload moment Msv and liveload moment
M L act on the beam, the net stress at top fibers is
t~=fr~Pfc
or
Mv St
(d)
Mv
t  'Yci  (1  y) sb
(e)
nt _ 'Yti 
1  'Y
= t 
ci  6,fb
or
bn
From Equations (d) and (e), the chosen section should ha ve section moduli values
(1  y)Mv + Msv + ML
'Yt;  c
St"2::.
(4.4a)
and
sb
(1  y)Mv + Msv + ML
"2::.          
fr  'Yci
(4.4b)
112
Chapter 4
~~~l
Mo
M so
+ ML ___._.....,__~_,_b_,_,._sb_,
sb
f,
CD
@
@
@
P; stresses
CD
P; stresses
P; + M0 stresses
P. stresses
P.
+ M0 stresses
P8
+ M0 + M 50 + ML
stresses
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.4(a) Maximum fiber stresses in beams with draped or harped tendons.
(a) Critica! section such as midspan. (b) Support section of simplysupported
beam (ee =O as tendon moves to cgc).
The required eccentricity of the prestressing tendon at the critical section, such as the
midspan section, is
(4.4c)
where ci is the concrete stress at transfer at the level of the centroid cgc of the concrete
section and
Thus,
(4.4d)
113
(D
P; stresses
P0 stresses
Figure 4.4(b) Maximum fiber stresses at support section of beams with straight
tendons (stress distribution at midspan section similar to that of Figure 4.4a).
4.2.2.2 Beams with Constant Tendon Eccentricity. Beams with constant tendon
eccentricity are beams with straight tendons, as is normally the case in precast moderatespan simply supported beams. Because the tendon has a large eccentricity at the support,
creating large tensile stresses at the top fibers without any reduction due to superimposed M D + M sv + M v in such beams smaller eccentricity of the tendon at midspan has to
be used as compared to a similar beam with a draped tendon. In other words, the controlling section is the support section, for which the stress distribution at the support is
shown in Figure 4.4(b ). Hence,
(a')
(1  y)(fr)
ar=
and
(b')
The net stress at the serviceload condition after losses at the top fibers is
f~ = ti 
ar  c
or
f~
'Yti  cs
(c')
where fes is the actual serviceload stress in concrete. The net stress at service load after
losses at the bottom fibers is
or
bn
= t 
'Yci
From Equations (c) and (d), the chosen section should have section moduli values
(d')
......
"""
S'!bh
o
1.01
0.02
1
0.06
0.04
1
~<:l~
0.4
0.12
1
0.14
1
0.16
1
, 1.0
fb1
0.10, "
h2
1
IB;ET _L~
T
0.6
0.10
0.08
1
~b11Jb11Jbl
osr
h7
Sb/bh
2 interchange
To obtain
the values of h 1 and h 2
~~/~ r
0.4
0.2
0.2
o
o
0.02
0.04
0.06
S'!bh
Figure 4.5
h, =0.20h
0.10
0.08
'yJ
h, = 0.30h
'v'
~
h, = 0.10h
h, = 0.0517
0.12
0.14
Section moduli of flanged and boxed sections (adapted from Ref. 4.16).
o
0.16
<:l
115
Mv
+ Msv + ML
2:
sb
2:       
(4.5a)
'Yt;  c
and
Mv
+ Msv + ML
J;  'Yci
(4.5b)
The required eccentricity value at the critica! section, such as the support for an ideal
beam section having properties close to those required by Equations 4.5a and b, is
(4.5c)
A graphical representation of section moduli of nominal sections is shown in Figure 4.5.
It may be used as a speedy tool for the choice of initial trial sections in the design
process.
Table 4.1 gives the section moduli of standard PCI rectangular sections. Tables 4.2
and 4.3 give the geometrical outer dimensions of standard PCI Tsections and AASHTO
1sections, respectively, as well as the topsection moduli of those sections needed in the
preliminary choice of the section in the serviceload analysis. Table 4.4(a) gives dimensional details of the actual "asbuilt" geometry of the standard PCI and AASHTO sections, and Table 4.4(b) gives girder properties of optimized sections used in different
states. Properties of bulb sections are given in Appendix C. Additional details are presented in Refs. 4.9 and 4.12.
Designa simply supported pretensioned doubleTbeam for a parking garage with harped
tendon and with aspan of 60 ft (18.3 m) using the ACI 318 Building Code allowable stresses.
The beam has to carry a superimposed sustained service live load of 1,100 plf (16.1 kN/m)
and superimposed dead load of 100 plf (1.5 kN/m), and has no concrete topping. Assume the
beam is made of normalweight concrete with f~ = 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa) and that the concrete
strength f ~; at transfer is 75 percent of the cylinder strength. Assume also that the timedependent losses of the initial prestress are 18 percent of the initial prestress, and that
pu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa) for stressrelieved tendons, J; = 12vj;.
Table 4.1
Designation
12RB16
Section
modulus
S, (in. 3)
Width, b (in.)
Depth, h (in.)
512
12
16
12RB24
12RB28
12RB32
12RB36
16RB32
16RB36
16RB40
800
1,152
1,568
2,048
2,592
2,731
3,456
4,267
12
12
12
12
12
16
16
16
24
28
32
36
32
36
40
12RB20
20
116
Chapter 4
Table 4.2
Geometrical Outer Dimensions and Section Moduli of Standard PCI Double TSections
Designation
Top/bottomsection
modulus, in. 3
Flange width
b,, in.
Flange depth
t,, in.
Total depth
h, in.
Webwidth
2 b.,, in.
1,001/315
1,307/429
1,630/556
2,320/860
3,063/1,224
5,140/2,615
5,960/2,717
10,458/3,340
13,128/4,274
96
96
96
96
96
96
120
144
180
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
12
14
16
20
24
32
32
34
34
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
8DT12
8DT14
8DT16
8DT20
8DT24
8DT32
10DT32
*12DT34
*15DT34
*Pretopped
Table 4.3
Sections
AASHTO sections
Designation
2
AreaAcin.
Moment of inertia,
I
. 4
g(xx) m.
I
. 4
g(yy) m.
Top/bottomsection
modulus, in.3
Top flange
width, b1 (in.)
Top flange
average thickness,
t1 (in.)
Bottom flange
width, b 2 (in.)
Bottom flange
average thickness,
t 2 (in.)
Total depth, h (in.)
Webwidth,
bw (in.)
c/cb
(in.)
?, in. 2
Selfweight wv lb/ft
Type 1
Type2
Type 3
Type4
Type5
Type6
276
369
560
789
1,013
1,085
22,750
3,352
1,476
1,807
12
50,979
5,333
2,527
3,320
12
125,390
12,217
5,070
6,186
16
260,741
24,347
8,908
10,544
20
521,180
61,235
16,790
16,307
42
733,320
61,619
20,587
20,157
42
11
16
18
22
26
28
28
11
12
13
13
28
6
36
6
45
7
54
8
63
8
72
15.41
12.59
82
287
20.17
15.83
132
384
24.73
20.27
224
583
29.27
24.73
330
822
31.04
31.96
514
1055
35.62
36.38
676
1130
117
b,
h,
bW1
bw2
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
8DT12
96
5.75
3.75
12
48
8DT14
96
5.75
3.75
14
48
8DT16
96
5.75
3.75
16
48
8DT18
96
5.75
3.75
18
48
8DT20
96
5.75
3.75
20
48
8DT24
96
5.75
3.75
24
48
8DT32
96
7.75
4.75
32
48
10DT32
120
7.75
4.75
32
60
12DT34
144
7.75
4.75
34
60
15DT34
180
7.75
4.75
34
90
b,
X1
Designation
(in.)
(in.)
AASHTOl
12
AASHT02
12
AASHT03
16
AASHT04
Designation
X3
X4
bw
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
h
(in.)
16
28
18
36
4.5
22
7.5
45
20
26
54
AASHT05
42
28
10
63
AASHT06
42
28
10
72
X2
b2
(in.) (in.)
Actual 1 sections
Solution:
"Y = 100  18 = 82 %
f;; = 0.75
Use ft = 12\/5,000 = 849 psi (5.9 MPa) as the maximum stress in tension, and assume a selfweight of approximately 1,000 plf (14.6 kN/m). Then the selfweight moment is given by
MD
wl 2
=8 =
1,000(60)2
8
12
MsD + ML =
Since the tendon is harped, the critica! section is close to the midspan, where deadload and
superimposed deadload moments reach their maximum. The critica! section is in many cases
taken at 0.40 L from the support, where L is the beam span. The value 0.40L is used to indicate that under moving load, the critica! section can be at 0.40L and not necessarily at
midspan. From Equations 4.4a and b,
........
co
Table 4.4(b)
Girder
Type
Depth
(in.)
CTL
BT48
BT60
BT72
48
60
72
6
6
6
PCI
BT54
BT63
BT72
54
63
72
Type VI
Mod. TypeVI
Washington
WebWidth
(in.)
a rea
(in. 2 )
s,
lnertia
(in. 4 )
(in.)
(in.)
(in. 3 )
(in. 3 )
557
629
701
177,736
308,722
484,993
23.53
29.59
35.64
24.47
30.41
36.36
7,553
10,432
13,606
7,264
10,154
13,340
0.554
0.545
0.534
0.940
0.931
0.914
6
6
6
659
713
767
268,077
392,638
545,894
26.37
30.82
35.40
27.63
32.12
36.60
10,166
12,715
15,421
9,702
12,224
14,915
0.558
0.556
0.549
0.943
0.942
0.934
72
72
8
6
1,085
941
733,320
671,088
35.62
35.56
36.38
36.44
20,587
18,871
20,157
18,417
0.522
0.550
0.893
0.941
80/6
100/6
120/6
14/6
50
58
73.5
73.5
6
6
6
6
513
591
688
736
159,191
256,560
475,502
534,037
27.24
30.01
37.68
35.30
22.76
27.99
35.82
38.20
5,844
8,549
12,619
15,122
6,994
9,166
13,275
13,985
0.501
0.517
0.512
0.538
0.943
0.925
0.908
0.894
Colorado
G54/6
G68/6
54
68
6
6
631
701
242,592
426,575
27.33
33.99
26.67
34.01
8,877
12,548
9,095
12,544
0.527
0.526
0.924
0.911
Nebraska
1600
1800
2000
2400
63
70.9
78.7
94.5
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.9
852
898
944
1,038
494,829
659,505
849,565
1,323,985
32.64
36.72
40.74
48.84
30.36
34.18
37.96
45.66
15,159
17,959
20,854
27,106
16,300
19,297
22,380
28,999
0.586
0.585
0.582
0.572
1.051
1.049
1.042
1.023
Florida
BT54
BT63
BT72
54
63
72
6.5
6.5
6.5
785
843
901
311,765
458,521
638,672
28.11
32.88
37.64
25.89
30.12
34.36
11,091
13,945
16,968
12,042
15,223
18,588
0.546
0.549
0.548
0.983
0.992
0.991
Texas
U54A
U54B
54
54
10.2
10.2
1,022
1,118
379,857
403,878
30.12
31.54
23.90
22.48
12,612
12,807
15,895
17,966
0.516
0.509
0.996
1.029
Agency
AASHTO
1 in.= 25.4 mm; 1 in.2 = 645 mm2 ; 1 in.3 = 16,390 mm3 ; 1 in. 4 = 416,000 mm4
Yt
Yb
sb
p, .$ ,JJ2!i!t$ffti%?'.\!%141b4lff,
,,~,r.,,.,.,,..,......,.~:
r48.2
,1'48 ,
t~28i
F
5
72
6 9j
71
68
11.75
16.25
R=8+
R = 7.9+
1
10
4.5_ _ _ ('
3_
6
}24,f
}26+
} 30 {
CTL BT72
BT72
FL BT72
ilEc: ~
,_42~I
"'if'~''i
' fhllt
15.91 \
0.91
73.5
10
21.7
_J
54
25.2
3
6
......
......
CD
}26+
}24+
Type VI
WA 14/6
Figure 4.6
+;'+~l'~55_,.
BT54
+
NU 1800
CO G68/6
142~
J~40~
72
}    38.4
}24,f
U54B
120
Chapter 4
S'
(1  y)MD + MsD + ML
Yr;  c
2::.         
>
(1  0.82)5,400,000 + 6,480,000
0.82 X 184  (2,250)
. 3
3,104 m (50,860 cm )
(1  y)MD + MsD + ML
sb 2::. ,  Yci
>
From the PCI design handbook, selecta noritopped normal weight concrete doubleT 12 DT
34 168Dl, since it has the bottomsection modulus value Sb closest to the required value.
The section properties of the concrete are as follows:
Ac = 978 in. 2
le = 86,072 in.4
r2
cb =
= ~ = 88.0 in. 2
ec = 22.02 in.
Ac
sb =
25.77 in.
ee = 12.77 in.
3,340 in.3
WD = 1,019 plf
= 2.39 in.
Design of Strands and Check of Stresses. The assumed selfweight is close to the actual
selfweight ofFig. 47. Hence, use
MD
1,019
l,OOO
fp; = 0.70
fpe
0.82fp;
5,400,000
= 5,502,600 m.lb
0.82 X 189,000
154,980 psi
f' = 
P; (
Ac 1 
7ec,)  SMD
5,
Then
184
_ _ !l_ ( 1 _
978
978
P; = (184 + 526.16) = 655,223 lb.
1.06
Required number of tendons =
Try sixteen
~in.
655,223
189,000 X 0.1 53
1 .
= 16
X 0.153
= 2.448
189,000
Pe = 2.448
P;
121
12'0"
3'0"      6'0"
i
~~: =1 1
34"
3" Chamfer
Figure 4.7
P, = 379,391 lb
100(60)212
.
= 540,000 m.lb (61 kNm)
8
Msv =
ML
1,100(60) 212
8
f'
= _ P,( 1 _ ec') Mr
r2
S'
:Ji:\
= _
+411  1146
P, ( 1
=
Ac
+ecb)
 +Mr
r2
= _ 379,391
978
(l
Sb
e,
f,;
6~
6 v3,7sO
=367 psi
Chapter 4
122
(i) Ar Transfer
!1
= _ 462,672 (
978
_ 462,672
Jib =
978
(l + 12.7788.0
X25.77) + O= _ 2'240 psi. (C)
< rl = 2,250 psi, O.K.
lffb
() Ar Service Load
J =  379,391
978
I
Jb
(i 
12.77 X.08.23)88
= _ 379,391
978
o = + 75 psi. (T)
(i + 12.7788.025.77) + O
X
< !c =
=  l B40
'
. (C)
psi
Adopt the section for serviceload conditions using sixteen Hn. (1.7 mm) strands with
midspa11 eccentricity e,= 22.02 in. (560 mm) and end ecceolricity e,= 12.77 in. (324 mm).
D esign an 1section for a bearn baving a 65ft ( 19.8 m) span to satisfy the following section
modulus values: Use the same allowable stresses and superimposed loads as in Exarnple 4.1.
Required S1 = 3,570 in3 (58,535 cm 3)
Required Sb = 3,780 in3 (61,940 cm 3)
123
r 2 = 187.5 in. 2
Ac= 377 in. 2
C1 =21.16in.
S 1 = 3340 in. 3
cb = 18.84 in.
sb = 3750 in. 3
40"
6"
f1s"j
Figure 4.8
Solution
Since the section moduli at the top and bottom fibers are almost equal, a symmetrical section
is adequate. Next, analyze the section in Figure 4.8 chosen by tria! and adjustment.
Analysis of Stresses at Transfer.
MD =
393(65)2
X
From Equation 4.4c, the eccentricity required at the section of maximum moment at
midspan is
10.34 + 5.98
Since cb = 18.84 in., and assuming a cover of 3.75 in., try ec = 18.84  3.75 =15.0 in. (381 mm).
.
_ P; _ 416,208 _
.
Reqmred area of strands AP  ,:  2.2 m 2 (14.2 cm 2)
189, 000
pl
2.2
Number of strands = _
= 14.38
0 153
Try thirteen !in. strands, AP = 1.99 in. 2 (12.8 cm2), and an actual P; = 189,000 x 1.99 =
376,110 lb (1,673 kN), and check the concrete extreme fiber stresses. From Equation 4.la
f'
P; (
= 
Ac l 
ec,)
MD
7  St
Chapter 4
124
f' =_Pe
Ae
Pe = 13
(l _ec,),2
0.153
Msv+ML=
MT
S'
(100 + 1100)(65)2
8
12= 7,605,000mlb
f 
Hence, either enlarge the depth of the section or use higher strength concrete. Using
f ~ = 6,000 psi,
fe = 0.45 X 6,000 = 2,700 psi, O.K.
Pe (
fb =   1 +  2
Ac
r
Sb
377
X 18.84)
10,095,638
+ 187.5
3,750
fe; = 0.60
125
P1 = 376,110 lb
or
_ 2 7OO = _ 376,110 ( +e X 18.84)
377
l
J87.5
so Lhat
e, = 16.98 in.
To ensure a tcnsilc stress at the top fibers wilhin the allowablc limits, try e,= 12.49 in.:
f'
377
187.5
fh =  2250 psi
Thus, use mild steel at the lop fibers at the support section to take ali tensile strcsscs in
the concrete, or use a higher strength concrete for the section, or reduce the ecccntricity.
(b) At Service Load
r=_ 308,255 (
377
_ 12.49 X 21.16) O=
335 psi. (T)
187.5
. O
308,255 (
12.49 X 18.84)
lb =y;1+
_
+ O= 1.844 psi. (C) < 2.700 psi,. O.K.
187 5
Hence, adopt the 40in. (102cm)deep 1section prcstresscd beam ot; equal to 6.000
psi (41.4 MPa) normalweigbt concrete with thirteen !in. tendons having midspan eccentricity er = l5.0 in. (381 mm) and cnd section eccentricity ec = 12.5 in. (318 m).
Photo 4.3 Prestresscd beam al failure. Note crusbing of concrete on top ribers
(Nawy, Potyondy, et al.).
Chapter 4
126
f~
Solution: Since the tendon has constant eccentricity, the deadload and superimposed
dead and liveload moments at the support section of the simply supported beam are zero.
Hence, the support section controls the design. The required section modulus at the support,
from Equation 4.5a, is
425
(65) 2
X
Thus, the total moment MT= 10,298,438 in.lb (1,164 kNm), and we also have
Allowable fci =  2,250 psi
f~; = 
3,750 psi
367 psi
fr
= +849 psi
'Y= 0.82
Required S'
0.82
.
10,298,438
= 4,289 m3 (72,210 cm3 )
X 184 + 2,250
MD + MSD + ML
.
f, _ ,{'.
Reqmred Sb =
'YJct
10,298,438
849 + 0.82 X 2,250
First Tria/. Since the required S' = 4,289 in3 , which is greater than the available S' in
Example 4.2, choose the next larger 1section with h = 44 in. as shown in Figure 4.9. The section properties are:
le = 92,700 in 4
= 228.9 in2
Ac = 405 in2
e, = 23.03 in.
S'
4,030 in3
cb = 20.97 in
sb
4,420 in3
WD = 422plf
127
18" _.J
(46cm)
L_
~
6"
6"
44"
(112 cm)
L _ 18" __.J
(46cm)

Figure 4.9
From Equation 4.5c, the required eccentricity at the critical section at the support is
 si
ee = (f,;  ci) p
where
23.03 (
.(
= 367  ;367 + 2,250) = 1,002 psi 6.9 MPa)
and
P;
= Acci = 405
1,002
Hence,
e = (367 + 1,002)
4,030
,
= 13.60 in. (346 mm)
405 810
P;
405,810
So we try Hn. strands tendon. The required number of strands is 2.15/0.153 = 14.05. Accordingly, use fourteen Hn. (12.7 mm) tendons. As a result,
P; = 14 X 0.153 X 189,000 = 404,838 lb (1,801 kN)
(a) Analysis of Stresses at Transfer at End Section. From Equation 4.la,
, __ P; (
f 
Ac l
Chapter 4
128
   ( 1 + 13.6 X 20.97) +
 ( 1 + ecb) + Mv = 404,838
b = P
228.9
405
Sb
r2
Ac
= 2,245 psi (C)
= ci = 2,250, 0.K.
= 
~: ( 1  ~1 ) ~;
This is also applicable to midspan since eccentricity e is constant. From Equation 4.3b
(e) Analysis of Final ServiceLoad Stresses at Midspan. From befare, the total moment
Mr= Mv + Msv + ML = 10,298,438 in.lb. Revised Wv = 422 plf = assumed Wv = 425 plf;
hence, Mr = 10,298,438 in.lb is sufficiently accurate. So the extreme concrete fiber
stress due to M r is
f{ =
Mr
St =
MT
1b = 
sb
10,298,438
= 2,555 psi (C) (17.6 MPa)
4,030
.
10,298,438
= +2,330 psi (T) (16.1 MPa)
4,42 0
Consequently, accept the tria! section with a constant eccentricity e= 13.60 in.
(345 mm) for the fourteen !" (12.7 mm dia.) tendons.
Unlike steelrolled sections, prestressed sections are not yet fully standardized. In most
cases, the design engineer has to select the type of section to be used in the particular
project. In the majority of simply supported beam designs, the distance between the cgc
and cgs lines, viz., the eccentricity e, is proportional to the required prestressing force.
129
Since the midspan moment usually controls the design, the larger the eccentricity at
midspan the smaller is the needed prestressing force, and consequently the more economical is the design. For a large eccentricity, a large concrete area at the top fibers is
needed. Hence, a Tsection ora wideflange 1section becomes suitable. The end section
is usually solid in order to avoid large eccentricities at planes of zero moment, and also in
order to increase the shear capacity of the support section, and prevent anchorage zone
failures.
Another popular section in wide use is the doubleTsection. This section adds the
advantages of the singleTsection to its own ease of handling and erection inherent in its
stability. Figure 4.10 shows typical sections in general usage. Other sections such as
hollowcore slabs and nonsymmetrical sections are also commonly used. Note that
flanged sections can replace rectangular solid sections of the same depth without any loss
of flexura! strength. Rectangular sections, however, are used as shortspan supporting
girders or ledger beams.
1sections are used as typical floor beams with composite slab topping action in
longspan parking structures. Tsections with heavy bottom flanges, such as that in
Figure 4.l(d), are generally used in bridge structures. DoubleTsections are widely
used in floor systems in buildings and also in parking structures, particularly because of
the composite action advantage of the top wide flange, which is 10 to 15 feet wide in
many cases.
Hollowcore cast and extruded sections are shallow oneway beam strips that serve
as easily erectable floor slabs. Large, hollow box girders are used as bridge girders for
very large spans in what are known as segmenta! bridge deck systems. These segmenta!
girders have large torsional resistance, and their flexura! strengthtoweight ratio is relatively higher than in other types of prestressing systems.
D
(a)
(b)
lfTI
'!}!~l~If
(e)
(f)
(d)
(e)
(g)
~11 ~Ilf
}
(h)
(i)
Figure 4.10 Typical prestressed concrete sections. (a) Rectangular beam section. (b) 1beam section. (c) Tbeam section. (d} Tsection with heavy bottom
flange. (e) DoubleTsection. (f) End part of beam in (b). (g) End part of beam in
(e). (h) End part of beam in (d}. (i) End part of beam in (e).
130
Chapter 4
4.4.2 Gross Area, the Transformed Section, and the Presence of Ducts
In general, the gross crosssectional area of the concrete section is adequate for use in the
serviceload design of prestressed sections. Wbile some designers prefer refining tbeir designs through the use of the transformed section in their solutions, the accuracy gained in
accounting for the contribution of tbe area of tbe reinforcement to tbe stiffness of the
concrete section is normally not warranted. In posttensioned beams, where ducts are
grouted, the gross cross section is still adequate far ali practica! design considerations. It
is only in cases of largespan bridge and industrial prestressed beams, where the area of
the prestressing reinforcement is large, that the transformed section or the net concrete
area excluding U1e duct openings has to be used.
4.4.3 Envelopes for Tendon Placement
The tensile stress in the extreme concrete fiber under serviceJoad conditions cannot exceed the maximum alJowable by codes sucb as the ACI, PCI, AASHTO. or CEBFIP. It
is therefore important to establish the limjtiog zooe in tbe concrete section, i.e., ao envelope within which the prestressing force can be applied without causing tension in the extreme concrete fibers. From Equation 4.la, we have
P; (
= o = 1Ac
ec,)
,.2
for the prestressing force part only, giving e= r 1c,. Hence, the lower kem point
(4.6a)
Similarly, from Equation 4.lb, iffb =O, e= r 2/cb where the negative sign represents measurements upwards from the neutral axis, since positive eccentricty is positive downwards. H ence, the upper kern point
,2
k
I
= Cb
Photo 4.4 Super CIDS offshore platform under tow to Arctic, Global Marine Developmenl. (Courtesy, the late Ben C. Gerwick.)
(4.6b)
131
From the determination of the upper and lower kern points, it is clear that
(a) If the prestressing force acts below the lower kern point, tensile stresses result at
Although straight tendons are widely used in precast beams of moderate span, the use of
curved tendons is more common in insitucast posttensioned elements. Nonstraight tendons are of two types:
(a) Draped: gradually curved alignment such as parabolic forms, used in beams sub
trated load applications, used in beams subjected primarily to concentrated transverse loading.
Figures 4.12, 4.13, and 4.14 describe the alignment bending moment and stress distribution far beams that are prestressed with straight, draped, and harped tendons, respectively. These diagrams are intended to illustrate the economic advantages of the
draped and harped tendons over the straight tendons. In Figure 4.12, at section 11, undesirable tensile stress in the concrete is shown at the top fibers. Section 11 in Figures 4.13
and 4.14 shows the uniform compression if the tendon acts at the cgc of the section at the
support. Another advantage of draped and harped tendons is that they allow the prestressed beams to carry heavy loads because of the balancing effect of the vertical component of the prestressing nonstraight tendon. In other words, the required prestressing
forces PP for the parabolic tendon in Figure 4.13 and Ph for the harped tendon in Figure 4.14 are smaller at the midspan than the force required in the straight tendon of Figure 4.12. Hence, far the same stress level, a smaller number of strands are needed in the
case of draped or harped tendons, and sometimes smaller concrete sections can be used
with the resulting efficiency in the design. (Compare Examples 4.2 and 4.3 again.)
Figure 4.11
Chapter 4
132
t t
t t
t t + t t t
t=~f~,::=JJ;,
1
pretensioned
tendon
.:a:
(a)
P,f
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
~,.
R wL
2
(b)
(e)
P, X e
()Y /
(d)
2
(e)
Figure 4.12 Beam with straight tendon. (a) Beam elevation. (b) Freebody diagram. (c) Externa! load balancing moment diagram. (d) Prestressing force bending moment diagram. (e) Typical stress distribution in sections 1, 2, and 3
(Equation 4.3).
is desired to have no tension along the span of the beam in Figure 4.15 with the draped
tendon, the controlling eccentricities have to be determined at the sections that follow
along the span. If Mn is the selfweight deadload moment and MT is the total moment
133
t t
~L/4
1
P,=P,
PP sin 8  PP
+ t t + +
L/4
2
=small angle
i;
=;f
Parabolic
posttensioned
ten don
(a)
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

~.
= wL
2
(b)
(e)
(d)
2
(e)
Figure 4.13 Beam with parabolic draped tendon. (a) Beam elevation. (b) Freebody diagram. (e) Externa! load bending moment diagram. (d} Prestressing force
bending moment diagram. (e) Typical stress distribution on sections 1, 2, and 3
(Equation 4.3).
due to all transverse loads, then the arms of the couple composed of the centerofpressure line (Cline) and the center of the prestressing tendon line (cgs line) dueto MD
and Mr are amin and amax respectively, as shown in Figure 4.15.
Lower cgs Envelope.
amin
=y
1
(4.7a)
Chapter 4
134
~o
f +4~2r~~
i
+ L/4
L/4J
() = small angle
Harped
posttensioned
ten don
(a)
R=Q
2
(b)
PL
(e)
(d)
3
(e)
Figure 4.14 Beam with harped tendon. (a) Beam elevation. (b) Freebody diagram. (c) Externa! load bending moment diagram. (d} Prestressing force bending
moment diagram. (e) Typical stress distribution in sections 1, 2, and 3 (Equation
4.3).
This defines the maximum distance below the bottom kern where the cgs line is to be located so that the Cline does not fall below the bottom kern line, thereby preventing tensile stresses at the top extreme fibers. Hence, the limiting bottom eccentricity is
eb
= (amin
+ kb)
(4.7b)
MT
llmax =
(4.7c)
135
ttt!tt
(a)
~~
~::
(b)
(e)
Figure 4.15 Cgs envelope determination. (a) One tendon location in beam. (b)
Bending moment diagram. (c) Limiting cgs envelope.
This defines the minimum distance below the top kern where the cgs line is to be located
so that the Cline does not fall above the top kern, thereby preventing tensile stresses at
the bottom extreme fibers. Hence, the limiting top eccentricity is
(4.7d)
Limited tensile stress is allowed in sorne codes both at transfer and at serviceload
levels. In such cases, it is possible to allow the cgs line to fall slightly outside the two limiting cgs envelopes described in Equations 4.7a and c.
If an additional eccentricity e~, e; is superimposed on the cgsline envelope that results in limited tensile stress at both the top and bottom extreme concrete fibers, the additional top stress f(t) and bottom stress (b) would be
f(t) =
P;e,c1
Je
Figure 4.16
(4.Sa)
136
Chapter 4
and
(4.8b)
where t and b denote the top and bottom fibers, respectively. From Equation 4.6, the additional eccentricities to be added to Equations 4.7b and d would be
e,
f(t)Ackb
=
(4.9a)
and
(4.9b)
The envelope allowing limited tension is shown in Figure 4.16. It should be noted that the
upper envelope is outside the section, but the stresses are within the allowable limits, indicates a noneconomical section. A change in eccentricity or prestressing force improves
the design.
4.4.6 Prestressing Tendon Envelopes
Example4.4
Suppose that the beam in example 4.2 is a posttensioned bonded beam and that the prestressing tendon is draped in a parabolic shape. Determine the limiting envelope for tendon
location such that the limiting concrete fiber stresses are at no time exceeded. Consider the
midspan, quarterspan, and beam ends as the controlling sections. Assume that the magnitude of prestress losses is the same as in Example 4.2 but that P; = 549,423 lb, Pe= 450,526 lb,
J; = 6000 psi, ec = 13 in. and ee = 6 in.
Solution: The design moments of the 1beam in Example 4.2 can be summarized together
with the section properties needed here:
f ~ = 6,000 psi
r2 = 187.5 in 2 (1,210 cm2)
Since bending moments in this example are due to a uniformly distributed load, the shape of
the bending moment diagram is parabolic, with the moment value being zero at the simply
supported ends. Hence, quarterspan moments are
Mn = 0.75 X 2,490,638 = 1,867,979 in.lb (211 kNm)
MT = 0.75
137
,:i
cb
181.5
. (
)
. = 9.95 m. 253 mm
18 84
,:i 181.5
. (
)
k 6 =  = ~ = 8.86 m.
225mm
e,
21.1 6
Lower Envelope
From Equation 4.7a, the maximum distance that the cgs line is to be placed below the bottom
kern to prevent tensile stress at the top fibers is determined as follows:
(i) Midspan
amin
MD
2,490,638
.
= 4.53 m. (115 mm)
549 , 423
giving
e1 = k 6 +
amin
= 8.86 + 4.53 = 13.39 in. (340 mm) vs ec = 15 in. used in Ex. 4.2 allow
1,867,979
,
549 423
giving
=O
giving
,e =
MT
10,095,638
.
= 22.41 m. (569 mm)
450 , 526
e1 =
amax 
max
e2
7,571,729
.
= 16.80 m. (427 mm)
450' 526
(iii) Support
llmax
=O
138
Chapter 4
Now, assume for practica! purposes that the maximum fiber tensile stresses under
workingload conditions for the purpose of constructing the cgs envelopes does not exceed
ft = 6~ = 465 psi for both top and bottom fibers both at midspan and the support, since
f ~ = 6,000 psi from Example 4.2. From Equation 4.9a, this additional eccentricity to add to
the lower cgs envelope in order to allow limited tension at the top fibers is
, _ f(t) Ac
eb 
p.
549 423
'
Similarly, from Equation 4.9b, the additional eccentricity to add to the upper cgs envelope in
order to allow limited tension at the bottom fibers is
e(=
(b)Ac k1
p
e
lncrement
Midspan
Lower envelope
13.39
+2.83
Upper envelope
12.46
3.87
Quarter span
Lower envelope
+2.83
12.26
Upper envelope
3.87
6.86
Support
Lower envelope
+2.83
8.86
3.87
Upper envelope
9.95
Actual midspan eccentricity ec = 13 in.< 16.22 in.
Hence, tendon is inside envelope at midspan.
Actual support eccentricity ee = 6 in. < 11.69 in.
Hence, tendon is also inside envelope at support.
16.22
8.59
15.09
2.99
11.69
13.82
Figure 4.17 illustrates the band of the cgs envelopes for both zero and limited tension in the
concrete.
As seen from Example 4.3 and Sections 4.4.3 and 4.4.5, straight tendons in pretensioned
members can cause hightensile stresses in the concrete extreme fibers at the support sections because of the absence of bending moment stresses due to selfweight and superimposed loads and the dominance of the moment due to the prestressing force alone. Two
common and practica! methods of reducing the stresses at the support section due to the
prestressing force are:
l. Changing the eccentricity of sorne of the cables by raising them towards the support
zone, as shown in Figure 4.18(a). This reduces the moment values.
2. Sheathing sorne of the cables by plastic tubing towards the support zone, as shown
in Figure 4.18(b ). This eliminates the prestress transfer of part of the cables at sorne
distance from the support section of the simply supported prestressed beam.
Note that raised cables are also used in longspan posttensioned prestressed
beams, theoretically discontinuing part of the tendons where they are no longer needed
139
Zero tension
envelope
Limited tension
envelope
Figure 4.17
by raising them upwards. Additional frictional losses due to these additional curvatures
have to be accounted far in the design ( analysis) of the section.
4.5 END BLOCKS AT SUPPORT ANCHORAGE ZONES
4.5.1 Stress Distribution
Raised tendons
(a)
1
3 tendons ~I
f sheathed  ~
9 tendons
(b)
Figure 4.18 Reduction of prestressing force near supports. (a) Raising part of
the tendons. (b) Sheathing part of the tendons.
140
Chapter 4
posttensioned beams, due to the large tendon prestressing forces. In the pretensioned
beams the concentrated load transfer of lhe prestressing force to tbe surrounding concrete gradually occurs over a length L, from the face of the support section uatil it becomes essentially unlform.
In posttensioned beams, this manner of gradual load distribution aad traasfer is
oot possible since the force acts directly on the face of the end of the beam through
bearing plates and anchors. Also, sorne or ali of the tendons in the posltensioned
beams are raised or draped towards the top fibers through lhe web part of the concrete
section.
As the nongradual transition of the longitudinal compressive stress from coacentrated to linearly distributed produces high transverse tensile stresses in the vertical
(transverse) direction, longitudinal bursting cracks develop al the aachorage zone.
Wben the stresses exceed the modulus of rupture of the concrete, the end block has to
split (crack) longitudinally unless appropriate vertical reinforcement is provided. The location of the concretebursting stresses and the resulting bursting cracks as well as the
surfacespalling cracks would thus ha ve to depend on the location and distribution of the
horizontal concentrated forces applied by the prestressing tendons lo the end bearing
plates.
It is sometimes necessary to increase the area of the section towards the supporl by
a gradual transmission of the web to a width at the support equal to the Oange width, in
order to accommodate the raised tendons [see Figure 4.19(a)]. Such an increase in the
crosssectional area does not contribute, however, to preventing bursting or spalling
cracks, and has no effect on reducing the transverse tension in the concrete. ln fact, both
test results and the tbeoretical analysis of this threedimensional stress problem demonstrate that the tensile stresses could increase.
Consequently, it is essential to provide the necessary anchorage reinforcement in
the load transfer zone in the form o closed ties, stirrups, or anchorage devices eoclosing
aU the rnain prestressing and mild nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement. However,
it is al the same time advisable to insert reinforcing vertical mats and confining hoops
close to the end face behind the bearing places in the case of posttensioned beams. If the
design has to follow AASHTO requirements for bridges, properly reinforced end blocks
are required. Typical stress contours of equal vertical stress based on threedimeasional
141
Concrete
cover
Transition
1l
1
<t, support
(a)
Cracks spalli ng
Bursting
crack
(b)
Figure 4.19 End anchorage zones far bonded tendons. (a) Transition to salid
section at support. (b) Endzone bursting and spalling cracks.
analysis and test results from Refs. 4.5, 4.7, 4.28. An idealization of the tensile and compressive stress paths is shown in Figure 4.20.
4.5.2 Development and Transfer Length in Pretensioned Members
and Design of Their Anchorage Reinforcement
As the jacking force is released in pretensioned members, the prestressing force is dynamically transferred through the bond interface to the surrounding concrete. The interlock or adhesion between the prestressing tendon circumference and the concrete over a
finite length of the tendon gradually transfers the concentrated prestressing force to the
entire concrete section at planes away from the end block and towards the midspan. The
length of embedment determines the magnitude of prestress that can be developed along
the span: the larger the embedment length, the higher is the prestress developed.
Asan example fodin. 7wire strand, an embedment of 40 in. (102 cm) develops a
stress of 180,000 psi (1,241 MPa), whereas an embedment of 70 in. (178 cm) develops a
stress of 206,000 psi (1,420 MPa). From Figure 4.21, it is plain that the embedment length
ld that gives the full development of stress is a combination of the transfer length [1 and
the flexural bond length t1. These are given respectively by
[ __
1
t 
1000
(fpe)
3
db
(4.la)
Chapter 4
142
Compressive
stress
distribution
Figure 4.20
or
(4.lb)
and
(4.lc)
Transfer
length 1,

Full development
length Id
_ ____,
Figure 4.21
143
(4.ld)
Equation 4.ld gives the mnimum required development length for prestressing
strands. If part of the tendon is sheathed towards the beam end to reduce the concentration of bond stresses near the end, the stress transfer in that zone is eliminated andan increased adjusted development length ld is needed.
4.5.2.1 Design of Transfer Zone Reinforcement in Pretensioned Beams. Based
on laboratory tests, empirical expressions developed by Mattock et al. give the total stirrup force Fas
Ph
F = 0.0106 '(4.11)
li
where h is the pretensioned beam depth and 11 is the transfer length. If the average stress
in a stirrup is taken as half the maximum permissible steel fs, then F =!A 1.fs. Substituting
this for Fin Equation 4.11 gives
A1
P.h
0.021 ./ l
(4.12)
Js t
Design the anchorage reinforcement needed to prevent bursting or spalling cracks from developing in the beam of Example 4.2, pretensioned.
Solution:
Js t
From Equation 4.lb, the transfer length is !1 = (fp/3,000)db. So since f, e = 154,980 psi and
1 .
p
db = 2 m., we have
l, =
154,980
3,000
.
0.5 = 25.83 m. (66 cm)
Now,
Ph
A 1 = 0.021 ,,' l
Js t
So since fs
144
Chapter 4
376,110 X 40
A, = 0.02l 20,000 X 25.83
= 0.61 in.2 (3.9 cm2 )
Use three #3 tiesto provide the envelope for aU the main longitudinal reinforcemeat.
Wrap the tendons with helical steel wire through the developrnent lengtb, /1, in order
to effect good transfer.
The anchorage zooe can be defined as the volume of concrete through whicb tbe concentrated prestressing force at the anchorage device spreads transversely to a linear distribution across the entire crosssection depth along the span (Ref. 4.5, 4.7, 4.12, 4.30). The
length of this zone follows St. Venant's principie, namely, that the stress becomes uniform atan approximate distance ahead of the anchorage device equal to the depth, h, of
the section. The entire prism wbich would ha ve a transfer length, h, is the total anchorage
zone.
This zone is thus composed of two parts:
l. General Zone: The general extent of the zone is identical to tbe total anchorage
zone. Its length extent along the span is therefore equal to the section depth, h, in
standard cases.
2. Local Zone: This zone is the insert prism of concrete surrounding and immediately
ahead of the anchorage device and the confining reinforcement it contains. See the
shaded area in Figure 4.22(c) and its magnification in Fig. 4.22(a). Also shown are
the distribution of tensile and compressive stresses in the local zone and their stress
Photo 4.6 End block of posttensioned fbeam al ultimate load (Nawy et al.).
145
contours obtained Crom the finite element analysis of Lhe Rutgers tests (Ref. 4.7).
The length of the local zone has to be considcrcd as the larger of either its maximum width or the length of the anchorage devicc confining reinforcement.
T he confining reinforcement throughout the enlire anchorage zone has to be so
chosen as to prevent bursting and splitting whicb are the result of the high concentrated
compressive forces lransmitted through the anchorage devices. In addition. checks have
Lo be made of the bearing stresses on the concrete in the local zone due to these high
compressive forces to ensure lhat the allowable compressive bearing capacity of lhe concrete is nevcr exceeded.
4.5.3.1 Design Methods for the General Zone
Essenlially, Lhree methods are applicable to the dcsign of the anchorage zone.
1. Linear Elastic Stress Analysis Approach lncluding Use of Finite Elemems: This involves computing the detailed state of stresses as linearly elastic. The application of
lhe finite element method is somewhat limited by the difficulty of developing adequate models thal can correctly model the cracking in lhc concrete (Ref. 4.30).
Ncvertheless. appropriate assumptions can always be made to get reasonable results.
2. Equ.ilibriumBased Plasticity Approach such as the Strutanc/Tie Models: The strutandtie method pro vides for idealizing the path of the prcstrcssing forces as a truss
structure with irs forces following the usual equilibrium principies. The ultimate
load predicted by this method is controlled by failure of any one of the component
struls or ties. The method usually gives conservative results for this application.
3. Approximate Methods: Tbese apply to rectangular cross scctions without disconlinuities.
4.5.3.2 Linear Elastic Analysis Method for Confining
Reinforcement Determination
The anchorage zone is subjected to tbree levels of stress as seen in Figure 4.22(a) and the
stress contour zones:
(a) High bearing stresses abead of the anchoragc devices. Proper confinernent of tbe
concrete is necessary in order to prevent the compressive failure of the compressive
segment shown in the darkly shaded area ofFigures 4.22(a) and 4.22(b).
146
Chapter 4
8'
,g
~ 5
A= O psi
B=50psi
c = 100 psi
D=150psi
E= 200 psi
F = 250 psi
p~~kin(a_)
____t
(e)
(b)
Figure 4.22 Principal tensile stress contours of equal vertical stress at anchorage zone (eccentricity ee = 6 in.). (a) Contours of stress. (b) Stress distribution at
4.5 in. above base. (c) Segment of beam elevation. (Nawy et al., Refs. 4.7, 4.28)
(b) Extensive tensilebursting stresses in the tension contour areas, normal to the ten
don axis as shown in Figures 4.22(a) and (b) and in Figure 4.23(b).
(e) High compression in the stress fieldarea s marked D and E in Figure 4.22(a).
The following discussion illustrates that a linear elastic stress analysis can predict
the cracking locations and give a reasonably reliable approximate estimate of the flow of
147
1~'~s y
..
~__,
1
(a)
r
1
1
1
1
1
1
: :;;;n; 1 L
1
.....cgc 1me
crack
e A
L
 
P;
'T_
___.Cly
D.......__ _ _ _ _
(d)
h+lI
(e)
~...i
(b)
Figure 4.23 Posttensioned beam endblock forces. (a) Beam elevation, showing transfer length Ir (b) Freebody diagram ABCD. (c) Fiber stress distribution
across beam block depth. (d) Moment values on crack surface AB for all possible
locations y across beam block depth.
stresses after cracking. The area of the tensile reinforcement is computed to carry the
total tensile force obtained through integrating the tensile stresses in the concrete. In
compressive stress regions, if the compressive force is very high, the provision of additional compressive reinforcement would become necessary.
On a parallel approach, a linearly elastic finite element analysis as shown in Figure
4.22 results in more accurate determination of the state of stresses in the anchorage zone.
However, the process of computation is timeconsuming and costly. The results can be
limited because of the difficulty of developing adequate models that can correctly model
the cracking in the concrete. A nonlinear finite element analysis to predict the postcracking response could resolve this discrepancy. Y et, the design engineer expects less
rigor and faster answers in the routine daytoday office applications.
Figure 4.23 schematically illustrates the linearly elastic end block forces. It shows
the endblock forces and the fiber stresses due to the prestressing force P, as well as the
bending moment value for each possible crack height y above the beam bottom CD. The
148
Chapter 4
maximum moment value Mmax determines the potential position of the horizontal bursting crack. This moment is resisted by the couple provided by the tensile force T of the
vertical anchorage zone reinforcement and the compressive force C provided by the endblock concrete, while the horizontal shear force V at the crack split surface is resisted by
the aggregate interlock forces. From practica! observations, the vertical anchorage zone
stirrups that provide the force T should be distributed over a zone width h/2 from the
endface of the beam such that x in Figure 4.23 can vary between h/3 and h/5.
From equilibrium of moments,
T =
Mmax
hx
(4.13)
= !_
A
t
(4.14)
where the steel stress fs used in the calculation should not exceed 20,000 psi (138.5 MPa)
for crackwidth control purposes.
In summary and in lieu of a linear elastic finite element analysis, the procedure outlined can reasonably though less precisely give a detailed anchorage design as given in
Example 4.6 part (a).
4.5.3.3 StrutandTie Method for Confining EndBlock Reinforcement
149
Actual
th/2i
_l/ /1i+1
P/2
P/2
P/2
',
' P/2
1
1
l, 'r::
/  p
p
//
r1
/r
'
I
I
>r,
'
/
1/
I
I
I I
\
\
P~

' C = T
1+P
~h/2t
(d) Bearing plate at bottom
p
p
p
,~ J_
~~ ~ ~ :. :=. ; ; . .~_____,
~~~=~
'==~
P/~ 1
c1  typ1ca

__________ k
11:
,=e 1
~
1 1
P/2
typical H h/2
150
Chapter 4
(iii) Section
C1&2
2(i) Plan
Cs
(il) Elevation
(b) StrutandTie Oevelopment In Multiple Anchorage Flanged Section
Figure 4.25
StrutandTie Development.
in tbe usual case of multiple anchorage devices. Part (b) of Example 4.6 illustrates the assumed idealized patbs for the anchorage zone in the Ibeam under considcration.
Anchorage devices are treated as closely spaced if their centertocenter spacng
does not exceed 1.5 times the width of the anchorage device
4.5.3.4 Approximate Method for Confinement of End Block Reinforcement
Simpfied equations can be used to compute the magnitude of the bursting force,
Tbursi and its centroid distance, d bum from the major bearing surface of the aocborage
(Ref. 4.30). The member has to bave a rectangular crosssection with no discontinuities
151
o          1 +T
\
2
P/2
P/2
'~::[_
'1,
P/2
P/2
....p/2
~P/2 + T
 3P/2
2
(a) Concentric or
Small Eccentricity
h/2
F1 

P/2
P/2
6~__1____ __._
V
(d} Eccentric Anchor
and Support Reaction
shear stress
distribution
''
''

'
t+P/2
V1
l~P/2
v,+[I
~~P/2 v,f ~
       compression
+P/2
tendon
Figure 4.26
152
Chapter 4
rh/2_,
rh/2_,
T0.25 P
T0.50 P
rh/2_,
T0.50 P
Figure 4.27 StrutandTie ldealized Trusses in Standard Concentric and Eccentric Cases, ACI 318.
along the span. The beam cross section would usually be the depth, h, of the section times
the width b. The bursting force, Tburst and its distance, dbursP can be computed from the
following expression:
Tburst
0.25 2 Psu ( 1 
dburst
O.S(h  2e)
*)
(4.15a)
(4.15b)
where
2 Psu
= the sum of the total factored prestress loads for the stressing arrangement
considered, lb
a = plate width of anchorage device or single group of closely spaced devices in
the direction considered, in.
e = eccentricity ( always taken positive) of the anchorage device or group
closely spaced devices with respect to the centroid of the crosssection, in.
h = depth of the crosssection in the direction considered, in.
The ACI 318 Code requires that the design of confining reinforcement in the end
anchorage block of posttensioned members be based on the factored prestressing force
Psu for both the general and local zones described at the outset of Sec. 4.4.3. A load factor
of 1.2 is to be applied to an end anchorage stress level fp; = 0.80 fpu for lowrelaxation
strands at the short time interval of jacking, which can reduce to an average value of
0.70 fpu for the total group of strands at the completion of the jacking process. For stress
153
relieved strands, a lower fp; = 0.70 fpu is advised. The maximum force Psu stipulated in the
ACI 318 Code for designing the confining reinforcement at the endblock zone is as follows for the more widely used lowrelaxation strands:
Psu
(4.15c)
The AASHTO Standard, for the case where Psu acts at an inclined angle a in the direction of the beam span, adds the term [0.5 I (Pus sin a)] to Equation (4.15a) and 5e(sin a)
to Equation (4.15b ). For horizontal Psw sin a= O.
4.5.3.5 Allowable Bearing Stresses
The maximum allowable bearing stress at the anchorage device seating should not exceed the smaller of the two values obtained from Equations 4.16(a) and 4.16(b) as follows:
4.16 (a)
b~0.7f~;~
b
2.25 f;;
4.16 (b)
where b = maximum factored tendon load, Pu, divided by the effective bearing area Ab
f ;; = concrete compressive strength at stressing
A = maximum area of portian of the supporting surface that is geometrically
similar to the loaded area and concentric with it, contained wholly within the
section, with the upper base being the loaded surface area of the concrete
and sloping sideway with a slope of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.
Ag = gross area of the bearing plate
Equations 4.16(a) and 4.16(b) are valid only if general zone reinforcement is provided
and if the extent of concrete along the tendon axis ahead of the anchorage device is at
least twice the length of the local zone.
4.5.4 Design of End Anchorage Reinforcement for Posttensioned Beams
Example 4.6
Designan end anchorage reinforcement for the posttensioned beam in Example 4.2, giving
the size, type, and distribution of reinforcement. Use f~ = 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa) normalweight
concrete. fpu = 270,000 psi lowrelaxation steel.
Assume that the beam ends are rectangular blocks extending 40 in. (104 cm.) into the
the anchorage devices then transitionally reduce to the 6in. thick web. Solve
beyond
span
the problem using (a) the linear elastic stress analysis method, (b) the plastic strutandtie
method. Sketch the truss model you determine.
(a) Solution by the Linear Elastic Stress Method:
l. Establish the configuration of the strands to give eccentricity ee = 12.49 in. (317 mm)
From Example 4.2,
cb = 18.84 in., hence distance from the beam bottom fibers = cb  ee = 6.35 in.
(161 mm)
For a centroidal distance of the 13  ! in. size tendons = 6.35 in. from the beam bottom
fibers, try the following row arrangement:
lst row : 5 strands at 2.5 in.
2nd row: 5 strands at 7.0 in.
3rd row : 3 strands at 11.5 in.
distance of the centroid of tendons
5
25 5 70 3
O K
+ X13 + X ll. = 635 m.,
154
Chapter 4
40"
409 psi
36
32
21.16
28
24
+
 cgc
16
12.49"
376, 110 lb
20
18.84"
1319
12
O. 75 X 106 in.lb
1585
1851
2117
2250 psi
(15.5 MPa)
(a)
(b)
(e)
Figure 4.28 Anchorage zone stresses and moments in Example 4.6. (a) Posttensioned
endblock zone. (b) Transfer concrete stress distribution across depth. (c) Net anchorage
zone moments on potential horizontal cracking planes along the beam depth.
+ 1,851X4 X
18 + 10
.
X (2m.)
2
The net moment is then 1.12 x 106  0.62 x 106 = 0.50 x 106 in.lb (56.6 kNm).
In a similar manner, we can find the net moment for ali the other incremental planes
at 4in. increments to get the values tabulated in Table 4.5. From the table, the
maximum net moments are +Mmax = 0.75 x 106 in.lb (84.6 kNm) at the horizontal
plane 6.35 in. above the beam bottom fibers (bursting potential crack effect) and
Mmax = 0.20x10 6 in.lb at the horizontal plane 24 in. (61 cm) above the beam bottom
fibers (spalling potential crack effect).
155
Moment Me
of concrete
in col. (4)
about horiz.
plane in
col. (1)
in.lb X 106
Net moment
(Me Mp)
col. (6)col. (5)
in.lb X 106
Section
width
in.
Stress
at
plane
(d 2.0)*
psi
Concrete
resistance
force at
(d 2.0)*
lb
Moment MP
for a P;
about horiz.
plane in
col. (1)
in.lb X 106
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
18
18
13.3
10
6
6
6
6
6
6
18
18
2,250
2,117
1,851
1,585
1,319
1,054
788
522
256
O
+276
+409
162,000
152,424
103,656
63,400
31,656
25,296
18,912
12,528
6,144
O
19,872
29,448
o
o
o
+0.30
+0.75
+l.12
+2.25
+3.54
+4.94
+6.44
+7.99
+9.61
+11.13
+12.65
+0.30
+0.75
+O.SO
+0.12
0.09
0.19
0.20
0.15
0.04
0.02
O
o
4
6.35
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
0.62
2.13
3.63
5.13
6.64
8.14
9.65
11.15
12.66
*d =distance from plane about which moment is taken less half the depth of one slice (in this example slice
depth =4 in.).
Mmax
h  X
106
= 30 000 lb (133 kN)
X
'
40  15
= +. 75
Allowing a maximum steel stress, fs = 20,000 psi, (the Code allows 0.60 fy = 36,000 psi)
The bursting zone reinforcement is
. (
A _ Tb _ 30,000 _
 1.50 m. 2 968 mm2 )
F 1 20 ' 000
Js
So
Try No. 3 closed ties (As= 2 x 0.11 = 0.22 in2)
Required no. of stirrups = l.SO = 6.82
0.22
Use seven No. 3 ties in addition to what is required for shear.
The spalling zone force
Ts =
0.2 X 106
_ lS = 8,000 lb
40
So
Ts
As= s
8,000
20,000
=  =
2
0.40in2 (250mm)
Hence, we have
.
Req no. of No. 3 stirrups
0.40
_
0 22
1.82
156
Chapter 4
Photo 4.8 Typical bursting crack of thc anchorage zone (Nawy et al.).
So use two No. 3 additional stirrups. Then
Total number of stirrups = 6.82 + 1.82 + 4 12.64
Use 13 No. 3 closed ties. Extend the stirrups into thc compression zone in Figure 4.23.
Space the No. 3 closed ties at 3 in. center lo center with the first stirrup starting 3 in.
from the beam end. Also, provide four No. 3 bars 10 in. long al 3 in. center to center
each way 2 in. from the end face al the anchor location, since cracking can occur vertically and horizontally. Add spiral reinforcement under the anchors f the manufacturer
specifies thal sucb a reinforcemenl is useful.
Next, check the bearing plate slresses.
=
For a centroidal distance of the 13!in.size st rands =6.35 in. from the beam bottom
fibers, try the following row arrangement of tendons with the indicated distances from
the bottom fibers:
lst row : 5 lendons at 2.5 in.
2nd row: 5 tendons at 7.0 in.
3rd row: 3 tendons at 1 L.5 in.
d'
f b
. f
5 X 2.5
1stance o t e centro1d o tendons =
+5 X
7.0
13
+3
X 11.5
+6X4
157
515,545
From Equations 4.16(a) and (b), the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete is the lesser of
:=;
0.7 f;;~
:=;
2.25 f ~;
= 0.75
Concentric area, A, of concrete with the bearing plates (14 + 4)(11+4) + (6 + 4)(4 + 4) =
350 in. 2 , as defined for the concrete pyramid base in Section 4.5.3.5.
= 0.7
3750&.
The bearing stress from Eq. 4.14 (b) does not control.
As defined in Section 4.5.3.5, it should be noted that the area Ag of the rigid steel plate
or plates, and the corresponding concrete pyramid base area A within the end block
assumed to receive the bearing stress, are purely determined by engineering judgement. The areas are based on the geometry of the web and bottom flange of the section, the rectangular dimension of the beam end, and the arrangement and spacing of
the strand anchorages in contact with the supporting steel end bearing plates.
3. Draw the strutandtie model
Total length of distance a, as in Figure 4.25 between forces Pu 1  Pu 3 = 11.5  2.5 =
9.0 in.
Hence depth a/2 ahead of the anchorages = 9.0/2 = 4.5 in.
Construct the strutandtie model assuming it to be as shown in Figure 4.29.
The geometrical dimensions for finding the horizontal force components from the ties
12 and 32 have cotangent values of 26.5/15.5 and 13.0/15.5 respectively. From statics,
truss analysis in Figure 4.29 gives the member forces as follows:
. 12
. t1e
tens1on
= 11 8,973
. 32
. tie
tens10n
= 198,286
26.5
155
13
155
= 203,405 lb (904 kN )
= 166,304 lb (699 kN )
Use the larger of the two values for choice of the closed tension tie stirrups.
Try No. 3 closed ties, giving a tensile strength per tie = <I> fy Av
= 0.90
60,000
2(0.11)
= 11,880 lb
203,405
required number of stirrup ties =     = 17 .1
11,880
For the tension tie abc in Figure 4.29, use the force Pu= 166,304 lb to concentrate additional
No. 4 vertical ties ahead of the anchorage devices. Start the first tie at a distance of 1! in. from
the end rigid steel plate transferring the load from the anchorage devices to the concrete.
.
Number of ties =
0 .90
166,304
(
60 ,000 2
O. 20
) = 7.7
Use eight No. 4 closed ties @ 1 hn. (12.7 mm @ 32 mm) center to center with the first tie to
start at H in. ahead of the anchorage devices.
Only thirteen ties in lieu of the 15.0 calculated are needed since part of the zone is covered by the No. 4 ties. Use 13 No. 3 closed ties@ 2~ in. (9.5 mm@ 57 mm) center to center
158
Chapter 4
r
r
Rectangular Anchor B l o c k  j
h/2 = 20"
> 1e
,/~
/
~/
<o/
2"
18"
C')
~
,/
C')
i
_ _T_ _]_ _
""'"
cV>/
!l)'I
20"
1189731
h = 40"
26.5"
198,286
118,973 lb
11~
4
198,286 lb W'
21/2''
~ 2~~412

1~1,;..I .
f l
3 7.0"
2,,
15
Tension Tie
       Compression Strut
11(
Figure 4.29
18"
beyond the last No. 4 tie so that a total distance of 40 in. (104 cm) width of the rectangular
anchor block is confined by the reinforcement closed ties.
Note that this solution requires a larger number of confining ties than the semielastic
solution in part (a). Adopt this design of the anchorage zone. Figure 4.30 shows a schematic of
the anchorage zone confining reinforcement details resulting from the strutandtie analysis.
It should also be noted that the idealized paths of the compression struts for cases
where there are severa! layers of prestressing strands should be such that at each !ayer leve! a
stress path is assumed in the design. This can be seen in Example 4.7 and Figure 4.39(b). If
layers are combined, a more conservative solution with more confining reinforcement area
results, which is not necessarily justified.
Composite sections are normally precast, prestressed supporting elements over which sit
situcast top slabs that act integrally with them. Composites have the advantage of the
precast part becoming in many cases the falsework for supporting the situcast top slab
and topping in bridges and industrial buildings, as shown in Figure 4.31. Sometimes the
precast, prestressed element is shored during the placement and curing of the situcast
top slab. In such a case, the slab weight acts only on the composite section, which has a
substantially larger section modulus than the precast section. Hence, the concrete stress
calculations have to take this situation into account in the design. The concrete stress distribution due to composite action can be seen in Figure 4.32, in part (e) of which the load
taken by the cured composite section is the sum of WSD + WL.
159
#4 ties
11/4"c/c
t 13 #3 ties @ 2W'c/c
M!
1W'1
40"
(10 2cm)
c.g.c.
~f
~

Tendon c.g.s. \
_L.
6.35"
f
~~
 ""'"I
t I
<
L..
40"
Web CrossSection
Elevation
Figure 4.30 End anchorage reinforcement in Example 4.6. (a) Anchorage zone,
(b) Beam cross section.
From Equations 4.2a and b, the extreme concrete fiber stress equations before casting
the top slab are
(4.17)
and
Msn
Mn+Pe ( 1 + ecb) + Sb
Ac
= 
,2
(4.18)
where S1 and Sb are the section moduli of the precast section only, and Msn is any additional superimposed moment such as the wet slab concrete.
After the situcast slab hardens and composite action takes place, new higher moduli S~ and Scb are available, with the cgc line moving upwards towards the top fibers. The
concrete fiber stress counterparts to Equations 4.18a and b for the extreme top and bottom fibers of the precast part of the composite section (level AA in Figure 4.32( e) are
(4.19a)
beam
Figure 4.31
160
Chapter 4
Situcast slab
W7 W0 + W50 + WL + W
wtiere W1 impact load in case of
bridges
Fig. 4 .2)
e
P. + w 0 + W50
unshored
(al
(d)
(b)
(e)
(e)
where M eso is the additional composite superimposed dead load after crection, i.e., at
service, and S/ and S cb are the section moduli of tbe composite section at the leve! of the
top and bottom fibers, respectively, of the precast section.
Tbe fiber stresses al the leve! of the top and bottom fibers of the situcast slab (levels BB and AA of Figure 4.32(e)) are
ps = Meso+ M1..
S'cr
(4.20a)
and
bs =
(4.20b)
161
where Mcsn + ML are the incremental moments added after composite action has developed, and S~b and Sbcb are the section moduli of the composite section for the top and
bottom fibers AA and BB, respectively, of the slab in Figure 4.32( e).
4.6.2 Fully Shored Slab Case
In cases where the situcast slab is fully shored until composite action develops, the concrete fiber stresses befare shoring and top slab casting become, from Equations 4.18 and
4.19,
(4.21a)
and
b
Mn
2 +  ( 1 + ecb)
= Pe
Ac
(4.21b)
Sb
After the top slab is situ cast and full composite action is developed when the concrete
hardens, Equations 4.19a and b become, for the beam shored after erection,
(4.22a)
and
ecb)
Mcsn + ML
+Mn
Pe (
 +Msn
+
1+fb=2
Ac
Sb
(4.22b)
Scb
Note that adequate check has to be made for the horizontal interface shear stresses between the situcast and the precast beams, as will be discussed in Chapter 5.
4.6.3 Effective Flange Width
In arder to determine the theoretical composite action that resists the flexura! stresses, a
determination has to be made of the slab width that can effectively contribute to the stiffness increase resulting from composite action.
Figure 4.33 and Table 4.6 give the ACI and AASHTO requirements for determining the effective top flange width of the composite section. If the topping concrete is of
different strength than that of the precast section, the width b has to be modified to account for the difference in the moduli of the two concretes in arder to ensure that the
strains in both materials at the interface are compatible. The modified width of the composite topping for calculating the composite Ice is
(4.23)
11
1
1
~L.+rLc
Figure 4.33
162
Chapter 4
Table 4.6
ACI
lntermediate beam
bw+ 6h
bw + l6h
bw+!Lc
bw+Lc
L
4
L
b+w 12
AASHTO
bw+6h
bw + l2h
bw +!Le
bw+Lc
L
bw + 12
L
4
l. Given the superimposed deadload intensity Wsn, the liveload intensity Wv the
span and the height limitation, the material strengths fpu' f~, the type of concrete,
and whether the prestress type is pretensioning or posttensioning,
2. Assume the intensity of selfweight Wn, and calculate moments Mn, Msn, and ML.
3. Calculate fp; f~;, fc;, fc and fe, where fp; = 0.70 fpu' fe; = 0.60 f~;, and t; =
3~, far the midspan section, fe= 0.45 f; or 0.60 f; as allowed and fc = 6~
to 12~
4. Calculate the prestress losses 11fpT = 11fpES + 11fpR + 11fpsH + 11fpcR + 11fpE + 11fpA + 11fp8
far the type of prestressing used. Determine net stresses fpe = fp;  11fpr
5. Find the minimum required section modulus of the minimum efficient section far
evaluating the concrete fiber stresses at the top and bottom fibers.
(a) Far harped or draped tendons, use the midspan controlling section:
(1  'Y)Mn + Msn + ML
'Yti  fe
si~
sb
(1  'Y) Mn + Msn + ML

ti  'Yfci
where
Pe
P;
'Y= 
4.7 StepByStep TrialandAdjustment Procedure for the ServiceLoad Design of Prestressed Members
163
MD + MSD + ML
'Yt;  c
si~
MD + MsD + ML
fr  'Yci
sb~
6. Select a trial section with section modulus properties clase to those required in step
5 to be checked later far composite section fiber stress requirements.
7. Far (a) the controlling section in the span (usually the midspan or at 0.4 of span),
(b) the controlling section at the support, and (c) any other section along the span if
both straight and draped tendons are used, analyze the concrete fiber stresses expected at stress transfer immediately befare such transfer:
P; (
f 1  ::e
1
MD
ec1)  Sr
;z
MD
P; ( 1 + ecb)
2 + Sb
r
Ac
= 
If the stresses exceed the allowable values, enlarge the section, or change the eccentricity ec or ee, or both.
8. Analyze the concrete fiber stresses far the serviceload conditions, as in step 7:
~: ( 1 _ ~t) _~tT
j1
= _
= 
Mr
Pe ( 1 + ecb)
2 + Sb
r
Ac
where Mr= MD + MsD + ML. If the stresses exceed the allowable values, enlarge the
section or change the eccentricity ec oree, or both.
9. Far cases where many strands have to be used, establish the envelopes of limiting
eccentricities far zero tension eb = (kb + amin) and e1 = (amax  k 1), where amin = MDIP;
and amax = M r!Pe. If the tension in the concrete is used in the design, add
f(tlAckb
e,=P;
and
, fw0c k 1
e =
Pe
t
to the bottom and top envelopes, respectively, where <t) and (b! are the extreme
fiber stresses calculated to be in the concrete.
10. Investigate the endblock anchorage zone stresses, and design the necessary reinfarcement to prevent bursting or spalling cracks. Determine the minimum development length
164
Chapter 4
Posttensioned Anchorage
Design the anchorage block reinforcement. Use the strutandtie plastic truss units to
compute the ultimate tension force in the tie for confining reinforcement selection.
Pretensional Prestress Transfer Zone
A1
Ph
= 0.021 /
Js
11. Determine the composite action stresses, and revise the section if these stresses exceed the maximum allowable concrete fiber stresses both in the precast section and
the situcast top slab. Use the modified effective width bm = (Ec/E)b for the top
composite flange when calculating the section modulus of the composite section.
(a) Unshored Slab Case.
f1
b
_Pe
Ac
(i _rz
ec1)
MD + MSD
51
Pe ( 1 + ecb) + MD+MSD
Ac
rz
5b
= 
After the top slab is cast and cured to develop full composite action, the
stresses at top and bottom fibers of the precast part of the composite section
will be
f1
=_Pe
Ac
= 
(i _
Pe (
1
Ac
Mcsn + ML
+ ecb)
+ MD + MSD + 2
5b
5cb
where 5: and 5cb are the section moduli of the composite section at the level of
the top and bottom fibers of the precast section. Also, M L includes M 1 if impact
stresses exist.
The fibers stresses at the level of the top and bottom fibers of the situcast
hardened slab are
McsD + ML
r=5~s
t
where 5:s and 5csb are the section moduli of the composite section at the level of
the top and bottom of the situcast slab.
(b) Fully Shored Slab Case. Befare shoring, and befare the topping is situcast,
f1
=_Pe
Ac
(i _rz
ec1)  Mv
51
165
After the situcast slab is cured and ful! composite action develops,
i =_Pe
Ac
(i _ecr)r2
Mv _ Msv
1
S
+ Mcsv + ML
S~
The effective width of the top flange of the composite section is determined in accordance with the applicable ACI or AASHTO specifications.
Mv = moment dueto selfweight of the precast element, Msv = moment due
to situcast slab and any other construction load, and Mcsv =moment dueto additional composite superimposed load.
12. Proceed to determine the strength of the section far the limit state at failure and far
shear and torsional strength.
Figure 4.34 shows a flowchart far the serviceload flexura! design of prestressed beams.
START
8 .....'.
Read fpu f;, f;;. W0 , W50 , WL, 2,'Y
Straight or drapee! tendons
Compute moments:
M0 = W0 22 /8
M50 = W50 22 /8
ML = wL221a
Mr = Mo
+ Mso + ML
Figure 4.34
=12 v't;,
166
Chapter 4
~
~
~
\V
<
Are the concrete dimensions to be selected?,....i
Goto
....___,__~
Read the data block
(,;'\
Yes
\V<
Constant eccentricity?
No
No
[S'Sb]
>0.5?
Yes
S'
l <30ft?
No
0 ........______,
Select fr0m rectangular
section according to
Sb or s, controlling
Select from I
section according to
Sb or S, controlling
e
@<
Select from T
section according to
Sb or s, controlling
Yes
Figure 4.34
(continued)
Goto
167
(fc 1 + M0 /Sb)Ac
(f,1 + M0 !S')Ac
or P1 < _...;.___~(1 + ecb/r 2)
(1 + ec'!r 2)
p.<
,
and
~
t3' .'lnputchosen P and corresponding
\:.::/
dP
r2
Ac
p. (
Ac
S'
Mo
ecb) + r2
sb
At service
top stress= Pe (1  ec,)
Mr
Mr
r2
Ac
r2
Ac
S'
+sb
Warning message
SAFE
Goto
Select new dimensions
G)
No
@.' .
Print:
END
Figure 4.34
(continued)
168
Chapter 4
Photo 4.10
AASHTO HS2044 loading; establish the tendon eccentricities and tendon eavelopes: aad
design the anchorage block and reinforcement, givea lhe following information:
Concrete
Precast beamf: = 5,000 psi normalweight concrete
5~ in. deck f; = 3,000 psi aormalweight concrete
f., =
0.55/;,
Prestressing Steel
fp,
f~
Locate and draw lhe distribulion of tendons in both tbe midspan and end sections. Use
a liveload moment value includiag impact due to AASHTO HS2044 loading for oae interior beam of the 64 ft span bridge = 9,300,000 in.lb (1,051 kNm).
Solution:
Be11ding Moments and New Allowable Stresses (Steps 14). Since the beam spacing
and span length are known, the momenls duc to situcast slab and diaphragms can be initially
determined. The clear distaoce between the webs of the beams is 7 ft , Oin.  6 in.= 6 ft , 6 in.
Assume a deck slab Si in. (14.6 cm) thick made of U in. precast panels and 4 in. situcast topping anda diaphragm 8 in. (20 cm) thick at midspan and 45 in. (122 cm) deep, cast integrally
with the deck slab. We have:
8
12
45
12
.
143 in. precast formwork panel we1ght
MsDJ =
153~4f
8
12
6.5
169
150
1.75 X
= 12
4
12
150
.
940,032 m.lb
WsvL 2
PL
Msv2=4+8
Total Msv
2,440 (64
12)
350(64)2 (12)
+8
468,480 + 2,150,400
2,618,880 in.lb
940,032 + 2,618,880
S'
(1  'Y)Mv + Msv + ML
2:         
'Yt;  c
sb
(1  'Y)Mv + Msv + ML
2:         
.fi 
'Yci
Assume that the selfweight of the precast beam element is approximately 583 plf
(8.5 kN/m). Then
Mv
t 
Mm S 
583(64) 2
8
12
.
 (1  0.80)3,581,952 + 3,558,912 + 9,300,000 . 3
3
Mm Sb _ _ ( , )
 6,215 m. (101,846 cm)
424 0 80 2 200
The expected actual section modulus for the top fibers is usually considerably larger than the
section modulus for the bottom fibers of the composite section. So choose the precast element based on sb = 6,215 in. 3
AASHTO type 111 is chosen as the closest trial section for Sb = 6,215 in.3 since
AASHTO type IV has a much larger section modulus. We have as in Figure 4.35.
S'
sb
Chapter 4
170
f.1'4"l
TI
7"
r
_l
3'9''.
19"
4"
45"
20.27"
cgc
(b)
f110"J
(a)
Figure 4.35
Stresses at Transfer
My
= 3,581,952 +
Aps
22 X 0.153
P;
Apsfp;
Pe= 0.80P
0.80 X 636,174
r2
3,589,632 + 9,300,000
k,
= cb =
223.91
.
20 27
kb
= 
r2
e,
223.91
24.73
P. =
e,=
(21.7 cm2 )
)
.
9.05 m. (23.0 cm
.
5.63 m.
'
eb =
3,581,952
636 174
My
llmax =
=  =
MD
min
3.366 in. 2
amin
16,471,584
508 ' 940
+ kb
llmax 
k,
.
.
.
32.36 m. (Upper e:velope, ou~s1de sect1on,
hence sect10n can be 1mproved)
5.63 + 9.05
= 32.36
 11.05
14.68 in.
= 21.31 in.
e, = f1AcKb/P;=212 x 560 x 9.05/636,174 = 1.69 in., giving a maximum ec with tension = 14.69 +l.69 = 16.37 in.
U sing 4 in. cover gives ec = cb  4.0 = 20.27  4.0 = 16.27 L 16.37 in., hence O.K. as
the tendon is within the band.
Try ec = 16.27 in. (413 mm)
171
<
P ( 1 eecb) Mn
fb=+ +Ae
Sb
,2
= _ P;
Ae
(l _eect)
r2
= _ P;
Ae
(l
(l _10
= _ 636,174
560
<
X 24.73)
223.91
+ eecb) = _ 636,174
r2
560
(l 10
+
X 20.27)
223.9
7 ft
cb =
I; = 125,390 + 560(31.32 
20.27) 2 +
65(5.75) 3
+ 65
12
5.75(16.56) 2
= 297,044 in. 4
r2 = 318.12 in. 2
seb = 9,490 in. 3
s~ = 21,714 in. 3 at top of precast section
se 
297,044 . 3
13.68  21,714 m.
ses 
297,044 . 3
19.43  15,288 m. at top of slab
297,044 . 3
sbes  (19.43  4)  19,251 m. at bottom of slab
Chapter 4
172
Stresses A/ter Hin. Precast Panel Is Erected As Formwork, Wsv (Step lla) Be/ore Diaphragm
and Slab Are Cast,
(a) Midspan Section
f ' =_Pe
Ac
M 0 + Msv
( 1 _ ecc') Mv + Msv
r2
S'
3,581,952 + 940,032
4,521,984 in.lb
1 _
f 
Msv
+eccb)
Pe ( 1 +
 +Mv
Sb
r2
=
Ac
= _
f'
508,940 (
56() 1 
10
10
508,940 (
b = 56() 1 +
X 24.73)
.
223 9
.
94.9 psi (T)
< f,
.
424 psi, O.K.
.
X 20.27)
= 1,731.6 psi (11.9 MPa)( C)
.
223 9
f'=
M 0 + M 50
Pe
Ac
(1 
ecc') Mv + Msv
S'
r2
, = 508,940
560
(l _16.27223.924.73) 7,171,584
5,070
X
Msv
Mv+eccb) + (1 + b = Pe
Sb
r2
Ac
= _
MD + MSD
7,171,584 in.lb
+ ML
O + 9,300,000
McSD
9,300,000
1088.1
9,300,000 .( )
,
 690.2  428.3  1,118.5 psi C
21 714
t 
fe  690.2 
bc
173
9,300,000
9,492
1088.1
+ 979.8
.( )
108.3 psi e
Modular ratio n = 0.77 from before. Stress at top fibers of slab after concrete hardened is
f~s
9,300,000
X 0.77
15 288
'
bcs
9,300,000
X 0.77
19 251
.
372 psi (C)
'
(b) Support Section. Same kind of calculations as in previous step. Result isf' = +94.9 psi
(T) andfb = 1,731.6 psi (C).
Tendon Envelope
(a) Midspan Section
llmax
= 32.36 in.
amin
= 5.63 in.
( b) Quarter Section
M D = 2,686,464
min
MD
.
P. = 4.22 m.
MT
12,355,248
max
MT
= 24.28 m.
See Figure 4.36 for the tendon envelope and Figure 4.37 for the stress distribution. Figure 4.38 gives the anchorage zone stresses and the net moments along the depth of the beam.
~~.~~i32'0"Figure 4.36
Chapter 4
174
5~ in.
J_
= compression; + = tension
+905
707
45"
J_
2809
2230
+579
(a) Mp;
+ M0
+724
892
2247
+731
1516
522
1516
+428
1088
428
1088
+980
108
(d)
Figure 4.37 Midspan concrete fiber stresses in Example 4.7. (a) Transfer.
(b) Erection. (c) Topping cast. (d) Serviceload stage.
P; = 636,174 lb
ee = 10 in.
f'
fb
h = 45 in.
175
2.35"
+119 (16) lb/in.
T~
'in
V
l8N
V
~
t__.....
2037 (22)
2164 (22)
psi (section width)
Figure 4.38 Anchorage zone elastic stresses and net moments in Example 4.7. (a) Anchorage zone stresses. Bracketed values are section widths (in.) along which anchorage
stresses are acting. (b) Net bursting or splitting moments (Mp  Me) at 5in. depth intervals.
Use
X
= h/3 = 15 in.
Mmax
2.15 X 106
Tb = h  X = 45  15 = 71,670 lb (316 kN)
_ Tb _ 71,670 _
.
OOO  3.58 m 2 (23.1 cm2)
20 ,
Js
As   
Mmin
h x
+0.04 X 106
45  15
133
, o
A _ ~ _ 1,330 _
.
7 2
s  20 ,000  20 ,000  0.0 m
3.65
= 9.13
0.20 X 2
Arrangement of Strands. Use a 2 in. x 2 in. (25 mm x 25 mm) grid for arranging the
distribution of strands. Eccentricities are:
Chapter 4
176
+ + +
7.5"
Ti
cgc
22  ~q, tendons at
2" X 2" grid
16.27"
++
+ + +
20.27"
J~
+ +
+ + +
+ +
'
++++++++
+++++++
~~~~~~~~~
'
cgs
+ +
+ + +
++
(b)
(a)
Figure 4.39(a) Strand arrangement in Example 4.7. (a) Midspan (ec= 16.27 in.).
{b) End section (ee = 10.0 in.).
10.33 in.
4(0.153)(259,200)
158,630 lb
Section
width
(in.)
Stress
at
plane
(d 2.5)
(psi)
Concrete
resist.
force at
(d 2.5)
(lb)
Moment MP
of force P;
about horiz.
plane in
col. (1)
(in.lb X 106)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
22
22
15
7
7
7
7
12
16
16
2,164
2,037
1,783
1,530
1,276
1,022
769
515
216
+119
o
237,040
133,725
53,550
44,660
35,770
26,915
25,750
20,880
+9,520
o
o
o
Moment
plane
dist. d
from
bottom
(in.)
5
10.27
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
3.01
6.19
9.37
12.55
15.73
18.91
22.09
Moment Me
of concrete
in col. (4)
about horiz.
plane in
col. (1)
(in.lb X 106)
(6)
Net moment
(Me Mp)
col. (6)col. (5)
(in.lb X 106)
(7)
+0.56
+2.15
+4.42
+7.00
+9.80
+12.76
+15.80
+18.95
+22.15
+o.56
+2.15
+l.41
+0.81
+0.43
+0.19
+0.07
+0.04
+.06
177
2"
T
79,315
118,973
2"
4"
181/2"
   221/2''
45"
1
Figure 4.39(b)
= 3(0.153)(259,200) = 118,973 lb
Pu4 Pu6
= 2(0.153)(259,200) = 79,315 lb
Pus
= 20
b
12 + 7 X 16
872,457
3s2 =
= 352 in. 2
.
2480 psi
From Equations 4.16(a) and (b), the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete is
b ::; 2.25 f
= 0.7
3750
The bearing stress from Eq. 4.14 (b) does not control.
178
Chapter 4
(3) Draw the strutandtie model and select the anchorage reinforcement
choose distance a, as in Figure 4.39(b) between two forces p uS  p u6 = 7 .5 in.
7 5
= e!>
fy Av
= 0.90
.
.
.
reqmred number of stirrup ties
97,944
880
= ll,
60,000
2(0.11) = 11,880 lb
.
Trying No. 4 closed UStirrups in the compression zone adjacent to the anchorage devices plane, the applicable force can also be assumed in this case to be approximately
97,944 lb.
Tensile strength of one No. 4 confining tie
number of ties =
= 0.90
60,000
2(0.20)
97,944
= 4.5, used five No. 4 closed Ustirrups.
,
21 600
Comparing solutions (a) and (b), adopt the following confining reinforcement in the
anchorage zone over a distance h = 45 in. from the beam end:
Use five No. 4 closed Ustirrups starting at 1 hn. from the anchorage devices plane
and spaced at Hin. on centers, then continue with the nine stirrups at 5 in. on centers
over a distance of 40 in. It should be noted that if a smaller number of path lines are assumed in the idealization of the compression strut paths, the tension tie forces would
have been larger resulting in more confining reinforcement.
179
Stress
fp$
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Steel stress
after cracking
~..
_,..
_.,....,. _,.. \
..........
Unbonded
1
fpe
g
[
E1
e
E1
:= 1
~I
1
1
1
.
Unbonded
~I
"iii 1
~ 1
81
el
El
~I
~I
m
o 1
<l:[
:g 1
Figure 4.40
concrete~ S!~:~e ~
Load
Cline stabilizes and stops so that the section starts to behave like a reinforced concrete
section with constant moment resistance arm.
It is important to evaluate the first cracking load, since the section stiffness is reduced and hence an increase in deflection has to be considered. Also, the crack width has
to be controlled in order to prevent reinforcement corrosion or leakage in liquid containers.
The concrete fiber stress at the tension face is
(4.24)
where the modulus of rupture f, = 7.5Vf'c and the cracking moment Me, is the moment
dueto all loads at that load level (MD + MSD + ML). From Eq. 4.24,
Mcr
(4.25)
Note that the term r 2/cb is the upper kern value k 1 so that Per 2/cb denotes the elastic moment required to raise the Cline from the prestressing steel level to the upper kern point
giving zero tension at the bottom fibers. Consequently, the term f,Sb is that additional
moment required to cause the development of the first crack at the extreme tension
fibers due to overload, such as at the bottom fibers at midspan of a simply supported
beam.
4.9.2 Partial Prestressing
Chapter 4
180
and to assume part of the ultimate flexural moment strength. Two major advantages of
partial prestressing are the efficient use of all constituent materials and the control of excessive camber dueto the longterm creep of concrete under compression.
Reinforced concrete beams always have to be designed as underreinforced to ensure ductile failure by yielding of the reinforcement. Prestressed beams can be either underreinforced using a relatively small percentage of mild nonprestressed steel, leading to
rupture of the tensile steel at failure, or essentially overreinforced, using a large percentage of steel, resulting in crushing of the concrete at the compression top fibers in a somewhat less ductile failure.
Another type of, say, premature failure occurs at the first cracking load level, where Mcr
approximates the nominal moment strength Mn of the section. This type of failure can occur
in members that are prestressed and reinforced with very small amounts of steel, or in members that are concentrically prestressed with small amounts of steel, or in hollow members.
It is generally advisable to evaluate the magnitude of the cracking moment Mcr in
order to determine the reserve strength and overload limits that the designed section has.
4.9.3 Cracking Moment Evaluation
Example 4.8
Calculate the cracking moment Mcr in the 1beam of Example 4.2, and evaluate the
magnitude of the overload moment that the beam can tolerate at the modulus of rupture of
concrete. Also, determine what safety factor the beam has against cracking due to overload.
Given is f, = 7.5v1fl = 7.5V5,000 = 530 psi (3.7 MPa).
Solution: From Example 4.2,
Pe
r/cb
whereMsv =O
ML = 7,605,00 in.lb (859 kNm)
From Equation 4.25,
Mcr
frSb + Pe(e +
530
~)
MT
93
181
lf the service load MT is less than Me,, the safety factor against cracking will be greater than 1,
as in nonpartially prestressed members.
Note that where nonprestressed reinforcement is used to develop a partially prestressed section, the total factored moment <l>Mn;::: l.2Mc,, as required by the ACI code.
Three developments in recent decades have majorly influenced present and future design
procedures: the vast increase in the experimental and analytical evaluation of concrete
elements, the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of behavior, and the digital
computational tools available far rapid analysis of safety and reliability of systems. Until
recently, most safety factors in design have hadan empirical background based on local
experience over an extended period of time. As additional experience is accumulated
and more knowledge is gained from failures as well as familiarity with the properties of
concrete, factors of safety are adjusted and in most cases lowered by the codifying bodies.
In 1956, Baker (Ref. 4.24) proposed a simplified method of safety factor determination, as shown in Table 4.8, based on probabilistic evaluation. This method expects the
design engineer to make critical choices regarding the magnitudes of safety margins in a
design. The method takes into consideration that different weights should be assigned to
the various factors affecting a design. The weighted failure effects W 1 far the various factors of workmanship, loading conditions, results of failure, and resistance capacity are
tabulated in the table.
The safety factor against failure is
S.F.
LW1
= 1.0 + lO
(4.26)
where the maximum total weighted value of all parameters affecting performance equals
10.0. In other words, far the worst combination of conditions affecting structural performance, the safety factor S.F. = 2.0.
Table 4.8
Maximum Wt
4.0
1.0
2.0
0.5
2.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
~w,
1.0 + lO
182
Chapter 4
R W
vu~ + ui
3 =:::==
(4.28)
183
[iiw1
2oR
+2oR
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Resistance,
(a)
w
Load, U
(b)
[iiwj
1
1
1
1
Load, U
(e)
Figure 4.41
where aR and w are the standard deviations of the resistance and the load, respectively.
A plot of the safety index 13 for a hypothetical structural system against the probability of failure of the system is shown in Fig. 4.42. One can observe that such a probability is reduced as the difference between the mean resistance R and load effect W is
increased, or the variability of resistance as measured by their standard deviations aR and
w is decreased, thereby reducing the shaded area under intersection C in Fig. 4.41(c).
The extent of increasing the difference (R  W) or decreasing the degree of scatter
of a R or a w is naturally dictated by economic considerations. It is economically unreasonable to design a structure for zero failure, particularly since types of risk other than load
are an accepted matter, such as the risks of severe earthquake, hurricane, volcanic erup
Chapter 4
184
10 1
102
~
.a
~
o
>
103
~
:e
~
104
105
106
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Safety index
Figure 4.42
4.0
4.5
5.0
RW
= ~===
Jo~+ o~
tion, and fire. Safety factors and corresponding load factors would thus have to disregard
those types or levels of load, stress, and overstress whose probability of occurrence is
very low. In spite of this, it is still possible to achieve reliable safety conditions by choosing such a safety index value 3 through a proper choice of Rn and W using the appropriate resistance factors <!>; and load factors 'Y in Equation 4.27. A safety index 3 having the
value 1.75 to 3.2 for concrete structures is suggested where the lower value accounts for
load contributions from wind and earthquake.
If the factored externa! load is expressed as U;, then L 'Y;W = U; for the different
loading combinations.
In cases where other load combinations, such as snow or lateral pressure are not
present, a typical U value recommended in the ASCE7 Standard (Ref. 4.14) and IBC
2000 (Ref. 4.17) for maximum U; to be used in Equation 4.2, that is, <j> Rn ::::: 'Y W; ::::: U max'
as follows:
U= <!>;Rn
Maximum[l.2D + l.6L]
(4.29)
As more substantive records of performance are compiled, the details of the foregoing approach to reliability, safety, and reserve strength evaluation of structural components will be more universally accepted and extended beyond the treatment of the
component elements to the treatment of the total structural system, such as described in
Table 4.8.
The general concepts of safety and reliability of performance presented in the preceding
section are inherent in a more simplified but less accurate fashion in the ACI code. The
load factors 'Y and the strength reduction factors <!> give an overall safety factor based on
load types such that
185
(4.30)
where <!> is the strength reduction factor and 'Yt and "12 are the respective load factors for
the dead load D and the live load L. Basically, a single common factor is used for dead
load and another for live load. Variation in resistance capacity is accounted Cor in <j>.
Hence, the method is a simplified empirical approach to safety and the reliability of
structural performance thal is nol economically efficient for every case and not full y adequate in other instances, such as combinations of dead and wind loads.
The ACI factors are termed Load factors, as Lhey restrict the esti mation of reserve
strength to the loads only as compared to the o thcr parameters listed in Table 4.8. The
estimated service or working loads are magnified by the coefficients, such as a coefficient
of 1.2 for dead loads and l.6 for live load, with the basic combination of vertical gravity
loads is dead load plus live load. The dead load, which constitutes the wcight of the structure and other relatively permanent features, can be estimated more accurately than tbe
live load. The live Load is estimated using the weight of nonpermanent loads, such as people and furniture. The transient nature of live loads malees them difficult to estimate
more accurately. Therefore, a higher load factor is normally used for live loads then for
dead loads.
The philosophy used for combining the various load components for carlhquake
loading is essentially the same as that used for wind loading.
4.11.2 ACI Load Factors Equatons
The ACI 318 Building Code Cor concrete structures is an international code. As such, it
has to conform to the lnternational Building Code, IBC, and be consistent witb the
ASCE7 Standard on Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structurcs (Ref.
4.25). Tbese two standards contain the same probabilistic vaJues for the expected
safety resistance factors <!>1 R11 where <!> is a strength reduction factor, depending on
the type of stress being considered in the design, namcly. Oexure or shear or compression, etc.
Thus, the current ACI design loads U (factored loads) have to be at lcast cqual lo the
values obtained from Equations 4.3l(a) through 4.31 (g). The effect of onc or more loads
not acting simullancously has to be investigated. Structures are seldorn subjected to dead
and live load alone. T he following equations present combinations of loads for situations in
whicb wind, earthquake, or lateral pressures dueto earthftU or fluids should be considered:
Chapter 4
186
U= 1.4(D + F)
(4.31a)
(4.31b)
(4.31c)
(4.31d)
(4.31e)
(4.31f)
(4.31g)
where
D = dead load; E= earthquake load; F = lateral fluid pressure load & maximum
height;
H =load due to the weight and lateral pressure of soil and water in soil;
(a) The load factor on L in Eq. 4.3l(c) to 4.3l(e) is allowed to be reduced to 0.5 except
for garages, areas occupied as places of public assembly, and all areas where the live
load L is greater than 100 lb/ft2.
(b) Where wind load W has not been reduced by a directionality factor, the code permits to use l.3W in place of l.6W in Eq. 4.31(d) and 4.3l(f).
(c) Where earthquake load E is based on servicelevel seismic forces, l.4E shall be
used in place of l.OE in Eq. 4.31(e) and 4.3l(g).
(d) The load factor on H is to be set equal to zero in Eq. 4.31(f) and Eq. 4.3l(g) if the
structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E. Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance to structural actions from other forces, it should not be included in H but shall be included in the design resistance.
Due regard has to be given to sign in determining U for combinations of loadings,
as one type of loading may produce effects of opposite sense to that produced by another
type. The load combinations with 0.9D are specifically included for the case where a
higher dead load reduces the effects of other loads. Consideration also has to be given to
various combinations of loading to determine the most critica! design condition, particularly when strength is dependent on more than one load effect, such as strength for combined flexure and axial load or shear strength in members with axial load. In cases where
special circumstances require greater reliance on the strength of particular members than
encountered in usual practice, the ACI Code allows sorne reduction in the stipulated
strength reduction factors <!>, or an increase in the stipulated load factors U.
4.11.2.1 Reduction in Live Loads
For large areas, it is reasonable to assume that the ful! intensity of live load <loes not
cover the entire floor area. Hence, members having an influence area of 400 ft 2 (37.2 m2 )
or more can be designed for a reduced live load from the following equation:
187
= L 0 (0.25 +
~)
(4.32a)
where
L = Reduced design live load per square foot of area supported by the member,
L 0 = Unreduced design live load per square foot of area,
A 1 = Influence area: For other than cantilevered construction, A 1 is the tributary
area for a column; A 1 is tributary area for beams, or equal area for a twoway slab (Ref. 4.25).
4.57)
L 0 ( 0.25 + V
(4.32b)
The strength of a particular structural unit calculated using the current established procedures is termed nominal strength. For example, in the case of a beam, the resisting moment capacity of the section calculated using the equations of equilibrium and the
properties of concrete and steel is called the nominal strength moment Mn of the section.
This nominal strength is reduced using a strength reduction factor <!> to account for inaccuracies in construction, such as in the dimensions or position of reinforcement or variations in properties. The reduced strength of the member is defined as the design strength
of the member.
For a beam, the design moment strength <l>Mn should be at least equal to, or better,
slightly greater than, the externa! factored moment Mu for the worst condition of factored load U. The factor <!> varies for the different types of behavior and for the different
types of structural elements. For beams in flexure, for instance, <!>is 0.9.
For tied columns that carry dominant compressive loads, the factor<!> equals 0.65.
The smaller strengthreduction factor used for columns is due to the structural importance of the columns in supporting the total structure compared to other members, and
to guard against progressive collapse and brittle failure with no advance warning of collapse. Beams, on the other hand, are designed to undergo excessive deflections befare
failure. Hence, the inherent capability of the beam for advanced warning of failure permits the use of a higher strength reduction factor or resistance factor.
Table 4.9 summarizes the resistance factors <!> for various structural elements as
given in the ACI code. A comparison of these values to those given in Ref. 4.24 indicates
that the <!> values in this table, as well as the load factors of Equation 4.31, are in sorne
cases more conservative than they should be. In cases of earthquakes, wind, and shear
forces, the probability of load magnitude and reliability of performance are subject to
higher randomness, and hence a higher coefficient of variation than the other types of
loading.
Chapter 4
188
Table 4.9
Structural Element
Factor<!>
0.9
0.65
0.75
0.650.9, or
0.750.9
0.75
As discussed in Section 4.9.1, the prestressed concrete beam starts to behave like a reinforced concrete beam when the value of the flexura} moment is well beyond the cracking
moment Mcr and the total service load moment MT. The ultimate theory in flexure and
the principles and concepts underlying it are thus equally applicable to prestressed concrete. A detailed fundamental treatment of this subject is given in chapter 5 of Ref. 4.2.
The same fundamental format of equations will be given here, modified to reflect the
characteristics of the different reinforcing materials and the geometry peculiar to prestressed concrete.
Cracking develops when the tensile stress in the concrete at the extreme fibers of
the critical section exceeds the maximum stress level fr 7.SVf::. Prior to attaining this
level, the overload causes the compressive stress in the concrete at the leve! of the prestressing steel to continually decrease until it becomes zero at a load level termed the decompression load. The stress level in the tendons is correspondingly termed the
decompression stress (see Figures 4.3 and 4.43).
Sorne investigators define the decompression load as the load at which the first
crack appears at the extreme fibers of the critical section, such as the bottom midspan
fibers of a simply supported beam. A minor difference results in the analysis using this
definition of the decompression load.
To follow the loading stepbystep states, suppose that the effective prestress fpe at
service load due to all loads results in a strain E 1 such that
fpe
Ei = Epe
=E
(4.33a)
ps
At decompression, i.e., when the compressive stress in the surrounding concrete at the
level of the prestressing tendon is neutralized by the tensile stress due to overload, a decompression strain Ectecomp = E2 results such that
'
4.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
Compression
Compressian
189
Decompression
1> 6f0
f't
(a)
(b)
(e)
V'c
(d)
Figure 4.43 Strain in the concrete up to the decompression stage at the tension
reinforcement level. (a) Cross section. (b} Entire section in compression. (c} Tension at the lower fibers below the modulusofrupture level. (d) Decompression
stage with zero stress in the concrete at the level of the prestressing reinforcement.
Ez
Ectecomp
A~~c ( 1 + ;:)
(4.33b)
Figures 4.43 and 4.44 illustrate the stress distribution at and after the decompression
stage where the behavior of the prestressed beam starts to resemble that of a reinforced
concrete beam.
As the load approaches the limit state at ultimate, the additional strain E3 in the
steel reinforcement follows the linear triangular distribution shown in Fig. 4.44(b ), where
the maximum compressive strain at the extreme compression fibers is Ec = 0.003 in.fin. In
such a case, the steel strain increment due to overload above the decompression load is
E3
e)
= Ec ( d e

(4.33c)
where e is the depth of the neutral axis. Consequently, the total strain in the prestressing
steel at this stage becomes
(4.33d)
The corresponding stress fps at nominal strength can be easily obtained from the stressstrain diagram of the steel supplied by the producer.
4.12.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block and Nominal Moment Strength
It is important to be able to evaluate the reserve strength in the prestressed beam up to
failure, as discussed in Chapter l. Hence, the total design would have to incorporate the
moment strength of the prestressed section in addition to the serviceload level checks
described in detail in Sections 4.1 through 4.7. The following assumptions are made in
defining the behavior of the section at ultimate load:
....
<O
T
Compression
si de
f. .. 1T
[
d
____
~ '~
r i Te~sion
sade
(a)
Lj_
= AP'P
THJ
N~ ~
. . ..;,
_L
(dp

T= AP fP
j
~e,'J
(e)
= AP'P
i)
(d)
(b)
Figure 4.44 Stress and strain distribution across beam depth. (a) Beam cross section. (b) Strains. (c) Actual stress block. (d) Assumed
equivalent stress block.
4.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
191
the section is neglected in the flexura! analysis and design computations, and the
tension reinforcement is assumed to take the total tensile force.
To satisfy the equilibrium of the horizontal forces, the compressive force C in the
concrete and the tensile force T in the steel should balance each otherthat is,
C=T
(4.34)
0.65
::5 [
<!>
0.65 +(et 
(4.35a)
Chapter 4
192
o.002)t2 gj~
0.90 ,~'T.,,t
,,
,,
,,
0.70
<P
0.65
(: ~
<P=0.65 + (10.002\2~J
,,
SPIRAL
'
OTHER
Compression
rc=on_t_ro_ll_e_d_~Transition
Et
=0.002
Tension
c,0ntr_o_lled1
Et=
0.005
.E...=0.375
dt
.E._= 0.600
dt
[c1 i J
<P = 0.65 + 0.25 [c1  i J
1
Figure 4.45 Strain limit zones and variation of strength reduction factor el> with
the net Tensile Strain e 1
Spirallyreinforced sections:
0.75
::5 [
<!> = 0.75
+ (e
1 
(4.35b)
Variation of <!>as a Function of Neutral Axis depth Ratio cid.. Equations 4.35(a)
and 4.35(b) can be expressed in terms of the ratio of the neutral axis depth c to the effective depth d 1 of the layer of reinforcement closest to the tensile face of the section as follows,
Tied sections:
0.65
::5 (
<!> = 0.65
+ 0.2{
e;
di 
~])
0.90
(4.36a)
(4.36b)
::5
Spirallyreinforced sections:
0.75 ::s ( <1>
0.75 + o.15[c;d
For balanced strain, where the reinforcement at the tension side yields at the same
time as the concrete crushes at the compression face (fs = fy), the neutral axis depth ratio
far a limit strain e 1 = 0.002 in.fin. can be defined as
(
cb
dt
87,000 )
87,000 + fy
(4.37)
In summary, when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension reinforcement is sufficiently large (equal or greater than 0.005), the section is defined as tensioncontrolled,
where ample warning of failure with extensive deflection occurs.
193
4.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
The Code permits decreasing the negative elastic moment at the supports for continuous
members by not more than [1000 et] percent, with a maximum of 20 percent. The reason
is that for ductile members, plastic hinge regions develop at points of maximum moment
and cause a shift in the elastic moment diagram. In many cases, the result is a reduction
of the negative moment and a corresponding increase in the positive moment. The redistribution of the negative moment as permitted by the code can only be used when et is
equal or greater than about 0.0075 in.fin. at the section at which the moment is reduced.
Redistribution is inapplicable in the case of slab systems proportioned by the direct design method (DDM).
Figure 4.46 shows the permissible moment redistribution for minimum rotational
capacity. A minimum strain of 0.0075 at the tensile face is comparable to the case where
the reinforcement ratio for the combined prestressed and mild steel reinforcement has a
reinforcement index of w not exceeding 0.2413 1 as an upper limit for ductile design. A
maximum strain 0.005 for the tensioncontrolled state is comparable to a reinforcement
index wP = 0.3213 1 or wT= 0.3613 1 as described in the Code commentary.
The ACI 318 Code stipulates a maximum strength reduction factor <!> = 0.90 for
tensioncontrolled bending, to be used in computing the design strength of flexural members. This corresponds to neutral axis depth ratio cld1 = 0.375 for a strain et= 0.005, with a
lower cld1 ratio recommended. For a useful redistribution of moment in continuous members, this neutral axis depth ratio should be considerably lower, so that the net tensile
strain is within the range of et = 0.0075, giving a 7.5% redistribution, and 0.020, giving
20% redistribution, as shown in Figure 4.46. The tensile strain at the extreme tensile reinforcement has the value
et
0.003 ( ~t  1)
(4.38a)
Asan example, if d1 =20 in. and neutral axis depth c = 5.1 in.,
et= 0.003 (
~t
1) = 0.003
(~.~
25
e:
Q)
E 20
o
E
.!: 15
Q)
t:1 =
0.003
{d 
.120
1) zone
15
Cl
e:
Ctl
.e
10
(.)
10
e:
Q)
Q)
a..
o
o
Figure 4.46
0.005
0.015
0.01
Net tensile strain
0.02
0.025 t:
194
Chapter 4
+ : (w  w')::::; 0.2413 1
(4.38b)
The actual distribution of the compressive stress in a section at failure has the form of a rising parabola, as shown in Figure 4.44(c). It is timeconsuming to evaluate the volume of the
compressive stress block if it has a parabolic shape. An equivalent rectangular stress block
due to Whitney can be used with ease and without loss of accuracy to calculate the compressive force and hence the flexura! moment strength of the section. This equivalent stress
block has a depth a and an average compressive strength 0.85f~. As seen from Figure
4.44(d), the value of a= 131c is determined by using a coefficient 13 1 such that the area of the
equivalent rectangular block is approximately the same as that of the parabolic compressive block, resulting in a compressive force C of essentially the same value in both cases.
The value 0.85f~ for the average stress of the equivalent compressive block is based
on the core test results of concrete in the structure at a minimum age of 28 days. Based
on exhaustive experimental tests, a maximum allowable strain of 0.003 in.fin. was
adopted by the ACI as a safe limiting value. Even though severa! forms of stress blocks,
including the trapezoidal, have been proposed to date, the simplified equivalent rectangular block is accepted as the standard in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete.
The behavior of the steel is assumed to be elastoplastic.
Using ali the preceding assumptions, the stress distribution diagram shown in Figure 4.44(c) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 4.44(d). One can easily deduce that the
compression force C can be written 0.85f~ bathat is, the volume of the compressive
block at ornear the ultimate when the tension steel has yielded (Es> Ey). The tensile force
T can be written as Apsps; thus, the equilibrium Equation 4.34, equating C and T, can be
rewritten as
(4.39)
A little algebra yields
(4.40)
The nominal moment strength is obtained by multiplying C or T by the moment arm
(dp  a/2), yielding
4. 12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
195
{4.41a)
where dP is the distance from the compression fibers to the center of the prestressed reinforcement. The steel percentage Pp = Ap/bd" gives nominal strength of the prestressing
steel only as follows
Mn
= Ppfpsb<f, (1
 0.59pp
;~)
{4.4lb)
(4.4lc)
A,,. fps
+ A sfy
{4.42a)
0.85/;b
lf e= a/f3 1, the strain at the leve) of the mild steel is (Fg. 4.44)
E3
e)
d = e., ( e
(4.42b)
Equaton 4.41(b), for rectangular sections but with mild tension steel and no compresson
steel accounted for, becomes
~)
(4.43a)
196
Chapter 4
0.85t;ab
Ap,
'+0
~+e
A,
e,
(a)
(b)
(e)
Figure 4.47 Strain, stress, and forces across beam depth of rectangular section.
(a) Beam section. (b) Strain. (c) Stresses and forces.
where w = p(f/f~), or
(4.43c)
The contribution from compression reinforcement can be taken into account provided it
has been found to have yielded,
a=
Apsfps
+ Asfy 0.85/~
A~fy
(4.44)
Aps/ps( dp 
~) + Asfy(d  ~) + A~ty(~ 
d')
(4.45)
Tp + Ts = Tpw + Tp
(4.46)
where TP =total prestressing force = Apsfps
Ts = ultimate force in the nonprestressed steel = Asfy
Tpw = part of the total force in the tension reinforcement required to develop the
web =Apwfps
Apw = total reinforcement area corresponding to the force Tpw
Tpf = part of the total force in the tension reinforcement required to develop the
flange = C= 0.85 f~(b  bw)h
Cw = 0.85/~ bwa
(4.47)
giving
Apwfps
a=0.85/~ bw
or
(4.48a)
197
4.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
b
b b.,
2
jo.sst:j.hI e,
c.,
~ ~ 10.85f:~
_lm
Ec
Ta
J_
[
dPdL
TP
TP,
Tpw
Ep 1
T,
Ey
(el
(b)
(a)
(di
Figure 4.48 Strain, stress, and forces in flanged sections. (a) Beam section. (b)
Strain. (c) Web stress and forces. (d) Flange stress and force.
a=
Apsps + Asfy 
0.85f~
(b  bw)h
(4.48b)
Eq. 4.45 for a beam with compression reinforcement can be rewritten to give the nominal
moment strength for a flanged section where the neutral axis falls outside the flange and
a > h as follows, taking moments about the center of the prestressing steel:
Mn
Apwfps(dp 
~) + Asfy(d 
(4.49a)
(4.49b)
Pe
(4.50a)
0.50fpu
ps
Approximate determination is allowed by the ACI 318 building code provided that
fpe
=A<
fpe
APeps 2: 0.50fpu
with separate equations for fps given for bonded and nonbonded members.
(4.50b)
198
Chapter 4
Bonded Tendons.
] )
l )
(4.51)
f~
(4.52a)
f~
(4.52b)
where fps shall not be greater than fpy or (fpe + 30,000). Figure 4.49, from Ref. 4.9, shows
seating losses for typical unbonded tendons.
Note that the AASHTO expressions for the ultimate design strength, fP" differ
from Equations 4.51 and 4.52, as shown in Section 12.3.3.
4.12.5.3 Limiting Values of the Reinforcement lndex.
f'
p e
wP = bd
fps
Pp f1
(4.53)
:2:::
l.2Mcr
(4.54a)
0.004A 1
(4.54b)
where A 1 is that part of the cross section between the flexura! tension face and the center of
gravity cgc of the gross section (in.2). This reinforcement has to be uniformly distributed
over the precompressed tensile zone as close as possible to the extreme tension fibers.
<t.
0.85fpu
1n itial stress = 0.85fpu
2nd pull......_
0.80fpu

~

183,380 psi
~~
===t;;:Z=
~
<.:....
~ <::::
>=
1 199800ps1=
~ .....
  _
181,950 psi
O 74f
 <_
 .._<________
~
212 6
80 psi= 0.788fpu
_ _..
205, 720 PSI 
pu
o762f
1
  1
189,000psi=0.70fpu
1
174,840 psi
.....

164,550 psi
L = 125.83' (38.4 m)
K = 0.0014
Figure 4.49
...ce
ce
=0.08
pu
a= 1.198rad
Stress diagram for unbonded tendons with various values of initial stress and seating loss (100,000 psi= 689.5 MPa) .
200
Chapter 4
In twoway flat plates, where the tension stress in the concrete at service load exceeds 2~, bonded nonprestressed steel is required such that
Ne
A=s
O.Sfy
(4.55a)
As = 0.00075hl
131
0.85 
 4,000)
1,000
2:
0.65
(4.56)
f ~ : : :; 0.32131
(4.57a)
~ (w  w')] : : :; 0.36131
(4.57b)
201
4.12 Limit State in Flexura at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
where
and
A~fy
w'
bdf;
0.85a
dp
bdp t:
(b) In flanged sections in which a > h1, let CF be the resultant concrete compression
[(Apsfps  Cp)
d (As fy
bwdJ':
+ dp bwd. ;
Apsfps + Asfy  A;fy  Cp
bwdpf;
A; fy)]
bwd.
(4.57d)
0.85a
bwdpf';
dp
An exception can be made in Equations 4.57a, b, and c, provided that the design moment strength does not exceed the moment strength based on the compression portion of the moment couple. In other words, unless a strain compatibility
analysis is performed, the overreinforced prestressed beam moment strength
should be determined from the empirical expression
(4.58a)
for rectangular sections, and
(4.58b)
for flanged sections. These equations can be modified as follows:
202
Chapter 4
n bd~ (0.363 
0.0813D
(4.59a)
Mn
(4.59b)
Mu= <l>Mn has to be at least equal to the factored moment Mu The first trial depth has to
be based on a reasonable spantodepth ratio, with the top flange width determined by
whether the beam is for residential floors or parking garages, where a doubleTsection
or a hollowbox shallow section is preferable, or whether the beam is intended to support
203
1500
210
'b
X
;
c.
..
140
...~
en
1000 c..
:!:
500
70
e, = strain, in.fin.
Figure 4.50
strand.
a bridge deck with spacing decided by load and the number of lanes, where an 1section
might be preferable.
As a rule of thumb, the average depth of a prestressed beam is about 75 percent of
the depth of a comparably loaded reinforced concrete beam. Another guideline far an
initial trial is to use 0.6 in. of depth per foot of span. Once a firsttrial depth is chosen, a
determination is made of the other geometrical properties of the section.
1
1
(b)
Ae,+j
240
200
160
M
fpe
140
c.
1
::
120
100
40
o
nfc
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Strain (in.fin.)
204
Chapter 4
Assume that the center of gravity of the prestressing steel is approximately 0.85/h
from tbe middepth of the flange. Then the lever ann of the moment couple jd 0.80h.
Assume also that the nominal strength of the prestressed steel is fps 0.90 fw Then the
area Aps of the prestressing tendons is
A =
ps
Muf<t>
0.9fp,l0.80h)
(4.60a)
or
A
ps
(4.60b)
M,,
0.72fp,,h
If the compressive block depth a equals the flange thickness h1, tbe volume of tbe compressive block of Figure 4.44(d) in terms of the area ba =A ~ is
C = 0.85f~ A ~
M,,
T = 0.9/p,,Aps = O.Bh
From the equilibrium of forces, C = T. Hence, the area of tbe compression flange is
Mn
A~= 0.85f~(0.8h)
M,,
= 0.68nh
(4.61)
Once the width of the flange is chosen for tbe first tria! and the beam depth is
known, the web thickness can be chosen based on the shear requirements to be discussed
in Chapter 5. Thereafter, by trial and adjustment, one can select tbe ideal section for the
particular design requirement conditions and proceed to analyze tbe stresses for the
serviceload conditions.
4.14 Summary StepbyStep Procedure tor LimitStateatFailure Design of the Prestressed Members
205
2. Select a tria! Oange thlckness sucb that the total concrete arca of the flange
A ~= M,,10.68/~ h, based on choosiog a flaoge width dictatcd by planning requirements and spacing of beams. Choose a preliminary arca of prestressing steel
Aps =M,,I0.72fpuh.
3. Use a reasonable value for the steel stress pr at failure for a first trial. lf fpe < OSf,11 ,
strain compatibility analysis would thereafter be needed. Determine wbetber tbe
te ndons are bouded or nonbonded. Use the value of lhe effective prestress fpe from
the serviceload analysis if that design was already made. If fpe > 0.5fpu use tbe approximate values froro the following applicable cases by ACI procedures:
(a) Bonded tendons
, })
d
"'lp { fpu
+ dP (w  w )
fps = fpu ( 1  ~ Pp
(b) Nonbonded tendons, spanldepth ratio s;J5
t:
fps
= pe + 10,000 + 300pp
Note that AASHTO stipulates differeot expressions for fps as shown in Sectioo 12.3.3.
4. Determine whether the trial section chosen should be considered rectangular or
flanged by determining tbe position of tbe neutral axis, e= a/~ 1 lf rectangular,
a=
A psps +
AJy  A;J,.
0.85/~b
lf langed,
a=
A p,..fps
0.85/;b..,
206
Chapter 4
6. Find the reinforcement indices wP, w, and w' for the case a< h (neutral axis within
the flange; hence, use for a rectangular section).
(a) Rectangular sections with prestressing steel only:
fps
Aps fps
wr = wP = Pp f' = bd f,
e
(b) Rectangular sections with compression steel in addition to nonprestressed tension steel:
w + !!_ (w  w,)
P
If the total index in (a) or (b) is less than or equal to 0.3613 1, then the moment
strength is
7. Find the reinforcement indices wpw' ww and w ~ for the case a > h (neutral axis outside the flange ), with the total index
The indices are calculated on the basis of the web width bw. If the total index
wr < 0.3613 1, then
where
and
If the total index wr > 0.3613 1, the section is overreinforced and the nominal strength
is
8. Check for the minimum required reinforcement As > 0.004A. Also, check whether
Mu;;::: 1.2Mc, to ensure the use of adequate nonprestressed tension steel, particularly
in nonbonded tendons.
9. Select the size and spacing of the nonprestressed tension reinforcement, and compression reinforcement where applicable.
10. Verify that the design moment Mu= <PMn is equal to or larger than the factored moment Mu. If not, adjust the design.
4.14 Summary StepbyStep Procedure for LimitStateatFailure Design of the Prestressed Members
207
START
Yes
fP, known?
No
Determine f P from
strain compatibility
Yes
Spantodepth
ratio~ 35?
Determine f P,
Bonded element?
(i  ;:
fP = fpu
No
a = AP,fP,
[Pp
~u
(w  w')])
+ A,f,  A; f,
0.85f:b
Flanged section?
AP.,fP,
No
Yes
a
No
0.85f:b.,
Design asa
rectangular section
where:
AP.,fP, = Ap,fp, + A,f,  0.85f:(b  b.,lh,
No
Overreinforced
Overreinforced
t:
Compute
Compute
M.AP.,fP,(dP
) +A,f,(ddpl
+ 0.85f:(b  b.,I h,
(dP 
M. = AP,fP, ( dP 
t)
where:
AP.,'P. AP'P + A,fy  0.85f:(b  b.,lh,
END
END
Figure 4.52 Flowchart for flexura! analysis of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections based on cgs profile depth.
208
Chapter 4
START
,2
e =O.Olh
i..
Yes
1
Resultant force 1
Comp. stress block
Yes
< l%?
e= e +O.OOlh
No
Section flanged?
where
Apwfp, = Ap,fp,
+ A 1 fy
 0.85f;(b  bwlh,
Expression for "a" as in Fig. 4.40
Print:
(i) Prestressing steel force P8 , AP' dP, fP' and Epr for each layer
(ii) Nonprestressed steel A,. d, f,, and e, for each bar layer
END
Figure 4.53 Flowchart far flexura! analysis of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections using compatibility analysis far individual layers of strands and
bars.
209
Design the bonded beam in Example 4.2 by the ultimateload theory using nonprestressed
reinforcement to partially carry part of the factored loads. Use strain compatibility to evaluate fps given the modified section in Fig. 4.54 with a composite 3 in. top slab and
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
fpy = 0.85fpu for stressrelieved strands
fy = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
f~ =
Use 7wire !in. da tendons. The nonprestressed partial mild steel is to be placed with a Hin. clear cover, and no compression steel is to be accounted for. No wind or earthquake is
taken into consideration.
Solution:
65 ft (19.8 m)
Mn =
14,905,800
Mu
= 16,562,000 in.lb (1871 kNm)
_
=
;;
09
. 2
_
16,562,000
, _ Mn _
2
Ac  0.68f:h  0.68 X 5,000 X 40  12 1. 8 m. (786 cm )
210
Chapter 4
40"
_l__
4"
Figure 4.54
Assume a flange width of 18 in. Then the average flange thickness = 121.8/18 =7.0 in.
(178 mm). So suppose the web bw = 6 in. (152 mm), to be subsequently verified for
shear requirements. Then from Equation 4.60b,
Mn
Aps = 0.72fpu h
0.72
16,562,000
_
. 2
2
270,000 X 40  213 m. (13. 3 cm)
and the number oOin. stressrelieved wire strands = 2.13/0.153 = 13.9. So try thirteen
Hn. tendons.
Aps = 13
3. Calculate the stressJ;,, in the prestressing tendon at nominal strength using the strain
compatibility approach (step 3)
The geometrical properties of the tria! section are very close to the assumed dimensions for the depth h and the top flange width b. Hence, use the following data for the
purpose of the example:
Ac
377 in. 2
e, = 21.16 in.
dP = 15
187.5 in. 2
e = 15 in. at midspan
e2 = 225 in. 2
e2/r 2 =
225/187.5 = 1.20
Ec = 57,000\/5,000 = 4.03
Eps = 28
103 MPa)
l3 MPa)
The maximum allowable compressive strain ec at failure = 0.003 in.fin. Assume that the
effective prestress at service load is fpe =155,000 psi (1,069 MPa).
(a)
e1 =
epe
pe
155,000
. .
=
= 0.0055 m./m.
6
Eps
28 X 10
=
211
Pe = 13
0.153
= 308,295 lb
155,000
The increase in prestressing steel strain as the concrete is decompressed by the increased externa! load (see Figure 4.3 and Equation 4.3c) is given as
2
Ez
= Ectecomp =
e )
Pe (
ACEC 1 + r2
308,295
(1
4.03 X 10
6
377
205,000 psi as a first tria!. Suppose the neutral axis inside the flange is verified on the basis of h= 3 + 4h 3! /2 = 9.25 in dueto the 3 in.
topping. Then, from Equation 4.42a
Apsfps + Asf,
0.85n b
a==
1.99
<
8.00 in.
Hence, the equivalent compressive block is inside the flange and the section has
to be treated as rectangular.
Accordingly, for 5,000 psi concrete,
)
. (
6.71
= 8.39 m. 22.7 cm
80
= 0.
The increment of strain dueto overload to the ultimate, from Equation 4.37(c) is
E3
Ec
. m.
(37.6 . 8.39) = 0.0104 m.
d  e)
( e = 0.003
8 39
>>
. m. 0 .K.
0.005 m.
229,000 psi
e= 0.
EJ
.
9.17 m.
0.003( 37 69 ~; 11 ) = 0.0093
= 4 #6 = 1.76 in. 2
212
Chapter 4
Mn = 1.99
+ 1.76
A = 377  18 ( 4.125 +
l.~75 ) 6(21.16 
5.5)
= 201 in. 2
Min As = 0.004
= 18
=
1.99 X 229,000
37.6 ( 1.76 X 60,000 )
X 36.16 X 5,000 + 36.16 18 X 37.6 X 5,000
0.14 + 0.03
0.17
Alternatively, the ACI Code limit strain provisions as given in Fig. 4.45 do not prescribe a maximum percentage of reinforcement. They require that a check be made of
the strain El' at the leve! of the extreme tensile reinforcement to determine whether the
beam is in the tensile, the transition, or the compression zone, for verifying the appropriate <!> value. In this case, for e= 9.17 and d, = 37.6 in., and from similar triangles in
the strain distribution across the beam depth,
E1 = 0.003 X (37.6  9.17)/9.17 = 0.0093>0.005.
Hence the beam is in the tensile zone, with <!> = 0.90 as used in the solution and the design is O.K.
So one can adopt the section for flexure, as it also satisfies the serviceload flexura! stress
requirements both at midspan and at the support. Note that the section could only develop the
required nominal strength Mn = 16,562,000 in.lb by the addition of the nonprestressed bars at
the tension faceto resist part of the total required moment strength. Note also that this section is
adequate with a concrete f ~ = 5,000 psi, while the section in Example 4.2 has to have f ~ = 6,000
psi strength in order not to exceed the allowable serviceload concrete stresses. Hence, ultimateload computations are necessary in prestressed concrete design to ensure that the constructed
elements can carry ali the factored load and are thus an integral part of the total design.
213
bonded prestressing steel, and (b) nonbonded prestressing steel. Neglect the contribution of
the compressive nonprestressed steel.
Solution:
l. Section properties (steps 1and2)
The width of the top flange in Example 4.2 is b = 18 in., and its average thickness from
Figure 4.8 is
1
h = 42 +
.
3~
2 = 6.25 m
Try four #6 (four 12.7 mm da) nonprestressed tension steel bars in this cycle in addition to the prestressing reinforcement.
2. Stressfps in prestressing steel at nominal strength (step 3)
From Example 4.9,
fpe
= 155,000 psi
0.5fpu = 0.50
fpe
>
0.5fpu
Hence, one can use the ACI approximate procedure for determining fps
(A) BONDED CASE
If the position of the neutral axis is not known, analyze as a rectangular section as
follows: From Equation 4.51,
;:[Pp;; + ~ (w 
fps =fpu(l 
w')D
229,500
fpy
fpu = 270,000 = 0.85, use 'Yp = 0.40
Aps
= 13
A,
=4
0.44
= 1.76 in2
l.99
Aps
A,
w
= bd
J: =
18
l.76
X 37.6
60,000
5,000 = 0.03 l 2
Forw' =0,
270,000
0.40[
fps = 270,000 ( 1  0. 0 0.0031 X ,000
5
8
1.99
])
= 270,000
a =
37.6
+ 36 _16 (0.0312)
0.897
0.85
5,000
18
Hence, the neutral axis is outside the flange, and analysis has to be based on a Tsection. Using in such a case the web width bw.
l.99
Aps
fps
fy
X
f: =
270,000 ( 1 
l.76
37.6
60,000
5,000 = 00936
0.40[
_ 0.0092
0 80
270,000
,000
5
])
_ (0.0936  O)
+ 37.6
36 16
214
Chapter 4
+ 1.76
= 1.99 X 189,793
X
60,000  0.85
5,000(18  6)
6.25
= 377,688 + 105,600 
318,750
= 164,538 lb
164,538
.
= 0.85 X 5,000 X 6 = 6.45 m. (l 6.4 cm)
~) + Asfy(d 
6 5
; ) + 1.76(60,000)(37.6  36.16)
164,538 (36.16 
+ 0.85 (5,000)(18  6)
.
6.25 ( 36.16  6.25)
= 16,071,226 m.lb
2
(1,816 kNm) < required Mn = 16,562,000 in.lb (1871 kNm), hence the section is inadequate.
Proceed to another trial and adjustment cycle using more nonprestressed reinforcement. Try four #8 bars (four 25 mm dia), As= 3.16 in. 2 (25 cm2). We have
Ww
3.16
37.6
= 6
60,000
5,000 = 0.1 7
Mn = 227,195 (36.16 
8
:)
+ 0.85(5,000)(18  6)
+ 3.16(60,000)(37.6
X
 36.16)
SpantoDepth ratio
65
:O 12 = 19.5 < 35
;
fps
5,000
155,000 + 10,000 + 100 X 1.99/(6 X 36.16)
Notice that bw = 6 in. is used here for Pp' since it is now known that the section behaves like a Tbeam, as the neutral axis is below the flange. Thus,
fps
215
+ 3.16
60,000  0.85
5,000(18  6)6.25
= 210,047 lb
Ap..,/PJ
= 0.85/;b..
.
210,047
0.85 X 5,000 X 6 = 8.24 IO. (20.9 cm)
8.24) + 3.16
.
Mn = 210,047 ( 36.16  2
Available
+ 0.85
5.000(18  6)
6.25
60,000(37.6  36.16)
(36.16 
6 5
: )
l. Minimum reinforcement
From Equation 4.25, the cracking mornent, M,, is given by
Mcr = f,Sh
P,(e + ::)
From Example 4.2, /, = 7.SVS,000 = 530.3 psi (3.7 MPa). So since Sb = 3,750 in.3 ,
e= L5 in., r2tc,, = 187.5/18.84 = 9.95 in., and P, =308,255 lb (1.37 l kN). we get
M0
216
Chapter 4
36 16
Alternatively, the ACI Code limit strain provisions as given in Fig. 4.45 do not prescribe a maximum percentage of reinforcement. They require that a check be made of
the strain Ep at the leve! of the extreme tensile reinforcement to determine whether the
beam is in the tensile, the transition, or the compression zone, for verifying the appropriate <!> value. In this case, for c = a/[31 =8.9/0.80=11.1 and and dt = 37.6 in., and from
similar triangles in the strain distribution across the beam depth,
E1 = 0.003X(37.611.1)/11.6
= 0.0072>0.005.
Hence the beam is in the tensile zone, with <j> = 0.90 as used in the solution and the design is O.K.
Accordingly, adopt the design that uses the concrete section in Example 4.2 and include four #8 nonprestressed steel bars at the tension side. Note that the moment
strength capacity of the nonbonded section for the same area of nonprestressed steel
is less than the moment strength capacity of the bonded section, which is expected.
If f ~ = 6,000 psi would have been used in the strength design in this example, as it
was in the serviceload design of this section in Example 4.2, less mild steel reinforcement
would have been needed.
= 0.8f~
fe;= 0.60f~;
t;
= ~ (midspan)
= ~~ (support)
fe
fe
Stress at transfer
(4.la)
(4.16)
(4.2a)
217
=
Pe (
ecb)
+7
Ac 1
+ 5b :::; fe
MD
(4.2b)
fb
= 
Ac 1 
ect) Mr
72
 Sr :5 fe
(4.3a)
= 
Ac 1
Pe (
ecb)
(4.3b)
fctecomp =
51
Pe (
+7
Mr
+ S:
: :; t
~: ( 1 + ::)
(4.3c)
(1  "f)Mv + MSD + ML
2:         
( 4.4a)
'Yt;  fe
sb
ee
(1  'Y)MD + MSD + ML
2:         
ti 
= (t; 
(4.4b)
"!fe;
 51
fe;) p.
(4.5c)
,2
k=t
(4.6)
cb
(4.23)
Unshored case
(4.19a)
(4.19b)
5hored case
(4.22a)
(4.22b)
Equation 4.51 for bonded tendons
_
(
"lp [ fpu
d
fps  fpu 1  l3i Pp f ~ + dp (W
where "lp = 0.55 for fp/fpu;;:: 0.80
= 0.40 for fp/fpu ;;:: 0.85
= 0.28 for fp/fpu ;;:: 0.90
Equation 4.52 for nonbonded tendons
W )
] )
MPa
218
Chapter 4
span
span
fps = fpe
fps = fpe
=
=
N/mm2
N
(psi) 0.006895
MPa
(lb/ft) 14.593
(in.lb) 0.113
106 N/m2
= N/m
= Nm
1 Kg force= 9.806 N
4.17.1 SI Flexura! Design of Prestressed Beams
Example 4.11
b = 45.7 cm
bw = 15.2 cm
1,394 cm2
d = 32.5 cm
ec = 60.4 cm
S, = 216,210 cm 3
cb = 89.4 cm
ee
84.2 cm
sb
78,707 cm 3
WD
; =
WsD
= 1,459 N/m
= 16.1 kN/m
wL
19.8 m
34.5 MPa
fp;
1,300 MPa
= 13
Required Mn = 16.5
99 = 1,287 mm2
X
Solution:
As
300
1,200 mm2
2. Stress fps in prestressing steel at nominal strength and neutral axis position (Step 3)
fpe = "Yfp; = 0.82 X 1,300 = 1,066 MPa
Verify Neutral Axis Position
If outside flange, its depth has to be greater than a= Apwfp/0.85f~b w
0.5fpu = 0.50 x 1,860 = 930 MPa < 1,066, hence, one can use ACI approximate procedure for determiningfps From equation 4.51,
'Yp [ fpu
d
fps = fpu ( 1  ~ Pp J: + dp (W
W )
])
219
wp
= bd
p
fps
X 
,=
1e
1,674
0.00306 X   = 0.14
34. 5
As
fy
414
w = bd X
= 0.00275 X . = 0.033
fl
34 5
w' =O
For f ~
fps
34.5 MPa, fj 1
0.80
0.40[
1860
955
])
1,860 ( 1  0. 0 0.00306 X ; , +
X 0.033
8
45
918
Apwfps
0.85f: bw
a = 0. 85 X 34 .7 X 15 .2 = 24.7 cm
>
h = 15.7 cm
Hence neutral axis is outside the flange and analysis has to be based on a Tsection.
3. Available nominal moment strength (Step 48)
wT
wP
<
Available Mn
>
220
Chapter 4
SELECTED REFERENCES
4.1 ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31808) and Com4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24
4.25
mentary, ACI 318R08. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2008, pp. 465
Nawy, E. G., Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach, 6th Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ: 2009, pp. 936.
Nawy, E. G., and Chiang, J. Y., "Serviceability Behavior of PostTensioned Beams." Journal of the
Prestressed Concrete Institute 25, Chicago Jan.Feb. 1980: 7485.
Nawy, E. G., and Potyondy, G. J., "Moment Rotation, Cracking, and Deflection of Spirally Bound
Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams." Engineering Research Bulletin No. 51. New
Brunswick, N.J.: Bureau of Engineering Research, Rutgers University, 1970, pp. 197.
PostTensioning Institute, PostTensioning Manual, 6th Ed., Phoenix, AZ, 2006.
Nawy, E. G., and Goodkind, H. "Longitudinal Crack in Prestressed Box Beam." Journal of the
Prestressed Concrete Institute Chicago, (1969): 3842.
Yong, Y. K., Gadebeku, C. and Nawy, E. G., "Anchorage Zone Stresses of Posttensioned Prestressed Beams Subjected to Shear Forces," ASCE Structural Division Journal, Vol. 113, No. 8,
August 1987, pp. 17891805.
Nawy, E. G., and Huang, P. T. "Crack and Deflection Control of Pretensioned Prestressed
Beams." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22 (1977): 3047.
Prestressed Concrete Institute. PCI Design Handbook, Precast and Prestressed Concrete. 5th ed.
Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, 1999.
Gerwick B. C., Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. 3rd Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton,
FL, 2008.
Nawy, E. G. "Flexura! Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned and PostTensioned BeamsThe State
of the Art." Journal of the American Concrete Institute, December 1985, pp. 890900.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 18th Ed., Supplements, 20062009.
Nilson, A H. "Flexura! Design Equations for Prestressed Concrete Members." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete lnstitute 14 (1969): 6271.
Lin, T. Y., and Bums, N. H. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. John Wiley & Sons, New
York, 1981.
Naaman, A E. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design. McGraw Hill, New York, 1982.
Federal Highway Administration, "Optimized Sections for High Strength Concrete Bridge Girders," FHWA Publication No. RD95180, Washington, D.C., August 1997, pp.156.
Collins, M. P. and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
NJ, 1991, 1766 p.
Abeles, P.W., and BardhanRoy, B. K. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. 3d ed. Viewpoint Publications, London, 1981.
Guyon, Y. Limit State Design of Prestressed Concrete; Vol. I, Design of Section. John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1972.
Marshall, W. T., and Mattock, A H. "Control of Horizontal Cracking in the Ends of Pretensioned
Prestressed Concrete Girders." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 7 (1962): 5674.
Ezeldin, A, and Balaguru, P. N. "Analysis of Partially Prestressed Beams for Strength and Serviceability Using Microcomputers." Paper presented at the First Canadian Conference on Computer
Applications in Civil Engineering, MacMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, May 1986.
Gergely, P., and Sozen, M. A., "Design of Anchorage Zone Reinforcement in Prestressed Concrete Beams." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 12 (1967): 6375.
Baker, A L. L. The Ultimate Load Theory Applied to the Design of Reinforcement and Prestressed
Concrete Frames. London: Concrete Publications, 1956.
Ellingwood, B., McGregor, J. G., Galambos, T. V., and Comell, C. A "Probability Based Load
Criteria: Load Factors and Load Combinations." Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE 108
(1982): 978997.
American National Standards Institute. Mnimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ANSIASCE 795, 1995, pp. 214.
Problems
221
4.26 Stone, W. C., and Breen, J. E. "Design of PostTensioned Girder Anchorage Zones." Journal of
4.27
4.28
4.29
4.30
4.31
4.32
PROBLEMS
4.1 Design, for serviceload and ultimateload conditions, a pretensioned symmetrical 1section beam
to carry a sustained superimposed dead load of 750 plf (10.95 kN/m) and a sustained service live
load of 1,500 plf (21.90 kN/m) on a 50 ft (15.2 m) simply supported span. Assume that the sectional
properties are b = 0.5h, h= 0.2h, and bw = 0.40b, using the following data:
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
EP, = 28.5
103 MPa)
; =
f;;
f,
Sketch the design details, including the anchorage zone reinforcement and arrangement of strands
for (a) straighttendon case, and (b) a harped tendon at the third span points with end eccentricity
zero. Assume total prestress losses of 22 percent.
4.2 Solve Problem 4.1 if the beam is posttensioned bonded and the tendon is draped. Use strain compatibility to determine the value of the tendon stress fps at nominal strength. Design the anchorage
zone reinforcement by the strutandtie method.
4.3 A doubleT pretensioned roof beam is shown in Figure P4.3. It has a simple span of 74 ft (22.6 m)
and carries superimposed service live and dead loads of 60 psf (2,873 Pa; Wsn part of load= 25 psf).
It also carries a 2in. (5.1 cm) concrete topping. Design the prestressing reinforcement and the appropriate eccentricities using 270grade prestressing strands (fpu = 1,862 MPa) with a total prestress
loss of 20 percent. Use the appropriate percentage of nonprestressed mild steel for partial prestressing behavior at the limit state at failure. Assume the strands to be harped at midspan, and
sketch the reinforcing details including the anchorage zone strands. Also, draw the distribution of
stresses for the various loading stages in your solution. The following data are given:
fpu
EP,
28
103 MPa)
; =
; for topping =
f ;; =
V/S = l.79in.
222
Chapter 4
8'0"l
"~
r
=h
2"
32"
~~i
f4'o"H
1
j
Figure P4.3
f4~"
ec = 17.71 in.
Ac
Je
cb
e,
sb
S'
WD
Untopped
Topped
71,886 in. 4
23.66 in.
10.34 in.
3,038 in. 3
6,952 in.3
791 plf
4.4 A bridge girder has a simple span of 55 ft (16.8 m). It is subjected to a total superimposed service
load of 4,600 plf (67.2 kN/m). Design the section as a posttensioned bonded beam using an
AASHTO standard section with parabolically draped tendons. Assume a 7 in. situcast slab over
the precast section and the following data:
Beams spaced at 7' 6" c. to c.
; =
slab ; =
28
103 MPa)
5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents procedures for tbe design of prestressed concrete sections to resist
shear and torsional forces resulting from extemally applied loads. Since the strength of
concrete in tension is considerably lower than its strength in compression, design for
shear and Lorsion becomes of major importance in alJ types of concrete structures.
The behavior of prestressed concrete beams at failure in shear or combined shear
and torsion is distinctJy differenl from their behavior in lexure: They fai l abruplly without sufficient advance warning, and the diagonal cracks that develop are considerably
widcr than the lexural cracks. Botb sbear and torsional forces result in shear stress. Such
a stress can result in principal tensile stresses at the critica! section which can exceed the
tensile strength of the concrete.
Photos in this chapter show typical beam shear failure and torsion failure. Notice
the curvelinear plane of twist depicting torsional failure caused by the imposed torsional
moments. As wiU be discussed in subsequent sections, the shearing stresses in regular
beams are caused, not by direct shear or pure torsion, but by a combination of externa!
Empire State Performing Arts Center. Albany. New York, Ammann & Whitney design, prestressed concrete shell ring. (Courresy, New York Office of General Serviccs.)
223
224
Chapter 5
loads and moments. This leads to diagonal tension, or flexura! shear stresses, in the member. Only in special applications in certain structural systems are direct shear or pure torsion applied. Examples of such cases are corbels or brackets involving direct shear, or a
cantilever balcony involving essentially a direct twist on the supporting beam.
Consider the two infinitesimal elements, A 1 and A 2 of a rectangular beam in Figure 5.l(a)
made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material. Figure 5.l(b) shows the
bending stress and shear stress distributions across the depth of the section. The tensile
normal stress ft and the shear stress v are the values in element A 1 across plane aa 1 at a
distance y from the neutral axis. From the principles of classical mechanics, the normal
stress f and the shear stress v for element A 1 can be written as
My
(5.1)
f=
and
VAy
VQ
Ib
lb
v==
(5.2)
...+w
IJN.A.
~
(a)
Neutral axis
a,
\
f,
Cross section
Bending stress
distribution
Shear stress
distribution
(b)
Figure 5.1
225
Pholo 5.1 Typical diagonal tension (flexure shear) failurc al ruplurc load leve!.
(T est by Nawy et al.)
N .6
v .
1, ~ 1,
l~c
r

y
X
1,
1,
A,
1,..,.~
V
(a)
Shear stress, v
Principal compressive 1
stress, lecn,..I 
Normal stress, I
Plane x
Coordinates (!,. v)
Principal tensile stress, 1
1rCmeaJ
(b)
Figure 5.2 Stress state in elements A 1 and ~(a) Stress state in element A 1 (b)
Mohr's circle representation, element A1 . (e) Stress state in element ~ (d) Mohr's
circle representation, element ~
226
Chapter 5
+f
y
X
(e)
Shear stress, v
Normal stress, f
Plane x
Coordinates (f<' v)
1
1
l.
1
~o~
1 Principal compressive
stress, fc(max)
1..1 Principal
tensile stress,
ft(maxl
(d)
Figure 5.2
Continued
+ )(!t)
l +
 t
l  )(t)
l +
2
t(max)
 t
l
principal tension
(5.3a)
principal compression
(5.3b)
c(max) 
and
tan 20max
t/
(5.3c)
227
'
~; ll
Photo 5.2 Simply supported beam prior to developing diagonal tension crack io
nexure shear (load stage 11 ). (Test by Nawy et al.)
#);.. ll
Principal diagonal tension crack at failure of beam in the preceding
photograph (load stage 12).
Photo 5.3
228
Chapter 5
cracking ensues. As one moves toward the support, the bending moment and hence ;decreases, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the shear stress. The principal stress
t(max) in tension acts at an approximately 45 plane to the normal at sections clase to the
support, as seen in Figure 5.3. Because of the low tensile strength of concrete, diagonal
cracking develops along planes perpendicular to the planes of principal tensile stresshence the term diagonal tension cracks. To prevent such cracks from openings, special diagonal tension reinforcement has to be provided.
If ; clase to the support of Figure 5.3, is assumed equal to zero, the element becomes nearly in a state of pure shear, and the principal tensile stress, using Equation 5.3b,
would be equal to the shear stress v on a 45 plane. It is this diagonal tension stress that
causes the inclined cracks.
Definitive understanding of the correct shear mechanism in reinforced concrete is
still incomplete. However, the approach of ACIASCE Joint Committee 426 gives a systematic empirical correlation of the basic concepts developed from extensive test results.
In regions of large bending moments, cracks develop almost perpendicular to the axis of
the beam. These cracks are called flexura/ cracks. In regions of high shear dueto the diagonal tension, the inclined cracks develop as an extension of the flexural crack and are
termed flexure shear cracks. Figure 5.4 portrays the types of cracks expected in a reinforced concrete beam with or without adequate diagonal tension reinforcement.
In prestressed beams, the section is mostly in compression at service load. From
Figures 5.2( c) and (d), the principal stresses far element A 2 would be
ftr..max) =
~ + Vifc/2)
!c(max) =
~  Yifc/2)
+ v2
principal tension
(5.4a)
+ v2
principal compression
(5.4b)
and
V
tan 20max
= fc/
(5.4c)
229
Simpleand
end support
Continuous
support
Web
Flexura! and
flexureshear
shear
(OT)
Figure 5.4
Web
Flexura! and
flexureshear
shear
(DT)
Crack categories.
The slenderness of the beam, that is, its shear spantodepth ratio, determines the failure
mode of the beam. Figure 5.5 demonstrates schematically the failure patterns for the different slenderness ratio limits. The shear span a for concentrated load is the distance between the point of application of the load and the face of support. For distributed loads,
the shear span le is the clear beam span. Fundamentally, three modes of failure or their
combinations occur: flexura! failure, diagonal tension failure, and shear compression failure (web shear). The more slender the beam, the stronger the tendency toward flexura!
behavior, as seen from the following discussion.
5.4.2 Flexura! Failure [F]
In the regan of flexura! failure, cracks are mainly vertical in the middle third of the beam
span and perpendicular to the lines of principal stress. These cracks result from a very
small shear stress v anda dominant flexura! stress fwhich results in an almost horizontal
principal stress t(max) In such a failure mode, a few very fine vertical cracks start to develop in the midspan area at about 50 percent of the failure load in flexure. As the externa! load increases, additional cracks develop in the central regan of the span and the
initial cracks widen and extend deeper toward the neutral axis and beyond, with a
marked increase in the deflection of the beam. If the beam is underreinforced, failure occurs in a ductile manner by initial yielding of the main longitudinal flexura! reinforcement. This type of behavior gives ample warning of the imminence of collapse of the
beam. The shear spantodepth ratio for this behavior exceeds a value of 5.5 in the case of
concentrated loading, and in excess of 16 for distributed loading.
5.4.3 Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexure Shear, FS]
Diagonal tension failure precipitates if the strength of the beam in diagonal tension is
lower than its strength in flexure. The shear spantodepth ratio is of intermediate magnitude, varying between 2.5 and 5.5 for the case of concentrated loading. Such beams can
be considered of intermediate slenderness. Cracking starts with the development of a few
fine vertical flexura! cracks at midspan, followed by the destruction of the bond between
the reinforcing steel and the surrounding concrete at the support. Thereafter, without
ample warning of impending failure, two or three diagonal cracks develop at about 1~d to
2d distance from the face of the support in the case of reinforced concrete beams, and
usually at about a quarter of the span in the case of prestressed concrete beams. As they
stabilize, one of the diagonal cracks widens into a principal diagonal tension crack and
extends to the top compression fibers of the beam, as seen in Figure 5.5(b) and 5.5(c).
230
Chapter 5
1 a _ _ _ . . .
d
(a)
I
d
le
l1,1
(b)
!4lci
(el
Figure 5.5 Failure patterns as a function of beam slenderness. (a) Flexura! failure. (b) Diagonal tension failure (flexure shear). (e) Shear compression failure
(web shear).
Notice that the flexura} cracks do not propagate to the neutral axis in this essentially brittle failure mode, which has relatively small deflection at failure.
Although the maximum externa} shear is at the support, the critica} location of the
maximum principal stress in tension is not. It is considerably reduced at that section because of the high compression force of the prestressing tendon, in addition to the vertical
compression force of the beam reaction at the supports. This is the reason why the stabilized diagonal crack is located further into the span, depending on the magnitude of the
prestressing force and the variation in its eccentricity, with an average value of about onequarter of the span in flanged prestressed beams. In sum, the diagonal tension failure is the
result of the combination of the flexura! and shear stresses, taking in to account the balancing contribution of the vertical component of the prestressing force, and noted by a combination of flexura! and diagonal cracks. It is best termed flexure shear in the case of
prestressed beams, and is more common to account for than web shear, discussed next.
Photo 5.4
231
Beams that are most subject to shear compression failure have a smaU spantodepth
ratio of magnitude 2.5 for the case of concentrated loading and less than 5.0 for distributed loading. As in the diagonal tension case, a few fine lexural cracks start to develop at
midspan and stop propagating as destruction of the bond occurs between Lhe longitudinal
bars and the surrounding concrete at tbe support region. Thereafter, an inclined crack
steeper Lhan in the diagonal tension case suddenly develops and proceeds to propagate
toward the neutral axis. The rate of its progress is reduced with the crushing of the con
Pboto S.S
232
Chapter 5
(a)
(b)
(e)
Figure 5.6 Maximum horizontal shear stress distribution across depth. (a) Beam
elevation. (b) Beam cross section. (e) Shear stress.
crete in the top compression fibers and a redistribution of stresses within the top region.
Sudden failure takes place as the principal inclined crack dynamically joins the crushed
concrete zone, as illustrated in Figure 5.5(c). This type of failure can be considered relatively less brittle than the diagonal tension failure due to the stress redistribution. Yet it
is, in fact, a brittle type of failure with limited warning, and such a design should be
avoided completely.
A concrete beam or element is not homogeneous, and the strength of the concrete
throughout the span is subject to a normally distributed variation. Hence, one cannot expect that a stabilized failure diagonal crack occurs at both ends of the beam. Also, because of these properties, overlapping combinations of flexurediagonal tension failure
and diagonal tensionshear compression failure can occur at overlapping shear spantodepth ratios. If the appropriate amount of shear reinforcement is provided, brittle failure
of horizontal members can be eliminated with little additional cost.
1t should be emphasized that most failures tend to occur by diagonal tension, which
is a combination of flexure and shear effects. The shearcompression type of failure, with
the resulting crushing of the top compressive area of the concrete and failure to resist the
flexura! forces, leads to separation of the tension flange from the web in the flanged section as the inclined crack extends towards the support. Crushing of the web of the section
causes the beam to resemble a tied arch. This type of failure in prestressed beams can be
better described as webshear failure. lt is important to evaluate both the flexureshear
capacity and the webshear capacity of each critica! section in order to determine which
type predominates in determining the shear strength of the concrete section.
The distribution of the maximum horizontal shearing stress in an uncracked flanged
section is shown in Figure 5.6. Because of the abrupt change of section width at the corner A, a check of the capacity of the section at critica! locations along the span becomes
necessary, particularly for webshear failure.
As mentioned in Section 5.4, flexure shear in prestressed concrete beams includes the effect of the externally applied compressive prestressing force that the reinforced concrete
beam does not have. The vertical component of the prestressing tendon force reduces the
vertical shear caused by the externa! transverse load, and the net transverse load to which
a beam is subjected is markedly less in prestressed than in reinforced concrete beams.
Additionally, the compressive force of the prestressing tendon, even in cases of
straight tendons, considerably reduces the effect of the tensile flexura! stresses, so that
the extent and magnitude of flexural cracking in prestressed members are reduced. As a
233
w
w/ft
(a)
(b)
(e)
(d)
Figure 5.7 Balancing load to counteract vertical shear. (a)Beam with harped
tendon. (b) Beam with draped tendon. (c) Interna! shear vector VP due to prestressing force Pon infinitesimal element dx. (d) Interna! shear vector V dueto externa! load W on infinitesimal element dx.
result, the shear forces and the resulting principal stresses in a prestressed beam are considerably lower than those same forces and stresses in reinforced concrete beams, all else
being equal. Consequently, the basic equations developed for prestressed concrete in
shear are identical to those developed for reinforced concrete and described in detail in
Refs. 5.3 and 5.4. Figure 5.7 illustrates the contributions of the vertical component of the
tendon force in counterbalancing part or most of the vertical shear V caused by the externa! transverse load. The net shearing force Ve carried by the concrete is
(5.5)
From Equation 5.2, the net unit shearing stress v at any depth of the cross section is
VeQ
Ve =
;
(5.6)
Pe
Peec
=  + 
Ae 
le
Myc
=f  le
(5.7)
f; = V(fc/2)2
+V~  ~
(5.8)
To design for shear, it is necessary to determine whether flexure shear or web shear controls the choice of concrete shear strength Ve. The inclined stabilized crack at a distance
d/2 from a flexural crack that develops at the first cracking load in flexure shear is shown
in Figure 5.8. If the effective depth is dP, the depth from the compression fibers to the
234
Chapter 5
Diagonal tension
crack
Section: 1
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 5.8 Flexureshear crack development. (a) Crack pattern and types. {b)
Shear diagram due to externa! load with frictional shear force Ve, ordinate at section 2. (c) Moment diagram with first cracking moment Mc,ordinate at section 2.
VdP
MMcr =Z
(5.9a)
or
(5.9b)
V= M/V dp/2
where V is the shear at the section under consideration. Extensive experimental tests
indicate that an additional vertical shear force of magnitude 0.6bwdp
is needed to
fully develop the inclined crack in Figure 5.8 (Ref. 5.5). Hence, the total vertical shear
acting at plane 2 of Figure 5.8 is
Vfi
235
Mcr
r,::.
Ve; = M/V _ dp/ 2 + 0.6bwdp V f; + Vd
(5.10)
where Vd is the vertical shear due to selfweight. The vertical component VP of the prestressing force is disregarded in Equation 5.10, since it is small along the span sections
where the prestressing tendon is not too steep.
The value of V in Equation 5.10 is the factored shear force V; at the section under
consideration due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with the maximum moment Mmax occurring at that section, i.e.,
Vci
0.6X.
:::: l.7X.
Vjj bwdp
(5.11)
Mmax
:5
where
5.0X.
Vfj bwdp
For lightweight concrete, X. = fe/6.7 ~ if the value of the tensile splitting strength
fct is known. Note that the value ~ should not exceed 100.
The equation for Mm the moment causing flexura} cracking due to externa} load, is
given by
(5.12)
In the ACI code, ee is termed as fpe
where fee =concrete compressive stress due to effective prestress after losses at extreme
fibers of section where tensile stress is caused by externa} load, psi. At the
centroid, ee =fe
d =stress due to unfactored dead load at extreme fiber of section resulting from
selfweight only where tensile stress is caused by externally applied load, psi
y1 = distance from centroidal axis to extreme fibers in tension.
and Mer = that portion of the applied live load moment that causes cracking. For simplicity, Sb may be substituted for Ijyt'
A plot of Equation 5.10 is given in Figure 5.9 with experimental data from Ref. 5.6.
Compare this plot with an analogous one in Figure 6.6 of Ref. 5.3 for reinforced concrete
where an asymptotic horizontal value of shear is achieved along the span.
Note that in shear design of composite sections, the same design stipulations used
for precast sections apply. This is because design for shear is based on the limit state at
failure due to factored loads. Although the entire composite section resists the factored
shear as a monolithic section, calculation of the shear strength Ve should be based on the
properties of the precast section since most of the shear strength is provided by the web
of the precast section. Consequently, fee and d in Equation 5.12 are calculated using the
precast section geometry.
236
Chapter 5
9
Ve, Vd 5
b'dv'f:
;, ~
3
2
.. .
.
.,,,
:
.
...........
..;
=1:
Mc,l ( ~ 
Figure 5.9
~)
bwd..Jf:
The webshear crack in the prestressed beam is caused by an indeterminate stress that
can best be evaluated by calculating the principal tensile stress at the critical plane from
Equation 5.8. The shear stress ve can be defined as the web shear stress vew and is maximum near the centroid cgc of the section where the actual diagonal crack develops, as extensive tests to failure have indicated. If vew is substituted for ve and/0 which denotes the
concrete stress fe due to effective prestress at the cgc level, is substituted for fe in the equation, the expression equating the principal tensile stress in the concrete to the direct tensile strength becomes
f! = Y(fj2) + v;w 
(5.13)
where vew = Vew!(bwdp) is the shear stress in the concrete dueto all loads causing a nominal strength vertical shear force Vew in the web. Solving for vew in Equation 5.13 gives
Vew
J/Yl + fc/J:
(5.14a)
Using ; = 3.5 VJ; as a reasonable value of the tensile stress on the basis of extensive
tests, Equation 5.14(a) becomes
Vew
(5.14b)
(5.14c)
In the ACI code,f~ is termedfpc The notation used herein is intended to emphasize that
this is the stress in the concrete, and not the prestressing steel. The nominal shear
strength Vew provided by the concrete when diagonal cracking results from excessive
principal tensile stress in the web becomes
237
(5.15)
where VP = the vertical component of the effective prestress at the particular section
contributing to added nominal strength
A = 1.0 for normalweight concrete, and less for lightweight concrete
dP = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressed
steel, or 0.8h, whichever is greater.
The ACI code stipulates the value of fe to be the resultant concrete compressive
stress at either the centroid of the section or the junction of the web and the flange when
the centroid lies within the flange. In case of composite sections, fe is calculated on the
basis of stresses caused by prestress and moments resisted by the precast member acting
alone. A plot relating the nominal web shear stress vew to the centroidal compressive
stress in the concrete is given in Figure 5.10. Note the similarity between the plots of
Equations 5.14b and c, showing that the approximation used in the latter linearized equation is justified. The code also allows using a value of 1.0 instead of 0.3 in the second term
inside the bracket in Equation 5.15.
5.5.3 Controlling Values of Ve; and Vcw for the Determination
of Web Concrete Strength Ve
The ACI code has the following additional stipulations for calculating Ve; and Vew in
order to choose the required value of ve in the design:
(a) In pretensioned members where the section at a distance h/2 from the face of the
support is closer to the end of the member than the transfer length of the prestressing tendon, a reduced prestressed value has to be considered when computing vew
This value of Vew has to be taken as the maximum limit of Ve in the expression
Vew
= (
0.6'11.
:::::; 5'11.~bwdp
10
9
Vcw =
3.5,jf[
8
7
Vcw
,:
6
5
4
  
[j,
J
""""":....\  ___
+
_f_c
3.5v'f
3
2
10
12
14
16
18
Figure 5.10 Centroidal compressive stress vs. nominal shear stress in webshear cracking.
Chapter 5
238
total vertical shearing force Vj<P = Vn> web reinforcement has to be provided to carry the
difference in the two values; hence,
(5.17)
239
e
(a)
(b)
~
T,
ti.V,
ex
(e)
Figure 5.11 Diagonal tension failure mechanism. (a) Failure pattern. (b) Concrete simulated strut. (e) Planar truss analogy.
Here, Ve is the lesser of Vci and Vew Ve can be calculated from Equation 5.11 or 5.15,
and Vs can be determined from equilibrium analysis of the bar forces in the analogous triangular truss cell. From Figure 5.ll(c),
(5.18a)
where Ts is the force resultant of all web stirrups across the diagonal crack plane and n is
the number of spacings s. If s1 = ns in the bottom tension chord of the analogous truss
cell, then
s1 =jd(cota
+ cot3)
(5.18b)
Assuming that moment arm jd = d, the stirrup force per unit length from Equations
5.18a and b, where s1 =ns, becomes
Ts
s1
Ts
ns
Vs
1
sin a d(cot 13 + cota)
(5.18c)
Chapter 5
240
Vertical
(a)
(b)
Potential diagonal
tension crack
Potential diagonal
tension cracks
T
~
J_~~==4t==lt::=~===~====~pl
d
2
d
2
( Max. spacing)
(e)
Figure 5.12 Web steel arrangement. (a) Truss analogy tor vertical stirrups. (b)
Threedimensional view of vertical stirrups. (c) Spacing of web steel.
241
If there are n inclined stirrups within the length s1 of the analogous truss chord, and
if Av is the area of one inclined stirrup, then
(5.19a)
Hence,
V, ns
13 +cota )'F1 y 1
nAv = d sm
. a (cot
(5.19b)
But it can be assumed that in the case of diagonal tension failure the compression diagonal makes an angle 13 = 45 with the horizontal; so Equation 5.19b becomes
Avfy1d
s
V,
AJy1d
(sin a + cos a)
s
= 
(5.20a)
Avfy 1d
vn  ve (sin a
+ cos a)
(5.20b)
If the inclined web steel consists of a single bar or a single group of bars all bent at
the same distance from the face of the support, then
V,
Avfyt sin a
::5
3.0y/j"; bwd
Avfytdp
V
= s s
(5.21a)
or
(5.21b)
In Equations 5.21a and b, dP is the distance from the extreme compression fibers to the
centroid of the prestressing reinforcement, and d is the corresponding distance to the
centroid of the nonprestressed reinforcement. The value of dP need not be less than
0.80h.
5.6.3 Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups
Equations 5.20 and 5.21 give an inverse relationship between the spacing of the stirrups
and the shear force or shear stress they resist, with the spacing s decreasing with the increase in (Vn  VJ. In arder for every potential diagonal crack to be resisted by a vertical
stirrup, as shown in Figure 5.ll(c), maximum spacing limitations are to be applied for the
vertical stirrups as follows:
(a) smax $;~h $; 24 in., where h is the total depth of the section.
(b) If V 5 > 4X. ~ bwdP' the maximum spacing in (a) shall be reduced by half.
(e) If V 5 > 8X. ~ bwdp, enlarge the section.
242
Chapter 5
<t.
V
vn = _!!.
4'
envelope
Figure 5.13
(d) If Vu = <!> Vn >~<!>Ve, a minimum area of shear reinforcement has to be provided. This
area may be computed by the equation
Av= 0.75
~ ,:; b..,s
Y f~ f,
50b..,s
or Av= rwhichever larger
yt
(5.22a)
Jyt
If the effective prestress force Pe is equal to or greater than 40 percent of the tensile
=
V
Apsfpu S
80fydp
{J;
\j ;:,
(5.22b)
Full transfer of horizontal shear forces has to be assumed at the contact surfaces of the
interconnected elements.
5. 7.1 ServiceLoad Level
vh
243
VQ
(5.23)
vh=
Icbv
vh
= bv dpc
(5.24)
where dpc is the effective depth from the extreme compression fibers of the composite
section to the centroid cgs of the prestressing reinforcement.
5.7.2 UltimateLoad Level
Direct Method. In the limit state at failure, Equation 5.24 can be modified such that
the factored load Vu can be substituted far V to give
(5.25a)
or, in terms of the nominal vertical shear strength V IV
V h
Vu/<I>
bv dpc
Vn
bv dpc
=  = 
(5.25b)
where <!> = 0.75. If vnh is the nominal horizontal shear strength, then vu::;; vnh and the total
nominal shear strength is
(5.25c)
The ACI code limits vnh to 80 psi if no dowels or vertical ties are provided and the contact
surface is roughened, or if minimum vertical ties are provided but there is no roughening
of the surface of contact. vnh cango up to 500 psi; otherwise the friction theory, with the
following assumptions, has to be used:
(a) When no vertical ties are provided, but the contact surface of the precast element is
80bvdpc
(e) lf the contact surface of the precast element is roughened to a full amplitude of hn.,
244
Chapter 5
vnh
(5.27)
Avfyt
Precast
Case 1
A, or AP,
Case 2
Case1: C<c.
Fh = C = T
Case 2:
e> c.
Fh =Ce< T
Situcast
..
l
!>". ..
p ..
.. p
.. ~ .. :.:
~:.: ~
<\
o ..
.
. : <\
'"1
i++Fh
Dowel
A,,
+IH
"
Precast
(b)
Figure 5.14 Composite action forces (Fh acts longitudinally along the beam
span). (a) Positivemoment section. (b) Negativemoment section.
245
j[_ _ll
ll
][
Moment diagram
1..
2~.h
Figure 5.15
Basic Method. The ACI code allows an alternative method wherein horizontal shear
is investigated by computing the actual change in compressive or tensile force in any
plane and transferring that force as horizontal shear to the supporting elements. The
areaofcontact surface Acc is substituted for bvdpc in Equations 5.25b and c to give
(5.28)
where Vnh ~ Fh, the horizontal shear force, and is at least equal to the compressive force
Cor tensile force Tin Figure 5.14. (See Equation 5.30 for the value of Fh.)
The value of the contact area Acc can be defined as
(5.29)
where lvh is the horizontal shear length defined in Figures 5.15(a) and (b) for simple span
and continuous span members, respectively.
5.7.3 Design of CompositeAction Dowel Reinforcement
Ties for horizontal shear may consist of single bars or wires, multiple leg stirrups, or vertical legs of welded wire fabric. The spacing cannot exceed four times the least dimension
of the support element or 24 in., whichever is less. If is the coefficient of friction, then
the nominal horizontal shear force Fh in Figure 5.14 can be defined as
(5.30)
The ACI values of are based on a limit shearfriction strength of 800 psi, a quite conservative value as demonstrated by extensive testing (Ref. 5.7). The Prestressed Concrete
Institute (Ref. 5.8) recommends, for concrete placed against an intentionally roughened
concrete surface, a maximum e = 2.9 instead of = l.OX., and a maximum design shear
force
Vu ::::; 0.25X. 2f~ Ac ::::; 1,000X.2 Acc
(5.31a)
t,
'
(5.3lb)
246
Chapter 5
or
Vnh
efy
Fh
efyt
A1=
(5.31c)
:5
.Avfyt
(5.32)
Vnh
:5
with
.
1,000X.2 bvlvh
Fh
:5
2.9
50bJvh
fyt
(5.33)
A1==
l. Determine the required nominal shear strength value Vn = VJ<f> at a distance h/2
from the face of the support, <!> = 0.75.
2. Calculate the nominal shear strength Ve that the web has by one of the following
two methods.
(a) ACI conservative method if fpe > 0.40 fpu
r;:.
Ve = ( 0.60X. V f ~ +
700Vudp)
Mu
bwdp
where 2X. Vflbwdp :5; Ve :5; 5X. Vflbwdp and where Vud/Mu
same section for which Mu is calculated.
:5;
If the average tensile splitting strength fet is specified for lightweight concrete, then
X.= fj6.7Vfl with
not to exceed a value of 100.
Vfl
(b) Detailed analy sis where Ve is the lesser of Vci and Vew
Vci
Vew
= 0.60X. Vfl bwdp + Vd + : ; (Me,) ;;:::: 1.7X. Vfl bwdp :s 5.0X. Vfl bwd
max
(3.5X.
Vf'c + 0.3fc)bwdp + VP
Vfl + ee  d)
or Me,= Sb (6X. Vfl + ee  d)
V = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax
fee = compressive stress in concrete after occurrence of all losses at extreme fibers of section where external load causes tension. fee becomes fe for the stress at the centroid of the section.
247
3. If VJ<!> ::;~Ve, no web steel is needed. If Vj<!> >~Ve< V 0 provide minimum reinforcement. If VJ<!> > Ve and Vs = VJ<!>  Ve ::; 8.\ ~/f::bwdp, design the web steel. If
Vs = VJ<!>  Ve> 8.\
fwdp, or if Vu ><!>(Ve+ 8.\ \!flbwdp), enlarge the section.
4. Calculate the required minimum web reinforcement. The spacing is s::; 0.75h or 24
in., whichever is smaller.
Vt'c
Min.
Av=
r,:; bwS
0.75vf~
Jyt
or Av=
50bwS
1'
Jyt
whichever is larger.
=
V
where dP
ApJpus (d;
80fy dp '\/ ;:,
0.80h, and
r,:; bws
0.75 v f~ 1yt
5. Calculsrte the required web reinforcement size and spacing. If Vs = (Vj<!>  VJ
::; 4.\ V bwdp, then the stirrup spacing sis as required by the design expressions in
step 6, to follow. If Vs = (VJ<I>  VJ > 4.\ \!fl bwdP' then the stirrup spacing sis half
the spacing required by the design expressions in step 6.
Av
50bws/fy 1 or Av
6.
s
Avfydp
Av<!>fydp
Av= 50bws
50bvlvh
fyt
fyt
(b) vnh:::; 500bvdpe for a roughened contact surface with full amplitude ~in.
(e) For cases where Vnh > 500bvdpe' design vertical ties for Vnh = Avy ,
where Av = area of frictional steel dowels
= coefficient of friction = 1.0.\ for intentionally roughened surface,
where .\ = 1.0 for normalweight concrete. In all cases, Vn ::; Vnh ::;
0.2f~ Aee::; 800 Aw where Aee = bJvh
An alternative method of determining the dowel reinforcement area Av is by
computing the horizontal force Fh at the concrete contact surface such that
Chapter 5
248
START
d = d or d = 0.8h,
whichever is larger.
whichever is largar
v.
v. = bwdp
lesser of
+ V
';~)
~ 2'A .,/t;bwdp
:5 5>. ,/f;bwdp
e w P
Vudp :51.0
Mu
and
Yes
Next section
No web steel
Enlarge section
Yes
Yes
No
vu
V
</>
Or
Given s :5 0.75h:::;; 24 in ..
A,frtdP
s= ,,
lf fP ~ 0.40fpu

ApsfpuS
(A,lm;n  80f d
rt p
or (A,lm;n
(Vuf<I> 
/ii;
y'
f
v.)
in.~
min. req.
whichever is smaller,
where d ~ 0.80h
Next section
No
END
Figure 5.16
249
5.9 Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of DowelAction Vertical Steel
ner A of the webflange junction, and calculate the maximum horizontal shearing
stresses at service load for these locations.
(b) Compute the required nominal horizontal shear strength at the interaction surface
AA between the precast web and the situcast flange, and design the necessary vertical ties or dowels to prevent fracture slip at AA, thereby ensuring complete composite action. Use the ACI direct method, and assume that the contact surface is
intentionally roughened. Given data are as follows:
fy
60,000 psi
Now,
QA = 60 X 12(19.32  6) = 9,590 in. 3 (157,172 cm3)
Qcgc
= 60
12(19.32  6) +
12
(7.32) 2
2
1...____
235 psi
i<243
Compressive
stress f 0
Figure 5.17
Horizontal shear
stress vh
250
Chapter 5
120,000 X 9590
.
,
X
= 235 psi (1.6 MPa)
408 240 12
vh at A =
and
.
120,000 X 9,912
X
= 243 psi (1.7 MPa)
,
408 240 12
vh at cgc =
2,160)2
(  2
2,160
2
+ (235) 2
1,831)2
+ (243) 2
(  2
and at cgc,
fi =
1,831
 = 32 psi (221 Pa)
2
Thus, the principal tensile stresses are low and should not cause any cracking at service load.
The horizontal shear stress vh = 235 psi at contact surface AA has to be checked to
verify whether it is within acceptable limits. In accordance with AASHTO, the maximum allowed is 160 psi< 235 psi, and hence special provision for added vertical ties or dowels has to
be made if AASHTO requirements are applicable.
Req.
Vnh
bv
vu
= =
<!>
190,000
= 253,333 lb (1126 kN)
0.75
=  
12 in. (30.5 cm
12
> 253,333 lb
Hence, specify roughening the contact surface of the precast web fully to Hn. amplitude.
From Equation 5.22 (a), 0.75\ijj
.
. Av _ 58bv _ 58 X 12 _
.
.
mm umt   f  0.0116 m. 2/m. along span
1vh
6
00
yt
0,0
So using #3 vertical stirrups, Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2 , and s = 0.22/0.0116=18.9 in. (48 cm) center to center < 24 in., O.K. Verticalweb steel reinforcement for shear in the web would most
probably require smaller spacing. Hence, extend ali web stirrups into the situcast top slab.
Using (a) the ACI friction coefficient and (b) the PCI friction coefficient, design the dowel
reinforcement of Example 5.1 for full composite action by the alternative method, assuming
a simply supported beam of effective 65 ft (19.8 m) span.
Solution:
0.85f~cAtop
= 0.85
3,000
251
Assume ApJps > Ce, since the prestressing force is not given. Then
Fh = 1,836,000 lb
l
_ 65 X 12 _
.
 390 m.
vh 2
bv
12 in.
< 1,836,000 lb
Req. 
<!>
12
190,000
=   = 253,333 lb
0.75
57 = 342,000
<
Vnh = 342,000
<
available Fh = 1,836,000 lb
253,333
. 2
2
Total Av  1.0 X 0,000  4.2 m (26.3 cm )
6
.
_ 50bv lvh _ 50 X 12 X 390 _
.
Mm Av   :  OOO
 3.90 m2 (25.1 cm2)
60
Jyt
'
From Example 5.1, min Av= 0.01 in. 2/in. = 0.12 in. 2/12 in., controls. So, trying #3 stirrups, we
obtain Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2 , and
lvh Av
Av
s =  =
390 X 0.22
.
= 20.42 m. centertocenter
4.2

1,000A.2 bv lvh
::; 2.9
Fh
1,000
1 X 12 X 390
 255
1836
.
, ,000
< 29
.
253,333
. 2
X 0,000  1.66 m.
255 6
A simply supported inverted Tbeam has an effective 24 ft (7.23 m) span length. The beam,
shown in cross section in Figure 5.18, has a 2 in. (5.1 cm) situcast topping on a nonroughened
surface. Design the required dowel action stirrups to develop full composite behavior, assuming that the factored shear Vu to which the beam is subjected at the critical section is
160,000 lb (712 kN). Given data are as follows:
252
Chapter 5
~"".'"'."7"'.'""".":~~b~=~4=8'~'=(1=22~c7m~)~::;'~~"'."4:A~j.~
.
.:...::o:
10"
1
Figure 5.18
; (precast)
f;e (topping)
Prestressing steel:
Twelve ! in. dia 270 k strands
fpu
dP = 2 + 2 + 10 + 12  3 = 23 in.
Aps
= 12
X 0.153
= 1.836 in. 2
Tn = Ap/ps = 1.836
bv
lvh
A 10P
12 in.
24
=2
12
48
= 144 m.
+2
12
= 120 in. 2
<
Tn
444,312 lb
12
< ce =
306,000 lb
Hence, ties are required for developing full composite action using >.. = 1.0.
vu 160,000
Req. Vnh = ~ = ~ = 213,333 lb (949 kN)
Use = 1.0. Then, from Equation 5.26a, with dowel reinforcement, we have
253
12
23 = 22,000 lb
<<
required Vnh
V
,fr,
=
213,333
_ X
OOO
0 60 60
0.75V6cio
58
>
5.93 in
_ 58bJvh _ 58 X 12 X 144 _
Req. mm Av 
.
 1.67 m2
OOO
<
5.93 m2
60 ,
yt
2
So use Av= 5.93 in. (37.0 cm ), and try #3 inverted U ties. Then Av= 2 x 0.11
(1.4 cm2) and the spacing is
2
= 0.22 in. 2
= fv0v = 144
X 0.22 =
. (l 5 4
)
5.34 m.
5 93
. cm
Av
The maximum allowable spacing is s = 4(2 + 2) = 16 in., or 0.75h = 0.75 x 26 = 19.5 in.< 24 in.
Thus, use #3 inverted U ties 5 in. (13 cm) centertocenter over the entire simply supported
span.
l,OOOA2bJvh
1,000
Fh
1.0 X 12
306,000
144
=
5 65
> 29
Fh
306,000
Req. Av= Jy1 = 2.9 X 60 000 = 1.76 in2
Req. min. Avfrom (a) = 1.67 in2
So use Av= 1.76 in. 2 Then the spacing is four times the least dimension:
fv0v
144 X 0.22
.
s = Av =
1.
= 18 m. centertocenter
76
and the maximum allowable spacing is four times the least dimension:
s = 4(2
Hence, use #3 inverted U ties at 16 in. center to center over the entire simply supported span.
fy = fyt =
; =
254
Chapter 5
cb =
Pe
= (2352
X 65)/2
= 76,440 lb
=
P
Vn
=15f
36.16
2 X 12
= 101,920
Vu ad dp = 0.75
[(65/2)  1.5]
X
6512
= 97,216 lb
<
ve =
( 0.60A. Vil
+ 700
255
Wu(l.5) 2
= 76,440
Vudp
Mu
2352(1.5) 2
= 112,014 ftlb = 1,344,168 in.lb
2
1.5 
72,912 X 36.16
1,344,168
= 1. 96 > l.O
1.0V5,0o
36.16 = 30,683 lb
>
161,077 lb
max
+ 700
ve =
1.0)6
36.16
76,707 lb
Then Ve= 76,707 lb and controls (341 kN). Also, VJ<I> >i Ve; hence, web steel is needed.
Accordingly,
vs =
8AYt:bwdp
=8
vu
el>= 0.7
5 
ve = 97,216 
1.0V5,0o
36.16
76,707 = 20,509 lb
Av
ApJpu
{d;
Mm. = 80fytdp\j

hw
or
20,509
. 2 .
60,000 X 36.16  0.0095 m /m.
(prestressing force is> 0.4 x tensile strength)
Then the minimum required webshear steel A/s = 0.0095 in. 2/in. So trying #3 U stirrups, Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2, and we get 0.0095 = 0.22/s. so that the maximum spacing
is
0.22
. (59cm )
s= = 23.2m.
0.0095
and
4AYt:bwdp = 4 X i.oV5,0o X 6 X 36.16 = 61,366 lb
> vs
256
Chapter 5
76,707
65/2  = 101,920 X
2
6512
zVe = 
or
65
76,707
65
x=x2
101,920
4
giving
x
20.3 ft (6.11 m)
= 244 in.
Vci
r,:.
sb since y, is the distance from the centroid to the extreme tension fibers.
32'6"
1:
65'0" (19.8
Figure 5.19
in.)<~
257
Pe
308,255 lb
sb
3,753 in.3
r2
187.5 in. 2
So from Equation 4.3b, the concrete stress at the extreme bottom fibers due to prestress only is
+ (15  12.5)
e = 12.5
1.5
= 12.62 in.
6512
Thus,
.
308,255 (
12.62 X 18.84)
y:1+
== 1,855 psi (12.8 MPa)
.
187 5
ce =
From Example 4.2, the unfactored dead load due to selfweight W v = 393 plf
(5.7 kN/m) is
Md/2
WvX(l  x)
393
1.5(65  1.5)
2
12
and the stress due to the unfactored dead load at the extreme concrete fibers where
tension is created by the externa! load is
Md2Cb
d =  1e
224,600 X 18.84
.
= 60 psi
70' 700
V6,00o + 1,855 
Also,
Mcr = 3,753(6
=
Vd=
Wsv
1.0
60)
= 100 plf
WL = 1,100 plf
W u = 1.2
100
+ 1.6
X llOO
= 1880 plf
The factored shear force at the section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax is
V;=
and
Mmax
Wux(l  x)
1880
1.5(65  1.5)
X 12
2
Hence,
258
Chapter 5
Vci = 0.6
e;:;:;:.
1.0 V O,UUU X 6 X 36.16
+ 12,183 +
58,280
(8,480,872)
074 420
'
'
l.?Av'T:bwdp
= 1.7
i.ov6.000 X
6 X 36.16
+ 0.3fc)bwdp + VP
Pe
308,255
where 0 is the angle between the inclined tendon and the horizontal. So
VP
(15  12.5)
= 308,255
6512
12
Hence, Vew = (3.5V6,0o + 0.3 x 818) x 6 x 36.16 + 1,976 = 114,038 lb (507 kN). In this
case, webshear cracking controls (i.e., Ve= Vew = 114,038 lb (507 kN) is used for the
design of web reinforcement). Compare this value with Ve= 76,707 lb (341 kN) obtained in Example 5.4 by the more conservative alternative method.
Now, from Example 5.4,
V,
<I>
Vu
= 0. 75
 Ve
= (97,216
>~Ve
>
Vn
114 038
>~Ve
A
Req."s
So, trying #3 U stirrups, we get Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2, and it follows that
s=R
Av
eq.
A /
V
0.22
= 0 00
77
We then check for the minimum Av as the lesser of the two values given by
Av
and
A
=
V
b;,,
So the maximum allowable spacing ::; 0.75h ::; 24 in. Then use #3 U stirrups at 22 in.
centertocenter overa stretch length of 84 in. from the face of the support, as in Example 5.4.
259
18"
_[
(45. 7 cm)
,,~
ff
t

'
#3 closed ties at
22 in. c. to c.
(9.5 mm dia. at 61 cm)
40"
_L
4"
Figure 5.20
(b)
(a)
Figure 5.21
260
Chapter 5
Section property
Pretopped
978 in. 2
86,072 in. 4
88.0 in. 2
25.77 in.
8.23 in.
3,340 in. 4
10,458 in.3
1,019 plf
12.50 in.
Other data are:
used
720
2615 X 70
2
= 91,525 lb
1 (
_ 91,525
0 75
(35  17.5))
35
Use the precast section properties for computingfce andfd as discussed in Section 5.5:
ce
=_Pe
Ac
(l + r2
ecb) = _ 407,592
978
(l + 16.5888.025.77)
X
261
= 1,019 plf
WpX(l  x)
Ml7.5 =
1,019
17.5(70  17.5)
X
12
Mcb
1e
5,617,238 X 25.77
86 ' 072
Mcr
Sb(6.0A
3,340 (6.0
= 
vfl + ce X
.
1,682 psi (11.6 MPa)
d)
ment value would have become 4,303,022 in.lb, thereby reducing the number of stirrups needed in this design.
Unfactored shear due to selfweight dead load is:
Vd= Wv
G
x)
(7  17.5) = 17,833 lb
= 1,019 2
Wsv = 200plf
WL = 720 plf
Factored externa! load intensity is:
Wu
1.2
V;
wu
GX)
200 + 1.6
=
720
1392
C2  17.5)
17.5(70  17.5)
2
12
<
Mmax 
0.6
1.0
v5,00o X
12.5
30.0
+ 17,833
24,360
+ 7,673,400 (3,948,762)
= 46,279 lb (201 kN)
1.7>..
P.
= 
Ac
407,592
978
=  
46,279 lb
262
Chapter 5
(21.77  11.38)
X
= 10,083 lb (44.0 kN)
7012 12
(3.5X. ~ + 0.3fc)bwdp + VP
(3.5
vei
46,279 lb
~Ve = 23,140 lb
Now, Vu /<!>ata section 17.5 ft from support = 61,017 lb> Ve>! Ve; hence design of stirrups is necessary. If Vu / <I> < Ve>! Ve, only minimumweb steel is needed.
Av
Vn  Ve
Req. = , d
=
Using d
Wu!<I>)  ve
fy,dp
Jyt p
61,011  46,279
60,000 X 30.0
. (Av)
Mm.
s
bw
0.153 X
270,000
~O.O
80
60,000 X 30.0 12.5
= 0.008O
o.15Vjf = o.15V500o = 53
, (Av) 53bw _ 53 X 12.5 _
. 2
or Mm. ;  ;: ,
 0.011 m. /m.
60 000
The lesser of the two minimum value applies, consequently, min. Av= 0.0080 in. 2/ in.
applies as the lesser of the two values.
A
Hence controlling". = 0.0080 in. 2/in.
s
Try one row of D5 deformed welded wire fabric at 10 in. centertocenter weld spacing.
The maximum allowable spacing is, then 0.75h::; 24 in. So we have
0.75h = 0.75
34 = 25.5 in.
Accordingly, adopt one row D5 WWF web reinforcement in one !ayer at 10 in. centertocenter weld spacing per web at the quarterspan section.
Note, in comparing the solution for Ve; and Vew in Example 5.6, that Ve; has its highest value close to the support and rapidly decreases toward the midspan, while Vew has
a lesser variation in its value, as can be seen from Figure 5.13. It is important to calculate the flexure shear Vci and web shear Vew at severa! sections along the span in order
to determine the most efficient distribution of the web steel. A computer program facilitates finding these values at constant intervals of, say, /oth of the span, and a plot can
263
be made similar to the one in Figure 5.13 showing the variation of the shear strengths
of the web along the span.
4. Design of dowel steel for ful! composite section of the additional 2in. topping (step 9), if
such topping is added later to the pretopped section.
Section at ! dP from face of support
Used dP
Vu at support = 91,525 (408 kN)
1
2dP =
32.0
= 1.33ft(40cm)
X
12
= 91,525
Vu
Req
Vnh
bv
35
X (
Vu
= 0.
topping h
12 ft.
2 in.
0.153
3000
12
12
< ce
= 734,400 lb
Hence,
Fh = 660,960 lb (2,178 kN)
lvh =
70
2
bv
80bvfvh = 80
144
12
No dowel reinforcement is needed to extend to future additional 2in. topping for full
composite action to be developed. The section is adopted when it satisfies the flexura!,
deflection, and cracking requirements.
Brackets and corbels are shorthaunched cantilevers that project from the inner face of
columns or concrete walls to support heavy concentrated loads or beam reactions. They
are very important structural elements for supporting precast beams, gantry girders, and
any other forms of precast structural systems. Precast and prestressed concrete is becoming increasingly dominant, and larger spans are being built, resulting in heavier shear
loads at supports. Hence, the design of brackets and corbels has become increasingly important. The safety of the total structure could depend on the sound design and construction of the supporting element, in this case the corbel, necessitating a detailed discussion
of this subject.
In brackets and corbels, the ratio of the shear arm or span to the corbel depth is
often less than 1.0. Such a small ratio changes the state of stress of a member into a twodimensional one. Shear deformations would hence affect the nonlinear stress behavior of
the bracket or corbel in the elastic state and beyond, and the shear strength becomes a
major factor. Corbels also differ from deep beams in the existence of potentially large
horizontal forces transmitted from the supported beam to the corbel or bracket. These
264
Chapter 5
(e)
(a)
(d)
(b)
Figure 5.22 Failure patterns. (a) Diagonal shear. (b) Shear friction. (e) Anchorage splitting. (d) Vertical splitting.
horizontal forces result from longterm shrinkage and creep deformation of the supported beam, which in many cases is anchored to the bracket.
The cracks are usually mostly vertical or steeply inclined pure shear cracks. They
often start from the point of application of the concentrated load and propagate toward
the bottom reentrant comer junction of the bracket to the column face, as in Figure
5.22(a). Or they start at the upper reentrant comer of the bracket or corbel and proceed
almost vertically through the corbel toward its lower fibers, as shown in Figure 5.22(b).
Other failure pattems in such elements are shown in Figure 5.22(c) and (d). They can
also develop through a combination of the ones illustrated. Bearing failure can also occur
by crushing of the concrete under the concentrated loadbearing plate, if the bearing area
is not adequately proportioned.
As will be noticed in the subsequent discussion, detailing of the corbel or bracket
reinforcement is of majar importance. Failure of the element can be attributed in many
cases to incorrect detailing that does not realize full anchorage development of the reinforcing bars.
Two approaches can be used far the analysis and design of corbels as deep concrete
members: the shear friction hypothesis, and the strutandtie modeling of forces hypothesis. In the following section, criteria are presented far computing the forces ensuing from
the shear friction approach with the resulting design expressions and the applicable design example of a typical corbel. Section 5.21 presents the strutandtie model development far the analysis of deep beams and corbels, with the applicable design examples.
5.15.1 Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels
Corbels cast at different times than the main supporting columns can have a potential
shear crack at the interface between the two concretes through which shear transfer has
to develop. The smaller the ratio a/d, the larger the tendency far pure shear to occur
through essentially vertical planes. This behavior is accentuated in the case of corbels
with a potential interface crack between two dissimilar concretes.
The shear friction approach in this case is recommended by the ACI, as shown in
Figure 5.22(b ). An assumption is made of an already cracked vertical plane (aa in Figure 5.23) along which the corbel is considered to slide as it reaches its limit state of failure. A coefficient of friction is used to transform the horizontal resisting forces of the
wellanchored closed ties into a vertical nominal resisting force larger than the extemal
factored shear load. Hence, the nominal vertical resisting shear force
(5.34a)
265
8
As.wmed
crack
Av= 
V,,
fy ,
(5.34b)
where A .1 is the total area of the horizontal anchored closed shear ties.
The externa! factored vertical shear has to be V11 $ <!> V,,, where for normal concrete,
V,,
0.2/; b,.d
(5.35a)
or
(5.35b)
whichever is smaller. The required effective depth d o[ the corbel can be dctermined
from Equation 5.35a, or b, whichever gives a largcr value.
For alllightweighl or sandlightweigbt concretes, the shear strengtb V,, should not
be taken greater than (0.2  0.07avld)J; b..,d, or (800  280a!d)b..,d in pounds.
If the shear friction reinforcement is inclined to the sbear plane such that the shear
force produces sorne tension in the shear friction steel,
(5.35c)
Chapter 5
266
where a 1 is the angle between the shear friction reinforcement and the shear plane. The
reinforcement area becomes
Av= fy( sin a
(5.35d)
+ cosa)
The assumption is made that all the shear resistance is due to the resistance at the
crack interface between the corbel and the column. The ACI coefficient of friction has
the following values:
Concrete cast monolithically
Concrete placed against hardened roughened concrete
Concrete placed against unroughened hardened concrete
Concrete anchored to structural steel
l.4X.
l.OX.
0.6X.
O. 7X.
X. = 1.0 for normalweight concrete, 0.85 for sandlightweight concrete, and 0.75 for alllightweight concrete. The PCI values are less conservative than the ACI values based on
comprehensive tests.
If considerably higher strength concretes, such as polymermodified concretes, are
used in the corbels to interface with the normal concrete of the supporting columns,
higher values of could logically be used for such cases as those listed above. Work in
the field (Ref. 5.7) substantiates the use of higher values.
Part of the horizontal steel Av is incorporated in the top tension tie, and the remainder of Av is distributed along the depth of the cor bel as in Figure 5.24. Evaluation of
the top horizontal primary reinforcement layer As will be discussed in the next section.
5.15.2 Horizontal Externa! Force Effect
When the corbel or bracket is cast monolithically with the supporting column or wall and
is subjected to a large horizontal tensile force Nuc produced by the beam supported by
the corbel, a modified approach is used, often termed the strut theory approach. In all
cases, the horizontal factored force Nuc cannot exceed the vertical factored shear Vu. As
shown in Figure 5.25, reinforcing steel An has to be provided to resist the force Nuc
Angle welded to
top steel and
framing bar
Framing
bar
Figure 5.24
hypothesis.
Shear plane
267
Bearing plate
..1
d
_~.1
....
Compression strut
. .. ee
Figure 5.25
where
Nuc
A=n <!>fy
(5.36)
Vuav + Nuc(h  d)
A=<!>fytjd
(5.37)
and
Reinforcement An to resist tensile force Nue should be determined from Nue ~ <!> An fy.
Tensile force Nue should not be taken less than 0.2 Vu unless special provisions are made
to avoid tensile forces. Tensile force Nue should be regarded as a live load even when tension results from creep, shrinkage, or temperature changes.
Reinforcement A 1 also has to be provided to resist the bending moments caused by
Vu and Nuc
The value of Nuc considered in the design should not be less than 0.20 Vu. The flexura! steel area A 1 can be obtained approximately by the usual expression for the limit
state at failure of beams, that is,
Mu
A=<!>fyt jd
(5.38)
where Mu= Vuav + NuJh  d) and <!> = 0.75. The axis of such an assumed section les along
a compression strut inclined at an angle 13 to the tension tie As, as shown in the figure.
The volume of the compressive block is
ce =
Ts
cos 13
Asfyt
cos 13
Vu
sm 13
0.85f~ l31cb =   =   =  . 
(5.39a)
Chapter 5
268
for which the depth 13 1c of the block is obtained perpendicular to the direction of the
compressive strut, i.e.,
l3ic
(5.39b)
0.85f: b cos 13
The effective depth d minus 13 1c/2 cos 13 in the vertical direction gives the lever armjd between the force Ts and the horizontal component of Ce in Figure 5.25. Therefore,
d
d 
l31c
2cos13
(5.39c)
A 1
Mu
cpfy(d  13 1 c/2 cos 13)
(5.40)
To eliminate severa! trials and adjustments, the lever arm jd from Equation (5.39c) can
be approximated for all practica! purposes in most cases as
jd
=0.85d
(5.41a)
so that
Mu
0.85cpfyd
(5.41b)
A=
The are a Ase of the primary tension reinforcement (tension tie) can now be calculated and placed as shown in Figure 5.26:
(5.42)
or
(5.43)
whichever is larger. Then
p
where An
f'
2.: 004~
= A~
. fy
bd
Welded to
top steel
Framing
bar
Figure 5.26
Ah closed stirrups
(min. ~A,)
269
If Ah is assumed to be the total area of the closed stirrups or ties parallel to Aw then
(5.44)
The bearing area under the externa! load Vu on the bracket should not project beyond
the straight portion of the primary tension bars, Aso nor should it project beyond the interior face of the transverse welded anchor bar shown in Figure 5.26.
5.15.3 Sequence of Corbel Design Steps
As discussed in the preceding section, a horizontal factored force NuC' a vertical factored
force Vu, anda bending moment [Vua + Nue (h  d)] basically act on the corbel. To prevent failure, the corbel has to be designed to resist these three parameters simultaneously
by one of the following two methods, depending on the type of corbel construction sequence, that is, whether the corbel is cast monolithically with the column or not:
(a) For a monolithically cast corbel with the supporting column, by evaluating the steel
area Ah of the closed stirrups which are placed below the primary steel ties Ase Part
of Ah is dueto the steel area An from Equation 5.36 resisting the horizontal force Nuc
(b) By calculating the steel area Av by the shear friction hypothesis if the corbel and the
column are not cast simultaneously, using part of Avalong the depth of the corbel stem
and incorporating the balance in the area As of the primary top steel reinforcing layer.
The primary tension steel area Ase is the major component of both methods. Calculations of As depend on whether Equation 5.42 or 5.43 governs. If Equation 5.42 controls,
Ase= i Av+ An is used and the remaining ! Av is distributed overa depth id adjacent to
Ase If Equation 5.43 controls, Ase= A 1 + An, with the addition of lA provided as closed
stirrups parallel to Ase and distributed within id vertical distance adjacent to Ase
In both cases, the primary tension reinforcement plus the closed stirrups automatically yield the total amount of reinforcement needed for either type of corbel. Since the
mechanism of failure is highly indeterminate and randomness can be expected in the
propagation action of the shear crack, it is sometimes advisable to choose the larger calculated value of the primary top steel area Ase in the corbel regardless of whether the corbel element is cast simultaneously with the supporting column.
As seen from the foregoing discussions, the horizontal closed stirrups are also a
major element in reinforcing the corbel. Occasionally, additional inclined closed stirrups
are also used.
The following sequence of steps is proposed for the design of the corbel:
l. Calculate the factored vertical force Vu and the nominal resisting force Vn of the
section such that Vn 2". VJ<I>, where <I> = 0.75 for all calculations. V)<I> should be
::;; 0.20f ~ bwd, or::;; 800bwd for normalweight concrete. If not, the concrete section at
the support should be enlarged.
2. Calculate Av= Vn/fy for resisting the shear friction force, and use in the subsequent calculation of the primary tension top steel As.
3. Calculate the flexura! steel area A 1 and the direct tension steel area A,,, where
Vullv + Nue(h  d)
A! <l>fy Jd
and
Chapter 5
270
4. Calculate the primary steel area from (a) Ase= i Av+ An and (b) Ase= A+ An,
whichever is larger. If case (a) controls, the remaining i Av has to be provided as
closed stirrups parallel to Ase and distributed with a id distance adjacent to Ase' as
in Figure 5.24.
If case (b) controls, use in addition !A as closed stirrups distributed within a distance id adjacent to Ase' as in Figure 5.26. Then
Ah 2: 0.5(Ase  An)
and
:r
=~2:004{!:
bd
fy
or
Min. Ase = 0.04
j:
bd
5. Select the size and spacing of the corbel reinforcement with special attention to the
detailing arrangements, as many corbel failures are due to incorrect detailing.
Figure 5.27 shows a flowchart for proportioning corbels.
5.15.4 Design of a Bracket or Corbel
Example 5.7
Design a corbel to support a factored vertical load Vu = 80,000 lb (160 kN) acting at a
distance a = 5 in. (127 mm) from the face of the column. The corbel has a width b = 10 in.
(254 mm), a total thickness h = 18 in. (457 mm), andan effective depth d = 14 in. (356 mm).
The following data are given:
Assume the corbel to be either cast after the supporting column was constructed, or cast
simultaneously with the column. Neglect the weight of the corbel. Supporting column size is
12 in. X 12 in.
Solution:
Stepl
80,000
Vu
5 = 106,667 lb
vn 2:  <!> = .7o
0.2f~
>
>
Vn
Vm 0.K.
Step2
(a) Monolithic construction, normalweight concrete = 1.4A.:
Vu
vf
=  =
<j>fy,
vf
106,667
2
= 1270in. 2 (819mm)
.
60 000 X 1.4
= 1.0A:
106,667
X 1.0
= 60,000
= 1.777 in .2 (1110 mm 2)
271
CORBELS
Start
Nota
corbel
a/d
Enlarge
section
No
Enlarge
section
No
(0.2  0.07a/d)f~bd
.. (800  280a/d)bd
<1
Yes
V.
~A,E
fr
>Y_es
_ _..N"' = 0.20V"
,.
A,.= 0.04f bd
y
.Y< Ah
> 0.5(A,. 
A.)
:>No~
Ah
= 0.5(A" 
End
Figure 5.27
A.)
Chapter 5
272
Step 3. Since no value of the horizontal externa! force Nuc transmitted from the superimposed beam is given, use
Min Nuc = 0.20Vu = 0.2 X 80,000 = 16,000 lb
Vuav + Nuc(h  d)
Mu
A    <t>fyjd
 <t>fyjd 
_ 80,000
0.90

5 + 16,000(18  14) _
60,000(0.85 X 14)
727 m
0.85d)
2
(524 mm)
2
. 2
16,000
 0.356 m (280 mm )
0 .75 X 60,000
Nuc
A=4'fy
n
Step 4.
(where jd
2
(a) Ase= (i Av+ An) = i X 1.777 + 0.356 = 1.541 in.
Mm Ase = 0.04
<
;; bd = 0.04
5,000
0,000
6
10
14 = 0.47 in.
= 0.592 in. 2
Step 5.
(a) Required Ase= 1.541 in. 2; use three No. 7bars=1.80 in. 2 (three bars of diameter 22 mm
gives 1,161 mm2) Ase
2
(b) Required Ah= 0.593 in 2 ; use three No. 3 closed stirrups = 2 x 3 x 0.11=0.66 in. spread
in. cen3
at
stirrups
closed
No.3
three
use
over id= 9.33 in. vertical distance. Hence,
ter to center. Also use three framing size No.3 bars and one welded No.7 anchor to
bar.
Details of the bracket reinforcement are shown in Figure 5.28. The bearing area under
the load has to be checked, and the bearing pad designed such that the bearing stress at the
factored load Vu should not exceed q,(0.85f~ A 1), where A 1 is the pad area. We have
Bearing strength reduction factor q, = 0.70.
Vu
A1
= 80,000 lb = 0.70(0.85
0.70
80,000
0.85 X 5000
5,000) A 1
2
. 2
26.9 m (16,813 mm )
Use a plate 5hn. x 5hn. lts thickness has to be designed based on the manner in which V" is
applied as an undeformable plate.
(5.11)
(5.12)
273
. . I>
.o .. ."'.
T
1
9in.
3 in.
anchor bar
3 in.
3 in.
,6.
c,...
. .o
Figure 5.28
:v
(5.15)
(See Sec. 5.5.1 for explanation onfc vs.fce of the ACI code). Me, for shear = moment causing flexura! cracking at section due to externally applied load.
'A Vf;
Vud)
Ve = ( 2Q + 5 Mu bwd;
Vd
_u_$
1.0
Mu
~ ['A~] bwd
$
s=
Max s =
!h $
[0.4'A Vl bwd]
Avfytd
Wu/ <!>)
 Ve
Avfy1d
(5.21b)
V,
600 mm
0.35bwS
yt
or
ApJpuSH
80fyd
bw
Chapter 5
274
0.006895
MPa
1 lb
psi
(in.lb)
0.1130 = Nm
1 Pa = N/m2
(lb/ft)
1 MPa
14.593
N/m
106/m2
Section property
6,310 cm2
3.58 x 106 cm4
568 cm2
65.5 cm
20.9cm.
54,733 cm 3
171,376 cm3
14,870N/m
17,789 N/m
10,507 N/m
32cm
Ac
Je
r2
cb
C
sb
S'
WD
Wv+ Wsv
WL
2bw
f~c
Use the same value for the effective depth dP for the midspan as well as other sections. Note
that bw for both webs = 32 cm.
Solution:
Wu = 1.2 X 17,789
+ 1.6
Vu at face of support =
10,507
=38.2kN/m
38.2 X 21.3
= 407 kN
2
275
~ of the span = 21.3/ 4 = 5.33 m.
1 (
(10.67  5.33))
_ 407 X
_
10 67
0 75
272 kN
dP
Pe = 18
99
76.2 cm
= _Pe (l +
Ae
ecb)
= _ 18,176 ( + 42.l
6,310
X 65.46)
568
= 16.8 MPa
Use allowable extreme compressive stresses as follows:
(a) prestress + sustained load: fe= 0.45 f ~
(b) prestress +total load (allowing 33% increase dueto transient load: fe= 0.60 f~)
Note that although fee =0.45 f ~, this should not affect the shear strength since fce is
dueto prestress only, and the inclusion of selfweight reduces it to less than 0.45 f~.
We thus have:
Selfweight WD = 14,870 N/m
W X(/  x)
14,870 X 5.33(21.3  5.33)
2
=
2
Ms.33 =
= 634 kNm
Mcb
fd = Mcr
le
6,340,000 X 65.46
= 11.6 MPa
3.58 X 106
vJ: + fce 
Sb(0.50A.
445 kNm
fd)
+ 16.8  11.6)
vd
wDG x)
Wsv
2,919 N/m
WL = 10,507 N/m
+ 1.6
/
V= Wu ( 2x ) = 20.3 (20.3
   5.33 ) = 108kN
_ (/ x)
Mmax  W uX
20.3
= 864kNm
Vci = 0.6A.
vJ: bwdp + Vd +
5.33(21.3  5.33)
2
max
(Mcr)
Chapter 5
276
1.0
0.6
108
(445)
864
\/34.5
3.18
7.62 + 79.1
= 220kN
0.33A
18,176
Pe
= 2.9MPa
fe= A=
6310
'
e
For the vertical component of the prestress force,
VP = Pe tane = 18,176
Vew
[0.3(A.
(55.3  28.9)
1.3/2 = 44.0 kN
2
Vfl + fc)Jbwdp + VP
= [0.3(1.0x\/34.5
+ 2.9)]
211 kN
318
762 + 44
= Vci = 211 kN
From above,
Ve= 211 kN,
So
Now, Vu / <j> at a section 5.33 m. from support = 272 > Ve>! Ve; hence design of stirrups
is necessary. If Vu / <!> < Ve>! Ve, only minimumweb steel is need.
A
Req.':'.
s
(Vu/<l>)  Ve
f, d
yt p
Vn  V
f, d "
yt p
(272  211)
414 X 762
Min.(Av)
s
hw
2
(762
1,860
18 X 99 X
414 X 762\ll = 0.20 mm /mm
80
Or
2
. (Av) bw _ 318 _
 0.25 mm /mm
X
Mm. ;  fyt 3 414
3
2
The lesser of the two minimum value applies; consequently, min. Av= 0.20 mm /mm
applies as the lesser of the two values.
Controlling web steel is hence
Av
277
Try one row of D5 deformed welded wire fabric at 254 mm centertocenter weld spacing.
The maximum allowable spacing is, then 0.75h where h = 864 mm but not to exceed
610 mm. So we have
0.75
864 = 648
Accordingly, adopt using one row D5 WWF in one layer at 254 mm centertocenter of
welds per web at the quarterspan section.
Note, in comparing the solution for Vci and Vcw that Vci has its highest value close to
the support and rapidly decreases toward the midspan, while Vcw has a lesser variation
in its value, as can be seen from Figure 5.13. It is important to calculate the flexure
shear Vci and web shear Vcw at severa! sections along the span in order to determine
the most efficient distribution of the web steel. A computer program facilitates finding
these values at constant intervals of, say, 1/lth of the span, and a plot can be made
similar to the one in Figure 5.13 showing the variation of the shear strengths of the web
along the span.
(4) Design of dowel steel for ful/ composite section of the additional 2in. topping (step 9), if
such topping is added later to the pretopped section.
Use dP
Vu at support = 407 kN
h/2
Vu = 407 X (
Req
Vnh
0.4 m
10.7  0.4)
10.
= 392 kN
7
Vu
392
= 523 kN
75
= 0.
topping h
bv = 366 cm
5.08 cm
99
20.7
366
5.08
10 3 = 3,267 kN
1655x10 3 = 2,940 kN
<
Ce = 3,267 kN
Then
Fh = 2,940kN
lvh =
221.3
= 10.67m = 1,067 cm
bv = 366 cm
0.55bJvh
Chapter 5
278
Torsion occurs in monolithic concrete construction primarily where the load acts ata distance from the longitudinal axis of the structural member. An end beam in a floor panel,
a spandrel beam receiving load from one side, a canopy or a busstand roof projecting
from a monolithic beam on columns, and peripheral beams surrounding a floor opening
are all examples of structural elements subjected to twisting moments. These moments
occasionally cause excessive shearing stresses. As a result, severe cracking can develop
well beyond the allowable serviceability limits unless special torsional reinforcement is
provided. Photos in this section illustrate the extent of cracking at failure of a beam in
torsion. They show the curvilinear plane of twist caused by the imposed torsional moments. In actual spandrel beams of a structural system, the extent of damage due to torsion is usually not as severe. This is due to the redistribution of stresses in the structure.
However, loss of integrity due to torsional distress should always be avoided by proper
design of the necessary torsional reinforcement.
An introduction to the subject of torsional stress distribution has to start with
the basic elastic behavior of simple sections, such as circular or rectangular sections.
Most concrete beams subjected to twist are components of rectangles, for example,
flanged sections such as Tbeams and Lbeams. Although circular sections are rarely a
consideration in normal concrete construction, a brief discussion of torsion in circular
sections serves as a good introduction to the torsional behavior of other types of sections.
Shear stress is equal to shear strain times the shear modulus at the elastic level in
circular sections. As in the case of flexure, the stress is proportional to its distance from
the neutral axis (i.e., the axis through the center of the circular section) and is maximum
at the extreme fibers. If r is the radius of the element, J = 7rr4/2, its polar moment of inertia, and v1e the elastic shearing stress dueto an elastic twisting moment Te, then
(a)
When deformation takes place in the circular shaft, the axis of the circular cylinder
is assumed to remain straight. All radii in a cross section also remain straight (i.e., there is
no warping) and rotate through the same angle about the axis. As the circular element
starts to behave plastically, the stress in the plastic outer ring becomes constant while the
stress in the inner core remains elastic, as shown in Figure 5.29. As the whole cross section becomes plastic, b = Oand the shear stress
(b)
where v11 is the nonlinear shear stress due to an ultimate twisting moment TP. (The subscript f denotes failure.)
In rectangular sections, the torsional problem is considerably more complicated.
The originally plane cross sections undergo warping due to the applied torsional moment. This moment produces axial as well as circumferential shear stresses with zero values at the corners of the section and the centroid of the rectangle, and maximum values
on the periphery at the middle of the sides, as shown in Figure 5.30. The maximum torsional shearing stress would occur at midpoints A and B of the larger dimension of the
cross section. These complications plus the fact that the reinforced and prestressed concrete sections are neither homogeneous nor isotropic make it difficult to develop exact
279
Figure 5.29
mathematical formulations based on physical models such as Equations (a) and (b) for
circular sections.
For over seventy years, the torsional analysis of concrete members has been based
on either (1) the classical theory of elasticity developed through mathematical formulations coupled with membrane analogy verifications (St.Venant's ), or (2) the theory of
plasticity represented by the sandheap analogy (Nadai's). Both theories were applied essentially to the state of pure torsion. But it was found experimentally that the elastic theory is not entirely satisfactory for the accurate prediction of the state of stress in concrete
in pure torsion. The behavior of concrete was found to be better represented by the plastic approach. Consequently almost ali developments in torsion as applied to prestressed
concrete and to reinforced concrete have been in the latter direction.
5.16.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements
v,.
Figure 5.30
Chapter 5
280
relationships between the deflected surface of the loaded membrane and the distribution
of torsional stresses in a bar subjected to twisting moments. Figure 5.31 shows the membrane analogy behavior for rectangular as well as Lshaped forms.
For small deformations, it can be proved that the differential equation of the deflected membrane surface has the same form as the equation that determines the stress
distribution over the cross section of the bar subjected to twisting moments. Similarly, it
can be demonstrated that (1) the tangent to a contour line at any point of a deflected
membrane gives the direction of the shearing stress at the corresponding cross section of
the actual membrane subjected to twist; (2) the maximum slope of the membrane at any
point is proportional to the magnitude of shear stress ,. at the corresponding point in the
actual member; and (3) the twisting moment to which the actual member is subjected is
proportional to twice the volume under the deflected membrane.
lt can be seen from Figure 5.30 and 5.3l(b) that the torsional shearing stress is inversely proportional to the distance between the contour lines. The closer the lines, the
higher the stress, leading to the previously stated conclusion that the maximum torsional
shearing stress occurs at the middle of the longer side of the rectangle. From the membrane analogy, this maximum stress has to be proportional to the steepest slope of the
tangents at points A and B.
If 8 is the maximum displacement of the membrane from the tangent at point A,
then from basic principies of mechanics and St.Venant's theory,
8
b2 Ge
(5.45a)
Contours of
constant shear stress
Steepest tangent
(Tmaxl
Interna! pressure
(a)
(b)
Horizontal
tangent (V, E!! O)
Horizontal
tangent
Tangent
at any point
Tangent to membrane
at base (Vtmax =O)
(e)
(d)
Figure 5.31 Membrana analogy in elastic pure torsion. (a) Membrana under
pressure. (b) Contours in a real beam or in a membrana. (e) Lsection. (d) Rectangular section.
281
where G is the shear modulus and 0 is the angle of twist. But v1(maxJ is proportional to the
slope of the tangent; hence,
(5.45b)
where k 1 is a constant. The corresponding torsional moment Te is proportional to twice
the volume under the membrane, or
Te ex 2(~8bh) = k 2 8bh
(5.45c)
_
t(max) 
Teb
kb3h
Teb
f1
(5.45d)
The denominator kb 3h in 5.45d represents the polar moment of inertia 1 1 of the section.
Comparing this equation to Equation (a) far the circular section shows the similarity of
the two expressions, except that the factor k in the equation far the rectangular section
takes into account the shear strains due to warping. Equation 5.45d can be further simplified to give
V
Te
t(max)  kb2h
(5.46)
It can also be written to give the stress at planes inside the section, such as an inner concentric rectangle of dimensions x and y, where x is the shorter side, so that
Te
Vt(max)
k
2
xy
(5.47)
It is important to note in using the membrane analogy approach that the torsional shear
stress changes from one point to another along the same axis as AB in Figure 5.31, be
cause of the changing slope of the analogous membrane, rendering the torsional shear
stress calculations lengthy.
5.16.2.2 Torsion in plastic materials. As indicated earlier, the plastic sandheap
analogy provides a better representation of the behavior of brittle elements such as concrete beams subjected to pure torsion than does the elastic analogy. The torsional moment is also proportional to twice the volume under the heap, and the maximum
torsional shearing stress is proportional to the slope of the sand heap. Figure 5.32 is a
two and threedimensional illustration of the sand heap. The torsional moment TP in
part (d) of the figure is proportional to twice the volume of the rectangular heap shown
in parts (b) and (c). It can also be recognized that the slope of the sandheap sides as a
measure of the torsional shearing stress is constant in the sandheap analogy approach,
whereas it is continuously variable in the membrane analogy approach. This characteristic of the sand heap considerably simplifies the solutions.
5.16.2.3 Sandheap analogy applied to Lbeams. Most concrete elements subjected to torsion are flanged sections, most commonly Lbeams comprising the externa!
wall beams of a structural floor. The Lbeam in Figure 5.33 is chosen in applying the plas
Chapter 5
282
(b)
(a)
T
h
l ____
I
bl
(d)
(e)
Figure 5.32 Sandheap analogy in plastic pure torsion. (a) Sandheap Lsection.
(b) Sandheap rectangular section. (c) Plan of rectangular section. (d) Torsional
shear stress.
tic sandheap approach to evaluate its torsional moment capacity and shear stress to
which it is subjected.
The sand heap is broken into three volumes:
V1 = pyramid representing a square crosssectional shape = y1b ~13
V 2 = tent portion of the web, representing a rectangular crosssectional shape
= Y1bw(h  bw)/2
V 3 = tent representing the flange of the beam, transferring part PDI to NQM
= y 2hjb  bw)/2
The torsional moment is proportional to twice the volume of the sand heaps; hence,
yb~
T=+
3
p
Y1bw(h  bw)
2
y2hj_b  bw)]
2
2
(5.48)
Also, the torsional shear stress is proportional to the slope of the sand heaps; hence,
(5.49)
(5.50)
Substituting y 1 and Yz from Equations 5.49 and 5.50 into Equation 5.48 give us
283
L
:
b=bbw==
o
t+
h,
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.....,...i.._
M
(al
F
E,F
8
(b)
(e)
(di
Figure 5.33 Sandheap analogy of flanged section. (a) Sand heap on Lshaped
cross section. (b) Composite pyramid from web (V1) . (e) Tent segment from web
(V2). (d) Transformad tent of beam flange (V3).
Vl(max} =
(5.51)
lf both the numerator and denominator of Equation 5.51 are divided by (b,)1)2 and Lhe
terms rearranged, we have
1',h/ (b,,)1)2
Vl(max)
= [!(3 
(5.52a)
lf one assumes that C, is the denominator in this equation and Lhal JE= C,/(b,.'7)2, the
equation becomes
Photo 5.7 Reinforced plaster beam at failure in pure torsion. (Rutgers tests: Law,
Nawy, et al.)
Chapter 5
284
Photo 5.8 Plain mortar beam in pure torsion. (a) Top view. (b) Bottom view.
(Rutgers tests: Law. Nawy et al.)
(5.52b)
where JE is the equivalent polar moment of inertia, a funclion of the shape of the beam
cross section. Note that Equation 5.52b is similar in formal to Equation 5.45d from the
membrane anaJogy, except for the different values of the denominators J and JE Equation 5.52a can be readily applied to rectangular sections by setting h= O.
lt must also be recognized lhal concrete is not a perfectly plastic material; hence,
the actual torsional strengtb of the plain concrete section has a value lying between the
membrane analogy and tbe sandheap analogy values.
Equation 5.52b can be rewritten designating TP = Te as the nominal torsional resistance of Lhe plain concrete and vl(max) = v,c using ACl terminology, so that
(5.53a)
or
(5.53b)
where x is the smaller dimension of Lhe rectangular section.
Exlensive work on reinforced concrete bcams by Hsu and confirmed by otbers has
established Lhat k 2 can be taken as i . This value originatcd from research in tbe skewbending theory of plain concrete. It was also establishcd thal 6Vj can be considered as
a limiling value of the pure torsional strength of a member withoul torsional reinforceand
mcnt. Using a reduction factor of 2.5 for tbe firsl cracking Lorsional load v,c =2.4
using k 2 = ! in Equation 5.53, results in
Vfl,
Te
= 0.8Vf:x2 y
(5.54a)
where x is the shorter side of the rectangular section. Thc high reduction factor of 2.5 is
used to offset any effect of bending moments that might be present.
lf the cross section is a T or Lsection, the area can be broken into component recLangles as in Figure 5.34, such that
(5.54b)
5.17 TORSION IN REINFORCED ANO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS
Torsion rarely occurs in concrete structures without bcing accompanied by bending and
shear. The foregoing sbould give a sufficient background on the contribution of tbe plain
concrete in the section toward resisting part of the combincd stresses resulting from tor
Figure 5.34
285
sional, axial, shear, or flexura! forces. The capacity of the plain concrete to resist torsion
when in combination with other loads could, in many cases, be lower than when it resists
the same factored externa! twisting moments alone. Consequently, torsional reinforcement has to be provided to resist the excess torque.
Inclusion of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement to resist part of the torsional
moments introduces a new element in the set of forces and moments in the section. If
Tn = required total nominal torsional resistance of the section, including the reinforcement
Te = nominal torsional resistance of the plain concrete
and
Skewbending theory considers in detail the interna! deformational behavior of the series
of transverse warped surfaces along the beam. Initially proposed by Lessig, it had subsequent contributions from Collins, Hsu, Zia, Gesund, Mattock, and Elfgren among the
several researchers in this field. Hsu made a major contribution experimentally to the development of the skewbending theory as it presently stands. In his book (Ref. 5.9), Hsu
details the development of the theory of torsion as applied to concrete structures and
how the skewbending theory formed the basis of the initial ACI code provisions on tor
Chapter 5
286
sion. The complexity of the torsional problem permits here only the brief discussion that
follows.
The failure surface of the normal beam cross section subjected to bending moment
Mu remains plane after bending, as shown in Figure 5.35(a). If a twisting moment Tu is
also applied exceeding the capacity of the section, cracks develop on three sides of the
beam cross section, and compressive stresses appear on portions of the fourth side along
the beam. As torsional loading proceeds to the limit state at failure, a skewed failure surface results dueto the combined torsional moment Tu and bending moment Mu. The neutral axis of the skewed surface and the shaded area in Figure 5.35(b) denoting the
compression zone would no longer be straight, but subtend a varying angle e with the
original plane cross sections.
Prior to cracking, neither the longitudinal bars nor the closed stirrups have any appreciable contribution to the torsional stiffness of the section. At the postcracking stage
of loading, the stiffness of the section is reduced, but its torsional resistance is considerably increased, depending on the amount and distribution of both the longitudinal bars
and the transverse closed ties. It has to be emphasized that little additional torsional
strength can be achieved beyond the capacity of the plain concrete in the beam unless
both longitudinal torsion bars and transverse ties are used.
The skewbending theory idealizes the compression zone by considering it to be of
uniform depth. It assumes the cracks on the remaining three faces of the cross section to
be uniformly spread, with the steel ties (stirrups) at those faces carrying the tensile forces
at the cracks and the longitudinal bars resisting shear through dowel action with the concrete. Figure 5.36(a) shows the forces acting on the skewly bent plane. The polygon in
Figure 5.36(b) gives the shear resistance Fe of the concrete, the force T1 of the active longitudinal steel bars in the compression zone, and the normal compressive block force Ce
The torsional moment Te of the resisting shearing force Fe generated by the shaded
compressive block area in Figure 5.36(a) is thus
(a)
(b)
Figure 5.35
and torsion.
Skew bending dueto torsion. (a) Bending before twist. (b) Bending
287
y
Compression zone
in skew bending
T~
Fx FY =forces on longitudinal bars
F
(a)
(b)
Figure 5.36 Forces on the skewbent planes. (a) All forces acting on skew plane
at failure. (b) Vector forces on compression zone.
Te
F
=
cos
or
(5.56a)
where x is the shorter side of the beam. Extensive tests (Refs. 5.9 and 5.10) to evaluate Fe
in terms of the interna! stress in concrete k 1
and the geometrical torsional constants
of the section k 2x 2y led to the expression
Vfl
(5.56b)
Space truss analogy theory was originally developed by Rausch and later extended by
Lampert and Collins, with additional work by Hsu, Thurliman, Elfgren, and others. Further refinement was introduced by Rabbat and Collins (Ref. 5.13) on the variable angle
space truss and Collins and Mitchell (Ref. 5.11).
Chapter 5
288
Hsu (Refs. 5.17 and 5.18) proposed combining the equilibrium, compatibility and
the softened constitutive laws of concrete in a unified theory that can predict with reasonable accuracy the shear and torsional behavior of beams (the softened truss model).
The shear flow concept was utilized in deriving the relevant expressions for shear equilibrium. The space truss analogy is an extension of the model used in the design of the
shearresisting stirrups, in which the diagonal tension cracks, once they start to develop,
are resisted by the stirrups. Because of the nonplanar shape of the cross sections due to
the twisting moment, a space truss composed of the stirrups is used as the diagonal tension members, and the idealized concrete strips at a variable angle 0 between the cracks
are used as the compression members (struts), as shown in Figure 5.37.
It is assumed in this theory that the concrete beam behaves in torsion similarly to a
thinwalled box with a constant shear flow in the wall cross section, producing a constant
torsional moment. The use of hollowwalled sections rather than solid sections proved to
give essentially the same ultimate torsional moment, provided that the walls were not too
thin. Such a conclusion is borne out of tests which have shown that the torsional strength
of the solid sections is composed of the resistance of the closed stirrup cage, consisting of
the longitudinal bars and transverse stirrups, and the idealized concrete inclined compression struts in the plane of the cage wall. The compression struts are the inclined concrete strips between the cracks in Figure 5.37.
The CEBFIP code is based on the space truss model. In this code, the effective
wall thickness of the hollow beam is taken as!D 0 , where D 0 is the diameter of the circle
inscribed in the rectangle connecting the comer longitudinal bars, namely, D 0 = x0 in Figure 5.37. In summary, the absence of the core <loes not affect the strength of such members in torsionhence, the acceptability of the space truss analogy approach based on
hollow sections.
F
Yo
TtYo
tan 4>
,~,
Figure 5.37
289
The compression field theory can be considered a special case of tbe general truss model
theory. Elfgren proposed the compression fields to describe components of the plasticity
truss model current ly used in the European Code, and Collins and Mitchcll modified tbe
approacb, proposing the lcrms to be subsequently discussed. The anglc of inclination 0 in
Fig. 5.37 of the diagonal cracks or the comprcssion struts between the diagonal cracks is
not idealized to 45, but rather uses limits bascd on the arcas of the longitudinal tension
steel and lhe transverse torsional web steel (inclined or vertical closed stirrups or ties).
Figure 5.38 points up the fact that tbe torsional force is resisted by tbe tangencial components of the diagonal compression struts, which produce a shear low q around the
perimeter (Ref. 5.11).
Assuming that concrete carries no tension after cracking, and that torsional shear is
carried by the field of diagonal compression struts, the angle of inclination 0 of these
struts can be defined as
E.1
E.d
(5.57)
Photo 5.9
T. C. Hsu.)
290
Chapter 5
Photo 5.10
Diagonal compresslve
stresses actlng et angle 8
(e)
Figure 5.38
(d) Equilibrium of
comer
291
a0
=compressio o block depth (identical to the deptb a of the equivalent rectangular block in flexure)
The equivalent wall thickness td in the analysis of the twisted beam is shown in Figure
5.39, and tbe depth a0 of the compressive block is defined in Equatioa 5.6 L.
The diagonal torsional cracks, as we ll as the exposed transverse ties after spa lling of
the concrete cover at torsion failure, are demonstrated in Figure 5.40.
The transverse and longitudinal straios in the steel at the nominal torsional moment
Tn can be respectively defined as
e, = ( 0.85J3tf:A 0
Tnoh
tan0
e, = ( 0.85f31Af e A
Tn
1 0.003
(5.59a)
(5.59b)
tan 0  1 0.003
olr
Figure 5.39
ao
292
(5.60)
The area A 0 cnclosed by tbe shear flow can be obtained from Equation 5.60 and the following expression for the compression block depth a0 in torsion according lo Collins and
Mitchell (Ref. 5.11):
a0
= A
0
1r [ 1  ) 1 Tn Ph ( tane
P1r
0.85/; A~1r
+ l)]
tane
(5.61)
wbere T11 is lhe nominal torsional moment strengtb at the limit state at failure. Il should
be noted that Equations 5.58, 5.59, 5.60, 5.61, and 5.63 are based on the assurnptions: (1)
spalling of concrete cover, and (2) using nonsoftened stressslrain curve of the concrete.
Tbese assumptions do not seem to be correct, considering the actual torsional behavior
of the concrete element.
For combined torsion and shear, the shearing stress at nominal slrengths T,, and V,,
in Equation 5.61 becomes
T,,p11
V,,  VP
Tn =   +  A~h
b..dv
(5.62)
293
Pboto S.11 Dauphin lsland Bridge, Alabama, assembly of segmenta! bridge uns.
(Courresy, Prcstressed Concrete Ioslitutc.)
area of longitudinal steel. Since transverse closed stirrups or ties are more cxpensive than
longitudinal bars. a choice of lower values of 0 is more economical in design.
Tbe compression field tbeory assumes that tbe geometrical properties of the designed section are cbosen on tbe basis of yielding of the transverse web reinforcement
and longitudinal steel prior to diagonal crushing of the concrete. Consequently, the transverse strain E, in Equations 5.57 and 5.58a should be taken as tbe yield strain Ew
Tbe range of the compresson strut angle 0 in degrees can be evaluated from
10 + 35(7,,//;)
0.42  50e1
< 0 < 80 
35(7n//~)
0.42  65e,,,
(5.63)
lt sho uld be noted that in tbe compression fie ld theory, tbe principal tcnsile stress is
assumed to be equal to zero after the concrete has crackeda hypotbesis subject to justification. A modified compression field theory was subsequently proposed by Collins and
MitcheU, taking into account tbe contribution of tensile stress in the concrete between
tbe cracks. This is discussed in Section 12.4.l and Figure 12.8 (c), leading to the design expressions presented in that section for determining the compression strut variable inclination angle 0, adopted by AASHTO after modifications. This approach also differs
fundamentally from the present standard ACT Code. The Code approach assumes a constan/ iocljnation anglc 0, in thal tbe contribution in shear resistance by the plain concrete,
V0 is attributed to compression iliagonals inclined atan angle 0 :::::45 for reinforced concrete, and 37.5 for prestressed concrete members.
294
Chapter 5
t ~to1t _.....,.._$+.....,.....
t _,.____..,_.~
t
t
s,
,~
,: :
Figure 5.41
q = (F1) tan 0
(5.64a)
= (F1) cot 0
(5.64b)
(5.65)
(5.66a)
and
qy=~
(5.66b)
(5.67)
295
(al
(b)
Figure 5.42 Hollow tube equilibrium torsion forces. (a) Section of tube subjected
to torsion T. (b) Unit shear element from tube wall of varying thickness h. Note: I
and t denote the longitudinal and transversa directions.
On this basis, the shear flow q is considered constant throughout the crosssection (Ref.
5.18). The torsional force over an infinitesimal distance dt along the shear flow path is qdt
so that the torsional resistance to the externa! torsional moment T in Figure 5.42a becomes
(5.68)
It can be seen from Figure 5.42a that rdt in the integral is equal to twice the area of the
shaded triangle formed by r and dt. A summation of the total area around the cross sec
tion gives
r dt = 2A 0
(5.69)
where A 0 = crosssectional area bounded by the shear flow center line. Substituting 2A 0
into Equation 5.68 gives
q
T
2A
(5.70)
0
By neglecting warping, the shear element subjected to pure torsion in the tube wall
of Figure 5.42a becomes identical to the membrane shear element in Figure 5.41a.
Hence, substituting for the shear flow q from Equation 5.70 into Equations 5.64a, b, and
5.65, the following three equations of equilibrium for torsion result in
F1
T =  (2A 0 ) tan 0
Po
(5.71a)
where F1 = F1 p 0 and p 0 = perimeter of the shear flow path. F1 is the total longitudinal force
due to torsion.
T
= F 1 (2A 0 ) cot 0
(5.71b)
(5.71c)
Tn =
2AoArfyv
cote
(5.72)
296
Chapter 5
Tns
A=1
2A 0 fyv cot 0
A 11
(5.73)
_A1 (fyv)
fyi (s cot
;
(5.74a)
0)
where A 11 is the area of one longitudinal bar. If s1 as the longitudinal reinforcement spacing represents the perimeter Ph of the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, then
A1
A1
=; Ph
(fyv)
fyi cot
(5.74b)
when subjected to combined shear and torsion as shown in Figure 5.43. Failure can precipitate in two distinct modes:
(a) yielding of the longitudinal bottom tension steel and the transverse stirrups,
(b) yielding of the longitudinal top compression steel and the transverse stirrups,
steel) and the transverse stirrups due to combined shear and torsion, the following expression can be derived from equilibrium (Ref. 5.18)
~+
(5.75 )
FsYo
2yo Fs AJv
2Ao
Fs
AJv
if M 0 , V 0 , and T0 are the moments and forces acting alone, they can be defined as follows
Mo
Va
= 2y0 )(FT)A1fv
Yo s for a twoweb box
11111011111
Xo
qrt
Yo
(5.76a)
FsYo
(5.76b)
11111[+)11111
qtt
qv
q,
b
b
qb
_...qT
11111011111
(a)
qv=
Figure 5.43
JL
2Yo
(bJ qr=L
2Ao
11ll1C+J11111
(e)
q= qv+ qr
297
Photo 5.12 The Woodley Park Zoo station, WashingLon, D.C. (Co11rtesy, H.
Wilden & Assoc.).
T.=2A o ~(2Fr)A,f..
s
Po
o
(5.76c)
where Po =2(y0 + x 0 )
Fr
R=
(5.76d)
FB
A nondimensional interaction surface relationship can be obtained by introducing Equation 5.76 into Equation 5.75 sucb that
(5.77a)
V0
(I_)2=
T0
(5.77b)
From both Equations 5.77a and 5.77b tbe interaction of V and T is circular for a constant
bending moment M for both failure surfaces. The inlersection of the two failure surfaces
for these two fa ilure modes forms a peak interaction curve between V and T tbat Equations 5.77a and b give
+ (I_)2= ~
(~)2
2R
T
V
0
(5.78a)
Equation 5.78 for R = 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 on the peak planes gives the circular plots shown
in Figure 5.44.
A third mode of failure is caused by yielding in the top bar, in the bottom bar, and
in the transverse reinforcement, all on the side where shear flows due to shear and tor
298
Chapter 5
Figure 5.44
sion are additive i.e. left wall (Ref. 5.15). A modified form of Equation 5.78 results as
follows
(5.78b)
The factored torsional moment strength, <l>Tn, must equal or exceed the external torsion,
Tu, due to the factored loads. In the calculation of Tn(ACI 31899, Ref. 5.1), ali the
torque is assumed to be resisted by the closed stirrups and longitudinal steel with the torsional moment Te resisted by the concrete compression struts assumed as zero. At the
same time, the shear resisted by concrete, Ve is assumed to be unchanged by the presence
of torsion. This simplification eliminates the need for the rigor of the lengthy interaction
expressions for V, T, and M used in the previous codes. In summary, the web reinforcement for shear is determined by the value of vs = vn  ve while the web reinforcement for
torsion by the Tn value alone, where Tn = Tj<!> with <!> = 0.85.
5.17.5 Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion,
Shear, and Bending in Accordance with the ACI 31808 Code
Adjusting in the equilibrium truss model of Section 5.17.4, the following are the ACI 318
Code provisions for designing the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in prestressed elements.
5.17.5.1 Compatibility torsion. In statically indeterminate systems, stiffness assumptions, compatibility of strains at the joints and redistribution of stresses may affect the
stress resultants, leading to a reduction of the resulting torsional shearing stresses. A reduction is permitted in the value of the factored moment used in the design of the member if part of this moment can be redistributed to the intersecting members. The ACI
Code permits a maximum factored torsional moment at the critical section h/2 from the
face of the supports for prestressed concrete members as follows:
where
Aep
Pep
(A~P)
Ppe
/1 + __l_
4v'.{;
\j
(5.79)
299
where fe = average compressive stress in the concrete at the centroidal axis due to effective prestress only after allowing far all losses. fc is denoted in the ACI Code as fpc
Neglect of the full effect of the total value of externa! torsional moment in this case
does not, in effect, lead to failure of the structure but may result in excessive cracking if
<!>4~(A 2c/Pcp) is considerably smaller in value than the actual factored torque.
If the actual factored torque is less than that given in Equation 5.79, the beam has
to be designed far the lesser torsional value. Torsional moments are neglected however if
far prestressed concrete
(5.80)
The size of the cross section is chosen on the
basis of reducing unsightly cracking and preventing the crushing of the surface concrete
caused by the inclined compressive stresses due to shear and torsion defined by the left
hand side of the expressions in Equation 5.81. The geometrical dimensions far torsional
moment strength in both reinfarced and prestressed members are limited by the fallowing expressions.
5.17.5.2 Torsional moment strength.
(a)
Solid Sections
(5.81)
(b)
Hollow Sections
+ ( TuP;) :5 <1>(~ + 8 ~)
(~)
bwd
l.7A
bwd
(5.82)
0h
where A 0h = area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional
reinfarcement, sq. in.
Ph = perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinfarcement, in.
The area A 0 h far different sections are given in Figure 5.45. Figures 5.46 and 5.47 give
guidance to the determination of the area A 0 h and the shear flow area A 0 0.85A 0 h in
Equation 5.84(a).
The sum of the stresses at the left hand side of Equation 5.82 should not exceed
the stresses causing shear cracking plus 8~. This is similar to the limiting strength
Vs::;; 8~ far shear without torsion.
5.17.5.3 Hollow sections wall thickness. The shear stresses dueto shear and to torsion both develop in the walls of the hollow section as seen in Figure 5.48a. Note that in a
salid section the shear stresses due to torsion still concentrate in the outer zones of the
section as in Figure 5.48b andas discussed in Section 5.17.3.1.
If the wall thickness in the hollow section varies around its perimeter, the section
geometry has to be evaluated at such a location where the lefthand side of Equation 5.82
has a maximum value. Also, if the wall thickness t < A 0h/ph the lefthand side of Equation
5.82 should be taken as
300
Chapter 5
Acp = XOYO
Ao = 0.85 Aoh
Aoh =x1 Y1 =shaded area to center line of stirrups
Figure 5.45
The wall thickness t is the thickness where stresses are being checked.
Vudp
:::; 1.0
Mu
Vf'c bwdp
:'.S 5.0A Vf'c bwdp
2::
l.7A.
(5.83)
where fpe > 0.4fpu5.17.5.4 Torsional web reinforcement. As indicated in Section 5.17.3, meaningful
additional torsional strength due to the addition of torsional reinforcement can be
achieved only by using both stirrups and longitudinal bars. Ideally, equal volumes of steel
in both the closed stirrups and the longitudinal bars should be used so that both participate equally in resisting the twisting moments. This principle is the basis of the ACI expressions for proportioning the torsional web steel. If s is the spacing of the stirrups, A 1 is
the total crosssectional area of the longitudinal bars, and A 1 is the cross section of one
stirrup leg, the transverse reinforcement for torsion has to be based on the full externa!
torsional moment strength value Trv namely, (TJ<I>) where
1
l
Figure 5.46
301
d.= jd
Diameter of
duct = dd
Figure 5.47
tions.
!11
302
Chapter 5
.~
,
1
1
Wi im
1
1
1
1
!!!!!!U!
'
===E
Torsional
stresses
Shear
stresses
Torsional
stresses
Shear
stresses
(b) Solid section
Figure 5.48 Superposition of torsional and shear stresses. (a) Directly additive
occurring in the left wall of the box (Equation 7.30b). (b) Torsion acts on "tubular"
outerwall section while shear stress acts on the full width of salid section:
stresses combined using square root of sum of squares (Equation 7.30b).
(5.84a)
(See the derivation of Equation 5.72)
A 0 = gross area enclosed by the shear flow path, sq. in.
A 1 = crosssectional area of one leg of the transverse closed stirrups, sq. in.
yt = yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforcement not to exceed
60,000 psi.
0 = angle of the compression diagonals (struts) in the space truss analogy for
torsion (See Figure 5.39).
Transposing terms in Equation 5.84b, the transverse reinforcement area becomes
A1
s
Tn
2A 0 fyt cot 0
(5.84b)
The area A 0 has to be determined by analysis (Ref. 7.14 and 7.15) except that the
ACI 318 Code permits taking A 0 = 0.85A 0h in lieu of the analysis.
As discussed in Section 5.17.3, the factored torsional resistance cJ>Tn must equal or
exceed the factored external torsional moment Tu. All the torsional moment is assumed
in the ACI 318 code to be resisted by the closed stirrups and the longitudinal steel with
the torsional resistance, Te, of the concrete disregarded, namely Te = O. The shear Ve
resisted by the concrete is assumed to be unchanged by the presence of torsion (see Section 5.17.3.2).
The angle 0 subtended by the concrete compression diagonals (struts) should not
be taken smaller than 30 nor larger than 60. lt can be obtained by analysis as detailed in
Ref. 5.17 and 5.18 by Hsu. The additional longitudinal reinforcement for torsion should
not be less than
_ A1
A1  ; Ph
(fyt)
2
fy cot 0
(5.85)
303
The same angle 0 should be used in both Equations 5.84 and 5.85. lt should be noted that
as 0 gets smaller, the amount of stirrups required by Equation 5.84 decreases. At the
same time the amount of longitudinal steel required by Equation 5.85 increases.
In lieu of determining the angle 0 by analysis, the ACI Code allows a value of 0
equal to
(i) 45 for nonprestressed members or members with less prestress than in (ii),
(ii) 37 .5 for prestressed members with an effective prestressing force larger than 40
Tu;<!>
cote =      l.7Aoh(Ajs)fyt
(5.86)
(5.88)
where A 1 Is should not be taken less than 25b,jfyi The additional longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion should be distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups with a maximum spacing of 12 in. The longitudinal bars or tendons should be placed
inside the closed stirrups and at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each comer of the
stirrup. The bar diameter should be at least is of the stirrup spacing but not less than a
No. 3 bar. Also, the torsional reinforcement should extend for a minimum distance of
(b 1 + d) beyond the point theoretically required for torsion because torsional diagonal
cracks develop in a helical form extending beyond the cracks caused by shear and flexure. b 1 is the width of that part of cross section containing the stirrups resisting torsion.
The critica! section in beams is at a distance d from the face of the support for reinforced
concrete elements and at h/2 for prestressed concrete elements, d being the effective
depth and h the total depth of the section.
5.17.6 SlMetric Expressions for Torsion Equations
In order to design for combined torsion and shear using the SI (System International)
method, the following equations replace the corresponding expressions in the PI (PoundInch) method
(5.79)
304
Chapter 5
(5.80)
(5.81)
Vu)
( bwd
TuPn)
+ (
Ve=
;:=:
(Ve
 + 8~)

<<j>
l.7A6h 
bwd
(5.82)
12
(A ~/20 + 5~ud)bwd
(5.83)
(0.17,.\ ~)bwd
~ (0.4,.\ ~ )bwd
and
Vudp/Mu ~ 1.0
Tn =
2A 0 A 1 fy 1
cote
s
(5.84a)
A1
s
Tn
2A 0 fy 1 cot e
_ A1
A1
; Ph
(5.84b)
(fy1)
2
fy cot e
(5.85)
where fyv and fy 1 are in MPa, ph and sin millimeters and A, A 1in mm2
0.35bws
Av=
f yl
_5~
A/,min 
Acp _
12fy
(5.87)
(A
S
1)
(fy1)
Ph fy
(5.88)
where A/s should not be taken less than 0.175 bJfyi Maximum allowable spacing of
transverse stirrups is the smaller oOPh or 300 mm, and bars should have a diameter of at
least h of the stirrups spacing but not less than No. 10 M bar size. Max. fyi or fy should not
exceed 400 MPa. Min. Avr the smaller of
Avt
0.35bw
;:=: f,
yt
;:=:
Apspu
Qf' d
8 ~yt p
Avl
or s
1 , r;:; (bw)
v : f, whichever is larger, where bw, dP and s are in milimeters
16
yt
= 
Jtb .
305
Given: loading, support conditions, x 0 , y0 , x 1 , y1' Acp' A0 , Aoh' A 5 , pcp' ph' t, h, bw' d,
far pis, average stress f08 alter losses, allowable stresses and strengths, fyt' fy, e= 37.5 PIS
T=
torsion:
<f>
4{('
10
J1 +
(A~P)
4 .JP;
Pcp
Torsional effects
~)
( bwd
+ ( Tuph )
1.7 A!h
+ 8 ff)
s<t>(~
e
bwd
~) +( Tuph ) sq,(~+aff)
( bwd
e
bwd
1.7 A!h
Vd
where
1.0
"2'2/.,,H'b w dp
e
d
s5A,H'b
e w p
The cross section has to
be enlarged; repeat design
Figure 5.49 Flowchart for the design reinforcement for combined shear and torsion: (a) torsional web steel, (b) shear web steel.
l. Classify whether the applied torsion is equilibrium or compatibility torsion. Determine the critical section and compute the factored torsional moment Tu. The critical section is taken at h/2 from the face of the support in prestressed concrete
beams. If Tu is less than <PVf(A~p/Pcp) Vl + fc14V'[; for prestressed members,
torsional effects are neglected. fe is the compressive stress in the concrete after prestress losses at the centroid of the section resisting externally applied loads (termed
as fpc in the ACI Code ).
2. Check whet.her the factored torsional moment Tu causes equilibrium or compatibility torsion. For compatibility torsion, limit the design torsional moment to the
for prelesser of the actual moment Tu or Tu = <P4 Y'[: (A~p/Pcp) Vl + fcl4
to be
has
Tn
strength
nominal
design
the
of
value
The
members.
concrete
stressed
that
such
section
the
proportioning
Tjd,>,
factored
the
to
equivalent
at least
Vf'c
1
306
Chapter 5
Ar
Tn
5= 2 Ao fytcot 8 where Ao = 0.85 Aoh
AeAr,min.
5.p;
'Y
Ar
f.,.
Ar
bw
  Ph ...:.f. where  o: 25 ,,
s
yv
A vr=2Ar+ Avo:
50bwS
;;~
o:3 :bwdfor+As
y
o:6:bwdforA5
y
End
(a)
Figure 5.49
Continued
+ ( Tup~) <1>(~ + 8 ~)
(~)
bwd
l.7Aoh
bwd
::5
If the wall thickness is less than A 0h/ph, the second term should be taken as
Tjl.7A 0ht.
Ve
= (
r;:;
Vudp)
0.6A V f~ + 700 Mu bwdp;
5.0A
YJ:: bwdp
307
Prestressed concrete:
Vc=0.6h'f'c+100
(~:)bwd
"5.0 AVf'c bw d
;;,.1.7/..Vf'cbwd
O
h Vud
w1t Mu :s1.
END OF ROUTINE
(b)
Continued
Figure 5.49
Tn
2A 0 fyv cot 8
Unless using A 0 and 8 values obtained from analysis (Ref. 5.18) or from Equation
5.86, use A 0 = 0.85A 0h and 8 = 45 for nonprestressed members and 37.5 for prestressed members with an effective prestress not less than the tensile strength of the
longitudinal reinforcement. The additional longitudinal reinforcement should be
A1=
fy cot 8
(A1) Ph (fyt)
2
;
_ 5Vj; Acp
Al,min 
fy
(A 1)
S
fyt
Ph fy
308
Chapter 5
shear resistance of the concrete in the web, and Vs is the shearing force to be resisted by the stirrups:
Vd
_u_::;
1.0
Mu
2Ar
Av
=+2:
50bw
the lesser of_; and Av
Jyr
0.75
r;:; bws
V f~Jyt
Extend the stirrups a distance (b 1 + dp) beyond the point theoretically no longer required, where b1 = width of the crosssection containing the closed stirrup resisting
torsion.
5.19 DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT FOR COMBINED
TORSION ANO SHEAR IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS
Example 5.9
A parking garage floor for mediumsize cars has the prestressed concrete flooring system
shown in Figure 5.50. The floor panels are 36 ft x 54 ft (llm x 16.5 m) on centers, and 54 ft
(16.5m) span precast doubleT's are supported by typical precast prestressed concrete spandrel Lbeams spanning 36 ft (llm) on centers (Figures 5.50(a) and (b)). The spandrel beams
are torsionally restrained by their connections to the supporting columns. The floor is subjected to a service superimposed dead load dueto the doubleT's of Wsv = 77 psf (3,687 Pa)
anda service live load of WL = 60 psf (2873 Pa). The depth of the Lbeam is chosen as 6'3"
so as to provide a parapet wall for the roof on top of the doubleTee beams.
Design the spandrel beam web reinforcement to resist the combined torsion and shear
to which it is subjected. Given data are the following:
Beam Properties
Ac = 696 in. 2 (4,491 cm2)
le = 364,520 in. 4 (93.3 x 106 cm4)
cb
309
5.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed 8eams
Connections designed to
torsionally restrain beam
4"
3'1"
~y
2" topping
2'0"
....._
+
+~
;}'"=='1
46'0"
~
1
124" X 24"
6 3
(1.9 m)
8DT24 + 2"
36'0"
r8DT24+2"j
'
J_'
.16"1
' ~
1
lt.'
' "

}:. . . _
~
1==,::~~,==t
(a)
(b)
1.=.H<if8 spacings at
m)__..,~...,
<t.
16'0",,__16'0"
t
!
6'3"
(1.91 m)
m)~
(e)
Figure 5.50 Geometrical details of structure in Example 5.9. (a) Section AA. (b}
Partial plan. (e) Section 88.
Prestressing
Aps = six Hn. dia, 270 K stressrelieved strands
fpu =270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
ps = 255,000 psi (1,758 MPa)
fpe = 155,000 psi (1,069 MPa)
310
Chapter 5
Eps
77 X 54
X 4 ft
2
WL
60 X 54
X 4 ft
2
9979
+ 10,368
14,796
,
X 61,041 = 44,388 ftlb (60.2 kNm)
20 347
! (Pu
Mu at face of support
+ 725
Similarly, calculate the values of Tu, Vu, and Mu, and the corresponding serviceload
values at each transverse stem contact point along the span of the Lbeam, and construct the torsion, shear, and moment diagrams as shown in Figure 5.51.
Aps
Pe
Apsfpe
0.918 X 155,000
(3871 cm2)
Pcp = outside perimeter of concrete cross section = 2(8 + 75) = 166 in. (422 cm)
x 1 = smaller dimension to center of tie
= 8  2(1.5 + 0.25) = 4.5 in. (11.4 cm)
y 1 = 75  2(1.5 + 0.25) = 71.5 in. (181.6 cm)
311
5.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams
10,000 lb= 44.5 kN
10,000 ft. lb= 13.6 MPa
Pu= 20,347 lb
P51 = (14,796 lb)
1'0"
Beam Wu
WSL
= 870 plf
= (725 plf)
~17'0"i....
~Faceof
support
61,041
(44,388)
1
1
Tu (ft.lb)
(TSL)
20,347
(14,796)
1
6782
1 (4932)
1
Symmetrical about
center of Lbeam
106,352
(78,907) 1'0'.11~,.,.,.
1
1
34,001
'"".,.,..,.,_ (25,094)
Vu (lb)
(VSL)
10,174
(7398)
(b)
1
820.7
(609.4)
868.4
(644.8)
1
Mu X 103 (ft.lb)
(M51)
1
(e)
Figure 5.51 Force and moment diagrams for beams in Example 5.9. (a) Torsional moment. (b) Shear. (e) Flexura! moment. Bracketed values are for serviceload level.
2
= (x 1)(y 1) = 4.5 x 71.5 = 322 in. (2077 cm
312
Chapter 5
725(36) 2
MD
12
10
1
= 128 psi (0.9 MPa)
, 990
ce
Sb
= (204.4
696
+ 384.5)
10,990
= 10,990(6
l.OVSOOo
+ 589  128)
l.2Mcr = 1.2
9.73
Apsfps
106 = 11.7
0.918
106 in.lb
255,000
APJP,( dP 
~) =
= 15,930,000 = 15.9
> l.2Mcr
0.918
X
(n.5  ~ )
69
255,000
~ <!>V; (A~P \
j1 + !cr.:.
Pcp}\j
= 0.75VS00o (600
4vf;
2
166
/1
'V
+ 204.4
4 V50oO
Considering section at h/2 from support face in Figure 5.51, namely at 3 ft from the
face of the support,
Rqd. Tu
! (61,041 + 47,476)
12
>
150,953 in.lb
The average value was used instead of 47,476 ft.lb as a conservative value of the torsional moment.
Hence, torsion has to be considered and appropriate torsional reinforcement
provided. The garage elements are all precast. Thus, assume equilibrium torsion con
5.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams
313
= 651,102
Rqd. Vu =
Rqd. Mu
Ve; =
[o.6A. ~ bwdp + Vd + V
Mer
Mmax
2:
l.7V: bwdp
= ! (8316
=
X 9 + 725 X 34)
= 49,747 lb
40,706 lb
28,765 lb
at h/2 =
=
X 106 in.lb
hence,
6
, e;:;::::.
Ve; = [ 0.6 X 1.0 V 5000 X 8 X 71.5 + 34,738 + 79,902 9.73 X 10 ]
2.81X10 6
= 24,268
+ 34,738 + 276,671
335,677 lb
Chapter 5
314
vci
335,667
X
8 715
5.0VsOOo
~
+ 0.3 (142,290)
.
ve;= 354 psi. (contro1s)
310 psi<
5.16
, r;:.
Ve = ( 0.6A V f;
+ 700
2A
Yt: bwd
::s 5A
Vf: bwd
2:
Vudp)
Mu bwdp
93,569 X 71.5
3 272 400 = 2 4
'
'
Vud
use M
>
l.O,
= 1.0
Ve
=  ve = (0.6
bwd
>
Ve
'
5"\/i: =
354 psi
>
5.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams
315
A,
s
Tn
2Aofyt cot 0
868,137
274 X 60,000
1.3
Tu/et>
868,137
3
1.7(322)(0.0203) X 60,000 = l. 0
cot0=l.7Aoh(AJs)fyt
by assuming a value of s, finding (A/s) for the tie size chosen and entering the value of
(A,ls) into the expression.
7. Shear reinforcement (Step 4)
Ve= 310
Vn = ;
8
9
~:~:
Vs = (Vn  Ve);
<
Ve
50bw
fyt
50 X 8
60,000
0.0203 + 0.0067
Apspu
80fyt d
l[:,
bw
0.75\/i'c = 0.75Vs000 = 53
Av
s
53bw
fyt
53 X 8
60,000
fd
/7Ll
Av = Apspu
= 0.918 X 270,000
s
80fyt d \j ;:., 80 X 60,000 X 71.5 \j S
0.62
.
s = 0.
= 13.l m.
0473
> 12 m.
Another alternative for the transverse reinforcement is to use No. 4 bars but reduce
the computed spacing of 8.5 in. to 8.5 x (0.50/0.53) = 8.0 in. This gives No. 4 closed stir
Chapter 5
316
rups spaced at 8 in. center to center instead of No. 5 at 12 in. center to center. Using
No. 4 closed stirrups at 8 in. center to center is more preferable as it is easier to bend
them than the No. 5 bars. Therefore, for this design, use closed No. 4 stirrups (12.7 mm
diameter) at 8 in. center to center for transverse shear + torsion web reinforcement.
8. Longitudinal reinforcement (Steps 56)
From Equation 5.85,
2
fy cot 0
 Ph (fyt)
_A,
A1 
= 0.0203
X 152
(:~:~~~) (1.3)
_ 5Vfi Acp _
A1.min 
:
Jy
(A')
fy1
Ph :
Jy
5.21
0 20
= _ = 26.05 bars
Use 12 No. 4 bars on each face equally spaced (12 bars 12.7 mm diameter/face) and add another 4 bars for reinforcing the ledge to give a total of 28 No. 4 bars. Note that maximum allowable spacing = 12 in. In this case s = 6.5 in. c. to c., O.K. Adopt the design. Details of
reinforcement and crosssectional geometry of the Lbeam are given in Fig. 5.52.
For the reinforcing details to be complete, a design of the ledge and hanger reinforcement would be required, as well as details of the anchorage of the longitudinal reinforcement at the supports. Chapter 10 on the design of connections provides these
details.
6"
6'3"
(191 cm)
#4 closed stirrups at
8 in. c. to c.
(12.7 mm dia. at 200 mm)
28 #4 longitudinal bars
(28 12.7 mm dia.)
8"
#4 closed stirrups at
Prestressing
strands
Figure 5.52
12 in. c. to c.
6  ~ in. dia. 7 wire strands
(270K)
317
As an alternative to the usual approach for plane sections befare bending remaining
plane after bending, the strutandtie model is applied effectively in regions of discontinuity. These regions could be the support sections in a beam, the zones of load application, the discontinuity caused by abrupt changes in a section, such as brackets, beam
daps, pile caps cast with column sections, portal frames, and others. Consequently, structural elements can be divided into segments called Bregions, where the standard beam
theory applies, with the assumption of linear strains, and the others as Dregions, where
the plane sections hypothesis is no longer applicable. Figure 5.53 (adapted from Ref. 5.1)
demonstrates the locations of B and D regions.
The analysis essentially follows the truss analogy approach, where parallel inclined
cracks are assumed and expected to form in the regions of high shear. The concrete between the inclined cracks carries inclined compressive forces such as in Fig. 5.ll(a) and
(b), acting as diagonal struts. Thus, provision of transverse stirrups along the beam span,
as in Fig. (5.llc), results in trusslike action in which the longitudinal steel provides the
tension chord of the truss as a tie, hence the "strutandtie" expression.
Strutandtie modeling has been introduced in sorne codes including ACI 31808
Appendix A. Simplifying assumptions in design have to be made when applying this approach to different structural systems. These simplifications are necessitated because of
the wide range of alternatives in the selection of the path of forces, which represent the
compressive struts and the tension ties intersecting at the "nodal" points, and the choice
of locations where the corresponding reinforcement is to be placed.
(a)
(b)
(e)
B
Figure 5.53 Bregions and Dregions in beams: (a) continuous beam; (b) beam with concentrated load; (e) dapperended beam on column support.
318
For equilibrium, at least three forces have to act ata joint, termed as the node, as in Figure 5.54, where C = compression vector and T = tension vector. The nades are classified
in accordance with the sense of the forces intersecting at the nodal point. As an example,
a CCT node resists one tensile force and two compressive forces. A typical representation of the strutandtie model of a simply supported deep beam is shown in Figure 5.55,
and for a continuous beam in Fig. 5.56. A CCT nodal zone can be represented as a
hydrostatic nodal zone if the tie is assumed to extend through the nade and anchored by
a plate on the far end of the node (Ref. 5.1, Appendix A). Typical nodal zones are
shown in Figs. 5.57 and 5.58 (Ref. 5.1), including the possible distribution of the steel re
e\
te
I
\
\
I
rc
'e
CCT Node.
CCC Node.
CTT Node.
Figure 5.54
TTT Node.
Classifications of strutandtie nodes.
p
Bottleshaped strut
Nodal zo~;,./
/
1
1
,,
I
I
,,
,
I
I
I
\
\
''
Nodal zone
I
1
Idealizad
''
1
\
1
1
I
I
'\ \
'
''
\
\
''
,.." Node
' ',
\
\
....................
,,
',
'
Tie
Figure 5.55
load on top.
(e)
(b)
Figure 5.56 Typical strutandtie model for continuous beams subjected to concentrated loads
on top: (a) positiva moment truss; (b) negative moment truss.
320
Chapter 5
Node
(b)
(a)
R
(e)
(d)
Figure 5.57 Typical nodal zones: (a) three struts acting at node; (b) two struts AE and CE acting at node; (e) support nodal zone; (d) subdivided nodal zone.
inforcement through the nodal zones. Fig. 5.59 demonstrates the simplified truss model
for simply supported deep beams loaded on the top fibers. Note that nodes A and B at
the beam support are compressive nodes as seen by the crushing of the concrete in Fig.
5.39(d).
In order to design the critica! Dregion, the following steps need to be taken:
arriving at an efficiently representative model and a safe structure. The axes of the
struts and ties are selected to coincide with the axes of the compression and tension
fields and the forces in the struts and ties computed. Serviceability limit checks have
thereafter to be applied. The vertical and horizontal components equilibrate the forces
in the inclined strut, as is usually done in a truss analysis (see Fig. 5.59) of the forces in
the nodal zones.
If more than three forces act at a nodal point as shown in Fig. 5.57 (b ), it becomes
necessary to exercise engineering judgment in resolving the system of forces such that
321
h,
j__=!::=:::!!!!::!!!!~!!!!t:::::::;::::~~~
?~+~
L=t=f:~~=tt
e
Figure 5.58 Extended nodal zone demonstrating the effect of distribution of
forces: (a) one layer of reinforcing bars; (b) distributed steel.
only three forces act at the nodal point. That is why no unique solution is possible, as assumptions based on significant idealizations can widely differ (Ref. 5.22). The angle betwecn the axes of struts and ties that intersect through the node should not be too small,
namely, not lcss than 25, in order to avoid any incompatibilities that can rcsult because
of the lengthening of the ties and the shortening of the struls occurring in the same direction. Figure 5.59(c) represents a simplified idealized truss model for the principal compressive and tensile stress trajectories resulting from the applicd distributed load at the
top dcep beam fibers. The assumed truss model is one alternative. O ther possible alternative models can also be used, provided that tbey satisfy equilibrium and compatibility.
Figure 5.60 (Refs. 5.19, 5.20), to follow, is a modified more rigorous model far Example
6.7, than the simplified Fig. 5.59 of the solution.
5.20.3 ACI Design Requirements
Chapter 5
322
e
0.72h
2/3h
In
t
(b)
(a)
w/12
wl/2
i
Cracks
Crushing
In
l/h'.5, 1: 0=68
l!h = 2: e= 54
(d)
(e)
Figure 5.59 Truss model and stress distribution in simply supported deep beams: (a) lines of
principal stress trajectories for beams loaded on top; (b) elastic stress distribution across beam
depth; (c) idealized truss model (adapted from Refs. 5.19, 5.20); (d) cracking pattern.
0.85 13s~
(5.90)
323
Figure 5.60 Strutandtie alternative model for Example 5.1 O (truss sol id lines
dashed lines tension).
=compression;
where
f3s = 1.0 for struts which have the same crosssectional area of the midstrut
For f:
the strul can be satisfied if ~ b s~ sin 'Y; ~ 0.003, where A 5; is the total area of reinforcement
SI
at spacing s, in a layer of reinforcemeot witb bars atan angJe a 1 to the axis of the strut.
(3) Longitudinal Reinforcement
Fns
= ce A c + A~ f;
(5.91)
in. 2
F111
wherc
(5.92)
11i
(5.93)
where h,.ma~ = maximum effective height of concrete concentric with thc tie, used to dimension nodal zone, in.
rr the bars in the tie are in one layer, the effective height of the tie can be taken as
the diameter of the bars in the tie plus twice the cover to the surface of the bars. The re
Chapter 5
324
inforcement in the ties have to be anchored by hooks, mechanical anchorages, posttensioning anchors, or straight bars, all with full development length.
(5) Strength of Nodal Zones
(5.94)
the axes of the struts and ties. Under such a condition, the stresses on faces perpendicular
to these axes are principal stresses.
(6) Confinement in the Nodal Zone
The ACI 31808, Appendix B, stipulates that unless confining reinforcement is provided
within the nodal zone and its effect is supported by analysis and experimentation, the
computed compressive stress on a face of a nodal zone due to the strut and tie forces
should not exceed the values given by Eq. 5.95 (Ref. 5.1):
ce
(5.95)
0.85 13n J~
12 in.
d
.
max1mum sh ::::; 5
12 in.
and
minimum Avh
minimum Av
=
=
0.0015 bsh
0.0025 bsv
(5.96a)
(5.96b)
The shear reinforcement required at the critical section must be provided throughout the
deep beams.
5.20.4 Example 5.10: Design of Deep Beam by StrutandTie Method
A simply supported deep beam having a clear span In= 10 ft (3.05 m) is subjected to a uniformly distributed live load of 81,000 lb/ft (1182 kN/m) on the top. The height h of the beam
is 6 ft (1.83 m) and its thickness bis 20 in. (508 mm).
f~ =
fy
Design the beam reinforcement for this beam by the strutandtie method.
325
= 10.06; 12 = 1.85
<4
20 X 72
144
1.2
150
1500 + 1.6
81,000
The uniformly distributed load on the beam top is idealized by two concentrated loads as
shown in Fig. 5.59 and detailed in Fig. 5.61. The ensuing truss model can be considered to simulate the stress trajectories of the principal stresses. l/h = 10/6=1.67 < 2.5, hence a deep beam.
Strut inclination angle 0 in Figure 5.59(c) is interpolated between 0 = 68 for l/h :s 1 and
0 = 54 for l/h = 2 (Ref. 5.20).
Hence, 0 = 68 (68  54)(1.67 1.0)
= 68  0.67 X 14 = 58.62
( 7")
= 11.42  4.17 =
12
7.25 ft.
cot 58.62
2w) =
131,400
2
10
.
= 657,000 lb./strut (see F1g. 5.61)
Pu
657,000
The compressive forces in the truss shown in Figure 5.6l(b) are computed in the usual manner,
as the vector sine and cosine components of the inclined struts at the assumed 0 = 58.62. Figure 5.61( c) gives the intersecting nodal forces in the Dregion of node C, giving a strut force in
CA= 1,026,082 lb. ( CCC node ). Figure 5.61( d) gives the intersecting forces in the Dregion of
node A, giving a tie force in truss member AB = 534,293 lb. ( CCT node ).
Evidently, idealizing the distributed load into four or six equivalent concentrated loads
would have reduced the compressive forces in the struts and the tensile forces in the ties,
leading to reduced reinforcement areas (see Ref. 5.2 by Nawy).
(3) Vertical and horizontal reinforcement across depth of beam web
Horizontal web requirement is not required as part of the truss. However, in order to control
cracking, ACI318 Code requires an area Avh ;:;:: 0.0015 bw S,, for horizontal shear reinforcement and Av;:;:: 0.0025 bw sh for vertical reinforcement, Eqs. 5.96 a, b.
Chapter 5
326
n
i~
        7'3" _ _ _ ____...
7"
~/ n
t...
= 10'0"
..i
/=11'5"
Vu = Wull2
e= 68 for llh :5 1
=54for llh=2
Vu = Wull2
(a)
P/2
P/2
(b)
876,000 lb
534,293 lb
A
534,293 lb
876,000 lb
(e)
(d)
Figure 5.61 Trussandtie model in Example 5.1 O: (a) idealized truss model; (b) truss forces
(C= compression, T = tension); (c) forces on joint C (CCC node); (d) forces on joint A (CCT
node).
327
f;
:S
'Yi
'Y 2
= inclination of vertical reinforcement to the strut = 31.38 where sin 'Yi = 0.521
= inclination of horizontal reinforcement to the strut = 58.62 where sin 'Y 2 = 0.854
:: 6000 psi =
0.0034
>
,S;
0.003.
0.0020 + 0.001 4
Hence, adopt the reinforcement in item (3), namely, No. 4 bars at 8 in. c/c for vertical reinforcement and No. 4 bars at 12 in. c/c for horizontal reinforcement for both faces of the deep beam.
(5) Strength of struts
From Equation 5.90, compressive strength of concrete in a strut or nodal zone is
ee = 0.85 J3J~ where 13s = 0.75
= 0.85 X 0.75 X 4,000 = 2,550 psi.
1,026,082 lb.
2
= 20.1 in., which is within the available area of the deep beam, hence, O.K.
0
Similarly, for struts EC and FD, Aes = 876,000/2550 = 344 in. 2 ; minimum required strut
width = 344/20 = 17.2 in., which is available within the beam area, hence OK.
Width of CA, DB =
1~;7 7.0
Use 8 No. 10 bars in 4 layers of two bars at 3 in. on centers.
de= 2.15 in. cover + 3+1.5 =7 in. assumed in constructing the truss model dimensions.
From Equation 5.93, the maximum height of concrete concentric with the tie for dimensioning the nodal zone is
534,293
hc.max
= Fnc/ee = 2 550
,
= 210 m.
Chapter 5
328
Fn
ce An
2,040
537
1,095,480 lb.
>
1,026,082 lb.,
O.K.
Confinement of the nodal zone is not required, since the stress in the concrete in the
nodal zone did not exceed the calculated permissible fce = 2,040 psi.
Hence, adopt the design.
Another truss model simulating the uniformly distributed load on the top of the beam by
four concentrated loads instead of two could have reduced the amount of the horizontal reinforcement. Such a truss model could have the form shown in Fig. 5.60 (Ref. 5.19) in idealizing the
stress trajectories ofthe principal stresses in the deep beam. Careful engineeringjudgment has to
be exercised in the selection of the path of forces on the basis of the principies outlined in Section
5.20.1 to determine whether the resulting reinforcement is excessive or relatively efficient. Principies of equilibrium and compatibility have to be maintained in any chosen model (Ref. 5.22).
fy
fyt
329
~Resultant
"!.
4 . . . .:
. .. .
..,,
"
10 in.1+11~
".
.:... . :<I 4
5! X 5! in.
5 in.
+56,000 lb
\''
~/
.s
:::!:
11
~~63 25'
/'
\,
o
o
o
00
JT
\~
;:9
Line
Vu =80,000 lb
.s
00
11
.e
"O
60 15' \
D'
: <I :
Figure 5.62
F8 c
= 80,000
15.652
7
+ 16,000 = 56,000 lb.
14
e) Compression strut AC:
FsA = 80,000
FAc
56,oooV(8)2 + (14) 2
8
= 112,872 lb.
FAD
112,872 X 14
Y(8) 2 + (14) 2
= 98,000 lb.
Chapter 5
330
e) Compression strut CC':
Fcc = 80,000 + 98,000
= 178,000 lb.
= 16,000 lb
cu =
<1>(0.85f~)
Area of plate is A 1
80,000
( .
75 0 85
. 2
80,000
25 10
m.
0.75 X 0.85 X 5000 =
0.
A,s CD
'
. 2
16,000
= 0.36 m.
0.75 X 60,000
Where An
Ah/ tie .
2:b sm a,
s,
2(0.11)
14 X 3 .O
2'.:
0.003
>
0.003 O.K.
~s) =
80k(5
+ 10) + 16k
X 18 to give
~s =
1.64 in.,
:4
331
Vu
1Oin.++..i
4q.
. 
..
......_5! X 5! in .
=3No./
A~
JT
9 in.
.S
.s
00
......
11
Il
2 No. 6 framing
bars
q
4. :.
Figure 5.63
(ii) Strut BC
= 14
3.28
= 0.75
= 45.92 in. 2
<1>
Fns,c
> required F8 c =
89.4 kip, OK
(iii) Strut A C
Required width, w,, of strut A C
ll2.87kip
.
3 37
0.75 X 3.188 X 14 = m.
Examination of the corbel and column depth of 12 in., shows there is a mnimum
clear cover of 2.0 in. from the outer concrete surface. Hence the widths, ws, of all
struts fit within the corbel geometry.
Adopt the designas shown in Fig. 5.63.
Chapter 5
332
Solve Example 5.9 using the SI procedure and ACI Shear value obtained from Equation 5.16
in Example 5.9.
Solution:
Acp
3870 cm2
11.7 cm
191 cm
2077 cm2
37.5
Pcp
= 422 cm
Ph = 2(x1 + y 1) = 386 cm
d = 182cm
y 1 = 181.6 cm
bw = 20.3 cm
A 0 = 0.85Aoh = 1766 cm2
cot 0 = 1.3
cot2 0 = 1.69
>
Vud
1.0, use Mu = 1.0
e = 29.7 in. = 75.4 cm
sb
n = 34.5 MPa
fy = 414 MPa
sb
= 180,094 cm 2
633,000
= 1.41 MPa
4490 X 102
Pe
+ =  =
Je
Ac
Pe
t.ce =Ac
= 1.41
+

Pee
 = 141
.
Sb
633,000 X 75.4
180,094
+   X102
333
l.2Mer
+ ee  d)
180,094(~ + 4.06 
1.2
900
1080 kNm
Apsps
5.9 cm2 X 1760
0.85f; = 0.85 X 34.5 X 20.3 = 175 cm
= 5.92
>
~V;(A~p))l +
12
=
u
Pep
o.85v'34.5 ((3870)
12
422
3fe
V;
2
)
V1
+ 3 x 1.14 x 10 _ 3 kNm
\/34.5
= 18.6kNm
From Figure 5.51 and the acting torsional moment value from Example 5.9, Tu= 73
kNm > 18.6 kNm. Hence, torsional reinforcement is required. The garage elements
are all precast; assume equilibrium torsion condition with no redistribution of torsional moment using the total applied factored Tu= 73 kNm.
6. Check adequacy of section far torsion
From Figure 5.51 at h/2 from face of support and values computed in Example 5.9,
Vu = 434 kN, Mu= 385 kNm.
From Equation 5.80 for fpe > 0.4fpu
where f ~ is in MPa
417
Max. allow.
X 1.82
370
2.05
(v34.5
2Q + 5
)= 5.3 MPa
Ve=
Ve =
bwd
ve=
X 1.0
Chapter 5
334
= 4.8 MPa
Z = 0.75 ( 2.4 + 8\/34.5)
( ve + l8Vi;)
12
<!> bwd
Tn
2A 0 fy 1 cot0
97 X 10 3
2Xl766X414Xl.3

0.35 X 20.3
0.35bw
= 0.017 cm /cm/two legs
=
=;;414
2
+ 0.017
_ crosssectional area _
Avi/s
s 
 0.119  17 cm 6.8 m. c. to c.
Min. 
0.35bw
Apspu
lesser o f  f  or  80fy,d
yt
f1:
dp
 =
fyt
1
16
Vif
Apspe
80fy 1d
G;)
0.35 X 203
= 0.17 mm2/mm/two legs
414
1
\/34.5
16
fd
\j hw =
f182Q
592 X 1860
80 X 414 X 1820 \j 2o3
2
= 0.06 mm /mm/two legs
Selected References
335
Available Av= 0.17 > 0.06, O.K.
Miminum bar diameter = s/16 or No. 10 M bar= (18/16) x 10 mm= 11.3 mm= available
No. 10 M bars (11.3 mm), O.K.
Use No. 10 bars at 18 cm c. to c.
9. Longitudinal reinforcement
From Equation 5.85,
 A
A,   Ph
= 0.051
(fyt)
fy cot
X
= 33.3cm2
A/,min 
.:
12:!yl
:
Jyl
386 (414)
414
SELECTED REFERENCE S
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements far Structural Concrete, (ACI 31808), and
Commentary to the Building Code Requirements far Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318R08) American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI: 2008, 465 pp.
Nawy, E. G. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach, 6th Ed., Upper Saddle River, N.J.:
Prentice Hall, 2009, pp. 936.
Mattock, A. H., Chen, K. C., and Soogswang, K. "The Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Corbels."
Journal of the Prestressed Concrete /nstitute 21 (1976): 5277.
Nawy, E. G. Simplified Reinforced Concrete. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
Sozen, M. A., Zwoyer, E.M., and Siess, C. P. Strength in Shear of Beams without Web Reinforcement. Urbana, Illinois: Bulletin No. 452, Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois,
April 1959.
Chapter 5
336
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
5.26
ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, 31863, and Commentary on the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, 31863. Farmington Hills, MI:
American Concrete Institute, 1963.
Nawy, E. G., and Ukadike, M. M. "Shear Transfer in Concrete and Polymer Modified Concrete
Members Subjected to Shear Load." Journal of the American Society for Testing and Materials,
March 1983, pp. 8397.
Prestressed Concrete Institute. Manual of Design and Detailing of Precast and Prestressed Connections. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1994.
Hsu, T. T. C. Torsion in Reinforced Concrete. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1983.
Hsu, T. T. C. "Torsion in Structural ConcreteUniformly Prestressed Members without Web Reinforcement." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 13 (1968): 3444.
Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D. "Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and NonPrestressed
Concrete Beams." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25 (1980): 32100.
Prestressed Concrete Institute. PCI Design Handbook 6th Ed. Prestressed Concrete lnstitute,
Chicago, 2006.
Rabbat, B. G. and Collins, M. P. "A Variable Angle Space Truss Model For Structural Concrete
Members Subjected to Complex Loading," SP 5522, American Concrete Institute, Farmington
Hills, 1978, pp 547587.
McGee, W. D., and Zia, P. "Prestressed Concrete Members under Torsion, Shear and Bending."
Journal of the American Concrete Institute 13 (1976): 2632.
Zia, P., and Hsu, T. T. C. Design for Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Concrete. ASCE Annual
Convention, Reprint No. 3423, 1979.
Abeles, P. W., and BardhanRoy, B. K. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. 3d Ed. Viewpoint Publications, London, 1981.
Hsu, T. T. C. "Shear Flow Zone in Torsion of Reinforced Concrete," Vol. 116 No. 11, Journ. of
Structural Division, ASCE, New York, Nov. 1990, pp. 32063225.
Hsu, T. T. C. Unified Theory of Reinforced Concrete, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993, pp. 313.
Schlaich, J., Schaeffer, K., and Jennewein, M., 1987, "Toward a Consistent Design of Structural
Concrete," PCI Journal, v. 32, No. 3, MayJune, pp. 74150.
Schlaich, J., Weischede, D., "Detailing of Concrete Structures (in German)," Bulletin d'Information 150, Comit EuroInternational du Bton, Paris, March 1982, 163 pp.
Bergmeister, K., Breen, J. E., and Jirsa, J. O., "Dimensioning of the Nades and Development of
Reinforcement," IABSE Colloquim Stuttgart 1991, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Zurich, 1991, pp. 551556.
Nawy, E. G., "Discussion of Appendix A of ACI 31802, on the Strut and Tie Method," Concrete
International Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, January
2002,pp. 122124.
Nawy, E. G., "ACI 31802 Shear Provision on the Design of Deep Beams," Concrete lnternational
Journal (CI), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2002.
Tjhin, Tin, and Kuchma, D.A., Corbel at Column, ACI SP208 on Strut and Tie Models, Ed. K. H.
Reineck, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hill, MI, 2003, pp. 105115.
Nawy, E. G., "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21st Century," Keynote
Address Paper, No. EC103, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., September 2006, pp 123.
Nawy, E. G., "ConcreteThe Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 2/st Century," Keynote
Address Paper, Proceedings, The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete
Technology, Crystal City, Washington, D.C., September 19, 2007, pp. 124.
337
Problems
PROBLEMS
5.1 A posttensioned bonded prestressed beam has the cross section shown in Figure P5.1. lt has a
span of 75 ft (22.9 m) and is subjected to a service superimposed dead load WSD = 450 plf (6.6
kN/m) and a superimposed service live load WL = 2,300 plf (33.6 kN/m). Design the web reinforcement necessary to prevent shear cracking (a) by the detailed design method and (b) by the
alternative method ata section 15 ft (4.6 m) from the face of the support. The profile of the prestressing tendon is parabolic. Use #3 stirrups in your design, and detail the section. The following
data are given:
Ac = 876 in.2 (5,652 cm2 )
4
6
le = 433,350 in. 4 (18.03 X 10 cm )
r2
105 cm3 )
105 cm3)
; =
f~; =
48" _ _ J
(122cm)
L_

____ l r+
1
~3"
3"~
:.. 1
39"
(99cm)
7"
5!"
2
(46cm)
Figure P5.1.
338
Chapter 5
5.2 Find the shear strengths Ve, Ve;, and Vcw for the beam in Problem 5.1 at 1/10 span intervals along
the entire span, and plot the variations in their values along the span in a manner similar to the plot
in Figure 5.13.
5.3 Assume that a 4 in. (10 cm) topping of width b = 8 ft 6 in. (2.6 m) is situ cast on the precast section of Problem 5.1. If the top surface of the precast section is unroughened, design the necessary dowel reinforcement to ensure full composite action. Use the ACI coefficient of friction for
determining the area and spacing of the shearfriction reinforcement, and use fe= 3,000 psi (20.7
MPa) for the topping. Compare the results with those obtained using the PCI coefficient of
friction.
5.4 A 14 in. (35.6 cm) standard PCI doubleT simply supported beam is shown in Figure P5.4. It has a
span of 40 ft (12.2 m) and is subjected to a service dead load Wsv = 25 psf (1,197 Pa) plus selfweight Wv = 31 psf (1,484 Pa) anda service live load WL = 45 psf (2,155 Pa). Design the webshear
reinforcement at ~dP from the support and at quarter span by (a) the detailed method and (b) the
alternative method, and then compare the two designs. The tendon is harped at midspan. Given
data are as follows:
; (precast)
f ;;
3,500 psi
; (topping)
fpe
Aps
ec
Use dP = 10 in. in the solution. The values of the section properties are as follows:
Figure P5.4.
339
Problems
Section properties
Ac
(
cb
e,
sb
si
Wv
Untopped
Topped
306 in. 2
4,508 in. 4
10.51 in.
3.49 in.
429 in. 3
1,292 in. 3
31 psf
7,173 in. 4
12.40 in.
3.60in.
578 in. 3
1,992 in.3
56 psf
5.5 Designa bracket to support a concentrated factored load Vu = 125,000 lb (556 kN) acting ata lever
arma= 4 in. (101.6 mm) from the column face. The horizontal factored force Nuc = 40,000 lb (177.9
kN). Given data are:
b = 14 in. (355.6 mm)
; =
INDETERMINATE PRESTRESSED
CONCRETESTRUCTURES
6.1 INTRODUCTION
As in reinforced concrete and olher structural materials, continuity can be achieved al intermediate supports and knees of portal frames. The reduction of moments and stresses
at midspans througb the design of continuous systems rcsults in shallower members that
are stiffer than simply supported members of equal span and of comparable loading and
are of lesser deflection.
Consequently, lighter structures with lighter foundations reduce Lhe cost of roaterials and construction. In addition, the structural stability and resistance to longitudinal
and lateral loads are usually improved. As a result, the spantodepth ratio is also improved, depending on the type of continuous system being considered. For continuous
flat pJates, a ratio of 40 to 45 is reasonable, while in box girders this ratio can be 25 to 30.
An additiona l advantage of continuity is the elimination of anchorages at intermediate supports through continuous posttensioning over severa! spans. thcreby reducing
further the cost of materials and labor.
Continuous prestressed concrete is widely applied in the United Slates in tbe constructioo of Oat plates for floors and roofs with contiouity in one or both directions and
with prestressing in one or both directioos. Also, continuity is widely uscd in longspan
Lincoln Executive Plaza, ArlingLon Jleights, lllinois. (Courtesy, Prestressed Concrete fnsliLute.)
340
341
l. Higher frictional losses due to the larger number of bends and longer tendons.
2. Concurrence of moment and shear at the support sections, which reduces the moment strength of those sections.
3. Excessive lateral forces and moments in the supporting columns, particularly if they
are rigidly connected to the beams. These forces are caused by the elastic shortening of the longspan beams under prestress.
4. Effects of higher secondary stresses due to shrinkage, creep temperature variations,
and settlement of the supports.
5. Secondary moments due to induced reactions at the supporting columns caused by
the prestressing force (to be subsequently discussed).
6. Possible serious reversa! of moments due to alternate loading of spans.
7. Moment values at the interior supports that require additional reinforcement at
these supports, which might otherwise not be needed in simply supported beams.
All these factors can be accounted for through appropriate design and construction of
the final system, including special provisions for bearings at the supporting columns.
The construction system used, the length of the adjacent spans, and the engineering judgment and ingenuity of the design engineer determine the type of layout and method of
framing to be used for achieving continuity. Basically, there are two categories of continuity in beams:
t
t
l. Monolithic continuity, where all the tendons are generally continuous throughout
all or most of the spans and all tendons are prestressed at the site. Such prestressing
is accomplished by posttensioning.
2. Nonmonolithic continuity, where precast elements are used as simple beams on
which continuity is imposed at the support sections through situcast reinforced
concrete which provides the desired level of continuity to resist the superimposed
dead load and live load after the concrete hardens.
342
Chapter 6
(a)
Cap cable
Posttensioned
o
(b)
Anchorage
Posttensioned
(e)
Figure 6.1 Tendon geometry in beams with monolithic continuity. (a) Beam with
constant depth. (b) Nonprismatic beam with overlapping tendons. (c) Prismatic
beam with overlapping tendons.
343
Coupler
Posttensioned
tendons
Situcast concrete
joint
(a)
Nonprestressed
continuity steel
Situcast
concrete
Precast
beam
Pretensioned
tendons
(b)
Situcast
concrete
joint
Posttensioned
tendons
Pretensioned
tendons
Precast
beam
(c)
The system illustrated in Figure 6.2(b) is probably the simplest for achieving continuity in prestressed concrete composite construction. The precast pretensioned elements
are designed to carry the prestressing and selfweight moments, while the nonprestressed
steel at the negative moment regan at the support is designed to resist the additional superimposed dead load and the applied live load moments. If design for continuity due to
the total dead load is to be achieved, the precast beams have to be shored before placing
the composite concrete topping.
In general, precast elements, including those shown in Figures 6.2(a) and (c), are
designed to resist their own weight as well as handling and transportation stresses by the
strength provided in pretensioning. Posttensioning or the use of nonprestressed steel at
the supports provides the strength required to resist the live load and superimposed load
stresses, and no shoring is used in the construction process.
344
Chapter 6
Reinforced concrete structures are usually statically indeterminate due to the continuity
provided by monolithic construction. Advantageously, the bending moments are always
smaller than those of comparable statically determnate beams, leading to shallower,
more economical sections. Deformations due to axial loads are usually ignored except in
very stiff members, and the settlement of the supports is also rarely considered since
creep and shrinkage do not cause major stresses.
In prestressed concrete, continuity also leads to reduced bending moments. However, the bending moments dueto the eccentric prestressing forces cause secondary reactions and secondary bending moments. These secondary forces and moments increase or
decrease the primary effect of the eccentric prestressing forces. Also, the effects of elastic
shortening, shrinkage, and creep become considerable as compared to those in reinforced concrete continuous structures.
Because prestressed elements, including those that are partially prestressed, have
very limited flexura! cracking as compared with reinforced concrete elements, the elastic
theory for indeterminate structures can be applied with sufficient accuracy at the limit
state of service load. In other words, the prestressed elements can be essentially considered homogenous elastic material because of the limited cracking level, whereas in reinforced concrete it would not be rational to make such an assumption since flexura! cracks
start to generate at almost 5 to 10 percent of the failure load.
Figure 6.3(a) shows a twospan continuous prestressed concrete beam. In part (b), the
central support is assumed to have been removed. Because of the induced secondary
force or reaction R at the interna! support caused by the eccentric prestress, the original
moments dueto prestressing, namely, M1 = Pee 1, will be called primary moments, and the
moments M 2 caused by the induced reactions will be called secondary moments. The effect of the secondary moment is to shift the location of the line of thrust, the
Cline, at the intermediate supports of the continuous structure, and to return the beam
section at the support to its original position befare prestressing [see Figure 6.3(c)]. The
line of thrust is the center line of compressive force acting along the beam span. The secondary reaction R causes the camber a to be neutralized and the beam to be held down
at the intermediate support by an equal but opposite reaction R, provided that the Cline
at the intermediate support is above the cgc line. If the two lines coincide, the reaction R
will be zero, as explained in Section 6.6
The primary structure bending moment diagram M 1 due to the prestressing force is
shown in Figure 6.4(a). If it is superimposed on the secondary moment diagram M 2 in
Figure 6.4(b), a resulting moment diagram M 3 = (M1 + M2) [Figure 6.4(c)] is generated
due to the prestressing force for the condition where the beam lower fibers just touch the
intermediate support, with the thrust line (Cline) moving a distance y from the tendon
cgs profile, i.e., the Tline [Figure 6.4(d)]. As a sign convention, the bending moments diagrams are drawn on the tension side of the columns. Such a convention can help eliminate errors in superposition in the analysis of portal frames and other systems whose
vertical members are subjected to moments.
The deviation of the Cline from the cgs line is
(6.1)
345
~
tiline
(a)
(b)
l
(d)
Secondary
~
(e)
346
Chapter 6
(a)
(b)
(e)
Cline
cgs or Tline
(d)
and the new location of the tendon profile cgs is determined from the net moment
M 3 = M 1 + M 2 using the appropriate moment sign, positive (+) above and negative ()
below the base line. The resulting limit eccentricity of the Cline is
e'= e3
M3
Pe
=
(6.2)
where Pe is the effective prestressing force after losses. Note that e' is negative when the
thrust line is above the neutral axis, as is the case for the intermediate support section.
The concrete fiber stresses due to prestress only at an intermediate support become,
from Equations l.4a and b,
e)
P e ( l + _e_t
e'
f= __
Ac
r2
(6.3a)
and
cb)
pe
b =A ( 1  e'e2 c
(6.3b)
347
The concrete fiber stresses at the support dueto prestressing and the selfweight support
moment are
(6.4a)
and
b =_Pe
Ac
(i _e~ ~t
)
MD
Sb
(6.4b)
Alternatively, using the M 3 moment values in Equations 6.4a and b, the net moment at
the section is M 4 = M 3  M0 , and the concrete fiber stresses at the support where the tendons are above the neutral axis are evaluated from
(6.Sa)
and
M4
Pe
b =   + Sb
Ac
(6.5b)
Both Equations 6.4 and 6.5 should give the same results whether applied to support,
midspan sections, or any other sections along the span provided that the appropriate sign
convention is maintained.
6.4.3 Equivalent Load Method
The equivalent load method is based on theoretically replacing the effects of the prestressing force by equivalent loads produced by the prestressing moments profile along
the span due to the primary moment M1 in Figure 6.S(b ). If the shear diagram causing
moments M 1 is constructed as in Figure 6.5(c), and the load producing this shear is evaluated as in Figure 6.5(d), the reaction R is the same as the displacement reaction R in
the method described in Section 6.4.1. Calculation of the moment distribution dueto the
loading on the continuous beam in Figure 6.5( d) produces the moment diagram of moment M 3 in part (e) of the figure. This moment is the same as the net moment M 3 in Section 6.4.1, so that the resulting limit eccentricity of the cgs line will be e3 = MiPe. The
prestress interior support reaction R is obtained from Figure 6.5(d) in order to determine the secondary moment M2 caused by a load R acting at point e of a simple span
AB. The deviation of the Cline from the cgs line is then y = M 2/Pe, as in the previous
method.
6.5 EXAMPLES INVOLVING CONTINUITV
6.5.1 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of CLine for Draped Tendons
Example 6.1
348
Chapter 6
cgc line
e_
D
(a)
M
1
Artflililllllllll
(b)
11111111111111111111111
11111111111111
(e)
! !! ! !t t! !tt t!!
R
(d)
M
3
41f11IlIIIDnnnn
(e)
Figure 6.5 Equivalent load method of Cline transformation. (a) Primary structure after prestressing. (b) Primary moment M1 dueto prestressing. (e) Shear diagram for moments M1 . (d) Loadcausing moment in (b) and shear in (e). (e)
Moment diagram for loads in (d) after moment distributions.
Solution (a):
= [
(3.0
_ (2.1
106
X
+ 1.05
1~
2 9
9
106) 0; ] ~
90) 90; 2
144
144
349
90'
90'
(27.4m)
45'
45'
45'
45'
(27.4 m)
(a)
""11lJ]JJlJJ
M,
(e)
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111' 1
'111 111
M2
(e)
.....
""
cgc line
6.75"
   _,,......,:....r=:"..L   
45'
45'
~
~
90't"" B
(f)
Figure 6.6 Transformation of thrust line in Example 6.1 due to continuity. (a)
Tendon geometry: one possible location. (b) Primary moment M1 dueto prestress
Pe. (e) Reaction Ron theoretica!ly simple beam. (d) Secondary moment M2 dueto
R. (e) Final moment M3 = M1 + M2 (f) New location of Cline and possible cgs line.
350
Chapter 6
90 X 2
.
X  X 144 = 2.1 X 108 R m. 3lb
2
3
Equating the right sides of these equations to each other yields
Elt:i.e =
7.58
1011
2.1
108 R
Then
7 58 1011
R = X 8 = 3 610 lb,!, (16 kN)
e
2.1 X 10
'
RA = Rs = 1,805 lb t (8 kN)
The secondary moment M 2 due to concentrated load Re varies linearly from interior
support C to end supports A and B in Figures 6.6(d) and 6.7(c). From Figure 6.6(c),
2Re
3,610
.
90 X 12 =   X 90 X 12 = 1.95 X 106 m.lb
2
The total moment M 3 at C dueto prestress continuity is
M1 =
From Equation 6.1, the distance through which the Cline has to be transformed upwards at
support e is
Ye =
M1
l.95 X 106
.
OOO = 6.5 m. (16.5 cm)
300 '
From Equation 6.2, the distance of the Cline above the cgc line, i.e., the eccentricity of the
Cline above the cgc line at interior support C, is
M3
4.05 X 106
ee = p =
OO
= 13.5 m. (34.3 cm)
e
3 ,000
The midspan total moment is
M3
3.0 X 106 
= 2.025
3.0
21 X 1.95 X 106
106 in.lb
J06 in.lb
R/2
(b)
D
2.1 X
106
00~~I
in.lb
(a)
45R ft.lb
(e)
Figure 6.7 Camber t:i.c dueto M1 (a) Primary moment M1 . (b) Deflected shape
dueto R. (e) Secondary moment M2 dueto R.
351
2.025 X 106
= 6.75m.(17.lcm)
300000
,
ev =
34
= 17.m.
=2
c1 = cb
ec = 13.5 in.
= bh = 12
Ac
34
= 408 in. 2
12(34) 3
bh 3
Ie
39,304
fe
f' =
P, ( l
A:\
ec,)
r2
= _ 300,000 (
408
+ 13.5
17)
96.33
b = = _
~: ( 1 
e::)
Although the bottom fiber stress in tension is higher and well beyond the maximum allowable, it is only due to prestress. Once selfweight is considered, it diminishes considerably.
Solution (b ):
Wb=p
where a is the eccentricity of the tendon from the cgc line. So
Wb =
300,000 X 13.5
( 0) 2 X
12
9
333.3 lb/ft
Wb/ 2 333.3(90)2
= 224,978 ftlb
FEM =U=
12
From the moment distribution operation in Figure 6.8, the final moment at the interior sup6
port C is M 3 = M 1 + M 2 = 337,467 ftlb = 4.05 x 10 in.lb, which is the same value as solution
(a).
Since the M 1 diagram is the primary moment diagram as in Figure 6.6(b ), the diagram
for the secondary moment M 2 can be constructed from M 3  M 1 as shown in Figure 6.8(b ),
which is identical to Figure 6.6(d). Thereafter, all other steps for calculation of fiber stresses
and location of both fiber stresses and the Cline are identical and give the same results as solution (a).
352
Chapter 6
Wb
i t t t t t t It t t
~t t t t t t t t t t
A
Dist. factor
FEM (ftlb)
M3
45'
45'
1.00
45'
t~
s
45'
0.50 0.50
1.00
+224,978
224,978
+224,978
224,978
224,978
112,489
+112,489
+224,978
337,467
+337,467 ftlb
(4.05 X 106 in.lb)
(a)
X 106 in.lb
2.025
(229 X 103 Nm)
(b)
>O X 10'
M
1
;o.lb~
0.975 X
106
in.lb
'''',, , . 1
M,
(d)
Figure 6.8 Equivalent load method for continuous beam analysis. (a) Equivalent
load and moment distribution. (b) Total moment M3 . (e) Primary moment M1 (d)
Secondary moment M2 .
Construct the primary and secondary moment diagram shown in Figure 6.9.
+ 1.05
106)90 X
2 X l90
90 X 2
X 144 = 3.65 X 10 11 in3ib
3
X 
144 
2.1 X 106 X 90
2
353
(a)
M,~~~
2.1 X 108 in.lb
(b)
R = 17381b
1
(e)
M2
6
il"]''~"~"~"~'""D"D':i:cc==~===ccm:11~11n11n11n11n11n11n11]11]11m11m11[11[1tt1~IIII1!Il!fillf
(d)
M3~~~
3.04 X 10S in.lb
(e)
.i;8.43"

__
__ _
~..,.___L
_ _ _ _ ..,,,,...__..,,,,,,,
... .......
~
Figure 6.9 Transformation of thrust line in Example 6.2 due to continuity. (a)
Tendon geometry: one possible location. (b} Primary moment M1 dueto prestress
Pe. (e) Reaction Ron theoretically simple beam. (d) Secondary moment M2 dueto
R. (e) Final moment M3 = M1 + M2 . (f) New location of Cline and possible cgs line.
354
Chapter 6
.1
'
EI!J.e = 2.1 X 10 Re
1011
3 65
X
2.1 X 108
R =
e
= 1 738 lb t
'
=2
90 X 12
1,738
= 2
90 X 12
= 0.94
106 in.lb
Thus, the total moment M 3 = 2.1x106 + 0.94 x 106 = 3.04 x 106 in.lb (344 x 103 Nm).
From Equation 6.1, the distance through which the Cline has to be transformed upwards at support e is
Mz 0.94 X 106
.
Ye = p =
OOO = 3.13 m. (8 cm)
300
e
'
From Equation 6.2, the distance of the Cline above the cgc line, i.e., the eccentricity of the
Cline above the cgc line at interior support C, is
M3
3.04 X 106
.
ee = p =
OOO = 10.13 m. (25.7 cm)
300
So the midspan total moment is
'
M3
= 3.0
X 106 
94 ;
106
= 2.53
X 106 in.lb
ev =
2.53 X 106
.
= 8.43 m. (21.4 cm)
300,000
for the Cline or thrust line. So the top concrete fiber stress is
f' = _P.
Ae
(l +
= _ 300,000
408
=
ee = 10.13 in.
ec1)
,2
(l +
10.13 X 17)
96.33
b = 
~: ( 1 
= _ 300,000
408
=
e;;)
(l _
10.13 X 17)
96.33
Comparing the results of the harped tendon case of this example to the draped parabolic tendon of Example 6.1 reveals that smaller total continuity moments M 3 resulted at the intermediate support since the triangular area of the moment diagram is onehalf the product of the
span and the moment ordinate while the parabolic area is twothirds of that same product.
Consequently, the concrete fiber stresses are lower.
It can be recognized from the discussion in Section 6.4 that the profile of the line of thrust
(the Cline) follows the profile of the prestressing tendon (the cgs line). This is to be expected since the Cline ordinates are the moment ordinates resulting from the product of
355
the prestressing force Pe and the tendon eccentricity from the cgc line varying along the
span. The deflection behavior of any beam is a function of the variation in moment along
the span, and the shape of the moment diagram is a function of the type of load, namely,
concentrated or distributed. Consequently, tendon profiles are often draped far distributed loads, while they are harped far concentrated loads, as illustrated in Chapters 1
and4.
Examples 6.1 and 6.2 show that in a continuous beam, the deviation of the Cline
from the cgc line is directly proportional to the secondary moment M 2 Since the M 2 diagram varies linear/y with the distance from the support, it is possible to linear/y transform
the Cline by raising or lowering its position at the interior support while preferably
maintaining its original position at the exterior simple supports. The profile of the Cline
remains the same because of the linearity of the transformation. Consequently, it is possible to linearly transform the cgs line, i.e., the prestressing tendon profile along the beam
span, without changing the profile positions of the Cline. This flexibility has major practica! significance in the design of continuous prestressed concrete beams.
Example 6.3 demonstrates such a flexibility. Compare the tendon profile it presents
with that of Example 6.1, and note that the Cline in Figure 6.6(f) is the same as the
Cline in Figures 6.lO(f) and 6.ll(f), although the cgs line locations along the span are not
the same as those in Figures 6.6(a), 6.lO(a), and 6.ll(a). Also, note that in solution b,
where the tendon profile coincides with the Cline profile, the reaction R =O and the secondary moment M 2 = O. This means that when the cgs line coincides with Cline, the
beam just touches the intermediate support and behaves like a simply supported beam.
Such a beam is called a concordant beam, and the prestressing tendon is called a concordant tendon.
6.6.1 Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem
Example6.3
The continuous beam of Example 6.1 has a new tendon profile as shown in
(a) Figure 6.lO(a) with eccentricities ec =O and an eccentricity en= 13.5 in. (24.3 cm) at
midspan similar to the intermediate support eccentricity in Example 6.1, and
(b) Figure 6.ll(a) with eccentricities ec = 13.5 in. (24.3 cm) anden= 6.75 in. (17.1 cm) that
are the same Cline eccentricities as in Example 6.1.
Verify that the profile and alignment of the Cline in (a) and (b) are the same as the Cline
geometry in Example 6.1 and Figure 6.6(f). The total moment at the intermediate support C
6
in both cases is M 3 = 4.05 x 10 6 in.lb, and at midspan D the moment is M 3 = 2.025 x 10 in.lb,
as in Example 6.1.
Solution (a): The secondary moment is
M 2 = 4.05 X 106 in.lb (458 X 103 Nm)
Also,
R
X 90 X 12 =
f
Re =
RA
4.05
106
4.05 X 106 X 2
X
90 12
l
356
Chapter 6
(a)
(b)
RA = 37501b
R 8 = 3750 lb
(e)
2.025 X 1<>6
M,~
(d)
t
M3
..crrrrrrrm...,.,111T1'1111m11m1mr~
~~.05X10Sin.lb
(e)
____......
cg~1~  E~5
Cline
. . . . . . . ____L*"""
A
'....,.. ___.,L
  ,,
1..
______
C
i+90'90'(f)
Figure 6.10
357
+~45' <~c;45'o+l~45'
45' .+l
~90'
~ 2.025
r : 2 5 X 10 in.lb
M1
A111TI11IIIllllllll~
6
X 10 in.lb
_1111111~
R=O
f
(e)
(d)
(e)
Cline
M9090+1
(f)
Figure 6.11
358
Chapter 6
fiber stresses are also the same, viz., r = 2,487 psi ( C) (17.l MPa) and b
(7.0 MPa).
The following list summarizes the hypotheses defining the transformation and concordance of tendons in continuous prestressed beams:
1. Any tendon profile can be linearly transformed without affecting the Cline position.
2. A beam with a concordant tendon is a continuous beam whose Cline coincides
with its cgs line.
3. A concordant tendon induces no reactions on intermediate supports.
4. The eccentricity of any concordant tendon measured from the cgc line produces a
moment diagram representing a profile similar in form to the moment profile due
to the superimposed load.
S. Any line of thrust (Cline) is a profile for a concordant ten don.
6. Superposition of several concordant tendons produces a concordant tendon, but superposition of concordant and nonconcordant tendons produces a nonconcordant
ten don.
7. A change in eccentricity at one or both end supports results in a shift of the Cline,
but a change in eccentricity at intermediate supports does not affect the position of
the Cline.
8. The choice of concordance or nonconcordance is determined by concrete cover and
efficiency in beam depth selection. Bending moments and shear diagrams for superposition of transverse loads on continuous beams is shown in Figure 6.12.
It is advisable to start a design assuming concordance in order to eliminate the need
for calculating the secondary moment M 2 By trial and adjustment, one can arrive at the
final beam section depth that fulfills the design requirements with the cgs location either
concordant or nonconcordant, as the final design dictates.
6.7 ULTIMATE STRENGTH ANO LIMIT STATE AT FAILURE OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS
6.7.1 General Considerations
The serviceload design of continuous prestressed beams assumes elastic behavior of the
material up to the limit of allowable tensile stress in the concrete due to all loads. This
limit in tensile stress is based on allowing sorne limited cracking beyond the first cracking
load as determined by the modulus of rupture of concrete. As cracking becomes more effective during overload conditions, interna! plastic deformation at the critica! regions of
maximum or peak moments and plastic redistribution of elastic moments from the negative to the positive moment regions are generated. At this stage of overload and beyond,
up to the limit state at failure, plastic hinging develops at the most highly stressed regions
in the continuous beam.
Total redistribution and full development of plastic hinges at the continuous supports of a fully bonded prestressed beam render the beam statically determinate, as if
concordance of tendons were present with zero moments at the supports. Theoretically,
in such cases the secondary moments M 2 can be disregarded beyond the first cracking
load. However, such an assumption can result in an unsafe design unless a concordant
tendon is assumed from the beginning and is executed in the final design with no overload conditions permitted. Otherwise, it is important to consider the secondary moment
359
wl
wl
(a)
wl
t:=='.''''''''
wl
'fs
/1'
Rg =0.550wl
RA =0.450wl
i~''""'"===to
l
..
R0 = 0.450wl
Re= 0.550w/
(b)
wl
wl
wl
f'"""
"f1l~
Re=1.10wl
R8 =1.10wl
RA=0.400wl
''MPLllo
1J
R =0.400wl
Moment
(e)
RA
=0.380wl
0.380wl
wl
t'~ 1 11 1 1 1
wl
wl
R8
= 1.223wl
lf
Re= 0.357wl
"i E
R0 = 0.598wl
0.558wl
0.603wl
1+f
RE= 0.442w/
0.442wl
Amax (0.475/ from El= 0.0094w/ 4 /EI
Shear
Moment
(d)
Figure 6.12 Bending moments and shear diagrams tor continuous beams. (a)
Continuous beam three equal spans one end span unloaded. (b} Continuous
beam, three equal spans, end spans loaded. (e) Continuous beam, three equal
spans, all spans loaded. (d) Continuous beam, tour equal spans, third span unloaded. (e) Continuous beam, tour equal spans, tirst and third spans loaded. (f)
Continuous beam, tour equal spans, all spans loaded. (g) Continuous beam, two
equal spans, concentrated load at center of one span. (h} Continuous beam, two
equal spans, concentrated load at any point.
1
l
360
Chapter 6
wl
RA = 0.446wl
wl
R8 = 0.572w/
,ff
t9 /=t
11111 1
11
";
Re= 0.464wl
0.482w/
R 0 = 0.572w/
E
RE= 0.054w/
o 054
0.0536w/2
0.0536w/2
0.0357w/2
D.max
Moment
(e)
wl
pouo,,
,,,')';9, ,,,wl,,,,,,,
'!~,
'f1
RA = 0.393wl
f~
R8 = 1.143w/
,,,,wl,,,,,,
if~
Re= 0.928w/
'!~,
,,,wl,uooq E
f
R0 = 1.143w/
1f
RE= 0.393wl
(f)
R1 = V1
=~P
R2 = V2 + V3
R3
(g)
= V3
Figure 6.12
Continued
32
.!.!. p
16
=l...p
32
.!!! p
V2
=~PI
= l._p
D.mox
(h)
~P
32
(0.480/ from R 1)
64
32
= O.Q15Pl 3/El
R 1 = V1
= Pb
R2 = V2 + V3
= ..!:!... 1[2/ 2 +
R3 = V3
=_
V2
= Pab
M 1 (at support R2 )
=...f._
43
42  a(/+ a)]
2/3
b(l +a))
Pab {/+a)
43
43
43
42
42  a{/+ a)]
1i
Phote 6.1
361
M2 due to prestressing up to tbe limit slate of tbe faiJ ure load, but with a load factor of
1.0. Considering the secondary moments is mandated by the facl that the elastic deformation caused by the nonconcordant tendons changes the amounl of inel.astic rolation required to obtain a given amount of redislribution. Conversely, for a beam with a given
elastic rotational capacity, the amount by which the momenl al lhe support may be varied is changed by an amount equaJ to the secondary moment at the support due lo prestressing (Ref. 6.2).
In order to determine the moments to be used in the design, lhe folJowing sequence
of steps is recommended:
l . Determine the moments due to the dead and live loads at factored load leve!.
2. Modify by algebraic addition of secondary momeots M2 due to prestressing.
3. Redistribute as permitted. A positive secondary momcnt at the support caused
by transforming a tendon downwards from a concordant profile will tberefore reduce tbe negative moments near tbe supports and increase lhe positive momenl in
the midspan region. A tendon that is transformed upwards wilJ have a reverse effect.
6.7.2 Moment Redistribution
The ultimate analysis and design of prestressed concrete members folJows the strain limits approacb detailed in Section 4.12.3. The net tensile strain limits for compression and
tensioncontrolJed sections shown in Figure 4.5 are equally applicable to prestressed concrete sections. They replace the maximum reinforcement limits used in code provisions
prior to the 2002 ACI318 Code. Tbe net tensile strain for tensioncontroUed sections,
may still be stated in terms of the reinforcemcnt index, wP, embodied in Equation 4.38b,
where the maximum reinforcement index
d
[wp + d (w  w')]
p
not to exceed 0.24f3 1 for prestressed sections, witb a limir inelastic moment redistribution
factor of 1000 e,. See Section 4.12.4 for a detailed discussion.
It should be no ted that the total amount of prestressed and oonprestressed reinforcement shouJd be adequate to develop a factored load of at least 1.2 times the cracking load computed on the basis of tbe modulus o f rupture f,. This provision in ACI 318
Chapter 6
362
Code is permitted to be waived for (a) Twoway, unbonded posttensioned slabs; and (b)
Flexura! members with shear and flexura! strength at least twice the load level causing
the first cracking moment Me,.
6.8 TENOON PROFILE ENVELOPE ANO MOOIFICATIONS
The envelope for limiting tendon eccentricities for continuous beams can be constructed
in the same manner as discussed in Section 4.4.3 for simply supported beams. A determination has to be made as to whether tension is to be allowed in the design in order to establish the limiting maximum and minimum ordinates of the upper and lower envelopes
relative to the top and bottom kerns.
The tendon profile at the intermediate supports cannot have the same peak configuration as that of the negative bending moment diagram, due to both design and practica! considerations. These considerations include the magnitude of frictional losses that
increase with the decrease in the radius of curvature, the high level of compressive stress
concentration in cases of abrupt changes in the tendon, and the additional difficulties that
can be encountered in posttensioning. Consequently, it is advisable to modify the tendon profile at the support so as to have a curvilinear transition at the support zone. Such
modification has to be accounted for by modifying the primary moment M1 diagram and
the total moment M 3 diagram.
Typical tendon alternative profiles with equal upper and lower eccentricities at the
peak moment sections are shown in Figure 6.13, where the chaindotted line gives the average bending moments used in the serviceload design. Selection of the tendon profile
should be based on the following considerations:
l. The eccentricity should be as large as possible at the point where the largest bending moment develops at the limit state at failure.
2. Where possible, the total prestressing moment at any section should be sufficient to
counteract the average serviceload bending moment at that section. The test for
this condition should be based on the resulting stress values rather than moment
values, since the prestressing force causes axial load stress as well as bending moment stress.
3. A tendon profile alternative that produces the least frictional losses should be chosen in the design.
4. It is essential to consider the ultimateload requirements when selecting the tendon
profile; a tendon chosen only on the basis of linear transformation and concordance
is not necessarily satisfactory, as it might neither totally fulfill the serviceload stress
requirements nor fully satisfy the ultimateload requirements at both the midspan
and interior supports.
5. A decrease in eccentricities at the intermediate supports through additional tendon
transformation decreases the serviceload compressive stresses and can result in allowing additional liveload moments, and hence more live load, provided that the
midspan profile eccentricity and moments produce satisfactory concrete stresses.
6.9 TENOON ANO CLINE LOCATION IN CONTINUOUS BEAMS
Example6.4
Design the tendon profile in the beam of Example 4.7, assuming the unshored beam to be
continuous over three spans 64 ft (19.5 m) each, with only uniformly distributed live load
wL = 1,514 plf (22.1 kN/m). Consider the posttensioned prestressing tendon to be continuous
363
Bending moment
envelope
(a)
..
,
0.3/
0.25/
(b)
Figure 6.13 Tendon profile modification. (a) Bending moment diagram for continuous beam. (b) Tendon profile alternatives.
throughout the structure and fully grouted. Disregard tension force variation due to frictional losses in the bends, and assume that a maximum allowable concrete compressive fiber
stress fe= 0.45f~ = 2,250 psi (15.5 MPa) is reached at the extreme top fibers of the composite
section when the live load acts on the section. Use a modified effective width bm =65 in. (165
cm) for the compression flange to account for the modular ratio of the topping and precast
concrete.
Solution:
J:;
0.8(0.7fpu)
'Y= 0.8
Chapter 6
364
(b) Load data
= (1V12)
X 7 ft X 150
slab formwork
Wsn
Wcsn = (4/12) X 7 ft
topping
WL
Precast
Composite
Ac, in. 2
le, in. 4
r2, in. 2
560
125,390
223.9
20.27
24.73
6,186
5,070
934
297,045
318.1
31.32
13.86
9,490
21,174
19,251
15,288
cb, in.
c1, in.
Sb, in. 3
S 1, in. 3
scbS' in. 3 (bottom of slab)
Sw in. 3 (top of slab)
Ec (topping)/ Ec (precast)
Precast h
0.77
Transformed b
= 22
X 0.153
M8
Pe
e8
508,940
15
7.63
103 Nm)
For simplification, the tangential deviation used for computing tl. 8 is based on assuming the tangent to the elastic curve at B as horizontal.
Taking moments of areas about A in Figure 6.15 yields
Figure 6.14
365
 [ 7.63
=
106
64 X 2]
3
X 
64]
264
144
x64X2x 144
3
Also,
Figure 6.15
support A
c.g.
64R, hlb
,
lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures
Chapter 6
366
EJc!:!.B
= (RA X
64 X 12) (64
12)(64 X
~2 X 2)
= Rn =
15 0 X 101
= 994 lb t (By exact calculation = 798 lb)
151 X 106
= 994
64
12 = 0.76
106 in.lb
106 = 8.39
,es
.
8.39 X 106
= 16.49 m. (41.9 cm)
,
508 940
(The eccentricity e' of the Cline when it is above the neutral axis is considered negative in order to conform to Equations 6.3a and b.) Finally, the total moment at
midspans, E 1, E 2, and E 3 dueto prestressing only is
Midspan M 3 = (4.58  0.38)106 = 4.20
X 106
in.lb
4.20
8 25 .
X 106
= + 508,940 = + . m.
)
(21 0
. cm
Mn at B = M 81 = 0.10 X 583(64)2
(see Figure 6.17)
12 = 2.87
106 in.lb
The construction process in this stage involves mounting the precast 1beams and
prestressing them. The fiber stresses due to prestressing and selfweight, from
Equations 6.Sa and b, are as follows:
367
M,
(a)
9941b
(4.4kN)
9941b
994
994
(b)
O. 76 X 1Cl6 in.lb
11111'
(e)
~2X1o'i,.lb
(d)
(e)
Figure 6.16
Chapter 6
368
'
R8 =1.1w/
RA = 0.40wl
Figure 6.17
f lb
5.52 X 106 _
M 4 _ _ 508,940
6,186
560 +
A, + Sb 
_ _ Pe

908.8 + 892.3
Alternatively, the concrete fiber stresses at the support can be computed from
Equations 4.la and b or Equations 6.4a and b using the Cline eccentricities
e' e= 16.49 in. We obtain
f'
1
=_Pe
Ac
(l + e;
c1)
+ Mv
r2
51
f'
tb
=_Pe
Ac
(l _e;rzcb) Mv
Sb
6
= _ 508,940 ( _ 16.49 X 20.27) _ 2.87 X 10
1
6,186
223.91
560
fi = 
p
Ae
M
S:
M4
Pe
1b =  Ac 
S";
M4
508,940
908.8 + 410.3
f 1b = 908.8 
2.08 X 106
5 010
'
.
2.08 X 106
= 1,245 psi (C) (8.6 MPa), O.K.
,1
6 86
Figure 6.16 gives the moments, eccentricities, and Cline geometry of the continuous
beam in this example.
369
4. Effect of adding the superimposed dead loads on support sections B and C At this
stage of the construction process the U in. thick precast slabs (W5v) are erected, followed by placing the 4 in. thick !ayer of wet concrete (Wsv) Thus, Wsv = 153 + 350 =
503 plf (7.3 kN/m). The support moment due to superimposed load is
M 82 = 0.lw/ 2 = 0.1 X 503(64) 2 X 12 = 2.47 X 106 in.lb
Also,
Pe
f2b
Ms
=A+
sb
e
M 5 = (M4
2.47
106 in.lb
Hence,
f 21
908.8 
f 2b = 908.8 +
3.05 X 106 _
.
 1,510.4 psi (C)
5 070
'
3.05 X 106
.
= 415.8 psi (C)
6186
'
5. Effects of adding the superimposed live load on support sections B and C After the
concrete cures, resulting in full composite action for supporting the total service live
load, the section moduli for the precast beam become
s~ =
21,714 in. 3
and
scb =
9,490 in.3
The loading combination which causes the highest stress condition is when the load
acts on only two adjacent spans AB and BC. We have
WL = 1,514 plf (22.1 kN/m)
including W csv From Figure 6.12, the support moments due to live load on two adjacent spans is
M 83 = 0.1167WL/ 2 = 0.1167 X 1,514(64)2 X 12 = 8.68 X 106 in.lb
The liveload moment causes tension at the top, and compression at the bottom
fibers of the support section. The resulting total fiber stresses in the precast section at
the support due to all loads become
f'
T
f' +
2
Ms3
S~
and
bT = 2b 
Ms3
S cb
Hence,
1
T  1,510.4 +
8.68 X 106
21 714
'
414.3 
8.68 X 106
,
9 490
Chapter 6
370
ect)
Pe (
T  A 1  :J r
e
MD
se
McsD + ML
MD + MSD
ecb)
Pe (
+ +
lbT =   1 + Scb
Sb
Ac
where e= e~= MiP, and McsD is the additional superimposed dead load at service
after erection, assumed zero here.
From befare, the Cline eccentricity is e~= M 3/Pe = 8.39 x 106/508,940 = 16.49 in.
(41.9 cm). Also, the support moments, using the appropriate signs, are
MD = 2.87 X 106 in.lb
MSD = 2.47 X 106 in.lb
and
ML = 8.68 X 106 in.lb (including McSD)
__
T 
(2.87 + 2.47)
5,070
+
106
+
8.68 X 106
21,714
8.68 X 106
9,490
<
Hence,
lbs =
lbcS = +
~~,;8 ~
3
06
~~,;5~
0.77
06
0.77
<
Superposition of the tensile stress at the bottom fibers of the slab and the compressive
stress of 1,111 psi at the extreme top fibers of the precast section can result in a net
compressive stress at the bottom of the slab = 1,111+347 = 764 psi.
The fiber stress at the extreme lower fibers of the precast section at support B or C
is
bT
371
= 414.3 
8.68 X 106
9,490
50.75  (1.5
= cb
+ eB
20.27
A; &_ =
bd f ~
, =
2 X 0.20 X 60,000 =
045
22 X 48.5
5,000
O.O
4 X 0.2
60,000
w = 22 X 48.5 X 5,000 = 0.00 90
Aps ps
3.366 X 240,000
w =  =
= 020
P
bdp
22 X 36.76 X 5,000
.
J:
~1
d (
')
dp w  w
wP
+d
(w 
48.5 (
35.27 0.0090  0.0045) = 0.0062
0.24~ 1
= 0.24
0.24 ~ 1 is comparable to
E1
0.80 = 0.19
<
+437
1111 psi
Slabtopl 1
Slab bottom
~
1fT
+347
Beam top
45"
1
1329psi
Figure 6.18
0.0054
Chapter 6
372
Hence, strain et is less than 0.0075, precluding application of moment redistribution. A test using the 1000 et percent code provision for redistribution factor,
would have allowed moment redistribution in this case, however. For maximum
allowable wT, 0.363 1 = 0.36 x 0.80 = 0.45 > 0.2062, O.K.
Alternatively by the ACI Code, cld1 = a/3 1dt = 8.9/(0.80 x 48.5)=0.232 < 0.375.
Hence, the beam is in the tensile zone of Fig. 4.45 and did not exceed the maximum permissible reinforcement, allowing <1> = 0.90 for determining the design moment Mu, and thus OK for the chosen reinforcement.
(b) Flexura! moments modifications
It is advisable to apply the redistribution modifications separately to the dead and
live loads since alternate span loading for live load has to be considered for worst
loading conditions while dead load acts simultaneously on ali spans. Since no redistribution is used here, the elastic moments at support are
Mv + Msv = (2.87 + 2.47)106 = 5.34
106 in.lb
and
ML = 8.68 X 106 in.lb
(e) Nominal moment strength
5.34
+ 1.6
106
8.68
106 = 20.3
106 in.lb
From step 2, the factored elastic secondary moment induced by reactions due to
prestress, using a load factor of 1.0 as stipulated in the ACI code, is M 2 = 0.76 x 106
in.lb, and the total factored moment Mu= (20.3  0.76) x 106 in.lb = 19.54 x 106
in.lb (2.20 kNm). Also, the required nominal moment strength Mn = M)<j> =
19.54 x 106/0.90. = 21.71 x 106 in.lb (2.46 kNm). If A; yielded, fy = ; = 60,000 psi,
width b at bottom = 22 in. So
Apsps
+ AJy  A;fy
a=
0.85nb
240,000 + 0.8 X 60,000  0.4
0.85 X 5,000 X 22
= 8.90 in. (22.6 cm)
3.366
60,000
Apsps(dP 
= 3.366
28.25
240,000 (36.76 
+ 0.80
~) + AJy(d ~) + A;fy(~ 
d')
~)
z  3)
106 in.lb
The factored moment is at least 1.2 Mcr as the code requires. Hence, the section is
safe, but not efficient. Figure 6.19 shows the load and moment distributions. It
could be reduced in size by either changing the tendon eccentricities or enlarging
the span or allowing a higher live load with new tendon eccentricities.
1!
373
64'~
/l.
Mubefore
\~ redistribution if
redistribution occurred
redistribution occurred
11 ~
11~11a1n11n11m11rr1rr11D11]11[1rr11D11]11rr1rr11D11]11[1rr11D11]11[1rr11n11~11cr1a11n
11~11~1maD11:rc:a:a~M2~....cz:cc:cm11~11a10
Figure 6.19
l. Transformation of tendon
The tendon eccentricity at support B in Example 6.4 produces compressive fiber stress
at the support precast section due to all loads of 1,111 psi at the top, and 1,329 psi at
the bottom fibers. These are lower than the maximum allowable fe= 2,250 psi. Therefore, the beam can sustain more load if the concrete compressive stress capacity is to
be utilized. In order to allow the beam to carry more live load, more compressive stress
at the midspan bottom fibers due to prestress needs to be developed through an increase in the tendon eccentricity.
Accordingly, assume that the tendon is linearly transformed throughout all the
spans such that e8 =ec=11.5 in. (27.9 cm), as shown in Figure 6.20. Then the transformation vertical distance = 16.5  11.5 = 5 in. (10 cm), the midspan eccentricity eE1 =
8.25 + 5 = 13.25 in. (34 cm), and the primary support B moment M 1 = 508,940 x 11.5 =
5.85 x 106 in.lb (0.63x103 kNm). Also, the primary midspan E 1 moment M 1 = 508,940
x 13.25 = 6.74 x 106 in.lb (0.75 x 103 kNm), and we have
Also,
z64
~06
144
64]
64; 2
144 = 75.0
1010
Chapter 6
374
1l
(a)
(b)
R 8 = 4967 lb.
49741b
(e)
4974 lb.
M2~..ca:i:a:ain11~'1~1!~~cm:aft1p91Il11n11n11]1!]1!]!!m11[11[1![!Illlilllilll]!l]l!]ll~!IR~l[~[IIIIDI!ID!IDllD!l::C:C==.....~
(d)
(e)
_____
32'
cgc fine
64'
;;;.
 32'
32'
(f)
Figure 6.20
375
64 X 12 ] 64 X 2
 X 12
2
3
RA
= Rs =
M2
= RA X 64 X 12 = 4,974 X 64 X 12
= 4967 lb
Support M 3 = (5.85
Midspan M 3 = ( 6.74 
From Example 6.4, Pe= 508,940 lb. So calculate the final Cline eccentricities = M 3/Pe
as shown in Figure 6.20(f).
2. Concrete fiber stresses dueto prestress and selfweight (583 plf)
From step 3 of the solution to Example 6.4, the moment dueto selfweight is 2.87 x 106
in.lb so the total moment M 4 = M 3  2.87 x 106 = (9.66  2.87) 106 = 6.79 x 106 in.lb.
(i) Support section B or C
,_
Pe
f   Ac
M4 _
6.79 X 106
5,070
508,940
St  s6{) 
= 908.8  1339
fb
106
6 79
X
+ 6,186
908 .8
+ 1098
= (4.83 
f' = 908.8 +
2.71X106
,
=
5 070
b = 908.8 
2.71X106
6,186
= 
.
347 psi (C) (2.7 MPa), O.K.
3. Determination of liveload intensity for new tendon profile for unshored construction
1 __
r 
Pe ( _
Ac l
e8
e,)
r2
Mn
+ Msn
+ ML
S~
_ Mcsn
S'
e8 =
9.66 X 106
,
508 940
=  19 m. (47.0 cm)
Chapter 6
376
From Example 6.4, Mv + Msv =  (2.87 + 2.47)106 =  5.34 x 106 in.lb. Also, from
Figure 6.12, the liveload moment for a threespan beam with one span unloaded
is
ML
T 
__ 508,940
425 
560
(l _(
19) X 24.73)
223.91
+3.95
106 in.lb
2 250
'
T 
3.95 X 106
5,070
3613WL
21,714
3613W
, L = 44.8  779 + 2,250
21 714
WL
9109plf
_ _ 508,940
_
560
bT  849 
(l
+ 9.5 X 20.27)
223.91
3613W
L
,
9 490
WL
4995 plf
Hence, WL = 4995 plf controls for service load levels, to be verified by checking
the ultimate moment strength available.
4. A vailable nominal moment strength
Aps = 3.366 in.2
31.77 in.
= 22
60,000
1.76
X 48.5 X 5,000
= 0.020
wP
377
+ d (w  w')
48.5
0.2312 + (0.02  0.0045)
31 .77
>
= 0.255
0.24~
= 0.19
Msn)
1.6ML  Mz
or
Mu = 1.2 X 5.34 X 106
=
Next,
6
Reqmred Mn
Mu
=;;= 2.590.X9 10
a=
If A; yielded fy
Aps fps
+ AJy
= 2.88 X 10
1.6ML
1.78ML
 A; fy
0.85/; b
.
951 m. (24 2 cm)
which is less than the flange depth up to the 7in.wide web section. Hence, the neutral
axis is inside the flange, and the section behaves like a rectangular section. Accordingly, we have
AvailableMn = Apsfps(dp =
3.366
X
240,000(31.77 
60,000 ( 48.5 
26.49
9 1
~ ) + 1.76
3)
106 + 1.78ML
Hence,
ML =
If ML = 0.1167WLl 2, then
13.26
106
0.1167WL(64) 2
12
So WL = 2312 plf < WL = 4995 plf from the serviceload analysis. Hence, WL = 2312 plf
controls, and the percent increase in live load is
(2312  1,514)
l,
X 100 = 52.7%
514
=50%, O.K.
Thus, we can adopt the new profile of the tendon with four #6 bars at the support
top fibers in the situcast slab and two #4 bars at the bottom precast section fibers.
Note that if the mild steel is changed from 4 #6 to 4 #8, the increase in WL would have
been 70%.
Chapter 6
378
f:
bb
22 in. at bottom
A; =
two #4
0.40 in. 2
and
w'
= 0.0961
0.4
.5
8
= 0.0045
Then from Example 6.4, dP = 35.87 in., d = 48.25 in., wP + [d/dp] (w  w') = O +
[48.25/35.87](0.1012  0.0045) = 0.1300, < 0.24[3 1 = 0.192. Hence, redistribution is possible, based on elastic moment analysis giving Mu= 23.81x106 in.lb.
Using the ACI Code redistribution test, the tensile strain at the extreme tensile steel
reinforcement is e, = 0.003 (
e = (
e,=
~
1).
.
. d
a ) = 9.51
_ = 11.89 m.; , = 48. 5 m.
131
0 80
o.om(i~~:9
Use 9% redistribution, reducing the negative moment by this amount, and increasing
the positive midspan moment by the same magnitude. A <1> factor of 0.90 is to be used
since E 1> 0.005.
1l
'
379
= (1  0.09)
23.81
106
.
Mu 21.67 X 106
Usmg Mn = ;; =
0.
= 24.07
9
Mn = Asfy(d =
10 = As
106 kNm)
106 m.lb
~)
= 21.67
=0.9d. Then
60,000
0.9( 48.25)
_
24.07 X 106
_
. 2
2
As  60,000 X 0.9 X 48.25  9' 24 m. (58 cm )
Asfy
9.24
60,000
24.07 X 106
60,000(48.25  5.93/2)
8 86
m. (55 cm)
Since the assumed As= 9.0 in. 2 is very close to 8.86 in.2, the moment distribution factor
is satisfactory.
The area As is to be distributed over the total actual flange width of 84 in. As per ft
width = (8.86/84) x 12 = 1.26 in.2/12 in. Using #6 bars, As per bar= 0.44 in. 2 (2.82 cm2 ),
and the spacing is
s=
Bar As
0.44
. =    = 4.19in.
Rqd. As/12 m.
1.26/12
Thus, use #6 bars at 4 in. center to center over the 84in. width (19.1 mm dia. bars at
10.8 cm). The total number of bars over the 84in.width flange is
84  (2 X 1.5in. cover)
         + 1 = 20
4.25
so that we have
Total As
= 20
X 0.44
Accordingly, adopt the design for flexure. Note that the complete design would involve dowel design for composite action, stirrup design for web shear, end block design, and design for serviceability requirements in deflection and crack control as
detailed in earlier examples. Note also that continuity on three spans in this example
using mild steel only at the supports allowed a 50% increase in the liveload intensity
from 1,514 plf to 2,329 plf.
3. Beam geometry schematic details
Figure 6.21 gives the reinforcing and tendon profile details of the continuous beam of
this example. Note how the normalweight concrete and mild steel provide continuity
at the supports for the superimposed dead and live loads.
Concrete frames are indeterminate structures consisting of horizontal, vertical, or inclined members joined in such a manner that the connection can withstand the stresses
and bending moments that act on it. The degree of indeterminacy depends upon the
c.>
O)
r
(al
'"''''
20 #6 al 4' e/e
20 #6 at 4f' e/e
LA
~64'
. .
64'
(19.5m)
94
1
5~
4
#4 slab steel
~f .
. tt
. Ei .
45
(11 4 cm)
cgc
T10
st l'
~
(b)
'
20 #6 at 4" e/e
1
.,
11
tr
.v
t
(e)
Figure 6.21 Schematic geometry details of continuous beam in Example 6.6 (see also Example 4.7). (a) Longitudinal
section of bridge beam (not to scale). {b) Midspan section AA. (e) Support section B8.
381
nn
(a)
(b)
(e)
(d)
(e)
(f)
C)
(g)
(h)
Figure 6.22
number of spans, the number of vertical members, and the type of end reactions. Typical
frame configurations are shown in Figure 6.22. If n is the number of joints, b the number
of members, r the number of reactions, and s the number of indeterminacies, the degree
of indeterminancy is determined from the following inequalities:
+ s > 3b + r
3n + s = 3b + r
3n + s < 3b + r
3n
(unstable)
(6.7a)
(6.7b)
(statically indeterminate)
(6.7c)
3b
+ r  3n
(6.9)
where 3n equations of static equilibrium are always available and the total number of unknowns is 3b + r. As an example, the degree of indeterminancy of the frame in Figure
6.22(a) is
s=3X3+2X2 3X4=1
Note that in order for a frame to perform satisfactorily, the following conditions
have to be satisfied:
1. The design must be based on the most unfavorable moment and shear combinations.
If moment reversa! is possible dueto reversa! of liveload direction, the highest values of positive and negative bending moments ha ve to be considered in the design.
Chapter 6
382
2. Proper faundation support far horizontal thrust has to be provided. If the frame is
designed as hinged, an expensive construction procedure, an actual hinge system
has to be provided.
6.12.2 Forces and Moments in Portal Frames
The behavior of concrete frames befare cracking can be considered reasonably elastic, as
was done in the case of a continuous beam at serviceload and slightoverload conditions.
Consequently, well befare the development of plastic hinges, the bending moment diagrams shown in Figures 6.23 and 6.24 will be used in the design of indeterminate prestressed concrete frames. The usual methods of analyses of indeterminate structures
including frames, such as virtual work, stiffness matrix, and flexibility matrix procedures,
as well as the clapeyron three or faurmoment equations, are assumed familiar in this
text, so that only the minimum guidelines and simplifications are presented.
6.12.2.1 Uniform Gravity Loading on SingleBay Portal. Suppose that the moments of inertia le of the vertical columns and lb of the horizontal beam of the portal in
Figure 6.25(a) are not equal. The following values of the moments and thrusts can be inferred:
(6.9a)
fff ff ff f ffffff f ff
ffffffffffffffff+
(a)
1
1
(b)
(e)
1
1
T1
T
(d)
T
(e)
Figure 6.23 Rightangled portal frame loaded with gravity load intensity w ( T indicates tension fibers). (a) Load intensity. (b) Bending moment (hingedbase
frame). (e) Bending moment (fixedbase frame). (d) Deformation of trame in (b).
(e) Deformation of frame in (e).
383
(a)
(b)
(e)
(d)
Figure 6.24 Rightangled portal trame loaded with wind load intensity p (T indicates tension fibers). (a) Bending moment (hingedbase trame). (b) Bending moment (fixedbase trame). (e) Deformation of trame in (a). (d) Deformation of trame
in (b).
Horizontal Thrust
(6.9b)
where
(6.9c)
C1 wl 2
(6.9d)
1
S
wl 2  Hh 
Mmax 
(1S  C1)
wl 2
(6.9e)
= 12 X (l  x)w  e1 wl 2
(6.9f)
where the points of contraflexure from either comer of the portal are
X1
~ (1
Vl 
8C1) l
C2l
(6.9g)
Chapter 6
384
Loading
w1
h
A________
H
x,
2
1.
l_ _
_D
wl
2
wl
(b)
(al
H 1 = ph  H
, ph2
2,(e)
Figure 6.25 Bending moment ordinates in singlebay trame. (a) Uniform gravity
loading. (b) Concentrated gravity loading. (e) Uniform horizontal pressure.
and
(6.9h)
6.12.2.2 Concentrated Gravity Loading on SingleBay Portal. Since the concentrated load P does not have to act at midspan, nonsymmetry of shears results. From Figure 6.25(b ), the end shear are
and
(6.la)
Horizontal Thrust
(6.lb)
385
where
(6.lc)
=C37(1 T)Pl
(6.ld)
For x < a,
(1  ~) (~  ~
l
(6.le)
l C}) Pl
Far x >a,
MX
= ~l
[1  ~ (1  ~)Je
l
=~l (1  ~)l
(6.lf)
} Pl
=a
Pl  Hh
=(1  C ) ~l (1  ~)l
Pl
(6.lg)
z) + ... ]
(6.lh)
1 (1  l1) +
1 C3 [ P 1 l
H = h
P 2 2 ( 1 
or
(6.li)
6.12.2.3 Uniform Horizontal Pressure on SingleBay Portal.
we have the following:
and
(6.lla)
Horizontal Reactions.
(6.llb)
386
Chapter 6
where
(6.llc)
(6.lle)
(6.llf)
(6.llg)
hh
+2
_
1 2 _ 3 le l
Ms  HAh  2ph  8 lb h
ph
2+3
le l
= (C4
0.5)ph 2
(6.llh)
2
(6.lli)
The constants C1, C2 , C3 , and C4 in Equations 6.9, 6.10, and 6.11 can be graphically
represented as shown in Figure 6.26. Canned computer programs far the analysis of indeterminate beams and frames render the use of charts such as this unnecessary except far
a quick check of numerical values.
6.12.3 Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames
As with continuous beams, a tendon profile has to be assumed at the start in arder to determine the secondary bending moments M 2 far the portal frame horizontal beam and
vertical legs. A concordant tendon is assumed far the horizontal beam far symmetrical
387
0.70
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.5
1.5
Stiffness ratio k
Figure 6.26
2.5
3.5
= !!!. .!!..
Ir: I
gravity loading, and the vertical columns or legs are proportioned to resist the horizontal
pressure and the extra moment caused by the shortening of the beam.
Longitudinal shortening of the horizontal beam caused by the prestressing force results in tensile stresses at the outside face of the frame columns. The prestressing vertical
tendon should be designed to resist these stresses as well as others. The longitudinal
shortening also results in horizontal reactions at the column's supports. Consequently, in
order to obtain a prestressing force Pin the longitudinal member, a force P + L\P has to
be applied to the frame. The incremental force L\P can be evaluated by means of the following expressions.
388
Chapter 6
1l
where k = (Ib!IJ(hll) and EBc is the total strain due to elastic shortening and movement
due to shrinkage and creep. The subscripts B and C denote the member extremities of
the frame in Figures 6.25 and 6.27.
Frame with Fixed Supports
MB  MA
h
3(2k
k(k
EJc(_3_
h
k +2
k +3 )
k(k + 2)
+ 1) Ele
+ 2) h2
(6.13)
Figure 6.27 shows the axial deformation due to the strain EBc = l/l caused by shortening,
creep, and shrinkage.
The tributary moments MA and MB dueto the longitudinal shortening of member
BC in Figure 6.27 are as follows.
Frame with Two Hinges at Supports
M
B 
6
2k
+3
EchfJ
3
EJc
e
[  2k + 3 h BC
(6.14)
(6.15)
as k
~O,
1.5E)c
MB ~h EBc and MA
~ oo.
The reason for the drastic change in moment values MB and MA is that as k approaches zero, P approaches infinity. In such a case, the stiffness of the vertical members relative to the horizontal member approaches infinity, and the horizontal member
becomes very flexible, as shown in Figure 6.28. The effects of the horizontal reactions on
~~ ~~/
P+l:.P
~/ i ~
8
8=
h
Af.
2h
8 = 1:.1
2h
J_:
1
1
P+l:.P
1
1
1:.P
A
__
t:.P
D
389
P (small)
P+AP....,
:::.t..P
Figure 6.28
P (small)
=......... , , . .     P + AP
the prestressing force are schematically shown in Figure 6.29 for both hingedbase and
fixedbase frames.
Note that the discussion here and in the previous section applies equally to continuously cast and precast prestressed composite frames. Continuity at the comer of the
frames has to be accomplished in the construction process. A typical prestressing tendon
profile for a frame is shown in Figure 6.30. The prestressing force P 1 is assumed to be less
than P2 in arder to allow for the frictional losses in prestress.
6.12.4 Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame
Example6.7
A warehouse structure is made of a prestressed singlebay hingedbase portal frame made of
standard doubleTsections for both the horizontal beam and the two vertical columns. The
units are 8ft. wide (2.44 m). The frame has a clear span of 80 ft (24.4 m) and is subjected to a
uniform gravity liveload intensity WL = 240 plf (3.5 kN/m) anda uniform horizontal wind
pressure of intensity Pw = 65 plf (0.95 kN/m) at the windward side anda suction of intensity
PL = 40 plf (0.58 kN/m) at the leeward side, as shown in Figure 6.31. Design the frame, the
profile, and the location of the prestressing tendons for serviceload and ultimate load conditions given the following data:
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa) for lowrelaxation tendons
fps
i(l..4
AP
AP
(horizontal
reaction)
(horizontal
reaction)
MA
(a)
(b)
390
Chapter 6
Concordant
tendon
cgc
Figure 6.30
fpi
fpe
= ( one
month)
(1  0.17)189,000
; =
2"
= 3~ = 177 psi
= 6 ~ = 355 psi
WL
=240plf
8
80'
(24.4m)
....
....
Ci.
Ci.
ID
CQ
o~
36'
11
11
(11.0m)
o...l
o..."'
J_
D
Figure 6.31
391
Solution:
where
lb h
k=lc l
Assume at this stage that lb =le, where lb is the moment of inertia of the beam BC and le is
the moment of inertia of the column AB or DC. Then
k =
1.0 =
36
= 0.45
80
From the chart for C1 in Figure 6.26, C1 = 0.064. So given total losses = 21 %, it follows that
"Y= 0.79.
Now, assume 2 in. of concrete topping (f ~ = 3,000 psi lightweight), 5 psf insulation, and
a waterproofing width of the segment = 8 ft. Then
WSD
2
2 X 110 + 5) 8 ft
187 plf
so that
_ w/ 2
MD  S
M 50
ML
600(80) 2
8
GG
12  5.760
106 m.lb
0.064) 187(80)2
12
= 0.876
0.064) 240(80) 2
12
106 in.lb
Assume ft = O. Then from Equation 4.4b, the minimum section modulus at the bottom fibers
for an efficient section is given by
(1  y)MD + MSD + ML
sb ;::, !t  Yci
or
_ (1  0.79)5.760
sb 
106
3
 1935 m.
The closest section is PCI 8DT32 + 2 DoubleT type 168Dl with 2 in. concrete topping
(Ref. 6.15).
392
Chapter 6
1
~
1
Property
Untopped
Topped
Ac (in. 2 )
Je (in.4)
567
55,464
97.8
21.21
10.79
5,140
2,615
591
759
71,886
94.7
23.66
10.34
6,952
3,038
738
r2 = Ic/Ac (in. 2)
ch (in.)
c1 (in.)
si (in.3)
sb (in.3)
WD (plf)
e,
= 16
X 0.153
Mv  5.760
106
591  5.673
600
106 in.lb
where
591
567
X
12 12
150 plf
P; = Aps/p; = 2.45
189,000 = 463,050 lb
t = _ 463,050 (l _ 17.46
567
10.79) _ 5.673 X 10
97.8
5,140
X
Provide nonprestressed steel at the top fibers at midspan to account far any possible
tensile stresses. Then, from Equation 4.lb,
P; ( 1 + ecb)
Mv
2 + Ac
r
Sb
= 
= _
1=
393
463,050 (
8.21 X 21.21)
~ 1+
97.8
+
> ci
Hence, lower the magnitude of the prestressing force by debonding sorne strands over
a length of 15% of span from the support face, or change the eccentricity of the tendon. If the former technique is employed, debond four strands overa length = 0.15 x
80 ft = 12 ft (366 m) from the support, releasing the anchorage of the four grouted
strands. We obtain
Aps
P; = 1.836
189,000
1702 psi
Frame Vertical Column Analysis. Choose a doubleT as walls for the frame and
suppose that eb and Sb refer to the outer face and that e1 and S1 refer to the inner face of the
vertical Tsection. Since it was assumed, in calculating the stiffness coefficient k in the previous section, that lb= IC' choose also 8DT32, hinged at the base. This vertical member will act
as a compression member subject to large axial load and bending. The bending moments are
caused by wind load and moments from the frame horizontal beam BC. In such a case it is
preferable to spread the tendon across the section, as shown in Figure 6.32 comparing the
beam section and the column section.
Assume that the center of gravity of the prestressing strands coincides with the cgc
line, and design the distribution of the strands according to
= 20
0.153
= 3.06 in. 2
= ApJp; = 3.06
_
P;
f 1  b  A
X 189,000
= 578,340 lb
_ 578,340 _
.
O  ~  1,020 psi (C)
wl2
S 
0.876 X 106
187(80)2 X 12
 0.876
8
Redistribution of Moments.
106
0.919
106 in.lb
394
Chapter 6
2" topping
++
2"
34"
32"
++
+ +
$$
+ t
30"
1 1 1
++++
$
++
$ 4 
(a)
Ft+8'o"~
2'0"
... + + + 1
+
1 +
4'0"
....
2'0"
+ +
++
++
+ +
++
Figure 6.32 Details of beam and wall doubleT's in Example 6.7. (a) Horizontal
beam standard PCI section 8DT32 + 2 (16801). (b) Vertical wall section 8DT32
with twenty !in. dia. strands with ec = ee = o.
d = 32
compression side b
=2
4.75
= 9.50 in.
dP = cb + ee = 21.21 + 8.21 = 29.42 in. or dP = 0.8h = 0.8 x 32 = 25.6 in. whichever is larger.
Use dP = 29.42 in., and assume two #5 bars per rib at the compression side and two #7
bars per rib at the tension side of both the horizontal roof beams and the vertical wall
beams. We obtain
A; =
w'
1.22
X 31.5
60,000
5,000 = 0.0489
395
Use wP = (Aps /bdp)(fps /f ~) = O since the prestressing steel is not continuous over corners of the portal frame. Then wP + (d/dp)(w  w') =O+ (31.5/29.42) x (0.0962 0.0489)
= 0.0506. Also, 0.24J3 1 = 0.24 x 0.80 = 0.192 > 0.0506. Hence, e, is larger than 0.0075.
AJy
 0.85f;b
e,
_ 4 X 0.60 X 60,000 _
. .
_ 3.57 _
.
 0.85 X 5000 X 9.5  3 57 m., e  0.80  4 46 m.
d,  1) = 0.003 (31.5
= 0.003 ( ~
.4  1) = 0.0181
4 6
<
0.0181 = 18.1 %
Because of the possible large rotations at the composite joint of this frame, use a reduced redistribution percentage of 12 percent in the horizontal member of the frame.
Accordingly, use a moment distribution factor of 0.12 far transferring 12% of the
moment from the frame corners B and C to midspan BC. Also, rigid connecting steel
plates should be used at the portal upper joints and be so designed to provide a moment connection capable of transferring at least 12% of the support moment to the
midspan. Then the adjusted MB =Me= (1 0.12)0.919 x 106 =0.809x106 in.lb, the adjusted midspan moment ME= 0.876 x 106 x 1.12 = 0.981x106 in.lb, and the superimposed deadload reaction Rsv at the support = (187 x 80)/2 = 7,480 lb.
Liveload WL Stage. From befare, the midspan is ML = 1.124x106 in.lb. So the support moment is
240(80) 2
M B = Me =
=
12
1.180
 1.124
106
106 in.lb
The adjusted elastic moment =Me= (1  0.12) x 1.180 x 106 = 1.038 x 106 in.lb, and the
adjusted midspan ML = 1.124 x 106 x1.12=1.259 x 106 in.lb. The liveload reaction at
the vertical support is
240
R =
2X
80
= 9 600 lb
(C4  0.5)ph 2
Me = (1  C4 )ph 2
From befare,
k =
hh
l l
= 0.45 far lb = le
Total M 8
= (1
=
12 = 232,502 in.lb
 0.73)40(36) X 12
232,502 + 167,961
= 167,961 in.lb
400,463 in.lb
396
Chapter 6
12 = 143,078 in.lb
(65 + 40)(36) 2
X
=851 lb
2 80
h
Rwv = +!ph = +851 lb
17.46 = 6.705
8.21 = 2.364
106 in.lb
106 in.lb
= (17.46  8.21)
!~
149,310
= 0.952
156,870
ME= 6.705
106
0.952 = 6.383
106 in.lb
106
0.952 = 3.013
M 8 =Me= 2.364
106
MF1 = 3.165
106 in.lb
0.952 = 2.251
106 in.lb
1
Slope 0 =  [ Ml]
Ech
To find the areas of the moment diagrams for half the span dueto symmetry, (i) add
half of Figure 6.33(b) to half of Figure 6.33( d), and (ii) add half of Figure 6.33(c) to
half of Figure 6.33( d). Then subtract (ii) from (i) to get the rotation of the beam at B or
397
T.
Debonding
zone
t"'
r~F~JE~~::::::;cgsi$
,t
____, C
12
l o    2 S '  : t :  'T4I
_,__40'il440' _..i
28
....
Debonding
zone
ao'(24.4m)...i
(a)
3.165 X 10 in.lb
(MFll
3.165 X 10 in.lb
_i_~lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllJ~lllllllllllllllffID11rrn
T
.
2.364 X 106 in.lb
(b)
4.017
3.013 X100o,lb
_Lnn1111111 11111111111111111111111111m11111111111111rnm11rrn
T
2.251 X 106 .in.lb
(c)
'4lUlllUllllllillllllllllllllill@~
Mo
Figure 6.33 Bending moment diagrams for primary and selfweight moments for
beam BC. (a) Tendon profile. (b) Prestressing moments one month after initial
prestress. (e) Effective prestressing moment after all losses. (d} Beam BC selfweight moments.
C that would have to be restrained by a welded connection to develop continuity at the
portal frame corners B and C. We have:
(i)
6Ec h
2.364 X 12 X 12
+ 4.220
+ (3.165  2.364)
28 X 12
+ (6.705  4.220}
z1
1
12 z
12 X 12 X
28 X
398
Chapter 6
 5.491
40
12
32 = 2,233.49 
1,757.12 = 476.7
(ii)
6Ec lb X 10 6 =
M(ii)/
2.251
at service load
12
12 + (3.013  2.251)
+4.017
28
12 + (6.383  4.017)
5.491
40
12
X }
12
28
12
12
z1
z1
The rotational angle 0 at B or C caused by the reduction in the prestressing force due
to longterm losses is
1
 (476.7  369.4)106
Ech
106
7
l0 .3 X
Ech
If M, is the resisting moment at the connection weld to restrain the member against
this rotation,
Slope 0
M,l/2
M,
480
=  = EJb
Eclb
106
EJb
480M,
EJb
X 106 = 0.224
M r = 107.3480
6.
10 m.
lb
P; = 463,050 lb
P, at erection
384,018 lb
lt is reasonable to take the creep force as the average of P; and Pe. Thus,
EcR
1 [(P; + P,) ]
= Ac Ec
2 Cu
ECR =
57,000Vfl
57,000vS,000
1
4.03
106
567
4.03
106 psi
(463,050 + 384,018
)
X 2.25
2
(b) Shrinkage
From Equation 3.14, the shrinkage strain from the time of erection (30 days after prestressing) to one year later is
EsH _ 8.2 X 10 _ 6 KsH ( 1  0.06
V)(100  RH)
Now, VIS= 1.79, and if we assume that RH = 75%, then, from Table 3.6, which states
that after 30 days to within one year KSH= 0.45, we have
399
3
Ms =Me= (2k
= Me = (2
3
0.45 + 3)
= 198,724 in.lb
+ 3 )hEsc
106 X 55,464
36 X 12
4.03
0.199
499.3
10
106 in.lb
These moments dueto longterm effects will produce tensile stresses at the inside face of the
vertical member and bottom face of the horizontal member. Elastic shortening should also
be considered often for accuracy.
365,810 lb
106
106 in.lb
P, (
1 + eccb)
+ Mv + MT
Ac
r2
Sb
Sbc
= 
365,810 (
17.46 X 21.21) 5.491 X 106 2,663 X 106
=1+
+
+567
97.8
2,615
3,038
= _ 365,810
567
(l _
=  854 psi ( C)
Support Section (e,
<
= 8.21 in.)
Mv =O
Msv = 0.809 X 106 in.lb
2.663 X 106
6,952
400
ChaptO' 6
ML = 1.038 X l6 in.lb
Mw
Not including the relief moments due to rotation, creep, and shrinkage, which cause compressive stresses, the total negative moments at supports B or C are
Mr
106 in.lb
The sections at supports B and C are virtually reinforced concrete. Pe for 12 strands at either
support after all losses = 274,133 lb, and
= _
< ft =
+ 2.26 X 10
o
6,952
_ 2.26 X 106
3,038
Mu
=
=
1.2
;;
R qd . M n = Mu
Mn
3.05 _X 106  3 39
 .
0 90
3.39
106) + 1.0(0.416
106)
106.m. lb
~)
AJy(d 
106 = As
_
60,000
3.39
10
28.35
_
. 2
AJy
a==
0.85f:b
1.99 X 60,000
0.85 X 5,000 X 96
= 4 in.
2a =
d 
0.29
.
31.5    = 31.3 m. (79.5 cm)
2
6
3.39 X 10 _
l . 2(
2
60,000 X 31. 3  1.8 m. 12.3 cm)
Use two #7 bars (22mm dia) in each rib. Then
As 
Final Moments and Stresses in the Vertical Column Walls AB and DC.
load on the column is
Rv + Rsv + RL + Rw
The direct
= 41,187
15
= 0.617
106 in.lb
MSD
0.809
401
X
106
ML = 1.038 X 106
Mw = 0.416
106
P,
b (outer face)
Apspe
pe
=  
Ac
=

3.06
P
Ac
149,310
MT
+ Sb
456,887
41,187
2.880 X 106
=+567
567
2,615
=
t (innerface) =
Pe
:S
S'
456,887
41,187
2.880 X 106
567
567
5,140
= 1,439 psi (C) (9.9 MPa) < fe = 2,250 psi (15.5 MPa)
Consequently, adopt the doubleT section 8DT32 for the walls with twenty!in. dia 7wire
270K lowrelaxation strands arranged as shown in Figure 6.32. Also, adopt the doubleT
section 8DT32 + 2(168  Dl) for the horizontal top beam BC with sixteen !in. dia 7wire
270K lowrelaxation strands with four strands debonded 12 ft (3.66 m) from the face of the
supports.
Figure 6.34 gives a schematic of the configuration details of the prestressed concrete
portal frame. The total design would involve designing the vertical wall brackets, shear
strength, flexura! strength, and serviceability checks as well as detailing the welded connections between the horizontal beam and the supporting wall columns.
The discussions presented so far <leal with proportioning the controlling sections in the
design process, such as the midspan and support sections, with redistribution factors p D
for continuity empirically provided by the code. The continuity factors assume that adequate longitudinal reinforcement is provided at the critica! continuity zones to properly
control the cracking levels of those zones.
Such a procedure <loes not necessarily give the most efficient solution to a statically indeterminate continuous beam or frame, since full redistribution at ultimate
load is not considered. As the applied load is gradually increased until the structure as a
whole reaches its limit capacity, the critica! sections, such as the supports or corners
of frames, develop severe cracking, and the rotation becomes so large that, for all practica! purposes, rotating plastic hinges have developed. If the number of plastic hinges
that develop equals the number of indeterminacies, the structure becomes determinate,
as full redistribution of moments would have taken place throughout it. With the development of an additional hinge, the structure becomes a mechanism tending toward collapse.
402
Figure 6.34
The imposed locations of the plastic hinges coincide with the locations of the maximum
elastic moments for combined gravity loads and horizontal wind loads. These locations
occur at the intermediate supports of continuous beams and beamcolumn corners of
frames, as seen in the portal frarne of Figure 6.35. By superposing part (a) on part (b),
one plainly sees that the maximum elastic moment occurs at comer C. Since plastic moments are a magnification of the elastic moments, the natural location for the development of a plastic hinge is at that comer.
Because the structure is indeterminate to the first degree, only one hinge develops,
resulting in a basic frarne ABC, which is the fundamental Crame for the imposed hinges
seen in Figure 6.35(e), numbered in the order in which they are expected to form.
The structure in Figure 6.35(e) has nine indeterminacies; hence, nine plastic hinges
are formed. A tenth hinge reduces the structure to a mechanism resulting in collapse.
Note that no plastic hinges are permitted to form at midspan of the horizontal members.
403
( Gravity load
HfHtHfffH
w,,d
D
(a)
D
(b)
A
(e)
(d)
t5
3 46
4 ' '8
' 9
>
()
(e)
Figure 6.35 lmposed plastic hinges in concrete trames. (a) Gravityload elastic
moment. (b) Windload intensity moments. (c) Hinge 1 at C reducing trame tostatically determinate. (d) Basic plastic trame. (e) Succession of plastic hinges in
twospan, twolevel trame.
The plastic moments resulting in hinges 1,2,3, ... ,n are denoted X 1, X 2 , X 3 , , Xn and
are assumed to remain constant throughout the progressive deformation of the structure.
Hence, the derivative of the total strain energy U with respect to the assumed plastic moments X; at any hinge i is set equal to the plastic rotation at the hinge, i.e.,
8U
=0
8X;
'
(6.16)
If 8;k is assumed to represent the relative rotation of the ith hinge due to a unit moment at
the kth hinge, 8;k = 8ki from Maxwell's reciproca! theorem. The coefficients 8;k are called
influence coefficients, because they represent the displacement or rotation at a particular
section due to a unit moment at another section, i.e., 8;k = 0;.
From the principle of virtual work,
(6.17)
404
Chapter 6
Consequently,
1
MMk
'ds
EJ
=e.
(6.18)
'
The lefthand side of Equation 6.18 represents the integration of the products of the
areas of the M; diagrams and the ordinates of Mk diagrams at their centroids along the
horizontal distance s along the span. Substituting 8;0 and 8;k far Mi<> we obtain
k=n
8;o
8;kXk
= e;
(6.19)
k=l
e1
= ez
8 10
820
8no
(6.20)
=
~I(~1a)(~) = 3 ~1 lac
A=
la
l
2
2
TJ =e
3
405
f f f f f f f f f f f t
(a)
(b)
X1. (a)
Table 6.1 gives the values f M; Mk ds for evaluating the influence coefficient values
for various combinations of primary and redundant moment diagrams. lt can aid the
designer in easily forming and solving sets of Equations 6.20 for any indeterminate structural system.
8;k
E/8 10 =
811 =
3 M 0 l
2
3l
406
Chapter 6
1!
j
Table 6.1
DI
I~
DI
lac
~lac
~lac
~lac
~lac
~I (a+ ble
~lac
~lac
1ac
~lac
1ae
112a +ble
~lac
1ac
~lac
~lae
1ac
1 (a+ 2ble
~/ac
31ac
31ac
*tac
\ /ac
31 la +ble
~lac
1ac
1ac
fitac
~lac
Ha+ ble
~la (e+ di
1a (2e +di
1a (e+ 2dl
!la (e +di
la (e+ di
{I (a(2c +di
+ b(2d +el)
Parabolic
l1l
jI LJI DI TL:JlT
a
..t.
f1l
I~
L::JI
LJTj_
Parabolic
DI
1.c:JT
e
(a)
(bl
(e)
Figure 6.37
407
o .
x,
4_1_
~~
,~,
Figure 6.38
(21)
Mol
3 + 0.5M (l)
6 +O =4
0
2 l (21) + M
2 l (1)2 = M
2l
3
3
EJ' 2
= M
EI021
= (D(~) =
+i
2(i)2 (_?_)3 = + 3
= (!_) (.!.) = +!_
2
3
6
21
Elo 22 =
Elo 23
From symmetry, 03 = 01. Therefore, the required plastic hinge rotations at the support are
M 0l
01 = 4EI = 03
and
Since 02 < 01, the first hinge to develop, and the controlling one in the design, is 01 = M 0l/4EI.
408
Chapter 6
1
Note that the procedure used in Example 6.8 can be used in the limit design of any
continuous beam or multistory frame. Also, it is important to maintain the correct sign convention by drawing all moments at the tension side of the member, as noted earlier.
The preceding discussion gives the basic imposed rotations approach embodied in
Baker's theory. Other modified approaches have been proposed by Cohn (Ref. 6.17),
Sawyer (Ref. 6.18), and Furlong (Ref. 6.19). Cohn's method is based on the requirements
of limit equilibrium and serviceability, with a subsequent check of rotational compatibility. Sawyer's method is based on the simultaneous requirements of limit equilibrium and
rotational compatibility, with a subsequent check of serviceability.
Furlong's method is based on assigning ultimate moments for various loading patterns on the continuous spans that would satisfy serviceability and limit equilibrium for
the worst case. The sections are reinforced in such a manner that the ultimate moment
strengths for each span are equal to or greater than the product of the maximum ultimate
moment M 0 in the span when the ends are free to rotate and a moment coefficient k1 for
various boundary conditions as listed in Table 6.2.
6.13.3 Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges
Rotation is the total change in slope along the short plasticity length concentrated at the
hinge zone. It can also be described as the angle of discontinuity between the plastic parts
of the member on either side of the plastic hinge. As Figure 6.39 shows, there are two
types of hingestensile and compressive. In order that the first hinge that develops in
the structure, usually the critica! hinge, can rotate without rupture until the nth hinge develops, the concrete section at the first hinge has to be made ductile enough through section core confinement to be able to sustain the necessary rotation. This is equally
applicable to both tension and compression hinges, where confinement of the concrete
core is obtained through concentration of closed stirrups at the supports and column
ends. A typical plot showing increase in rotation through increase in confining reinforcement is shown in Figure 6.40 (Ref. 6.14).
The plasticity length lP determines the extent of severe cracking and the magnitude
of rotation of the hinge. Therefore, it is important to limit the magnitude of lP through
the use of closely spaced ties or closed stirrups. In this manner, the strain capacity of the
concrete at the confined section can be significantly increased, as experimentally demonstrated by several investigators, including Nawy (Refs. 6.12, 6.13, and 6.14). Several empirical expressions have been developed; see, for example, Baker (Ref. 6.5), Corley (Ref.
6.11), Nawy (Ref. 6.14), Sawyer (Ref. 6.18), and Mattock (Ref. 6.20). Two of them, for
the plasticity length [P and the concrete strain Ec (Ref. 6.20), are
lP
Table 6.2
0.5d
+ 0.5Z
(6.22)
Boundary condition
Momenttype
Negative
Positive
Negative
Positive
0.37
0.42
0.56
0.50
0.50
0.33
0.75
0.46
409
:,.o
Photo 6.2 Preteusioned Tbeam wilh rectangular confining reinforcemcnt at failure (Nawy, Potyondy).
and
e, = 0.003
+ 0.02 Z + 0.2p5
(6.23)
Confining
binders
Confining
binders
(a)
(b)
Figure 6.39
sive hinge.
Chapter 6
410
0.20
;:
!.....
&
;:
:?
o
a: 0. 10
Base
Newy Danes!
NawySalek
Newy  Potyondy
5
Confining reinforcement p" (%)
Figure 6.40
Once tbe concrete strain ec is detemlioed, the angle of rotation of tbe plastic hinge
is readily determined from the expression
ap
whcre
e ce) tp
= (;  kd
(6.24)
vature is reached
kd = ne utral axis depth corresponding to Eu
ec =concrete compressive strain al the end of the inelastic range or at the limit
sta le at failure.
The strain e ce can usually be taken at the load leve! when the strain in Lbe tension
reinforcement reaches tbe yield strain ey = J/ Er It can be taken to be approximately
0.001 in.fin. or higher, depending on whether the tension steel yields before the concrete
crushes at the extreme compression fibers in cases of overreinforced beams, as is sometimes the case in prestressed beams. Tf concrete crushcs first, lhe value of Eu will have to
be higher than 0.001 in.fin. A limit of allowable ec = 1.0% for confine d concrete is recomme nded in determining the maximum alJowable plastic rotation 0P' aJtbough strains of
confined concrete as high as 13% could be obtained, as shown in Ref. 6.14.
T he discussion in this entire section (6.13) is equally applicable to reinforced and
prestressed concrete indeterminate structures at the plastic loading range wbere full redistribution of moments has taken place. As the prestrcssed concrete section is cracked
and decompression in tbe prestressing steel has taken place, Lhe structural system gradua lly starts to behave similarly to a reinforced concrete systcm. As the load reaches the
limit state at failure. tbe flexura! behavior of the prestressed concrete e lements is expected to closely reseroble that of reinforced concrete e le me nts.
411
e= 0.28d
kd = 0.375d
Ece
Ec
Max. allowable
Ec
= 5.5
5,000 psi
fy
Also, calculate the maximum allowable spantodepth ratio lid far the beam if full redistribution of moments is to occur at the limit state at failure.
Solution:
M 0 = 2 X 400bd2 = 800bd2
Required 82
Mol
800bd2
1 l d'
1125
;ra ian
,
= 6EI = 6X150,000b_d_3
lP = 0.5d
The total plasticity length on both sides of the hinge centerline is 2 x 0.775d = 1.55d.
Unconfined Section.
(Ec Ece)
Ava1lable 0P = ~  kd lP =
(0.004
0.001 )
.
0. d  0.
d 1.55d = 0.018 radian
28
375
1 l
750
d$
0 018
and
13.5
and
1,125
d$
0 018
or
l
d
l
d
20.3
Confined Sections
Max. allow Ec = 0.01 in./in.
.
Ava1lable 0P
= ( 0.01d
0 .28
0.001 )
    1.55d
0 .375d
.
= 0.51 radian
Chapter 6
412
1 l
1 125 d
'
and
~ 0051
or
l
d
38.3
d = 57.4
and
Comparing the results of the unconfined sections in the first case to the confined sections in
the second case, one sees that confinement of the concrete at the plastic hinging zone permits
more slender sections for full plasticity and, hence, a more economical indeterminate structural system.
Solution:
z
d
5.5
Hence,
1
11
z
Also,
A vailable Ec = 0.003 + 0.02
%+ 0.2ps
= 0.003 + 0.02
1
+ 0.2 X 0.025
11
0.01
Ec
Rqd. 01
R
1 l
d
750
35
750
0.046 radian
.
 _l_ _!_  ~  O03
qd. 02  1,125 d  1,125  . 1 radian
Available 0P = 0.058 radian> required 0 = 0.046 radian. Thus, the beam satisfies the serviceability criteria for plastic rotation.
The foregoing discussion far the limit design of reinforced and prestressed concrete
indeterminate beams and trames permits the design engineer to provide ductile connections at beamcolumn supports and generate full moment redistribution throughout the
structure, resulting in full utilization of the strength of the prestressed system. Also, continuity in both pretensioned and posttensioned systems to withstand seismic loading can
be effectively utilized through the appropriate confinement of the connecting zones by
means of the procedures presented in this section.
413
Transverse reinforcement in the form of closely spaced hoops (ties) or spirals has to be
adequately provided for concrete frame structural elements in seismic regions. The aim is
to produce adequate rotational capacity within the plastic hinges that may develop as a result of the seismic forces. The Uniform Building Code, the International Building Code
(IBC2000), and the ACI Code on seismic design require design and detailing of closed
ties at the beamcolumn connection zones and in shear walls to be governed by the following (See Chapter 15 of Ref. 6.8 by the author and Chapter 13 to follow):
l. For column spirals, the minimum volumetric ratio of the spiral hoops needed for
the concrete core confinement is
0.12f~
p >s 
(6.25)
fyh
or
Ag
Ps ~ 0.45 ( _
Ach
)f'
____<:__
fy1
(6.26)
(6.27)
or
(6.28)
whichever is greater, where
= total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement
(including cross ties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension he.
he = crosssectional dimension of column core measured
center to center of confining reinforcement, in.
Ach = crosssectional area of structural member, measured
outtoout of transverse reinforcement.
s = spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along
the longitudinal axis of the member, in.
smax = i of the smallest crosssectional dimension of the
member or 4 in., whichever is smaller (IBC requires 4
in.).
Ash
Chapter 6
414
govern:
(a) depth of member at joint face
(b) ~ of the clear span
(e) 18 in.
4. For beam confinement, the confining transverse reinforcement at beam ends should
be placed over a length equal to twice the member depth h from the face of the joint
on either side or of any other location where plastic hinges can develop. The maximum hoop spacing should be the smallest of the following four conditions:
(a) :l effective depth d.
(b) 8 x diameter of longitudinal bars.
(e) 24 x diameter of the hoop.
(d) 12 in. (300 mm).
Figure 6.41 from Reference 6.8 gives a typical detailing example of confining reinforcement at a joint to resist seismic forces.
5. Reduction in confinement at joints: A 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the minimum tie spacing to 6 in. are allowed by the ACI Code if a joint is
confined on allfour faces by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover
three quarters of the adjoining face.
6.13.7 Selection of Confining Reinforcement
Example 6.11
Design the confining reinforcement in the column at the beamcolumn joint of Figure 6.41.
Given:
column size = 15 X 24 in. (380 X 610 mm)
; =
fy 1
f~
0.09shc 
1yt
or
Ash 2:
0.3shc
(:g  1) f ~
ch
Fy1
Ash 
Ash
0.09 X 3.5 X 20
= 0.3
X 3.5 X 20 (
. 2
( 4,000 ) 0,000  0.42 m.
6
)( 4,000)
15 X 24
0,000
 1
X
11 20
6
. 2
controls
= 0.89 m
Trying s = 3! in., maximum allowance s = ! smallest column dimension or 4 in., b/4 = 0.25 x 15
=3.75 in.
Use No. 4 hoops plus two No. 4 crossties at 3! in. center to center. Place the confining
hoops in the column on both sides of potential hinge over a distance 10 being the largest of
(a) depth of member = 24 in. (610 mm)
(b) ~ x clear span = (24 x 12)/6 = 48 in. (1220 mm)
(e) 18 in. (450 mm)
14
..
he= 20"
24*
415
1Il
V
#4@ai*c<
T. . . .
r
....
No 4@3*c<
4No.9
/
:./'
V
<>
/
4No.9
9!*
2
g!w
2
2*
~..........
r_
Figure 6.41
No.4@
3~* e<
Use /0 = 48 in. (1220 mm), spacing the No. 4 hoops and crossties at 3.5 in. center to center
over this distance (12.7mm dia. bars at 89 mm center to center) as shown in Figure 6.41.
SELECTED REFERENCES
6.1 ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31808) and Commentary (ACI 318 R08). Farmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 2008, pp. 465.
416
Chapter 6
6.2 Gerwick, B. C., Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton,
FL,2007.
6.3 Taylor, F. W., Thompson, S. E., and Smulski, E. Concrete Plain and Reinforced, vol. 2. John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1947.
6.4 Abeles, P. W., and BardhanRoy, B. K. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook, 3d ed. Viewpoint Publications, London, 1981.
6.5 Baker, A. L. L. The Ultimate Load Theory Applied to the Design of Reinforced and Prestressed
Concrete Frames. Concrete Publications Ltd., London, 1956.
6.6 Baker, A. L. L. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete. London: Cement and Concrete Association, 1970.
6.7 Ramakrishnan, V., and Arthur, P. D. Ultimate Strength Design of Structural Concrete. London:
Wheeler, 1977.
6.8 Nawy, E. G. Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach, 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, NJ, 2009, pp. 936.
6.9 Lin, T. Y., and Thornton, K. "Secondary Moments and Moment Redistribution in Continuous Prestressed Concrete Beams." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute, JanuaryFebruary 1972,
pp. 820.
6.10 Nilson, A. H. Design of Prestressed Concrete. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
6.11 Corley, W. G. "Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams." Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE 92 (1966): 121146.
6.12 Nawy, E. G., and Salek, F. "MomentRotation Relationships of NonBonded Prestressed Flanged
Sections Confined with Rectangular Spirals." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute, August
1968, pp. 4055.
6.13 Nawy, E. G., Danesi, R., and Grosco, J. "Rectangular Spiral Binders Effect on the Rotation Capacity of Plastic Hinges in Reinforced Concrete Beams." Journal of the American Concrete lnstitute,
Farmington Hills, MI, December 1968, pp. 10011010.
6.14 Nawy, E. G., and Potyondy, J. G. "Moment Rotation, Cracking and Deflection of Spirally Bound
Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams." Engineering Research Bulletin No. 51, N.J.: Bureau of
Engineering Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 1970, pp. 197.
6.15 Prestressed Concrete Institute. PCJ Design Handbook. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute,
5th ed., 1999.
6.16 Park, R., and Paulay, J. Reinforced Concrete Structures. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.
6.17 Cohn, M. Z., "Rotational Compatibility in the Limit Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Flexura! Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete, ASCEACI. Miami, Nov. 1964, pp. 359382.
6.18 Sawyer, H. A. "Design of Concrete Frames for Two Failure Stages." Proceedings of the lnternational Symposium on the Flexura! Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete, ASCEACI. Miami, Nov.
1964, pp. 405431.
6.19 Furlong, R. W. "Design of Concrete Frames by Assigned Limit Moments." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 67, Farmington Hills, MI, 1970, 341353.
6.20 Mattock, A. H. "Discussion of Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams by W. G. Corley." Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE 93, 1967, 519522.
6.21 International Conference of Building Officials, Uniform Building Code (UBC), Vol. 2, ICBO,
Whittier, California, 1997.
6.22 International Code Council, International Building Code 2000 (IBC), Joint UBC, BOCA, SBCCI,
Whittier, California, 2000.
6.23 Nawy, E. G., Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1998,
1250 pp.
6.24 Nawy, E. G., Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New
York, NY, 2001, 452 pp.
Problems
417
40'40'...40 '++40'
.80'.if480'(24.4 m)
(24.4 m)
Figure P6.1.
PROBLEMS
6.1 A twospan continuous beam has a parabolic tendon profile shown in Figure P6.1. The prestressing
force Pe after all losses is 450,000 lb (2,002 kN). The beam has a rectangular section 15in. (38.1 cm)
wide.
(a) Find the final profile of the thrust Cline and the beam reactions at all supports.
(b) Design the beam depth such that the concrete fiber stresses due only to prestressing do not exceed the maximum allowable for normalweight concrete having cylinder strength f ~ = 6,000
psi (41.4 MPa).
(e) Determine the shape of the concordant tendon, and draw a beam elevation of the tendon profile.
6.2 Solve Problem 6.1 for a tendon profile harped at midspan points D, but having the same eccentricities. Compare the results with those of Problem 6.1.
6.3 Solve Problem 6.1 for a tendon profile which has eccentricities eA = e8 = 3 in. (7.6 cm) at the exterior supports above the cgc line.
6.4 Develop the tendon profile for the continuous beam in Example 6.4 if the beam is continuous over
two equal spans of 64 ft (19.4 m).
6.5 Solve Problem 6.4 if the beam is continuous over four equal spans of 64 ft (19.4 m).
6.6 Design, for service loading, the frame in Example 6.7 using the same loading conditions if the span
of the horizontal beam is 90 ft (27.4 m) and the height of the portal is 25 ft (7.6 m).
6.7 Design the portal frame of an aircraft hangar having the dimensions and the loading shown in Figure P6.7. Detail the connections and the configuration of the prestressing tendons of the horizontal
member. Use the same allowable stresses as in Example 6.7.
240 plf

100'
(30.5m)
c.
lt>
.....
11
Q.~
.
z
~
_,....
(")
_s....
45'
(13.7 m)
c.
~
_l
"
_<i:'
Figure P6.7.

CAMBER, DEFLECTION,
ANO CRACK CONTROL
7.1 INTROOUCTION
419
The difficulty of predicting very accurately the total longterm prestress losses
makes it more difficult to give a precise estimate of the magnitude of expected camber.
Accuracy is even more difficult in partially prestressed concrete systems, where limited
cracking is allowed through the use of additional nonprestressed reinforcement. Creep
strain in the concrete increases camber, as it causes a negative increase in curvature
which is usually more dominant than the decrease produced by the decrease in prestress
losses due to creep, shrinkage, and stress relaxation. A best estimate of camber increase
should be based on accumulated experience, spantodeath ratio code limitations, and a
correct choice of the modulus Ec of the concrete. Calculation of the momentcurvature
relationships at the majar incremental stages of loading up to the limit state at failure
would also assist in giving a more accurate evaluation of the stressrelated load deflection
of the structural element.
The cracking aspect of serviceability behavior in prestressed concrete is also critical. Allowance for limited cracking in "partial prestressing" through the additional use of
nonprestressed steel is prevalent. Because of the high stress levels in the prestressing
steel, corrosion due to cracking can become detrimental to the service life of the structure. Therefore, limitations on the magnitudes of crack widths and their spacing have to
be placed, and proper crack width evaluation procedures used. The presented discussion
of the state of the art emphasizes the extensive work of the author on cracking in pretensioned and posttensioned prestressed beams.
Prestressed concrete flexural members are classified into three classes in the new
ACI 318 Code.
(a)
Class U:
t ~ 7.SVf'c
(7.la)
In this class, the gross section is used for section properties when both stress computations at service loads, and deflection computations are made. No skin reinforcement
needs to be used in the vertical faces.
(b)
Class T:
(7.lb)
This class is a transition between uncracked and cracked sections. For stress computations at service loads, the gross section is used. The cracked bilinear section is used
in the deflection computations. No skin reinforcement needs to be used in the vertical faces.
(c)
Class C:
> 12Vf'c
(7.lc)
This class denotes cracked sections. Hence, a cracked section analysis has to be
made for evaluation of the stress level at service, and for deflection. Computation of !J.fps
or fs far crack control is necessary, where !J.fps =stress increase beyond the decompression
state, and fs =stress in the mild reinforcement when mild steel reinforcement is also used.
Prestressed twoway slab systems are to be designed as Class U.
7.2 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS
Deflection calculations can be made either from the moment diagrams of the prestressing force and the externa! transverse loading, or from the momentcurvature relationships. In either case, the following basic assumptions have to be made:
1. The concrete gross crosssectional area is accurate enough to compute the moment
of inertia except when refined computations are necessary.
2. The modulus of concrete Ec = 33wl. 5 ~, where the value off~ corresponds to the
cylinder compressive strength of concrete at the age at which Ec is to be evaluated.
3. The principie of superposition applies in calculating deflections due to transverse
load and camber due to prestressing.
Chapter 7
420
Photo 7.1 Supporting base of the Transamcrica Pyramid. San Francisco, California.
4. Ali computations of deflection can be bascd on lhe ccnter of gravity of the pre
stressing strands (cgs). where the strands are treated as a single tendon.
S. Deflections due to shear deformations are disregardcd.
6. Sections can be treated as total/y elastic up to thc decompression load. Thereafter,
the cracked moment of inertia Ter can give a more accurate dctermination of deflection and camber.
7.3 SHORTTERM (INSTANTANEOUS) DEFLECTION
OF UNCRACKED ANO CRACKED MEMBERS
7.3.1 LoadDeflection Relationship
Shortterm deilections in prestressed concrete members are calculated on the assumption that the sections are bornogeneous, isotropic, and clastic. Such an assumption is an
approximation of actual behavior, particularly that lhc modulus E, of concrete vares
Load
1
f I
++...ll+++lll~
1
1
1Postcracking : Postserviceabllity
~...,...~
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Camber 1
1
1
Deflection 6
Figure 7 .1 Beam loaddeflection relationship. Region 1, precracking stage; region 11, postcracking stage; region 111, postserviceabilty stage.
421
with the age of the concrete and the moment of inertia varies with the stage of loading,
i.e., whether the section is uncracked or cracked.
Ideally, the loaddeflection relationship is trilinear, as shown in Figure 7.1. The
three regions prior to rupture are:
Region l. Precracking stage, where a structural member is crack free.
Region Il. Postcracking stage, where the structural member develops acceptable
controlled cracking in both distribution and width.
Region JI!. Postserviceability cracking stage, where the stress in the tensile reinforcement reaches the limit state of yielding.
7.3.1.1 Precracking stage: region l. The precracking segment of the loaddeflection
curve is essentially a straight line defining full elastic behavior, as in Figure 7.1. The maximum tensile stress in the beam in this region is less than its tensile strength in flexure,
i.e., it is less than the modulus of rupture f, of concrete. The flexura! stiffness El of the
beam can be estimated using Young's modulus Ec of concrete and the moment of inertia
of the uncracked concrete cross section. The loaddeflection behavior significantly depends on the stressstrain relationship of the concrete. A typical stressstrain diagram of
concrete is shown in Figure 7.2.
The value of Ec can be estimated using the ACI empirical expression given in
Chapter 2, viz.,
Ee = 33wl.5Wf'e
(7.2a)
or
Ec
The precracking region stops at the initiation of the first flexural crack, when the concrete stress reaches its modulus of rupture strength f,. Similarly to the direct tensile splitting strength, the modulus of rupture of concrete is proportional to the square root of its
compressive strength. For design purposes, the value of the modulus of rupture for concrete may be taken as
f,
7.5A
Vi;
(7.2b)
Strain,
Figure 7.2
fe
422
Chapter 7
If one equates the modulus of rupture f, to the stress produced by the cracking moment Me, (decompression moment), then
= 
~: ( 1 + e::) + ~:r
(7.3a)
where subscript b stands for the bottom fibers at midspan of a simply supported beam. If
the distance of the extreme tension fibers of concrete from the center of gravity of the
concrete section is yl' then the cracking moment is given by
. r,:.]
(7.3b)
+e::)]
(7.3c)
( 1 + ecb)
lg[Pe
2

+ 7.5A V 1:
sb[ 7.5AYJ: + ::
(1
Mcr
= 
Mcr
Y1 Ac
or
where Sb = section modulus at the bottom fibers. More conservatively, from Equation
5.12, the cracking moment due to that portion of the applied live load that causes cracking is
(7.4a)
where fce = compressive stress at the center of gravity of concrete section due to effective prestress only after losses when tensile stress is caused by applied externa! load
fd = concrete stress at extreme tensile fibers due to unfactored dead load when
tensile stresses and cracking are caused by the externa! load.
A factor 7.5 can also be used instead of 6.0 for deflection purposes for beams.
Equation 7.3a can be transformed to the PCI format (Ref. 7.7) giving identical results:
Mcr
Ma
l _
(tl  r)
L
(7.4b)
Compute the cracking moment Mcr for a prestressed rectangular beam section having a
width b = 12 in. (305 mm) and a total depth h = 24 in. (610 mm), given that f~ = 4,000 psi
(27.6 MPa). The concrete stress b due to eccentric prestressing is 1,850 psi (12.8 MPa) in
compression. Use a modulus of rupture value of 7.5
YJ:.
Solution: The modulus of rupture f, = 7.5Vj: = 7.5v4,QOO = 474 psi (3.27 MPa). Also,
Ig = bh 3/l2 = 12(24)3/12 = 13,824 in 4
(575,400 cm4 ); y 1 = 24/2 = 12 in. (305 mm) to the tension fibers; and Sb = l/y 1 = 13,824/12 =
1,152 in 3 (18,878 cm3).
Mcr =
=
423
If the beam were not prestressed, the moment would be Me,= fl/y 1 = 474 x 13,824/12 = 0.546
x 106 in.lb (61.7 kNm).
region III than in the preceding regions. This is due to substantial loss in stiffness of the
section because of extensive cracking and considerable widening of the stabilized cracks
throughout the span. As the load continues to increase, the strain Es in the steel at the
tension side continues to increase beyond the yield strain Ey with no additional stress. The
beam is considered at this stage to have structurally failed by initial yielding of the tension steel. It continues to deflect without additional loading, the cracks continue to open,
and the neutral axis continues to rise toward the outer compression fibers. Finally, a secondary compression failure develops, leading to total crushing of the concrete in the
maximum moment region followed by rupture.
7.3.2 Uncracked Sections
7.3.2.1 Deflection calculations.
Pel
2EJc 2
Pet2
8EJc
(7 .S)
Notice that the deflection diagram in Figure 7.3(d) is drawn above the base line, as the
beam cambers upwards due to prestressing.
Similar computations can be performed for any tendon profile and any type of
transverse loading regardless of whether the tendon geometry or loading is symmetrical
or not. The final camber or deflection is the superposition of the deflections due to prestressing on the deflections due to externa! loads.
7.3.2.2 Strain and curvature evaluation.
Chapter 7
424
~1~11
(a)
~llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll~I
(b)
w.
+
1_J_
"'
2Eclc
t!!tt11tfttf1!1!!!!!1!!!!1 !
(e)
(d)
the angle of curvature dependent on the top and bottom concrete extreme fiber strains Ecr
and Ecb From the strain distributions, the curvature at the various stages of loading can
be expressed as follows:
(1) Initial prestress:
(7.6a)
425
1 rf.,
T
h
J_
//
//
//
//
L'L
~fOl4
(a)
(b)
(e)
(d)
Figure 7.4 Strain distribution and curvature at controlling stages. (a) lnitial prestress, <!>1 = (Ecbl  EC11)/h. (b) Effectve prestress after losses, <l>e = (Ee1ie  Ee1Jlh. (e)
Service load, el>= (Ee1  Ecblh). (d) Failure, <f>u = E)C.
(4) Failure:
(7.6d)
Use a plus sjgn for !ensile strain and a minus sign for compressive strain. Figure 7.4c denotes the stress distribution for uncracked section. ll has to be modified to show tensile
stress at tbe bouom fibers if the section is cracked.
The effective curvature <!>., in Figure 7.4(b) after losses is the sum, using the appropriate sigo, of lhe initial curvature <!>;, lhe changc in curvature dcj> 1 due to loss of prestrcss
from creep. relaxation , and sbrinkage, and lhe change in curvature d<!>2 duc to creep of
concrete under sustaincd prestressing force, i.e.,
(7.7)
Photo 7:1. Priest Point Park Bridge in Olympia, Washington. a castinplace prcstressed concrete structure. (Courtesy, Arvid Grant and Associates. Jnc.)
Chapter 7
426
(7.8a)
for
(7.8b)
with constant
beams
(7.9a)
Find the immediate midspan deflection of the beam shown in Figure 7.5 prestressed by a parabolic tendon with maximum eccentricity e at midspan and effective prestressing force Pe.
Use both the elastic weight method and the equivalent weight method. The span of the beam
is l ft, and its stiffness is EJc
P.
P.
(a)
w.
(b)
A~!C~B
Bh
~
(e)
Figure 7.5 Deflection of beam in Example 7.2. (a) Tendon profile. (b) Elastic
weight M!Ecfc. (e) Deflection.
427
Solution: